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Sample records for stressors fewest physical

  1. Associations of financial stressors and physical intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Parker, Edith

    2016-12-01

    Contextual factors, such as exposure to stressors, may be antecedents to IPV perpetration. These contextual factors may be amenable to modification through intervention and prevention. However, few studies have examined specific contextual factors. To begin to address this gap, we examined the associations between financial stressors and three types of physical IPV perpetration. This analysis used data from Wave IV of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We used logistic regression to examine the associations of financial stressors and each type of IPV (minor, severe, causing injury), and multinomial logit regression to examine the associations of financial stressors and patterns of co-occurring types of IPV perpetration (only minor; only severe; minor and severe; minor, severe, and causing injury; compared with no perpetration). Fewer men perpetrated threats/minor physical IPV (6.7 %) or severe physical IPV (3.4 %) compared with women (11.4 % and 8.8 %, respectively). However, among physical IPV perpetrators, a higher percentage of men (32.0 %) than women (21.0 %) reported their partner was injured as a result of the IPV. In logistic regression models of each type of IPV perpetration, both the number of stressors experienced and several types of financial stressors were associated with perpetrating each type of IPV. Utilities nonpayment, housing nonpayment, food insecurity, and no phone service were associated with increased odds of perpetrating each form of IPV in adjusted analysis. Eviction was associated with perpetrating severe physical IPV but not threats/minor IPV or IPV causing injury. In multinomial logit regression comparing patterns of IPV perpetration to perpetrating no physical IPV, the relationships of financial stressors were less consistent. Food insecurity was associated with perpetrating only minor physical IPV. Comparatively, overall number of financial stressors and four types of financial stressors (utilities

  2. Physical activity as a metabolic stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, E F

    2000-08-01

    Both physical activity and diet stimulate processes that, over time, alter the morphologic composition and biochemical function of the body. Physical activity provides stimuli that promote very specific and varied adaptations according to the type, intensity, and duration of exercise performed. There is further interest in the extent to which diet or supplementation can enhance the positive stimuli. Prolonged walking at low intensity presents little metabolic, hormonal, or cardiovascular stress, and the greatest perturbation from rest appears to be from increased fat oxidation and plasma free fatty acid mobilization resulting from a combination of increased lipolysis and decreased reesterification. More intense jogging or running largely stimulates increased oxidation of glycogen and triacylglycerol, both of which are stored directly within the muscle fibers. Furthermore, these intramuscular stores of carbohydrate and fat appear to be the primary substrates for the enhanced oxidative and performance ability derived from endurance training-induced increases in muscle mitochondrial density. Weightlifting that produces fatigue in brief periods (ie, in 15-90 s and after 15 repetitive contractions) elicits a high degree of motor unit recruitment and muscle fiber stimulation. This is a remarkably potent stimulus for altering protein synthesis in muscle and increasing neuromuscular function. The metabolic stress of physical activity can be measured by substrate turnover and depletion, cardiovascular response, hormonal perturbation, accumulation of metabolites, or even the extent to which the synthesis and degradation of specific proteins are altered, either acutely or by chronic exercise training.

  3. Daily Emotional and Physical Reactivity to Stressors Among Widowed and Married Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Widowhood may result in declines in health and potentially stressful changes to daily routines. However, little research has examined how daily stressors contribute to physical and emotional well-being in widowhood. The objectives of the current study were to examine daily stressor exposure and reactivity in widowed versus married older adults. Method. Participants included all 100 widowed and 342 married adults aged 65 and older from the National Study of Daily Experiences, a daily diary study from the second wave of the Midlife in the United States. Daily stressors were measured using the Daily Inventory of Stressful Events; multilevel modeling assessed daily reactivity to stressors using daily negative affect (emotional reactivity) and daily physical symptoms (physical reactivity) as outcomes. Results. Married participants reported more stressors in general, and specifically more interpersonal stressors (e.g., arguments). Both married and widowed participants were reactive to daily stressors. Married participants were physically and emotionally reactive to interpersonal stressors. Widowed participants were more physically reactive to home-related stressors. Discussion. Attention to the types of daily stressors that widowed older adults experience in daily life and the potential physical effects of daily stressors during widowhood may help to alleviate some of the physical distress that widowed older adults may experience. PMID:23685921

  4. Daily emotional and physical reactivity to stressors among widowed and married older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Elizabeth A; Cichy, Kelly E; Small, Brent J; Almeida, David M

    2014-01-01

    Widowhood may result in declines in health and potentially stressful changes to daily routines. However, little research has examined how daily stressors contribute to physical and emotional well-being in widowhood. The objectives of the current study were to examine daily stressor exposure and reactivity in widowed versus married older adults. Participants included all 100 widowed and 342 married adults aged 65 and older from the National Study of Daily Experiences, a daily diary study from the second wave of the Midlife in the United States. Daily stressors were measured using the Daily Inventory of Stressful Events; multilevel modeling assessed daily reactivity to stressors using daily negative affect (emotional reactivity) and daily physical symptoms (physical reactivity) as outcomes. Married participants reported more stressors in general, and specifically more interpersonal stressors (e.g., arguments). Both married and widowed participants were reactive to daily stressors. Married participants were physically and emotionally reactive to interpersonal stressors. Widowed participants were more physically reactive to home-related stressors. Attention to the types of daily stressors that widowed older adults experience in daily life and the potential physical effects of daily stressors during widowhood may help to alleviate some of the physical distress that widowed older adults may experience.

  5. Daily Emotional and Physical Reactivity to Stressors Among Widowed and Married Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Small, Brent J.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Widowhood may result in declines in health and potentially stressful changes to daily routines. However, little research has examined how daily stressors contribute to physical and emotional well-being in widowhood. The objectives of the current study were to examine daily stressor exposure and reactivity in widowed versus married older adults.

  6. Frequency and impact of midlife stressors among men and women with physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Alexandra L; Molton, Ivan R

    2018-03-09

    Middle-age may be a challenging time for people with physical disabilities as life demands, secondary symptoms such as fatigue, and risk for depression increase, yet little is known about types, levels, and impact of life stressors in individuals aging with disability. Our aims were to describe aging- and disability-associated life stressors, explore gender differences, and evaluate effects of resilience on adjustment to these stressors. Longitudinal data analysis of self-report surveys completed by 541 middle-aged community-dwelling participants with long-term physical disability from baseline to 5-year follow-up. 97% of participants endorsed one or more stressful life events (M = 8.2, SD = 4.9), all of whom endorsed at least one life stressor with a negative impact. Reporting more life stressors and having lower resilience were significantly associated with developing more depressive symptoms. Interaction analyses indicated that women developed more depressive symptoms as negative impact increased than men. Findings suggest that middle-aged individuals with physical disability experience a range of life stressors, many with negative impact. Women are at higher risk of depressive symptoms than men. Resilience may buffer against negative impact of life stressors on development of depressive symptoms. Targeted intervention to increase resilience, especially in women, may decrease risk of depression in persons aging with disability. Implications for Rehabilitation Middle-age adults living with physical disability experience a number of aging- and disability-associated stressors that can have a negative impact and contribute to depression. Women aging with disability who experience more negative impact from life stressors may be more vulnerable to developing depression. Providing interventions that enhance resilience when faced with life stressors could prevent development of depression.

  7. Generalization of fewest-switches surface hopping for coherences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelaar, Roel; Reichman, David R.

    2018-03-01

    Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is perhaps the most widely used mixed quantum-classical approach for the modeling of non-adiabatic processes, but its original formulation is restricted to (adiabatic) population terms of the quantum density matrix, leaving its implementations with an inconsistency in the treatment of populations and coherences. In this article, we propose a generalization of FSSH that treats both coherence and population terms on equal footing and which formally reduces to the conventional FSSH algorithm for the case of populations. This approach, coherent fewest-switches surface hopping (C-FSSH), employs a decoupling of population relaxation and pure dephasing and involves two replicas of the classical trajectories interacting with two active surfaces. Through extensive benchmark calculations of a spin-boson model involving a Debye spectral density, we demonstrate the potential of C-FSSH to deliver highly accurate results for a large region of parameter space. Its uniform description of populations and coherences is found to resolve incorrect behavior observed for conventional FSSH in various cases, in particular at low temperature, while the parameter space regions where it breaks down are shown to be quite limited. Its computational expenses are virtually identical to conventional FSSH.

  8. Let It Go: Lingering Negative Affect in Response to Daily Stressors Is Associated With Physical Health Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Kate A; Charles, Susan T; Almeida, David M

    2018-03-01

    The way we respond to life's daily stressors has strong implications for our physical health. Researchers have documented the detrimental effects of initial emotional reactivity to daily stressors on future physical health outcomes but have yet to examine the effects of emotions that linger after a stressor occurs. The current study investigated how negative affect that lingers the day after a minor stressor occurs is associated with health-related outcomes. Participants ( N = 1,155) in a community-based, nationwide study answered questions about daily stressors and affect across 8 consecutive days and about their physical health almost 10 years later. Multilevel models indicated that people experience heightened levels of negative affect the day after a stressor occurs. Furthermore, higher levels of lingering negative affect are associated with greater numbers of chronic conditions and worse functional limitations 10 years later. Findings suggest that affective recovery from daily stressors has unique importance for long-term physical health.

  9. Deployment stressors and physical health among OEF/OIF veterans: the role of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillni, Yael I; Gradus, Jaimie L; Gutner, Cassidy A; Luciano, Matthew T; Shipherd, Jillian C; Street, Amy E

    2014-11-01

    There is a large body of literature documenting the relationship between traumatic stress and deleterious physical health outcomes. Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been proposed to explain this relationship, previous research has produced inconsistent results when moderating variables such as gender or type of traumatic stressor are considered. Within a large sample of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans, the current study examined if deployment stressors (i.e., combat stress, harassment stress) contributed unique variance to the prediction of physical health symptoms (i.e., pain, nonpain) beyond the effects of PTSD symptoms. A total of 2,332 OEF/OIF Veterans, with equal representation of women and men, completed a series of self-report measures assessing deployment stressors, PTSD symptoms, and physical health symptoms. RESULTS revealed that harassment, but not combat stress, added unique variance in the prediction of pain and nonpain symptoms after accounting for PTSD symptoms. This study extends the existing literature by demonstrating the unique influence of harassment stress on physical health outcomes. Specifically, the relationship between combat stress and physical health symptoms appears to be explained mainly by an individual's experience of PTSD symptoms, whereas the relationship between harassment stress and physical health symptoms is not fully explained by PTSD symptoms, suggesting that other variables may be involved in the pathway from harassment stress to physical health symptoms. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Physical and Organizational Job Stressors in Pregnancy and Associations With Primary Cesarean Deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Gemmill, Alison; Hosang, Nap; MacDonald, Leslie A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between exposure to physical and organizational job stressors during pregnancy and cesarean delivery. We sampled 580 employed women in California who participated in a nested population-based case-control study of birth outcomes. Adjusted multivariate regression analyses estimated associations between heavy lifting, frequent bending, high noise, extreme temperature, prolonged standing and organizational stressors (shift work, inflexible schedules, effort-reward ratio), and primary cesarean (vs vaginal) delivery, controlling for covariates. Women occupationally exposed had higher odds of cesarean. Those exposed to daily manual lifting more than 15 pounds [adjusted odds ratio = 2.54; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.21 to 5.32] and at least four physical job stressors (adjusted odds ratio = 3.49; 95% CI 1.21 to 10.09) had significantly elevated odds of cesarean delivery. Exposed morbid women experienced greater risk; risk was lower among those with schedule flexibility. Associations were found between modifiable exposure to physical job stressors during pregnancy and cesarean delivery.

  11. The impact of minority stressors on the mental and physical health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo, Guy; Mor, Zohar

    2014-08-01

    Research relating to minority stressors generally explores mental health outcomes, with limited focus on the physical dimension. In addition, minority stress research is conducted mainly in Christian-oriented societies. To address these pitfalls we used Web sampling targeting Israeli participants ages 12 to 30 (N = 952; 28 percent heterosexuals, 78 percent lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB] adolescents and young adults) to assess their mental health, physical and sexual risk behaviors, minority stressors, and coping resources. Results indicate that young LGBs had lower levels of mental and physical health than heterosexuals. Among LGB participants, high levels of minority stressors and low levels of coping resources predicted lower levels of mental health, and lower levels of mental health predicted lower levels of physical health. These results emphasize that minority stressors should be recognized as risk factors for poorer mental health, as well as for physical and sexual risk behaviors.

  12. How life stressors influence modifiable lifestyle factors, depressive symptoms, and physical and mental health among Vietnamese older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao-Tran, Tiet-Hanh; Anderson, Debra; Seib, Charrlotte

    2017-06-29

    Research has demonstrated that exposure to life stressors can influence health through a number of pathways. However, knowledge about the patterns of life stressors and their contributions to health in different populations is limited. Vietnamese older women have attracted little research to date in this area. This cross-sectional study used an interview-administered-questionnaire to collect data from 440 Vietnamese older women. Descriptive analysis was used to describe life stressors among Vietnamese older women. Binary analysis and Structural Equation Modelling statistical analysis were used to examine the influences of life stressors on modifiable lifestyle factors, depressive symptoms, physical and mental health among Vietnamese older women. Vietnamese older women in this study commonly reported the experience of losing a close person, including a baby/child, serious health or money problems, violence and disaster. Among the study participants, (1) exposure to more life stressors increased their depressive symptoms, and decreased their physical and mental health; (2) exposure to more life stressors also increased their physical health by increasing their physical activity levels. Life stressors influenced health among Vietnamese older women through different pathways. Interventions to manage stress and depressive symptoms are required for Vietnamese older women in the future.

  13. Physiological stress reactivity and physical and relational aggression: the moderating roles of victimization, type of stressor, and child gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Lafko, Nicole; Burrows, Casey; Pitula, Clio; Ralston, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association between physiological reactivity to peer stressors and physical and relational aggression. Potential moderation by actual experiences of peer maltreatment (i.e., physical and relational victimization) and gender were also explored. One hundred ninety-six children (M = 10.11 years, SD = 0.64) participated in a laboratory stress protocol during which their systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and skin conductance reactivity to recounting a relational stressor (e.g., threats to relationships) and an instrumental stressor (e.g., threats to physical well-being, dominance, or property) were assessed. Teachers provided reports of aggression and victimization. In both boys and girls, physical aggression was associated with blunted physiological reactivity to relational stress and heightened physiological reactivity to instrumental stress, particularly among youth higher in victimization. In girls, relational aggression was most robustly associated with blunted physiological reactivity to relational stressors, particularly among girls exhibiting higher levels of relational victimization. In boys, relational aggression was associated with heightened physiological reactivity to both types of stressors at higher levels of peer victimization and blunted physiological reactivity to both types of stressors at lower levels of victimization. Results underscore the shared and distinct emotional processes underlying physical and relational aggression in boys and girls.

  14. Stigma-related stressors, coping self-efficacy, and physical health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, F Nicholas; Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Danner, Fred

    2014-07-01

    Understanding and intervening to address health disparities is part of the expanding role of psychologists (Johnson, 2013). We drew on Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework and Lick, Durso, and Johnson's (2013) conceptual pathways to lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) physical health disparities to test a serial mediation model in which 2 types of cognitive appraisals (proximal minority stressors and coping self-efficacy) partially account for the association between perceived discrimination and prejudice (distal minority stressor) and self-reported physical health symptoms in a nationally recruited sample of 564 LGB individuals (270 women, 294 men) who participated in a web-based survey. Results indicated that perceived experiences of discrimination and prejudice were associated with expectations of rejection and internalized homonegativity. These 2 proximal stressors were associated with lower coping self-efficacy, and the combined cognitive appraisal pathways were associated with higher levels of self-reported physical symptom severity. The pathway through emotion-focused coping self-efficacy was particularly salient in accounting for the overall mediation. Interventions to address distal and proximal minority stressors and improve emotion-focused coping self-efficacy may be particularly helpful in reducing the negative effects of stigma on physical health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. The physical postures of yoga practices may protect against depressive symptoms, even as life stressors increase: a moderation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Rebecca A; Butler, Michael P; Bentley, Jacob A

    2018-08-01

    Yoga contains sub-components related to its physical postures (asana), breathing methods (pranayama), and meditation (dhyana). To test the hypothesis that specific yoga practices are associated with reduced psychological distress, 186 adults completed questionnaires assessing life stressors, symptom severity, and experience with each of these aspects of yoga. Each yoga sub-component was found to be negatively correlated with psychological distress indices. However, differing patterns of relationship to psychological distress symptoms were found for each yoga sub-component. Experience with asana was negatively correlated with global psychological distress (r = -.21, p moderated the predictive relationship between amount of asana experience and depressive symptoms. Asana was not related to depressive symptoms at low levels of life stressors, but became associated at mean (t[182] = -2.73, p research is needed to differentiate whether asana has an effect on psychological distress, and to better understand potential psychophysiological mechanisms of action.

  16. Operational stressors on physical performance in special operators and countermeasures to improve performance: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Reginald; Henry, Amy; Serres, Jennifer; Russell, Dawn; Locke, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Military training in elite warfighters (e.g., U.S. Army Rangers, Navy SEALs, and U.S. Air Force Battlefield Airmen) is challenging and requires mental and physical capabilities that are akin to that of professional athletes. However, unlike professional athletes, the competitive arena is the battlefield, with winning and losing replaced by either life or death. The rigors of both physical training and prolonged deployments without adequate rest and food intake can compromise physical performance. Therefore, the primary purpose of this effort was to identify occupational stressors on the physical performance of Special Operators during training and while on missions. The secondary purpose was to suggest specific countermeasures to reduce or prevent significant decrements in physical performance and reduce musculoskeletal injuries. A search of the literature for 2000?2012 was performed using the Air Force Institute of Technology search engines (i.e., PubMed and ProQuest). There were 29 articles located and selected that specifically addressed the primary and secondary purposes of this literature review. The remaining 32 of 61 referenced articles were reviewed after initial review of the primary literature. This review indicates that operational stress (e.g., negative energy balance, high-energy expenditure, sleep deprivation, environmental extremes, heavy load carriage, etc.) associated with rigorous training and sustained operations negatively affects hormonal levels, lean muscle mass, and physical performance of Special Operators. The number of musculoskeletal injuries also increases as a result of these stressors. Commanders may use simple field tests to assess physical decrements before and during deployment to effectively plan for missions. Specific countermeasures for these known decrements are lacking in the scientific literature. Therefore, future researchers should focus on studying specific physical training programs, equipment, and other methods to

  17. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Physical Habitat - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the Physical Habitat module, when to list Physical Habitat as a candidate cause, ways to measure Physical Habitat, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for Physical Habitat, Physical Habitat module references and literature reviews.

  18. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Physical Habitat - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the Physical Habitat module, when to list Physical Habitat as a candidate cause, ways to measure Physical Habitat, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for Physical Habitat, Physical Habitat module references and literature reviews.

  19. Physical habitat and its alteration: A common ground for exposure of amphibians to environmental stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Christine A.; Cunnington, David C.; Fellers, Gary M.; Gibbs, James P.; Pauli, Bruce D.; Rothermel, Betsie B.; Linder, Greg L.; Krest, Sherry K.; Sparling, Donald W.

    2003-01-01

    Amphibians as a class of vertebrates have persisted for hundreds of millions of years (Stebbins and Cohen 1995), but they are currently threatened by a variety of stressors, many resulting from human-related alterations of the environment. Most species of amphibians live closely associated with moist environments throughout their life and have evolved specialized adaptations that conserve water and reduce desiccation (Stebbins and Cohen 1995; Henry 2000; Chapter 2A). Amphibians are ectotherms, so their body temperatures fluctuate with the local environment. Latitude, elevation, and habitat affect environmental temperature and have a strong influence on amphibian distributions. Despite these physiological and habitat constraints, the 4750 species of amphibians in the world today have exploited a wide variety of habitats that range from dry deserts to tropical rain forests and from sea level to elevations above 4000 m (McDairmid and Mitchell 2000).The direct loss of suitable habitat has had a profound effect on amphibian populations (Johnson 1992), as it has on nearly all species of wildlife. In the U.S., 53% of wetlands have been lost to human development in the last 200 years (Dahl 1990). Similar loss of wetlands has occurred throughout much of the world, especially in developing countries (Miller 1993). In many regions, deforestation has reduced or eliminated suitable terrestrial habitats, and this may prove to be the largest global threat to amphibian populations (Johnson 1992). Eight thousand years ago, forests covered approximately 40% of the world’s land (6 billion hectares), but by 1997, the world’s forests had been reduced to 3.5 billion hectares, a 42% loss worldwide (CIDA 2001). The effect of habitat loss is generally both obvious and predictable; with increasing restriction of suitable habitat, amphibian populations will probably not survive. The anthropogenic effects on the quality of the habitat that remains are often less obvious.

  20. Traumatic events, other operational stressors and physical and mental health reported by Australian Defence Force personnel following peacekeeping and war-like deployments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between stressful events on warlike deployments and subsequent mental health problems has been established. Less is known about the effects of stressful events on peacekeeping deployments. Methods Two cross sectional studies of the Australian Defence Force were used to contrast the prevalence of exposures reported by a group deployed on a peacekeeping operation (Bougainville, n = 1704 and those reported by a group deployed on operations which included warlike and non-warlike exposures (East Timor, n = 1333. A principal components analysis was used to identify groupings of non-traumatic exposures on deployment. Multiple regression models were used to assess the association between self-reported objective and subjective exposures, stressors on deployment and subsequent physical and mental health outcomes. Results The principal components analysis produced four groups of non-traumatic stressors which were consistent between the peacekeeping and more warlike deployments. These were labelled ‘separation’, ‘different culture’, ‘other people’ and ‘work frustration’. Higher levels of traumatic and non-traumatic exposures were reported by veterans of East Timor compared to Bougainville. Higher levels of subjective traumatic exposures were associated with increased rates of PTSD in East Timor veterans and more physical and psychological health symptoms in both deployed groups. In Bougainville and East Timor veterans some non-traumatic deployment stressors were also associated with worse health outcomes. Conclusion Strategies to best prepare, identify and treat those exposed to traumatic events and other stressors on deployment should be considered for Defence personnel deployed on both warlike and peacekeeping operations.

  1. Software for optimization of SNP and PCR-RFLP genotyping to discriminate many genomes with the fewest assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Mark C

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial forensics is important in tracking the source of a pathogen, whether the disease is a naturally occurring outbreak or part of a criminal investigation. Results A method and SPR Opt (SNP and PCR-RFLP Optimization software to perform a comprehensive, whole-genome analysis to forensically discriminate multiple sequences is presented. Tools for the optimization of forensic typing using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP and PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analyses across multiple isolate sequences of a species are described. The PCR-RFLP analysis includes prediction and selection of optimal primers and restriction enzymes to enable maximum isolate discrimination based on sequence information. SPR Opt calculates all SNP or PCR-RFLP variations present in the sequences, groups them into haplotypes according to their co-segregation across those sequences, and performs combinatoric analyses to determine which sets of haplotypes provide maximal discrimination among all the input sequences. Those set combinations requiring that membership in the fewest haplotypes be queried (i.e. the fewest assays be performed are found. These analyses highlight variable regions based on existing sequence data. These markers may be heterogeneous among unsequenced isolates as well, and thus may be useful for characterizing the relationships among unsequenced as well as sequenced isolates. The predictions are multi-locus. Analyses of mumps and SARS viruses are summarized. Phylogenetic trees created based on SNPs, PCR-RFLPs, and full genomes are compared for SARS virus, illustrating that purported phylogenies based only on SNP or PCR-RFLP variations do not match those based on multiple sequence alignment of the full genomes. Conclusion This is the first software to optimize the selection of forensic markers to maximize information gained from the fewest assays, accepting whole or partial genome sequence data as input. As

  2. Personality and Stressor-Related Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Kate A.; Charles, Susan T.; Turiano, Nicholas A.; Almeida, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Greater increases in negative affect and greater decreases in positive affect on days stressors occur portend poorer mental and physical health years later. Although personality traits influence stressor-related affect, only neuroticism and extraversion among the Big Five personality traits have been examined in any detail. Moreover, personality traits may shape how people appraise daily stressors, yet few studies have examined how stressor-related appraisals may account for associations between personality and stressor-related affect. Two studies used participants (N=2022, age 30–84) from the National Study of Daily Experiences II (NSDE II) to examine the associations between Big Five personality traits and stressor-related affect, in addition to how appraisals may account for these relationships. Results from Study 1 indicate that higher levels of extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience, and lower levels of neuroticism, are related to less stressor-related negative affect. Only agreeableness was associated with stressor-related positive affect, such that higher levels were related to greater decreases in positive affect on days stressors occur. The second study found that stressor-related appraisals partially accounted for the significant associations between stressor-related negative affect and personality. Implications for these findings in relation to how personality may influence physical and emotional health are discussed. PMID:26796984

  3. Exposure to physical and psychosocial stressors in relation to symptoms of common mental disorders among European professional football referees: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Özgür; Johnson, Urban; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Rosier, Philippe; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    The study aim was to explore the association of physical and psychosocial stressors (severe injuries, surgeries, recent life events, social support) with one-season onset of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMDs) among European professional football referees. An observational prospective cohort study over a follow-up period of one season (2015-2016) was conducted among professional football referees from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Russia, Scotland and Sweden. Based on physical and psychosocial stressors as well as symptoms of CMD, an electronic questionnaire in English and French was set up and distributed by eight football federations involved. The prevalence of symptoms of CMD ranged from 5.9% for distress to 19.2% for eating disorders. A higher number of severe injuries and a lower degree of satisfaction about social support were significantly related to the occurrence of symptoms of CMD with an OR of 2.63 and an OR of 1.10, respectively. A higher number of severe injuries and a lower degree on satisfaction about social support were found to be significantly associated with the onset of symptoms of CMD among European professional football referees. Referees suffering from severe injuries were nearly three times more likely to report symptoms of anxiety and depression. Referees who reported a low satisfaction of social support were significantly more likely to report symptoms of eating disorder.

  4. Exposure to physical and psychosocial stressors in relation to symptoms of common mental disorders among European professional football referees: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Urban; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Rosier, Philippe; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The study aim was to explore the association of physical and psychosocial stressors (severe injuries, surgeries, recent life events, social support) with one-season onset of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMDs) among European professional football referees. Methods An observational prospective cohort study over a follow-up period of one season (2015–2016) was conducted among professional football referees from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Russia, Scotland and Sweden. Based on physical and psychosocial stressors as well as symptoms of CMD, an electronic questionnaire in English and French was set up and distributed by eight football federations involved. Results The prevalence of symptoms of CMD ranged from 5.9% for distress to 19.2% for eating disorders. A higher number of severe injuries and a lower degree of satisfaction about social support were significantly related to the occurrence of symptoms of CMD with an OR of 2.63 and an OR of 1.10, respectively. Conclusion A higher number of severe injuries and a lower degree on satisfaction about social support were found to be significantly associated with the onset of symptoms of CMD among European professional football referees. Referees suffering from severe injuries were nearly three times more likely to report symptoms of anxiety and depression. Referees who reported a low satisfaction of social support were significantly more likely to report symptoms of eating disorder. PMID:29629180

  5. Nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickie A Lambert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses, especially palliative care nurses, need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively with these stressors to attain and maintain both their physical and mental health. This article describes workplace stressors and coping strategies, compares and contrasts cross-cultural literature on nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies, and delineates a variety of stress management activities that could prove helpful for contending with stressors in the workplace.

  6. Personality Characteristics, Job Stressors, and Job Satisfaction: Main and Interaction Effects on Psychological and Physical Health Conditions of Italian Schoolteachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Pes, Daniela; Capasso, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The study proposed an application of the transactional model of stress in teaching elaborated by Travers and Cooper in 1996, and aimed to investigate the influence of personality characteristics (coping strategies, type A behaviors), situational characteristics (sources of pressure), and perceived job satisfaction in the prediction of teachers' psychophysical health conditions. The Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire was administered to 621 teachers. Logistic regression was used to evaluate significant main and interaction effects of personality characteristics, situational characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction on teachers' self-reported psychophysical health conditions. The findings highlighted specific coping strategies (focused on the problem, on innovation, and on hobbies and pastimes) and dimensions of job satisfaction (related to intrinsic aspects of job and to employee relations) buffering the negative effects of several job stressors. Type A behaviors and coping strategies focused on mobilized social support, suppression of stress, and not confronting the situation had main and interactions with negative effects on psychophysical health. Findings confirmed the necessity to run multi-factor research to analyze the different combinations of individual and situational variables implicated in negative health outcomes and to highlight the most significant buffering or increasing associations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Stressor sensor and stress management system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A stressor detection system (100) comprises sensor means (101) arranged for being attached to a person for obtaining a time-varying signal representing a physical quantity relating to an environment of the person, and processing means (102) for deriving a stressor value from the obtained signal

  8. Stressors in Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilla, Steven; Felix, Kayla; Jorizzo, Joseph L

    2017-01-01

    As with other inflammatory skin disorders, atopic dermatitis has a tendency to cause stress and also be exacerbated by it. Patients with atopic dermatitis have several disease-associated stressors, some of which include physical discomfort due to itching and altered appearance due to flare-ups. These stressors have been shown to effect patients psychosocially by altering sleep patterns, decreasing self-esteem and interfering with interpersonal relationships. In combination with its direct effect on patients, atopic dermatitis also causes stress for parents and caregivers. Studies suggest that atopic dermatitis is strongly correlated with co-sleeping habits, which can negatively impact the health and mood of parents or caregivers. It has also been reported to interfere with the formation of a strong mother-child relationship. In order to optimize treatment for patients with atopic dermatitis, it is important to note the impact that it has on quality of life. By implementing patient counseling, sleep-targeted therapies, and the use of quality of life (QoL) indices, atopic dermatitis patients and caregivers have the potential to experience greater satisfaction with treatment.

  9. Cross-cultural comparison of workplace stressors, ways of coping and demographic characteristics as predictors of physical and mental health among hospital nurses in Japan, Thailand, South Korea and the USA (Hawaii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Vickie A; Lambert, Clinton E; Itano, Joanne; Inouye, Jillian; Kim, Susie; Kuniviktikul, Wipada; Sitthimongkol, Yajai; Pongthavornkamol, Kanuangnit; Gasemgitvattana, Saipin; Ito, Misae

    2004-08-01

    In an attempt to cross-culturally compare factors that may contribute to the nursing shortage within countries that have produced a limited number of research findings on role stress in nurses, this research examined work stressors, ways of coping and demographic characteristics as predictors of physical and mental health among hospital nurses from Japan, South Korea, Thailand and the USA (Hawaii). Subjects (n = 1554 hospital-based nurses) were administered four self-report questionnaires: Demographic Questionnaire, "Nursing Stress Scale", "Ways of Coping Questionnaire" and "SF-36 Health Survey". Findings suggested that nurses indicated similar workplace stressors, ways of coping, and levels of physical and mental health. While subjects, across countries, demonstrated a variety of predictors of physical and mental health, several predictors were found to be the same. Cross-culturally the role of nurses may vary; however, certain factors are predictive of the status of hospital nurses' physical health and mental health. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Data linkage between the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to assess workplace physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura J; Symanski, Elaine; Lupo, Philip J; Tinker, Sarah C; Razzaghi, Hilda; Pompeii, Lisa A; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Canfield, Mark A; Chan, Wenyaw

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence of work-related physical activities, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors among pregnant women is limited, and the extent to which these exposures vary by maternal characteristics remains unclear. Data on mothers of 6,817 infants without major birth defects, with estimated delivery during 1997 through 2009 who worked during pregnancy were obtained from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Information on multiple domains of occupational exposures was gathered by linking mother's primary job to the Occupational Information Network Version 9.0. The most frequent estimated physical activity associated with jobs during pregnancy was standing. Of 6,337 mothers, 31.0% reported jobs associated with standing for ≥75% of their time. There was significant variability in estimated occupational exposures by maternal age, race/ethnicity, and educational level. Our findings augment existing literature on occupational physical activities, sedentary behaviors, emotional stressors, and occupational health disparities during pregnancy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Reactivity to Daily Stressors in Adulthood: The Importance of Stressor Type in Characterizing Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Elizabeth L.; Diehl, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    This study examined daily stressors in adults aged 18 to 89 years (M = 49.6 years) over 30 days. We examined the role of individual factors (i.e., age, self-concept differentiation, perceived control) in physical and psychological reactivity to interpersonal, network, home, and health stressors. Findings were consistent with the perspective that adults were less reactive to stress on days they felt in control and that younger adults and adults with high self-concept differentiation (SCD) were...

  12. The role of Dynamic Energy Budget theory in predictive modeling of stressor impacts on ecological systems. Comment on: ;Physics of metabolic organization; by Marko Jusup et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galic, Nika; Forbes, Valery E.

    2017-03-01

    Human activities have been modifying ecosystems for centuries, from pressures on wild populations we harvest to modifying habitats through urbanization and agricultural activities. Changes in global climate patterns are adding another layer of, often unpredictable, perturbations to ecosystems on which we rely for life support [1,2]. To ensure the sustainability of ecosystem services, especially at this point in time when the human population is estimated to grow by another 2 billion by 2050 [3], we need to predict possible consequences of our actions and suggest relevant solutions [4,5]. We face several challenges when estimating adverse impacts of our actions on ecosystems. We describe these in the context of ecological risk assessment of chemicals. Firstly, when attempting to assess risk from exposure to chemicals, we base our decisions on a very limited number of species that are easily cultured and kept in the lab. We assume that preventing risk to these species will also protect all of the untested species present in natural ecosystems [6]. Secondly, although we know that chemicals interact with other stressors in the field, the number of stressors that we can test is limited due to logistical and ethical reasons. Similarly, empirical approaches are limited in both spatial and temporal scale due to logistical, financial and ethical reasons [7,8]. To bypass these challenges, we can develop ecological models that integrate relevant life history and other information and make testable predictions across relevant spatial and temporal scales [8-10].

  13. Physical and Mental Health Consequences of War-related Stressors Among Older Adults: An Analysis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Arthritis in Northern Vietnamese War Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinek, Kim; Loebach, Peter; Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan

    2017-10-01

    We examine the impacts of trauma exposures and family stressors associated with the Vietnam War on musculoskeletal health and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) outcomes in elderly Vietnamese who were widely impacted by the war as young adults. Noting that wars' impacts extend beyond male veterans in most survivor populations, we give attention to male and female war survivors placed in a variety of roles vis-a-vis the war. Utilizing data from the 2010 Vietnam Health and Aging Pilot Study (N = 405), we use logistic and Poisson regression models to estimate the effect of wartime trauma exposures and family stressors on disabling arthritis and PTSD symptoms in male and female northern Vietnamese adults aged 55 and older. The odds of experiencing recent PTSD symptoms are greater in respondents who report involvement in killing/causing severe injury and who observed war atrocities. In women, PTSD is positively correlated with war era child death and spousal separation. Arthritis also exhibits a significant, positive association with killing/causing severe injury. Our study provides insights into the burden of conflict upon health among populations of the global south that survived war and are now entering older adulthood. The pattern of results, indicating greatest suffering among those who inflicted or failed to prevent bodily harm or loss of life, is consistent with the concept of moral injury. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Stressors and reactions to stressors among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaideh, Shaher H

    2011-01-01

    University students are prone to stressors due to the transitional nature of university life. High levels of stress are believed to affect students' health as well as their academic performance. The aims of this study were to identify stressors and reactions to stressors among university students, and to examine the correlations between student stressors and study variables. A correlational descriptive design was used. Student-life Stress Inventory (SSI) was used to measure the stressors and reactions to stressors. Stratified random sampling was employed to recruit participants. The final sample consisted of 877 participants (students). s indicated that the highest group of stressors experienced by students were 'self-imposed' stressors followed by 'pressures'. Cognitive responses were found to be the highest responses to stressors experienced by students. Negative correlations were found with student's perception of health, and father's and mother's level of education. This study revealed that stressors among university students come from 'self-imposed' stressors and 'pressures'. Stress management, assertiveness skills, time management and counselling sessions will be effective in reducing stress experienced by students.

  15. Enduring the shipboard stressor complex: a systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comperatore, Carlos A; Rivera, Pik Kwan; Kingsley, Leonard

    2005-06-01

    A high incidence of physiological and psychological stressors characterizes the maritime work environment in many segments of the commercial maritime industry and in the military. Traditionally, crewmembers work embedded in a complex of stressors. Stressors rarely act independently because most occur concurrently, simultaneously taxing physical and mental resources. Stressors such as extreme environmental temperatures, long work hours, heavy mental and physical workload, authoritative leadership, isolation from family and loved ones, lack of exercise, and unhealthy diets often combine to degrade crewmember health and performance, particularly on long voyages. This complex system of interacting stressors affects the ability of maritime crewmembers to maintain adequate levels of alertness and performance. An analytical systems approach methodology is described here as a viable method to identify workplace stressors and track their systemic interactions. A systems-based program for managing the stressor complex is then offered, together with the empirical research supporting its efficacy. Included is an example implementation of a stressor-control program aboard a U.S. Coast Guard cutter.

  16. Verbal and Physical Abuse as Stressors in the Lives of Lesbian, Gay Male, and Bisexual Youths: Associations with School Problems, Running Away, Substance Abuse, Prostitution, and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews verbal and physical abuse that threatens well-being and physical survival of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths. Notes that this response to gay male, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents by significant others in their environment is often associated with several problematic outcomes, including school-related problems, running away,…

  17. Occupational stressors in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nikpeyma

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsNursing provides a wide range of potential workplace stressors as it is  a profession that requires a high level of skill, teamworking in a variety of situations and provision  of 24-hour delivery of care .Occupational stress is a major factor of Staff sickness an  absenteeism.This study investigates the main occupational stressors in nursing profession in the  hope of identification and reducing it.MethodsIn this study a questionnaire consisting of three parts:demoghraphic data,the nurses  background and questions about occupational stress from Revised index fulfilled by 140 nurses.ResultsLack of reward for work well done(48/6%, Heavy workload(46/4% ,lack of Participation in decisions (39/3% , poor Control of work place(38/4%and lack of job  development (36/4% have been the main sources of Occupational stress for nurses.chronic  diseases, Night Shift working and working hours were positively associated with occupstional  stress.Conclusion Analysis indicated that effects of work factors on occupational stress are more than demoghraphic data. The findings of this study can assist health service organisations to provide an attractive working climate in order to decrease side effects and consequences of occupational stress. Furthermore, understanding this situation can help to develop coping strategies in order to reduce work-related stress.

  18. Additive effects prevail: The response of biota to multiple stressors in an intensively monitored watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieswein, Alexander; Hering, Daniel; Feld, Christian K

    2017-09-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are impacted by a range of stressors arising from diverse human-caused land and water uses. Identifying the relative importance of single stressors and understanding how multiple stressors interact and jointly affect biology is crucial for River Basin Management. This study addressed multiple human-induced stressors and their effects on the aquatic flora and fauna based on data from standard WFD monitoring schemes. For altogether 1095 sites within a mountainous catchment, we used 12 stressor variables covering three different stressor groups: riparian land use, physical habitat quality and nutrient enrichment. Twenty-one biological metrics calculated from taxa lists of three organism groups (fish, benthic invertebrates and aquatic macrophytes) served as response variables. Stressor and response variables were subjected to Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) analysis to identify stressor hierarchy and stressor interactions and subsequently to Generalised Linear Regression Modelling (GLM) to quantify the stressors standardised effect size. Our results show that riverine habitat degradation was the dominant stressor group for the river fauna, notably the bed physical habitat structure. Overall, the explained variation in benthic invertebrate metrics was higher than it was in fish and macrophyte metrics. In particular, general integrative (aggregate) metrics such as % Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa performed better than ecological traits (e.g. % feeding types). Overall, additive stressor effects dominated, while significant and meaningful stressor interactions were generally rare and weak. We concluded that given the type of stressor and ecological response variables addressed in this study, river basin managers do not need to bother much about complex stressor interactions, but can focus on the prevailing stressors according to the hierarchy identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hemodialysis: stressors and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Al Nazly, Eman K

    2015-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an irreversible and life-threatening condition. In Jordan, the number of ESRD patients treated with hemodialysis is on the rise. Identifying stressors and coping strategies used by patients with ESRD may help nurses and health care providers to gain a clearer understanding of the condition of these patients and thus institute effective care planning. The purpose of this study was to identify stressors perceived by Jordanian patients on hemodialysis, and the coping strategies used by them. A convenience sample of 131 Jordanian men and women was recruited from outpatients' dialysis units in four hospitals. Stressors perceived by participants on hemodialysis and the coping strategies were measured using Hemodialysis Stressor Scale, and Ways of Coping Scale-Revised. Findings showed that patients on hemodialysis psychosocial stressors scores mean was higher than the physiological stressors mean. Positive reappraisal coping strategy had the highest mean among the coping strategies and the lowest mean was accepting responsibility. Attention should be focused towards the psychosocial stressors of patients on hemodialysis and also helping patients utilize the coping strategies that help to alleviate the stressors. The most used coping strategy was positive reappraisal strategy which includes faith and prayer.

  20. Chemical and natural stressors combined:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergs, André; Zenker, Armin; Grimm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    In addition to natural stressors, populations are increasingly exposed to chemical pollutants released into the environment. We experimentally demonstrate the loss of resilience for Daphnia magna populations that are exposed to a combination of natural and chemical stressors even though effects...... demonstrates that population size can be a poor endpoint for risk assessments of chemicals and that ignoring disturbance interactions can lead to severe underestimation of extinction risk...

  1. Associations among daily stressors and salivary cortisol: findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S; Cichy, Kelly E; Piazza, Jennifer R; Almeida, David M

    2013-11-01

    While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1694 adults (age=57, range=33-84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30min post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations among Daily Stressors and Salivary Cortisol: Findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Piazza, Jennifer R.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally-occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1,694 adults (Age=57, Range=33–84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5,995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally-occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. PMID:23856186

  3. Non-Chemical Stressors in a Child’s Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-chemical stressors exist in the built, natural and social environments including physical factors (e.g., noise, temperature and humidity) and psychosocial factors (e.g., poor diet, smoking, illicit drug use)[1]. Scientists study how non-chemical stressors (e.g., social suppor...

  4. Preliminary investigation of the effects of exposure to multiple health stressors using the physiological strain index

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available stressors and various combinations of stressors. The results indicated that noise exposure caused a statistically significant increase in PSI scores. None of the results for exposure to heat alone, physical work alone or the two in combination showed a...

  5. The EBD Teacher Stressors Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, David B.; Steventon, Candace

    2001-01-01

    Two studies examined the validity of a self-report instrument that assesses occupational stressors in teachers of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Differences were found in the stress management resources of low and high scoring EBD teachers on the measure and between scores of EBD and general education teachers, although…

  6. Affective reactivity to daily stressors is associated with elevated inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Nancy L; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E; Ong, Anthony D; Almeida, David M

    2015-12-01

    Inflammation increases the risk of chronic diseases, but the links between emotional responses to daily events and inflammation are unknown. We examined individual differences in affective reactivity to daily stressors (i.e., changes in positive and negative affect in response to stressors) as predictors of inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A cross-sectional sample of 872 adults from the National Study of Daily Experiences (substudy of Midlife in the United States II) reported daily stressors and affect during telephone interviews for 8 days. Blood samples were obtained at a separate clinic visit and assayed for inflammatory markers. Multilevel models estimated trait affective reactivity slopes for each participant, which were inputted into regression models to predict inflammation. People who experienced greater decreases in positive affect on days when stressors occurred (i.e., positive affect reactivity) had elevated log IL-6, independent of demographic, physical, psychological, and behavioral factors (B = 1.12, SE = 0.45, p = .01). Heightened negative affect reactivity was associated with higher log CRP among women (p = .03) but not men (p = .57); health behaviors accounted for this association in women. Adults who fail to maintain positive affect when faced with minor stressors in everyday life appear to have elevated levels of IL-6, a marker of inflammation. Women who experience increased negative affect when faced with minor stressors may be at particular risk of elevated inflammation. These findings add to growing evidence regarding the health implications of affective reactivity to daily stressors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Affective reactivity to daily stressors is associated with elevated inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Nancy L.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.; Ong, Anthony D.; Almeida, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inflammation increases the risk of chronic diseases, but the links between emotional responses to daily events and inflammation are unknown. We examined individual differences in affective reactivity to daily stressors (i.e., changes in positive and negative affect in response to stressors) as predictors of inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods A cross-sectional sample of 872 adults from the National Study of Daily Experiences (sub-study of Midlife in the United States II) reported daily stressors and affect during telephone interviews for 8 days. Blood samples were obtained at a separate clinic visit and assayed for inflammatory markers. Multilevel models estimated trait affective reactivity slopes for each participant, which were inputted into regression models to predict inflammation. Results People who experienced greater decreases in positive affect on days when stressors occurred (i.e, positive affect reactivity) had elevated log IL-6, independent of demographic, physical, psychological, and behavioral factors (B = 1.12, SE = 0.45, p = 0.01). Heightened negative affect reactivity was associated with higher log CRP among women (p = 0.03) but not men (p = 0.57); health behaviors accounted for this association in women. Conclusions Adults who fail to maintain positive affect when faced with minor stressors in everyday life appear to have elevated levels of IL-6, a marker of inflammation. Women who experience increased negative affect when faced with minor stressors may be at particular risk of elevated inflammation. These findings add to growing evidence regarding the health implications of affective reactivity to daily stressors. PMID:26030309

  8. The impacts of multiple stressors to model ecological structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, W.G.; Kelly, S.A.; Markiewicz, A.J.; Matthews, R.A.; Matthews, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    The basis of the community conditioning hypothesis is that ecological structures are the result of their unique etiology. Systems that have been exposed to a variety of stressors should reflect this history. The authors how conducted a series of microcosm experiments that can compare the effects of multiple stressors upon community dynamics. The microcosm protocols are derived from the Standardized Aquatic Microcosm (SAM) and have Lemma and additional protozoan species. Two multiple stressor experiments have been conducted. In an extended length SAM (ELSAM), two of four treatments were dosed with the turbine fuel JP-8 one week into the experiment. Two treatments were later exposed to the heat stress, one that had received jet fuel and one that had not. Similarly, an ELSAM was conducted with the second stressor being the further addition of JP-8 replacing the heat shock. Biological, physical and chemical data were analyzed with multivariate techniques including nonmetric clustering and association analysis. Space-time worms and phase diagrams were also employed to ascertain the dynamic relationships of variables identified as important by the multivariate techniques. The experiments do not result in a simple additive linear response to the additional stressor. Examination of the relative population dynamics reveal alterations in trajectories that suggest treatment related effects. As in previous single stressor experiments, recovery does not occur even after extended experimental periods. The authors are now attempting to measure the resulting trajectories, changes in similarity vectors and overall dynamics. However, community conditioning does appear to be an important framework in understanding systems with a heterogeneous array of stressors

  9. Exploring the Stressors of New Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrivee, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the different stressors and anxieties facing new librarians. It also addresses the various ways that new librarians can cope with location, emotional, and work-related stressors. The article is broken into four different categories of stress; some stressors have been more explored than others. The research is based on an…

  10. The prospective relationship between work stressors and cardiovascular disease, using a comprehensive work stressor measure for exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerencsi, Karolina; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic; Prins, Martin; Kant, Ijmert

    2014-02-01

    The currently used instruments which measure the psychosocial work environment have been criticized. We analyzed the association between work stressors and cardiovascular disease, using the Maastricht Cohort Study Work Stressor Score (MCS-WSS), a comprehensive measure which has been associated with work strain. At baseline 11,489 employees of the Maastricht Cohort Study were participating. This prospective cohort study started in 1998 in the Netherlands and includes a heterogeneous population of employees. The psychosocial work environment, cardiovascular risk factors and the occurrence of cardiovascular disease were measured with questionnaires at various time points during follow-up, the last follow-up was in 2008. For a subsample of employees, CVD extracted from medical records was available. The MCS-WSS consists of items from emotional demands, psychological demands, role clarity, career possibilities, working overtime, job insecurity, cognitive demands, skills discretion and decision authority. Each item has its own contribution in inducing work strain, represented by its own weighting factor. The association between a high exposure to work stressors at baseline and cardiovascular morbidity was assessed with Cox regression analyses. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, educational level, smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption and leisure physical activity. During a median follow-up of 49 months, 309 employees developed incident cardiovascular disease. Overall, no significant associations were found between a high exposure to work stressors at baseline and cardiovascular morbidity. The results of this study indicate that high exposure to work stressors has no considerable impact on cardiovascular disease.

  11. Understanding Differences in Role Stressors, Resilience, and Burnout in Teacher/Coaches and Non-Coaching Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, K. Andrew R.; Templin, Thomas J.; Levesque-Bristol, Chantal; Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma

    2014-01-01

    The constructs of role stressors, burnout, and resilience have been the topic of numerous research studies in physical education and education more generally. Specific to physical education, much effort has been devoted to the study of teacher/coach role conflict. However, no prior studies have examined how role stressors, burnout, and resilience…

  12. Stressors in elite sport: a coach perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwell, Richard C; Weston, Neil J V; Greenlees, Iain A; Hutchings, Nicholas V

    2008-07-01

    We examined the varying performance and organizational stressors experienced by coaches who operate with elite athletes. Following interviews with eleven coaches, content analysis of the data revealed coaches to experience comparable numbers of performance and organizational stressors. Performance stressors were divided between their own performance and that of their athletes, while organizational stressors included environmental, leadership, personal, and team factors. The findings provide evidence that coaches experience a variety of stressors that adds weight to the argument that they should be labelled as "performers" in their own right. A variety of future research topics and applied issues are also discussed.

  13. Wartime stressors and health outcomes: women in the Persian Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E A; Roth, M A; Weed, G

    1998-08-01

    This descriptive correlational study of war time stressors and stress responses of women from the Persian Gulf War examined numerous stressors both physical and psychological. The psychological stressors more directly impacted postwar physical and psychological symptoms than did physical stressors. These findings add to our understanding of women's reactions to wartime stress and the types of stressors affecting women. The study provides more data to support the contention that sexual harassment is widely prevalent in the military. The study did not find data to support concerns about maternal guilt on leaving children, nor any significant evidence of stress symptomology from this situation. The results of this study confirmed the call by Wolfe, Brown, Furey, and Levin (1993) for more precise evaluation of wartime stressors in view of the changing gender composition of military forces and the subsequent increase of women in combat roles. Clinicians should be alerted to recognize gender-specific experiences. Education of military women about stressors and coping mechanisms should be broadened to address the development issue of intimacy versus isolation. Nurses, both military and civilian, must understand the effect of isolation and discrimination on women both in combat and in other high stress situations. The need for continued study of the problem of sexual harassment is confirmed. Understanding the scope of the problem and the health care outcomes strengthens the role of prevention and intervention for nurses and their clients.

  14. Assessing the influence of multiple stressors on stream diatom metrics in the upper Midwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Mark D.; Waite, Ian R.; Konrad, Christopher P.

    2018-01-01

    Water resource managers face increasing challenges in identifying what physical and chemical stressors are responsible for the alteration of biological conditions in streams. The objective of this study was to assess the comparative influence of multiple stressors on benthic diatoms at 98 sites that spanned a range of stressors in an agriculturally dominated region in the upper Midwest, USA. The primary stressors of interest included: nutrients, herbicides and fungicides, sediment, and streamflow; although the influence of physical habitat was incorporated in the assessment. Boosted Regression Tree was used to examine both the sensitivity of various diatom metrics and the relative importance of the primary stressors. Percent Sensitive Taxa, percent Highly Motile Taxa, and percent High Phosphorus Taxa had the strongest response to stressors. Habitat and total phosphorous were the most common discriminators of diatom metrics, with herbicides as secondary factors. A Classification and Regression Tree (CART) model was used to examine conditional relations among stressors and indicated that fine-grain streams had a lower percentage of Sensitive Taxa than coarse-grain streams, with Sensitive Taxa decreasing further with increased water temperature (>30 °C) and triazine concentrations (>1500 ng/L). In contrast, streams dominated by coarse-grain substrate contained a higher percentage of Sensitive Taxa, with relative abundance increasing with lower water temperatures (water depth (water temperature appears to be a major limiting factor in Midwest streams; whereas both total phosphorus and percent fines showed a slight subsidy-stress response. While using benthic algae for assessing stream quality can be challenging, field-based studies can elucidate stressor effects and interactions when the response variables are appropriate, sufficient stressor resolution is achieved, and the number and type of sites represent a gradient of stressor conditions and at least a quasi

  15. Agreeableness, Extraversion, Stressor and Physiological Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyuan Chu; Zhentao Ma; Yuan Li; Jing Han

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theoretical analysis, with first-hand data collection and using multiple regression models, this study explored the relationship between agreeableness, extraversion, stressor and stress response and figured out interactive effect of agreeableness, extraversion, and stressor on stress response. We draw on the following conclusions: (1) the interaction term of stressor (work) and agreeableness can negatively predict physiological stress response; (2) the interaction term of stresso...

  16. Reconceptualizing synergism and antagonism among multiple stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Piggott, Jeremy J; Townsend, Colin R; Matthaei, Christoph D

    2015-01-01

    The potential for complex synergistic or antagonistic interactions between multiple stressors presents one of the largest uncertainties when predicting ecological change but, despite common use of the terms in the scientific literature, a consensus on their operational definition is still lacking. The identification of synergism or antagonism is generally straightforward when stressors operate in the same direction, but if individual stressor effects oppose each other, the definition of syner...

  17. Assessing life stressors and social resources: applications to alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, R H; Fenn, C B; Billings, A G; Moos, B S

    A growing body of evidence points to the importance of life stressors and social resources in the development and course of alcoholism and other substance abuse disorders. This article describes the Life Stressors and Social Resources Inventory (LISRES), which provides an integrated assessment of life stressors and social resources in eight domains: physical health, home/neighborhood, financial, work, spouse/partner, children, extended family, and friends. The indices were developed on data obtained at two points in time 18 months apart from four demographically comparable groups: alcoholic patients, depressed patients, arthritic patients, and non-problem-drinking adults. As expected, alcoholic patients reported more acute and chronic stressors and fewer social resources than did non-problem-drinking adults. More important, the indices were predictively related to changes in alcohol consumption, drinking problems, depression, and self-confidence. Procedures such as the LISRES have some potential clinical and research applications and may be helpful in examining the process of recovery and relapse in substance abuse disorders.

  18. Management of Local Stressors Can Improve the Resilience of Marine Canopy Algae toGlobal Stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strain, E.M.A.; van Belzen, J.; van Dalen, J.; Bouma, T.J.; Airoldi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal systems are increasingly threatened by multiple local anthropogenic and global climatic stressors. With the difficulties in remediating global stressors, management requires alternative approaches that focus on local scales. We used manipulative experiments to test whether reducing local

  19. Stressors relating to patient psychological health following stoma surgery: an integrated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Seng Giap Marcus; Chen, Hui-Chen; Siah, Rosalind Jiat Chiew; He, Hong-Gu; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee

    2013-11-01

    To summarize empirical evidence relating to stressors that may affect patients' psychosocial health following colostomy or ileostomy surgery during hospitalization and after discharge. An extensive search was performed on the CINAHL®, Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science electronic databases. Eight articles were included with three qualitative and five quantitative research designs. Most studies were conducted in Western nations with one other in Taiwan. Following colostomy or ileostomy surgery, common stressors reported by patients during hospitalization included stoma formation, diagnosis of cancer, and preparation for self-care. After discharge, stressors that patients experienced encompassed adapting to body changes, altered sexuality, and impact on social life and activities. This review suggests that patients with stomas experience various stressors during hospitalization and after discharge. Additional research is needed for better understanding of patient postoperative experiences to facilitate the provision of appropriate nursing interventions to the stressors. To help patients deal with stressors following stoma surgery, nurses may provide pre- and postoperative education regarding the treatment and recovery process and encourage patient self-care. Following discharge, nurses may provide long-term ongoing counseling and support, build social networks among patients with stomas, and implement home visit programs. Stoma surgery negatively affects patients' physical, psychological, social, and sexual health. Postoperative education programs in clinical settings mostly focus on physical health and underemphasize psychological issues. More pre- and postoperative education programs are needed to help patients cope with stoma stressors.

  20. Abiotic stressors and stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulmon, Cecile; Van Baaren, Joan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we...... review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact...... life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental...

  1. Teaching Practice generated stressors and coping mechanisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching Practice generated stressors and coping mechanisms among student teachers in Zimbabwe. ... South African Journal of Education ... We sought to establish stressors and coping mechanisms for student teachers on Teaching Practice from a Christian-related university and a government-owned teachers' college ...

  2. Southern Nevada ecosystem stressors [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton K. Pendleton; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada ecosystems and their associated resources are subject to a number of global and regional/local stressors that are affecting the sustainability of the region. Global stressors include elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and associated changes in temperature and precipitation patterns and amounts, solar radiation, and nutrient cycles (Smith and...

  3. Secondary stressors and extreme events and disasters: a systematic review of primary research from 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Sarah; Rubin, G. James; Murray, Virginia; Rogers, M. Brooke; Amlôt, Richard; Williams, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Extreme events and disasters, such as earthquakes and floods, cause distress and are associated with some people developing mental disorders. Primary stressors inherent in many disasters can include injuries sustained or watching someone die. The literature recognises the distress which primary stressors cause and their association with mental disorders. Secondary stressors such as a lack of financial assistance, the gruelling process of submitting an insurance claim, parents’ worries about their children, and continued lack of infrastructure can manifest their effects shortly after a disaster and persist for extended periods of time. Secondary stressors, and their roles in affecting people’s longer-term mental health, should not be overlooked. We draw attention in this review to the nature of secondary stressors that are commonly identified in the literature, assess how they are measured, and develop a typology of these stressors that often affect people after extreme events. Methods We searched for relevant papers from 2010 and 2011 using MEDLINE®, Embase and PsycINFO®. We selected primary research papers that evaluated the associations between secondary stressors and distress or mental disorders following extreme events, and were published in English. We extracted information on which secondary stressors were assessed, and used thematic analysis to group the secondary stressors into a typology. Results Thirty-two relevant articles published in 2010 and 2011 were identified. Many secondary stressors were poorly defined and difficult to differentiate from primary stressors or other life events. We identified 11 categories of secondary stressors, though some extend over more than one category. The categories include: economic stressors such as problems with compensation, recovery of and rebuilding homes; loss of physical possessions and resources; health-related stressors; stress relating to education and schooling; stress arising from media

  4. Gender differences in stressors and reactions to stressors among Jordanian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaideh, Shaher H

    2012-01-01

    Stress among university students has been a topic of interest for researchers and teachers for many years because it affects not only their academic performance but also their physiological and psychological health. Male and female students perceive and react to stressors differently due to their differences in appraising stressful situations. The aims of this study were to examine differences in the perception of stressors and reactions to stressors between male and female Jordanian university students, and to identify the best predictors of stressors among them. Descriptive cross-sectional design was employed. The Student-Life Stress Inventory was used to measure stressors and reactions to stressors of 465 male and 485 female Jordanian university students recruited through stratified random sampling. There were statistical differences between male and female students regarding their perception and reactions to stressors. Female students reported a higher perception of stressors in frustrations, conflict, pressures and changes, as well as emotional reactions to stressors. Male students reported higher behavioural and cognitive reactions to stressors than female students. Participation in stress workshops, perception of general health, and perception of stress level in general were found to predict stressors among male students, while mother's educational level, perception of general health, and perception of stress level in general were found to predict stressors among female students. This study showed that gender differences in perception of stressors and reactions to stressors are similar to previous studies conducted all over the world. Interventions can be developed to help students better cope with stress. Conducting specific stress-training programmes for male and female students will help in reducing stress levels.

  5. The Effects of Daily Co-Occurrence of Affect on Older Adults’ Reactivity to Health Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer L.; Neupert, Shevaun D.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Spiro, Avron

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors. Design Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (NAS) and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60–79 years, M=71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80–89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect on eight consecutive days. Results An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health, and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (Health Stressor X Age Group X Co-Occurrence of Affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults. Conclusion These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain specific stressors. PMID:26518259

  6. The effects of daily co-occurrence of affect on older adults' reactivity to health stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer L; Neupert, Shevaun D; Mroczek, Daniel K; Spiro, Avron

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors. Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60-79 years, M = 71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80-89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect for eight consecutive days. An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (health stressor × age group × co-occurrence of affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults. These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain-specific stressors.

  7. Psychosocial stressors in inter-human relationships and health at each life stage: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Wang, Hongbing

    2004-05-01

    Currently, psychosocial stressors' impacts on health are increasing. Among these stressors, this review focused on inter-human relationships. Since social supports could be protective against ill health, consequences contributing to psychosocial stressors are discussed here in relation to social supports for each stage of childhood, adulthood and elderly status.For childhood, parental divorce/isolation, and child abuse/neglect appeared to be determinants of healthy development at either the initial or later stages. According to prospective studies, such stressors, especially those occurring until around 3 years of age, were associated with later adverse life quality in adulthood. Therefore, nationwide preventive strategies were developed in each country to monitor protective social programs.For adulthood, job strain was focused on Karasek's job strain model, effort-reward imbalance, employment grade and working hours. These psychosocial stressors were shown to affect not only the physical health but also the mental health of working people. These days, since Karoshi and even suicide related to excessive workloads are taking a toll on workplace organization, stress-coping abilities such as a sense of coherence were introduced from the individual-social interaction aspect.For elderly status, retirement, caring for the elderly, and spouse bereavement were discussed as psychosocial stressors. Some evidence indicates that these stressors could be determiants of health. Finally, social supports have been demonstrated to promote health and protect the elderly against diseases and death.

  8. Life stressors and social resources: an integrated assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, R H; Fenn, C B; Billings, A G

    1988-01-01

    The Life Stressors and Social Resources Inventory (LISRES) is described. The inventory provides an integrated assessment of an individual's life context. It taps both relatively stable and new aspects of life stressors and social resources in eight domains: physical health, home/neighborhood, financial, work, spouse/partner, children, extended family, and friends. The indices were developed on data obtained at two points in time from groups of depressed patients, alcoholic patients, arthritic patients, and healthy adults. The indices are internally consistent, moderately intercorrelated, and relatively stable over time. In addition, they are predictably related to changes in respondents' functioning. Although more developmental work is needed, the LISRES has some potential clinical and research applications and may be helpful in examining the process of stress and coping.

  9. Human Stressors Are Driving Coastal Benthic Long-Lived Sessile Fan Mussel Pinna nobilis Population Structure More than Environmental Stressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salud Deudero

    Full Text Available Coastal degradation and habitat disruption are severely compromising sessile marine species. The fan shell Pinna nobilis is an endemic, vulnerable species and the largest bivalve in the Mediterranean basin. In spite of species legal protection, fan shell populations are declining. Models analyzed the contributions of environmental (mean depth, wave height, maximum wave height, period of waves with high energy and mean direction of wave source versus human-derived stressors (anchoring, protection status, sewage effluents, fishing activity and diving as explanatory variables depicting Pinna nobilis populations at a mesoscale level. Human stressors were explaining most of the variability in density spatial distribution of fan shell, significantly disturbing benthic communities. Habitat protection affected P. nobilis structure and physical aggression by anchoring reveals a high impact on densities. Environmental variables instead played a secondary role, indicating that global change processes are not so relevant in coastal benthic communities as human-derived impacts.

  10. Human Stressors Are Driving Coastal Benthic Long-Lived Sessile Fan Mussel Pinna nobilis Population Structure More than Environmental Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deudero, Salud; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Álvarez, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Coastal degradation and habitat disruption are severely compromising sessile marine species. The fan shell Pinna nobilis is an endemic, vulnerable species and the largest bivalve in the Mediterranean basin. In spite of species legal protection, fan shell populations are declining. Models analyzed the contributions of environmental (mean depth, wave height, maximum wave height, period of waves with high energy and mean direction of wave source) versus human-derived stressors (anchoring, protection status, sewage effluents, fishing activity and diving) as explanatory variables depicting Pinna nobilis populations at a mesoscale level. Human stressors were explaining most of the variability in density spatial distribution of fan shell, significantly disturbing benthic communities. Habitat protection affected P. nobilis structure and physical aggression by anchoring reveals a high impact on densities. Environmental variables instead played a secondary role, indicating that global change processes are not so relevant in coastal benthic communities as human-derived impacts.

  11. Stressor specificity of central neuroendocrine responses: implications for stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacák, K; Palkovits, M

    2001-08-01

    Despite the fact that many research articles have been written about stress and stress-related diseases, no scientifically accepted definition of stress exists. Selye introduced and popularized stress as a medical and scientific idea. He did not deny the existence of stressor-specific response patterns; however, he emphasized that such responses did not constitute stress, only the shared nonspecific component. In this review we focus mainly on the similarities and differences between the neuroendocrine responses (especially the sympathoadrenal and the sympathoneuronal systems and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis) among various stressors and a strategy for testing Selye's doctrine of nonspecificity. In our experiments, we used five different stressors: immobilization, hemorrhage, cold exposure, pain, or hypoglycemia. With the exception of immobilization stress, these stressors also differed in their intensities. Our results showed marked heterogeneity of neuroendocrine responses to various stressors and that each stressor has a neurochemical "signature." By examining changes of Fos immunoreactivity in various brain regions upon exposure to different stressors, we also attempted to map central stressor-specific neuroendocrine pathways. We believe the existence of stressor-specific pathways and circuits is a clear step forward in the study of the pathogenesis of stress-related disorders and their proper treatment. Finally, we define stress as a state of threatened homeostasis (physical or perceived treat to homeostasis). During stress, an adaptive compensatory specific response of the organism is activated to sustain homeostasis. The adaptive response reflects the activation of specific central circuits and is genetically and constitutionally programmed and constantly modulated by environmental factors.

  12. Identifying Perceived Neighborhood Stressors Across Diverse Communities in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmool, Jessie L C; Yonas, Michael A; Newman, Ogonnaya Dotson; Kubzansky, Laura D; Joseph, Evelyn; Parks, Ana; Callaway, Charles; Chubb, Lauren G; Shepard, Peggy; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-09-01

    There is growing interest in the role of psychosocial stress in health disparities. Identifying which social stressors are most important to community residents is critical for accurately incorporating stressor exposures into health research. Using a community-academic partnered approach, we designed a multi-community study across the five boroughs of New York City to characterize resident perceptions of key neighborhood stressors. We conducted 14 community focus groups; two to three in each borough, with one adolescent group and one Spanish-speaking group per borough. We then used systematic content analysis and participant ranking data to describe prominent neighborhood stressors and identify dominant themes. Three inter-related themes regarding the social and structural sources of stressful experiences were most commonly identified across neighborhoods: (1) physical disorder and perceived neglect, (2) harassment by police and perceived safety and (3) gentrification and racial discrimination. Our findings suggest that multiple sources of distress, including social, political, physical and economic factors, should be considered when investigating health effects of community stressor exposures and psychological distress. Community expertise is essential for comprehensively characterizing the range of neighborhood stressors that may be implicated in psychosocial exposure pathways.

  13. Psychosocial stressors at work and musculoskeletal problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.; Smulders, P.G.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Objectives - This paper examines the relationship between work stressors and the following health indicators: psychosomatic complaints, health behavior, and musculoskeletal problems. Methods - Secondary analyses were performed on data from the National Work and Living Condition Survey, which

  14. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  15. Quantitative assessment of workload and stressors in clinical radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Lukasz M; Mosaly, Prithima R; Jackson, Marianne; Chang, Sha X; Burkhardt, Katharin Deschesne; Adams, Robert D; Jones, Ellen L; Hoyle, Lesley; Xu, Jing; Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B

    2012-08-01

    Workload level and sources of stressors have been implicated as sources of error in multiple settings. We assessed workload levels and sources of stressors among radiation oncology professionals. Furthermore, we explored the potential association between workload and the frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the World Health Organization (WHO). Data collection was aimed at various tasks performed by 21 study participants from different radiation oncology professional subgroups (simulation therapists, radiation therapists, physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians). Workload was assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load Index (NASA TLX). Sources of stressors were quantified using observational methods and segregated using a standard taxonomy. Comparisons between professional subgroups and tasks were made using analysis of variance ANOVA, multivariate ANOVA, and Duncan test. An association between workload levels (NASA TLX) and the frequency of radiotherapy incidents (WHO incidents) was explored (Pearson correlation test). A total of 173 workload assessments were obtained. Overall, simulation therapists had relatively low workloads (NASA TLX range, 30-36), and physicists had relatively high workloads (NASA TLX range, 51-63). NASA TLX scores for physicians, radiation therapists, and dosimetrists ranged from 40-52. There was marked intertask/professional subgroup variation (P<.0001). Mental demand (P<.001), physical demand (P=.001), and effort (P=.006) significantly differed among professional subgroups. Typically, there were 3-5 stressors per cycle of analyzed tasks with the following distribution: interruptions (41.4%), time factors (17%), technical factors (13.6%), teamwork issues (11.6%), patient factors (9.0%), and environmental factors (7.4%). A positive association between workload and frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the WHO was found (r = 0.87, P value=.045). Workload level and sources of stressors vary

  16. Quantitative Assessment of Workload and Stressors in Clinical Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, Lukasz M.; Mosaly, Prithima R.; Jackson, Marianne; Chang, Sha X.; Burkhardt, Katharin Deschesne; Adams, Robert D.; Jones, Ellen L.; Hoyle, Lesley; Xu, Jing; Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Workload level and sources of stressors have been implicated as sources of error in multiple settings. We assessed workload levels and sources of stressors among radiation oncology professionals. Furthermore, we explored the potential association between workload and the frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods and Materials: Data collection was aimed at various tasks performed by 21 study participants from different radiation oncology professional subgroups (simulation therapists, radiation therapists, physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians). Workload was assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load Index (NASA TLX). Sources of stressors were quantified using observational methods and segregated using a standard taxonomy. Comparisons between professional subgroups and tasks were made using analysis of variance ANOVA, multivariate ANOVA, and Duncan test. An association between workload levels (NASA TLX) and the frequency of radiotherapy incidents (WHO incidents) was explored (Pearson correlation test). Results: A total of 173 workload assessments were obtained. Overall, simulation therapists had relatively low workloads (NASA TLX range, 30-36), and physicists had relatively high workloads (NASA TLX range, 51-63). NASA TLX scores for physicians, radiation therapists, and dosimetrists ranged from 40-52. There was marked intertask/professional subgroup variation (P<.0001). Mental demand (P<.001), physical demand (P=.001), and effort (P=.006) significantly differed among professional subgroups. Typically, there were 3-5 stressors per cycle of analyzed tasks with the following distribution: interruptions (41.4%), time factors (17%), technical factors (13.6%), teamwork issues (11.6%), patient factors (9.0%), and environmental factors (7.4%). A positive association between workload and frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the WHO was found (r = 0.87, P value=.045

  17. Quantitative Assessment of Workload and Stressors in Clinical Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, Lukasz M., E-mail: lukasz_mazur@ncsu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Industrial Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Mosaly, Prithima R. [Industrial Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Jackson, Marianne; Chang, Sha X.; Burkhardt, Katharin Deschesne; Adams, Robert D.; Jones, Ellen L.; Hoyle, Lesley [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Xu, Jing [Industrial Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Workload level and sources of stressors have been implicated as sources of error in multiple settings. We assessed workload levels and sources of stressors among radiation oncology professionals. Furthermore, we explored the potential association between workload and the frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods and Materials: Data collection was aimed at various tasks performed by 21 study participants from different radiation oncology professional subgroups (simulation therapists, radiation therapists, physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians). Workload was assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load Index (NASA TLX). Sources of stressors were quantified using observational methods and segregated using a standard taxonomy. Comparisons between professional subgroups and tasks were made using analysis of variance ANOVA, multivariate ANOVA, and Duncan test. An association between workload levels (NASA TLX) and the frequency of radiotherapy incidents (WHO incidents) was explored (Pearson correlation test). Results: A total of 173 workload assessments were obtained. Overall, simulation therapists had relatively low workloads (NASA TLX range, 30-36), and physicists had relatively high workloads (NASA TLX range, 51-63). NASA TLX scores for physicians, radiation therapists, and dosimetrists ranged from 40-52. There was marked intertask/professional subgroup variation (P<.0001). Mental demand (P<.001), physical demand (P=.001), and effort (P=.006) significantly differed among professional subgroups. Typically, there were 3-5 stressors per cycle of analyzed tasks with the following distribution: interruptions (41.4%), time factors (17%), technical factors (13.6%), teamwork issues (11.6%), patient factors (9.0%), and environmental factors (7.4%). A positive association between workload and frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the WHO was found (r = 0.87, P value=.045

  18. Cancer Survivors’ Responses to Daily Stressors: Implications for Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Erin S.; Stawski, Robert S.; Ryff, Carol D.; Coe, Christopher L.; Almeida, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined cancer survivors’ experience of and responses to challenges and stressors associated with every-day living. The impact of daily stressors on quality of life concerns and cortisol patterns was also investigated. Design Participants were 111 cancer survivors who participated in a national telephone diary study of daily experiences (NSDE). Their responses were compared with those of 111 sociodemographically-matched participants with no cancer history using a multilevel modeling approach. Main Outcome Measures Over an 8-day period, participants completed a daily inventory of the occurrence and impact of stressful events, affect, and physical symptoms. Salivary cortisol was sampled 4 times per day, and indices of awakening response (CAR), diurnal slope, and overall output (AUC) were examined. Results Cancer survivors experienced similar numbers and types of stressful events as the comparison group. While appraisals were largely comparable, cancer survivors showed a modest tendency to perceive stressors as more severe and disruptive, particularly those involving interpersonal tensions. The occurrence of stressors was associated with increased negative affect, decreased positive affect, and increased physical symptoms, but little change in cortisol. Relative to the comparison group, cancer survivors showed less pronounced changes in positive affect and cortisol output when stressors occurred, but a greater increase in negative affect in response to interpersonal conflicts. Conclusions Findings indicate that cancer survivors show a resilient ability to respond to day-to-day stressors and challenges. However, daily stressors can have a significant impact on survivors’ mood and physical symptoms and therefore may be an important intervention target. PMID:22268712

  19. Daily Stressor Reactivity during Adolescence: The Buffering Role of Parental Warmth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Buxton, Orfeu; Almeida, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined youth stressor reactivity in the form of links between daily stressors and adolescents’ negative affect, physical health symptoms, and cortisol patterns. We also tested whether youth gender and parental warmth moderated these linkages. Method Participants were the children of employees in the Information Technology division of a large company (N = 132, mean age = 13.39 years, 55% female). Youth completed daily diary telephone interviews on 8 consecutive evenings and provided saliva samples at 4 time points over 4 days to assess daily stressors and youth physiological and affective functioning. Parental warmth was assessed during in-home interviews. Multi-level modeling was used to account for interdependencies in the data. Results Youth who experienced more daily stressors, on average, reported more negative affect and physical health symptoms, on average. Further, on days youth reported more stressors than usual (compared to their own across-day average), they also exhibited more physical health symptoms, reduced evening cortisol decline (e.g., flatter slopes), higher bedtime cortisol, and more negative affect. Girls had stronger within-person linkages between daily stressors and daily negative affect than boys. Parental warmth moderated these within-person linkages: Youth who experienced more parental warmth had lower negative affect and steeper cortisol decline than usual on less stressful days. Yet, youth who experienced less parental warmth had higher negative affect and their cortisol levels declined less, even on days with lower-than-usual stress. Conclusions Daily stressors are associated with youth's affective and physiological functioning, but parental warmth can support youth's stress recovery. PMID:27175577

  20. Interpersonal workplace stressors and well-being: a multi-wave study of employees with and without arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Phillip T; Smith, Bruce W; Strobel, Kari R; Zautra, Alex J

    2002-08-01

    The within-person influence of interpersonal stressors on affective well-being and physical well-being was investigated for 109 women with and without arthritis. Participants were interviewed on a weekly basis for 12 consecutive weeks, and the prospective data were analyzed by using hierarchical linear modeling. Overall, interpersonal workplace stressors independently predicted both well-being outcomes. Interpersonal stressors outside the workplace were related to negative affect but not to arthritis symptoms. Compared with healthy controls, arthritis patients' ratings of negative affect were equally reactive to workplace stressors. Neuroticism did not moderate stressor reactivity for either dependent variable but did predict mean levels of negative affect. The data support the hypothesis that the psychosocial environment of the workplace contributes unique effects on well-being.

  1. Police work stressors and cardiac vagal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Michael E; Violanti, John M; Gu, Ja K; Fekedulegn, Desta; Li, Shengqiao; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Miller, Diane B; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2017-09-10

    This study examines relationships between the frequency and intensity of police work stressors and cardiac vagal control, estimated using the high frequency component of heart rate variability (HRV). This is a cross-sectional study of 360 officers from the Buffalo New York Police Department. Police stress was measured using the Spielberger police stress survey, which includes exposure indices created as the product of the self-evaluation of how stressful certain events were and the self-reported frequency with which they occurred. Vagal control was estimated using the high frequency component of resting HRV calculated in units of milliseconds squared and reported in natural log scale. Associations between police work stressors and vagal control were examined using linear regression for significance testing and analysis of covariance for descriptive purposes, stratified by gender, and adjusted for age and race/ethnicity. There were no significant associations between police work stressor exposure indices and vagal control among men. Among women, the inverse associations between the lack of support stressor exposure and vagal control were statistically significant in adjusted models for indices of exposure over the past year (lowest stressor quartile: M = 5.57, 95% CI 5.07 to 6.08, and highest stressor quartile: M = 5.02, 95% CI 4.54 to 5.51, test of association from continuous linear regression of vagal control on lack of support stressor β = -0.273, P = .04). This study supports an inverse association between lack of organizational support and vagal control among female but not male police officers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Reconceptualizing synergism and antagonism among multiple stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggott, Jeremy J; Townsend, Colin R; Matthaei, Christoph D

    2015-04-01

    The potential for complex synergistic or antagonistic interactions between multiple stressors presents one of the largest uncertainties when predicting ecological change but, despite common use of the terms in the scientific literature, a consensus on their operational definition is still lacking. The identification of synergism or antagonism is generally straightforward when stressors operate in the same direction, but if individual stressor effects oppose each other, the definition of synergism is paradoxical because what is synergistic to one stressor's effect direction is antagonistic to the others. In their highly cited meta-analysis, Crain et al. (Ecology Letters, 11, 2008: 1304) assumed in situations with opposing individual effects that synergy only occurs when the cumulative effect is more negative than the additive sum of the opposing individual effects. We argue against this and propose a new systematic classification based on an additive effects model that combines the magnitude and response direction of the cumulative effect and the interaction effect. A new class of "mitigating synergism" is identified, where cumulative effects are reversed and enhanced. We applied our directional classification to the dataset compiled by Crain et al. (Ecology Letters, 11, 2008: 1304) to determine the prevalence of synergistic, antagonistic, and additive interactions. Compared to their original analysis, we report differences in the representation of interaction classes by interaction type and we document examples of mitigating synergism, highlighting the importance of incorporating individual stressor effect directions in the determination of synergisms and antagonisms. This is particularly pertinent given a general bias in ecology toward investigating and reporting adverse multiple stressor effects (double negative). We emphasize the need for reconsideration by the ecological community of the interpretation of synergism and antagonism in situations where

  3. Physiological monitoring of team and task stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, Judith; Tada, Yuri; Kraft, Norbert; Fischer, Ute

    2005-05-01

    Sending astronauts into space, especially on long-durations missions (e.g. three-year missions to Mars), entails enormous risk. Threats include both physical dangers of radiation, bone loss and other consequences of weightlessness, and also those arising from interpersonal problems associated with extended life in a high-risk isolated and confined environment. Before undertaking long-duration missions, NASA seeks to develop technologies to monitor indicators of potentially debilitating stress at both the individual and team level so that countermeasures can be introduced to prevent further deterioration. Doing so requires a better understanding of indicators of team health and performance. To that end, a study of team problem solving in a simulation environment was undertaken to explore effects of team and task stress. Groups of four males (25-45 yrs) engaged in six dynamic computer-based Antarctic search and rescue missions over four days. Both task and team stressors were manipulated. Physiological responses (ECG, respiration rate and amplitude, SCL, EMG, and PPG); communication (voice and email); individual personality and subjective team dynamics responses were collected and related to task performance. Initial analyses found that physiological measures can be used to identify transient stress, predict performance, and reflect subjective workload. Muscle tension and respiration were the most robust predictors. Not only the level of arousal but its variability during engagement in the task is important to consider. In general, less variability was found to be associated with higher levels of performance. Individuals scoring high on specific personality characteristics responded differently to task stress.

  4. Identifying Stressors and Reactions to Stressors in Gifted and Non-Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Marzieh

    2005-01-01

    Using the Student Life Stress Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, stressors and reactions to stressors were identified in gifted high school students and compared with non-gifted students. Altogether, 340 boys and girls (156 gifted and 184 non-gifted students) from four high schools in Shiraz (two high schools for gifted and two…

  5. Psychosocial stressors and cigarette smoking among African American adults in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Lewis, Tené T; Bennett, Gary G; Ryff, Carol D; Albert, Michelle A

    2012-10-01

    Psychosocial stress is a significant risk factor for smoking, and Blacks experience higher levels of psychosocial stress relative to other racial/ethnic groups. Limited research has comprehensively examined psychosocial stressors in relation to smoking among Blacks. We examined psychosocial stressors in relation to smoking status (current, previous, and never) in middle-aged Blacks (34-85 years, n = 592) from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, a subset of the Midlife in the United States Study II (2004-2006). Eleven stressor domains were assessed, including psychological and physical work stress, work-family conflict, perceived inequality, relationship stress, neighborhood stress, discrimination, financial stress, recent problems, stressful events, and childhood adversity. We also calculated a cumulative score. Multinomial models were adjusted for age, gender, education, and income. Seven of the 11 stressors and the cumulative score were associated with higher odds of being a current smoker compared with a never-smoker: neighborhood, financial, relationship, and psychological work stress, perceived inequality, stressful events, childhood adversity (p values <.05; ORs ranged from 1.28 to 1.77). Three stressors and the cumulative score were associated with higher odds of being a previous smoker versus a never-smoker (p < .05). Individuals who scored in the top quartile on 5 or more stressors were 3.74 (95% CI = 2.09-6.71) times as likely to be current smokers, and more than twice as likely to be previous smokers, compared with individuals with no high stressors. These results demonstrate a strong relationship between stress and smoking among urban middle-aged Blacks and suggest that cessation programs should address modifiable individual and community-level stressors.

  6. Environmental stressors as a driver of the trait composition of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in polluted Iberian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovic, Maja; Dolédec, Sylvain; de Castro-Catala, Nuria; Ginebreda, Antoni; Sabater, Sergi; Muñoz, Isabel; Barceló, Damià

    2017-07-01

    We used the trait composition of macroinvertebrate communities to identify the effects of pesticides and multiple stressors associated with urban land use at different sites of four rivers in Spain. Several physical and chemical stressors (high metal pollution, nutrients, elevated temperature and flow alterations) affected the urban sites. The occurrence of multiple stressors influenced aquatic assemblages at 50% of the sites. We hypothesized that the trait composition of macroinvertebrate assemblages would reflect the strategies that the assemblages used to cope with the respective environmental stressors. We used RLQ and fourth corner analysis to address the relationship between stressors and the trait composition of benthic macroinvertebrates. We found a statistically significant relationship between the trait composition and the exposure of assemblages to environmental stressors. The first RLQ dimension, which explained most of the variability, clearly separated sites according to the stressors. Urban-related stressors selected taxa that were mainly plurivoltine and fed on deposits. In contrast, pesticide impacted sites selected taxa with high levels of egg protection (better egg survival), indicating a potentially higher risk for egg mortality. Moreover, the trait diversity of assemblages at urban sites was low compared to that observed in pesticide impacted sites, suggesting the homogenization of assemblages in urban areas. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Health Behaviors and Overweight in Nursing Home Employees: Contribution of Workplace Stressors and Implications for Worksite Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Helena; Gore, Rebecca J; Boyer, Jon; Nobrega, Suzanne; Punnett, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Many worksite health promotion programs ignore the potential influence of working conditions on unhealthy behaviors. A study of nursing home employees (56% nursing aides) utilized a standardized questionnaire. We analyzed the cross-sectional associations between workplace stressors and obesity, cigarette smoking, and physical inactivity. Of 1506 respondents, 20% reported exposure to three or more workplace stressors (physical or organizational), such as lifting heavy loads, low decision latitude, low coworker support, regular night work, and physical assault. For each outcome, the prevalence ratio was between 1.5 and 2 for respondents with four or five job stressors. Individuals under age 40 had stronger associations between workplace stressors and smoking and obesity. Workplace stressors were strongly associated with smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity, even among the lowest-status workers. Current working conditions affected younger workers more than older workers. Although this study is cross-sectional, it has other strengths, including the broad range of work stressors studied. Strenuous physical work and psychosocial strain are common among low-wage workers such as nursing home aides. Workplace health promotion programs may be more effective if they include measures to reduce stressful work environment features, so that working conditions support rather than interfere with employee health.

  8. Entrepreneurial stressors as predictors of entrepreneurial burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xueyan; Cang, Shuangxin; Hisrich, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Research on the effects of entrepreneurial stressors is limited, especially regarding its relation to the burnout that frequently occurs in the process of starting and growing a venture. The effect of the role of entrepreneurial stressors (workload, competitive comparison, demands-of-knowledge, managing responsibility, and resource requirements) on burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) was examined in a Chinese sample of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial stressors emerged as a significant predictor of burnout in the process of entrepreneurship in a sample of 289 entrepreneurs (63.8% men; M age = 26.2 yr.; 39.6% of their parents have been self-employed). The findings clarify the functional relationship between entrepreneurial stressors and burnout. Entrepreneurial stressors played multiple roles. Managing responsibility was an active contributor to the sense of achievement and to emotional exhaustion. Workload was an active contributor to emotional exhaustion. Demands-of-knowledge negatively affected three of the dimensions of burnout. Theoretical and practical implications for management of the effect of these relationships are discussed.

  9. Evidence for multiple stressor interactions and effects on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Stephen S; Graham, Nicholas A J; Connolly, Sean R

    2014-03-01

    Concern is growing about the potential effects of interacting multiple stressors, especially as the global climate changes. We provide a comprehensive review of multiple stressor interactions in coral reef ecosystems, which are widely considered to be one of the most sensitive ecosystems to global change. First, we synthesized coral reef studies that examined interactions of two or more stressors, highlighting stressor interactions (where one stressor directly influences another) and potentially synergistic effects on response variables (where two stressors interact to produce an effect that is greater than purely additive). For stressor-stressor interactions, we found 176 studies that examined at least 2 of the 13 stressors of interest. Applying network analysis to analyze relationships between stressors, we found that pathogens were exacerbated by more costressors than any other stressor, with ca. 78% of studies reporting an enhancing effect by another stressor. Sedimentation, storms, and water temperature directly affected the largest number of other stressors. Pathogens, nutrients, and crown-of-thorns starfish were the most-influenced stressors. We found 187 studies that examined the effects of two or more stressors on a third dependent variable. The interaction of irradiance and temperature on corals has been the subject of more research (62 studies, 33% of the total) than any other combination of stressors, with many studies reporting a synergistic effect on coral symbiont photosynthetic performance (n = 19). Second, we performed a quantitative meta-analysis of existing literature on this most-studied interaction (irradiance and temperature). We found that the mean effect size of combined treatments was statistically indistinguishable from a purely additive interaction, although it should be noted that the sample size was relatively small (n = 26). Overall, although in aggregate a large body of literature examines stressor effects on coral reefs and coral

  10. The stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder: Does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Dohrenwend, Bruce P.; Aiello, Allison; Wright, Rosalind J.; Maercker, Andreas; Galea, Sandro; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The definition of the stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder (“Criterion A1”) is hotly debated with major revisions being considered for DSM-V. We examine whether symptoms, course, and consequences of PTSD vary predictably with the type of stressful event that precipitates symptoms. Method We used data from the 2009 PTSD diagnostic subsample (N=3,013) of the Nurses Health Study II. We asked respondents about exposure to stressful events qualifying under 1) DSM-III, 2) DSM-IV, or 3) not qualifying under DSM Criterion A1. Respondents selected the event they considered worst and reported subsequent PTSD symptoms. Among participants who met all other DSM-IV PTSD criteria, we compared distress, symptom severity, duration, impairment, receipt of professional help, and nine physical, behavioral, and psychiatric sequelae (e.g. physical functioning, unemployment, depression) by precipitating event group. Various assessment tools were used to determine fulfillment of PTSD Criteria B through F and to assess these 14 outcomes. Results Participants with PTSD from DSM-III events reported on average 1 more symptom (DSM-III mean=11.8 symptoms, DSM-IV=10.7, non-DSM=10.9) and more often reported symptoms lasted one year or longer compared to participants with PTSD from other groups. However, sequelae of PTSD did not vary systematically with precipitating event type. Conclusions Results indicate the stressor criterion as defined by the DSM may not be informative in characterizing PTSD symptoms and sequelae. In the context of ongoing DSM-V revision, these results suggest that Criterion A1 could be expanded in DSM-V without much consequence for our understanding of PTSD phenomenology. Events not considered qualifying stressors under the DSM produced PTSD as consequential as PTSD following DSM-III events, suggesting PTSD may be an aberrantly severe but nonspecific stress response syndrome. PMID:22401487

  11. Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final document, Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for Coral Reef Management in American Samoa. This report provides a synthesis of information on the interactive effects of climate change and other stressors on the reefs of American Samoa as well as an assessment of potential management responses. This report provides the coral reef managers of American Samoa, as well as other coral reef managers in the Pacific region, with some management options to help enhance the capacity of local coral reefs to resist the negative effects of climate change. This report was designed to take advantage of diverse research and monitoring efforts that are ongoing in American Samoa to: analyze and compile the results of multiple research projects that focus on understanding climate-related stressors and their effects on coral reef ecosystem degradation and recovery; and assess implications for coral reef managment of the combined information, including possible response options.

  12. Stressors affecting nursing students in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R; Rehman, S; Ali, P A

    2017-12-01

    To determine factors contributing to stress experienced by preregistration nursing students in Pakistan, using the Stressors in Nursing Students scale. The aim was to explore the psychometric properties of this instrument and to investigate the effect of a range of demographic variables on the perception of stressors in nursing students. Nursing is a stressful profession, and nursing students may experience more stress due to competing demands and challenges of nursing education, assessment, placements and worries about employment prospects. In this cross-sectional survey, data from 726 nursing students from 11 schools of nursing in Karachi, Pakistan, were collected using a questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive as well inferential statistics. An exploratory factor analysis was also conducted. There was no apparent factor structure to the Stressors in Nursing Students scale, unlike in previous studies. The total score on the Stressors in Nursing Students scale was related to gender with males scoring higher. The score generally increased over 4 years of the programme, and students in private schools of nursing scored higher than those in public schools of nursing. Nursing students in Pakistan do not appear to differentiate between different stressors, and this may be due to cultural differences in the students and to the structure of the programme and the articulation between the academic and clinical aspects. Likewise, cultural reasons may account for differences between stress experienced by male and female students. The fact that scores on the Stressors in Nursing Students scale increased over 4 years of the programme and males scored higher than females should alert nursing schools and policymakers related to nursing education and workforce to pay attention to prevent attrition from nursing programmes. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  13. Managing for interactions between local and global stressors of ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher J; Saunders, Megan I; Possingham, Hugh P; Richardson, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Global stressors, including climate change, are a major threat to ecosystems, but they cannot be halted by local actions. Ecosystem management is thus attempting to compensate for the impacts of global stressors by reducing local stressors, such as overfishing. This approach assumes that stressors interact additively or synergistically, whereby the combined effect of two stressors is at least the sum of their isolated effects. It is not clear, however, how management should proceed for antagonistic interactions among stressors, where multiple stressors do not have an additive or greater impact. Research to date has focussed on identifying synergisms among stressors, but antagonisms may be just as common. We examined the effectiveness of management when faced with different types of interactions in two systems--seagrass and fish communities--where the global stressor was climate change but the local stressors were different. When there were synergisms, mitigating local stressors delivered greater gains, whereas when there were antagonisms, management of local stressors was ineffective or even degraded ecosystems. These results suggest that reducing a local stressor can compensate for climate change impacts if there is a synergistic interaction. Conversely, if there is an antagonistic interaction, management of local stressors will have the greatest benefits in areas of refuge from climate change. A balanced research agenda, investigating both antagonistic and synergistic interaction types, is needed to inform management priorities.

  14. Managing for interactions between local and global stressors of ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Brown

    Full Text Available Global stressors, including climate change, are a major threat to ecosystems, but they cannot be halted by local actions. Ecosystem management is thus attempting to compensate for the impacts of global stressors by reducing local stressors, such as overfishing. This approach assumes that stressors interact additively or synergistically, whereby the combined effect of two stressors is at least the sum of their isolated effects. It is not clear, however, how management should proceed for antagonistic interactions among stressors, where multiple stressors do not have an additive or greater impact. Research to date has focussed on identifying synergisms among stressors, but antagonisms may be just as common. We examined the effectiveness of management when faced with different types of interactions in two systems--seagrass and fish communities--where the global stressor was climate change but the local stressors were different. When there were synergisms, mitigating local stressors delivered greater gains, whereas when there were antagonisms, management of local stressors was ineffective or even degraded ecosystems. These results suggest that reducing a local stressor can compensate for climate change impacts if there is a synergistic interaction. Conversely, if there is an antagonistic interaction, management of local stressors will have the greatest benefits in areas of refuge from climate change. A balanced research agenda, investigating both antagonistic and synergistic interaction types, is needed to inform management priorities.

  15. Characterizing Stressors and Modifiable Health Risk Factors Among Homeless Smokers: An Exploratory Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Businelle, Michael S

    2015-10-01

    This pilot study was conducted to explore the associations between stressors related to homelessness and modifiable health risk factors (poor diet, insufficient physical activity, and overweight/obesity) and to provide direction for future research. Participants (N = 57) were homeless adults enrolled in a smoking cessation program. Analyses were conducted to characterize the sample as well as the relations between relevant stressors (discrimination, chronic stress, and fear and mistrust) and health risk factors. Inadequate daily consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fiber was common. High-fat diet and insufficient physical activity were also prevalent, and the majority of participants were overweight/obese. Participants commonly endorsed discrimination, fear of victimization, mistrust of others, and several other stressors. Greater endorsement of stressors was associated with a high-fat diet. Results suggest that lifestyle interventions and policy changes may be warranted in homeless shelters to attenuate the potential effects of stressors on high-fat dietary consumption among smokers. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  16. Characterizing Stressors and Modifiable Health Risk Factors among Homeless Smokers: An Exploratory Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Businelle, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study was conducted to explore the associations between stressors related to homelessness and modifiable health risk factors (poor diet, insufficient physical activity, and overweight/obesity) and to provide direction for future research. Participants (N = 57) were homeless adults enrolled in a smoking cessation program. Analyses were…

  17. Work Stressors, Health and Sense of Coherence in UK Academic Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinman, Gail

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships between job-specific stressors and psychological and physical health symptoms in academic employees working in UK universities. The study also tests the main and moderating role played by sense of coherence (SOC: Antonovsky, 1987 in work stress process). SOC is described as a generalised resistance…

  18. Childhood Stress : Stressors, Coping, and Factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Burnout is a matter of imbalance in life very often (Nijboer, 2006). In order to know more about imbalance and exhaustion in children, stress and coping in children will be investigated in this literature study. The goal is to identify common childhood stressors, the ways children cope with stress,

  19. INCORPORATING NONCHEMICAL STRESSORS INTO CUMMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk assessment paradigm has begun to shift from assessing single chemicals using "reasonable worst case" assumptions for individuals to considering multiple chemicals and community-based models. Inherent in community-based risk assessment is examination of all stressors a...

  20. Habituation to a stressor predicts adolescents' adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives: Stress is associated with gains in adiposity. One factor that determines how much stress is experienced is how quickly an adolescent reduces responding (habituates) across repeated stressors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of body mass index pe...

  1. Overview of Atherosclerosis and Chemical Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Cascio’s presentation at the workshop titled, “titled “Understanding the Combined Effects of Environmental Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors: Atherosclerosis as a Model” will highlight atherosclerosis’s rapidly growing role as a cause of increa...

  2. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6 and 13…

  3. District Stressors and Teacher Evaluation Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhoff, Sarah Winchell; Pogodzinski, Ben; Mayrowetz, David; Superfine, Benjamin Michael; Umpstead, Regina R.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Federal and state policymakers in the USA have sought to better differentiate the performance of K-12 teachers by enacting more rigorous evaluation policies. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether these policies are working as intended and explore whether district stressors such as funding, enrollment, and governance are…

  4. Shared effects of organic microcontaminants and environmental stressors on biofilms and invertebrates in impaired rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabater, S.; Barceló, D.; De Castro-Català, N.; Ginebreda, A.; Kuzmanovic, M.; Petrovic, M.; Picó, Y.; Ponsatí, L.; Tornés, E.; Muñoz, I.

    2016-01-01

    Land use type, physical and chemical stressors, and organic microcontaminants were investigated for their effects on the biological communities (biofilms and invertebrates) in several Mediterranean rivers. The diversity of invertebrates, and the scores of the first principal component of a PCA performed with the diatom communities were the best descriptors of the distribution patterns of the biological communities against the river stressors. These two metrics decreased according to the progressive site impairment (associated to higher area of agricultural and urban-industrial, high water conductivity, higher dissolved organic carbon and dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations, and higher concentration of organic microcontaminants, particularly pharmaceutical and industrial compounds). The variance partition analyses (RDAs) attributed the major share (10%) of the biological communities' response to the environmental stressors (nutrients, altered discharge, dissolved organic matter), followed by the land use occupation (6%) and of the organic microcontaminants (2%). However, the variance shared by the three groups of descriptors was very high (41%), indicating that their simultaneous occurrence determined most of the variation in the biological communities. - Highlights: • River impairment was associated to increasing agricultural and urban-industrial areas, and sites were having waters with high water conductivity and nutrient concentrations, and higher concentrations of organic microcontaminants, particularly pharmaceutical and alkylphenol compounds. • Physico-chemical stressors (high nutrients and dissolved organic matter, altered water flow) were the ones mostly affecting biodiversity. • The simultaneous occurrence of microcontaminants with physico-chemical stressors in urban-industrial areas produced a much higher effect than the simple addition of stressors. - Organic microcontaminants reinforce the effects of environmental and land use stressors on

  5. High level of work stressors increase the risk of mental-emotional disturbances among airline pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah S. Widyahening

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Civilian airline pilots have one of the most stressful occupations. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of work stressors and other factors on mental-emotional disturbances among airline pilots. A cross-sectional study was done by interviewing selected pilots of an airline using appropriate questionnaires, during their routine medical examination from May to July 1999 in Jakarta. Five aspects of work stressor were assessed: working conditions, physical conditions of working environment, career development, organization and interpersonal relationship. Mental-emotional disturbances were determined by using the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL 90 questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using relative risk by Cox regression with constant time. From 128 subjects interviewed, 109 could be analyzed. Most of the subjects were married (73.4% and college graduates (91.7%. The number of captains and first officers were almost equal. The prevalence of mental-emotional disturbances was 39.4%. Mental-emotional disturbances were significantly related to work stressors and moderately related to household tension (P = 0.184. Compared to pilots with low levels of work stressors, those with high or very high levels of work stressors had a risk of 4.6 times of mental-emotional disturbances [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 4.64; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.01 – 19.65]. Adequate guides to cope work stressors and household tension which related to mental-emotional disturbance is recommended. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:117-21Keywords: mental-emotional disturbance, work stressors, household tension, airline pilots

  6. Traumatic stressors and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in headache patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Reny; Schmidt, John E; Carlson, Charles R

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of significant traumatic stressors and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a headache population. Several recent publications have emphasized the relationship between life stressors and/or daily hassles and recurrent headaches. However, little is known about the prevalence and impact of major traumatic stressors in patients with recurrent headaches. Eighty patients with either migraine or tension-type headache completed a PTSD checklist. Data were compared with those from patients with chronic masticatory muscle pain of similar intensity and duration. Almost 64% of the headache patients reported one or more major traumatic stressors. This percentage was not significantly different from that of the comparison group, and fell within the broad range reported for exposure to traumatic stressors in epidemiologic studies with nonpatient populations. One out of 6 patients in the total headache sample, and 1 out of 4 of those reporting a traumatic stressor, reported symptoms suggestive of current PTSD. The prevalence of current PTSD-like symptomatology reported by the headache patients was comparable to that of the comparison group of the present study, but higher than that reported for the general population in the available literature printed in English. Traumatic stressors most often reported were not related to direct physical trauma, but rather associated with loss or serious illness of a loved one. Exposure to traumatic events in patients with a primary diagnosis of recurrent headaches is similar to that reported for chronic masticatory muscle pain patients or nonpatient populations. However, symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of current PTSD appear to be more frequent in patients with recurrent headaches than reported in the scientific literature printed in English for nonpatient populations. Screening for PTSD symptomatology is recommended as part of the routine clinical evaluation of headache.

  7. Stressors and their Influence on Job Performance of Career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stressors and their Influence on Job Performance of Career Administrative Staff in ... African Research Review ... Abstract. The purpose of this study was to determine stressors and how they influence university career administrative staff in the ...

  8. Community Level Stressors and Their Impacts on Food Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research is needed to understand a community’s food resources, utilization of those resources, and how the built and natural environment impact access to resources and potential chemical exposures. This research will identify stressors, relationships between those stressors...

  9. Work environment stressors and personnel efficacy in Nigeria's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Work environment stressors and personnel efficacy in Nigeria's maritime industry. ... Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2017) > ... employees and corporate organizations need to manage stress by identifying the stressors and stress levels.

  10. Characterizing the Life Stressors of Children of Alcoholic Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Huang, Wenjing; Chassin, Laurie; Sher, Kenneth J.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined differences between children of alcoholic (COAs) and non-alcoholic parents in their experience of negative life events across three, longitudinal studies together spanning the first three decades of life. We posited that COAs would differ from their peers in the life domains in which they are vulnerable to stressors, in the recurrence of stressors, and in the severity of stressors. Scale- and item-level analyses of adjusted odds-ratios based on stressors across seve...

  11. Strained Si channel NMOSFETs using a stress field with Si1-yC y source and drain stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.T.; Tasi, H.-S.; Kung, C.Y.

    2006-01-01

    The strain field in the silicon channel of a metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with silicon-carbon alloy source and drain stressors was evaluated using the commercial process simulator FLOOPS-ISE TM . The physical origin of the strain components in the transistor channel region was explained. The magnitude and distribution of the strain components, and their dependence on device design parameters such as the spacing L G between the silicon-carbon alloy stressors, the carbon mole fraction in the stressors and stressor depth were investigated. Reducing the stressor spacing L G or increasing the carbon mole fraction in the stressors and stressor depth increases the magnitude of the vertical compressive stress and the lateral tensile stress in the portion of the N channel region where the inversion charge resides. This is beneficial for improving the electron mobility in n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors. A simple guiding principle for an optimum combination of the above-mentioned device design parameters in terms of mobility enhancement, drain current enhancement and the tradeoff consideration for junction leakage current degradation

  12. Impact of stressors in a natural context on release of cortisol in healthy adult humans: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Kathy; Matheson, Kimberly; Kelly, Owen; Anisman, Hymie

    2008-05-01

    Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation, culminating in elevated circulating cortisol levels is a fundamental response to stressors. In animals, this neuroendocrine change is highly reliable and marked (approximately 5-10-fold elevations), whereas in humans, the increase of cortisol release is less pronounced, and even some potent life-threatening events (anticipation of surgery) only elicit modest cortisol increases. Meta-analysis of factors that influenced the increase of cortisol release in a laboratory context pointed to the importance of social evaluative threats and stressor controllability in accounting for the cortisol rise. The present meta-analysis, covering the period from 1978 through March 2007, was undertaken to identify the factors most closely aligned with cortisol increases in natural settings. It appeared that stressor chronicity was fundamental in predicting cortisol changes; however, this variable is often confounded by the stressor type, the stressor's controllability, as well as contextual factors, making it difficult to disentangle their relative contributions to the cortisol response. Moreover, several experiential factors (e.g. previous stressor experiences) may influence the cortisol response to ongoing stressors, but these are not readily deduced through a meta-analysis. Nevertheless, there are ample data suggesting that stressful events, through their actions on cortisol levels and reactivity, may influence psychological and physical pathology.

  13. The Relationship of Stressors and Stress on Injury Incident of Construction Workers in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhd Ali Khairul Ammar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction Workers (CWs are the main source of manpower that is necessary to every construction project. Non conducive and hazardous working environment at construction site will affect the physiological health of the construction labour. This study is conducted to explore the impact of job stress and emotional stress to the CWs that potentially lead to injuries incident in Penang. Twelve stressors were identified through factor analysis. Then, the stressors are classified into five main categories. Questionnaires were developed according to the stressstressor relationship. The correlation between factors of injury incident (stressor and stress shows that lack of autonomy and inappropriate safety equipment lead to the emotional stress among the CWs with 0.287 and 0.204 respectively. In addition, poor physical environment causes the job stress among CWs with the correlation of 0.270.

  14. Pre- and Post-displacement Stressors and Body Weight Development in Iraqi Refugees in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, K-L Catherine; Zhou, Kequan; Arnetz, Bengt; Jamil, Hikmet

    2015-10-01

    Refugees have typically experienced stress and trauma before entering the US. Stressors and mental health disorders may contribute to obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the body mass index (BMI) in Iraqi refugees settled in Michigan in relationship to pre- and post-migration stressors and mental health. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected from 290 Iraqi refugees immediately after they arrived in Michigan and one year after settlement. Significant increases were observed in BMI (+0.46 ± 0.09 kg/m(2), p refugees suffering from hypertension (from 9.6 to 13.1%, p migration trauma and social support, were also observed. Linear regression analyses failed to link stressors, well-being, and mental health to changes in BMI. It is likely that acculturation to a new lifestyle, including dietary patterns and physical activity levels, may have contributed to these changes.

  15. Job Stressors, Organizational Innovation Climate, and Employees' Innovative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feifei; Zhang, Jinghuan

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the influence of job stressors and organizational innovation climate on employees' innovative behavior. Data were obtained from 282 employees in 4 cities of China. Results indicated that the nature of stressors matters in predicting employees' idea generation. Specifically, stressors that employees tend to appraise…

  16. Urban development results in stressors that degrade stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Amanda H.; Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Woodside, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, eighty-three percent of Americans lived in metropolitan areas, and considerable population increases are predicted within the next 50 years. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic biota. Every stream is connected downstream to other water bodies, and inputs of contaminants and (or) sediments to streams can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism. Understanding how algal, invertebrate, and fish communities respond to physical and chemical stressors associated with urban development can provide important clues on how multiple stressors may be managed to protect stream health as a watershed becomes increasingly urbanized. This fact sheet highlights selected findings of a comprehensive assessment by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas.

  17. Rating impacts in a multi-stressor world: a quantitative assessment of 50 stressors affecting the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sigrid D P; Mcintyre, Peter B; Halpern, Benjamin S; Cooke, Roger M; Marino, Adrienne L; Boyer, Gregory L; Buchsbaum, Andy; Burton, G A; Campbell, Linda M; Ciborowski, Jan J H; Doran, Patrick J; Infante, Dana M; Johnson, Lucinda B; Read, Jennifer G; Rose, Joan B; Rutherford, Edward S; Steinman, Alan D; Allan, J David

    2015-04-01

    Ecosystems often experience multiple environmental stressors simultaneously that can differ widely in their pathways and strengths of impact. Differences in the relative impact of environmental stressors can guide restoration and management prioritization, but few studies have empirically assessed a comprehensive suite of stressors acting on a given ecosystem. To fill this gap in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where considerable restoration investments are currently underway, we used expert elicitation via a detailed online survey to develop ratings of the relative impacts of 50 potential stressors. Highlighting the multiplicity of stressors in this system, experts assessed all 50 stressors as having some impact on ecosystem condition, but ratings differed greatly among stressors. Individual stressors related to invasive and nuisance species (e.g., dreissenid mussels and ballast invasion risk) and climate change were assessed as having the greatest potential impacts. These results mark a shift away from the longstanding emphasis on nonpoint phosphorus and persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances in the Great Lakes. Differences in impact ratings among lakes and ecosystem zones were weak, and experts exhibited surprisingly high levels of agreement on the relative impacts of most stressors. Our results provide a basin-wide, quantitative summary of expert opinion on the present-day influence of all major Great Lakes stressors. The resulting ratings can facilitate prioritizing stressors to achieve management objectives in a given location, as well as providing a baseline for future stressor impact assessments in the Great Lakes and elsewhere.

  18. Benthic macroinvertebrates and multiple stressors : quantification of the effects of multiple stressors in field, laboratory and model settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Organisms are always exposed to several simultaneously operating stressors in nature. It appears that the combined effects of multiple stressors cannot be understood as a simple product of their individual effects. To understand how multiple stressors affect the composition and functioning

  19. Hotel housekeeping occupational stressors in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Matthew H. T.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is evident in the Norwegian hotel industry and requires urgent attention as portrayed in Annbjørg’s housekeeping managerial occupation. Annbjørg’s occupational stressors derived from weak control of and support for demanding jobs in the housekeeping department and possibly under-reward in comparison to her tireless efforts. Hence, this case study provides a platform for educators, trainers, managers, students and learners to critically examine, discuss and argue managerial occupational...

  20. Radiography student perceptions of clinical stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Starla L

    2006-01-01

    Technological change and the increasingly rapid pace of life in the United States and globally have contributed to increased levels of stress and burnout experienced by workers and their families. Although studies are available on the levels of workplace stress and burnout affecting radiographers, little to no research has been conducted to assess the stressors encountered by radiography students in the clinical environment. This study was designed to pinpoint the primary sources of stress for radiography students and to determine the most effective measures to alleviate the stress that students experience in the clinical environment. It also sought to identify the clinical activities and practices that enhance learning. A convenience sample of radiography students attending an Association of Collegiate Educators in Radiologic Technology meeting was surveyed. Students were asked to rank their greatest stressors in the clinical environment, the most desired qualities in a clinical instructor and clinical environment, and the clinical practices and activities that best enhance their learning. Descriptive statistics were used to report the results. Data were collected for 82 first-year and second-year students. Students identified 7 primary clinical stressors: fear of making a mistake/repeat, feeling unprepared/inexperienced, intimidation by staff and by instructors, difficult/critical patients, hurtful criticism, too much supervision and negative responses to questions/requests for help. Students indicated that more frequent feedback, availability of the clinical instructor and other staff, assurance that mistakes happen and the opportunity to make mistakes were clinical practices that eased stress. The majority of students cited hands-on learning and repetition as the clinical activities that most reinforced their learning. Summary Radiography students in this survey experience some of the same clinical stressors as radiographers and other allied health workers

  1. Distal Stressors and Depression among Homeless Men

    OpenAIRE

    Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common problem among homeless men that may interfere with functional tasks, such as securing stable housing, obtaining employment, and accessing health services. Previous research on depression among homeless men has largely focused on current psychosocial resources, substance abuse, and past victimization. Guided by Ensel and Lin’s life course stress process model, the authors examined whether distal stressors, including victimization and exposure to parent problems in childh...

  2. Cation interdependency in acute stressor states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Usman; Komolafe, Babatunde O; Weber, Karl T

    2013-05-01

    Acute stressor states are inextricably linked to neurohormonal activation which includes the adrenergic nervous system. Consequent elevations in circulating epinephrine and norepinephrine unmask an interdependency that exists between K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+. Catecholamines, for example, regulate the large number of Mg2+-dependent Na/K ATPase pumps present in skeletal muscle. A hyperadrenergic state accounts for a sudden translocation of K+ into muscle and rapid appearance of hypokalemia. In the myocardium, catecholamines promote Mg2+ efflux from cardiomyocytes, whereas intracellular Ca2+ influx and overloading account for the induction of oxidative stress and necrosis of these cells with leakage of their contents, including troponins. Accordingly, acute stressor states can be accompanied by nonischemic elevations in serum troponins, together with the concordant appearance of hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and ionized hypocalcemia, causing a delay in myocardial repolarization and electrocardiographic QTc prolongation raising the propensity for arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. In this review, we focus on the interdependency between K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ which are clinically relevant to acute stressor states.

  3. Distal Stressors and Depression among Homeless Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D

    2016-05-01

    Depression is a common problem among homeless men that may interfere with functional tasks, such as securing stable housing, obtaining employment, and accessing health services. Previous research on depression among homeless men has largely focused on current psychosocial resources, substance abuse, and past victimization. Guided by Ensel and Lin's life course stress process model, the authors examined whether distal stressors, including victimization and exposure to parent problems in childhood, contributed to men's depression above and beyond current (or proximal) stressors, such as substance abuse and health problems, and social resources. The sample consisted of 309 homeless men who had entered a federally funded emergency shelter. Using the Burns Depression Checklist, the authors found that one out of three men met the threshold for moderate to severe depression during the past week. The logistic regression showed that past exposure to parent problems was related to depression after accounting for current stressors and social resources (number of close adult relationships and whether their emotional support needs were met). Past victimization was not related to depression. To address men's depression, workers should concurrently provide services that meet men's basic needs (for example, housing) and address their relationship needs, including their need for emotional support.

  4. Stressor controllability modulates fear extinction in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Catherine A.; Gorun, Alyson; Reddan, Marianne C.; Ramirez, Franchesca; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic events are proposed to play a role in the development of anxiety disorders, however not all individuals exposed to extreme stress experience a pathological increase in fear. Recent studies in animal models suggest that the degree to which one is able to control an aversive experience is a critical factor determining its behavioral consequences. In this study, we examined whether stressor controllability modulates subsequent conditioned fear expression in humans. Participants were randomly assigned to an escapable stressor condition, a yoked inescapable stressor condition, or a control condition involving no stress exposure. One week later, all participants underwent fear conditioning, fear extinction, and a test of extinction retrieval the following day. Participants exposed to inescapable stress showed impaired fear extinction learning and increased fear expression the following day. In contrast, escapable stress improved fear extinction and prevented the spontaneous recovery of fear. Consistent with the bidirectional controllability effects previously reported in animal models, these results suggest that one's degree of control over aversive experiences may be an important factor influencing the development of psychological resilience or vulnerability in humans. PMID:24333646

  5. The effects of working conditions and financial state as job stressors : A comparison of the chronic job stressors and job event stressors of two companies

    OpenAIRE

    Kosugi, Shoutaro; Otsuka, Yasumasa

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the effects of working conditions and the financial state as chronic job stressors and job event stressors. In study 1, the Job Stress Scale was applied to a total of 6,312 employees in an industrial research institute and a construction company to measure chronic job stressors. In study 2, 1,423 employees of these companies filled out the Job Events Checklist to measure job event stressors. Result: Employees in the industrial research institute had more chronic job stress...

  6. The Relationship Between Stressors and Anxiety Levels After CABG in Sari, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin; Jafari, Azam; Khalilian, Ali Reza; Ziabakhsh Tabari, Shervin

    2016-05-01

    Hospitalization and surgery are crucial adverse life events that lead to considerable anxiety in patients. The present study aimed to investigate stressors after coronary artery bypass graft surgery and identify stressors that predict anxiety. This is a descriptive-analytical study that uses a non-random convenience sampling method on patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery at the cardiac surgery intensive care unit of Fatemeh Zahra Cardiac center in Sari, Iran. A total of 186 patients completed the post-surgical stressors questionnaire and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory on postoperative days 2 or 3 in the cardiac surgery intensive care unit. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including frequencies, means, and standard deviations. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine the relationship between the observed variables, and the logistic regression model was used to identify the relationship between stressors and anxiety after-surgery. Post-surgical anxiety predictors included insufficient sleep during hospitalization (Odds ratio [OR]: 5.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46 - 20.00; P = 0.010), treatment not explained to the patient by the nurse (OR: 4.83; 95% CI: 1.82 - 12.84; P = 0.002), being away from family members (OR: 3.88; 95% CI: 1.46 - 10.26; P = 0.006), presence of a chest tube (OR: 3.27; 95% CI: 1.83 - 5.84; P = 0.000), and pain in any part of the body (OR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.06 - 3.58; P = 0.031). Physical or physiological and psychological stressors impose greater stress and are predictors of anxiety. When preparing their nursing care plan, nurses should consider these stressors that affect anxiety levels in patients undergoing CABG surgery and those hospitalized in intensive care units.

  7. Developing a multi-stressor gradient for coral reefs | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are often found near coastal waters where multiple anthropogenic stressors co-occur at areas of human disturbance. Developing coral reef biocriteria under the U.S. Clean Water Act requires relationships between anthropogenic stressors and coral reef condition to be established. Developing stressor gradients presents challenges including: stressors which co-occur but operate at different or unknown spatial and temporal scales, inconsistent data availability measuring stressor levels, and unknown effects on exposed reef biota. We are developing a generalized stressor model using Puerto Rico as case study location, to represent the cumulative spatial/temporal co-occurrence of multiple anthropogenic stressors. Our approach builds on multi-stressor research in streams and rivers, and focuses on three high-priority stressors identified by coral reef experts: land-based sources of pollution (LBSP), global climate change (GCC) related temperature anomalies, and fishing pressure. Landscape development intensity index, based on land use/land cover data, estimates human impact in watersheds adjacent to coral reefs and is proxy for LBSP. NOAA’s retrospective daily thermal anomaly data is used to determine GCC thermal anomalies. Fishing pressure is modeled using gear-specific and fishery landings data. Stressor data was adjusted to a common scale or weighted for relative importance, buffered to account for diminished impact further from source, and compared wit

  8. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  9. Language as a Stressor in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Albert, Martin L.; Pyun, Sung-Bom; Westwood, Andrew; Jenkins, Theodore; Wolford, Sarah; Finley, Mallory

    2012-01-01

    Background Persons with aphasia often report feeling anxious when using language while communicating. While many patients, caregivers, clinicians and researchers would agree that language may be a stressor for persons with aphasia, systematic empirical studies of stress and/or anxiety in aphasia remain scarce. Aim The aim of this paper is to review the existing literature discussing language as a stressor in aphasia, identify key issues, highlight important gaps, and propose a program for future study. In doing so, we hope to underscore the importance of understanding aspects of the emotional aftermath of aphasia, which plays a critical role in the process of recovery and rehabilitation. Main Contribution Post stroke emotional dysregulation in persons with chronic aphasia clearly has adverse effects for language performance and prospects of recovery. However, the specific role anxiety might play in aphasia has yet to be determined. As a starting point, we propose to view language in aphasia as a stressor, linked to an emotional state we term “linguistic anxiety.” Specifically, a person with linguistic anxiety is one in whom the deliberate, effortful production of language involves anticipation of an error, with the imminence of linguistic failure serving as the threat. Since anticipation is psychologically linked to anxiety and also plays an important role in the allostatic system, we suggest that examining physiologic stress responses in persons with aphasia when they are asked to perform a linguistic task would be a productive tool for assessing the potential relation of stress to “linguistic anxiety.” Conclusion Exploring the putative relationship between anxiety and language in aphasia, through the study of physiologic stress responses, could establish a platform for investigating language changes in the brain in other clinical populations, such as in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease or persons with post traumatic stress disorder, or even with

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  11. Depression, daily stressors and inflammatory responses to high-fat meals: when stress overrides healthier food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiecolt-Glaser, J K; Fagundes, C P; Andridge, R; Peng, J; Malarkey, W B; Habash, D; Belury, M A

    2017-03-01

    Depression, stress and diet can all alter inflammation. This double-blind, randomized crossover study addressed the impact of daily stressors and a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) on inflammatory responses to high-fat meals. During two separate 9.5 h admissions, 58 healthy women (38 breast cancer survivors and 20 demographically similar controls), mean age 53.1 years, received either a high saturated fat meal or a high oleic sunflower oil meal. The Daily Inventory of Stressful Events assessed prior day stressors and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV evaluated MDD. As expected, for a woman with no prior day stressors, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were higher following the saturated fat meal than the high oleic sunflower oil meal after controlling for pre-meal measures, age, trunk fat and physical activity. But if a woman had prior day stressors, these meal-related differences disappeared-because the stressors heightened CRP, SAA, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 responses to the sunflower oil meal, making it look more like the responses to the saturated fat meal. In addition, women with an MDD history had higher post-meal blood pressure responses than those without a similar history. These data show how recent stressors and an MDD history can reverberate through metabolic alterations, promoting inflammatory and atherogenic responses.

  12. Effect of Changing Work Stressors and Coping Resources on the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The OHSPIW Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yulong; Sun, Qing; Guan, Suzhen; Ge, Hua; Tao, Ning; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, YanXia; Ning, Li; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Jiwen

    2018-03-01

    Little is known about the relationship between changing psychosocial work conditions and type 2 diabetes. We determined whether changing work stressors and coping resources affect the risk of type 2 diabetes. In this prospective cohort (2003-2014) of 3,740 workers without diabetes (OHSPIW [Occupational Health Study of Petroleum Industry Workers]), participants completed an evaluation of work-related stress and coping resources and type 2 diabetes diagnosis at baseline and 12 years follow-up (two waves). The changes in work stressors and coping resources were measured with the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised and the Instrument for Stress-Related Job Analysis (Version 6.0). Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed on the basis of an oral glucose tolerance test supplemented by physician report. Increased task stressors (relative risk [RR] 1.57 [95% CI 1.03-2.63]) and decreased coping resources (RR 1.68 [95% CI 1.02-2.83]) were associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. The main risk factors were increased role overload, increased role insufficiency, increased physical environment stressors, decreased self-care, and decreased rational coping. Increased coping resources also had a buffering effect on increased task stressors and type 2 diabetes. Changes in work stressors and coping resources have an influence on the risk for type 2 diabetes, highlighting the importance of preventive measures against adverse psychosocial work conditions and reduced coping resources for diabetes prevention in the workplace. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  13. Stressors and Stressor Response Levels of Hong Kong Primary School Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee; Chik, Maria Pik-yuk; Chan, Edmund Sze Shing

    2018-01-01

    Responses from 309 randomly sampled Hong Kong primary school music teachers to the shortened version of the Chinese Teacher Stress Questionnaire were subjected to a descriptive percentage analysis, one-way ANOVA and independent t test. Obtained results identify five key stressors: "changing education policy of the government";…

  14. The relationship between stressors and burnout in college athletes

    OpenAIRE

    木村, 彩; 手塚, 洋介; 杉山, 佳生; Kimura, Aya; Tezuka, Yosuke; Sugiyama, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between stressors and burnout (in terms of stress response) in college athletes. Participants comprised 233 college athletes (84 males and 149 females; M_ = 20.0 years and SD = 1.2 years) who completed the daily and competitive stressor scale and the Athletic Burnout Inventory. Multiple regression analysis showed that almost all the observed factors of stressors tended to be associated with each burnout factor. It also showed that not only ...

  15. Stressor states and the cation crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Karl T; Bhattacharya, Syamal K; Newman, Kevin P; Soberman, Judith E; Ramanathan, Kodangudi B; McGee, Jesse E; Malik, Kafait U; Hickerson, William L

    2010-12-01

    Neurohormonal activation involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and adrenergic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems is integral to stressor state-mediated homeostatic responses. The levels of effector hormones, depending upon the degree of stress, orchestrate the concordant appearance of hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, hypozincemia, and hyposelenemia. Seemingly contradictory to homeostatic responses wherein the constancy of extracellular fluid would be preserved, upregulation of cognate-binding proteins promotes coordinated translocation of cations to injured tissues, where they participate in wound healing. Associated catecholamine-mediated intracellular cation shifts regulate the equilibrium between pro-oxidants and antioxidant defenses, a critical determinant of cell survival. These acute and chronic stressor-induced iterations in extracellular and intracellular cations are collectively referred to as the cation crossroads. Intracellular cation shifts, particularly excessive accumulation of Ca2+, converge on mitochondria to induce oxidative stress and raise the opening potential of their inner membrane permeability transition pores (mPTPs). The ensuing loss of cationic homeostasis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, together with osmotic swelling, leads to organellar degeneration and cellular necrosis. The overall impact of iterations in extracellular and intracellular cations and their influence on cardiac redox state, cardiomyocyte survival, and myocardial structure and function are addressed herein.

  16. Job stressors and coping in health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, E

    1991-01-01

    In spite of their knowledge about stressors, health hazards and coping, health professionals are in general not aware of their own health risks. In an attempt to clarify the issue results of our own studies are compared to the relevant literature. A survey on 1,248 Swiss nurses confirmed the major stressors known: ethical conflicts about appropriate patient care, team conflicts, role ambiguity, workload and organizational deficits. In doctors workload and shortage of time, combined with specific responsibility in decision making, are most prominent. Nevertheless, job satisfaction is still high in both professions. Health hazards in doctors are considerable, although life expectancy has improved and is comparable to the general public, but still lower as compared to other professionals. Depression and substance abuse are related to higher suicide rates. The specific role strain of female doctors is responsible for health risks with an alarming 10 years lower life expectancy than in the general population. Little is known about specific health hazards in nurses, except for burnout. A lack of coping research in the field makes conclusions difficult. Our own studies show limited coping skills in nurses, but good buffering effect in 1,700 Swiss dentists.

  17. Social and environmental stressors in the home and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Franco Suglia, Shakira; Duarte, Cristiane S; Sandel, Megan T; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-07-01

    Both physical environmental factors and chronic stress may independently increase susceptibility to asthma; however, little is known on how these different risks may interact. The authors examined the relationship between maternal intimate partner violence (IPV), housing quality and asthma among children in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2013). Maternal reports of IPV were obtained after the child's birth and at 12 and 36 months. At the 36-month assessment, interviewers rated indoor housing conditions, regarding housing deterioration (ie, peeling paint, holes in floor, broken windows) and housing disarray (ie, dark, cluttered, crowded or noisy house). At the same time, mothers reported on housing hardships (ie, moving repeatedly, and hardships in keeping house warm). Maternal-report of physician-diagnosed asthma by age 36 months which was active in the past year was the outcome. Asthma was diagnosed in 10% of the children. In an adjusted analysis, an increased odds of asthma was observed in children of mothers experiencing IPV chronically (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.5) and in children experiencing housing disarray (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) compared with those not exposed to these risks. In stratified analyses, a greater effect of IPV on asthma was noted among children living in disarrayed or deteriorated housing or among children whose mothers were experiencing housing hardship. IPV and housing disarray are associated with increased early childhood asthma. Exposure to cumulative or multiple stressors (ie, IPV and poor housing quality) may increase children's risk of developing asthma more than a single stressor.

  18. Where's the impairment: an examination of factors that impact sustained attention following a stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan B; Tartar, Jaime L; Welhaf, Matthew S

    2014-01-01

    The impact of stress on cognitive functioning has been examined across multiple domains. However, few studies investigate both physical and psychological factors that impact cognitive performance. The current study examined the impact of a physical and psychosocial stressor on sustained attention and identified factors related to sustained attention, including cortisol, salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and mind wandering. A total of 53 participants completed either the socially evaluated cold pressor task or a control task followed by the sustained attention to response task with mind wandering measures. Participants also provided saliva samples following the attention task. Results indicate the stressor task did not impact mind wandering or sustained attention but increased cortisol and sAA. Mind wandering was negatively related to sustained attention and mediated the relationship between cortisol and sustained attention. The findings highlight the importance of examining multiple sources of stress-related cognitive impairments.

  19. Prioritizing ecological restoration among sites in multi-stressor landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeson, Thomas M; Smith, Sigrid D P; Allan, J David; McIntyre, Peter B

    2016-09-01

    Most ecosystems are impacted by multiple local and long-distance stressors, many of which interact in complex ways. We present a framework for prioritizing ecological restoration efforts among sites in multi-stressor landscapes. Using a simple model, we show that both the economic and sociopolitical costs of restoration will typically be lower at sites with a relatively small number of severe problems than at sites with numerous lesser problems. Based on these results, we propose using cumulative stress and evenness of stressor impact as complementary indices that together reflect key challenges of restoring a site to improved condition. To illustrate this approach, we analyze stressor evenness across the world's rivers and the Laurentian Great Lakes. This exploration reveals that evenness and cumulative stress are decoupled, enabling selection of sites where remediating a modest number of high-intensity stressors could substantially reduce cumulative stress. Just as species richness and species evenness are fundamental axes of biological diversity, we argue that cumulative stress and stressor evenness constitute fundamental axes for identifying restoration opportunities in multi-stressor landscapes. Our results highlight opportunities to boost restoration efficiency through strategic use of multi-stressor datasets to identify sites that maximize ecological response per stressor remediated. This prioritization framework can also be expanded to account for the feasibility of remediation and the expected societal benefits of restoration projects. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSOR AND EXPOSURE INFORMATION FOR OLDER ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This product describes results of literature and data reviews to identify important chemical and biological stressors in the aging population, summarize extant exposure information, and identify data gaps.

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  2. Differential challenge stressor-hindrance stressor relationships with job attitudes, turnover intentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; LePine, Jeffery A; LePine, Marcie A

    2007-03-01

    In this article, a 2-dimensional work stressor framework is used to explain inconsistencies in past research with respect to stressor relationships with retention-related criteria. Results of meta-analyses of 183 independent samples indicated that whereas hindrance stressors had dysfunctional relationships with these criteria (negative relationships with job satisfaction and organizational commitment and positive relationships with turnover intentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior), relationships with challenge stressors were generally the opposite (positive relationships with job satisfaction and organizational commitment and negative relationships with turnover intentions and turnover). Results also suggested that the differential relationships between challenge stressors and hindrance stressors and the more distal criteria (withdrawal behavior and turnover) were due, in part, to the mediating effects of job attitudes. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  5. A catchment scale evaluation of multiple stressor effects in headwater streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J. J.; McKnight, Ursula S.; Loinaz, Maria Christina

    2013-01-01

    studied 11 headwater streams in the Hove catchment in the Copenhagen region. All sites had substantial physical habitat and water quality impairments due to anthropogenic influence (intensive agriculture, urban settlements, contaminated sites and low base-flow due to water abstraction activities...... insecticides were probably essential contributors to the overall ecological impairment of these streams. Our results suggest that headwater streams should be considered in future management and mitigation plans. Catchment-based management is necessary because several anthropogenic stressors exceeded...

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  7. Multiple stressors for oceanic primary production

    KAUST Repository

    Agusti, Susana

    2015-12-15

    Marine ecosystems are increasingly exposed to stress factors of anthropogenic origin that change their function, structure and services they deliver society. Climate change occurs simultaneously with other changes in the environment acting jointly in a context of global environmental change. For oceanic phytoplankton communities, the research conducted so far has identified stress factors associated with global change and their impact individually (warming, acidification, increased UVB radiation, pollutants). But when several stressors act simultaneously interactions and responses are not equal to the sum of individual impacts, but may have synergistic effects (the effects are multiplied) or antagonistic (cancel out the effects) that hinder predictions of the vulnerability of ecosystems to global change. Here we will examine the vulnerability of oceanic primary producers to the accumulation of different stressors associated with global change. The trend for autotrophic picoplankton to increase with temperature in the ocean has led to predictions that autotrophic picoplankton abundance will increase with warming. However, it is documented a trend towards a decline in productivity, due to declined autotroph biomass and production with warming and the associated stratification in the subtropical ocean. Models predicting an increase in abundance are in contradiction with the reported decrease in productivity in several oceanic areas, and associate oligotrophication. Here we perform a global study to analyze the relationships of autotrophic picoplankton with oceanic temperature, nutrients, underwater light and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and productivity. We built a model to project the future changes of autotrophic picoplankton considering multiple environmental changes in future climate scenarios for the subtropical gyres. We considered increased water temperature, and associated changes in productivity and underwater light and UVB. The model show that warming and

  8. Multiple stressors for oceanic primary production

    KAUST Repository

    Agusti, Susana; Llabré s, Moira; Lubiá n, Luis M.; Moreno-Ostos, Enrique; Estrada, Marta; Duarte, Carlos M.; Cerezo, Maria I.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are increasingly exposed to stress factors of anthropogenic origin that change their function, structure and services they deliver society. Climate change occurs simultaneously with other changes in the environment acting jointly in a context of global environmental change. For oceanic phytoplankton communities, the research conducted so far has identified stress factors associated with global change and their impact individually (warming, acidification, increased UVB radiation, pollutants). But when several stressors act simultaneously interactions and responses are not equal to the sum of individual impacts, but may have synergistic effects (the effects are multiplied) or antagonistic (cancel out the effects) that hinder predictions of the vulnerability of ecosystems to global change. Here we will examine the vulnerability of oceanic primary producers to the accumulation of different stressors associated with global change. The trend for autotrophic picoplankton to increase with temperature in the ocean has led to predictions that autotrophic picoplankton abundance will increase with warming. However, it is documented a trend towards a decline in productivity, due to declined autotroph biomass and production with warming and the associated stratification in the subtropical ocean. Models predicting an increase in abundance are in contradiction with the reported decrease in productivity in several oceanic areas, and associate oligotrophication. Here we perform a global study to analyze the relationships of autotrophic picoplankton with oceanic temperature, nutrients, underwater light and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and productivity. We built a model to project the future changes of autotrophic picoplankton considering multiple environmental changes in future climate scenarios for the subtropical gyres. We considered increased water temperature, and associated changes in productivity and underwater light and UVB. The model show that warming and

  9. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D; Black, Bryan A; Walsh, Sheila M; McField, Melanie

    2009-07-22

    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  10. Problem formulation for risk assessment of combined exposures to chemicals and other stressors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Wilks, Martin F; Bachman, Ammie; Boobis, Alan; Moretto, Angelo; Pastoor, Timothy P; Phillips, Richard; Embry, Michelle R

    2016-11-01

    When the human health risk assessment/risk management paradigm was developed, it did not explicitly include a "problem formulation" phase. The concept of problem formulation was first introduced in the context of ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the pragmatic reason to constrain and focus ERAs on the key questions. However, this need also exists for human health risk assessment, particularly for cumulative risk assessment (CRA), because of its complexity. CRA encompasses the combined threats to health from exposure via all relevant routes to multiple stressors, including biological, chemical, physical and psychosocial stressors. As part of the HESI Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) Project, a framework for CRA was developed in which problem formulation plays a critical role. The focus of this effort is primarily on a chemical CRA (i.e., two or more chemicals) with subsequent consideration of non-chemical stressors, defined as "modulating factors" (ModFs). Problem formulation is a systematic approach that identifies all factors critical to a specific risk assessment and considers the purpose of the assessment, scope and depth of the necessary analysis, analytical approach, available resources and outcomes, and overall risk management goal. There are numerous considerations that are specific to multiple stressors, and proper problem formulation can help to focus a CRA to the key factors in order to optimize resources. As part of the problem formulation, conceptual models for exposures and responses can be developed that address these factors, such as temporal relationships between stressors and consideration of the appropriate ModFs.

  11. Implications for environmental health of multiple stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose effects of ionising radiation have revealed that similar mechanisms can be induced by chemical stressors in the environment. This means that interactions between radiation and chemicals are likely and that the outcomes following mixed exposures to radiation and chemicals may not be predictable for human health, by consideration of single agent effects. Our understanding of the biological effects of low dose exposure has undergone a major paradigm shift. We now possess technologies which can detect very subtle changes in cells due to small exposures to radiation or other pollutants. We also understand much more now about cell communication, systems biology and the need to consider effects of low dose exposure at different hierarchical levels of organisation from molecules up to and including ecosystems. Furthermore we understand, at least in part, some of the mechanisms which drive low dose effects and which perpetuate these not only in the exposed organism but also in its progeny and in certain cases, its kin. This means that previously held views about safe doses or lack of harmful effects cannot be sustained. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and all national radiation and environmental protection organisations have always accepted a theoretical risk and have applied the precautionary principle and the LNT (linear-non-threshold) model which basically says that there is no safe dose of radiation. Therefore even in the absence of visible effects, exposure of people to radiation is strictly limited. This review will consider the historical context and the new discoveries and will focus on evidence for emergent effects after mixed exposures to combined stressors which include ionising radiation. The implications for regulation of low dose exposures to protect human health and environmental security will be discussed.

  12. Lesbian, gay, & bisexual older adults: linking internal minority stressors, chronic health conditions, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to: (1) test whether the minority stressors disclosure of sexual orientation; and (2) internalized heterosexism are predictive of chronic physical health conditions; and (3) depression; (4) to test direct and indirect relationships between these variables; and (5) whether chronic physical health conditions are further predictive of depression, net of disclosure of sexual orientation and internalized heterosexism. Secondary analysis of national, community-based surveys of 2349 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 50 and older residing in the US utilizing structural equation modeling. Congruent with minority stress theory, disclosure of sexual orientation is indirectly associated with chronic physical health conditions and depression, mediated by internalized heterosexism with a suppressor effect. Internalized heterosexism is directly associated with chronic physical health conditions and depression, and further indirectly associated with depression mediated by chronic physical health conditions. Finally, chronic physical health conditions have an additional direct relationship with depression, net of other predictor variables. Minority stressors and chronic physical health conditions independently and collectively predict depression, possibly a synergistic effect. Implications for depression among older sexual minority adults are discussed.

  13. Montessori Early Childhood Teacher Perceptions of Family Priorities and Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Teachers of young children work closely with families. One component of teacher-family partnerships is teachers' understanding of family priorities and stressors. This study examines Montessori Early Childhood (ages three through six) teacher perceptions of family priorities and stressors through an analysis of responses to two parallel surveys.…

  14. Developing a multi-stressor gradient for coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are often found near coastal waters where multiple anthropogenic stressors co-occur at areas of human disturbance. Developing coral reef biocriteria under the U.S. Clean Water Act requires relationships between anthropogenic stressors and coral reef condition to be es...

  15. Emotional Competence and Stressors of Female School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeyannavar, P. G.; Itagi, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    A study on emotional competence and stressors of 105 primary school teachers was conducted in Dharwad in 2009. Emotional competence was assessed using EC- scale and stressors by stress inventory for teachers (SIT). Results revealed that majority of the teachers (89.5%) showed average to competent levels of emotional competence, followed by 6.7 and…

  16. Development of Optimal Stressor Scenarios for New Operational Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    OPTIMAL STRESSOR SCENARIOS FOR NEW OPERATIONAL ENERGY SYSTEMS by Geoffrey E. Fastabend December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Alejandro S... ENERGY SYSTEMS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey E. Fastabend 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School...developed and tested simulation model for operational energy related systems in order to develop better stressor scenarios for acceptance testing

  17. Ecosystem stressors in southern Nevada [Chapter 2] (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton K. Pendleton; Jeanne C. Chambers; Matthew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada ecosystems are subject to a number of stressors that range in scope from local to regional to global. At the regional scale, human population growth and related activities constitute a major stressor. Nevada has undergone significant change due to unprecedented population growth and ongoing global change processes. Nevada’s growth rate has been the...

  18. Perceived stressors of oral hygiene students in the dental environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived stressors of oral hygiene students in the dental environment. ... with patients and communities, which may add to the stressors inherent to university life. ... (ii) perceived sources of stress, using a modified Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire; and (iii) burnout, using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI).

  19. Which Stressors Increase the Odds of College Binge Drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Daphne E.

    2017-01-01

    College binge drinking has been linked to student stress. Which among a variety of stressors are more likely to result in problem drinking? In this paper, the relative influence of three types of stressors on college binge drinking is considered, including the academic, interpersonal, and developmental (e.g., making decisions about the future,…

  20. Interpersonal Stressors Predict Ghrelin and Leptin Levels in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M.; Belury, Martha A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Malarkey, William B.; Glaser, Ronald; Christian, Lisa; Emery, Charles F.; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Stressful events enhance risk for weight gain and adiposity. Ghrelin and leptin, two hormones that are implicated in appetite regulation, may link stressful events to weight gain; a number of rodent studies suggest that stressors increase ghrelin production. The present study investigated the links among daily stressors, ghrelin and leptin, and dietary intake in humans. Method Women (N = 50) completed three study appointments that were scheduled at least 2 weeks apart. At each visit, women arrived fasting and ate a standardized breakfast and lunch. Blood samples were collected 45 minutes after each meal. Women completed a self-report version of the Daily Inventory of Stressful Events (DISE) at each appointment. Two composites were created from the DISE data, reflecting the number of stressors that did and did not involve interpersonal tension. Results Women who experienced more stressors involving interpersonal tension had higher ghrelin and lower leptin levels than those who experienced fewer interpersonal stressors. Furthermore, women who experienced more interpersonal stressors had a diet that was higher in calories, fat, carbohydrates, protein, sugar, sodium, and fiber, and marginally higher in cholesterol, vegetables (but not fruits), vitamin A, and vitamin C. Stressors that did not involve interpersonal tension were unrelated to ghrelin and leptin levels or any of the dietary components examined. Conclusions These data suggest that ghrelin and leptin may link daily interpersonal stressors to weight gain and obesity. PMID:25032903

  1. US exposure to multiple landscape stressors and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky K. Kerns; John B. Kim; Jeffrey D. Kline; Michelle A. Day

    2016-01-01

    We examined landscape exposure to wildfire potential, insects and disease risk, and urban and exurban development for the conterminous US (CONUS). Our analysis relied on spatial data used by federal agencies to evaluate these stressors nationally. We combined stressor data with a climate change exposure metric to identify when temperature is likely to depart from...

  2. Daily Stressors in School-Age Children: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Milagros; Alarcón, Rafael; Blanca, María J.; Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Rosel, Jesús F.; Trianes, María Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical or multilevel modeling to identify variables that contribute to daily stressors in a population of schoolchildren. Four hierarchical levels with several predictive variables were considered: student (age, sex, social adaptation of the student, number of life events and chronic stressors experienced, and educational…

  3. Paternal Absence and International Migration: Stressors and Compensators Associated with the Mental Health of Mexican Teenagers of Rural Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Guzman, Rosa Maria; de Snyder, V. Nelly Salgado; Romero, Martha; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2004-01-01

    Mexico-U.S. migration creates situations that may cause psychological distress. The purpose of this research project was to study the impact of father's physical absence due to international migration (FPAIM) on adolescent offspring of rural immigrants from Zacatecas, Mexico. Stressors and compensators were studied from the adolescent's…

  4. Understanding and Alleviating Cultural Stressors and Health Disparities in the Perinatal Outcomes of Mexican-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly; Rivera, Kendra Dyanne

    2014-01-01

    Women from minority populations, such as Mexican-American women, face unique social and cultural stressors that are different from men and women in the majority population. These differences have important consequences for the physical and mental health of pregnant mothers and contribute to perinatal health inequalities. As the population in the…

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  7. Financial satisfaction and financial stressors in marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Kristy L; Britt, Sonya L; Tonn, Teresa J; Grable, John E

    2011-04-01

    Using a sample of 310 married respondents from one U.S. Midwestern state, a test was conducted to examine the association of financial satisfaction and financial stressors in a spouse's decision to stay married to the same person or leave the relationship. The role of demographic and socioeconomic variables, religiosity, psychological constructs, financial satisfaction, and financial stressors as factors influencing marital satisfaction was tested. Financial stressors were measured using a list of financial stressors adapted from the literature. Financial satisfaction was measured with a one-item scale. The Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale was used as a validation tool to assess whether individuals would marry or not marry again. Religiosity and financial satisfaction were positively associated with marital satisfaction. A negative interaction between financial satisfaction and financial stressors was also noted. Findings suggest that respondents who are financially satisfied tend to be more stable in their marriages.

  8. Parent and Adolescent Agreement for Reports of Life Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Shauna C; Tackett, Jennifer L

    2017-03-01

    In this article, we investigated the extent and nature of informant discrepancies on parent- and adolescent self-report versions of a checklist measuring youth exposure to life stressors. Specifically, we examined (a) mean-level differences, relative consistency, and consensus for family-level and youth-specific stressors and (b) the utility of parent-youth discrepancies in accounting for variance in youth temperament and psychopathology. Participants were 106 parent-child dyads (47 male, 59 female; 90.6% mothers) aged 13 to 18 years old ( M = 16.01, SD = 1.29). The results revealed evidence for both congruence and divergence in parent and youth reports, particularly with respect to respondents' accounts of youth-specific stressors. Discrepancies for youth-specific stressors were associated with adolescents' negative affectivity, surgency, effortful control, and internalizing problems. Discrepancies for youth stressors may therefore reveal individual differences in emotionality and self-regulation, thus reflecting meaningful variance in adolescents' functioning.

  9. Physiotherapy students' perceived stress, stressors, and reactions to stressors : a comparative study between Sweden and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, Audy-Paul; Hemdal, Elin; Lundberg, Sophie; Bjarnegård, Anna; Hobbelen, Hans; Svantesson, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies of healthcare students report increased levels of stress, with academic pressures being the greatest source. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in the overall stress level, stressors, and reactions to stressors between physiotherapy students at

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  12. Physiological and psychosocial stressors among hemodialysis patients in educational hospitals of northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Heidari Gorji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The hemodialysis (HD patients are experiencing high biopsychosocial stress on all levels. Therefore, this study was designed to survey on physiologic and psychosocial stressors among HD patients in two educational hospitals of Northern Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 80 HD patients who were referred to Khomeini and Fatemeh Zahra hospitals in Mazandaran (Northern Iran during the year 2011. Data were collected using a demographic information record sheet and Baldree Hemodialysis Stress Scale. Finding: The following physiologic stressors were noted: Fatigue (51.25%, limited time and places for enjoyment (46.25%, and physical activation limitation (32.5%. Similarly the following psychosocial stressors were observed: Fistula (58.75%, limitation of drinking water (47.5%, low quality of life (47.5%, travelling difficulties to the dialysis center (45%, treatment cost (41.5%, and low life expectancy. The stress level was high in women who were married, younger, less dialysis vintage, and belonged to a low education level. Conclusion: This study reports that HD patients have with significant physical and psychosocial problems and they need education, family, and social supports.

  13. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  14. Integrated assessment of the impact of chemical stressors on surface water ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S; Rasmussen, Jes J; Kronvang, Brian

    2012-01-01

    of chemical stressors on stream ecosystems are evaluated for a stream in Denmark where the effects of major physical habitat degradation can be disregarded. The methods are: (i) the Danish Stream Fauna Index, (ii) Toxic Units (TU), (iii) SPEAR indices, (iv) Hazard Quotient (HQ) index and (v) AQUATOX...... of this case study, the HQ index and AQUATOX were extended for additional compounds, not only partly to identify potential compounds of concern, but also to determine thresholds where ecological impacts could be expected to occur. The results demonstrate that some commonly used methods for the assessment...... of ecological impact are not sufficient for capturing - and ideally separating - the effects of all anthropogenic stressors affecting ecosystems. Predictive modelling techniques can be especially useful in supporting early decisions on prioritising hot spots, serving to identify knowledge gaps and thereby...

  15. Integrated Assessment of the impact of Aqueous Contaminant Stressors on Surface Water Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Kronvang, Brian

    2011-01-01

    ecosystems. Traditional approaches for managing aquatic resources have often failed to account for the potential effects of anthropogenic disturbances on biota. To fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive will be challenging, as it is difficult to successfully separate and evaluate all...... pressures stressing an ecosystem. Here, methods for determining ecological status in streams are evaluated to see if they are capable of capturing the effects of stressors potentially affecting ecosystems. Specifically, they are tested on a case study where the effects of physical habitat degradation can...... be ruled out as a stressor on stream ecological conditions (Rasmussen et al., 2011). This study follows earlier work conducted on a Danish case study involving a TCE groundwater plume discharging into a small stream, located in an area with protected drinking water interests (McKnight et al., 2010...

  16. Re-thinking stressor interactions: The role of groundwater contamination impacting stream ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne Thobo; Rønde, Vinni Kampman

    ) to quantify the contaminant discharges, and potentially link the chemical impact and stream water quality. Potential pollution sources include two contaminated sites (Grindstedfactory/landfill), aquaculture, waste water discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas. Datafor xenobiotic...... chronic stress level, so even small perturbations on top of changes in water flow or additional chemical stressors may be detrimental to the stream health. To address this issue, we identified contaminant sources and chemical stressors along a 16-km groundwater-fedstream stretch (Grindsted, Denmark...... organic groundwater contaminants, pesticides, heavy metals, general water chemistry, physical conditions and stream flow from three campaigns in 2012 and 2014 were assessed. The measured chemicalconcentrations were converted to toxic units (TU) based on 48-h acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna...

  17. Immediate and Longer-Term Stressors and the Mental Health of Hurricane Ike Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Tracy, Melissa; Cerdá, Magdalena; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented that individuals exposed to more stressors during disasters and their immediate aftermath (immediate stressors) are at risk of experiencing longer-term postdisaster stressors. Longer-term stressors, in turn, have been found to play a key role in shaping postdisaster psychological functioning. Few studies have simultaneously explored the links from immediate to longer-term stressors, and from longer-term stressors to psychological functioning,...

  18. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  1. Super heroes and lucky duckies: Racialized stressors among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Lauren; Wilson, Bianca D M

    2017-04-01

    This article explores the complex relationships between race and occupational stressors among an ethnically diverse sample of high school teachers and their implications for women's mental health. Interviews with Black, White, and Mexican American teachers suggest that workplaces are organized by subtle forms of gender and racial discrimination as well as White racial privilege; this context shapes women's experiences of occupational stressors. The data indicate that teachers experience racially specific stressors at work and make racially specific appraisals about common stressors among all teachers. Black and Mexican American women report chronic strains, such as differential workloads, perceptions of incompetence, and lack of support from administrators, whereas White teachers report, yet minimize, sexual harassment from male colleagues. Student misbehavior, a stressor shared by all teachers, is experienced and understood as a personal failing by White teachers and as a manifestation of systemic racism by teachers of color. The interviews offer important insights into the ways professional workplaces remain an arena marked by racial inequality and White privilege and that racialized stressors are differentially distributed among women. Findings support claims from intersectionality in that race, racism, and racial privilege operate in multiplicative ways that create different constellations of occupational stressors among women, which in turn have implications for wellbeing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Organisational stressors, coping, and outcomes in competitive sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Rachel; Fletcher, David; Daniels, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Organisational stressors are associated with positive and negative outcomes in extant literature; however, little is known about which demands predict which outcomes. Extant theory and literature also suggests that coping style may influence an individual's resilience or vulnerability to stressors and, subsequently, their psychological responses and outcomes. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to examine the main effects of organisational stressors and coping styles on various outcomes (e.g., positive and negative affect, performance satisfaction). Sport performers (n = 414) completed measures of organisational stressors, coping styles, positive and negative affect, and performance satisfaction. Multiple regression analyses revealed positive relationships of both goals and development stressors (duration and intensity) and team and culture stressors (frequency and intensity) on negative affect. Furthermore, problem-focused coping was positively related to positive affect, and emotion-focused coping was positively related to negative affect. This study furthers theoretical knowledge regarding the associations that both organisational stressors (and their dimensions) and coping styles can have with various outcomes, and practical understanding regarding the optimal design of stress management interventions.

  3. Impact of Noncaregiving-Related Stressors on Informal Caregiver Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austrom, Mary Guerriero; Lu, Yvonne Yueh-Feng; Perkins, Anthony J; Boustani, Malaz; Callahan, Christopher M; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2014-08-01

    Caregivers of persons with dementia are stressed. Stressors not related to care recipients' needs impact caregiver outcomes, yet are seldom reported. The purpose of this study was to report the most stressful events experienced by spouse caregivers of older adults with Alzheimer s disease during a 6-month period. 31 caregivers completed the Most Stressful Event form, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Revised Memory Behavioral Problem Checklist (R-MBPC). Fisher's exact test and two-sample t-test were used to compare Most Stressful Events between caregivers. ANOVA model tested whether the PHQ-9 and R-MBPC subscales differed by stressor. Caregivers reported no stressors 21.5% of the time, 1-2 stressors 25% of the time, and 3 stressors 53% of the time with 318 stressors reported in total. Care recipient needs (30.2%), caregiver needs (26.7%), and decision-making (16.7%) were the most frequently reported stressors. Using a mixed effects model, there were associations between the Most Stressful Events and depression (p = 0.016), mobility (p = 0.024) and caregiver issues (p = 0.009) subscales of R-MBPC. Results can be used to develop targeted intervention and support strategies for spouse caregivers experiencing non-caregiving related stressorsas well as the traditional challenges with caregiving related issues. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Perceived stressors of oral hygiene students in the dental environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrisleen Rayner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. University students are exposed to a multitude of stressors that may impact on their performance. The nature of health sciences education generally involves early engagement with patients and communities, which may add to the stressors inherent to university life. There is sparse information on stressors in the oral hygiene educational environment. Objective. To determine perceived stressors and the level of burnout among oral hygiene students at the University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa. Method. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was used. The study sample included all students in the Bachelor of Oral Health (BOH degree during 2012 (N=89. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather data. Three parameters were measured, i.e. (i demographic characteristics; (ii perceived sources of stress, using a modified Dental Environment Stress (DES questionnaire; and (iii burnout, using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. Results. Respondents were mostly female (74% and primarily in the 18 - 25-year age group (92%. First- and 2nd-year students identified fear of failing and study load as major stressors. Stressors related to a lack of basic needs were identified as major stressors by 25% of 1st-year students. Third-year students identified clinical quotas, supervision and patients being late as major stressors. MBI scores indicated that students were not at risk for burnout; however, most students (66.2% scored high on emotional exhaustion (EE. Conclusion. Oral hygiene students identified stressors in their learning environment. There was a progressive increase in EE across academic years. The results suggest that interventions should be tailored for specific academic year groups.

  5. Social support, stressors, and frailty among older Mexican American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, M Kristen; Howrey, Bret T; Ternent, Rafael Samper; Ray, Laura A; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2012-11-01

    There is little research on the effects of stressors and social support on frailty. Older Mexican Americans, in particular, are at higher risk of medical conditions, such as diabetes, that could contribute to frailty. Given that the Mexican American population is rapidly growing in the United States, it is important to determine whether there are modifiable social factors related to frailty in this older group. To address the influence of social support and stressors on frailty among older Mexican Americans, we utilized five waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (Hispanic EPESE) to examine the impact of stressors and social support on frailty over a 12-year period. Using a modified version of the Fried and Walston Frailty Index, we estimated the effects of social support and stressors on frailty over time using trajectory modeling (SAS 9.2, PROC TRAJ). We first grouped respondents according to one of three trajectories: low, progressive moderate, and progressive high frailty. Second, we found that the effects of stressors and social support on frailty varied by trajectory and by type of stressor. Health-related stressors and financial strain were related to increases in frailty over time, whereas social support was related to less-steep increases in frailty. Frailty has been hypothesized to reflect age-related physiological vulnerability to stressors, and the analyses presented indicate partial support for this hypothesis in an older sample of Mexican Americans. Future research needs to incorporate measures of stressors and social support in examining those who become frail, especially in minority populations.

  6. Antidepressants: Which Cause the Fewest Sexual Side Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does not ...

  7. Workplace Discrimination: An Additional Stressor for Internationally Educated Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Maria M

    2015-08-18

    Discrimination against internationally educated nurses (IENs) remains a seldom-explored topic in the United States. Yet, the literature describing experiences of IENs indicates that some do experience workplace discrimination as an additional workplace stressor. IENs view this discrimination as an obstacle to career advancement and professional recognition. Consequences of workplace discrimination affect IENs' physical and psychological well being, the quality of patient care, and healthcare organizational costs. In anticipation of future nursing shortages, understanding and minimizing workplace discrimination will benefit nurses, patients, and healthcare organizations. In this article the author addresses motivation and challenges associated with international nurse migration and immigration, relates these challenges to Roy's theoretical framework, describes workplace discrimination, and reviews both consequences of and evidence for workplace discrimination. Next, she considers the significance of this discrimination for healthcare agencies, and approaches for decreasing stress for IENs during their transition process. She concludes that workplace discrimination has a negative, multifaceted effect on both professional nursing and healthcare organizations. Support measures developed to promote mutual respect among all nurses are presented.

  8. Shift work as an oxidative stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasalar Parvin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some medical disorders have higher prevalence in shift workers than others. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of night-shift-working on total plasma antioxidant capacity, with respect to the causative role of oxidative stress in induction of some of these disorders. Methods Two blood samples were taken from 44 workers with a rotational shift schedule, one after their day shift and one after their night shift. The total plasma antioxidant capacity of each worker was measured through the FRAP method. The impacts of age and weight were also assessed. Results The total plasma antioxidant capacity was measured in 44 shift-workers with a mean age of 36.57 years (SD: 10.18 and mean BMI of 26.06 (SD: 4.37 after their day and night shifts. The mean reduction of total plasma antioxidant capacity after the night shift was 105.8 μmol/L (SD: 146.39. Also, a significant correlation was shown between age and weight and total plasma antioxidant capacity. Age and weight were found to be inversely related to total plasma antioxidant capacity; as age and weight increased, the total plasma antioxidant capacity decreased. Conclusion Shift work can act as an oxidative stressor and may induce many medical disorders. Aging and obesity in shift workers makes them more sensitive to this hazardous effect.

  9. Longitudinal associations between stressors and work ability in hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmen Martinez, Maria; da Silva Alexandre, Tiago; Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria do Rosario; Marina Fischer, Frida

    This study sought to assess associations between work stressors and work ability in a cohort (2009-2012) of 498 hospital workers. Time-dependent variables associated with the Work Ability Index (WAI) were evaluated using general linear mixed models. Analyses included effects of individual and work characteristics. Except for work demands, the work stressors (job control, social support, effort-reward imbalance, overcommitment and work-related activities that cause pain/injury) were associated with WAI (p work and morning shift work were associated with decreased WAI (p Work stressors negatively affected work ability over time independently of other variables.

  10. Amphibian decline: an integrated analysis of multiple stressor effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linder, G.; Krest, S.K.; Sparkling, D.W. (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    Environmental effects of stressors on amphibians have received increased attention but little is known about the effects of these stressors on amphibian populations. The workshop addressed this issue. The proceedings contain 15 chapters, two of which mention effects of coal combustion wastes. These are: Chapter 4: Chemical stressors, by J.H. Burkhart, J.R. Bidwell, D.J. Fort, S.R. Sheffield, and Chapter 8E: Anthropogenic activities producing sink habitats for amphibians in the local landscape: a case study of lethal and sublethal effects of coal combustion residues in the aquatic environment by C.L. Rose and W.A. Hopkins.

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  17. 5-HT(2C) serotonin receptor blockade prevents tau protein hyperphosphorylation and corrects the defect in hippocampal synaptic plasticity caused by a combination of environmental stressors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busceti, Carla Letizia; Di Pietro, Paola; Riozzi, Barbara; Traficante, Anna; Biagioni, Francesca; Nisticò, Robert; Fornai, Francesco; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Bruno, Valeria

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to multimodal sensory stressors is an everyday occurrence and sometimes becomes very intense, such as during rave parties or other recreational events. A growing body of evidence suggests that strong environmental stressors might cause neuronal dysfunction on their own in addition to their synergistic action with illicit drugs. Mice were exposed to a combination of physical and sensory stressors that are reminiscent of those encountered in a rave party. However, this is not a model of rave because it lacks the rewarding properties of rave. A 14-h exposure to environmental stressors caused an impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory, and an enhanced phosphorylation of tau protein in the CA1 and CA3 regions. These effects were transient and critically depended on the activation of 5-HT2C serotonin receptors, which are highly expressed in the CA1 region. Acute systemic injection of the selective 5-HT2C antagonist, RS-102,221 (2 mg/kg, i.p., 2 min prior the onset of stress), prevented tau hyperphosphorylation and also corrected the defects in hippocampal LTP and spatial memory. These findings suggest that passive exposure to a combination of physical and sensory stressors causes a reversible hippocampal dysfunction, which might compromise mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and spatial memory for a few days. Drugs that block 5-HT2C receptors might protect the hippocampus against the detrimental effect of environmental stressors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Considering Environmental and Occupational Stressors in Cumulative Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    While definitions vary across the global scientific community, cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) typically are described as exhibiting a population focus and analyzing the combined risks posed by multiple stressors. CRAs also may consider risk management alternatives as an anal...

  19. Military Occupational Stressors in Garrison, Training, and Deployed Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Amy

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) program to model soldier stress, health, and performance, stressors are analyzed across a variety of environments in terms of their impact on military personnel...

  20. 338 Stressors and their Influence on Job Performance of Career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    The purpose of this study was to determine stressors and how they influence university career ... staff are often faced with struggling to maintain a continual balance among .... time working, reporting and encountering stress in their work life.

  1. Environmental stressors alter relationships between physiology and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Shaun S; Marras, Stefano; Metcalfe, Neil B; McKenzie, David J; Domenici, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Although correlations have frequently been observed between specific physiological and behavioural traits across a range of animal taxa, the nature of these associations has been shown to vary. Here we argue that a major source of this inconsistency is the influence of environmental stressors, which seem capable of revealing, masking, or modulating covariation in physiological and behavioural traits. These effects appear to be mediated by changes in the observed variation of traits and differential sensitivity to stressors among phenotypes. Considering that wild animals routinely face a range of biotic and abiotic stressors, increased knowledge of these effects is imperative for understanding the causal mechanisms of a range of ecological phenomena and evolutionary responses to stressors associated with environmental change. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterizing Risks of Exposures to Combined Stressors: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) addresses the impacts of multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors on communities, resulting from complex exposures for populations with a variety of vulnerabilities. These efforts focus on real world exposure scenarios and applications that ra...

  3. The impact on environmental stressors on apiculture in Africa | Maus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honeybees are exposed to various environmental stressors that can significantly ... Many of the relevant species appear to have been introduced to Africa only ... individual factor adversely affecting bee health in Europe and North America, ...

  4. Preventing construction worker injury incidents through the management of personal stress and organizational stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Mei-yung; Chan, Isabelle Yee Shan; Yu, Jingyu

    2012-09-01

    Construction workers (CWs) are positioned at the lowest level of an organization and thus have limited control over their work. For this reason, they are often deprived of their due rewards and training or sometimes are even compelled to focus on production at the expense of their own safety. These organizational stressors not only cause the CWs stress but also impair their safety behaviors. The impairment of safety behaviors is the major cause of CW injury incidents. Hence, to prevent injury incidents and enhance safety behaviors of CWs, the current study aimed to identify the impact of various organizational stressors and stress on CW safety behaviors and injury incidents. To achieve this aim, we surveyed 395 CWs. Using factor analysis, we identified five organizational stressors (unfair reward and treatment, inappropriate safety equipment, provision of training, lack of goal setting, and poor physical environment), two types of stress (emotional and physical), and safety behaviors. The results of correlation and regression analyses revealed the following: (1) injury incidents were minimized by safety behaviors but escalated by a lack of goal setting, (2) safety behaviors were maximized by moderate levels of emotional stress (i.e., an inverted U-shape relationship between these two variables) and increased in line with physical stress and inappropriate safety equipment, (3) emotional stress was positively predicted by the provision of training and inappropriate safety equipment, and (4) physical stress was predicted only by inappropriate safety equipment. Based on these results, we suggest various recommendations to construction stakeholders on how to prevent CW injury incidents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  9. Prenatal stressors in rodents: Effects on behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Weinstock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current review focuses on studies in rodents published since 2008 and explores possible reasons for any differences they report in the effects of gestational stress on various types of behavior in the offspring. An abundance of experimental data shows that different maternal stressors in rodents can replicate some of the abnormalities in offspring behavior observed in humans. These include, anxiety, in juvenile and adult rats and mice, assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests and depression, detected in the forced swim and sucrose-preference tests. Deficits were reported in social interaction that is suggestive of pathology associated with schizophrenia, and in spatial learning and memory in adult rats in the Morris water maze test, but in most studies only males were tested. There were too few studies on the novel object recognition test at different inter-trial intervals to enable a conclusion about the effect of prenatal stress and whether any deficits are more prevalent in males. Among hippocampal glutamate receptors, NR2B was the only subtype consistently reduced in association with learning deficits. However, like in humans with schizophrenia and depression, prenatal stress lowered hippocampal levels of BDNF, which were closely correlated with decreases in hippocampal long-term potentiation. In mice, down-regulation of BDNF appeared to occur through the action of gene-methylating enzymes that are already increased above controls in prenatally-stressed neonates. In conclusion, the data obtained so far from experiments in rodents lend support to a physiological basis for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and depression.

  10. Tools and perspectives for assessing chemical mixtures and multiple stressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans; Ragas, Ad M. J.; Holmstrup, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the most important insights and findings of the EU NoMiracle project with a focus on (1) risk assessment of chemical mixtures, (2) combinations of chemical and natural stressors, and (3) the receptor-oriented approach in cumulative risk assessment. The project aimed...... is suggested. The results are discussed in the light of recent developments in risk assessment of mixtures and multiple stressors....

  11. Integrated presentation of ecological risk from multiple stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Goussen, Benoit Regis Marc; Price, Oliver R.; Rendal, Cecilie; Ashauer, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Current environmental risk assessments (ERA) do not account explicitly for ecological factors (e.g. species composition, temperature or food availability) and multiple stressors. Assessing mixtures of chemical and ecological stressors is needed as well as accounting for variability in environmental conditions and uncertainty of data and models. Here we propose a novel probabilistic ERA framework to overcome these limitations, which focusses on visualising assessment outcomes by construct-ing ...

  12. Translational relevance of rodent models of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and stressors in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl M. McCormick

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Elevations in glucocorticoids that result from environmental stressors can have programming effects on brain structure and function when the exposure occurs during sensitive periods that involve heightened neural development. In recent years, adolescence has gained increasing attention as another sensitive period of development, a period in which pubertal transitions may increase the vulnerability to stressors. There are similarities in physical and behavioural development between humans and rats, and rats have been used effectively as an animal model of adolescence and the unique plasticity of this period of ontogeny. This review focuses on benefits and challenges of rats as a model for translational research on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA function and stressors in adolescence, highlighting important parallels and contrasts between adolescent rats and humans, and we review the main stress procedures that are used in investigating HPA stress responses and their consequences in adolescence in rats. We conclude that a greater focus on timing of puberty as a factor in research in adolescent rats may increase the translational relevance of the findings.

  13. Shared effects of organic microcontaminants and environmental stressors on biofilms and invertebrates in impaired rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, S; Barceló, D; De Castro-Català, N; Ginebreda, A; Kuzmanovic, M; Petrovic, M; Picó, Y; Ponsatí, L; Tornés, E; Muñoz, I

    2016-03-01

    Land use type, physical and chemical stressors, and organic microcontaminants were investigated for their effects on the biological communities (biofilms and invertebrates) in several Mediterranean rivers. The diversity of invertebrates, and the scores of the first principal component of a PCA performed with the diatom communities were the best descriptors of the distribution patterns of the biological communities against the river stressors. These two metrics decreased according to the progressive site impairment (associated to higher area of agricultural and urban-industrial, high water conductivity, higher dissolved organic carbon and dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations, and higher concentration of organic microcontaminants, particularly pharmaceutical and industrial compounds). The variance partition analyses (RDAs) attributed the major share (10%) of the biological communities' response to the environmental stressors (nutrients, altered discharge, dissolved organic matter), followed by the land use occupation (6%) and of the organic microcontaminants (2%). However, the variance shared by the three groups of descriptors was very high (41%), indicating that their simultaneous occurrence determined most of the variation in the biological communities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Stream vulnerability to widespread and emergent stressors: a focus on unconventional oil and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrekin, Sally; Maloney, Kelly O.; Katherine E. Kapo,; Walters, Annika W.; Evans-White, Michelle A.; Klemow, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple stressors threaten stream physical and biological quality, including elevated nutrients and other contaminants, riparian and in-stream habitat degradation and altered natural flow regime. Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development is one emerging stressor that spans the U.S. UOG development could alter stream sedimentation, riparian extent and composition, in-stream flow, and water quality. We developed indices to describe the watershed sensitivity and exposure to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and computed a vulnerability index from these two scores across stream catchments in six productive shale plays. We predicted that catchment vulnerability scores would vary across plays due to climatic, geologic and anthropogenic differences. Across-shale averages supported this prediction revealing differences in catchment sensitivity, exposure, and vulnerability scores that resulted from different natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. For example, semi-arid Western shale play catchments (Mowry, Hilliard, and Bakken) tended to be more sensitive to stressors due to low annual average precipitation and extensive grassland. Catchments in the Barnett and Marcellus-Utica were naturally sensitive from more erosive soils and steeper catchment slopes, but these catchments also experienced areas with greater UOG densities and urbanization. Our analysis suggested Fayetteville and Barnett catchments were vulnerable due to existing anthropogenic exposure. However, all shale plays had catchments that spanned a wide vulnerability gradient. Our results identify vulnerable catchments that can help prioritize stream protection and monitoring efforts. Resource managers can also use these findings to guide local development activities to help reduce possible environmental effects.

  15. Job stressors and job stress among teachers engaged in nursing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Shigeki; Muto, Takashi; Seo, Akihiko; Yoshida, Tsutomu; Taoda, Kazushi; Watanabe, Misuzu

    2007-01-01

    Teachers and staff members engaged in nursing activity experience more stress than other workers. However, it is unknown whether teachers engaged in nursing activity in schools for handicapped children experience even greater stress. This study evaluated job stressors and job stress among such teachers using a cross-sectional study design. The subjects were all 1,461 teachers from all 19 prefectural schools for handicapped children in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. We used a brief job stress questionnaire for the survey and 831 teachers completed the questionnaire. Job stressors among teachers engaged in nursing activity were compared with those among teachers not engaged in nursing activity. Job stress among such teachers was estimated by the score for total health risk, and was compared with the score in the Japanese general population. Male and female teachers engaged in nursing activity had a significantly higher level of job stressors for physical work load and job control compared with those not engaged in nursing activity. The scores for total health risk among male and female teachers engaged in nursing activity were 102 points and 98 points, respectively. These scores were not markedly above 100 points which is the mean score in the Japanese general population.

  16. Stream Vulnerability to Widespread and Emergent Stressors: A Focus on Unconventional Oil and Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrekin, Sally A; Maloney, Kelly O; Kapo, Katherine E; Walters, Annika W; Evans-White, Michelle A; Klemow, Kenneth M

    2015-01-01

    Multiple stressors threaten stream physical and biological quality, including elevated nutrients and other contaminants, riparian and in-stream habitat degradation and altered natural flow regime. Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development is one emerging stressor that spans the U.S. UOG development could alter stream sedimentation, riparian extent and composition, in-stream flow, and water quality. We developed indices to describe the watershed sensitivity and exposure to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and computed a vulnerability index from these two scores across stream catchments in six productive shale plays. We predicted that catchment vulnerability scores would vary across plays due to climatic, geologic and anthropogenic differences. Across-shale averages supported this prediction revealing differences in catchment sensitivity, exposure, and vulnerability scores that resulted from different natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. For example, semi-arid Western shale play catchments (Mowry, Hilliard, and Bakken) tended to be more sensitive to stressors due to low annual average precipitation and extensive grassland. Catchments in the Barnett and Marcellus-Utica were naturally sensitive from more erosive soils and steeper catchment slopes, but these catchments also experienced areas with greater UOG densities and urbanization. Our analysis suggested Fayetteville and Barnett catchments were vulnerable due to existing anthropogenic exposure. However, all shale plays had catchments that spanned a wide vulnerability gradient. Our results identify vulnerable catchments that can help prioritize stream protection and monitoring efforts. Resource managers can also use these findings to guide local development activities to help reduce possible environmental effects.

  17. Socioeconomic Status and Cardiovascular Responses to Standardized Stressors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Cundiff, Jenny M; Matthews, Karen A

    2018-04-01

    Disparities in cardiovascular health by socioeconomic status (SES) are a pressing public health concern. Hypothesized mechanisms linking low SES to poor health are large cardiovascular responses to and delayed recovery from psychological stress. The current study presents a meta-analysis of the literature on the association of SES with blood pressure and heart rate reactivity to and recovery from acute stress tasks. The PubMed database was searched, and 26 unique studies with relevant data were identified (k = 25 reactivity [n = 14,617], k = 6 recovery [n = 1,324]). Using random-effects models, no significant association between SES and cardiovascular reactivity to stress emerged (r = .008, 95% confidence interval = -.02 to .04), although higher SES was associated with better recovery from stress (r = -.14, 95% confidence interval -.23 to -.05). Stressor type moderated the reactivity effect, wherein higher SES was associated with greater reactivity to cognitive stressors (r = .036, p = .024), not with reactivity to interpersonal stressors (r = -.02, p = .62), but was associated with lower reactivity to tasks with combinations of cognitive, interpersonal, and physical challenges (r = -.12, p = .029). Accounting for publication bias revealed a significant association between SES and reactivity in the opposite direction of hypotheses. Cardiovascular recovery from acute stress, but not reactivity to stress, may be a key pathway between low SES and risk for cardiovascular diseases. Heterogeneity in effect size and direction, challenges related to working across temporal dynamics, and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  18. Refining the tethering of American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) to measure the effects of two environmental stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Luke A; Gilbert, Shane T C; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Davidson, Jeff; Cox, Ruth; Quijón, Pedro A

    2018-02-01

    Tethering assays, or the physical restraint of test organisms, has been used in the past to measure selected organisms' response to stressors while removing the observer from the experimental setting. Although informative for monitoring and hypothesis testing, these assays often used microfilaments that have been found to be too invasive or prone to biases given their effects on test organisms' behavior. Here, we describe a new variation of tethering using American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and illustrate its use in the study of their mortality rates as a result of two stressors: siltation and predation by a non-indigenous species. Our protocol identified a resistant (non-toxic) glue that could be used to attach oysters to stone slabs, thus partially mimicking the natural cementation of the shell to natural substrates. This variation of tethering was harmless and maintained oysters' body position and natural ability to filter feed. Using tethered oysters in separate two-week field cage experiments, we also show how siltation and predation by a non-indigenous species (the European green crab, Carcinus maenas), caused a gradual, easily measurable increase in oyster mortality rates. We argue that this variation of tethering is a cost-effective and advantageous way to monitor or test the effects of these and other stressors on oysters and similar species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between work role stressors and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, S; Deguchi, Y; Inoue, K

    2018-05-17

    Work-related stressors are associated with low sleep quality. However, few studies have reported an association between role stressors and sleep quality. To elucidate the association between role stressors (including role conflict and ambiguity) and sleep quality. Cross-sectional study of daytime workers whose sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Work-related stressors, including role stressors, were assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ). The association between sleep quality and work-related stressors was investigated by logistic regression analysis. A total of 243 participants completed questionnaires were received (response rate 71%); 86 participants reported poor sleep quality, based on a global PSQI score ≥6. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that higher role ambiguity was associated with global PSQI scores ≥6, and that role conflict was significantly associated with sleep problems, including sleep disturbance and daytime dysfunction. These results suggest that high role stress is associated with low sleep quality, and that this association should be considered an important determinant of the health of workers.

  20. The organisational stressors encountered by athletes with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Rachel; Wagstaff, Christopher R D; Steadman, Lauren; Pratt, Yasmin

    2017-06-01

    Organisational stressors have been found to be prevalent and problematic for sport performers, with research identifying demographic differences in the stressors encountered. Nevertheless, extant sport psychology research on the topic of stress has generally focused on able-bodied athletes; whilst that which has been conducted on performers with a disability has typically recruited relatively small samples to explore a narrow selection of organisational stressors, or examined other components of the stress process. The purpose of the present study was to explore the various organisational stressors that athletes with a disability encounter. The sample comprised 18 elite athletes with a disability (10 male, 8 female) who had a classified disability and experience of competing at a major championships in their sport (e.g., Paralympic Games, World Championships). Participants took part in a semi-structured interview which was analysed by drawing from grounded theory procedures. A total of 316 organisational stressors were identified, which were abstracted into 31 concepts and four, previously conceptualised, exploratory schemes: leadership and personnel issues, cultural and team issues, logistical and environmental issues, and performance and personal issues. This study not only provides the first illustration of the prevalence of organisational stressors for athletes with a disability, but also significantly points to salient similarities and distinct differences between the stress experiences of performers with and without a disability.

  1. Life Change Units (LCU Rating as Stressors in Iranian Hospitals’ Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dargahi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare workers suffer from work-related or occupational stress. This can lead to severe distress, burnout or physical illness, and finally to decrease quality of work life and services provision. Nurses must be aware of retential stressors, because they add to the cumulative effect of other stressful events. Holmes and Rahe both found a relationship between life change unit as stressors and health changes. This research reported here aims to measure the life change units as stressors among Iranian Hospitals Nurses by LCU rating. A cross - sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 389 nurses working in 15 teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The respondents were asked to select each of 54 events that cause stress ranked in order of their life change units developed by Holmes and Rahe as stress scale. Before beginning the main study, the reliability and coincidental validity was performed. All data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 18, t-test, Anova statistical methods. Approximately, half of the nurses associated major mortgage, foreclosure of mortgage or loan. More than 50% of the Iranian nurses had 150-300 and more than 300 LCU rating which had the chance to expose to extremely serious risk to health.Iranian hospitals nurses suffer from stress that caused by Life Change Units organizational factors such as change in the financial state, change in the work environment and major mortgage. We recommend to Iranian nursing policy-makers to choose strategies to help nurses cope effectively with workplace stressors. Nursing managers and / or nursing management should develop strategies to address and improve the quality of working conditions for nurses in the hospitals. Providing educational and career prospects can contribute to decrease nurses occupational stress level, the maintaining their work ability.

  2. Work stressors, job insecurity, union support, job satisfaction and safety outcomes within the iron ore mining environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaas W.H. Smit

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study of work stressors, job insecurity and union support creates opportunity for iron ore mining organisations to manage job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour more effectively. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between work stressors, job insecurity, union support, job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour of a sample of iron ore mine workers in South Africa. Motivation for the study: The mining industry in general is often faced with hazardous and physically demanding working environments, where employees work under constant pressure. Work stressors, job insecurity, union support and job satisfaction are considered key variables when investigating effective means of managing safety. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was utilised to collect the data. A convenience sample of employees in the iron ore mining industry of South Africa (N = 260 were included. Structural equation modelling and bootstrapping resampling analysis were used to analyse the data. Main findings: Work stressors and job insecurity were found to be negatively associated with job satisfaction. Conversely, perceived union support was positively associated with job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour. Furthermore, job satisfaction mediated the relationship between union support and safety motivation and behaviour. Practical/managerial implications: Mining organisations can, by placing the focus on reducing work stressors, and promoting job security and union support, achieve higher levels of safety motivation and behaviour through job satisfaction. Contribution/value-add: A great deal of independent research on work stressors, job insecurity, union support, job satisfaction as well as safety motivation and behaviour has already been done. To date, very little empirical research exists that simultaneously considers all these constructs. This

  3. Cultural Stressors and the Hopelessness Model of Depressive Symptoms in Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Gonzalez, Laura M.; Huq, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Depressive symptoms in Latino youth have been related to both culturally-universal and culturally-based stressors. However, few studies have examined the unique contributions of culturally-based stressors above and beyond other types of stressors. Moreover, no past studies with Latinos have examined the role of culturally-based stressors within a…

  4. Timing anthropogenic stressors to mitigate their impact on marine ecosystem resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Paul Pao-Yen; Mengersen, Kerrie; McMahon, Kathryn; Kendrick, Gary A.; Chartrand, Kathryn; York, Paul H.; Rasheed, Michael A.; Caley, M. Julian

    2017-01-01

    Better mitigation of anthropogenic stressors on marine ecosystems is urgently needed to address increasing biodiversity losses worldwide. We explore opportunities for stressor mitigation using whole-of-systems modelling of ecological resilience, accounting for complex interactions between stressors, their timing and duration, background environmental conditions and biological processes. We then search for ecological windows, times when stressors minimally impact ecological resilience, defined...

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  6. Quality of life and stressors in patients with chronic kidney disease depending on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sanchis, Sonia; Bernal, M Consuelo; Montagud, José V; Abad, Anna; Crespo, Josep; Pallardó, Luis M

    2015-04-28

    This study evaluated health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a Spanish sample of chronic kidney disease patients (n = 90) undergoing different renal replacement therapies, considering the influence of treatment stressors, mood, anxiety and quality of sleep. While all patients had worse physical functioning than controls (p Regression models including sleep, anxiety and depression were estimated for subscales of HRQOL. In TX patients, low depressive scores related to an optimal QLI in almost all subscales, while in HD patients they explained part of the variability in psychological well-being, interpersonal functioning and personal fulfillment. HD condition results in a QLI more distant to the standards of controls.

  7. A single exposure to severe stressors causes long-term desensitisation of the physiological response to the homotypic stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, Antonio; Vallès, Astrid; Dal-Zotto, Silvina; Márquez, Cristina; Belda, Xavier

    2004-09-01

    Although some laboratories have reported that a single session of stress is able to induce a long-lasting sensitisation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to further exposures to stress, we have found that a single exposure to severe emotional (immobilisation, restraint or shock) or systemic (endotoxin) stressors reduces the responsiveness of the HPA to the same, but not to a novel (heterotypic), stressor, in which case a slight sensitisation was observed. Long-term desensitisation has been found to reduce not only secretion of peripheral HPA hormones (ACTH and corticosterone), but also to reduce responses of central components of the HPA axis (c-fos and CRF gene expression at the level of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, PVN). In addition, desensitisation also applies to the impact of the stressor on food intake and, probably, to stress-induced hyperglycaemia. The development of long-term desensitisation of the HPA axis does not appear to be a universal consequence of exposure to severe stressors as it was not observed in response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Whether or not the development of long-term effects of stress depend on the specific pathways activated by particular stressors remains to be tested. The observed desensitisation of the HPA axis in response to the homotypic stressor shows two special features which makes it difficult to be interpreted in terms of an habituation-like process: (a) the effect increased with time (days to weeks) elapsed between the first and second exposure to the stressor, suggesting a progressive maturational process; and (b) the stronger the stressor the greater the long-term desensitisation. Therefore, it is possible that desensitisation of the HPA axis is the sum of two different phenomena: long-term effects and habituation-like processes. The contribution of the former may be more relevant with severe stressors and longer inter-stress intervals, and that of the latter with mild

  8. Does a 20-week aerobic exercise training programme increase our capabilities to buffer real-life stressors? A randomized, controlled trial using ambulatory assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Haaren, Birte; Ottenbacher, Joerg; Muenz, Julia; Neumann, Rainer; Boes, Klaus; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    The cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis suggests that regular exercise leads to adaptations in the stress response systems that induce decreased physiological responses to psychological stressors. Even though an exercise intervention to buffer the detrimental effects of psychological stressors on health might be of utmost importance, empirical evidence is mixed. This may be explained by the use of cross-sectional designs and non-personally relevant stressors. Using a randomized controlled trial, we hypothesized that a 20-week aerobic exercise training does reduce physiological stress responses to psychological real-life stressors in sedentary students. Sixty-one students were randomized to either a control group or an exercise training group. The academic examination period (end of the semester) served as a real-life stressor. We used ambulatory assessment methods to assess physiological stress reactivity of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate variability: LF/HF, RMSSD), physical activity and perceived stress during 2 days of everyday life and multilevel models for data analyses. Aerobic capacity (VO2max) was assessed pre- and post-intervention via cardiopulmonary exercise testing to analyze the effectiveness of the intervention. During real-life stressors, the exercise training group showed significantly reduced LF/HF (β = -0.15, t = -2.59, p = .01) and increased RMSSD (β = 0.15, t = 2.34, p = .02) compared to the control group. Using a randomized controlled trial and a real-life stressor, we could show that exercise appears to be a useful preventive strategy to buffer the effects of stress on the autonomic nervous system, which might result into detrimental health outcomes.

  9. Identification of Cardiometabolic Vulnerabilities Caused by Effects of Synergistic Stressors that are Commonly Encountered During Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, M.; Scheer, F. A. J.; Barger, L. K.; Lockley, S. W.; Wang, W.; Johnston, S. L. III; Crucian, B.; Shea, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Microgravity is a physiologically challenging state even when at rest. Astronauts experience additional physical and mental stresses, such as prolonged exertion, sleep loss and circadian misalignment, that could impact cardiovascular function. The main goals of this four year NASA project are to characterize the independent and synergistic effects on cardiovascular and immune function of: (1) circadian misalignment; (2) sleep loss; and (3) varied physical and mental stressors, mimicking some of the synergistic stressors experienced by astronauts. Sixteen healthy volunteers, aged 35-55 years, will be studied with standardized behavioral stressors occurring across all circadian phases, both with and without accruing sleep loss, achieved via two 11-day "forced desynchrony" protocols performed in each subject (randomized, within-subject design), where wake periods are advanced 4-h each "day" (i.e. recurring 20-h "days"). One protocol permits 8.33 h sleep opportunity per 20-h "day" (=10 h sleep per 24-h), and the other permits 5 h sleep per 20-h "day" (=6 h sleep per 24-h; matching the reported sleep duration of astronauts). In both protocols, subjects will perform a standardized stress battery including a cognitively challenging task; bicycle exercise, and passive 60deg head up tilt. Outcome variables include blood pressure, heart rate, arrhythmia frequency, cardiac vagal tone (from heart rate variability), sympathetic activity (catecholamines), and endothelial function. Additional measures of cardiac function (echocardiography), responses to a passive 80deg head up tilt, maximal oxygen uptake, and immune function will be assessed at the beginning and at the end of each protocol (i.e., without and with sleep loss, and before and after circadian misalignment). We hope to identify the relative impact on cardiovascular risk markers of varied behavioural stressors while subjects experience circadian misalignment and sleep loss, mimicking some of the synergistic stressors

  10. Development and Initial Validation of the Student Rating of Environmental Stressors Scale: Stressors Faced by Students in Accelerated High School Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Dedrick, Robert F.; Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Roth, Rachel A.; Ferron, John

    2015-01-01

    High school students in accelerated curricula face stressors beyond typical adolescent developmental challenges. The Student Rating of Environmental Stressors Scale (StRESS) is a self-report measure of environmental stressors appropriate for students in Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) courses. We developed the StRESS…

  11. Integrated presentation of ecological risk from multiple stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussen, Benoit; Price, Oliver R.; Rendal, Cecilie; Ashauer, Roman

    2016-10-01

    Current environmental risk assessments (ERA) do not account explicitly for ecological factors (e.g. species composition, temperature or food availability) and multiple stressors. Assessing mixtures of chemical and ecological stressors is needed as well as accounting for variability in environmental conditions and uncertainty of data and models. Here we propose a novel probabilistic ERA framework to overcome these limitations, which focusses on visualising assessment outcomes by construct-ing and interpreting prevalence plots as a quantitative prediction of risk. Key components include environmental scenarios that integrate exposure and ecology, and ecological modelling of relevant endpoints to assess the effect of a combination of stressors. Our illustrative results demonstrate the importance of regional differences in environmental conditions and the confounding interactions of stressors. Using this framework and prevalence plots provides a risk-based approach that combines risk assessment and risk management in a meaningful way and presents a truly mechanistic alternative to the threshold approach. Even whilst research continues to improve the underlying models and data, regulators and decision makers can already use the framework and prevalence plots. The integration of multiple stressors, environmental conditions and variability makes ERA more relevant and realistic.

  12. Work stressors and impaired sleep: rumination as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berset, Martial; Elfering, Achim; Lüthy, Stefan; Lüthi, Simon; Semmer, Norbert K

    2011-04-01

    An association between stress at work and impaired sleep is theoretically plausible and supported by empirical evidence. The current study's main aim was to investigate how the influence of stressors is carried over into the evening and the night. We assume that this relationship is mediated by perseverative cognitions. We tested this assumption in two cross-sectional samples with structural equation modeling, using bootstrapped standard errors to test for significance. Effort–reward imbalance and time pressure were used as stressors, and rumination as a measure for perseverative cognitions. Results show that the stressors are related to perseverative cognitions, and these are related to impaired sleep in both samples. Indirect effects are significant in both samples. With rumination controlled, direct effects of stressors on sleep are only significant in one out of four cases. Thus, there is full mediation in three out of four cases, and partial mediation in the fourth one. Our results underscore the notion that perseverative cognitions are crucial for transferring negative effects of work stressors into private life, including sleep, thus hindering individuals to successfully recover.

  13. Job stressors, personality and burnout in primary school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M

    2007-03-01

    Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation. Burnout is a negative affective response occurring as a result of chronic work stress. While the early theories of burnout focused exclusively on work-related stressors, recent research adopts a more integrative approach where both environmental and individual factors are studied. Nevertheless, such studies are scarce with teacher samples. The present cross-sectional study sought to investigate the association between burnout, personality characteristics and job stressors in primary school teachers from Cyprus. The study also investigates the relative contribution of these variables on the three facets of burnout - emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. A representative sample of 447 primary school teachers participated in the study. Teachers completed measures of burnout, personality and job stressors along with demographic and professional data. Surveys were delivered by courier to schools, and were distributed at faculty meetings. Results showed that both personality and work-related stressors were associated with burnout dimensions. Neuroticism was a common predictor of all dimensions of burnout although in personal accomplishment had a different direction. Managing student misbehaviour and time constraints were found to systematically predict dimensions of burnout. Teachers' individual characteristics as well as job related stressors should be taken into consideration when studying the burnout phenomenon. The fact that each dimension of the syndrome is predicted by different variables should not remain unnoticed especially when designing and implementing intervention programmes to reduce burnout in teachers.

  14. A review of multiple stressor studies that include ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Real, Almudena; Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    Studies were reviewed that investigated the combined effects of ionising radiation and other stressors on non-human biota. The aim was to determine the state of research in this area of science, and determine if a review of the literature might permit a gross generalization as to whether the combined effects of multi-stressors and radiation are fundamentally additive, synergistic or antagonistic. A multiple stressor database was established for different organism groups. Information was collected on species, stressors applied and effects evaluated. Studies were mostly laboratory based and investigated two-component mixtures. Interactions declared positive occurred in 58% of the studies, while 26% found negative interactions. Interactions were dependent on dose/concentration, on organism's life stage and exposure time and differed among endpoints. Except for one study, none of the studies predicted combined effects following Concentration Addition or Independent Action, and hence, no justified conclusions can be made about synergism or antagonism. - This review on multiple stressor studies involving radiation, highlights that most experimental designs used did not allow to deduce the nature of the interactive effects.

  15. Demographic differences in sport performers' experiences of organizational stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, R; Fletcher, D; Daniels, K

    2016-03-01

    Organizational stressors are particularly prevalent across sport performers' experiences and can influence their performance, health, and well-being. Research has been conducted to identify which organizational stressors are encountered by sport performers, but little is known about how these experiences vary from athlete to athlete. The purpose of this study was to examine if the frequency, intensity, and duration of the organizational stressors that sport performers encounter vary as a function of gender, sport type, and performance level. Participants (n = 1277) completed the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP; Arnold et al., 2013), and the resultant data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of covariance. The findings show that demographic differences are apparent in the dimensions of the goals and development, logistics and operations, team and culture, coaching, and selection organizational stressors that sport performers encounter. More specifically, significant differences were found between males and females, between team and individual-based performers, and between performers competing at national or international, regional or university, and county or club levels. These findings have important implications for theory and research on organizational stress, and for the development of stress management interventions with sport performers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Integrated presentation of ecological risk from multiple stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussen, Benoit; Price, Oliver R; Rendal, Cecilie; Ashauer, Roman

    2016-10-26

    Current environmental risk assessments (ERA) do not account explicitly for ecological factors (e.g. species composition, temperature or food availability) and multiple stressors. Assessing mixtures of chemical and ecological stressors is needed as well as accounting for variability in environmental conditions and uncertainty of data and models. Here we propose a novel probabilistic ERA framework to overcome these limitations, which focusses on visualising assessment outcomes by construct-ing and interpreting prevalence plots as a quantitative prediction of risk. Key components include environmental scenarios that integrate exposure and ecology, and ecological modelling of relevant endpoints to assess the effect of a combination of stressors. Our illustrative results demonstrate the importance of regional differences in environmental conditions and the confounding interactions of stressors. Using this framework and prevalence plots provides a risk-based approach that combines risk assessment and risk management in a meaningful way and presents a truly mechanistic alternative to the threshold approach. Even whilst research continues to improve the underlying models and data, regulators and decision makers can already use the framework and prevalence plots. The integration of multiple stressors, environmental conditions and variability makes ERA more relevant and realistic.

  17. Coping with pediatric cancer: strategies employed by children and their parents to manage cancer-related stressors during treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Aimee K; Clawson, Kathleen J; Alderfer, Melissa A; Marsac, Meghan L

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric cancer patients and their families face significant physical, emotional, and psychosocial challenges. Few studies have investigated how children manage these challenges and how parents may help in the process. This qualitative study aimed to explore common cancer-related stressors for children and to examine child coping and parental assistance in coping with these stressors during treatment. Fifteen children undergoing cancer treatment and their parents participated in semistructured interviews. Four themes emerged capturing cancer-related stressors: cancer treatment/side effects, distressing emotions, disruption in daily routines, and social challenges. Six themes emerged regarding child coping strategies that were classified within an approach/avoidance coping framework. Approach coping strategies included the following: cognitive restructuring, relaxation, practical strategies, seeking social support, and emotional expression. Distraction was the only avoidant coping strategy. Parents tended to encourage approach coping strategies (eg, cognitive restructuring, social support). Within families, few coping strategies were reported (child: M = 1.47, SD = 0.99; parent: M = 3.33, SD = 1.18), suggesting that early family-based interventions teaching coping techniques for cancer-related stressors may be beneficial.

  18. Relational victimization, friendship, and adolescents’ hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis responses to an in vivo social stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    CALHOUN, CASEY D.; HELMS, SARAH W.; HEILBRON, NICOLE; RUDOLPH, KAREN D.; HASTINGS, PAUL D.; PRINSTEIN, MITCHELL J.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ peer experiences may have significant associations with biological stress-response systems, adding to or reducing allostatic load. This study examined relational victimization as a unique contributor to reactive hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis responses as well as friendship quality and behavior as factors that may promote HPA recovery following a stressor. A total of 62 adolescents (ages 12–16; 73% female) presenting with a wide range of life stressors and adjustment difficulties completed survey measures of peer victimization and friendship quality. Cortisol samples were collected before and after a lab-based interpersonally themed social stressor task to provide measures of HPA baseline, reactivity, and recovery. Following the stressor task, adolescents discussed their performance with a close friend; observational coding yielded measures of friends’ responsiveness. Adolescents also reported positive and negative friendship qualities. Results suggested that higher levels of adolescents’ relational victimization were associated with blunted cortisol reactivity, even after controlling for physical forms of victimization and other known predictors of HPA functioning (i.e., life stress or depressive symptoms). Friendship qualities (i.e., low negative qualities) and specific friendship behaviors (i.e., high levels of responsiveness) contributed to greater HPA regulation; however, consistent with theories of rumination, high friend responsiveness in the context of high levels of positive friendship quality contributed to less cortisol recovery. Findings extend prior work on the importance of relational victimization and dyadic peer relations as unique and salient correlates of adaptation in adolescence. PMID:25047287

  19. Relational victimization, friendship, and adolescents' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to an in vivo social stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Casey D; Helms, Sarah W; Heilbron, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D; Hastings, Paul D; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-08-01

    Adolescents' peer experiences may have significant associations with biological stress-response systems, adding to or reducing allostatic load. This study examined relational victimization as a unique contributor to reactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses as well as friendship quality and behavior as factors that may promote HPA recovery following a stressor. A total of 62 adolescents (ages 12-16; 73% female) presenting with a wide range of life stressors and adjustment difficulties completed survey measures of peer victimization and friendship quality. Cortisol samples were collected before and after a lab-based interpersonally themed social stressor task to provide measures of HPA baseline, reactivity, and recovery. Following the stressor task, adolescents discussed their performance with a close friend; observational coding yielded measures of friends' responsiveness. Adolescents also reported positive and negative friendship qualities. Results suggested that higher levels of adolescents' relational victimization were associated with blunted cortisol reactivity, even after controlling for physical forms of victimization and other known predictors of HPA functioning (i.e., life stress or depressive symptoms). Friendship qualities (i.e., low negative qualities) and specific friendship behaviors (i.e., high levels of responsiveness) contributed to greater HPA regulation; however, consistent with theories of rumination, high friend responsiveness in the context of high levels of positive friendship quality contributed to less cortisol recovery. Findings extend prior work on the importance of relational victimization and dyadic peer relations as unique and salient correlates of adaptation in adolescence.

  20. Psychosocial stressors and depression at a Swedish primary health care centre. A gender perspective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strömberg Ranja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial stress may account for the higher prevalence of depression in women and in individuals with a low educational background. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between depression and socio-demographic data, psychosocial stressors and lifestyle circumstances from a gender perspective in a relatively affluent primary care setting. Methods Patients, aged 18- 75 years, visiting a drop-in clinic at a primary care health centre were screened with Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. The physicians used also targeted screening with BDI. A questionnaire on socio-demographic data, psychosocial stressors and use of alcohol and tobacco was distributed. Among patients, who scored BDI ≥10, DSM-IV-criteria were used to diagnose depression. Of the 404 participants, 48 men and 76 women were diagnosed with depression. The reference group consisted of patients with BDI score Results The same three psychosocial stressors: feeling very stressed, perceived poor physical health and being dissatisfied with one's family situation were associated with depression equally in men and women. The negative predictive values of the main effect models in men and women were 90.7% and 76.5%, respectively. Being dissatisfied with one's work situation had high ORs in both men and women. Unemployment and smoking were associated with depression in men only. Conclusions Three questions, frequently asked by physicians, which involve patient's family and working situation as well as perceived stress and physical health, could be used as depression indicators in early detection of depression in men and women in primary health care.

  1. A catchment scale evaluation of multiple stressor effects in headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jes J; McKnight, Ursula S; Loinaz, Maria C; Thomsen, Nanna I; Olsson, Mikael E; Bjerg, Poul L; Binning, Philip J; Kronvang, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation activities to improve water quality and quantity in streams as well as stream management and restoration efforts are conducted in the European Union aiming to improve the chemical, physical and ecological status of streams. Headwater streams are often characterised by impairment of hydromorphological, chemical, and ecological conditions due to multiple anthropogenic impacts. However, they are generally disregarded as water bodies for mitigation activities in the European Water Framework Directive despite their importance for supporting a higher ecological quality in higher order streams. We studied 11 headwater streams in the Hove catchment in the Copenhagen region. All sites had substantial physical habitat and water quality impairments due to anthropogenic influence (intensive agriculture, urban settlements, contaminated sites and low base-flow due to water abstraction activities in the catchment). We aimed to identify the dominating anthropogenic stressors at the catchment scale causing ecological impairment of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and provide a rank-order of importance that could help in prioritising mitigation activities. We identified numerous chemical and hydromorphological impacts of which several were probably causing major ecological impairments, but we were unable to provide a robust rank-ordering of importance suggesting that targeted mitigation efforts on single anthropogenic stressors in the catchment are unlikely to have substantial effects on the ecological quality in these streams. The SPEcies At Risk (SPEAR) index explained most of the variability in the macroinvertebrate community structure, and notably, SPEAR index scores were often very low (<10% SPEAR abundance). An extensive re-sampling of a subset of the streams provided evidence that especially insecticides were probably essential contributors to the overall ecological impairment of these streams. Our results suggest that headwater streams should be considered in

  2. Re-conceptualising prenatal life stressors in predicting post-partum depression: cumulative-, specific-, and domain-specific approaches to calculating risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy H; Tronick, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Prenatal life stress predicts post-partum depression (PPD); however, studies generally examine individual stressors (a specific approach) or the summation of such exposure (a cumulative approach) and their associations with PPD. Such approaches may oversimplify prenatal life stress as a risk factor for PPD. We evaluated approaches in assessing prenatal life stress as a predictor of PPD diagnosis, including a domain-specific approach that captures cumulative life stress while accounting for stress across different life stress domains: financial, relational, and physical health. The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, a population-based survey, was used to analyse the association of prenatal life stressors with PPD diagnoses among 3566 New York City post-partum women. Specific stressors were not associated with PPD diagnosis after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Exposure to a greater number of stressors was associated with PPD diagnosis, even after adjusting for both sociodemographic variables and specific stressors [odds ratio (OR) = 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5, 6.7]. Individuals reporting a moderate-to-high number of financial problems along with a moderate-to-high number of physical problems were at greater odds of PPD (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.2, 15.3); those with a moderate-to-high number of problems in all three domains were at over fivefold increased odds of PPD (OR = 5.5, CI = 1.1, 28.5). In assessing prenatal stress, clinicians should consider the extent to which stressors occur across different life domains; this association appears stronger with PPD diagnosis than simple assessments of individual stressors, which typically overestimate risk or cumulative exposures. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of two stressors on amphibian larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P; Hinton, Thomas G

    2012-05-01

    In parallel with a renewed interest in nuclear power and its possible environmental impacts, a new environmental radiation protection system calls for environmental indicators of radiological stress. However, because environmental stressors seldom occur alone, this study investigated the combined effects of an ecological stressor (larval density) and an anthropogenic stressor (ionizing radiation) on amphibians. Scaphiopus holbrookii tadpoles reared at different larval densities were exposed to four low irradiation dose rates (0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d(-1)) from (137)Cs during the sensitive period prior to and throughout metamorphosis. Body size at metamorphosis and development rate served as fitness correlates related to population dynamics. Results showed that increased larval density decreased body size but did not affect development rate. Low dose rate radiation had no impact on either endpoint. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental stressors influencing hormones and systems physiology in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Environmental stressors undoubtedly influence organismal biology, specifically the endocrine system that, in turn, impact cattle at the systems physiology level. Despite the significant advances in understanding the genetic determinants of the ideal dairy or beef cow, there is a grave lack of understanding of the systems physiology and effects of the environmental stressors that interfere with the endocrine system. This is a major problem because the lack of such knowledge is preventing advances in understanding gene-environment interactions and developing science-based solutions to these challenges. In this review, we synthesize the current knowledge on the nature of the major environmental stressors, such as climate (heat, cold, wind, and humidity), nutrition (feeds, feeding systems, and endocrine disruptors) and management (housing density and conditions, transportation, weaning practices). We summarize the impact of each one of these factors on cattle at the systems level, and provide solutions for the challenges. PMID:24996419

  5. Stressors, resources, and distress among homeless persons: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y L; Piliavin, I

    2001-04-01

    Relations among stressors, resources, and psychological distress were examined using two waves of data obtained from a probability sample of homeless persons (N = 430) residing in a large, demographically diverse county in North California. The focus of research was to examine whether and how social resources and housing resources directly affect distress and mediate the impact of stress factors on depressive symptoms. Path analysis results revealed that levels of psychological distress were responsive to change in objective housing circumstances, with the attainment of domicile status being associated with fewer distress symptoms. Our findings, however, indicated only modest effects of social resources on psychological distress through direct effects and mediating effects of life stressors on distress. Overall, the study suggests that the relationships among stressors, resources, and distress for homeless persons may be understood within the same analytical framework for the general population.

  6. [Appraisal of occupational stressor in petrochemical industry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-ping; Tian, Hong-er; Huang, Tong; Li, Zhi-yuan; Hu, Ke-ming; Ge, Xi-yong; Jin, Lei; Gao, Qi; Zhang, Jing-jing; Wang, Yu; Liu, Wen-he

    2009-12-01

    To discuss the origin of occupational stress among petrochemical industry workers and to access the main occupational stressors that impact job satisfaction and mental health of petrochemical industry workers. A survey on occupational stressor was carried out by Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI) in 532 petrochemical industry workers (345 chemical and 187 logistic workers). The environment in workplace of chemical group was worse than that of contrast. The chemical workers had less control over job and they experienced more hazards, monotonous as well as role stressors than the logistic group. The scores of job satisfaction and mental health of chemical group (36.867 +/- 0.656, 43.734 +/- 0.542, respectively) were higher than that of contrast (40.321 +/- 0.901, 46.714 +/- 0.745, respectively) (P job satisfaction and mental health with different levels.

  7. Predictors of occupational burnout among nurses: a dominance analysis of job stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ji-Wei; Bai, Hua-Yu; Li, Jia-Huan; Lin, Ping-Zhen; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2017-12-01

    To quantitatively compare dimensions of job stressors' effects on nurses' burnout. Nurses, a key group of health service providers, often experience stressors at work. Extensive research has examined the relationship between job stressors and burnout; however, less has specifically compared the effects of job stressor domains on nurses' burnout. A quantitative cross-sectional survey examined three general hospitals in Jinan, China. Participants were 602 nurses. We compared five potential stressors' ability to predict nurses' burnout using dominance analysis and assuming that each stressor was intercorrelated. Strong positive correlations were found between all five job stressors and burnout. Interpersonal relationships and management issues most strongly predicted participants' burnout (11·3% of average variance). Job stressors, and particularly interpersonal relationships and management issues, significantly predict nurses' job burnout. Understanding the relative effect of job stressors may help identify fruitful areas for intervention and improve nurse recruitment and retention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Stressors may compromise medication adherence among adults with diabetes and low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y; Mayberry, Lindsay Satterwhite; Wagner, Julie A; Welch, Garry W

    2014-10-01

    Studies examining the impact of stressors on diabetes self-care have focused on a single stressor or have been largely qualitative. Therefore, we assessed the stressors experienced by a high-risk population with type 2 diabetes, and tested whether having more stressors was associated with less adherence to multiple self-care behaviors. Participants were recruited from a Federally Qualified Health Center and 192 completed a stressors checklist. Experiencing more stressors was associated with less adherence to diet recommendations and medications among participants who were trying to be adherent, but was not associated with adherence to other self-care behaviors. Because having more stressors was also associated with more depressive symptoms, we further adjusted for depressive symptoms. Stressors remained associated with less adherence to medications, but not to diet recommendations. For adults engaged in adherence, experiencing an accumulation of stressors presents barriers to adherence that are distinct from associated depressive symptoms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Stressors May Compromise Medication Adherence among Adults with Diabetes and Low Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Mayberry, Lindsay S.; Wagner, Julie A.; Welch, Garry W.

    2014-01-01

    Studies examining the impact of stressors on diabetes self-care have been limited by focusing on a single stressor or have been largely qualitative. Therefore, we assessed the stressors experienced by a high-risk population with type 2 diabetes, and tested whether having more stressors was associated with less adherence to multiple self-care behaviors. Participants were recruited from a Federally Qualified Health Center and 192 completed a stressors checklist. Experiencing more stressors was associated with less adherence to diet recommendations and medications among participants who were trying to be adherent, but was not associated with adherence to other self-care behaviors. Because having more stressors was also associated with more depressive symptoms, we further adjusted for depressive symptoms; stressors remained associated with less adherence to medications, but not to diet recommendations. For adults engaged in adherence, experiencing numerous chronic stressors presents barriers to adherence that are distinct from associated depressive symptoms. PMID:24569697

  10. Impact of Deployment-Related Sexual Stressors on Psychiatric Symptoms After Accounting for Predeployment Stressors: Findings From a U.S. National Guard Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Ethan B; Murdoch, Maureen; Erbes, Christopher R; Arbisi, Paul; Polusny, Melissa A

    2015-08-01

    This study used a longitudinal research design to examine the impact of predeployment stressors and deployment-related sexual stressors on self-reported psychiatric symptoms of U.S. National Guard soldiers returning from deployments to Iraq or Afghanistan. Prior to deployment, participants completed measures of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms, along with an inventory of predeployment stressor experiences. At 3-months postdeployment, participants (468 men, 60 women) again completed self-report measures of psychiatric symptoms, along with an inventory of sexual stressors experienced during deployment. We compared a cross-sectional model of sexual stressors' impact on psychiatric symptoms, in which only postdeployment reports were considered, to a longitudinal model in which we adjusted for participants' predeployment stressors and psychiatric symptoms. No participants reported sexual assault during deployment, though sexual harassment was common. The cross-sectional model suggested that deployment-related sexual stressors were significantly associated with postdeployment depression (R(2) = .11) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (R(2) = .10). Once predeployment factors were taken into consideration, however, sexual stressors were no longer significant. The results did not support the notion of lasting negative impact for low-level sexual stressors (e.g., sexual harassment) during deployment after predeployment stressors are accounted for. Future studies of sexual stressors should consider longitudinal designs. © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  11. Stressors, Coping Resources, and Depressive Symptoms among Rural American Indian Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Brown-Rice, Kathleen A; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lawler, Michael J; Martin, James I

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of physical health stressors and coping resources with depressive symptoms among American Indian older adults age 50 years or older. The study used a convenience sample of 227 rural American Indian older adults. A hierarchical multiple regression tested three sets of predictors on depressive symptoms: (a) sociodemographics, (b) physical health stressors (functional disability and chronic medical conditions), and (c) coping resources (social support and spirituality). Most participants reported little difficulty in performing daily activities (e.g., eating, dressing, traveling, and managing money), while presenting over two types of chronic medical conditions. Depressive symptoms were predicted by higher scores on perceived social support and lower scores on functional disability; women and those having no health insurance also had higher levels of depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that social work practitioners should engage family and community support, advocate for access to adequate health care, and attend to women's unique circumstances and needs when working with American Indian older adults.

  12. Stressor Diversity: Introduction and Empirical Integration into the Daily Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffer, Rachel E.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Almeida, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined if and how stressor diversity, the extent to which one’s stressor events are spread across multiple types of stressors, contributes to daily affective well-being through the adult life span. Stressor diversity was examined as a unique predictor of daily affect and as a moderator of stressor exposure and stressor reactivity effects. Analyses span two independent studies of daily stress: the National Study of Daily Experiences with N=2,022 adults, aged 33–85, assessed over T=8 days, and the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health, and Interpersonal Behavior with N=150 adults, aged 18–89, assessed over T=63 days. Across both studies, older age was associated with less stressor diversity. Additionally, multivariate multilevel models indicated higher stressor diversity was linked with better affective well-being. Age, however, was not a consistent moderator of such associations. The combination of low stressor diversity and high stressor exposure is discussed as an operationalization of chronic stressors, and this combination was associated with particularly high negative affect and low positive affect. We believe further work will benefit from including both the frequency and diversity of stressor experiences in analyses in order to better characterize individuals’ stressor experiences. PMID:27294713

  13. Stressor diversity: Introduction and empirical integration into the daily stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffer, Rachel E; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E; Pincus, Aaron L; Almeida, David M

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined whether and how stressor diversity, the extent to which stressor events are spread across multiple types of stressors, contributes to daily affective well-being through the adult life span. Stressor diversity was examined as a unique predictor of daily affect and as a moderator of stressor exposure and stressor reactivity effects. Analyses span 2 independent studies of daily stress: the National Study of Daily Experiences with N = 2,022 adults, aged 33 to 85 years, assessed over T = 8 days, and the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health, and Interpersonal Behavior with N = 150 adults, aged 18 to 89 years, assessed over T = 63 days. Across both studies, older age was associated with less stressor diversity. Additionally, multivariate multilevel models indicated higher stressor diversity was linked with better affective well-being. Age, however, was not a consistent moderator of such associations. The combination of low stressor diversity and high stressor exposure is discussed as an operationalization of chronic stressors, and this combination was associated with particularly high negative affect and low positive affect. We believe further work will benefit from including both the frequency and diversity of stressor experiences in analyses in order to better characterize individuals' stressor experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. 75 FR 41092 - Stressor Determinations for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN32 Stressor Determinations for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Correction In rule document 2010-16885 beginning on page 39843 in the issue of Tuesday, July 13, 2010 make the following corrections: 1. On page 39843, in the first column, under the...

  15. Stressors in the professional lives of South African secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We identify current stressors in the professional lives of South African secondary school educators. The study was exploratory, using a questionnaire, which listed 19 possible causes of stress and was completed by 987 educators from all racial groups and provinces in the country. South African educators in general ...

  16. Montessori Early Childhood Teacher Perceptions of Family Priorities and Stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Epstein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Teachers of young children work closely with families. One component of teacher-family partnerships is teachers’ understanding of family priorities and stressors. This study examines Montessori early childhood (ages three through six teacher perceptions of family priorities and stressors through an analysis of responses to two parallel surveys.  Eighty teachers (37% of those who received the survey and forty-nine family members (representing a 55% response rate completed the survey.  Significant differences were found between teachers’ perceptions of four (of seven family priorities and families’ actual responses. Teachers ranked “making academic progress” as the most important of seven possible family priorities. However, families stated that “developing kindness” is the most important priority for their young children. No significant differences were found when comparing teacher rankings of family stressors with actual family responses. Montessori early childhood teachers ranked “not having enough time” as the most stressful of six possible stressors. Families confirmed that time pressures cause them the most stress. Maria Montessori’s recommendations for teachers and families are summarized. Recommendations for building stronger family partnerships in the context of Montessori’s philosophy, for example on-going self-reflection, are provided.             Keywords: Montessori, teacher-family partnerships, early childhood teacher perceptions

  17. Stressors among South African soccer officials: A profile analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of selected stressors to the level of stress experienced by South African soccer officials. Forty-two South African Football Association (SAFA) accredited officials, attending a training camp in Potchefstroom, participated in this study. The group comprised of 40 male ...

  18. Integrating the role of stressors through carbohydrate dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip M. Wargo

    1999-01-01

    Biological stress is defined as any environmental factor (stressors) capable of inducing a potentially injurious strain in living organisms (Levitt 1972). Organisms respond to these stresses physiologically or developmentally, and depending on the duration and severity of the stress, may or may not be injured.

  19. Genetic selection for coping style predicts stressor susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, AH; Meijer, OC; de Kloet, ER; Koolhaas, JM

    Genetically selected aggressive (SAL) and nonaggressive (LAL) male wild house-mice which show distinctly different coping styles, also display a differential regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis after exposure to an acute stressor. To test the hypothesis that coping style predicts

  20. Activity changes of the cat paraventricular hypothalamus during stressor exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, David M; Poe, Gina R

    2004-01-01

    Dorso-medial paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) activity was assessed by light scattering procedures in freely behaving cats during auditory stressor exposure. Acoustic noise (> 95dB) raised plasma ACTH concentrations, somatic muscle tonus, respiratory frequency and cardiac rates; PVH activity...

  1. Widespread local chronic stressors in Caribbean coastal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollett, Iliana; Collin, Rachel; Bastidas, Carolina; Cróquer, Aldo; Gayle, Peter M H; Jordán-Dahlgren, Eric; Koltes, Karen; Oxenford, Hazel; Rodriguez-Ramirez, Alberto; Weil, Ernesto; Alemu, Jahson; Bone, David; Buchan, Kenneth C; Creary Ford, Marcia; Escalante-Mancera, Edgar; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime; Guzmán, Hector M; Kjerfve, Björn; Klein, Eduardo; McCoy, Croy; Potts, Arthur C; Ruíz-Rentería, Francisco; Smith, Struan R; Tschirky, John; Cortés, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems and the livelihoods they support are threatened by stressors acting at global and local scales. Here we used the data produced by the Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity program (CARICOMP), the longest, largest monitoring program in the wider Caribbean, to evidence local-scale (decreases in water quality) and global-scale (increases in temperature) stressors across the basin. Trend analyses showed that visibility decreased at 42% of the stations, indicating that local-scale chronic stressors are widespread. On the other hand, only 18% of the stations showed increases in water temperature that would be expected from global warming, partially reflecting the limits in detecting trends due to inherent natural variability of temperature data. Decreases in visibility were associated with increased human density. However, this link can be decoupled by environmental factors, with conditions that increase the flush of water, dampening the effects of human influence. Besides documenting environmental stressors throughout the basin, our results can be used to inform future monitoring programs, if the desire is to identify stations that provide early warning signals of anthropogenic impacts. All CARICOMP environmental data are now available, providing an invaluable baseline that can be used to strengthen research, conservation, and management of coastal ecosystems in the Caribbean basin.

  2. Occupational Stressors and Job Satisfaction of Pennsylvania School District Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kevin T.

    2017-01-01

    Today's superintendents face increasingly non-routine and complex problems that are educational, managerial, and political in nature. This study investigated occupational stressors and job satisfaction of school superintendents in Pennsylvania. This was accomplished through self-report of superintendents and through the perspective of school board…

  3. Dimensions of Teacher Burnout: Relations with Potential Stressors at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Skaalvik, Sidsel

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how four potential stressors in the school environment (discipline problems, time pressure, low student motivation, and value dissonance) were related to dimensions of teacher burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment). Participants were 1145 teachers from grade 1…

  4. Distinguishing stressors acting on landbird communities in an urbanizing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew D. Schlesinger; Patricia N. Manley; Marcel Holyoak

    2008-01-01

    Urbanization has profound influences on ecological communities, but our understanding of causal mechanisms is limited by a lack of attention to its component stressors. Published research suggests that at landscape scales, habitat loss and fragmentation are the major drivers of community change, whereas at local scales, human activity and vegetation management are the...

  5. Chronic psychosocial stressors and salivary biomarkers in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Andrew W; Mallick, Aditi; Nishita, Denise; Wei, Xin; Michel, Martha; Wacholder, Aaron; David, Sean P; Swan, Gary E; Reid, Mark W; Simons, Anne; Andrews, Judy A

    2012-08-01

    We investigated whole saliva as a source of biomarkers to distinguish individuals who have, and who have not, been chronically exposed to severe and threatening life difficulties. We evaluated RNA and DNA metrics, expression of 37 candidate genes, and cortisol release in response to the Trier Social Stress Test, as well as clinical characteristics, from 48 individuals stratified on chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors within the last year as measured by the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule. Candidate genes were selected based on their differential gene expression ratio in circulating monocytes from a published genome-wide analysis of adults experiencing different levels of exposure to a chronic stressor. In univariate analyses, we observed significantly decreased RNA integrity (RIN) score (P = 0.04), and reduced expression of glucocorticoid receptor-regulated genes (Ps stressors, as compared to those with no exposure. In those exposed, we observed significantly decreased BMI (P adults chronically exposed to severe and threatening psychosocial stressors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sport coaching officials and their stressors: Work overload, role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport officials' concerns over job stressors have become common due to the adverse effect on health. The study sought to examine the associations of work overload, role ambiguity and role conflict, as well as their predictive influence on job satisfaction of sport coaches in Gauteng, South Africa. Data were collected from a ...

  7. Life-Long Implications of Developmental Exposure to Environmental Stressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Barouki, Robert; Bellinger, David C

    2015-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) paradigm is one of the most rapidly expanding areas of biomedical research. Environmental stressors that can impact on DOHaD encompass a variety of environmental and occupational hazards as well as deficiency and oversupply of nutrients and ...

  8. Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to Daily Family Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews during which they reported on daily…

  9. Burnout and hopelessness among farmers: The Farmers Stressors Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchot, Didier; Andela, Marie

    2018-05-03

    Farming is a stressful occupation with a high rate of suicide. However, there have been relatively few studies that have examined the antecedents of stress and suicide in farmers. We also lack methodologically sound scales aimed at assessing the stressors faced by farmers. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to develop an instrument assessing the stressors met by farmers, The Farmers Stressors Inventory, and to test its factorial structure, internal consistency and criterion validity. First, based on the existing literature and interviews with farmers, we designed a scale containing 37 items. Then a sample of 2142 French farmers completed a questionnaire containing the 37 items along with two measures: The MBIGS that assesses burnout and the BHS that assesses hopelessness. The statistical analyses (EFA and CFA) revealed eight factors in accordance with different aspects of farmers job stressors: workload and lack of time, incertitude toward the future and the financial market, agricultural legislation pressure, social and geographical isolation, financial worry, conflicts with associates or family members, family succession of the farm, and unpredictable interference with farm work. The internal consistency of the eight subscales was satisfactory. Correlation between these eight dimensions and burnout on the one side and hopelessness on the other side support the criterion-related validity of the scale.

  10. Exploring How African American Faculty Cope with Classroom Racial Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Chavella T.

    2010-01-01

    This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…

  11. Ranking ecological risks of multiple chemical stressors on amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenkova, Anastasia; Vonk, J Arie; Lenders, H J Rob; Creemers, Raymond C M; Breure, Anton M; Hendriks, A Jan

    2012-06-01

    Populations of amphibians have been declining worldwide since the late 1960s. Despite global concern, no studies have quantitatively assessed the major causes of this decline. In the present study, species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were developed to analyze the sensitivity of anurans for ammonium, nitrate, heavy metals (cadmium, copper), pesticides (18 compounds), and acidification (pH) based on laboratory toxicity data. Ecological risk (ER) was calculated as the probability that a measured environmental concentration of a particular stressor in habitats where anurans were observed would exceed the toxic effect concentrations derived from the species sensitivity distributions. The assessment of ER was used to rank the stressors according to their potential risk to anurans based on a case study of Dutch freshwater bodies. The derived ERs revealed that threats to populations of anurans decreased in the sequence of pH, copper, diazinon, ammonium, and endosulfan. Other stressors studied were of minor importance. The method of deriving ER by combining field observation data and laboratory data provides insight into potential threats to species in their habitats and can be used to prioritize stressors, which is necessary to achieve effective management in amphibian conservation. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  12. Office workers' computer use patterns are associated with workplace stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijckelhof, B.H.W.; Huysmans, M.A.; Blatter, B.M.; Leider, P.C.; Johnson, P.W.; van Dieen, J.H.; Dennerlein, J.T.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This field study examined associations between workplace stressors and office workers' computer use patterns. We collected keyboard and mouse activities of 93 office workers (68F, 25M) for approximately two work weeks. Linear regression analyses examined the associations between self-reported

  13. An empirical investigation of job and family stressors amongst firefighters in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Oosthuizen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The general aim of the research was to theoretically and empirically study and evaluate job and family stressors amongst firefighters in the South African context. This also included an empirical evaluation of the stress symptoms of firefighters. The research was quantitative, consisting of a survey design. Three measuring instruments were used, namely the Experience of Work and Life Circumstances questionnaire, the Stress questionnaire as well as a biographical questionnaire. Task characteristics, organisational functioning, physical working conditions and job equipment, career and social matters, remuneration, fringe benefits and personnel policy were identified as causes of job stress originating within the work situation. Marital dysfunction and divorce, limited time with the family, problems with children, alcohol and drug abuse, lack of exercise, suicide, anger aimed at family members, physical and emotional exhaustion, lonely marital partners, unavailability to help the family when needed and depression were identified as causes of family stress arising outside the work situation.

  14. Multi-scale trends analysis of landscape stressors in an urbanizing coastal watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic land based stressors within a watershed can deliver major impacts to downstream and adjacent coastal waterways affecting water quality and estuarine habitats. Our research focused on a subset of non-point sources of watershed stressors specifically, human population...

  15. Response of secondary production and its components to multiple stressors in nematode field populations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doroszuk, A.; Brake, te E.; Crespo-Gonzalez, D.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Realistic measures of the impact of individual or multiple stressors are important for ecological risk assessment. Although multiple anthropogenic stressors are common in human-dominated environments, knowledge of their influence on functional population parameters such as secondary production (P)

  16. Diagnosis of potential stressors adversely affecting benthic invertebrate communities in Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwich Bay is an urbanized embayment of Narragansett Bay potentially impacted by multiple stressors. The present study identified the important stressors affecting Greenwich Bay benthic fauna. First, existing data and information were used to confirm that the waterbody was imp...

  17. Physiotherapy students' perceived stress, stressors, and reactions to stressors: A comparative study between Sweden and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodselmans, Audy-Paul; Hemdal, Elin; Lundberg, Sophie; Bjarnegård, Anna; Hobbelen, Hans; Svantesson, Ulla

    2018-04-01

    Studies of healthcare students report increased levels of stress, with academic pressures being the greatest source. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in the overall stress level, stressors, and reactions to stressors between physiotherapy students at the University of Gothenburg (GU) and those at the Hanze University of Applied Sciences (HUAS). The Student-life Stress Inventory was used. The participants (n = 116) included physiotherapy students at GU and HUAS. The distribution of the questionnaire occurred during a regular lecture or in a lecture that was scheduled particularly for its distribution. At GU, 13.7% of the students rated their level of stress as mild, whereas 72.5% of them rated it as moderate. The corresponding values for HUAS students were 43.9% and 43.9%, respectively. This difference between two universities was significant (p = 0.006). The total score of the subcategories indicated that the students at GU reported significantly higher levels of stressors (p = 0.027) and reactions to stressors (p = 0.003). However, there were no significant differences in the male participants between the universities. Female students in their three-year educational program in Sweden experienced significantly more stress than Dutch female students in their four-year educational program.

  18. Review of U.S. Army Aviation Accident Reports: Prevalence of Environmental Stressors and Medical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-18

    terminology related to an aforementioned stressor or medical condition. Table 1 presents the identified operational stressor with the keywords extracted...USAARL Report No. 2018-02 Review of U.S. Army Aviation Accident Reports: Prevalence of Environmental Stressors and Medical Conditions By Kathryn...Environmental Stressors and Medical Conditions N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Feltman, Kathryn A. Kelley, Amanda M. Curry, Ian P. Boudreaux, David A. Milam

  19. Look on the bright side: do the benefits of optimism depend on the social nature of the stressor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Alexandra L; Ruiz, John M; Garofalo, John P

    2010-10-01

    Growing evidence suggests that a number of personality traits associated with physical disease risk tend to be social in nature and selectively responsive to social as opposed to non-social stimuli. The current aim was to examine dispositional optimism within this framework. In Study 1, optimism was projected into the Interpersonal Circumplex and Five Factor Model revealing significant interpersonal representation characterized by high control and affiliation. Study 2 demonstrated that higher dispositional optimism attenuated cardiovascular responses to a social (speech) but not non-social stressor (cold pressor) task. Optimism-related attenuation of reactivity to the social vs. non-social stressor contributes further evidence to an emerging picture of psychosocial risk as largely reflecting person x social environment interactions.

  20. Physical and Emotional Stresses of Technology on Employees in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Ali; Campbell, Stefanie Snider

    2012-01-01

    This article presents how today's technology permeates the planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling functions of human resources management. Certain industries or occupations are more reliant on technology and thus impose more physical and emotional stressors on employees. The effects of physical stressors and the physical…

  1. Assessment and longitudinal analysis of health impacts and stressors perceived to result from unconventional shale gas development in the Marcellus Shale region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Kyle J; Kriesky, Jill; Christen, Charles L; Marshall, Lynne P; Malone, Samantha L; Sharma, Ravi K; Michanowicz, Drew R; Goldstein, Bernard D

    2013-01-01

    Concerns for health and social impacts have arisen as a result of Marcellus Shale unconventional natural gas development. Our goal was to document the self-reported health impacts and mental and physical health stressors perceived to result from Marcellus Shale development. Two sets of interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of community members living proximal to Marcellus Shale development, session 1 March-September 2010 (n = 33) and session 2 January-April 2012 (n = 20). Symptoms of health impacts and sources of psychological stress were coded. Symptom and stressor counts were quantified for each interview. The counts for each participant were compared longitudinally. Participants attributed 59 unique health impacts and 13 stressors to Marcellus Shale development. Stress was the most frequently-reported symptom. Over time, perceived health impacts increased (P = 0·042), while stressors remained constant (P = 0·855). Exposure-based epidemiological studies are needed to address identified health impacts and those that may develop as unconventional natural gas extraction continues. Many of the stressors can be addressed immediately.

  2. The Composite Strain Index (COSI) and Cumulative Strain Index (CUSI): methodologies for quantifying biomechanical stressors for complex tasks and job rotation using the Revised Strain Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Arun; Moore, J Steven; Kapellusch, Jay M

    2017-08-01

    The Composite Strain Index (COSI) quantifies biomechanical stressors for complex tasks consisting of exertions at different force levels and/or with different exertion times. The Cumulative Strain Index (CUSI) further integrates biomechanical stressors from different tasks to quantify exposure for the entire work shift. The paper provides methodologies to compute COSI and CUSI along with examples. Complex task simulation produced 169,214 distinct tasks. Use of average, time-weighted average (TWA) and peak force and COSI classified 66.9, 28.2, 100 and 38.9% of tasks as hazardous, respectively. For job rotation the simulation produced 10,920 distinct jobs. TWA COSI, peak task COSI and CUSI classified 36.5, 78.1 and 66.6% jobs as hazardous, respectively. The results suggest that the TWA approach systematically underestimates the biomechanical stressors and peak approach overestimates biomechanical stressors, both at the task and job level. It is believed that the COSI and CUSI partially address these underestimations and overestimations of biomechanical stressors. Practitioner Summary: COSI quantifies exposure when applied hand force and/or duration of that force changes during a task cycle. CUSI integrates physical exposures from job rotation. These should be valuable tools for designing and analysing tasks and job rotation to determine risk of musculoskeletal injuries.

  3. Does the Factor Structure of Military Sexual Stressors in Men Correspond to Women's? A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Using the Sexual Harassment Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Madhavi K; Murdoch, Maureen

    2016-02-01

    Unwanted sexual stressors experienced by military men and women are associated with a host of negative physical and mental health problems. Government officials are making it a priority to put a stop to these unwanted sexual experiences. However, the measure typically used measures sexual stressors much better for women than for men. The purpose of the present study was to test the factor structure of an alternative measure, the Sexual Harassment Inventory (SHI), to examine whether sexual stressors experienced by men correspond to women's experiences. We used three preexisting datasets in which the SHI was used to assess active and former military members' sexual stressor experiences. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis to identify women's response patterns and a confirmatory factor analysis to determine whether men's response patterns corresponded to women's. Findings showed that the SHI has evidence of factorial validity in female service members and adequate, but not exceptional, factorial fit for male service members. It is imperative that more work be done to better understand how men experience and perceive potential military sexual stressors and how those perceptions and experiences compare to women's. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. The Ambivalence of Challenge Stressors: Time Pressure Associated with Both Negative and Positive Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Pascale S.; Semmer, Norbert K.; Kalin, Wolfgang; Jacobshagen, Nicola; Meier, Laurenz L.

    2012-01-01

    According to the challenge-hindrance model, challenge stressors contain both stressful and challenging aspects, hindrance stressors only stressful aspects. Typically, negative outcomes of challenge stressors refer to well-being (strain), positive outcomes to so-called work outcomes (e.g., productivity, intention to quit). As both effects occur…

  5. Newcomer Immigrant Adolescents: A Mixed-Methods Examination of Family Stressors and School Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita G.; Clarke, Annette V.; Eltareb, Fazia; Macciomei, Erynn E.; Wickham, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Family stressors predict negative psychological outcomes for immigrant adolescents, yet little is known about how such stressors interact to predict school outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive role of family stressors on school outcomes for newcomer adolescent immigrants. Using a convergent parallel mixed-methods…

  6. Immediate and Longer-Term Stressors and the Mental Health of Hurricane Ike Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Tracy, Melissa; Cerdá, Magdalena; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented that individuals exposed to more stressors during disasters and their immediate aftermath (immediate stressors) are at risk of experiencing longer-term postdisaster stressors. Longer-term stressors, in turn, have been found to play a key role in shaping postdisaster psychological functioning. Few studies have simultaneously explored the links from immediate to longer-term stressors, and from longer-term stressors to psychological functioning, however. Additionally, studies have inadequately explored whether postdisaster psychological symptoms influence longer-term stressors. In the current study, we aimed to fill these gaps. Participants (N = 448) were from population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors and completed assessments 2–5 months (Wave 1), 5–9 months (Wave 2) and 14–18 months (Wave 3) postdisaster. Through path analysis, we found that immediate stressors, assessed at Wave 1, were positively associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 stressors, which in turn were positively associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. Wave 2 posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with Wave 3 stressors, and Wave 1 depressive symptoms were positively associated with Wave 2 stressors. The findings suggest that policies and interventions can reduce the impact of disasters on mental health by preventing and alleviating both immediate and longer-term postdisaster stressors. PMID:24343752

  7. Ecologically relevant levels of multiple, common marine stressors suggest antagonistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rolanda; Marshall, Dustin

    2017-07-24

    Stressors associated with global change will be experienced simultaneously and may act synergistically, so attempts to estimate the capacity of marine systems to cope with global change requires a multi-stressor approach. Because recent evidence suggests that stressor effects can be context-dependent, estimates of how stressors are experienced in ecologically realistic settings will be particularly valuable. To enhance our understanding of the interplay between environmental effects and the impact of multiple stressors from both natural and anthropogenic sources, we conducted a field experiment. We explored the impact of multiple, functionally varied stressors from both natural and anthropogenic sources experienced during early life history in a common sessile marine invertebrate, Bugula neritina. Natural spatial environmental variation induced differences in conspecific densities, allowing us to test for density-driven context-dependence of stressor effects. We indeed found density-dependent effects. Under high conspecific density, individual survival increased, which offset part of the negative effects of experiencing stressors. Experiencing multiple stressors early in life history translated to a decreased survival in the field, albeit the effects were not as drastic as we expected: our results are congruent with antagonistic stressor effects. We speculate that when individual stressors are more subtle, stressor synergies become less common.

  8. A Review of Non-Chemical Stressors and Their Importance in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative exposure/risk assessments need to include non-chemical stressors as well as human activities and chemical data. Multiple stressor research can offer information on the interactions between chemical and non-chemical stressors needed for cumulative risk assessment resea...

  9. Toward a Better Understanding of the Effects of Hindrance and Challenge Stressors on Work Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jennica R.; Beehr, Terry A.; Christiansen, Neil D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the processes whereby hindrance and challenge stressors may affect work behavior. Three mechanisms were examined to explain the differential effects these stressors have demonstrated: job satisfaction, strains, and work self-efficacy. A model is proposed in which both types of stressors will result in increases in strains,…

  10. Relationship of challenge and hindrance stressors with burnout and its three dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, A.Y.H.; Jamal, M.; Demerouti, E.

    2015-01-01

    The two-dimensional-work-stressor framework suggests that both challenge stressors and hindrance stressors have an undesirable (positive) relationship with burnout for all employees. However, the existing studies testing this framework either treated burnout as a global construct or used one burnout

  11. Individual and Neighborhood Stressors, Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Marnie F.; Nurius, Paula S.; Hajat, Anjum

    2018-01-01

    Psychosocial and environmental stress exposures across the life course have been shown to be relevant in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Assessing more than one stressor from different domains (e.g., individual and neighborhood) and across the life course moves us towards a more integrated picture of how stress affects health and well-being. Furthermore, these individual and neighborhood psychosocial stressors act on biologic pathways, including immune function and inflammatory response, which are also impacted by ubiquitous environmental exposures such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between psychosocial stressors, at both the individual and neighborhood level, and air pollution on CVD. This study used data from the 2009–2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from Washington State. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) measured at the individual level, and neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) measured at the zip code level, were the psychosocial stressors of interest. Exposures to three air pollutants—particulate matter (both PM2.5 and PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)—were also calculated at the zip code level. Outcome measures included several self-reported CVD-related health conditions. Both multiplicative and additive interaction quantified using the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), were evaluated. This study included 32,151 participants in 502 unique zip codes. Multiplicative and positive additive interactions were observed between ACEs and PM10 for diabetes, in models adjusted for NDI. The prevalence of diabetes was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.40, 1.79) times higher among those with both high ACEs and high PM10 compared to those with low ACEs and low PM10 (p-value = 0.04 for interaction on the multiplicative scale). Interaction was also observed between neighborhood-level stressors (NDI) and air pollution (NO2) for the stroke and diabetes outcomes on both multiplicative and

  12. Individual and Neighborhood Stressors, Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Marnie F; Nurius, Paula S; Hajat, Anjum

    2018-03-08

    Psychosocial and environmental stress exposures across the life course have been shown to be relevant in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Assessing more than one stressor from different domains (e.g., individual and neighborhood) and across the life course moves us towards a more integrated picture of how stress affects health and well-being. Furthermore, these individual and neighborhood psychosocial stressors act on biologic pathways, including immune function and inflammatory response, which are also impacted by ubiquitous environmental exposures such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between psychosocial stressors, at both the individual and neighborhood level, and air pollution on CVD. This study used data from the 2009-2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from Washington State. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) measured at the individual level, and neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) measured at the zip code level, were the psychosocial stressors of interest. Exposures to three air pollutants-particulate matter (both PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂)-were also calculated at the zip code level. Outcome measures included several self-reported CVD-related health conditions. Both multiplicative and additive interaction quantified using the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), were evaluated. This study included 32,151 participants in 502 unique zip codes. Multiplicative and positive additive interactions were observed between ACEs and PM 10 for diabetes, in models adjusted for NDI. The prevalence of diabetes was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.40, 1.79) times higher among those with both high ACEs and high PM 10 compared to those with low ACEs and low PM 10 ( p -value = 0.04 for interaction on the multiplicative scale). Interaction was also observed between neighborhood-level stressors (NDI) and air pollution (NO₂) for the stroke and diabetes outcomes on both

  13. Stressors of college: a comparison of traditional and nontraditional students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, P L; Henley, T B

    1998-01-01

    Perceived stress and stressors of nontraditional (returning-adult) and traditional college students were compared. Forty-seven nontraditional students 24-54 years old and 47 traditional students, matched for demographics, completed the Adolescent Perceived Events Scale (Compas, Davis, Forsythe, & Wagner, 1987) for college students. They rated 210 life events according to the desirability, impact, and frequency of the events. Significant differences were found between the nontraditional and traditional students for events in the following categories: academics, peer and social relations, family and network, autonomy and responsibility, and intimacy. Nontraditional students enjoyed going to classes and doing homework more, whereas traditional students worried more about school performance. Peer events, including social activities, had much more impact on traditional students, whereas nontraditional students reported much more responsibility in the home. The results suggest that there are significant differences between the groups in their perceptions of stressors.

  14. Stressors, academic performance, and learned resourcefulness in baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    High stress levels in nursing students may affect memory, concentration, and problem-solving ability, and may lead to decreased learning, coping, academic performance, and retention. College students with higher levels of learned resourcefulness develop greater self-confidence, motivation, and academic persistence, and are less likely to become anxious, depressed, and frustrated, but no studies specifically involve nursing students. This explanatory correlational study used Gadzella's Student-life Stress Inventory (SSI) and Rosenbaum's Self Control Scale (SCS) to explore learned resourcefulness, stressors, and academic performance in 53 baccalaureate nursing students. High levels of personal and academic stressors were evident, but not significant predictors of academic performance (p = .90). Age was a significant predictor of academic performance (p = learned resourcefulness scores than females and Caucasians. Studies in larger, more diverse samples are necessary to validate these findings.

  15. Assessing and managing stressors in a changing marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Peter M

    2017-11-30

    We are facing a dynamic future in the face of multiple stressors acting individually and in combination: climate change; habitat change/loss; overfishing; invasive species; harmful algal blooms/eutrophication; and, chemical contaminants. Historic assessment and management approaches will be inadequate for addressing risks from climate change and other stressors. Wicked problems (non-linear, complex, competing risks and benefits, not easily solvable), will become increasingly common. We are facing irreversible changes to our planetary living conditions. Agreed protection goals and considering both the negatives (risks) and the positives (benefits) of all any and all actions are required, as is judicious and appropriate use of the Precautionary Principle. Researchers and managers need to focus on: determining tipping points (alternative stable points); maintaining ecosystem services; and, managing competing ecosystem services. Marine (and other) scientists are urged to focus their research on wicked problems to allow for informed decision-making on a planetary basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The positive and negative consequences of stressors during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Pat; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the long-term effects of stress exposure in pre- and early postnal life. We present an evolutionary framework within which such effects can be viewed, and describe how the outcomes might vary with species life histories. We focus on stressors that induce increases in glucocorticoid hormones and discuss the advantages of an experimental approach. We describe a number of studies demonstrating how exposure to these hormones in early life can influence stress responsiveness and have substantial long-term, negative consequences for adult longevity. We also describe how early life exposure to mild levels of stressors can have beneficial effects on resilience to stress in later life, and discuss how the balance of costs and benefits is likely dependent on the nature of the adult environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Office workers' computer use patterns are associated with workplace stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijckelhof, Belinda H W; Huysmans, Maaike A; Blatter, Birgitte M; Leider, Priscilla C; Johnson, Peter W; van Dieën, Jaap H; Dennerlein, Jack T; van der Beek, Allard J

    2014-11-01

    This field study examined associations between workplace stressors and office workers' computer use patterns. We collected keyboard and mouse activities of 93 office workers (68F, 25M) for approximately two work weeks. Linear regression analyses examined the associations between self-reported effort, reward, overcommitment, and perceived stress and software-recorded computer use duration, number of short and long computer breaks, and pace of input device usage. Daily duration of computer use was, on average, 30 min longer for workers with high compared to low levels of overcommitment and perceived stress. The number of short computer breaks (30 s-5 min long) was approximately 20% lower for those with high compared to low effort and for those with low compared to high reward. These outcomes support the hypothesis that office workers' computer use patterns vary across individuals with different levels of workplace stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. A cohort study on self-reported role stressors at work and poor sleep: does sense of coherence moderate or mediate the associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Rugulies, Reiner; Conway, Paul Maurice; Garde, Anne Helene; Török, Eszter; Mikkelsen, Eva Gemzøe; Persson, Roger; Hogh, Annie

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the bidirectional associations between subjective role ambiguity and role conflicts at work, respectively, and self-reported sleep 2 years later. In addition, we also examine whether sense of coherence (SOC) moderate or mediate the association between role stressors and poor sleep and between poor sleep and role stressors. We used questionnaire data collected in 2006 and 2008 from the Workplace Bullying and Harassment cohort. In 2006, 3363 responded to the questionnaire and in 2008 1671 responded. In total, 1569 participants responded in both 2006 and 2008 to the questions on role stressors (in terms of role ambiguity and role conflicts at work) and sleep problems in both 2006 and 2008. Sleep problems were assessed with the awakening index (AWI) and the disturbed sleep index (DSI). Moderation and mediation analyses of the association were estimated using structural equation modelling. We found a prospective association between role stressors and sleep problems [beta values were 0.07 (95% CI 0.03-0.11) and 0.05 (CI 0.01-0.10) for DSI and AWI, respectively] when adjusting for sleep problems at baseline, age, sex, and life style factors (i.e. alcohol, smoking, and leisure time physical activity). SOC moderated the association showing that participants with lower SOC scores who reported higher role ambiguity reported sleep problems to a higher extent than participants with high SOC scores. SOC also mediated the association between role stressors and sleep problems. We also found support for sleep problems at baseline and role stressors 2 years later [DSI 0.04 (CI 0.00-0.08) and 0.15 (CI 0.09-0.21)] for role ambiguity and role conflicts, respectively. Similar results were observed for AWI. Subjective role stressors were prospectively associated with sleep problems. Yet, sleep problems could also prospectively predict subjective role stressors (i.e. reverse causation). The analyses also showed that SOC may be regarded as both

  19. Effects of environmental stressors on lipid metabolism in aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Chul; Park, Jun Chul; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2018-07-01

    Lipid metabolism is crucial for the survival and propagation of the species, since lipids are an essential cellular component across animal taxa for maintaining homeostasis in the presence of environmental stressors. This review aims to summarize information on the lipid metabolism under environmental stressors in aquatic invertebrates. Fatty acid synthesis from glucose via de novo lipogenesis (DNL) pathway is mostly well-conserved across animal taxa. The structure of free fatty acid (FFA) from both dietary and DNL pathway could be transformed by elongase and desaturase. In addition, FFA can be stored in lipid droplet as triacylglycerol, upon attachment to glycerol. However, due to the limited information on both gene and lipid composition, in-depth studies on the structural modification of FFA and their storage conformation are required. Despite previously validated evidences on the disturbance of the normal life cycle and lipid homeostasis by the environmental stressors (e.g., obesogens, salinity, temperature, pCO 2 , and nutrients) in the aquatic invertebrates, the mechanism behind these effects are still poorly understood. To overcome this limitation, omics approaches such as transcriptomic and proteomic analyses have been used, but there are still gaps in our knowledge on aquatic invertebrates as well as the lipidome. This paper provides a deeper understanding of lipid metabolism in aquatic invertebrates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of conscientiousness on the appraisals of daily stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Nicola; O'Connor, Daryl B; Lawton, Rebecca

    2012-02-01

    Conscientiousness (C) is positively associated with health and longevity although the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not fully understood. Stress may play a role in explaining the C-longevity relationship. This study investigated whether C predicted the cognitive appraisals of daily stressors/hassles. Participants (N=102) completed measures of C and cognitive appraisal in relation to the most stressful hassle they had experienced in the last 7 days. Correlational analysis revealed that Total C, Order and Industriousness were positively correlated with primary appraisals, and Responsibility was positively correlated with secondary appraisals. The facets of C were then entered into hierarchical regression models, controlling for age and gender. This demonstrated that Order (β=0.27, paccounting for 15.8% of the variance. Responsibility significantly predicted secondary appraisals (β=0.44, paccounting for 16.3% of the variance. These findings indicate that higher Order and Industriousness are related to having a greater stake in daily stressors, whereas higher Responsibility is related to greater confidence in one's ability to deal with daily stressors. These results are the first demonstration that C is related to the appraisals of daily hassles and suggest that C may moderate the experience of stress in daily life. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Interactions among ecosystem stressors and their importance in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Emily S.; Brown, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between multiple ecosystem stressors are expected to jeopardize biological processes, functions and biodiversity. The scientific community has declared stressor interactions—notably synergies—a key issue for conservation and management. Here, we review ecological literature over the past four decades to evaluate trends in the reporting of ecological interactions (synergies, antagonisms and additive effects) and highlight the implications and importance to conservation. Despite increasing popularity, and ever-finer terminologies, we find that synergies are (still) not the most prevalent type of interaction, and that conservation practitioners need to appreciate and manage for all interaction outcomes, including antagonistic and additive effects. However, it will not be possible to identify the effect of every interaction on every organism's physiology and every ecosystem function because the number of stressors, and their potential interactions, are growing rapidly. Predicting the type of interactions may be possible in the near-future, using meta-analyses, conservation-oriented experiments and adaptive monitoring. Pending a general framework for predicting interactions, conservation management should enact interventions that are robust to uncertainty in interaction type and that continue to bolster biological resilience in a stressful world. PMID:26865306

  2. Nursing students in Iran identify the clinical environment stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi Doulatabad, Shahla; Mohamadhosaini, Sima; Ghafarian Shirazi, Hamid Reza; Mohebbi, Zinat

    2015-06-01

    Stress at clinical environment is one of the cases that could affect the education quality among nursing students. The study aims to investigate Iranian nursing students' perceptions on the stressors in clinical environment in the South Western part of Iran. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2010 to include 300 nursing students after their completion of second clinical nursing course in a hospital environment. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire, with focus on the clinical environment stressors from personal, educational and training viewpoints. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) and descriptive statistics tests. Among the various stressors, the highest scores were given to the faculty (71 ± 19.77), followed by the students' personal characteristics (43.15 ± 21.79). Given that faculty-related factors provoked more stress in nursing students, nursing administration should diligently evaluate and improve communication skills among faculty to reduce student stress and enhance learning. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Associations between Forced Sexual Initiation, HIV Status, Sexual Risk Behavior, Life Stressors, and Coping Strategies among Adolescents in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan

    Full Text Available Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status.We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10-19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman's conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies.Eighty-one adolescents (18.6% reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14-11.87, and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56-4.95. Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96-1.11 and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73-2.65, but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34-1.18. They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62-3.50 than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49-1.64 to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03 and loss and grief (p = 0.009. Adolescents reporting forced sexual initiation and HIV

  4. Associations between Forced Sexual Initiation, HIV Status, Sexual Risk Behavior, Life Stressors, and Coping Strategies among Adolescents in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status. Methods We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10–19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman’s conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies. Results Eighty-one adolescents (18.6%) reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14–11.87), and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56–4.95). Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96–1.11) and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73–2.65), but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34–1.18). They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62–3.50) than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49–1.64) to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03) and loss and grief (p = 0.009). Adolescents reporting forced

  5. Development and initial validation of an instrument to assess stressors among South African sports coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubayi, Alliance; Toriola, Abel; Didymus, Faye

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this series of studies was to develop and initially validate an instrument to assess stressors among South African sports coaches. In study one, a preliminary pool of 45 items was developed based on existing literature and an expert panel was employed to assess the content validity and applicability of these items. In study two, the 32 items that were retained after study one were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA). The resultant factorial structure comprised four components: environmental stressors, performance stressors, task-related stressors, and athlete stressors. These four components were made up of 26 items and, together, the components and items comprised the provisional Stressors in Sports Coaching Questionnaire (SSCQ). The results show that the SSCQ demonstrates acceptable internal consistency (.73-.89). The findings provide preliminary evidence that SSCQ is a valid tool to assess stressors among South African sports coaches.

  6. Analysing the impact of multiple stressors in aquatic biomonitoring data: A 'cookbook' with applications in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Christian K; Segurado, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Cayetano

    2016-12-15

    Multiple stressors threaten biodiversity and ecosystem integrity, imposing new challenges to ecosystem management and restoration. Ecosystem managers are required to address and mitigate the impact of multiple stressors, yet the knowledge required to disentangle multiple-stressor effects is still incomplete. Experimental studies have advanced the understanding of single and combined stressor effects, but there is a lack of a robust analytical framework, to address the impact of multiple stressors based on monitoring data. Since 2000, the monitoring of Europe's waters has resulted in a vast amount of biological and environmental (stressor) data of about 120,000 water bodies. For many reasons, this data is rarely exploited in the multiple-stressor context, probably because of its rather heterogeneous nature: stressors vary and are mixed with broad-scale proxies of environmental stress (e.g. land cover), missing values and zero-inflated data limit the application of statistical methods and biological indicators are often aggregated (e.g. taxon richness) and do not respond stressor-specific. Here, we present a 'cookbook' to analyse the biological response to multiple stressors using data from biomonitoring schemes. Our 'cookbook' includes guidance for the analytical process and the interpretation of results. The 'cookbook' is accompanied by scripts, which allow the user to run a stepwise analysis based on his/her own data in R, an open-source language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. Using simulated and real data, we show that the recommended procedure is capable of identifying stressor hierarchy (importance) and interaction in large datasets. We recommend a minimum number of 150 independent observations and a minimum stressor gradient length of 75% (of the most relevant stressor's gradient in nature), to be able to reliably rank the stressor's importance, detect relevant interactions and estimate their standardised effect size. We conclude with

  7. Stress Exposure and Physical, Mental, and Behavioral Health among American Indian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Walls, Melissa L.; Sittner, Kelley J.; Aronson, Benjamin D.; Forsberg, Angie K.; Whitbeck, Les B.; al’Absi, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    American Indian (AI) communities experience disproportionate exposure to stressors and health inequities including type 2 diabetes. Yet, we know little about the role of psychosocial stressors for AI diabetes-related health outcomes. We investigated associations between a range of stressors and psychological, behavioral, and physical health for AIs with diabetes. This community-based participatory research with 5 AI tribes includes 192 AI adult type 2 diabetes patients recruited from clinical...

  8. Interpersonal Stressors in the Schoolyard and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Roles of Rumination and Co-Rumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Cuiying; Chu, Xiaowei; Wang, Mingzhong; Zhou, Zongkui

    2016-01-01

    Stressors have been identified as significant vulnerability factors in the development of adolescents' depression. The present study focused on the relationship between depressive symptoms and two types of interpersonal stressors in the schoolyard, namely teacher-student interaction stressors (TSIS) and peer interaction stressors (PIS). More…

  9. The Combined Effects of Daily Stressors and Major Life Events on Daily Subjective Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingtier, Jennifer A; Neupert, Shevaun D; Kotter-Grühn, Dana

    2017-07-01

    Stressors may be a contributing factor in determining how old an individual feels, looks, or would like to be. Currently, little research has been devoted to understanding the relationship between stressors and subjective age in older adults. We focus on the combined impact of major life-event stressors and daily stressors on multiple indicators of subjective age: felt age, ideal age, and look age. Furthermore, we examine the process by which daily stressors relate to subjective ages by testing whether positive affect, control, and negative affect mediate this relationship. Using a daily-diary design, the current study measured older adults' (60-96 years old) stressors, subjective ages, personal control, and affect. Felt, ideal, and look ages each demonstrated a unique pattern of interactions between daily stressors and major life-event stressors. Furthermore, our findings suggest that on the daily level, the relationship between stressors and felt age is mediated by negative affect but not by control and positive affect. Findings indicate the need to consider the broader contextual picture of stressors, as well as their differential impact on multiple indicators of subjective age. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Educational and Relational Stressors Associated with Burnout in Korean Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, So-Jin; Bae, Hwa-Ok

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to examine whether educational stressors and relational stressors are associated with burnout in medical students and to test social support as a moderator between stressors and burnout. A total of 263 medical students attending Gyeongsang National University composed the study sample. A standardized questionnaire was used to investigate educational and relational stressors, three dimensions of burnout, and social support of medical students. The findings showed that overall burnout is very high among Korean medical students, with 9.9% totally burned out. Educational and relational stressors were significantly associated with the risk of burnout in medical students after controlling for socio-demographics and health behaviors. Social support moderated educational and relational stressors on personal accomplishment, but did not moderate stressors on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Burnout level is substantially high among Korean medical students. Educational and relational stressors are significantly associated with burnout risk in Korean medical students. Social support had moderated educational and relational stressors on personal accomplishment. The results suggest that more social support for medical students is needed to buffer stressors on and burnout.

  11. Psychosocial stressors in the lives of great jazz musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalano, F

    1997-02-01

    Brief biographical information on four great jazz tenor saxophone players of the past is presented to illustrate the similar psychosocial stressors these men seemed to experience, namely, severe substance abuse, haphazard working conditions, lack of acceptance of their art form in the United States, marital and family discord, and a vagabond life style. Ages at death of 80 great jazz musicians may indicate that the stressful life style of jazz musicians may be reflected in a shortened life span, but a control group is needed.

  12. Physical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Schulman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    "Protons, electrons, positrons, quarks, gluons, muons, shmuons! I should have paid better attention to my high scholl physics teacher. If I had, maybe I could have understood even a fration of what Israeli particle physicist Giora Mikenberg was talking about when explaining his work on the world's largest science experiment." (2 pages)

  13. Timing anthropogenic stressors to mitigate their impact on marine ecosystem resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Paul Pao-Yen; Mengersen, Kerrie; McMahon, Kathryn; Kendrick, Gary A; Chartrand, Kathryn; York, Paul H; Rasheed, Michael A; Caley, M Julian

    2017-11-02

    Better mitigation of anthropogenic stressors on marine ecosystems is urgently needed to address increasing biodiversity losses worldwide. We explore opportunities for stressor mitigation using whole-of-systems modelling of ecological resilience, accounting for complex interactions between stressors, their timing and duration, background environmental conditions and biological processes. We then search for ecological windows, times when stressors minimally impact ecological resilience, defined here as risk, recovery and resistance. We show for 28 globally distributed seagrass meadows that stressor scheduling that exploits ecological windows for dredging campaigns can achieve up to a fourfold reduction in recovery time and 35% reduction in extinction risk. Although the timing and length of windows vary among sites to some degree, global trends indicate favourable windows in autumn and winter. Our results demonstrate that resilience is dynamic with respect to space, time and stressors, varying most strongly with: (i) the life history of the seagrass genus and (ii) the duration and timing of the impacting stress.

  14. The Role of Various Stressors in the Trigger Mechanism of Raynaud's Disease (Hemorheological and Vascular Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantskava M.M.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of stress reactions are provided by the blood circulation system. In its turn, the adequacy of blood circulation depends on the hemorheological and vascular mechanisms. The changeability of their properties appears to be the basis of the increasing of stress stages. From the viewpoint of biophysical reactions, any change and movement occur with the expenditure and accumulation of energy. Higher level of adaptation energy waste and secondary level take place, when a small stressor entails a small expenditure. There is a maximum possible rate of adaptive energy consumption and at this maximum the organism cannot cope with any additional stimulus. At the same time adaptive and stress diseases develop. Let’s consider the duration and manifestation of Raynaud's disease from the perspective of adaptation diseases and diseases of the third grade, which appears to be the cause of the double stress effect - cold and emotional- physical and psychic. Total of 97 patients with Raynaud's disease were examined. For a new vision of the problem it was necessary to find out how the streessors of various nature impact the hemoreheological status and vascular resistance. For this purpose all the patients were examined for a resistance index of resistive arteries of the hand and the indices of erythrocyte aggregation and deformability. The patients were divided into four subgroups. The first subgroup – the patients after chilblain, the second subgroup – the patients with psychic strerssor, the third subgroup – the patients with prolonged chronic stress, and the fourth subgroup – the patients without the differentiation of the stressors. According to the obtained results, it is obvious that at cold and emotional stress (I and II subgroups the hemorheological and vascular parameters are changed. However, this change (hemorheological and vascular is more pronounced at chronic emotional stress (III subgroup as compared both to the

  15. An assessment of the influence of multiple stressors on the Vaal River, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepener, V.; van Dyk, C.; Bervoets, L.; O'Brien, G.; Covaci, A.; Cloete, Y.

    The Vaal River is situated in the mining and industrial heartland of South Africa. It is regarded as a “work horse” river in South Africa and as a consequence it receives treated waste water from the largest metropolitain area in South Africa. It is only with the more frequent occurance of fish kills in the Vaal Barrage area during the past few years that public attention has been drawn towards the decreasing water quality and subsequent deterioration in the aquatic health of the Vaal River system. The aim of this study was to apply a multi-metric approach to assessing the risk of the multiple stressors to fish populations of the Vaal River system. A relative risk assessment approach was applied to divide the Vaal River Barrage into four risk regions. Field sampling was undertaken to validate the predicted risks in each region. The sampling included abiotic (i.e. water and sediment quality) and biotic (fish components) assessment. General water quality parameters (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen) together with nutrient, bacteriological and metal concentrations were measured in the four regions. Sediment quality was determined through physical (particle size distribution) and chemical (metal and organic pollutant) analyses. The fish assessment was undertaken at different levels of biological organisation ranging from biomarkers at subcellular levels (cytochrome P450-EROD, metallothionein, acetycholine esterase, antioxidant enzymes, cellular energy), tissue (histopathology), whole organism (fish health index), population and community level. These biological responses were related to environmental exposure through bioaccumulation analyses of metals and organic pollutants in fish tissues. Multivariate statistical analyses were applied to integrate the environmental exposure and effects. The results indicated that those regions that were predicted to be at greatest risk to exposure of multiple stressors did indeed display the greatest disturbance in fish

  16. Stressors, stress and stress consequences during long-duration manned space missions: a descriptive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuna, Stefano; Brunelli, Francesco; Perino, Maria A.

    Keeping crew members in good health is a major factor in the success or failure of long-duration manned space missions. Among the many possible agents that can affect the crew's general well-being, stress is certainly one of the most critical because of its implications on human health and performance, both physical and mental. Nevertheless, very few studies have been performed on this fundamental issue and none of them has addressed it in its entirity, considering its diverse physical and psychological aspects. In this work, a descriptive model is proposed to expound the mechanism and sequence of events which mediate stress. A critical analysis of the information provided by past manned spaceflights and by dedicated research performed in analogous environments is presented, and an extrapolation of the available data on human stress in such extreme conditions is proposed. Both internal and external stressors have been identified, at physical and psychosocial levels, thus providing the basis for their early detection and preventive reduction. The possible negative consequences of stress that may lead to disease in crewmembers are described. Finally, the most effective instruments which may be of help in reducing space-related human stress and treating its negative consequences are suggested.

  17. Effects of Stressor Controllability on Acute Stress Responses: Cardiovascular, Neuroendocrine, and Immune Responses

    OpenAIRE

    磯和, 勅子; Isowa, Tokiko

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the effects of controllability over acute stressors on psychological and physiological responses intermediated by immune, cardiovascular, neuroendocrine systems. The effects of stressor controllability have been examined in animal studies based on the learned helplessness theory. However, there were few studies in human. Especially, there were remarkably few studies that examined the effects of stressor controllability on immunological system. In addition, result...

  18. Anthropogenic and Natural Stressors and Their Effect on Immunity, Reproduction, and the Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman-Lee, Lorin A.

    2016-01-01

    Organisms must be able to cope with many natural and anthropogenic stressors in order to successfully survive and reproduce. These stressors can come in many forms and are increasing as anthropogenic activities become more and more prevalent across the globe. In order to cope with these stressors, organisms must allocate limited energy away from processes such as reproduction to mount a stress response. This stress response involves the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis an...

  19. Fewer Ups and Downs: Daily Stressors Mediate Age Differences in Negative Affect

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Susan Turk; Luong, Gloria; Almeida, David M.; Ryff, Carol; Sturm, Maggie; Love, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined age differences in daily stressors, positive events (uplifts), and their associations with emotional experience among healthy older women. Women (N = 101, 63--93 years old) reported their daily experiences across 1 week. Older age was related to fewer stressors and less frequent negative affect. However, the association between negative affect and age was no longer significant after accounting for the occurrence of daily stressors. Older age was not significantly re...

  20. Stressors, coping, and social supports of adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarine, S

    1986-05-01

    This report describes the perceived stressors, coping strategies, and social supports of a group of adolescent mothers during their first month at home after delivery. In addition to concerns about the baby and the limitations imposed by motherhood, many of the young mothers considered their interpersonal relationships as problematic. Findings suggest that the puerperium was not a time of major distress for most of these young women. Factors contributing to a relatively smooth transition to motherhood were the adolescent's use of anticipatory coping prior to the birth, their extensive reliance on family support once at home, and their past experience with childcare. Sharing childcare with the family was an important component of the support received by these adolescents, and it is suggested that the adolescent's mobilization of social supports may be essential to ther adaptation to motherhood. Professionals were infrequently mentioned as sources of support even though a majority of the sample participated in special adolescent maternity programs. Finally, findings also suggest that problem-focused coping was used more often when dealing with concrete stressors, while emotion-focused coping was used more in response to interpersonal problems.

  1. Test anxiety and cardiovascular responses to daily academic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Kristen M; Lehman, Barbara J

    2012-02-01

    Routine academic events may cause stress and produce temporary elevations in blood pressure. Students who experience test anxiety may be especially prone to cardiovascular activation in response to academic stress. This study drew on self-reported stress and ambulatory blood pressure measurements provided by 99 undergraduate participants (30% men, mean age=21 years) who participated over 4 days. Posture, activity level, recent consumption and the previous same-day reading were considered as covariates in a series of hierarchical linear models. Results indicate elevations in systolic blood pressure at times of acute academic stressors; neither diastolic blood pressure nor heart rate was linked with academic stress. In addition, those participants higher in test anxiety exhibited especially pronounced elevations in systolic blood pressure during times of acute academic stress. This research suggests that everyday academic stressors are linked with temporary increases in blood pressure and that test anxiety may contribute to these elevations. Test anxiety has implications for future academic and job success, and cardiovascular responses to everyday stress may contribute to health problems later in life. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Hidden stressors in the clonogenic assay used in radiobiology experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, M.D.E.; Suchowerska, N.; Rizvi, S.; McKenzie, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: While clonogenic assays are extensively used in radiobiology, there is no widely accepted procedure for choosing the composition of the cell culture media. Cell line suppliers recommend a specific culture medium for each cell line, however a researcher will frequently customize this aspect of the protocol by supplementing the recommended support medium with additives. For example, many researchers add antibiotics, in order to avoid contamination of cells and the consequent loss of data, with little discussion of the influence of the antibiotics on the clonogenic survival of the cells. It is assumed that the effect of any variables in the growth medium on cell survival is taken into consideration by comparing the survival fraction relative to that of controls grown under the same conditions. In the search for better cancer treatment, the effect of various stressors on clonogenic cell survival is under investigation. This study seeks to identify and test potential stressors commonly introduced into the cell culture medium, which may confound the response to radiation. (author)

  3. Untangling the effects of multiple human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages in European running waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinegger, Rafaela; Palt, Martin; Segurado, Pedro; Schmutz, Stefan

    2016-12-15

    This work addresses human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages at pan-European scale by analysing single and multiple stressors and their interactions. Based on an extensive dataset with 3105 fish sampling sites, patterns of stressors, their combination and nature of interactions, i.e. synergistic, antagonistic and additive were investigated. Geographical distribution and patterns of seven human stressor variables, belonging to four stressor groups (hydrological-, morphological-, water quality- and connectivity stressors), were examined, considering both single and multiple stressor combinations. To quantify the stressors' ecological impact, a set of 22 fish metrics for various fish assemblage types (headwaters, medium gradient rivers, lowland rivers and Mediterranean streams) was analysed by comparing their observed and expected response to different stressors, both acting individually and in combination. Overall, investigated fish sampling sites are affected by 15 different stressor combinations, including 4 stressors acting individually and 11 combinations of two or more stressors; up to 4 stressor groups per fish sampling site occur. Stressor-response analysis shows divergent results among different stressor categories, even though a general trend of decreasing ecological integrity with increasing stressor quantity can be observed. Fish metrics based on density of species 'intolerant to water quality degradation' and 'intolerant to oxygen depletion" responded best to single and multiple stressors and their interactions. Interactions of stressors were additive (40%), synergistic (30%) or antagonistic (30%), emphasizing the importance to consider interactions in multi-stressor analyses. While antagonistic effects are only observed in headwaters and medium-gradient rivers, synergistic effects increase from headwaters over medium gradient rivers and Mediterranean streams to large lowland rivers. The knowledge gained in this work provides a basis for

  4. A study of the stressor, family environment and family burden in dissociative (conversion disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal K Verma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dissociative disorder is a stress-related disorder usually present in adolescent and younger age group. It is also accompanied with significant impairment in activity of daily living and family relationship. Family environment plays important role in initiation and maintenance of symptoms and this put significant burden on family. Aim and Objective: To study presence of stressor, family environment, and assessment of family burden in dissociative disorder patients. Material and Method: This was a cross-sectional observational study in which 100 dissociatives disorder patients were included after fulfilling inclusion criteria from both inpatients and outpatient department of psychiatry. Results: In our study major part of the sample were women 60 (60%, among them most of were housewife and educated up to primary school. According to a stressor, 63 (63% patients had family stress/problem and out of them, 35 (58.4 were women. Seventy-four (74% patients had dissociative convulsion and out of them, 45 (75% were women. The dissociative disorder patients cause a considerable degree of burden over other family members in both men and women. There is a significant difference found in the family environment in term of personal growth dimension, relationship dimension in both men and women. Conclusion: Present study concludes that dissociative disorder patients cause a considerable degree of burden over other family members in term of leisure, physical, mental, financial, and routines family interrelationship domains. The family environment in term of personal growth dimension, relationship dimension has a casual effect on symptoms of dissociative disorder patients.

  5. Psychological Stressors and Burden of Medical Conditions in Older Adults: A Psychosomatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n  "nObjective: "nIn geriatric practice, the impact of psychological distress on health status has been undermined due to ageism, atypical presentation and less tendency to report negative affect among elderly people. Few studies have examined the impact of psychological stressors on medical burden in older adults. The current study has investigated the correlation of psychological distress and burden of medical conditions in a sample of older people .     "n  "n  "nMethod: A convenient study sample of 120 elderly subjects was recruited from the places where there was greater chance for the elderly people to attend. Data were collected by a trained research assistant using perceived stress scale, cumulative illness rating scale, geriatric depressive scale and a demographic questionnaire.     "n  "n  "nResults: "nOur participants perceived more level of stress than the average for their age. In the current study, the burden of medical condition was significantly correlated with the level of perceived stress(r = .197, p = .044. Moreover, in regression analysis, perceived stress was the strongest predictor for physical health morbidity (R2 =.049, significant f= .03.     "n  "n  "nConclusions: "nThe result of this study suggested that the psychological stressors contribute to poor health outcome in older adults ; the area that is usually overlooked due to ageism and its physiological related changes. The medical practitioners should consider the psychological distress as a part of etiological factors implicating in health morbidity among their aged patients.

  6. A Foundation for Stressor-Based Prognostics for Next Generation Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrell, Don; Sisk, Daniel; Bond, Leonard

    2002-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists are performing research under the Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program, to develop a methodology for accurate identification and prediction of equipment faults in critical machinery. The 3-year project, on-line intelligent self-diagnostic monitoring system (SDMS) for next generation nuclear power plants is scheduled for completion at the end of FY 2002. The research involves running machinery to failure in the Laboratory by the introduction of intentional faults. During testing, advanced diagnostic/prognostic sensors and analysis systems monitor the equipment stressor levels, correlate them with expected degradation rates, and predict the resulting machinery performance levels and residual lifetime. Application of a first principles physics-based approach is expected to produce prognostic methodologies of significantly higher accuracies than are currently available. This paper reviews the evolution and current state of the maintenance art. It presents a key measurement philosophy that results from the use of condition based maintenance (CBM) as a fundamental investigative precept, and explains how this approach impacts degradation and failure measurement and prediction accuracy. It then examines how this measurement approach is applied in sensing and correlating pump stressors with regard to degradation rate and time to equipment failure. The specifics are examined on how this approach is being applied at PNNL to cavitation and vibration phenomena in a centrifugal pump. Preliminary vibration analysis results show an excellent correspondence between the (laser) motor position indication, the vibration response, and the dynamic force loading on the bearings. Orbital harmonic vibratory motion of the pump and motor appear to be readily correlated through the FFTs of all three sensing systems. (authors)

  7. [Professional stressors and common mental health disorders: Causal links?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, C; Chawky, N; Jourdan-Ionescu, C; Drouin, M-S; Page, C; Houlfort, N; Beauchamp, G; Séguin, M

    2017-03-22

    According to the World Health Organization, depression has become the leading cause of disability in the world, contributing significantly to the burden of health issues especially in the industrialized countries. This is a major public health problem, with potential impact on work climates, productivity at work and the continued existence of the organizations. Some recent studies have examined potential links between professional factors and common mental health disorders, but none have demonstrated a direct causal link. In the present study, we explored possible links between work-related stressors and common mental health disorders, with the objective of determining priority mental health prevention axes. The study used a life trajectory method. We compared professional stressors and difficulties present in other spheres of life in the last five years between two groups: a group of 29 participants with common mental health disorders during the last five years (depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, substance use disorders, pathological gambling), and a group of 29 participants who have not experienced a mental health disorder in the last five years. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with the participants using a life course analysis method. Each participant was interviewed during two or three meetings of two to three hour duration. Questions regarding difficulties in different spheres of life and mental health were asked. More precisely, data were collected with regards to the presence or absence of mental health disorders in the last five years and the nature of mental health disorders and difficulties. Moreover, we collected data pertaining to the most important positive and negative events in different spheres of life that were present in the last five years, including family life, romantic relationships, social life, academic difficulties, losses and separations, episodes of personal difficulties, financial difficulties as well as

  8. The Range and Impact of Postmigration Stressors During Treatment of Trauma-Affected Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Maja; Rees, Susan; Mohsin, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    . Postmigration stressors were deemed to impact on 39.1% of treatment sessions with medical personnel. Issues related to work, finances, and family were the most frequently identified stressors. Postmigration stressors interfering with treatment were more common among male refugees, those living alone, those from...... for trauma-related mental distress. A total of 116 patients completed 6 months of multidisciplinary treatment. Clinician-rated postmigration stressors were registered at each session. Outcome measures were Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Global Assessment of Functioning, function (GAF-F) and symptom...

  9. Chemical and non-chemical stressors affecting childhood obesity: a systematic scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtveld, Kim; Thomas, Kent; Tulve, Nicolle S

    2018-01-01

    Childhood obesity in the United States has doubled over the last three decades and currently affects 17% of children and adolescents. While much research has focused on individual behaviors impacting obesity, little research has emphasized the complex interactions of numerous chemical and non-chemical stressors found in a child's environment and how these interactions affect a child's health and well-being. The objectives of this systematic scoping review were to (1) identify potential chemical stressors in the context of non-chemical stressors that impact childhood obesity; and, (2) summarize our observations for chemical and non-chemical stressors in regards to child-specific environments within a community setting. A review was conducted to identify chemical and non-chemical stressors related to childhood obesity for the childhood life stages ranging from prenatal to adolescence. Stressors were identified and grouped into domains: individual behaviors, family/household behaviors, community stressors, and chemical exposures. Stressors were related to the child and the child's everyday environments and used to characterize child health and well-being. This review suggests that the interactions of chemical and non-chemical stressors are important for understanding a child's overall health and well-being. By considering these relationships, the exposure science research community can better design and implement strategies to reduce childhood obesity.

  10. The Temporal Sequence of Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms following Interpersonal Stressors during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Potter, Carrie M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1–3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety. PMID:26142495

  11. Interpersonal Stressors and Resources as Predictors of Adolescent Adjustment Following Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantagne, Ann; Peterson, Robin L; Kirkwood, Michael W; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Wade, Shari L

    2018-03-29

    The present study sought to examine adolescents' perceptions of their interpersonal stressors and resources across parent, sibling, friend, and school relationships, and the longitudinal associations with self-reported adjustment after traumatic brain injury (TBI) over a 12-month period. We examined the main effects of stressors and resources on internalizing and externalizing symptoms in 152 adolescents who had sustained complicated mild-to-severe TBI. We also investigated the conjoint effects of stressors and resources and the moderating effects of TBI severity with stressors and resources on outcomes. High stressors consistently predicted worse adjustment. High resources were generally only associated with fewer internalizing symptoms. Main effects were qualified by interactions between school stressors and resources in predicting externalizing symptoms and between friend stressors and resources in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms. For school stressors, the effects of resources on externalizing symptoms functioned as a buffer. In comparison, the buffering effects of friend resources on internalizing and externalizing symptoms disappeared at moderate-to-high levels of friend stress. Moderating effects of TBI severity were also observed, such that as family resources increased, only adolescents with complicated mild-to-moderate TBI, but not those with severe TBI, experienced decreases in internalizing and eternalizing symptoms. Interpersonal stressors and social support have important implications for adolescent adjustment after TBI. Adolescents with low levels of school resources, with high levels of friend stress, and who sustain severe TBI are at greatest risk for difficulties with adjustment.

  12. Water Quality Stressor Information from Clean Water Act Statewide Statistical Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Stressors assessed by statewide statistical surveys and their state and national attainment categories. Statewide statistical surveys are water quality assessments...

  13. The Temporal Sequence of Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Following Interpersonal Stressors During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Heimberg, Richard G; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-04-01

    Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1-3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety.

  14. A comparison of work stressors in higher and lower resourced emergency medicine health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Sebastian; Lamprecht, Hein; Howlett, Michael K; Fraser, Jacqueline; Sohi, Dylan; Adisesh, Anil; Atkinson, Paul R

    2018-04-06

    CLINICIAN'S CAPSULE What is known about the topic? Emergency physicians and trainees have high rates of stress and burnout. What did this study ask? How do reported stressors for emergency physicians and trainees differ between high and low resource settings? What did this study find? Trainees in the low resource setting reported higher stressors. Trainees reported higher levels of stressors than specialists in general. Why does this study matter to clinicians? High levels of reported stressors among trainees, and in low resource settings should be acknowledged and mitigated where possible.

  15. Fewer ups and downs: daily stressors mediate age differences in negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Susan Turk; Luong, Gloria; Almeida, David M; Ryff, Carol; Sturm, Maggie; Love, Gayle

    2010-05-01

    The current study examined age differences in daily stressors, positive events (uplifts), and their associations with emotional experience among healthy older women. Women (N = 101, 63-93 years old) reported their daily experiences across 1 week. Older age was related to fewer stressors and less frequent negative affect. However, the association between negative affect and age was no longer significant after accounting for the occurrence of daily stressors. Older age was not significantly related to positive affect, although positive uplifts were reported less frequently with age. Findings provide a contextual explanation for emotional experience in very late life, where reduced exposure to stressors partially explains age-related reductions in negative affect.

  16. Cancer: brain-regulated biphasic stress response induces cell growth or cell death to adapt to psychological stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Charles; Bhatia, Shruti

    2014-01-01

    According to Indian Vedic philosophy, a human being contains 3 major bodies: (1) the matter body--brain, organs, and senses; (2) the mental body--mind, individual consciousness, intellect, and ego; and (3) the soul or causal body--universal consciousness. The third, which is located in the heart according to all spiritual traditions and recent scientific literature, can be seen as the information body that contains all memories. The mental body, which can interface with the matter and information bodies, can be seen as a field of immaterial energy that can carry, regulate, and strengthen all information (eg, thoughts or emotions) both positively and negatively. This body of information may store ancestral and/or autobiographical memories: unconscious memories from inner traumas--inner information (Ii) or samskaras in Vedic philosophy--and conscious memories from outer traumas--outer information (Io). These conscious and unconscious memories can be seen as potential psychological stressors. Resonance between Ii and Io may induce active conflicts if resistance occurs in the mental body; this conflict may cause specific metabolic activity in the brain and a stress response in the physical body, which permits adjustment to psychological stressors. The brainregulated stress response may be biphasic: cell death or growth induced by adrenergic molecular pathways during the conflict's unresolved phase and reversion to cell growth or death induced by cholinergic molecular pathways during the conflict's resolved phase. Case studies and data mining from PubMed suggest that this concept complies with the principles of holistic medicine and the scientific literature supporting its benefits. We suggest that the evolution of cancer can be seen as a biphasic stress response regulated by the brain to adapt to psychological stressors, which produce imbalance among the physical, mental, and information bodies.

  17. An idiographic and nomothetic approach to the study of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' socio-cultural stressors and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal relations of socio-cultural stressors (i.e., acculturative stressors, enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination) and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' depressive symptoms and risk-taking behaviors. Utilizing an idiographic and nomothetic approach, we conducted lagged analyses to examine how individuals' fluctuations in stressors predicted subsequent adjustment. Further, we investigated potential threshold effects by examining if the impact of fluctuations in stressors differed at varying levels of stressors. Mexican-origin adolescent females (N = 184) participated in yearly in-home assessments across 5 years and reported on their experiences of acculturative and enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination, depressive symptoms, and risk-taking behaviors. Findings revealed that within-person fluctuations in acculturative stressors and, to a lesser extent, perceived discrimination related to youths' depressive symptoms. For risk-taking behaviors, however, only within-person fluctuations in enculturative stressors emerged as significant. Further, a threshold effect emerged in the link between enculturative stressors and risk-taking behaviors, suggesting that fluctuations in enculturative stressors predicted changes in risk-taking behaviors at high levels of enculturative stressors but not low levels. Our findings highlight the differential relations between socio-cultural stressors and adolescent females' adjustment and suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing depressive symptoms should attend to any degree of change in socio-cultural stressors, whereas programs focused on risk-taking behaviors should be especially attuned to levels of enculturative stress.

  18. An Idiographic and Nomothetic Approach to the Study of Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers’ Socio-Cultural Stressors and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal relations of socio-cultural stressors (i.e., acculturative stressors, enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination) and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ depressive symptoms and risk-taking behaviors. Utilizing an idiographic and nomothetic approach, we conducted lagged analyses to examine how individuals’ fluctuations in stressors predicted subsequent adjustment. Further, we investigated potential threshold effects by examining if the impact of fluctuations in stressors differed at varying levels of stressors. Mexican-origin adolescent females (N = 184) participated in yearly in-home assessments across 5 years and reported on their experiences of acculturative and enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination, depressive symptoms, and risk-taking behaviors. Findings revealed that within-person fluctuations in acculturative stressors, and to a lesser extent, perceived discrimination, related to youths’ depressive symptoms. For risk-taking behaviors, however, only within-person fluctuations in enculturative stressors emerged as significant. Further, a threshold effect emerged in the link between enculturative stressors and risk-taking behaviors, suggesting that fluctuations in enculturative stressors predicted changes in risk-taking behaviors at high levels of enculturative stressors, but not low levels. Our findings highlight the differential relations between socio-cultural stressors and adolescent females’ adjustment, and suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing depressive symptoms should attend to any degree of change in socio-cultural stressors, whereas programs focused on risk-taking behaviors should be especially attuned to levels of enculturative stress. PMID:25099084

  19. Perceived neighborhood characteristics predict severity and emotional response to daily stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stacey B; Munoz, Elizabeth; Mogle, Jacqueline A; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Smyth, Joshua M; Almeida, David M; Sliwinski, Martin J

    2018-03-01

    Neighborhood characteristics may influence health and well-being outcomes through stressors in daily life. This study tested whether a varied set of perceived characteristics of neighborhood (i.e., social cohesion, safety, aesthetic quality, violence) predicted stressor frequency and severity as well as negative emotional responses to stressors. We predicted greater reported cohesion and safety and less violence would be associated with less frequent stressor exposure and severity and less intense negative affect following stressors; we conducted subsequent tests of neighborhood aesthetic quality as a predictor. Participants (n = 233, age 25-65 years) were residents in a socio-economically, racially, and ethnically diverse zip code in Bronx, New York, most who participated in the Effects of Stress on Cognitive Aging, Physiology and Emotion study between 2012 and 2013. They provided demographic information and neighborhood ratings, then participated in the EMA protocol in which they completed brief smartphone surveys of current negative affect and stressor exposure, severity, and recency, five times daily for 14 days. No coded neighborhood characteristic was related to the frequency of stressors. Individuals who reported greater neighborhood violence, however, rated their stressors as more severe. Individuals rating their neighborhood lower in safety or aesthetic quality, or higher in violence, had greater negative affect following stressors. Even among people living within the same zip code, individual differences in perceptions of neighborhood predict how stressful they appraised stressors in daily life to be and how much negative affect they reported following stressors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synergistic interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental stressors on gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Ianina; McLeod, Anne M; Colbourne, John K; Yan, Norman D; Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the response of organisms to multiple stressors is critical for predicting if populations can adapt to rapid environmental change. Natural and anthropogenic stressors often interact, complicating general predictions. In this study, we examined the interactive and cumulative effects of two common environmental stressors, lowered calcium concentration, an anthropogenic stressor, and predator presence, a natural stressor, on the water flea Daphnia pulex. We analyzed expression changes of five genes involved in calcium homeostasis - cuticle proteins (Cutie, Icp2), calbindin (Calb), and calcium pump and channel (Serca and Ip3R) - using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in a full factorial experiment. We observed strong synergistic interactions between low calcium concentration and predator presence. While the Ip3R gene was not affected by the stressors, the other four genes were affected in their transcriptional levels by the combination of the stressors. Transcriptional patterns of genes that code for cuticle proteins (Cutie and Icp2) and a sarcoplasmic calcium pump (Serca) only responded to the combination of stressors, changing their relative expression levels in a synergistic response, while a calcium-binding protein (Calb) responded to low calcium stress and the combination of both stressors. The expression pattern of these genes (Cutie, Icp2, and Serca) were nonlinear, yet they were dose dependent across the calcium gradient. Multiple stressors can have complex, often unexpected effects on ecosystems. This study demonstrates that the dominant interaction for the set of tested genes appears to be synergism. We argue that gene expression patterns can be used to understand and predict the type of interaction expected when organisms are exposed simultaneously to natural and anthropogenic stressors.

  1. Daily stressors and emotional reactivity in individuals with mild cognitive impairment and cognitively healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth Hahn; Condeelis, Kristen L; Haley, William E

    2015-06-01

    Daily experiences of stress are common and have been associated with worse affect among older adults. People with mild cognitive impairment (PWMCI) have measurable memory deficits in between normal cognition and dementia and have been identified as having greater psychological distress than cognitively healthy older adults (CHOAs). Little is known about whether daily stressors contribute to distress among PWMCI. We hypothesized that compared with CHOAs, PWMCI would have higher daily negative affect and lower daily positive affect, report greater numbers and severity of daily stressors, and experience greater emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Fifteen clinically diagnosed PWMCI and 25 CHOAs completed daily reports of stressors, stressor severity, and positive and negative affect over an 8-day period. PWMCI reported higher daily negative affect, lower daily positive affect, and higher numbers and greater severity of memory stressors but did not differ from CHOAs in numbers or severity of general stressors. Cognitive status was a moderator of the daily stress-affect relationship. Days with greater numbers and severity of general daily stressors were associated with higher negative affect only for PWMCI. The numbers and severity of memory stressors were not associated with negative affect. In addition, more severe general daily stressors and memory stressors were associated with lower positive affect for all participants. Results suggest that PWMCI are less resilient in the face of daily stress than are CHOAs in terms of negative affect, perhaps because of declines in reserve capacity. The study presents a promising approach to understanding stress and coping in predementia states of cognition. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Stressor-related drinking and future alcohol problems among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael A; Almeida, David M; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    Research using daily designs has shown that daily stressors (i.e., conflict, school/work demands) are associated with alcohol use, and that the strength of within-person links between stressors and alcohol use differs from person to person. However, to our knowledge no research has tested whether individual differences in stressor-related drinking-characterized by within-person associations between daily stressors and drinking-predict risk for future alcohol problems, a relationship suggested by theoretical models. The current study used an Internet-based daily diary design among 744 university students to (a) examine the day-level relationship between stressors and alcohol use during the first 3 years of college, and (b) test whether individual differences in the stressor-drinking relationship, captured by person-specific slopes generated from multilevel models, predicted alcohol problems as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in the fourth year of college. Results showed that students were more likely to drink on days with many versus fewer stressors, and on drinking days, students consumed more drinks with each additional stressor they experienced. Next, using individual multilevel modeling slopes as predictors, we found that students whose odds of drinking alcohol increased more sharply on high- versus low-stressor days (steeper slopes) had more severe AUDIT alcohol problems in the fourth year than students whose drinking odds increased less sharply (flatter slopes). Findings highlight the role of daily stressors in college student drinking and suggest stressor-related drinking as a risk factor for future alcohol problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Can "good" stressors spark "bad" behaviors? The mediating role of emotions in links of challenge and hindrance stressors with citizenship and counterproductive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Jessica B; Judge, Timothy A

    2009-11-01

    The authors combined affective events theory (H. M. Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) and the transactional stress model (R. S. Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) to build and test a model specifying the dynamic, emotion-based relationships among challenge and hindrance stressors and citizenship and counterproductive behaviors. The study employed an experience sampling methodology. Results showed that challenge stressors had offsetting indirect links with citizenship behaviors through attentiveness and anxiety and a positive indirect effect on counterproductive behaviors through anxiety. Hindrance stressors had a negative indirect effect on citizenship behaviors through anxiety and a positive indirect effect on counterproductive behaviors through anxiety and anger. Finally, multilevel moderating effects showed that the relationship between hindrance stressors and anger varied according to employees' levels of neuroticism.

  4. The unemployed mid-career adult: stressors and support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Ribton-Turner

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of unemployment in South Africa is of national concern yet the experience of being unemployed is little understood; not enough is known about the unemployed condition in South Africa. In this study eight unemployed mid-career adults who had been out of work for longer than six months were interviewed in order to explore their lived experience. A qualitative methodology was used and from the extensive interview data, using qualitative content analysis, themes relating to the unemployed condition emerged. Results support, to a large degree, the existing literature and studies on the stressors impacting on the unemployed. This study offers additional insight into the support structures available for the unemployed adult.

  5. Stress and stressors in the clinical environment: a comparative study of fourth-year student nurses and newly qualified general nurses in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Patricia; Matthews, Anne; Coyne, Imelda

    2013-03-01

    To measure and compare the perceived levels of job-related stress and stressors of newly qualified nurses and fourth-year student nurses in the clinical environment and to explore the participants' views on stress and stressors. Stress in the nursing workplace has significant consequences for the person, the patient and the organisation, such as psychological and physical health deterioration and impaired professional practice. To address this problem, stress and stressors need to be measured and identified. This study used a cross-sectional survey design and self-reporting questionnaires to measure and compare levels of stress in both groups. Convenience sampling involved all newly qualified nurses (n = 120) and fourth-year student nurses (n = 128) in Dublin North-East region in Ireland. The instrument used was 'The Nursing Stress Scale' (Gray-Toft & Anderson 1981, Journal of Behavioral Assessment 3, 11-23). Descriptive, qualitative analysis was conducted on an open-ended question. Data were obtained from newly qualified nurses (n = 31) and fourth-year student nurses (n = 40) in six acute hospital sites. Levels of perceived stress and stressors were high in both groups. Themes identified from the responses to the open question by both groups included excessive workload, difficult working relationships and unmet clinical learning needs. Student nurses also reported the combination of academic demands with clinical placement as a major stressor. There was no significant difference between each group. Stress continues to be a problem for nurses in the clinical setting. Excessive workload requires urgent attention by hospital managers in view of widespread retention difficulties. Themes identified could provide a framework for possible interventions for improving the clinical environment for nurses. These results can help stakeholders in nurse education and practice to develop interventions to reduce stress for both groups and to ease the transition from student to

  6. Does stress affect the joints? Daily stressors, stress vulnerability, immune and HPA axis activity, and short-term disease and symptom fluctuations in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Andrea W M; Verhoeven, Elisabeth W M; van Middendorp, Henriët; Sweep, Fred C G J; Kraaimaat, Floris W; Donders, A Rogier T; Eijsbouts, Agnes E; van Laarhoven, Antoinette I M; de Brouwer, Sabine J M; Wirken, Lieke; Radstake, Timothy R D J; van Riel, Piet L C M

    2014-09-01

    Both stressors and stress vulnerability factors together with immune and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity components have been considered to contribute to disease fluctuations of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether daily stressors and worrying as stress vulnerability factor as well as immune and HPA axis activity markers predict short-term disease activity and symptom fluctuations in patients with RA. In a prospective design, daily stressors, worrying, HPA axis (cortisol) and immune system (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor α) markers, clinical and self-reported disease activity (disease activity score in 28 joints, RA disease activity index), and physical symptoms of pain and fatigue were monitored monthly during 6 months in 80 RA patients. Multilevel modelling indicated that daily stressors predicted increased fatigue in the next month and that worrying predicted increased self-reported disease activity, swollen joint count and pain in the next month. In addition, specific cytokines of IL-1β and IFN-γ predicted increased fatigue 1 month later. Overall, relationships remained relatively unchanged after controlling for medication use, disease duration and demographic variables. No evidence was found for immune and HPA axis activity markers as mediators of the stress-disease relationship. Daily stressors and the stress-vulnerability factor worrying predict indicators of the short-term course of RA disease activity and fatigue and pain, while specific cytokines predict short-term fluctuations of fatigue. These stress-related variables and immune markers seem to affect different aspects of disease activity or symptom fluctuations independently in RA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Gendered depression: Vulnerability or exposure to work and family stressors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Bilodeau, Jaunathan; Demers, Andrée; Beauregard, Nancy; Durand, Pierre; Haines, Victor Y

    2016-10-01

    Research has shown that employed women are more prone to depression than men, but the pathways linking gender to depression remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine how work and family conditions operated as potentially gendered antecedents of depression. It evaluated more specifically how differences in depressive symptoms in women and men could be explained by their differential vulnerability and exposure to work and family conditions, as well as by the mediating role of work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC). Data were collected in 2009-2012 from a sample of 1935 employees (48.9% women) nested in 63 workplaces in the province of Quebec (Canada). Data were analyzed with multilevel path analysis models to test for the differential exposure hypothesis, and stratified by gender to test for the differential vulnerability hypothesis. Results supported both hypothesizes, but only WFC played a mediating role between work-family stressors and depression. Regarding the vulnerability hypothesis, WFC was more strongly associated with women depressive symptoms, and the magnitude of the association between family income and WFC was stronger for women. Overall, the differential exposure hypothesis seemed to reach a greater empirical support. After accounting for work and family stressors as well as WFC, differences in depressive symptoms in women and men were no longer significantly, as WFC, working hours, irregular work schedule and skill utilization acted as mediators. WFC associated with higher depressive symptoms and skill utilization with lower depressive symptoms. WFC related to higher working hours and irregular work schedule. Compared to men, women reported higher WFC, but lower working hours, less irregular work schedule and lower skill utilization at work. Women's higher rate of depression is intrinsically linked to their different social experiences as shaped by a gendered social structure and gendered organizations

  8. The Influence of Work-Related Stressors on Clergy Husbands and Their Wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael Lane; Blanton, Priscilla White

    1994-01-01

    Assessed predictive power of 5 work-related stressors identified in clergy family literature on criterion variables of marital, parent, and life satisfaction among 272 clergy husbands and their wives from 6 denominations. Findings supported hypotheses that work-related stressors were inversely related to marital, parental, and life satisfaction…

  9. Anticipated Coping with Interpersonal Stressors: Links with the Emotional Reactions of Sadness, Anger, and Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Skinner, Ellen A.; Morris, Helen; Thomas, Rae

    2013-01-01

    The same stressor can evoke different emotions across individuals, and emotions can prompt certain coping responses. Responding to four videotaped interpersonal stressors, adolescents ("N" = 230, the average values of "X"[subscript age] = 10 years) reported their sadness, fear "and" anger, and 12 coping strategies.…

  10. Examining Linkages between Psychological Health Problems, Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Workplace Stressors in Pakistan's Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md; Isa, Khairunesa Binti

    2016-01-01

    Scholarly work and research are globally known as stressful and challenging. Teachers may develop different psychological health problems once they are exposed to workplace stressors. Considering it as a serious issue of education sector, this study has examined the linkages between prevalent workplace stressors and psychological health problems…

  11. Stressors and Enhancers in the Marital/Family Life of Family Professionals and Their Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Stephen F.; Goddard, H. Wallace

    1993-01-01

    Assessed how work as family professional is uniquely enhancing and stressful and whether enhancers and stressors are correlated with marital and family quality. Findings from 59 family professionals and their spouses strengthen idea that there are marital and family life enhancers and stressors uniquely associated with work as family professional.…

  12. Moderate alcohol consumption after a mental stressor attenuates the endocrine stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Joosten, M.M.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, W.A.A.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is often consumed to reduce tension and improve mood when exposed to stressful situations. Previous studies showed that moderate alcohol consumption may reduce stress when alcohol is consumed prior to a stressor, but data on the effect of alcohol consumption after a mental stressor is

  13. Moderate alcohol consumption after a mental stressor attenuates the endocrine stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Joosten, M.M.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, W.A.A.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is often consumed to reduce tension and improve mood when exposed to stressful situations. Previous studies showed that moderate alcohol consumption may reduce stress when alcohol is consumed prior to a stressor, but data on the effect of alcohol consumption after a mental stressor is

  14. Social organizational stressors and post-disaster mental health disturbances : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, P.G.; Bosmans, M.W.G.; Bogaerts, S.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Social organizational stressors are well-known predictors of mental health disturbances (MHD). However, to what extent these stressors predict post-disaster MHD among employed victims hardly received scientific attention and is clearly understudied. For this purpose we examined to what extent these

  15. Mapping the future: U.S. exposure to multiple landscape stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Becky Kerns; John Kim; Jeff. Kline

    2017-01-01

    Landscape exposure to multiple stressors can pose risks to human health, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. Attempts to study, control, or mitigate these stressors can strain public and private budgets. An interdisciplinary team of Pacific Northwest Research Station and Oregon State University scientists created maps of the conterminous United States that indicate...

  16. The Achievement Gap among Newcomer Immigrant Adolescents: Life Stressors Hinder Latina/o Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita G.; Barrera, Alinne Z.; Strambler, Michael J.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Macciomei, Erynn

    2016-01-01

    This study compares life stressors and school outcomes among newcomer immigrant adolescents from Latin America, Asia, and the Caribbean. Participants attended a predominantly low-income, urban international public high school in the northeast. The Latina/o students were exposed to more life stressors and had lower attendance and achievement than…

  17. Resources, stressors and psychological distress among older adults in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokkanathan, Srinivasan

    2009-01-01

    Scant information exists on the complex interaction between resources and stressors and their subsequent influence on the psychological distress of older adults in India. Within the framework of resource theory, the present study examined the various pathways through which resources and stressors influence psychological distress by testing four models - the independence model, the stress-suppression model, the counteractive model and the resource-deterioration model. The independence model posits that resources and stressors have a direct relationship with psychological distress. The stress-suppression model hypothesizes that stressors mediate the influence of resources on psychological distress. The counteractive model postulates that stressors mobilize resources, which in turn influence psychological distress. The resource-deterioration model states that stressors deplete resources and subsequently exacerbate distress. In the present study, resources include social support, religiosity and mastery; stressors include life events, abuse and health problems. Psychological distress was measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale and Geriatric Depression Scale. Interviews were conducted among 400 adults aged 65 years and above, randomly selected from the electoral list of urban Chennai, India. The battery of instruments was translated into Tamil (local language) by back-translation. Structural Equation Modeling was conducted to test the three models. The results supported the stress-suppressor model. Resources had an indirect, negative relationship with psychological distress, and stressors had a direct, positive effect on distress. As such there is a need to identify and strengthen the resources available to older adults in India.

  18. Investigating the relationship between psychosocial work stressors, organizational structure and job satisfaction among bank tellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chahardoli

    2015-12-01

      Conclusion: Considering the effect of organizational structure and work-related psychosocial stressors on job satisfaction, it can be stated that organizational restructuring to achieve organic structures and paying more attention to psychosocial stressors in the workplace, can play an effective role in the efficiency and productivity of the organization.

  19. Investigations of HPA Function and the Enduring Consequences of Stressors in Adolescence in Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cheryl M.; Mathews, Iva Z.; Thomas, Catherine; Waters, Patti

    2010-01-01

    Developmental differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness to stressors and ongoing development of glucocorticoid-sensitive brain regions in adolescence suggest that similar to the neonatal period of ontogeny, adolescence may also be a sensitive period for programming effects of stressors on the central nervous system.…

  20. A multi-society examination of the impact of psychological resources on stressor-strain relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ralston, D.; Lee, C.H.; Perrewe, P.L.; van Deuven, C.; Vollmer, G.; Maignan, I.S.J.; Tang, M.; Wan, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper sequentially addresses a conceptual and an empirical goal. Our conceptual goal was to develop a globally relevant model of the relationship between work role stressors and strain using conservation of resources (COR) theory as our foundation. Stressors included in the model are role

  1. Psychometric Issues in Organizational Stressor Research: A Review and Implications for Sport Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Rachel; Fletcher, David

    2012-01-01

    Organizational stressors can potentially elicit a number of undesirable consequences for sport performers. It is, therefore, imperative that psychologists better understand the demands that athletes encounter via their exploration and assessment. However, although researchers have identified a wide range of organizational stressors in competitive…

  2. Relational Stressors and Depressive Symptoms in Late Adolescence: Rejection Sensitivity as a Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chango, Joanna M.; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Allen, Joseph P.; Schad, Megan M.; Marston, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The role of rejection sensitivity as a critical diathesis moderating the link between adolescent relational stressors and depressive symptoms was examined using multi-method, multi-reporter data from a diverse community sample of 173 adolescents, followed from age 16 to 18. Relational stressors examined included emotional abuse, maternal behavior…

  3. Restoring fish ecological quality in estuaries: Implication of interactive and cumulative effects among anthropogenic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Nils; Borja, Angel; Chust, Guillem; Uriarte, Ainhize; Lepage, Mario

    2016-01-15

    Estuaries are subjected to multiple anthropogenic stressors, which have additive, antagonistic or synergistic effects. Current challenges include the use of large databases of biological monitoring surveys (e.g. the European Water Framework Directive) to help environmental managers prioritizing restoration measures. This study investigated the impact of nine stressor categories on the fish ecological status derived from 90 estuaries of the North East Atlantic countries. We used a random forest model to: 1) detect the dominant stressors and their non-linear effects; 2) evaluate the ecological benefits expected from reducing pressure from stressors; and 3) investigate the interactions among stressors. Results showed that largest restoration benefits were expected when mitigating water pollution and oxygen depletion. Non-additive effects represented half of pairwise interactions among stressors, and antagonisms were the most common. Dredged sediments, flow changes and oxygen depletion were predominantly implicated in non-additive interactions, whereas the remainder stressors often showed additive impacts. The prevalence of interactive impacts reflects a complex scenario for estuaries management; hence, we proposed a step-by-step restoration scheme focusing on the mitigation of stressors providing the maximum of restoration benefits under a multi-stress context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Negative Impact of Community Stressors on Learning Time: Examining Inequalities between California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirra, Nicole; Rogers, John

    2015-01-01

    Allocated classroom time is not the same as time available for learning--a host of economic and social stressors undermine learning time in schools serving low-income students. When time is limited, it is hard to meet rigorous learning standards. The challenge is compounded in high-poverty schools where community stressors place additional demands…

  5. Development of an Instrument Measuring Student Teachers' Perceived Stressors about the Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Stavropoulos, George; Davazoglou, Aggeliki

    2016-01-01

    The Stressors about Practicum Inventory, a self-report measure of perceived stressors about the practicum, was designed to provide those responsible for the training of primary school teachers with an informative, inexpensive and psychometrically sound tool. The present study describes the development and validation of the 94-item inventory in a…

  6. Tolerance to multiple climate stressors: a case study of Douglas-fir drought and cold hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel Bansal; Connie Harrington; Brad St. Clair

    2016-01-01

    1. Drought and freeze events are two of the most common forms of climate extremes which result in tree damage or death, and the frequency and intensity of both stressors may increase with climate change. Few studies have examined natural covariation in stress tolerance traits to cope with multiple stressors among wild plant populations. 2. We assessed the...

  7. A comparison of general and ambulance specific stressors: predictors of job satisfaction and health problems in a nationwide one-year follow-up study of Norwegian ambulance personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Bjørn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To address the relative importance of general job-related stressors, ambulance specific stressors and individual characteristics in relation to job satisfaction and health complaints (emotional exhaustion, psychological distress and musculoskeletal pain among ambulance personnel. Materials and methods A nationwide prospective questionnaire survey of ambulance personnel in operational duty at two time points (n = 1180 at baseline, T1 and n = 298 at one-year follow up, T2. The questionnaires included the Maslach Burnout Inventory, The Job Satisfaction Scale, Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-10, Job Stress Survey, the Norwegian Ambulance Stress Survey and the Basic Character Inventory. Results Overall, 42 out of the possible 56 correlations between job stressors at T1 and job satisfaction and health complaints at T2 were statistically significant. Lower job satisfaction at T2 was predicted by frequency of lack of leader support and severity of challenging job tasks. Emotional exhaustion at T2 was predicted by neuroticism, frequency of lack of support from leader, time pressure, and physical demands. Adjusted for T1 levels, emotional exhaustion was predicted by neuroticism (beta = 0.15, p Psychological distress at T2 was predicted by neuroticism and lack of co-worker support. Adjusted for T1 levels, psychological distress was predicted by neuroticism (beta = 0.12, p Musculoskeletal pain at T2 was predicted by, higher age, neuroticism, lack of co-worker support and severity of physical demands. Adjusted for T1 levels, musculoskeletal pain was predicted neuroticism, and severity of physical demands (beta = 0.12, p Conclusions Low job satisfaction at T2 was predicted by general work-related stressors, whereas health complaints at T2 were predicted by both general work-related stressors and ambulance specific stressors. The personality variable neuroticism predicted increased complaints across all health outcomes.

  8. The effects of ergonomic stressors on process tool maintenance and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.

    1998-03-31

    This study examines ergonomic stressors associated with front-end process tool maintenance, relates them to decreased machine utilization, and proposes solution strategies to reduce their negative impact on productivity. Member company ergonomists observed technicians performing field maintenance tasks on seven different bottleneck tools and recorded ergonomic stressors using SEMaCheck, a graphics-based, integrated checklist developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The top ten stressors were prioritized according to a cost formula that accounted for difficulty, time, and potential errors. Estimates of additional time on a task caused by ergonomic stressors demonstrated that machine utilization could be increased from 6% to 25%. Optimal solution strategies were formulated based on redesign budget, stressor cost, and estimates of solution costs and benefits

  9. Examination of the pattern of teachers' work stressors in relation to job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Slivar

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress is affecting teachers in their daily work and is related to low job satisfaction, low work motivation, low affiliation to organization etc. The study explored not only the relationship between teacher stress and job satisfaction but also the structure of patterns between various teacher's work stressors and particular elements of job satisfaction. In order to develop better understanding of the nature of the stressor experience, a study was undertaken to explore the stressor-job satisfaction relationship using sequential tree analysis. The study included 442 primary school teachers and 191 gymnasium school teachers. Results showed that different stressor patterns were associated with different levels of satisfaction and that there are differences in structure and in patterns of stressors among teachers from different types of schools.

  10. Chronic and Daily Stressors Along With Negative Affect Interact to Predict Daily Tiredness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsell, Elizabeth N; Neupert, Shevaun D

    2017-11-01

    The present study examines the within-person relationship of daily stressors and tiredness and whether this depends on daily negative affect and individual differences in chronic stress. One hundred sixteen older adult participants were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk for a 9-day daily diary study. Daily tiredness, daily stressors, and negative affect were measured each day, and chronic stress was measured at baseline. Daily stressors, daily negative affect, and chronic stress interacted to predict daily tiredness. People with high chronic stress who experienced an increase in daily negative affect were the most reactive to daily stressors in terms of experiencing an increase in daily tiredness. We also found that people with low levels of chronic stress were the most reactive to daily stressors when they experienced low levels of daily negative affect. Our results highlight the need for individualized and contextualized approaches to combating daily tiredness in older adults.

  11. Protracted effects of juvenile stressor exposure are mitigated by access to palatable food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Christine MacKay

    Full Text Available Stressor experiences during the juvenile period may increase vulnerability to anxiety and depressive-like symptoms in adulthood. Stressors may also promote palatable feeding, possibly reflecting a form of self-medication. The current study investigated the short- and long-term consequences of a stressor applied during the juvenile period on anxiety- and depressive-like behavior measured by the elevated plus maze (EPM, social interaction and forced swim test (FST. Furthermore, the effects of stress on caloric intake, preference for a palatable food and indices of metabolic syndrome and obesity were assessed. Male Wistar rats exposed to 3 consecutive days of variable stressors on postnatal days (PD 27-29, displayed elevated anxiety-like behaviors as adults, which could be attenuated by consumption of a palatable high-fat diet. However, consumption of a palatable food in response to a stressor appeared to contribute to increased adiposity.

  12. Cumulative Risk and Impact Modeling on Environmental Chemical and Social Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongtai; Wang, Aolin; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Lam, Juleen; Sirota, Marina; Padula, Amy; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this review is to identify cumulative modeling methods used to evaluate combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors. The specific review question is: What are the existing quantitative methods used to examine the cumulative impacts of exposures to environmental chemical and social stressors on health? There has been an increase in literature that evaluates combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors on health using regression models; very few studies applied other data mining and machine learning techniques to this problem. The majority of studies we identified used regression models to evaluate combined effects of multiple environmental and social stressors. With proper study design and appropriate modeling assumptions, additional data mining methods may be useful to examine combined effects of environmental and social stressors.

  13. Physical activity and senior games participation: benefits, constraints, and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, David; Henderson, Karla A; Wilson, Beth E

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the article was to examine the physical activity perceptions and behaviors of older adults who were active participants in a statewide senior games (i.e., North Carolina Senior Games; NCSG) program with its focus on year-round involvement through activities in local communities. A random sample of 440 older adults (55 years and older) completed a questionnaire in 2006 about their participation in community-based senior games. A uniqueness of this study is its focus on active older adults, which provides insight into how to maintain physical involvement. Older adults who were most active perceived the most benefits from senior games but did not necessarily have the fewest constraints. This study of NCSG as an organization designed to promote healthy living in communities offered an example of how a social-ecological framework aimed at health promotion can be applied.

  14. A multistudy examination of organizational stressors, emotional labor, burnout, and turnover in sport organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, R J; Wagstaff, C R D; Thelwell, R C; Corbett, J

    2017-12-01

    While a growing body of research has examined the types of organizational stressors encountered by individuals and their allied responses, little is known about how such individuals manage their emotional responses to these stressors or the consequences of such behaviors. This article presents novel findings from two studies examining the moderating role that emotional labor plays in the relationship between the frequency of organizational stressor experience, burnout, turnover intentions, and actual turnover in sport. In study 1, participants (n=487) completed measures of organizational stressors (OSI-SP), emotional labor (ELS), burnout (ABQ), and turnover intentions. In study 2, a 6-month longitudinal design was used to examine measures of organizational stressors (OSI-SP), emotional labor (ELS), turnover intentions, and actual turnover. Study 1 showed that surface acting moderated the relationship between the frequency of organizational stressors and burnout in sport. Further, surface acting acted as an important mechanism through which burnout mediated the relationship between the frequency of organizational stressors and turnover intentions. Study 2 showed that surface acting moderated the relationship between the organizational stressor frequency and turnover intentions-but not actual turnover-over time. These results highlight the importance of surface acting in understanding how individuals respond to organizational stressors encountered in sport, expanding our understanding of the positive and negative responses component of the meta-model of stress, emotions, and performance. These findings also highlight potentially deleterious emotion-management behaviors that practitioners might consider when aiming to support individuals encountering organizational stressors in sport. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Improvement of photoluminescence from Ge layer with patterned Si3N4 stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Katsuya; Okumura, Tadashi; Tani, Kazuki; Saito, Shin-ichi; Ido, Tatemi

    2014-01-01

    Lattice strain applied by patterned Si 3 N 4 stressors in order to improve the optical properties of Ge layers directly grown on a Si substrate was investigated. Patterned Si 3 N 4 stressors were fabricated by various methods and their effects on the strain and photoluminescence were studied. Although we found that when the stressor was fabricated by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD), the Ge waveguide was tensilely and compressively strained in the edge and center positions, respectively, and photoluminescence (PL) could be improved by decreasing the width of the waveguide, the crystallinity of the Ge waveguide was degraded by the thermal impact of the deposition process. Low-temperature methods were therefore used to make the patterned stressors. The tensile strain of the Ge layer increased from 0.14% to 0.2% when the stressor was grown by plasma enhanced CVD at 350 °C, but the effects of the increased tensile strain could not be confirmed because the Si 3 N 4 layer was unstable when irradiated with the excitation light used in photoluminescence measurements. Si 3 N 4 stressors grown by inductively coupled plasma CVD at room temperature increased the tensile strain of the Ge layer up to 0.4%, thus red-shifting the PL peak and obviously increasing the PL intensity. These results indicate that the Si 3 N 4 stressors fabricated by the room-temperature process efficiently improve the performance of Ge light-emitting devices. - Highlights: • Ge layers were directly grown on a Si substrate by low-temperature epitaxial growth. • Si 3 N 4 stressors were fabricated on the Ge layers by various methods. • Tensile strain of the Ge layers was improved by the Si 3 N 4 stressors. • Photoluminescence (PL) intensity was increased with the Si 3 N 4 stressors. • Red-shift of the PL spectra was observed from the tensile strained Ge layers

  16. Marriage and other psychological stressors in the causation of psychiatric disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. I. Mullick

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the specific psychiatric diagnosis, frequency, and types of stressors, and the level of awareness about marriage law between married (cases; n=80 and unmarried girls (control; n=80 with one or more psychiatric disorders below the age of 18 years. The psychiatric diseases were diagnosed according to Axis One of ICD-10 clinical diagnoses of multi-axial classification of childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorder. Psychosocial stressors were considered on the basis of Axis Five of this classification. Of the cases, major depressive disorder was the highest (n=47 and next was a dissociative (conversion disorder (n=24. Among the controls, generalized anxiety disorder (n=31 was the most prevalent followed by obsessive-compulsive disorder (n=17. The difference was highly significant (p>0.001. The cases reported a significant excess of psychosocial stressors than that of the controls to the onset of the psychiatric disorder. All the cases had associated stressors. In contrast, 77 out of 80 control patients had stressors. Marriage itself played as a stressor in the 78 cases. Beside this, other highly frequent stressors were marital discord followed by drop out from study and trouble with in-laws. Among the controls, the highest reported stressor was increased academic workload and next two commonest stressors were poor academic performance and discord with peers. Interestingly, 52.5% of the cases were having knowledge about the law on the age of marriage and that was 32.5% among the controls. It was significant that most of the girls breached their continuity of education after marriage (p>0.001. In conclusion, psychosocial stressors including marriage have a causal relationship with depressive and conversion disorder. 

  17. Neighborhood social stressors, fine particulate matter air pollution, and cognitive function among older U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailshire, Jennifer; Karraker, Amelia; Clarke, Philippa

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of studies have found a link between outdoor air pollution and cognitive function among older adults. Psychosocial stress is considered an important factor determining differential susceptibility to environmental hazards and older adults living in stressful neighborhoods may be particularly vulnerable to the adverse health effects of exposure to hazards such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to determine if neighborhood social stress amplifies the association between fine particulate matter air pollution (PM 2.5 ) and poor cognitive function in older, community-dwelling adults. We use data on 779 U.S. adults ages 55 and older from the 2001/2002 wave of the Americans' Changing Lives study. We determined annual average PM 2.5 concentration in 2001 in the area of residence by linking respondents with EPA air monitoring data using census tract identifiers. Cognitive function was measured using the number of errors on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Exposure to neighborhood social stressors was measured using perceptions of disorder and decay and included subjective evaluations of neighborhood upkeep and the presence of deteriorating/abandoned buildings, trash, and empty lots. We used negative binomial regression to examine the interaction of neighborhood perceived stress and PM 2.5 on the count of errors on the cognitive function assessment. We found that the association between PM 2.5 and cognitive errors was stronger among older adults living in high stress neighborhoods. These findings support recent theoretical developments in environmental health and health disparities research emphasizing the synergistic effects of neighborhood social stressors and environmental hazards on residents' health. Those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods, where social stressors and environmental hazards are more common, may be particularly susceptible to adverse health effects of social and physical

  18. A Framework to Quantify the Strength of the Ecological Links Between an Environmental Stressor and Final Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic stressors such as climate change, fire, and pollution are driving shifts in ecosystem function and resilience. Scientists generally rely on biological indicators of these stressors to signal that ecosystem conditions have been altered beyond an acceptable amount. Ho...

  19. Stressors and resources mediate the association of socioeconomic position with health behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ameijden Erik JC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability in health behaviours is an important cause of socioeconomic health disparities. Socioeconomic differences in health behaviours are poorly understood. Previous studies have examined whether (single stressors or psychosocial resources mediate the relationship between socioeconomic position and health or mortality. This study examined: 1 whether the presence of stressors and the absence of resources can be represented by a single underlying factor, and co-occur among those with lower education, 2 whether stressors and resources mediated the relation between education and health behaviours, and 3 addressed the question whether an aggregate measure of stressors and resources has an added effect over the use of individual measures. Methods Questionnaire data on sociodemographic variables, stressors, resources, and health behaviours were collected cross-sectionally among inhabitants (n = 3050 of a medium-sized Dutch city (Utrecht. Descriptive statistics and bootstrap analyses for multiple-mediator effects were used to examine the role of stressors and resources in mediating educational associations with health behaviours. Results Higher levels of stressors and lower levels of resources could be represented by a single underlying factor, and co-occurred among those with lower educational levels. Stressors and resources partially mediated the relationship between education and four health- behaviours (exercise, breakfast frequency, vegetable consumption and smoking. Financial stress and poor perceived health status were mediating stressors, and social support a strong mediating resource. An aggregate measure of the stressors and resources showed similar associations with health behaviours compared to the summed individual measures. Conclusions Lower educated groups are simultaneously affected by the presence of various stressors and absence of multiple resources, which partially explain socioeconomic differences in health

  20. Fluid cognitive ability is associated with greater exposure and smaller reactions to daily stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S; Almeida, David M; Lachman, Margie E; Tun, Patricia A; Rosnick, Christopher B

    2010-06-01

    The authors of this study investigated whether fluid cognitive ability predicts exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors. A national sample of adults from the Midlife in the United States study and the National Study of Daily Experiences (N = 1,202) who had a mean age of 57 years (SD = 12; 56% women, 44% men) completed positive and negative mood reports as well as a stressor diary on 8 consecutive evenings via telephone. Participants also completed a telephone-based battery of tests measuring fluid cognitive ability. Higher levels of fluid cognitive ability were associated with greater exposure to work- and home-related overload stressors. Possessing higher levels of fluid cognitive ability was associated with smaller stressor-related increases in negative mood, primarily for interpersonal tensions and network stressors, and smaller stressor-related decreases in positive mood for interpersonal tensions. Furthermore, fluid cognitive ability was unrelated to subjective severity ratings of the stressors reported. Discussion focuses on the role of fluid cognitive ability in daily stress processes. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Joint analysis of stressors and ecosystem services to enhance restoration effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, J David; McIntyre, Peter B; Smith, Sigrid D P; Halpern, Benjamin S; Boyer, Gregory L; Buchsbaum, Andy; Burton, G A; Campbell, Linda M; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Ciborowski, Jan J H; Doran, Patrick J; Eder, Tim; Infante, Dana M; Johnson, Lucinda B; Joseph, Christine A; Marino, Adrienne L; Prusevich, Alexander; Read, Jennifer G; Rose, Joan B; Rutherford, Edward S; Sowa, Scott P; Steinman, Alan D

    2013-01-02

    With increasing pressure placed on natural systems by growing human populations, both scientists and resource managers need a better understanding of the relationships between cumulative stress from human activities and valued ecosystem services. Societies often seek to mitigate threats to these services through large-scale, costly restoration projects, such as the over one billion dollar Great Lakes Restoration Initiative currently underway. To help inform these efforts, we merged high-resolution spatial analyses of environmental stressors with mapping of ecosystem services for all five Great Lakes. Cumulative ecosystem stress is highest in near-shore habitats, but also extends offshore in Lakes Erie, Ontario, and Michigan. Variation in cumulative stress is driven largely by spatial concordance among multiple stressors, indicating the importance of considering all stressors when planning restoration activities. In addition, highly stressed areas reflect numerous different combinations of stressors rather than a single suite of problems, suggesting that a detailed understanding of the stressors needing alleviation could improve restoration planning. We also find that many important areas for fisheries and recreation are subject to high stress, indicating that ecosystem degradation could be threatening key services. Current restoration efforts have targeted high-stress sites almost exclusively, but generally without knowledge of the full range of stressors affecting these locations or differences among sites in service provisioning. Our results demonstrate that joint spatial analysis of stressors and ecosystem services can provide a critical foundation for maximizing social and ecological benefits from restoration investments.

  2. Timing of stressors alters interactive effects on a coastal foundation species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jillian M; Cheng, Brian S; Chang, Andrew L; Ferner, Matthew C; Wasson, Kerstin; Zabin, Chela J; Latta, Marilyn; Sanford, Eric; Deck, Anna; Grosholz, Edwin D

    2017-09-01

    The effects of climate-driven stressors on organismal performance and ecosystem functioning have been investigated across many systems; however, manipulative experiments generally apply stressors as constant and simultaneous treatments, rather than accurately reflecting temporal patterns in the natural environment. Here, we assessed the effects of temporal patterns of high aerial temperature and low salinity on survival of Olympia oysters (Ostrea lurida), a foundation species of conservation and restoration concern. As single stressors, low salinity (5 and 10 psu) and the highest air temperature (40°C) resulted in oyster mortality of 55.8, 11.3, and 23.5%, respectively. When applied on the same day, low salinity and high air temperature had synergistic negative effects that increased oyster mortality. This was true even for stressor levels that were relatively mild when applied alone (10 psu and 35°C). However, recovery times of two or four weeks between stressors eliminated the synergistic effects. Given that most natural systems threatened by climate change are subject to multiple stressors that vary in the timing of their occurrence, our results suggest that it is important to examine temporal variation of stressors in order to more accurately understand the possible biological responses to global change. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Workplace Stressors and Coping Strategies Among Public Hospital Nurses in Medan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Fathi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing is considered as a stressful job when compared with other jobs. Prolonged stress without effective coping strategies affects not only nurses’ occupational life but also their nursing competencies. Medan is the biggest city in Sumatera Island of Indonesia. Two tertiary public hospital nurses in this city hold the responsibility in providing excellent care to their patients. Objective: To investigate the relationships between the nurse’s workplace stressors and the coping strategies used. Method: The descriptive correlational study was conducted to examine the relationships between workplace stressors and the coping strategies used in nurses of two public hospitals in Medan. The sample size of 126 nurses was drawn from selected in-patient units. Data were collected by using self-report questionnaires and focus group interview. The majority of subjects experienced low workplace stressors, where death/dying was the most commonly reported workplace stressor followed by workload. Religion was the most commonly used coping strategy. Result: Significant correlations were found between subscales of workplace stressors and coping strategies. Most of subjects used emotion-focused and dysfunctional coping strategies rather than problem-focused coping strategies. Conclusion: The nurse administrators in the hospitals need to advocate their in order to use problem-focused coping strategies more frequent than emotion-focused and dysfunctional coping strategies when dealing with workplace stressors. Keywords: workplace stressor, coping strategy, public hospital nurses

  4. Intra-family stressors among adult siblings sharing caregiving for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngangana, Pamela C; Davis, Bertha L; Burns, Dorothy P; McGee, Zina T; Montgomery, Arlene J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a Neuman Systems Model-guided study of perceptions of family stressors experienced by adult siblings who share caregiving for their parents and the influence of these stressors on adult siblings' relationships. The task of providing informal care for disabled parents is often shared by adult siblings. Family stressors experienced as part of caregiving may affect the sibling relationship. A mixed-method study design was used. Data were collected during 2013-2014 from 84 adult sibling caregivers. Seventy-two caregivers provided quantitative data for the Lifespan Sibling Relationship Scale and the Zarit Burden Scale and 79 provided qualitative data for the open-ended question. Adult siblings experienced mild-to-moderate levels of burden from family stressors when they share parental caregiving. The amount of burden from intra-family stressors was negatively related to the adult sibling relationship. Beneficial and noxious stressors were evident in the participants' responses to an open-ended question. The health of the parents affected the lives of adult siblings in both negative and positive ways. Although the majority of the adult siblings expressed a willingness to care for their parent(s) in an attempt to reciprocate the care, they had received from them, challenges emerged from dealing with family stressors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Responses of stream microbes to multiple anthropogenic stressors in a mesocosm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuy, Julia K; Lange, Anja; Beermann, Arne J; Jensen, Manfred; Elbrecht, Vasco; Röhl, Oliver; Peršoh, Derek; Begerow, Dominik; Leese, Florian; Boenigk, Jens

    2018-08-15

    Stream ecosystems are affected by multiple anthropogenic stressors worldwide. Even though effects of many single stressors are comparatively well studied, the effects of multiple stressors are difficult to predict. In particular bacteria and protists, which are responsible for the majority of ecosystem respiration and element flows, are infrequently studied with respect to multiple stressors responses. We conducted a stream mesocosm experiment to characterize the responses of single and multiple stressors on microbiota. Two functionally important stream habitats, leaf litter and benthic phototrophic rock biofilms, were exposed to three stressors in a full factorial design: fine sediment deposition, increased chloride concentration (salinization) and reduced flow velocity. We analyzed the microbial composition in the two habitat types of the mesocosms using an amplicon sequencing approach. Community analysis on different taxonomic levels as well as principle component analyses (PCoAs) based on realtive abundances of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed treatment specific shifts in the eukaryotic biofilm community. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that Bacillariophyta responded positively salinity and sediment increase, while the relative read abundance of chlorophyte taxa decreased. The combined effects of multiple stressors were mainly antagonistic. Therefore, the community composition in multiply stressed environments resembled the composition of the unstressed control community in terms of OTU occurrence and relative abundances. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stressors of School-age Children With Allergic Diseases: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Misa; Hamaguchi, Mana; Nagata, Mayumi; Yoshida, Koichi

    2018-05-08

    Most studies of stress in children with chronic diseases have been geared toward parents and caregivers have not considered allergic diseases together. This study aimed to identify the stressors associated with allergic diseases in Japanese school-age children. Stressors associated with allergic diseases of 11 school-age children (seven boys and four girls; age range: 9-12 years) were investigated using semi-structured interviews. In the qualitative thematic analysis of stressors about allergic diseases, two themes: allergic disease-specific stressors and common stressors in chronic diseases, and 12 categories were identified. A thematic map was applied to four domains of stressor: physiological factors, psychological factors, social factors, and environmental factors. The results showed that school-age children with allergic diseases have a variety of stressors. Future studies should aim to develop an allergic disease-specific stress management program with school-age children. In children with allergic diseases, not only is stress management in daily life important, but also stress management for disease-specific matters to control the symptoms and maintain mental health. Stress management should be supported for school-age children with allergic diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Range and Impact of Postmigration Stressors During Treatment of Trauma-Affected Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Maja; Rees, Susan; Mohsin, Mohammed; Silove, Derrick; Carlsson, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Trauma-affected refugees commonly experience postmigration stressors, which can compound conflict-related emotional distress. Our study aimed to assess clinician-rated frequency and types of postmigration stressors deemed to be interfering with the treatment of refugees attending a service for trauma-related mental distress. A total of 116 patients completed 6 months of multidisciplinary treatment. Clinician-rated postmigration stressors were registered at each session. Outcome measures were Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Global Assessment of Functioning, function (GAF-F) and symptom. Postmigration stressors were deemed to impact on 39.1% of treatment sessions with medical personnel. Issues related to work, finances, and family were the most frequently identified stressors. Postmigration stressors interfering with treatment were more common among male refugees, those living alone, those from Middle Eastern origin, and persons with low baseline GAF-F. Explicitly identifying and, where possible, dealing with postmigration stressors may assist in averting their interference with the treatment of distress in refugees.

  8. Advanced digital I ampersand C systems in nuclear power plants: Risk- sensitivities to environmental stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.; Vesely, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Microprocessor-based advanced digital systems are being used for upgrading analog instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. A concern with using such advanced systems for safety-related applications in NPPs is the limited experience with this equipment in these environments. In this study, we investigate the risk effects of environmental stressors by quantifying the plant's risk-sensitivities to them. The risk- sensitivities are changes in plant risk caused by the stressors, and are quantified by estimating their effects on I ampersand C failure occurrences and the consequent increase in risk in terms of core damage frequency (CDF). We used available data, including military and NPP operating experience, on the effects of environmental stressors on the reliability of digital I ampersand C equipment. The methods developed are applied to determine and compare risk-sensitivities to temperature, humidity, vibration, EMI (electromagnetic interference) from lightning and smoke as stressors in an example plant using a PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment). Uncertainties in the estimates of the stressor effects on the equipment's reliability are expressed in terms of ranges for risk-sensitivities. The results show that environmental stressors potentially can cause a significant increase in I ampersand C contributions to the CDF. Further, considerable variations can be expected in some stressor effects, depending on where the equipment is located

  9. Using macroinvertebrate assemblages and multiple stressors to infer urban stream system condition: A case study in the central US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John W.; Hubbart, Jason A.; Poulton, Barry C.

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the impacts of hydrologic alterations, pollutants, and habitat degradation on macroinvertebrate species assemblages is of critical value for managers wishing to categorize stream ecosystem condition. A combination of approaches including trait-based metrics and traditional bioassessments provides greater information, particularly in anthropogenic stream ecosystems where traditional approaches can be confounded by variously interacting land use impacts. Macroinvertebrates were collected from two rural and three urban nested study sites in central Missouri, USA during the spring and fall seasons of 2011. Land use responses of conventional taxonomic and trait-based metrics were compared to streamflow indices, physical habitat metrics, and water quality indices. Results show that biotic index was significantly different (p habitats in urban reaches contained 21 % more (p = 0.03) multivoltine organisms, which was positively correlated to the magnitude of peak flows (r2 = 0.91, p = 0.012) suggesting that high flow events may serve as a disturbance in those areas. Results support the use of macroinvertebrate assemblages and multiple stressors to characterize urban stream system condition and highlight the need to better understand the complex interactions of trait-based metrics and anthropogenic aquatic ecosystem stressors.

  10. Stressor-specific effects of sex on HPA axis hormones and activation of stress-related neurocircuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Jessica A; Masini, Cher V; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge

    2013-11-01

    Experiencing stress can be physically and psychologically debilitating to an organism. Women have a higher prevalence of some stress-related mental illnesses, the reasons for which are unknown. These experiments explore differential HPA axis hormone release in male and female rats following acute stress. Female rats had a similar threshold of HPA axis hormone release following low intensity noise stress as male rats. Sex did not affect the acute release, or the return of HPA axis hormones to baseline following moderate intensity noise stress. Sensitive indices of auditory functioning obtained by modulation of the acoustic startle reflex by weak pre-pulses did not reveal any sexual dimorphism. Furthermore, male and female rats exhibited similar c-fos mRNA expression in the brain following noise stress, including several sex-influenced stress-related regions. The HPA axis response to noise stress was not affected by stage of estrous cycle, and ovariectomy significantly increased hormone release. Direct comparison of HPA axis hormone release to two different stressors in the same animals revealed that although female rats exhibit robustly higher HPA axis hormone release after restraint stress, the same effect was not observed following moderate and high intensity loud noise stress. Finally, the differential effect of sex on HPA axis responses to noise and restraint stress cannot readily be explained by differential social cues or general pain processing. These studies suggest the effect of sex on acute stress-induced HPA axis hormone activity is highly dependent on the type of stressor.

  11. Organizational Stressors and Related Stress Intensities in Tehran\\'s Comprehensive Rehabilitation Centers: From the Employees\\' Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyereh Tavafi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rehabilitation services employees are exposed to stressors at everyday work because they are in touch with people who disability and problems have associated with. Inappropriate policies and processes in work place aggravate stress and would adversely affect mental and physical health of this population which in turn would affect their quality of work. Materials & Methods: In order to determine the status of inappropriate organizational policies and processes as organizational stressors and related stress intensities in Tehran’s comprehensive rehabilitation centers, in a descriptive study all of the personnel were asked to fill a questionnaire which consisted of 32 questions. Content validity was approved by expertise people and reliability was 0.83. Results: Revealed that misevaluation of employees (%98 and using unclear and inappropriate criteria for evaluating personal (%95 were the most prevalent inappropriate organizational policy and process that personnel confronted with. Also we found that exposure to "inequality of payment for similar jobs" and "invalidity of criteria which were used for personnel evaluation", induced highest degree of stress on employees (2.64 from 4 & 1.71from 4 respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that as the most prevalent factor which induced stress in personnel is misevaluation, correction of personnel evaluation system should be over emphasized.

  12. Identification of psychobiological stressors among HIV-positive women. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center (HNRC) Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, S J; Patterson, T L; Temoshok, L R; McCutchan, J A; Straits-Tröster, K A; Chandler, J L; Grant, I

    1993-01-01

    This research describes major stressors in the lives of women who have been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thirty-one HIV antibody positive (HIV+) women infected primarily through heterosexual contact participated in a two hour semi-structured interview detailing the circumstances, context, and consequences of all stressful life events and difficulties experienced within the preceding six months. Qualitative methods of data analyses were utilized (Miles & Huberman, 1984). HIV-related life events and difficulties were classified into primary and secondary stressors based on the stress process model (Pearlin et al., 1981). Problems arising directly from one's seropositivity were defined as primary stressors. Stressful life events and difficulties occurring in other role areas were defined as secondary stressors. Six categories of HIV-related stressors were identified and quantified. Primary stressors were health-related, and included both gynecological problems (e.g., amenorrhea) and general symptoms of HIV infection (e.g., fatigue). Secondary stressors related to child and family (e.g., future guardianship of children), marital/partner relations (e.g., disclosure of HIV+ status), occupation (e.g., arranging time-off for medical appointments), economic problems (e.g., insurance "hassles"), and social network events (e.g., death of friends from AIDS). This research indicates that HIV-positive women are exposed to multiple stressors; some may be viewed as unique to women, whereas others may be considered common to both sexes. Identification of stressors has implications for the design of medical and psychiatric interventions for women.

  13. The impact of sport related stressors on immunity and illness risk in team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaney, Lauren C; Kilding, Andrew E; Merien, Fabrice; Dulson, Deborah K

    2018-06-19

    Elite team-sport athletes are frequently exposed to stressors that have the potential to depress immunity and increase infection risk. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to describe how team-sport stressors impact upon immune responses, along with exploring whether alterations in these markers have the potential to predict upper respiratory tract illness symptoms. Narrative review. Salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and T-cell markers have been shown to predict infection risk in individual endurance athletes. Papers discussing the impact of team-sport stressors on SIgA and T-cells were discussed in the review, studies discussing other aspects of immunity were excluded. Journal articles were sourced from PubMed, Web of science and Scopus. Key search terms included team-sport athletes, stressors, immunity, T-cells, cytokines, SIgA and upper respiratory illness. Most team-sport stressors appear to increase risk for illness. An association between reduced SIgA and increased illness incidence has been demonstrated. Intensive training and competition periods have been shown to reduce SIgA, however, it is less clear how additional stressors including extreme environmental conditions, travel, psychological stress, sleep disturbance and poor nutrition affect immune responses. Monitoring SIgA may provide an assessment of a team-sport athletes risk status for developing upper respiratory tract symptoms, however there is currently not enough evidence to suggest SIgA alone can predict illness. Team-sport stressors challenge immunity and it is possible that the combination of stressors could have a compounding effect on immunodepression and infection risk. Given that illness can disrupt training and performance, further research is required to better elucidate how stressors individually and collectively influence immunity and illness. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a taxonomy of practice-related stressors experienced by veterinarians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Griek, Olivia H.; Clark, Malissa A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Nett, Randall J.; Moeller, Amanda N.; Stabler, Margaret E.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop a comprehensive taxonomy of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE A subset of 1,422 US veterinarians who provided written (vs selected) responses to a question in a previous survey regarding practice-related stressors. PROCEDURES Using grounded theory analysis, 3 researchers inductively analyzed written survey responses concerning respondents’ main practice-related stressors. In 5 iterations, responses were individually coded and categorized, and a final list of practice-related stressor categories and subcategories was iteratively and collaboratively developed until theoretical and analytic saturation of the data was achieved. RESULTS A taxonomy of 15 categories of broad practice-related stressors and 40 subcategories of more specific practice-related stressors was developed. The most common practice-related stressor categories included financial insecurity (n = 289 [20.3%]), client issues (254 [17.9%]), coworker or interpersonal issues (181 [12.7%]), and work-life balance (166 [11.7%]). The most common subcategories were clients unwilling to pay (118 [8.3%]), low income (98 [6.9%]), cost of maintaining practice (56 [3.9%]), and government or state board policies (48 [3.4%]). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided a comprehensive list of the types of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians, building a foundation for future research into relationships between job stress and mental health in this population. Frequency data on the various stressors provided an initial understanding of factors that might be contributing to high stress rates among US veterinarians. PMID:29319445

  15. Development of a taxonomy of practice-related stressors experienced by veterinarians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Griek, Olivia H; Clark, Malissa A; Witte, Tracy K; Nett, Randall J; Moeller, Amanda N; Stabler, Margaret E

    2018-01-15

    OBJECTIVE To develop a comprehensive taxonomy of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE A subset of 1,422 US veterinarians who provided written (vs selected) responses to a question in a previous survey regarding practice-related stressors. PROCEDURES Using grounded theory analysis, 3 researchers inductively analyzed written survey responses concerning respondents' main practice-related stressors. In 5 iterations, responses were individually coded and categorized, and a final list of practice-related stressor categories and subcategories was iteratively and collaboratively developed until theoretical and analytic saturation of the data was achieved. RESULTS A taxonomy of 15 categories of broad practice-related stressors and 40 subcategories of more specific practice-related stressors was developed. The most common practice-related stressor categories included financial insecurity (n = 289 [20.3%]), client issues (254 [17.9%]), coworker or interpersonal issues (181 [12.7%]), and work-life balance (166 [11.7%]). The most common subcategories were clients unwilling to pay (118 [8.3%]), low income (98 [6.9%]), cost of maintaining practice (56 [3.9%]), and government or state board policies (48 [3.4%]). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided a comprehensive list of the types of practice-related stressors experienced by US veterinarians, building a foundation for future research into relationships between job stress and mental health in this population. Frequency data on the various stressors provided an initial understanding of factors that might be contributing to high stress rates among US veterinarians.

  16. Criminal Justice Contact, Stressors, and Obesity-Related Health Problems Among Black Adults in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Paul C; Parker, Lauren; Thorpe, Roland

    2018-04-01

    Criminal justice contact-defined as lifetime arrest, parole, or incarceration, seems to exacerbate chronic conditions, and those who are most likely to have had contact with the criminal justice system, such as Black adults, often already have pre-existing disproportionately high rates of stress and chronic conditions due to the social determinants of health that affect underrepresented minorities. Findings from this study suggest that there is a mechanism that links the stressors among Black adults manifested by such factors as family, financial, neighborhood, and personal problems with criminal justice contact to obesity-related health status. Using the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), modified Poisson regression analyses were used to determine the association between criminal justice contact, stressors, and obesity-related health problems among a national sample of Black adults (n = 5008). In the full model, the odds of experiencing obesity-related health problems for Black adults who had criminal justice contact was reduced (PR, 1.23 to 1.14) and not statistically significant. Black adults who reported experiencing family stressors (PR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08, 1.36), financial stressors (PR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.16, 1.47), and personal stressors (PR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02, 1.31) were statistically significant and higher than those who reported not experiencing any of these stressors; neighborhood stressors was not statistically significant. The evidence suggests a relationship between the stressors associated with criminal justice contact and obesity-related health status. These findings emphasize the need to further explore the family, financial, and personal stressors for Black adults with criminal justice contact in order to further our understanding of their obesity-related health problems.ᅟ.

  17. Impact of multiple stressors on juvenile fish in estuaries of the northeast Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Jason D; Munsch, Stuart H; Cordell, Jeffery R; Siitari, Kiira; Hare, Van C; Holycross, Brett M; DeBruyckere, Lisa A; Greene, Correigh M; Hughes, Brent B

    2018-05-01

    A key step in identifying global change impacts on species and ecosystems is to quantify effects of multiple stressors. To date, the science of global change has been dominated by regional field studies, experimental manipulation, meta-analyses, conceptual models, reviews, and studies focusing on a single stressor or species over broad spatial and temporal scales. Here, we provide one of the first studies for coastal systems examining multiple stressor effects across broad scales, focused on the nursery function of 20 estuaries spanning 1,600 km of coastline, 25 years of monitoring, and seven fish and invertebrate species along the northeast Pacific coast. We hypothesized those species most estuarine dependent and negatively impacted by human activities would have lower presence and abundances in estuaries with greater anthropogenic land cover, pollution, and water flow stress. We found significant negative relationships between juveniles of two of seven species (Chinook salmon and English sole) and estuarine stressors. Chinook salmon were less likely to occur and were less abundant in estuaries with greater pollution stress. They were also less abundant in estuaries with greater flow stress, although this relationship was marginally insignificant. English sole were less abundant in estuaries with greater land cover stress. Together, we provide new empirical evidence that effects of stressors on two fish species culminate in detectable trends along the northeast Pacific coast, elevating the need for protection from pollution, land cover, and flow stressors to their habitats. Lack of response among the other five species could be related to differing resistance to specific stressors, type and precision of the stressor metrics, and limitations in catch data across estuaries and habitats. Acquiring improved measurements of impacts to species will guide future management actions, and help predict how estuarine nursery functions can be optimized given anthropogenic

  18. Controls of Multiple Stressors on the Black Sea Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Oguz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Black Sea is one of the most severely degraded and exploited large marine ecosystems in the world. For the last 50 years after the depletion of large predatory fish stocks, anchovy (with the partial contribution of sprat has been acting as the main top predator species and experienced a major stock collapse at the end of 1990s. After the collapse, eastern part of the southern Black Sea became the only region sustaining relatively high anchovy catch (400,000 tons whereas the total catch within the rest of the sea was reduced to nearly its one-third. The lack of recovery of different fish stocks under a slow ecosystem rehabilitation may be attributed, on the one hand, to inappropriate management measures and the lack of harmonized fishery policy among the riparian countries. On the other hand, impacts of multiple stressors (eutrophication, alien species invasions, natural climatic variations on the food web may contribute to resilience of the system toward its recovery. The overfishing/recovery problem therefore cannot be isolated from rehabilitation efforts devoted to the long-term chronic degradation of the food web structure, and alternative fishery-related management measures must be adopted as a part of a comprehensive ecosystem-based management strategy. The present study provides a data-driven ecosystem assessment, underlines the key environmental issues and threats, and points to the critical importance of holistic approach to resolve the fishery-ecosystem interactions. It also stresses the transboundary nature of the problem.

  19. Physiologic Aging of Mature Porcine Erythrocytes: Effects of Various Metabolites, Antimetabolites, and Physical Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    Amino-L-tvrosine to the level of the 4 C control. 1.49 ma’i 45 C 550 126 4 45 1 100 id of a 1:30 dilution of RBC < 24 hours after collection that had...glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate; C4 = ery-throse; C7 = sedoheptulose: 2,3DPG = 2.3- diphosphoglycerate : 3PG = nonlabeled cells treated with base was 5...0.007 vs 0.243 - 0.004; P < 0.005, un- diphosphoglycerate and adenosine triphosphate.’ Both paired, 2-tailed Student’s t test). metabolites are required

  20. The Marital/Family Life of the Family Theapist: Stressors and Enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetchler, Joseph L.; Piercy, Fred P.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses possible stressors and enhancers of marital and family life for the family therapist. The results are examined in terms of respondents' gender, work setting, theoretical orientation, number of hours worked, income, age, and marital status. (Author/BL)

  1. The Nature and Outcomes for Women of Stressors Associated With Military Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    The study of The Nature and Outcomes for Women of Stressors Associated with Military Life will obtain data that will enable us to assess the distribution of stress exposure across women in the major...

  2. The Nature and Outcomes for Women of Stressors Associated with Military Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan, B

    1998-01-01

    The study of The Na turn and Outcomes for Women of Stressors Associated with Military Life will obtain data that will enable us to assess the distribution of stress exposure across women in the major...

  3. A geospatial modelling approach to predict seagrass habitat recovery under multiple stressor regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of estuarine seagrass habitats requires a clear understanding of the modes of action of multiple interacting stressors including nutrients, climate change, coastal land-use change, and habitat modification. We have developed and demonstrated a geospatial modeling a...

  4. Violence: A non-chemical stressor and how it impacts human ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives of this presentation Define non-chemical stressors and provide overview of non-chemical stressors in a child’s social environment Summarize existing research on exposure to violence as a non-chemical stressor for children under 18 years of age Show that exposure to violence (a non-chemical stressor) may modify the biological response to chemical exposures To be presented at the Seventh Annual Session on Empowering Sustainability on Earth. Empowering Sustainability is an initiative at the University of California, Irvine, dedicated to connecting sustainability leaders across generations, countries, and disciplines and fostering engagement and research. Launched in 2011, the UCI Summer Seminar Series "Empowering Sustainability on Earth" is co-hosted each July by the UCI Newkirk Center for Science and Society, presenting a series of seminars for the next generation of leaders of global sustainability from over 70 countries around the world. The seminar talks are open to the public.

  5. Relationships of role stressors with organizational citizenship behavior: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatough, Erin M; Chang, Chu-Hsiang; Miloslavic, Stephanie A; Johnson, Russell E

    2011-05-01

    Several quantitative reviews have documented the negative relationships that role stressors have with task performance. Surprisingly, much less attention has been directed at the impact of role stressors on other aspects of job performance, such as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The goal of this study was to therefore estimate the overall relationships of role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity, conflict, and overload) with OCB. A meta-analysis of 42 existing studies indicated that role ambiguity and role conflict were negatively related to OCB and that these relationships were moderated by the target of OCB, type of organization, OCB rating source, and publication status. As expected, role conflict had a stronger negative relationship with OCB than it did with task performance. Finally, we found support for a path model in which job satisfaction mediated relationships of role stressors with OCB and for a positive direct relationship between role overload and OCB.

  6. The flavonol epicatechin reverses the suppressive effects of a stressor on long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Bogdan; Lukowiak, Ken

    2014-11-15

    Learning and subsequent memory formation are influenced by both environmental and lifestyle factors, such as stress and diet. Epicatechin, a plant flavonol found in cocoa, red wine and green tea enhances long-term memory (LTM) formation in Lymnaea. By contrast, an ecologically relevant stressor, low-calcium pond water, suppresses LTM formation. We tested the hypothesis that epicatechin overcomes the suppressive effects of the stressor on LTM formation in the continued presence of the stressor. Snails trained in low-calcium pond water exhibit learning but not LTM. Epicatechin (15 mg l(-1)) in control pond water enhances LTM formation. When epicatechin was added to the low-calcium pond water an enhanced LTM similar to that seen in control pond water was observed. Thus, a naturally occurring bioactive plant compound was able to overcome the suppressive effects of an ecologically relevant stressor on LTM formation. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Associations between Cultural Stressors, Cultural Values, and Latina/o College Students' Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Rosalie; Rodríguez, Vivian M; McDonald, Shelby E; Velazquez, Efren; Rodríguez, Adriana; Fuentes, Vanessa E

    2017-01-01

    Latina/o college students experience cultural stressors that negatively impact their mental health, which places them at risk for academic problems. We explored whether cultural values buffer the negative effect of cultural stressors on mental health symptoms in a sample of 198 Latina/o college students (70 % female; 43 % first generation college students). Bivariate results revealed significant positive associations between cultural stressors (i.e., acculturative stress, discrimination) and mental health symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depressive, psychological stress), and negative associations between cultural values of familismo, respeto, and religiosity and mental health symptoms. Several cultural values moderated the influence of cultural stressors on mental health symptoms. The findings highlight the importance of helping Latina/o college students remain connected to their families and cultural values as a way of promoting their mental health.

  8. Multiple diagnosis in posttraumatic stress disorder. The role of war stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B L; Lindy, J D; Grace, M C; Gleser, G C

    1989-06-01

    Prior studies have shown that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Vietnam veterans is associated with various aspects of war stressors and that other diagnoses often co-occur with PTSD in this population. The present report examines the prediction of other diagnoses, in combination with PTSD, from a variety of war stressor experiences in a broad sample of veterans recruited from clinical and nonclinical sources. The results show that PTSD with panic disorder is better explained by war stressors than other diagnostic combinations and that high-risk assignments and exposure to grotesque deaths were more salient than other stressor experiences in accounting for different diagnostic combinations. Implications of the findings for PTSD's placement in the DSM-III-R and for psychological and pharmacological treatments were discussed.

  9. Relations Between Stressors and Job Performance: An Aggregate-Level Investigation Using Multiple Criterion Measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    .... Army Combat Brigades. Unlike previous studies that have focused exclusively on in-role performance, we examined relations between stressors and multiple performance criterion measures, which corresponded to in-role...

  10. Role stressors and job attitudes: a mediated model of leader-member exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Ping; Tsingan, Li; Zhang, Long-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Workers with high levels of role stressors have been known to report low job satisfaction and high turnover intention. However, how the role stressors-job attitudes relationship is influenced by leader-member exchange has hardly been studied. This study examined the effect of leader-member exchange (leader support) on the relationship between chronic role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) and job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intention). Employees (N = 162) who enrolled in weekend psychology courses were investigated. The results showed that leader-member exchange mediated the effects of role stressors on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Implications of these results are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  11. Stressors, locus of control, and social support as consequences of affective psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, K; Guppy, A

    1997-04-01

    Tests of the influence of affective psychological well-being on stressors, locus of control, and social support in a 1-month follow-up study of 210 male and 34 female British accountants is reported. There was a marginally significant association between the level of psychological symptoms and subsequent reports of intensity of quantitative workload stressors. A significant interaction between psychological symptoms and a measure of depression-enthusiasm was found to predict subsequent locus of control. The results indicate a differential pattern of associations between aspects of affective well-being and subsequent reports of social support. The results also indicate that initially more frequent stressors are associated with subsequently less intense stressors of the same type. The findings highlight the dynamic and reciprocal nature of the occupational stress process.

  12. Rates and impact of trauma and current stressors among Darfuri refugees in Eastern Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Nguyen, Leanh; Wilkinson, John; Vundla, Sikhumbuzo; Raghavan, Sumithra; Miller, Kenneth E; Keller, Allen S

    2010-04-01

    Darfur refugees face hardships associated with chronic displacement, including lack of basic needs and safety concerns. Psychiatric research on refugees has focused on trauma, but daily stressors may contribute more to variance in distress. This article reports rates of past trauma and current stressors among Darfur refugees and gauges the contribution of each to psychological distress and functional impairment. A representative sample of 848 Darfuris in 2 refugee camps were interviewed about traumatic events, stressors faced in the camps, psychological distress, and functional impairment. Basic needs and safety concerns were more strongly correlated with measures of distress (rs = .19-.31) than were war-related traumatic events (rs = .09-.20). Hierarchical regression supported models in which effects of trauma on distress were mediated by current stressors. Although war-related traumatic events are the initial causes of refugees' hardship, findings suggest that the day-to-day challenges and concerns in camps mediate psychological distress associated with these events.

  13. Multiple Stressors and Ecological Complexity Require A New Approach to Coral Reef Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linwood Hagan Pendleton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification, climate change, and other environmental stressors threaten coral reef ecosystems and the people who depend upon them. New science reveals that these multiple stressors interact and may affect a multitude of physiological and ecological processes in complex ways. The interaction of multiple stressors and ecological complexity may mean that the negative effects on coral reef ecosystems will happen sooner and be more severe than previously thought. Yet, most research on the effects of global change on coral reefs focus on one or few stressors and pathways or outcomes (e.g. bleaching. Based on a critical review of the literature, we call for a regionally targeted strategy of mesocosm-level research that addresses this complexity and provides more realistic projections about coral reef impacts in the face of global environmental change. We believe similar approaches are needed for other ecosystems that face global environmental change.

  14. The relationships of working conditions, recent stressors and childhood trauma with salivary cortisol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleman, M.; Vreeburg, S.A.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An etiological model has been suggested where stress leads to high cortisol levels and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, resulting in somatic diseases and psychopathology. To evaluate this model we examined the association of different stressors (working

  15. The relationships of working conditions, recent stressors and childhood trauma with salivary cortisol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleman, Michiel; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Dekker, Jack J. M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: An etiological model has been suggested where stress leads to high cortisol levels and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, resulting in somatic diseases and psychopathology. To evaluate this model we examined the association of different stressors (working

  16. Climate change, multiple stressors, and the decline of ectotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Jason R; Palmer, Brent D

    2013-08-01

    Climate change is believed to be causing declines of ectothermic vertebrates, but there is little evidence that climatic conditions associated with declines have exceeded critical (i.e., acutely lethal) maxima or minima, and most relevant studies are correlative, anecdotal, or short-term (hours). We conducted an 11-week factorial experiment to examine the effects of temperature (22 °C or 27 °C), moisture (wet or dry), and atrazine (an herbicide; 0, 4, 40, 400 μg/L exposure as embryos and larvae) on the survival, growth, behavior, and foraging rates of postmetamorphic streamside salamanders (Ambystoma barbouri), a species of conservation concern. The tested climatic conditions were between the critical maxima and minima of streamside salamanders; thus, this experiment quantified the long-term effects of climate change within the noncritical range of this species. Despite a suite of behavioral adaptations to warm and dry conditions (e.g., burrowing, refuge use, huddling with conspecifics, and a reduction in activity), streamside salamanders exhibited significant loss of mass and significant mortality in all but the cool and moist conditions, which were closest to the climatic conditions in which they are most active in nature. A temperature of 27 °C represented a greater mortality risk than dry conditions; death occurred rapidly at this temperature and more gradually under cool and dry conditions. Foraging decreased under dry conditions, which suggests there were opportunity costs to water conservation. Exposure to the herbicide atrazine additively decreased water-conserving behaviors, foraging efficiency, mass, and time to death. Hence, the hypothesis that moderate climate change can cause population declines is even more plausible under scenarios with multiple stressors. These results suggest that climate change within the noncritical range of species and pollution may reduce individual performance by altering metabolic demands, hydration, and foraging effort

  17. Parent refugee status, immigration stressors, and Southeast Asian youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, James H; Le, Thao N

    2006-10-01

    To assess the effects of parents' experience of traumatic events on violence among Southeast Asian and Chinese youth. The study examines independent effects of parents' refugee camp experiences and immigration stress on serious or family/partner violence among youth. Findings contribute evidence on the intergenerational effects of community-level trauma that can help policy makers better integrate family and community strategies to reduce youth violence. Obtained cross-sectional, face-to-face interview data including peer delinquency, parental engagement, parental discipline, serious violence, and family/partner violence from a sample of 329 Chinese and Southeast Asian adolescents. Measures of socioeconomic status, refugee status, and immigration stressors were collected from their respective parents. Data were analyzed using LISREL 8.54 for structural equation modeling. Findings show that parents' refugee status facilitated serious violence, and was fully mediated by peer delinquency and parental engagement, but for Vietnamese only. Parents' refugee status was also significantly related to family/partner violence, and mediated by peer delinquency. This relationship was not observed among the other Asian ethnic groups. The immigration stress variable had no significant effects on either serious violence or family/partner violence. Refugee communities may not transform easily into stereotypical immigrant Asian communities characterized by little youth violence. Results suggest that the refugee process, as experienced second-hand through the children of refugees, has a strong effect on externally oriented violence (serious violence) and on family/partner violence for particular subgroups. Therefore, community-oriented policy makers should join social workers in developing programs to address youth violence in Southeast Asian families and communities. Findings have implications for other forms of community trauma such as natural disasters.

  18. Evaluating the effect of stressors on thiaminase activity in alewife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, J.M.; Kraft, C.E.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Brown, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    No consistent explanation has been found for the variability in the thiaminase activity of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus despite the role of alewife thiaminase in large-scale salmonine mortality in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We conducted experiments to evaluate the effect of two stressors, reduced salt content in the water and food limitation, on alewife thiaminase activity. Alewives were subjected to treatments in replicated tanks in which conductivity was lowered (blood cells, plasma cortisol, plasma glucose, and whole-body thiaminase were measured in individual alewives to assess their response to these experimental treatments. Alewives from the controls had significantly larger numbers of circulating white blood cells than those in the salt-reduced and food-limited treatments (24,000 and 19,000 cells/??L and 11,000 and 9,000 cells/??L for alewives from the two control and salt-reduced treatment tanks, respectively, and 34,000 and 30,000 cells/??L and 21,000 and 16,000 cells/??L for alewives from the two control and food-limited treatment tanks). No significant differences in alewife thiaminase activity were found between treatment fish and their controls. The mean thiaminase activity in the alewives studied increased from 6,900 to 16,000 pmol??g -1??min-1 from the time of their collection in Cayuga Lake to the start of laboratory experiments 1.5-2.5 years later; the latter value was more than twice that of previously reported levels of thiaminase activity from alewives collected in the wild. These data suggest that the variability in alewife thiaminase is not related to stress from salt reduction or food limitation, but laboratory holding conditions significantly increased thiaminase through a mechanism not evaluated by our experimental treatments. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  19. Stressors and psychological symptoms in students of medicine and allied health professions in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omigbodun, Olayinka O; Odukogbe, Akin-Tunde A; Omigbodun, Akinyinka O; Yusuf, O Bidemi; Bella, Tolulope T; Olayemi, Oladopo

    2006-05-01

    Studies suggest that high levels of stress and psychological morbidity occur in health care profession students. This study investigates stressors and psychological morbidity in students of medicine, dentistry, physiotherapy and nursing at the University of Ibadan. The students completed a questionnaire about their socio-demographic characteristics, perceived stressors and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Qualitative methods were used initially to categorise stressors. Data was then analysed using univariate and logistic regression to determine odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Medical and dental students were more likely to cite as stressors, overcrowding, strikes, excessive school work and lack of holidays while physiotherapy and nursing students focused on noisy environments, security and transportation. Medical and dental students (1.66; SD: 2.22) had significantly higher GHQ scores than the physiotherapy and nursing students (1.22; SD: 1.87) (t = 2.3; P = 0.022). Socio-demographic factors associated with psychological morbidity after logistic regression include being in a transition year of study, reporting financial distress and not being a 'Pentecostal Christian'. Although males were more likely to perceive financial and lecturer problems as stressors and females to perceive faculty strikes and overcrowding as source of stress, gender did not have any significant effect on psychological morbidity. Stressors associated with psychological distress in the students include excessive school work, congested classrooms, strikes by faculty, lack of laboratory equipment, family problems, insecurity, financial and health problems. Several identified stressors such as financial problems, academic pressures and their consequent effect on social life have an adverse effect on the mental health of students in this environment especially for students of medicine and dentistry. While stressors outside the reach of the school authorities are difficult to

  20. The Correlation of Organizational Role Stressors with Stress Level of Icu Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Nursalam, Nursalam; Efendi, Ferry; Puspawati, Ni Luh Putu Dewi

    2009-01-01

    Introduction : Work stress which is often experienced by ICU nurses may affects nurse’s performance, nurse’s health and wealth so that the factors which may affect work stress such as organizational role stressors must be noticed. This study was aimed to explain the correlation between organizational role stressors and work stress level in ICU Nurses. Method : This study used cross-sectional design  involved 13 respondents, taken by purposive sampling. The independent variable was organizatio...

  1. The Correlation of Organizational Role Stressors with Stress Level of ICU Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Nursalam, Nursalam; Efendi, Ferry; Puspawati, Ni Luh Putu Dewi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction : Work stress which is often experienced by ICU nurses may affects nurse’s performance, nurse’s health and wealth so that the factors which may affect work stress such as organizational role stressors must be noticed. This study was aimed to explain the correlation between organizational role stressors and work stress level in ICU Nurses. Method : This study used cross-sectional design  involved 13 respondents, taken by purposive sampling. The independent variable was organizatio...

  2. Probing for Neuroadaptations to Unpredictable Stressors in Addiction: Translational Methods and Emerging Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Jesse T.; Bradford, Daniel E.; Magruder, Katherine P.; Curtin, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Stressors clearly contribute to addiction etiology and relapse in humans, but our understanding of specific mechanisms remains limited. Rodent models of addiction offer the power, flexibility, and precision necessary to delineate the causal role and specific mechanisms through which stressors influence alcohol and other drug use. This review describes a program of research using startle potentiation to unpredictable stressors that is well positioned to translate between animal models and clinical research with humans on stress neuroadaptations in addiction. This research rests on a solid foundation provided by three separate pillars of evidence from (a) rodent behavioral neuroscience on stress neuroadaptations in addiction, (b) rodent affective neuroscience on startle potentiation, and (c) human addiction and affective science with startle potentiation. Rodent stress neuroadaptation models implicate adaptations in corticotropin-releasing factor and norepinephrine circuits within the central extended amygdala following chronic alcohol and other drug use that mediate anxious behaviors and stress-induced reinstatement among drug-dependent rodents. Basic affective neuroscience indicates that these same neural mechanisms are involved in startle potentiation to unpredictable stressors in particular (vs. predictable stressors). We believe that synthesis of these evidence bases should focus us on the role of unpredictable stressors in addiction etiology and relapse. Startle potentiation in unpredictable stressor tasks is proposed to provide an attractive and flexible test bed to encourage tight translation and reverse translation between animal models and human clinical research on stress neuroadaptations. Experimental therapeutics approaches focused on unpredictable stressors hold high promise to identify, repurpose, or refine pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for addiction. PMID:28499100

  3. Psychological vulnerability to daily stressors in old age: Results of short-term longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver Karl; Diehl, Manfred

    2015-08-01

    A growing numbers of intensive longitudinal studies examine the short-term variability of behavior in response to daily stressors. Collectively, these studies address the vulnerability for stress-related emotional burden as assessed in terms of the intraindividual association between daily stressors and negative affect (NA). This article provides a brief overview of the relevant research on so-called affective reactivity to daily stressors and focuses on findings on development of age-related stressor reactivity across the adult lifespan. Two theoretical propositions have been put forward. Firstly, it has been postulated that aging should be associated with increased affective reactivity, i.e. it has been assumed that the vulnerability in terms of physiological stress reactivity increases across the adult life span and, thus, a higher stress-induced emotional reactivity should result with increasing age. Secondly, it has been argued that due to the continued development of emotional self-regulation skills, there should be an age-related decrease in stress reactivity and, hence, an increased resilience. Findings on age differences in NA reactivity to daily stressors, however, have been inconsistent. A possible explanation for the inconsistent findings may lie in the fact that the postulated dynamics of increased vulnerability or resilience imply different time-related reactions to stressors. In particular, the activation and effectiveness of emotional self-regulation strategies increase with increasing time intervals from the stressors. This leads to the conclusion that with increasing age the resilience for longer periods of stress and accumulated stress should increase. Results from our own research support this hypothesis, where older adults reacted to multiple stressors in a more adaptive way than younger adults.

  4. Relationship Functioning Moderates the Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Life Stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Trombello, Joseph M.; Schoebi, Dominik; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2011-01-01

    Data from 172 newlywed couples were collected over the first 4 years of marriage to test how behaviors demonstrated during marital interactions moderate associations between depressive symptoms and subsequent life stressors. Depressive symptoms and behaviors coded from problem-solving and social support interactions were analyzed as predictors of nonmarital stressors that were interpersonal and dependent on the participant's actions. Behavioral codes were found to moderate 3 of 16 symptom-to-...

  5. Probing for Neuroadaptations to Unpredictable Stressors in Addiction: Translational Methods and Emerging Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Jesse T; Bradford, Daniel E; Magruder, Katherine P; Curtin, John J

    2017-05-01

    Stressors clearly contribute to addiction etiology and relapse in humans, but our understanding of specific mechanisms remains limited. Rodent models of addiction offer the power, flexibility, and precision necessary to delineate the causal role and specific mechanisms through which stressors influence alcohol and other drug use. This review describes a program of research using startle potentiation to unpredictable stressors that is well positioned to translate between animal models and clinical research with humans on stress neuroadaptations in addiction. This research rests on a solid foundation provided by three separate pillars of evidence from (a) rodent behavioral neuroscience on stress neuroadaptations in addiction, (b) rodent affective neuroscience on startle potentiation, and (c) human addiction and affective science with startle potentiation. Rodent stress neuroadaptation models implicate adaptations in corticotropin-releasing factor and norepinephrine circuits within the central extended amygdala following chronic alcohol and other drug use that mediate anxious behaviors and stress-induced reinstatement among drug-dependent rodents. Basic affective neuroscience indicates that these same neural mechanisms are involved in startle potentiation to unpredictable stressors in particular (vs. predictable stressors). We believe that synthesis of these evidence bases should focus us on the role of unpredictable stressors in addiction etiology and relapse. Startle potentiation in unpredictable stressor tasks is proposed to provide an attractive and flexible test bed to encourage tight translation and reverse translation between animal models and human clinical research on stress neuroadaptations. Experimental therapeutics approaches focused on unpredictable stressors hold high promise to identify, repurpose, or refine pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for addiction.

  6. Exposure to stressors and trajectories of perceived stress among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Lynch, Scott M; Glei, Dana A; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2015-03-01

    Models of stress incorporate both the environmental demands experienced by individuals (stressors) and the appraisal of these life events (perceptions). Because little is known about the extent to which experience and perceptions are related, we examine this relationship in a nationally representative population of older Taiwanese adults. Using growth models applied to data from 3 waves (1999, 2003, and 2007) of the Taiwan Longitudinal Study of Aging, we (a) investigate patterns of change in perceived stress in later adulthood and (b) examine how experienced stressors influence perceived stress. Participants were asked to report the presence of, and in some cases the degree of, exposure to stressors including total number of medical conditions, difficulty with activities of daily living, difficulty with mobility functions, being financially worse off compared with the prior wave, experiencing the death of a child, and experiencing a marital disruption. Items reflecting perceived stress included concerns about various domains pertaining to the respondent and his/her family member. Our results indicate that exposure to stressors increases, whereas perceived stress decreases, over time. Change in exposure to stressors is not generally associated with change in perceptions of stress, with the exception of a summary measure of health-related exposure to stressors. An increase in poor health over time is related to an increase in perceived stress in all domains. The results underscore the importance of distinguishing between perceptions of stress and exposure to stressors when studying the links between stress and health among older adults. Furthermore, the diminishing linkage between experienced stressors and perceptions of stress suggests that older adults' appraisal may be an adaptive coping strategy that emerges to buffer some of the difficulties that are inevitable in later life. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The

  7. An improved null model for assessing the net effects of multiple stressors on communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patrick L; MacLennan, Megan M; Vinebrooke, Rolf D

    2018-01-01

    Ecological stressors (i.e., environmental factors outside their normal range of variation) can mediate each other through their interactions, leading to unexpected combined effects on communities. Determining whether the net effect of stressors is ecologically surprising requires comparing their cumulative impact to a null model that represents the linear combination of their individual effects (i.e., an additive expectation). However, we show that standard additive and multiplicative null models that base their predictions on the effects of single stressors on community properties (e.g., species richness or biomass) do not provide this linear expectation, leading to incorrect interpretations of antagonistic and synergistic responses by communities. We present an alternative, the compositional null model, which instead bases its predictions on the effects of stressors on individual species, and then aggregates them to the community level. Simulations demonstrate the improved ability of the compositional null model to accurately provide a linear expectation of the net effect of stressors. We simulate the response of communities to paired stressors that affect species in a purely additive fashion and compare the relative abilities of the compositional null model and two standard community property null models (additive and multiplicative) to predict these linear changes in species richness and community biomass across different combinations (both positive, negative, or opposite) and intensities of stressors. The compositional model predicts the linear effects of multiple stressors under almost all scenarios, allowing for proper classification of net effects, whereas the standard null models do not. Our findings suggest that current estimates of the prevalence of ecological surprises on communities based on community property null models are unreliable, and should be improved by integrating the responses of individual species to the community level as does our

  8. Stressors in the relatives of patients admitted to an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Angélica Adam; Weigel, Bruna Dorfey; Dummer, Claus Dieter; Machado, Kelly Campara; Tisott, Taís Montagner

    2016-09-01

    To identify and stratify the main stressors for the relatives of patients admitted to the adult intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with relatives of patients admitted to an intensive care unit from April to October 2014. The following materials were used: a questionnaire containing identification information and demographic data of the relatives, clinical data of the patients, and 25 stressors adapted from the Intensive Care Unit Environmental Stressor Scale. The degree of stress caused by each factor was determined on a scale of values from 1 to 4. The stressors were ranked based on the average score obtained. The main cause of admission to the intensive care unit was clinical in 36 (52.2%) cases. The main stressors were the patient being in a state of coma (3.15 ± 1.23), the patient being unable to speak (3.15 ± 1.20), and the reason for admission (3.00 ± 1.27). After removing the 27 (39.1%) coma patients from the analysis, the main stressors for the relatives were the reason for admission (2.75 ± 1.354), seeing the patient in the intensive care unit (2.51 ± 1.227), and the patient being unable to speak (2.50 ± 1.269). Difficulties in communication and in the relationship with the patient admitted to the intensive care unit were identified as the main stressors by their relatives, with the state of coma being predominant. By contrast, the environment, work routines, and relationship between the relatives and intensive care unit team had the least impact as stressors.

  9. Negative Social Contextual Stressors and Somatic Symptoms Among Young Black Males: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Lionel D.; McCoy, Henrika

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether negative social contextual stressors were associated with somatic symptoms among young Black males (N = 74) after accounting for background and psychological characteristics. Using Cunningham and Spencer’s Black Male Experiences Measure, negative social contextual stressors connoted those experiences connected to the personal attributes, devaluation, and negative imagery of young Black males, such as being followed when entering a store or police or security guards...

  10. Discrimination, Other Psychosocial Stressors, and Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To advance understanding of the relationship between discrimination and sleep duration and difficulties, with consideration of multiple dimensions of discrimination, and attention to concurrent stressors; and to examine the contribution of discrimination and other stressors to racial/ ethnic differences in these outcomes. Design: Cross-sectional probability sample. Setting: Chicago, IL. Participants: There were 2,983 black, Hispanic, and white adults. Measurements and Results: Outcomes included self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. Discrimination, including racial and nonracial everyday and major experiences of discrimination, workplace harassment and incivilities, and other stressors were assessed via questionnaire. In models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, greater exposure to racial (β = -0.14)) and nonracial (β = -0.08) everyday discrimination, major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity (β = -0.17), and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = -0.14) were associated with shorter sleep (P stressors (i.e., acute events, childhood adversity, and financial, community, employment, and relationship stressors). Racial (β = 0.04) and non-racial (β = 0.05) everyday discrimination and racial (β = 0.04) and nonracial (β = 0.04) major experiences of discrimination, and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = 0.04) were also associated with more (log) sleep difficulties, and associations between racial and nonracial everyday discrimination and sleep difficulties remained after adjustment for other stressors (P 0.05). Conclusions: Discrimination was associated with shorter sleep and more sleep difficulties, independent of socioeconomic status and other stressors, and may account for some of the racial/ethnic differences in sleep. Citation: Slopen N; Williams DR. Discrimination, other psychosocial stressors, and self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. SLEEP 2014;37(1):147-156. PMID:24381373

  11. Structure, functioning, and cumulative stressors of Mediterranean deep-sea ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Tecchio, S.; Coll, Marta; Sarda, F.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stressors, such as climate fluctuations, and anthropogenic stressors, such as fishing, are of major concern for the management of deep-sea ecosystems. Deep-water habitats are limited by primary productivity and are mainly dependent on the vertical input of organic matter from the surface. Global change over the latest decades is imparting variations in primary productivity levels across oceans, and thus it has an impact on the amount of organic matter landing on the deep seafloo...

  12. Contingent self-esteem, stressors and burnout in working women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    A high work involvement is considered central in the burnout process. Yet, research investigating how high work involvement and psychosocial stressors relate to burnout is scarce. High involvement in terms of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE) refers to individuals' strivings to validate self-worth by achievements, a disposition linked to poor health. The aim of the present study was to examine longitudinally PBSE in relation to burnout while also taking into account work- and private life stressors. The sample consisted of 2121 working women and men. Main- and mediation effects were investigated using hierarchical regression analysis. The results showed performance-based self-esteem mediated partially between the stressors and burnout. Performance-based self-esteem was the strongest predictor of burnout over time, followed by private life stressors. Women experienced more work stress than did men. Men had stronger associations between work stressors and burnout, while women had stronger associations between performance-based self-esteem and burnout. Individual characteristics along with both private life and work stressors are important predictors of burnout. Factors associated with burnout differ somewhat between women and men.

  13. Stressor experience negatively affects life satisfaction in adolescents: the positive role of sense of coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moksnes, Unni K; Haugan, G

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between different normative stressors, sense of coherence and life satisfaction separately for gender in Norwegian adolescents. The interaction effect of stress by sense of coherence in relation to life satisfaction was also investigated. The data are based on a cross-sectional sample of 1239 adolescents (13-18 years) from public elementary and secondary schools in Central Norway. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between stressors, sense of coherence and life satisfaction, separately for gender. The results showed significant differences between genders, where boys reported higher scores than girls on sense of coherence and life satisfaction, whereas girls scored higher than boys on five of seven stressor domains. All stressors were significantly and inversely associated with life satisfaction in both genders; however, all associations were stronger for girls compared to boys. Sense of coherence showed a significant strong and positive association with life satisfaction, controlled for age and each individual stressor. A significant although weak interaction effect of stress related to romantic relationships by sense of coherence was found in association with life satisfaction for boys; the other interaction effects were nonsignificant in both genders. The results give support for a significant unique role of stressor experience and sense of coherence in relation to life satisfaction in both genders during adolescence, where the associations were especially strong in girls.

  14. Neuronal Activation After Prolonged Immobilization: Do the Same or Different Neurons Respond to a Novel Stressor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Blasco, Ignacio; Muñoz-Abellán, Cristina; Andero, Raül; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Despite extensive research on the impact of emotional stressors on brain function using immediate-early genes (e.g., c-fos), there are still important questions that remain unanswered such as the reason for the progressive decline of c-fos expression in response to prolonged stress and the neuronal populations activated by different stressors. This study tackles these 2 questions by evaluating c-fos expression in response to 2 different emotional stressors applied sequentially, and performing a fluorescent double labeling of c-Fos protein and c-fos mRNA on stress-related brain areas. Results were complemented with the assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. We showed that the progressive decline of c-fos expression could be related to 2 differing mechanisms involving either transcriptional repression or changes in stimulatory inputs. Moreover, the neuronal populations that respond to the different stressors appear to be predominantly separated in high-level processing areas (e.g., medial prefrontal cortex). However, in low-hierarchy areas (e.g., paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus) neuronal populations appear to respond unspecifically. The data suggest that the distinct physiological and behavioral consequences of emotional stressors, and their implication in the development of psychopathologies, are likely to be closely associated with neuronal populations specifically activated by each stressor.

  15. Negative Aging Attitudes Predict Greater Reactivity to Daily Stressors in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingtier, Jennifer A; Neupert, Shevaun D

    2016-08-03

    In order to understand conflicting findings regarding the emotional reactions of older adults to daily stressors, we examined the possibility that negative aging attitudes could function as an important individual differences factor related to stressor reactivity. Using a daily dairy design, we examined the aging attitudes of 43 older adults reporting on 380 total days. Participants reported their aging attitudes on Day 1, followed by their stressor exposure and negative affect on Days 2-9. Covariates included age, gender, education, and personality. Using multilevel modeling, our results suggest that individuals with more positive aging attitudes report consistent levels of affect across study days regardless of stressors, whereas those with more negative aging attitudes reported increased emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Positive aging attitudes may serve as a resource that helps buffer reactions to daily stressors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Cardiovascular reactivity to stressors in Indian young adults with normotensive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anjali; Kumar, Manoj; Saxena, Indu; Kumar, Jayballabh

    2013-10-01

    Stress-induced increase in heart-rate and blood pressure is termed cardiovascular reactivity (CVR). Various studies are designed to monitor the CVR and use different types of experimental stressors. We have compared the CVR to three different stressors used in CVR based studies (cold pressor task, hand grip test, and video game) to identify the best suited stressor for any study design. The study was conducted on 82 (38 female) young Indian adults with normal resting basal parameters and normotensive parents. Each volunteer was subjected to three stressors: cold pressor task (CPT), hand grip test (HGT), and video game (VG). The CVR to the three stressors was compared amongst female subjects and amongst male subjects by ANOVA, and between female and male subjects by unpaired Student's t-test. Maximum CVR was obtained to HGT, while maximum gender difference in CVR was obtained in case of CPT. Heart rate and blood pressure changes obtained on playing VG were not statistically significant. When the purpose of research is to generate maximum possible CVR, we suggest the use of HGT; while if the purpose of the research is to study gender related differences, the use of CPT would be more appropriate. Unlike young adults of Western countries, VG is not perceived as a challenging task or stressor by young Indian adults and produces little change in heart rate and blood pressure.

  17. Disclosure of psychosocial stressors affecting diabetes care among uninsured young adults with Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatak, E A; Sequeira, P; Peters, A L; Montoya, L; Weigensberg, M J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the disclosure rates of psychosocial issues affecting routine diabetes care. A total of 20 young adults were interviewed regarding the impact of psychosocial stressors on their diabetes care. The interviewer, endocrinologist and case manager reported the prevalence rates of psychosocial stressors. Disclosure rates were compared to determine the prevalence of psychosocial issues and the different patterns of disclosure. Participants reported a high number of psychosocial stressors, which were associated with poorer glycaemic control (r = 0.60, P = 0.005). Approximately half of all disclosed stressors (50.9%) were identified in routine care; other stressors were identified only through intensive case management and/or in-depth interviews. Identifying psychosocial stressors in routine care, and providing referrals to psychological or social services, is a significant unmet need and may improve glycaemic control among certain populations with diabetes. Systematic mechanisms of capturing this information, such as by screening surveys, should be considered. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  18. Parenting-Related Stressors and Self-Reported Mental Health of Mothers With Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Ritesh; Stevens, Gregory D.; Sareen, Harvinder; De Vogli, Roberto; Halfon, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether there were associations between maternal mental health and individual and co-occurring parenting stressors related to social and financial factors and child health care access. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from the 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health. The 5-item Mental Health Inventory was used to measure self-reported mental health. Results. After we controlled for demographic covariates, we found that the following stressors increased the risk of poor maternal mental health: lack of emotional (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0, 5.9) or functional (OR=2.2; 95% CI=1.3, 3.7) social support for parenting, too much time spent with child (OR=3.5; 95% CI=2.0, 6.1), and difficulty paying for child care (OR=2.3; 95% CI=1.4, 3.9). In comparison with mothers without any parenting stressors, mothers reporting 1 stressor had 3 times the odds of poor mental health (OR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.1, 4.8), and mothers reporting 2 or more stressors had nearly 12 times the odds (OR = 11.7; 95% CI = 7.1, 19.3). Conclusions. If parenting stressors such as those examined here are to be addressed, changes may be required in community support systems, and improvements in relevant social policies may be needed. PMID:17538058

  19. How stressors are dynamically appraised within a team during a game: An exploratory study in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, J; Bourbousson, J

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about how team sport athletes individually and collectively experience sources of stress during competitive sport encounters. This study aimed to examine the nature of the stressors team sport athletes appraised during games at individual and team levels, as well as their degree of synchronization during an unfolding game. Through individual self-confrontation interviews, the activities of nine basketball players of the same team were examined in detail. The results revealed that 12 categories of stressors were reported, and categorized into two larger units reflecting stressors perceived as affecting (a) "the team functioning as a whole" and (b) "a player's own functioning". Thus, the nature and degree of similarity of the game-specific stressors experienced by basketball players within a single team were identified during a game. In addition, the findings showed six different patterns of synchronizations of team members' stressors, as well as their changes over the course of the game. They provided support for the synchronized appraisal and experience of stressors within a team during a game. By adopting an interpersonal perspective and examining the temporal interplay in team members' activities, this study shed light on stress within teams. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The influence of maternal life stressors on breastfeeding outcomes: a US population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsantas, Panagiota; Gaffney, Kathleen F; Nirmalraj, Lavanya; Sari, Mehmet

    2018-01-08

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of maternal financial, emotional, traumatic, and partner-associated stressors on breastfeeding initiation and duration. Data (216,756 records) from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System surveys were used in the analysis. Logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the magnitude and direction of associations between maternal stressors occurring in the 12 months prior to infant birth and both breastfeeding initiation and duration up to 4 weeks infant age. A substantial proportion of mothers (42%) reported having experienced one or two major stressors during the 12 months prior to the birth of their infant. Mothers who reported at least one major life stressor in the year before their baby was born were less likely to initiate breastfeeding and more likely to cease by 4 weeks infant age. Emotional and traumatic stressors were found to have the greatest impact on breastfeeding outcomes. Findings support the design and implementation of screening protocols for major maternal life stressors during regularly scheduled prenatal and newborn visits. Screening for at-risk mothers may lead to more targeted anticipatory guidance and referral with positive effects on breastfeeding outcomes and overall well-being of the mothers and their families.

  1. Density dependence governs when population responses to multiple stressors are magnified or mitigated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Emma E; Essington, Timothy E; Halpern, Benjamin S

    2017-10-01

    Population endangerment typically arises from multiple, potentially interacting anthropogenic stressors. Extensive research has investigated the consequences of multiple stressors on organisms, frequently focusing on individual life stages. Less is known about population-level consequences of exposure to multiple stressors, especially when exposure varies through life. We provide the first theoretical basis for identifying species at risk of magnified effects from multiple stressors across life history. By applying a population modeling framework, we reveal conditions under which population responses from stressors applied to distinct life stages are either magnified (synergistic) or mitigated. We find that magnification or mitigation critically depends on the shape of density dependence, but not the life stage in which it occurs. Stressors are always magnified when density dependence is linear or concave, and magnified or mitigated when it is convex. Using Bayesian numerical methods, we estimated the shape of density dependence for eight species across diverse taxa, finding support for all three shapes. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Chronic stressors and trauma: prospective influences on the course of bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, A.; Johnson, S. L.; Miller, I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to life stress is known to adversely impact the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have disentangled the effects of multiple types of stressors on the longitudinal course of bipolar I disorder. This study examines whether severity of chronic stressors and exposure to trauma are prospectively associated with course of illness among bipolar patients. Method One hundred and thirty-one participants diagnosed with bipolar I disorder were recruited through treatment centers, support groups and community advertisements. Severity of chronic stressors and exposure to trauma were assessed at study entry with in-person interviews using the Bedford College Life Event and Difficulty Schedule (LEDS). Course of illness was assessed by monthly interviews conducted over the course of 24 months (over 3000 assessments). Results Trauma exposure was related to more severe interpersonal chronic stressors. Multiple regression models provided evidence that severity of overall chronic stressors predicted depressive but not manic symptoms, accounting for 7.5% of explained variance. Conclusions Overall chronic stressors seem to be an important determinant of depressive symptoms within bipolar disorder, highlighting the importance of studying multiple forms of life stress. PMID:23419615

  3. Longitudinal trajectories of subjective care stressors: the role of personal, dyadic, and family resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangerter, Lauren R; Liu, Yin; Zarit, Steven H

    2017-11-24

    Stressors are critical to the caregiver stress process, yet little work has examined resources that contribute to longitudinal changes in subjective stressors. The present study examines a variety of factors that contribute to changes in subjective stressors across time. Dementia caregivers (N = 153) completed an in-person interview and eight daily telephone interviews at baseline, and follow up interviews at 6 and 12 months. Growth curve analyses examine how care- and non-care stressors, respite, dyadic relationship quality, family support/conflict and care transitions (e.g. nursing home placement) are associated with changes in role overload and role captivity across 12 months. Caregivers who transitioned out of their role had higher overload and captivity at baseline. Among caregivers who transitioned out of caregiving, higher captivity at baseline was associated with declines in captivity and overload; more non-care stressors at baseline was linked to increased captivity and greater overload across time. Adult day service use and family support were associated with lesser captivity over time; taking more breaks from caregiving was linked to lower overload. Higher dyadic relationship quality was associated with lower captivity and overload. Findings contribute to caregiver intervention efforts by highlighting important resources associated with subjective stressors across time.

  4. A review of hydrological and chemical stressors in the Adige catchment and its ecological status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Majone, Bruno; Cano Paoli, Karina; Diamantini, Elena; Stella, Elisa; Mallucci, Stefano; Lencioni, Valeria; Zandonai, Fabiana; Bellin, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the effects of multiple stressors on Alpine freshwater ecosystems is challenging, due to the lack of tailored field campaigns for the contemporaneous measurement of hydrological, chemical and ecological parameters. Conducting exhaustive field campaigns is costly and hence most of the activities so far have been performed addressing specific environmental issues. An accurate analysis of existing information is therefore useful and necessary, to identify stressors that may act in synergy and to design new field campaigns. We present an extended review of available studies and datasets concerning the hydrological, chemical and ecological status of the Adige, which is the second longest river and the third largest river basin in Italy. The most relevant stressors are discussed in the light of the information extracted from a large number of studies. The detailed analysis of these studies identified that hydrological alterations caused by hydropower production are the main source of stress for the freshwater ecosystems in the Adige catchment. However, concurrent effects with other stressors, such as the release of pollutants from waste water treatment plants or from agricultural and industrial activities, have not been explored at depth, so far. A wealth of available studies address a single stressor separately without exploring their concurrent effect. It is concluded that a combination of extended experimental field campaigns, focusing on the coupled effects of multiple stressors, and modeling activities is highly needed in order to quantify the impact of the multifaceted human pressures on freshwater ecosystems in the Adige river. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Chronic stressors and trauma: prospective influences on the course of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, A; Johnson, S L; Miller, I

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to life stress is known to adversely impact the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have disentangled the effects of multiple types of stressors on the longitudinal course of bipolar I disorder. This study examines whether severity of chronic stressors and exposure to trauma are prospectively associated with course of illness among bipolar patients. One hundred and thirty-one participants diagnosed with bipolar I disorder were recruited through treatment centers, support groups and community advertisements. Severity of chronic stressors and exposure to trauma were assessed at study entry with in-person interviews using the Bedford College Life Event and Difficulty Schedule (LEDS). Course of illness was assessed by monthly interviews conducted over the course of 24 months (over 3000 assessments). Trauma exposure was related to more severe interpersonal chronic stressors. Multiple regression models provided evidence that severity of overall chronic stressors predicted depressive but not manic symptoms, accounting for 7.5% of explained variance. Overall chronic stressors seem to be an important determinant of depressive symptoms within bipolar disorder, highlighting the importance of studying multiple forms of life stress.

  6. Organisational change stressors and nursing job satisfaction: the mediating effect of coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Stephen T T; Pick, David; Newton, Cameron J; Yeung, Melissa E; Chang, Esther

    2013-09-01

    To examine the mediating effect of coping strategies on the consequences of nursing and non-nursing (administrative) stressors on the job satisfaction of nurses during change management. Organisational change can result in an increase in nursing and non-nursing-related stressors, which can have a negative impact on the job satisfaction of nurses employed in health-care organisations. Matched data were collected in 2009 via an online survey at two time-points (six months apart). Partial least squares path analysis revealed a significant causal relationship between Time 1 administrative and role stressors and an increase in nursing-specific stressors in Time 2. A significant relationship was also identified between job-specific nursing stressors and the adoption of effective coping strategies to deal with increased levels of change-induced stress and strain and the likelihood of reporting higher levels of job satisfaction in Time 2. The effectiveness of coping strategies is critical in helping nurses to deal with the negative consequences of organisational change. This study shows that there is a causal relationship between change, non-nursing stressors and job satisfaction. Senior management should implement strategies aimed at reducing nursing and non-nursing stress during change in order to enhance the job satisfaction of nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Stressors impair odor recognition memory via an olfactory bulb-dependent noradrenergic mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Manella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-associative habituation and odor recognition tasks have been widely used to probe questions social recognition, odor memory duration, and odor memory specificity. Among others, these paradigms have provided valuable insight into how neuromodulation, and specifically norepinephrine/noradrenaline (NE influences odor memory. In general, NE levels are modulated by arousal, stress, and behavioral state, and there is sparse evidence of a direct relationship between NE and odor memory in adult rodents. The present study uses simple mild psychological stressors (bright light and sound, to modulate NE levels physiologically in order to probe its effect on olfactory memory. In rats with bilateral bulbar cannulations, we show that these stressors modulate olfactory memory and that this effect is at least partially mediated by olfactory bulb. Specifically, we show that the presence of stressors during the acquisition of odor memory suppresses memory for an odor when tested 30 minutes after the acquisition. This suppression is blocked by infusing NE antagonists into the olfactory bulb prior to odor acquisition. Additionally, we find that infusion of bulbar NE is sufficient to suppress odor memory in a manner mimicking that of our stressors. These effects are unlikely to be solely mediated by locomotor/exploratory changes produced by stressors, although these stressors influence certain behaviors not directly related to odor investigation. This study provides important information about how behaviorally relevant changes in NE can influence top-down sensory processing and odor memory.

  8. Eco-SpaCE: An object-oriented, spatially explicit model to assess the risk of multiple environmental stressors on terrestrial vertebrate populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, Mark; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Plasmeijer, Rinus; Schipper, Aafke M.; Hendriks, A. Jan

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife organisms are exposed to a combination of chemical, biological and physical stressors. Information about the relative impact of each stressor can support management decisions, e.g., by the allocation of resources to counteract those stressors that cause most harm. The present paper introduces Eco-SpaCE; a novel receptor-oriented cumulative exposure model for wildlife species that includes relevant ecological processes such as spatial habitat variation, food web relations, predation, and life history. A case study is presented in which the predicted mortality due to cadmium contamination is compared with the predicted mortality due to flooding, starvation, and predation for three small mammal species (Wood mouse, Common vole, and European mole) and a predator (Little owl) living in a lowland floodplain along the river Rhine in The Netherlands. Results indicated that cadmium is the principal stressor for European mole and Little owl populations. Wood mouse and Common vole population densities were mainly influenced by flooding and food availability. Their estimated population sizes were consistent with numbers reported in literature. Predictions for cadmium accumulation and flooding stress were in agreement with field data. The large uncertainty around cadmium toxicity for wildlife leads to the conclusion that more species-specific ecotoxicological data is required for more realistic risk assessments. The predictions for starvation were subject to the limited quantitative information on biomass obtainable as food for vertebrates. It is concluded that the modelling approach employed in Eco-SpaCE, combining ecology with ecotoxicology, provides a viable option to explore the relative contribution of contamination to the overall stress in an ecosystem. This can help environmental managers to prioritize management options, and to reduce local risks.

  9. Marital Quality for Men and Women in Stepfamilies: Examining the Role of Economic Pressure, Common Stressors, and Stepfamily-Specific Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, David G.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Although economic pressure and family stress models have been examined with samples of men and women in first marriages, previous models have neglected to focus on men and women in stepfamilies and to examine stress sources unique to stepfamilies. This study examines the effect of economic pressure on both common stressors and stepfamily-specific…

  10. A Typology of Secondary Stressors Among Refugees of Conflict in the Middle East: The Case of Syrian Refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadhli, Khalifah; Drury, John

    2018-05-10

    As the years of displacement accumulate, the burden of secondary stressors (i.e., stressors not directly related to war) increase on the shoulders of millions of refugees, who do not have the option of either returning home due to war or having a sustainable livelihood in the host countries. This paper aims to shed light on the overlooked importance of secondary stressors among refugees of conflict in developing countries; it will do this by highlighting the experience of Syrian refugees in Jordan, and developing a typology of these stressors. We approached this issue using two levels of exploration. In study 1, we used participant observation and 15 in-depth interviews in Irbid, Jordan. Data were analysed qualitatively using thematic analysis to explore the different types of stressors. In study 2, a questionnaire survey among Syrian refugees in Jordan (n = 305) was used to collect data about a wide range of stressors. Responses were subjected to factor analysis to examine the extent to which the stressors could be organized into different factors. The thematic analysis suggested three different types of secondary stressors: financial (money related), environmental (exile structures and feelings created by it), and social (directly related to social relations). The factor analysis of the survey data produced a similar typology, where secondary stressors were found to be grouped into four main factors (financial, services, safety, and relations with out-groups). The final result is a typology of 33 secondary stressors organised in three main themes. Syrian refugees in Jordan suffer the most from financial stressors, due to loss of income and high living expenses. Environmental stressors arise from exile and are either circumstantial (e.g., services and legal requirements) or created by this environment (e.g., instability and lack of familiarity). Social stressors were observed among a considerable section of refugees, varying from stressors due to being targeted as

  11. Patients' and Health Care Providers' Perception of Stressors in the Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuatiq, Alham

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study is first, to investigate intensive care patients' perceptions of stressors; second, to investigate the health care provider's perception of what constitutes a stressor from the patient's perspective; and third, to describe how health care providers manage their patients' stressors. This was a mixed-methods study; the quantitative section replicated Cornock's 1998 study of stress in the intensive care unit (ICU), with difference in sampling to include all health care providers in the ICU, in addition to nurses. The qualitative section added information to the current literature by describing how health care providers manage their patient's stressors. This article reports the quantitative findings of this study, as the qualitative section is presented in a separate article. It is important to describe ICU patients' stressful experiences to assess patient's stressors, provide holistic care to eliminate stressors, and provide feedback to health care providers. There is a need to describe the clinical practice related to stress perception and management of stressors in the critical care environment. A mixed-methods comparative descriptive design was used for the quantitative section, and a phenomenological approach guided the qualitative section. Lazarus and Folkman's theory formed the bases for integrating all variables investigated in this study. The sample included 70 ICU patients and 70 ICU health care providers. After consenting to participate in this study, subjects were given a demographic form and a paper-based tool, the Environmental Stressors graphic data form Questionnaire. Questionnaires were filled out by subjects anonymously in the ICU and returned to the researcher in the same setting. Descriptive statistics were analyzed using SPSS data analysis software. The top 3 most stressful items ranked by the patients included "being in pain," followed by "not being able to sleep" and "financial worries"; on the other hand, health care

  12. Workplace and security stressors and mental health among migrant workers on the Thailand-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah R; Decker, Michele R; Tol, Wietse A; Abshir, Nada; Mar, Aye Aye; Robinson, W Courtland

    2016-05-01

    Migrant workers in low-resource settings may experience multiple types of workplace and security-related stressors. This study explores the relationship between these stressors and adverse mental health outcomes, through a study of migrant workers from Myanmar, working in agriculture, factory, and sex industries in and around Mae Sot, Thailand. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit a total sample of 589 male and female migrants. Trained data collectors administered a survey, which included measures of workplace and security-related stressors, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Multivariate regression models were conducted separately for depression and anxiety symptoms. For male agricultural workers, security stressors (β = 1.9, p = .001) are associated with an increase in depression symptoms and coercive working conditions are associated with an increase in anxiety symptoms (β = .8, p = .000). For female agricultural workers, daily hassles and stressors were associated with both depression (β = 1.5, p = .000) and anxiety (β = .5, p = .027), and barriers to exit (β = 3.0, p = .005) and security stressors (β = .9, p = .010) were significantly associated with increased depression symptoms. In the factory subsample, sexual assault and abuse (depression: β = 2.7, p = .009; anxiety: β = 2.8, p = .002) and daily hassles and stressors (depression: β = .7, p = .007; anxiety: β = .7, p = .001) were both significantly associated with increased depression and anxiety symptoms for males. Other categories of stressors similarly showed different associations with mental health outcomes between occupational groups, and between male and female migrant workers. The differing influences of stressors on mental health between the three occupational groups, and between males and females, indicate the need for targeted and tailored approaches to reduce specific stressors and improve services to address mental health needs

  13. Bisexual-Specific Minority Stressors, Psychological Distress, and Suicidality in Bisexual Individuals: the Mediating Role of Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Woulfe, Julie

    2017-08-01

    Bisexual individuals are at higher risk for poor mental health outcomes compared to heterosexual as well as lesbian and gay individuals and experience minority stressors, such as discrimination, from both heterosexual and sexual minority communities. However, there is little research examining the negative effects of bisexual-specific minority stressors on bisexual individuals' mental health as well as psychological factors that might help explain minority stressors' deleterious effects. This research examined the effects of distal minority stressors (i.e., anti-bisexual experiences from both heterosexual as well as lesbian and gay people) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized heterosexism and sexual orientation concealment) on psychological distress and suicidality among bisexual adults (N = 503). Building on the relational framing of the minority stress model, we also tested one relational factor (i.e., loneliness) as a mediator of the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and poor mental health (i.e., psychological distress and suicidality). Structural equation modeling analyses were used to test the mediating effects of loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress and suicidality. Although distal and proximal minority stressors were not associated with each other, loneliness mediated the effects of distal and proximal minority stressors on psychological distress and suicidality. The results of this study underscore the importance of targeting bisexual-specific minority stressors as well as loneliness in preventive interventions to improve the mental health of bisexual individuals.

  14. Configuration of multiple human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages in Alpine river basins of Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinegger, Rafaela; Pucher, Matthias; Aschauer, Christiane; Schmutz, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    This work addresses multiple human stressors and their impacts on fish assemblages of the Drava and Mura rivers in southern Austria. The impacts of single and multiple human stressors on riverine fish assemblages in these basins were disentangled, based on an extensive dataset. Stressor configuration, i.e. various metrics of multiple stressors belonging to stressor groups hydrology, morphology, connectivity and water quality were investigated for the first time at river basin scale in Austria. As biological response variables, the Fish Index Austria (FIA) and its related single as well as the WFD biological- and total state were investigated. Stressor-response analysis shows divergent results, but a general trend of decreasing ecological integrity with increasing number of stressors and maximum stressor is observed. Fish metrics based on age structure, fish region index and biological status responded best to single stressors and/or their combinations. The knowledge gained in this work provides a basis for advanced investigations in Alpine river basins and beyond, supports WFD implementation and helps prioritizing further actions towards multi-stressor restoration- and management. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Timing matters: the interval between acute stressors within chronic mild stress modifies behavioral and physiologic stress responses in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Bao, Alexander D; Bourne, Rebecca A; Caruso, Michael J; Caulfield, Jasmine I; Chen, Mary; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-04-12

    Chronic mild stress can lead to negative health outcomes. Frequency, duration, and intensity of acute stressors can affect health-related processes. We tested whether the temporal pattern of daily acute stressors (clustered or dispersed across the day) affects depression-related physiology. We used a rodent model to keep stressor frequency, duration, and intensity constant, and experimentally manipulated the temporal pattern of acute stressors delivered during the active phase of the day. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three chronic mild stress groups: Clustered: stressors that occurred within 1 hour of each other (n = 21), Dispersed: stressors that were spread out across the active phase (n = 21), and Control: no stressors presented (n = 21). Acute mild stressors included noise, strobe lights, novel cage, cage tilt, wet bedding, and water immersion. Depression-related outcomes included: sucrose preference, body weight, circulating glucocorticoid (corticosterone) concentration after a novel acute stressor and during basal morning and evening times, and endotoxin-induced circulating interleukin-6 concentrations. Compared to control rats, those in the Clustered group gained less weight, consumed less sucrose, had a blunted acute corticosterone response, and an accentuated acute interleukin-6 response. Rats in the Dispersed group had an attenuated corticosterone decline during the active period and after an acute stressor compared to the Control group. During a chronic mild stress experience, the temporal distribution of daily acute stressors affected health-related physiologic processes. Regular exposure to daily stressors in rapid succession may predict more depression-related symptoms, whereas exposure to stressors dispersed throughout the day may predict diminished glucocorticoid negative feedback.

  16. Molecular crosstalk between a chemical and a biological stressor and consequences on disease manifestation in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burki, Richard; Krasnov, Aleksei; Bettge, Kathrin; Rexroad, Caird E.; Afanasyev, Sergey; Antikainen, Miia; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Wahli, Thomas; Segner, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the molecular and organism reaction of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to the combined impact of two environmental stressors. The two stressors were the myxozoan parasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which is the etiological agent of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) and a natural stressor to salmonid populations, and 17β-estradiol (E2) as prototype of estrogen-active chemical stressors in the aquatic environment. Both stressors, the parasite and estrogenic contaminants, co-exist in Swiss rivers and are discussed as factors contributing to the decline of Swiss brown trout populations over the last decades. Using a microarray approach contrasting parasite-infected and non-infected rainbow trout at low or high estrogen levels, it was observed that molecular response patterns under joint exposure differed from those to the single stressors. More specifically, three major response patterns were present: (i) expression responses of gene transcripts to one stressor are weakened by the presence of the second stressor; (ii) expression responses of gene transcripts to one stressor are enhanced by the presence of the second stressor; (iii) expression responses of gene transcripts at joint treatment are dominated by one of the two stressors. Organism-level responses to concurrent E2 and parasite treatment – assessed through measuring parasite loads in the fish host and cumulative mortalities of trout – were dominated by the pathogen, with no modulating influence of E2. The findings reveal function- and level-specific responses of rainbow trout to stressor combinations, which are only partly predictable from the response to the single stressors.

  17. Molecular crosstalk between a chemical and a biological stressor and consequences on disease manifestation in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burki, Richard [Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, University of Bern, Laenggassstrasse 122, CH-3001 Bern (Switzerland); Krasnov, Aleksei [NOFIMA Marin, Postboks. 5010, 1432As (Norway); Bettge, Kathrin [Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, University of Bern, Laenggassstrasse 122, CH-3001 Bern (Switzerland); Rexroad, Caird E. [National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture, USDA-ARS, 11876 Leetown Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (United States); Afanasyev, Sergey [Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, M. Toreza av. 44, Peterburg 194223 (Russian Federation); Antikainen, Miia [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Kuopio (Finland); Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia [Man-Society-Environment, University of Basel, Vesalgasse 1, CH-4051 Basel (Switzerland); Wahli, Thomas [Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, University of Bern, Laenggassstrasse 122, CH-3001 Bern (Switzerland); Segner, Helmut, E-mail: helmut.segner@vetsuisse.unibe.ch [Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, University of Bern, Laenggassstrasse 122, CH-3001 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the molecular and organism reaction of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to the combined impact of two environmental stressors. The two stressors were the myxozoan parasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which is the etiological agent of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) and a natural stressor to salmonid populations, and 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) as prototype of estrogen-active chemical stressors in the aquatic environment. Both stressors, the parasite and estrogenic contaminants, co-exist in Swiss rivers and are discussed as factors contributing to the decline of Swiss brown trout populations over the last decades. Using a microarray approach contrasting parasite-infected and non-infected rainbow trout at low or high estrogen levels, it was observed that molecular response patterns under joint exposure differed from those to the single stressors. More specifically, three major response patterns were present: (i) expression responses of gene transcripts to one stressor are weakened by the presence of the second stressor; (ii) expression responses of gene transcripts to one stressor are enhanced by the presence of the second stressor; (iii) expression responses of gene transcripts at joint treatment are dominated by one of the two stressors. Organism-level responses to concurrent E2 and parasite treatment - assessed through measuring parasite loads in the fish host and cumulative mortalities of trout - were dominated by the pathogen, with no modulating influence of E2. The findings reveal function- and level-specific responses of rainbow trout to stressor combinations, which are only partly predictable from the response to the single stressors.

  18. STRESSORS IN NURSING WITH DOUBLE OR MORE WORKING HOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlinir Bezerra de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: investigar os principais agentes estressores nos trabalhadores de enfermagem com dupla ou mais jornada de trabalho; verificar os principais sinais e sintomas indicadores de estresse. Métodos: estudo descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa. Desenvolvido em um hospital público da região metropolitana de Fortaleza-CE. A amostra constitui-se de 30 profissionais, sendo 46,7% auxiliares de enfermagem, 33,3% enfermeiros e 20% técnicos. A coleta ocorreu de novembro a dezembro de 2008, por meio de questionário semi-estruturado. Resultados: 93,3% dos profissionais são do sexo feminino na faixa etária de 31-40 anos. O estudo revelou vários fatores levando ao estresse, com destaque para insatisfação salarial (83%, falta de lazer (73% e sobrecarga de trabalho (60%, potencialmente prejudiciais à qualidade da assistência. Conclusão: percebeu-se a escassez de tempo que os trabalhadores de enfermagem dedicam ao descanso, ao lazer, ao convívio em família e à sua qualificação profissional. Descritores: Saúde mental, Estresse Ocupacional, Enfermagem, Ambiente de trabalho.   Abstract Objective: To investigate the main stressors in nursing workers double or more working hours, check the main signs and symptoms indicative of stress. Methods: A descriptive study with quantitative approach. It was developed in a public hospital in the metropolitan region of Fortaleza. The sample consisted of 30 professionals, and 46.7% nursing auxiliaries, 33.3% nurses and 20% technical. The data was collected during November-December 2008, through semi-structured questionnaire. Results: 93.3% of professionals are women aged 31-40 years. The study revealed several factors leading to stress, especially wage dissatisfaction (83%, lack of leisure (73% and workload (60%, potentially damaging the quality of care. Conclusion: it was perceived scarcity of time that the nursing staff dedicated to rest, leisure, living with the family and their professional

  19. Daily stressors, trauma exposure, and mental health among stateless Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Andrew; Varner, Andrea; Ventevogel, Peter; Taimur Hasan, M M; Welton-Mitchell, Courtney

    2017-06-01

    The Rohingya of Myanmar are a severely persecuted minority who form one of the largest groups of stateless people; thousands of them reside in refugee camps in southeastern Bangladesh. There has been little research into the mental health consequences of persecution, war, and other historical trauma endured by the Rohingya; nor has the role of daily environmental stressors associated with continued displacement, statelessness, and life in the refugee camps, been thoroughly researched. This cross-sectional study examined: trauma history, daily environmental stressors, and mental health outcomes for 148 Rohingya adults residing in Kutupalong and Nayapara refugee camps in Bangladesh. Results indicated high levels of mental health concerns: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, somatic complaints, and associated functional impairment. Participants also endorsed local idioms of distress, including somatic complaints and concerns associated with spirit possession. The study also found very high levels of daily environmental stressors associated with life in the camps, including problems with food, lack of freedom of movement, and concerns regarding safety. Regression and associated mediation analyses indicated that, while there was a direct effect of trauma exposure on mental health outcomes (PTSD symptoms), daily environmental stressors partially mediated this relationship. Depression symptoms were associated with daily stressors, but not prior trauma exposure. These findings indicate that daily stressors play a pivotal role in mental health outcomes of populations affected by collective violence and statelessness. It is, therefore, important to consider the role and effects of environmental stressors associated with life in refugee camps on the mental health and psychosocial well-being of stateless populations such as the Rohingya, living in protracted humanitarian environments.

  20. Acute Stressors Reduce Neural and Behavioral Inhibition to Food Cues among Binge Eating Disorder Symptomatic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyong Lyu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stressors can trigger binge-eating but researchers have yet to consider their effects on both neural responses to food cues and food consumption among those at risk. In this experiment, we examined the impact of acute stressors on neural activation to food images and subsequent food consumption within binge-eating disorder (BED and non-eating disordered control groups. Eighteen women meeting DSM-IV BED criteria and 26 women serving as non-eating disordered controls were randomly assigned to unpleasant stressor (painful cold pressor test followed by negative performance feedback or less unpleasant stressor (non-painful sensory discrimination task followed by positive performance feedback conditions. Subsequently, they were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while viewing food and neutral images. After the scans, participants completed a self-report battery in an environment conducive to snacking. During exposure to food images, BED-symptomatic women in the unpleasant stressor condition reported more liking of high calorie food images and showed less activation in one inhibitory area, the hippocampus, compared to controls in this condition. BED-symptomatic women exposed to unpleasant stressors also consumed more chocolate than any other group during the post-scan questionnaire completion. Crucially, reduced hippocampal activation to high calorie food images predicted more chocolate consumption following fMRI scans within the entire sample. This experiment provides initial evidence suggesting unpleasant acute stressors contribute to reduced inhibitory region responsiveness in relation to external food cues and later food consumption among BED-symptomatic women.

  1. AGE-RAGE Stress, Stressors, and Antistressors in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kailash; Mishra, Manish

    2018-03-01

    Adverse effects of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on the tissues are through nonreceptor- and receptor-mediated mechanisms. In the receptor-mediated mechanism, interaction of AGEs with its cell-bound receptor of AGE (RAGE) increases generation of oxygen radicals, activates nuclear factor-kappa B, and increases expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in the cellular damage. The deleterious effects of AGE and AGE-RAGE interaction are coined as "AGE-RAGE stress." The body is equipped with defense mechanisms to counteract the adverse effects of AGE and RAGE through endogenous enzymatic (glyoxalase 1, glyoxalase 2) and AGE receptor-mediated (AGER1, AGER2) degradation of AGE, and through elevation of soluble receptor of AGE (sRAGE). Exogenous defense mechanisms include reduction in consumption of AGE, prevention of AGE formation, and downregulation of RAGE expression. We have coined AGE and RAGE as "stressors" and the defense mechanisms as "anti-stressors." AGE-RAGE stress is defined as a shift in the balance between stressors and antistressors in the favor of stressors. Measurements of stressors or antistressors alone would not assess AGE-RAGE stress. For true assessment of AGE-RAGE stress, the equation should include all the stressors and antistressors. The equation for AGE-RAGE stress, therefore, would be the ratio of AGE + RAGE/sRAGE + glyoxalase1 + glyoxalase 2 + AGER1 +AGER2. This is, however, not practical in patients. AGE-RAGE stress may be assessed simply by the ratio of AGE/sRAGE. A high ratio of AGE/sRAGE indicates a relative shift in stressors from antistressors, suggesting the presence of AGE-RAGE stress, resulting in tissue damage, initiation, and progression of the diseases and their complications.

  2. Life stressors, coping strategies, and social supports in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Afshar, Hamid; Erfani, Zahra; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    The frequency and the perceived intensity of life stressors, coping strategies, and social supports are very important in everybody's well-being. This study intended to estimate the relation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and these factors. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Isfahan on 2013. Data were extracted from the framework of the study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health, and nutrition. Symptoms of IBS were evaluated by Talley bowel disease questionnaire. Stressful life event, modified COPE scale, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were also used. About 4763 subjects were completed questionnaires. Analyzing data were done by t -test and multivariate logistic regression. Of all returned questionnaire, 1024 (21.5%) were diagnosed with IBS. IBS and clinically-significant IBS (IBS-S) groups have significantly experienced a higher level of perceived intensity of stressors and had a higher frequency of stressors. The mean score of social supports and the mean scores of three coping strategies (problem engagement, support seeking, and positive reinterpretation and growth) were significantly lower in subjects with either IBS-S or IBS than in those with no IBS. Multivariate logistic regression revealed a significant association between frequency of stressors and perceived intensity of stressors with IBS (odds ratio [OR] =1.09 and OR = 1.02, respectively) or IBS-S (OR = 1.09 and OR = 1.03, respectively). People with IBS had higher numbers of stressors, higher perception of the intensity of stressors, less adaptive coping strategies, and less social supports which should be focused in psychosocial interventions.

  3. Organizational stressors associated with job stress and burnout in correctional officers: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finney Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adult correctional facilities, correctional officers (COs are responsible for the safety and security of the facility in addition to aiding in offender rehabilitation and preventing recidivism. COs experience higher rates of job stress and burnout that stem from organizational stressors, leading to negative outcomes for not only the CO but the organization as well. Effective interventions could aim at targeting organizational stressors in order to reduce these negative outcomes as well as COs’ job stress and burnout. This paper fills a gap in the organizational stress literature among COs by systematically reviewing the relationship between organizational stressors and CO stress and burnout in adult correctional facilities. In doing so, the present review identifies areas that organizational interventions can target in order to reduce CO job stress and burnout. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted using Medline, PsycINFO, Criminal Justice Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. All retrieved articles were independently screened based on criteria developed a priori. All included articles underwent quality assessment. Organizational stressors were categorized according to Cooper and Marshall’s (1976 model of job stress. Results The systematic review yielded 8 studies that met all inclusion and quality assessment criteria. The five categories of organizational stressors among correctional officers are: stressors intrinsic to the job, role in the organization, rewards at work, supervisory relationships at work and the organizational structure and climate. The organizational structure and climate was demonstrated to have the most consistent relationship with CO job stress and burnout. Conclusions The results of this review indicate that the organizational structure and climate of correctional institutions has the most consistent relationship with COs’ job stress and burnout. Limitations of the

  4. Intra-individual psychological and physiological responses to acute laboratory stressors of different intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoluda, Nadine; Strahler, Jana; Schlotz, Wolff; Niederberger, Larissa; Marques, Sofia; Fischer, Susanne; Thoma, Myriam V; Spoerri, Corinne; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of stress is understood as a multidimensional concept which can be captured by psychological and physiological measures. There are various laboratory stress protocols which enable stress to be investigated under controlled conditions. However, little is known about whether these protocols differ with regard to the induced psycho-physiological stress response pattern. In a within-subjects design, 20 healthy young men underwent four of the most common stress protocols (Stroop test [Stroop], cold pressor test [CPT], Trier Social Stress Test [TSST], and bicycle ergometer test [Ergometer]) and a no-stress control condition (rest) in a randomized order. For the multidimensional assessment of the stress response, perceived stress, endocrine and autonomic biomarkers (salivary cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase, and heart rate) were obtained during the experiments. All stress protocols evoked increases in perceived stress levels, with the highest levels in the TSST, followed by Ergometer, Stroop, and CPT. The highest HPA axis response was found in the TSST, followed by Ergometer, CPT, and Stroop, whilst the highest autonomic response was found in the Ergometer, followed by TSST, Stroop, and CPT. These findings suggest that different stress protocols differentially stimulate various aspects of the stress response. Physically demanding stress protocols such as the Ergometer test appear to be particularly suitable for evoking autonomic stress responses, whereas uncontrollable and social-evaluative threatening stressors (such as the TSST) are most likely to elicit HPA axis stress responses. The results of this study may help researchers in deciding which stress protocol to use, depending on the individual research question. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring the wild black bear's reaction to human and environmental stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iaizzo Paul A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bears are among the most physiologically remarkable mammals. They spend half their life in an active state and the other half in a state of dormancy without food or water, and without urinating, defecating, or physical activity, yet can rouse and defend themselves when disturbed. Although important data have been obtained in both captive and wild bears, long-term physiological monitoring of bears has not been possible until the recent advancement of implantable devices. Results Insertable cardiac monitors that were developed for use in human heart patients (Reveal® XT, Medtronic, Inc were implanted in 15 hibernating bears. Data were recovered from 8, including 2 that were legally shot by hunters. Devices recorded low heart rates (pauses of over 14 seconds and low respiration rates (1.5 breaths/min during hibernation, dramatic respiratory sinus arrhythmias in the fall and winter months, and elevated heart rates in summer (up to 214 beats/min (bpm and during interactions with hunters (exceeding 250 bpm. The devices documented the first and last day of denning, a period of quiescence in two parturient females after birthing, and extraordinary variation in the amount of activity/day, ranging from 0 (winter to 1084 minutes (summer. Data showed a transition toward greater nocturnal activity in the fall, preceding hibernation. The data-loggers also provided evidence of the physiological and behavioral responses of bears to our den visits to retrieve the data. Conclusions Annual variations in heart rate and activity have been documented for the first time in wild black bears. This technique has broad applications to wildlife management and physiological research, enabling the impact of environmental stressors from humans, changing seasons, climate change, social interactions and predation to be directly monitored over multiple years.

  6. Sickness absence due to mental disorders and psychosocial stressors at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Junior, João Silvestre; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2015-01-01

    Mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefit due to sickness in Brazil. Occupational exposure to psychosocial stressors can affect the workers' mental health. The social security medical experts are responsible for characterizing if those sicknesses are work-related. To evaluate the factors associated with sick leave due to mental disorders, in particular, the perception of workers on psychosocial factors at work. This is an analytical study carried out in São Paulo, Brazil, with 131 applicants for sickness benefit due to mental disorders. Questionnaires were applied to assess the sociodemographic data, habits/lifestyle information, and perceived psychosocial factors at work. The most common diagnosis was depressive disorders (40.4%). The medical experts considered 23.7% of all applications as work-related. Most of the participants were female (68.7%), up to 40 years of age (73.3%), married/common-law marriage (51.1%), with educational level greater than or equal to 11 years (80.2%), nonsmokers (80.9%), not alcohol consumers (84%), and practice of physical activities (77.9%). Regarding psychosocial factors, most of the participants informed a high job strain (56.5%), low social support (52.7%), effort-reward imbalance (55.7%), and high overcommitment (87.0%). There was no statistical association between the work-related mental disorders sickness benefits and independent variables. The concession of social security sickness benefits is not associated with sociodemographic data, habits/lifestyle, or psychosocial factors at work. Occupational exposure to unfavorable psychosocial factors was reported by most workers on sick leave due to mental disorders. However, several cases were not recognized by the social security medical experts as work-related, which may have influenced the results of the associations.

  7. Self-reported stressors among patients with Exhaustion Disorder: an exploratory study of patient records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Several researchers imply that both work-related and non-work-related stress exposure are likely to contribute to stress-related mental illness. Yet empirical studies investigating both domains seem to be limited, particularly in a clinical population. The purpose of this study was to a) explore which stressors (non-work and work-related) are reported as important for the onset of illness by patients seeking medical care for stress-related exhaustion and b) explore the prevalence of each stressor and examine whether the pattern differs between men and women. Methods This is an exploratory mixed method study, comprising patients at a specialist outpatient stress clinic. Information from medical records of 20 patients was initially used in a first qualitative step to construct the instrument, using a combination of a conventional content analysis and a directed content analysis. In the second phase patient records from 50 men and 50 women were selected and coded in accordance with the coding instrument. Frequency statistics were calculated for all stressors. Results A total of 24 categories of stressors (11 related to work and 13 related to private life) were identified in the first qualitative step. A median of four stressors, usually both work and non-work-related was reported by the patients. The most common stressors were 1) quantitative demands at work, 2) private relational conflicts and 3) emotional demands at work. Conclusions Work demands are, by far, the most prevalent stressor, followed by relational problems in private life. The pattern was similar for women and men, with a slight difference in the distribution between work and non-work stressors. Men and women also show similar patterns when comparing the occurrence of each stressor. Slight differences were seen, in particular with regard to managerial responsibility that was reported by 6% of the women compared to 36% of the men. One important practical implication of this study is that

  8. Fecal glucocorticoid response to environmental stressors in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Timm, Jeanette A; Ibsen, Ida B; Hau, Jann; Frederiksen, Anne-Marie B; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2012-05-15

    Quantification of glucocorticoid metabolites in feces has been shown to be a powerful tool in evaluating well-being in vertebrates. Little is known however about the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stressors, and consequent glucocorticoid excretion, in reptiles. In a longitudinal study, fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) levels in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) were quantified during periods of rest and exposure to hypothesized stressors. FCM quantification was combined with behavioral analysis to further contextualize the measured increases. It was shown that both daily 5-minute handling/restraint, as well as housing devoid of climbing opportunity, resulted in increased FCM excretion. Behavioral analysis suggested that the iguanas were chronically stressed by the lack of climbing opportunity, whereas handling may have induced only a transient stress response. The experimental design, using repeated periods of stressor-exposure, also revealed a facilitating effect, where the two stressors potentiated one another. Furthermore, the order of the two stressors was found to be important. The study provides insight into the functioning of the hormonal stress response in green iguanas, and to the refining of their housing and handling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A cohort study of psychosocial work stressors on work ability among Brazilian hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2015-07-01

    Hospital work is characterized by stressors that can influence work ability. The present study aims to assess the association between psychosocial work stressors and changes in work ability in a group of Brazilian hospital employees. From 1,022 workers included in a 3-year cohort started in 2009, 423 (41.4%) returned the applied questionnaires in 2012. Changes in work ability were considered as the dependent variable and the investigated psychosocial work stressors as independent variables. Logistic regression models adjusted for potential con-founders (demographic, occupational features, social support, overcommitment, and situations liable to cause pain/injury). High levels of exposure to psychosocial work stressors were significantly associated with decreased work ability: job strain (OR = 2.81), effort-reward imbalance (OR = 3.21). Strategies to reduce psychosocial work stressors should be considered to maintain hospital employees' work ability. Such strategies have implications for institutional and social policies and might be included in quality management programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. vmPFC activation during a stressor predicts positive emotions during stress recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Garcia, Katelyn M; Jung, Youngkyoo; Whitlow, Christopher T; McRae, Kateri; Waugh, Christian E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Despite accruing evidence showing that positive emotions facilitate stress recovery, the neural basis for this effect remains unclear. To identify the underlying mechanism, we compared stress recovery for people reflecting on a stressor while in a positive emotional context with that for people in a neutral context. While blood–oxygen-level dependent data were being collected, participants (N = 43) performed a stressful anagram task, which was followed by a recovery period during which they reflected on the stressor while watching a positive or neutral video. Participants also reported positive and negative emotions throughout the task as well as retrospective thoughts about the task. Although there was no effect of experimental context on emotional recovery, we found that ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activation during the stressor predicted more positive emotions during recovery, which in turn predicted less negative emotions during recovery. In addition, the relationship between vmPFC activation and positive emotions during recovery was mediated by decentering—the meta-cognitive detachment of oneself from one’s feelings. In sum, successful recovery from a stressor seems to be due to activation of positive emotion-related regions during the stressor itself as well as to their downstream effects on certain cognitive forms of emotion regulation. PMID:29462404

  11. Paraquat and psychological stressor interactions as pertains to Parkinsonian co-morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Rudyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated the non-selective herbicide, paraquat, in the development of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD. While preclinical research has focused mainly on elucidating the nigrostriatal effects of paraquat, relatively little data are available concerning non-motor brain systems and inflammatory immune processes (which have been implicated in PD. Hence, in the present study, we sought to take a multi-system approach to characterize the influence of paraquat upon extra-nigrostriatal brain regions, as well ascertain whether the impact of the pesticide might be enhanced in the context of chronic intermittent stressor exposure. Our findings support the contention that paraquat itself acted as a systemic stressor, with the pesticide increasing plasma corticosterone, as well as altering neurochemical activity in the locus coeruleus, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum, and central amygdala. However, with the important exception striatal dopamine turnover, the stressor treatment did not further augment these effects. Additionally, paraquat altered inter-cytokine correlations and, to a lesser extent, circulating cytokine levels, and concomitant stress exposure modulated some of these effects. Finally, paraquat provoked significant (albeit modest reductions of sucrose preference and weight gain, hinting at possible anhendonic-like or sickness responses. These data suggest that, in addition to being a well known oxidative stress generator, paraquat can act as a systemic stressor affecting hormonal and neurochemical activity, but largely not interacting with a concomitant stressor regimen.

  12. Moderate alcohol consumption after a mental stressor attenuates the endocrine stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, I C; Joosten, M M; Klöpping-Ketelaars, W A A; Witkamp, R F; Hendriks, H F J

    2016-12-01

    Alcohol is often consumed to reduce tension and improve mood when exposed to stressful situations. Previous studies showed that moderate alcohol consumption may reduce stress when alcohol is consumed prior to a stressor, but data on the effect of alcohol consumption after a mental stressor is limited. Therefore, our objective was to study whether moderate alcohol consumption immediately after a mental stressor attenuates the stress response. Twenty-four healthy men (age 21-40 y, BMI 18-27 kg/m 2 ) participated in a placebo-controlled trial. They randomly consumed 2 cans (660 mL, ∼26 g alcohol) of beer or alcohol-free beer immediately after a mental stressor (Stroop task and Trier Social Stress Test). Physiological and immunological stress response was measured by monitoring heart rate and repeated measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis), white blood cells and a set of cytokines. After a mental stressor, cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations were 100% and 176% more reduced at 60 min (P = 0.012 and P = 0.001, respectively) and 92% and 60% more reduced at 90 min (P stress recovery period after beer consumption than after alcohol-free beer consumption (P stress response as reflected by decreasing plasma ACTH and cortisol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Palatable food avoidance and acceptance learning with different stressors in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, N-C; Smith, M E; Moran, T H

    2013-04-03

    Stress activates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis leading to the release of glucocorticoids (GC). Increased activity of the HPA axis and GC exposure has been suggested to facilitate the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Nonetheless, different stressors can produce distinct effects on food intake and may support different directions of food learning e.g. avoidance or acceptance. This study examined whether interoceptive (LiCl and exendin-4) and restraint stress (RS) support similar or distinct food learning. Female rats were exposed to different stressors after their consumption of a palatable food (butter icing). After four palatable food-stress pairings, distinct intakes of the butter icing were observed in rats treated with different stressors. Rats that received butter icing followed by intraperitoneal injections of LiCl (42.3mg/kg) and exendin-4 (10μg/kg) completely avoided the palatable food with subsequent presentations. In contrast, rats experiencing RS paired with the palatable food increased their consumption of butter icing across trials and did so to a greater degree than rats receiving saline injections. These data indicate that interoceptive and psychosocial stressors support conditioned food avoidance and acceptance, respectively. Examination of c-Fos immunoreactivity revealed distinct neural activation by interoceptive and psychosocial stressors that could provide the neural basis underlying opposite direction of food acceptance learning. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Discrimination, other psychosocial stressors, and self-reported sleep duration and difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R

    2014-01-01

    To advance understanding of the relationship between discrimination and sleep duration and difficulties, with consideration of multiple dimensions of discrimination, and attention to concurrent stressors; and to examine the contribution of discrimination and other stressors to racial/ ethnic differences in these outcomes. Cross-sectional probability sample. Chicago, IL. There were 2,983 black, Hispanic, and white adults. Outcomes included self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. Discrimination, including racial and nonracial everyday and major experiences of discrimination, workplace harassment and incivilities, and other stressors were assessed via questionnaire. In models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, greater exposure to racial (β = -0.14)) and nonracial (β = -0.08) everyday discrimination, major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity (β = -0.17), and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = -0.14) were associated with shorter sleep (P discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity and sleep duration (β = -0.09, P discrimination and racial (β = 0.04) and nonracial (β = 0.04) major experiences of discrimination, and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = 0.04) were also associated with more (log) sleep difficulties, and associations between racial and nonracial everyday discrimination and sleep difficulties remained after adjustment for other stressors (P discrimination (P > 0.05). Discrimination was associated with shorter sleep and more sleep difficulties, independent of socioeconomic status and other stressors, and may account for some of the racial/ethnic differences in sleep.

  15. Psychosocial stressors of sickle cell disease on adult patients in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonkam, Ambroise; Mba, Caryl Zameyo; Mbanya, Dora; Ngogang, Jeanne; Ramesar, Raj; Angwafo, Fru F

    2014-12-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a debilitating illness that affects quality of life. Studies of the psychosocial burden of SCD on patients have been rarely reported in Africa. We used a quantitative method, with face-to-face administered questionnaires, to study indices of psychosocial stressors on adult SCD patients in Cameroon. The questionnaire included a 36-item stress factors scale evaluating general perceptions of stress and five main stressors' domain: disease factors, hospital factors, financial factors, family factors and quality of personal-life factors. Items pertaining to psychosocial stressors involved four response options with increasing severity: 0, 1, 2 or 3. Non-parametric tests were used for analysis. The majority of the 83 participants were urban dwellers, female, 20-30 years old, single, unemployed, with at least a secondary or tertiary education. Median age at diagnosis was 100 months; 47.8% had >3 painful vaso-oclusive crises annually. Only 4.8% had been treated with hydroxyurea. The majority reported moderate to severe difficulty coping with SCD. The "degree of clinical severity" category displayed the highest median score (2.0), while familial stressors showed the lowest (0.8). Being female, married, with low education level, an additional affected sibling and low direct income were significantly associated with specific stressors' categories. In Cameroon, there is an urgent need to implement policies that ensure affordable access to health-care and practices to reduce SCD morbidity and improve patients' quality of life.

  16. The relationship between stressors and mental health among Japanese middle-aged women in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Junko; Takeda, Fumi; Kishi, Kaori; Monma, Takafumi

    2017-04-27

    In middle age, some people may become mentally or emotionally unstable. Additionally, in Japan, mood disorders, such as depressive symptoms, occur mostly among middle-aged women (i.e., aged 40-49 years). However, few studies have examined stressors related to mental health. In the present study, we developed a stressor scale for middle-aged women and examined stressors correlated with middle-aged women's mental health. In January 2015, an anonymous, self-administered survey was mailed to 1,000 randomly selected women aged 45 through 64 years living in Tokyo, Japan. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 329 women (32.9 percent). Factor analysis identified the following stressor categories: "relationship with my husband," "uneasiness about old age," "health concerns," "work-life balance," and "relationship with my friends." "Uneasiness about old age" and "health concerns" were correlated negatively with participants' mental health. Improving middle-aged women's health requires interventions that relieve stressors resulting from age-related problems and promote a positive image of old age.

  17. Sensory mediation of memory blocking stressors in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalesman, Sarah; Karnik, Vikram; Lukowiak, Ken

    2011-08-01

    The great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is commonly used as a model species to study how stress affects the ability to form long-term memory (LTM); however, we still have little information about how the snail senses stressful stimuli. The osphradium is an external sensory organ that demonstrates electrophysiological responses to a variety of external chemical stimuli. We examined the role, if any, played by the osphradium in sensing two environmental stressors, crowding and low environmental calcium, both known to block LTM in intact animals. We severed the osphradial nerve, blocking external sensory input from this organ to the central nervous system, and then exposed the snails to low environmental calcium or crowding stress to assess whether these stressors continued to block LTM formation. When exposed to low environmental calcium, snails with their osphradial nerve severed responded as if they were maintained in our standard calcium environment. That is, they did not respond to low calcium as a stressor blocking LTM; therefore, the osphradium plays a crucial role in mediating how snails respond to this stressor. However, following crowding, LTM formation was blocked in both control groups and snails that had the osphradial nerve severed, indicating that sensory information from the osphradium is not required to sense crowded conditions. Together these data show that two stressors that result in the same behavioural phenotype, blocking LTM formation, do so via two distinct sensory pathways.

  18. Workflow interruptions, social stressors from supervisor(s) and attention failure in surgery personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Diana; Müller, Patrick; Elfering, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Workflow interruptions and social stressors among surgery personnel may cause attention failure at work that may increase rumination about work issues during leisure time. The test of these assumptions should contribute to the understanding of exhaustion in surgery personnel and patient safety. Workflow interruptions and supervisor-related social stressors were tested to predict attention failure that predicts work-related rumination during leisure time. One hundred ninety-four theatre nurses, anaesthetists and surgeons from a Swiss University hospital participated in a cross-sectional survey. The participation rate was 58%. Structural equation modelling confirmed both indirect paths from workflow interruptions and social stressors via attention failure on rumination (both pworkflow interruptions and social stressors on rumination-could not be empirically supported. Workflow interruptions and social stressors at work are likely to trigger attention failure in surgery personnel. Work redesign and team intervention could help surgery personnel to maintain a high level of quality and patient safety and detach from work related issues to recover during leisure time.

  19. Stressors and anxiety in dementia caregiving: multiple mediation analysis of rumination, experiential avoidance, and leisure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Moreno, R; Losada, A; Márquez-González, M; Mausbach, B T

    2016-11-01

    Despite the robust associations between stressors and anxiety in dementia caregiving, there is a lack of research examining which factors contribute to explain this relationship. This study was designed to test a multiple mediation model of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and anxiety that proposes higher levels of rumination and experiential avoidance and lower levels of leisure satisfaction as potential mediating variables. The sample consisted of 256 family caregivers. In order to test a simultaneously parallel multiple mediation model of the BPSD to anxiety pathway, a PROCESS method was used and bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrapping method was used to test confidence intervals. Higher levels of stressors significantly predicted anxiety. Greater stressors significantly predicted higher levels of rumination and experiential avoidance, and lower levels of leisure satisfaction. These three coping variables significantly predicted anxiety. Finally, rumination, experiential avoidance, and leisure satisfaction significantly mediated the link between stressors and anxiety. The explained variance for the final model was 47.09%. Significant contrasts were found between rumination and leisure satisfaction, with rumination being a significantly higher mediator. The results suggest that caregivers' experiential avoidance, rumination, and leisure satisfaction may function as mechanisms through which BPSD influence on caregivers' anxiety. Training caregivers in reducing their levels of experiential avoidance and rumination by techniques that foster their ability of acceptance of their negative internal experiences, and increase their level of leisure satisfaction, may be helpful to reduce their anxiety symptoms developed by stressors.

  20. High psychosis liability is associated with altered autonomic balance during exposure to Virtual Reality social stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counotte, Jacqueline; Pot-Kolder, Roos; van Roon, Arie M; Hoskam, Olivier; van der Gaag, Mark; Veling, Wim

    2017-06-01

    Social stressors are associated with an increased risk of psychosis. Stress sensitisation is thought to be an underlying mechanism and may be reflected in an altered autonomic stress response. Using an experimental Virtual Reality design, the autonomic stress response to social stressors was examined in participants with different liability to psychosis. Fifty-five patients with recent onset psychotic disorder, 20 patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis, 42 siblings of patients with psychosis and 53 controls were exposed to social stressors (crowdedness, ethnic minority status and hostility) in a Virtual Reality environment. Heart rate variability parameters and skin conductance levels were measured at baseline and during Virtual Reality experiments. High psychosis liability groups had significantly increased heart rate and decreased heart rate variability compared to low liability groups both at baseline and during Virtual Reality experiments. Both low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) power were reduced, while the LF/HF ratio was similar between groups. The number of virtual social stressors significantly affected heart rate, HF, LF/HF and skin conductance level. There was no interaction between psychosis liability and amount of virtual social stress. High liability to psychosis is associated with decreased parasympathetic activity in virtual social environments, which reflects generally high levels of arousal, rather than increased autonomic reactivity to social stressors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Healthcare managers' leadership profiles in relation to perceptions of work stressors and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lornudd, Caroline; Bergman, David; Sandahl, Christer; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2016-05-03

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between leadership profiles and differences in managers' own levels of work stress symptoms and perceptions of work stressors causing stress. Design/methodology/approach Cross-sectional data were used. Healthcare managers ( n = 188) rated three dimensions of their leadership behavior and levels of work stressors and stress. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to identify leadership profiles based on leadership behaviors. Differences in stress-related outcomes between profiles were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. Findings Four distinct clusters of leadership profiles were found. They discriminated in perception of work stressors and stress: the profile distinguished by the lowest mean in all behavior dimensions, exhibited a pattern with significantly more negative ratings compared to the other profiles. Practical implications This paper proposes that leadership profile is an individual factor involved in the stress process, including work stressors and stress, which may inform targeted health promoting interventions for healthcare managers. Originality/value This is the first study to investigate the relationship between leadership profiles and work stressors and stress in healthcare managers.

  2. Assessing Risks to Wildlife Populations from Multiple Stressors: Overview of the Problem and Research Needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne R. Munns, Jr.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife populations are experiencing increasing pressure from human-induced changes in the landscape. Stressors including agricultural and urban land use, introduced invasive and exotic species, nutrient enrichment, direct human disturbance, and toxic chemicals directly or indirectly influence the quality and quantity of habitat used by terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. Governmental agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are required to assess risks to wildlife populations, in its broadest definition, that result from exposure to these stressors, yet considerable uncertainty exists with respect to how such assessments should be conducted. This uncertainty is compounded by questions concerning the interactive effects of co-occurring stressors, appropriate spatial scales of analysis, extrapolation of response data among species and from organisms to populations, and imperfect knowledge and use of limited data sets. Further, different risk problems require varying degrees of sophistication, methodological refinement, and data quality. These issues suggest a number of research needs to improve methods for wildlife risk assessments, including continued development of population dynamics models to evaluate the effects of multiple stressors at varying spatial scales, methods for extrapolating across endpoints and species with reasonable confidence, stressor-response relations and methods for combining them in predictive and diagnostic assessments, and accessible data sets describing the ecology of terrestrial and aquatic species. Case study application of models and methods for assessing wildlife risk will help to demonstrate their strengths and limitations for solving particular risk problems.

  3. Stressors and coping methods among chronic haemodialysis patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, E; Tam, B

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the stressors and coping methods of chronic haemodialysis patients in Hong Kong. Relationships among treatment-related stressors, coping methods and length of time on haemodialysis were explored. Fifty subjects completed the Haemodialysis Stressor Scale (HSS) and Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS). Results revealed that limitation of fluid was the most frequently identified stressor, followed by limitation of food, itching, fatigue and cost. The most common coping methods are 'accepted the situation because very little could be done', followed by 'told oneself not to worry because everything would work out fine' and 'told oneself that the problem was really not that important.' It was found that the traditional philosophies of the Chinese--Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism--share an approach to the understanding and management of life stressors as different from that adopted by Western philosophies. The findings of this study can further facilitate nurse practitioners in providing support, information, and alternative solutions when assisting patients in coping with long-term haemodialysis.

  4. The contribution of work and non-work stressors to common mental disorders in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C.; Pike, C.; McManus, S.; Harris, J.; Bebbington, P.; Brugha, T.; Jenkins, R.; Meltzer, H.; Weich, S.; Stansfeld, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence for an effect of work stressors on common mental disorders (CMD) has increased over the past decade. However, studies have not considered whether the effects of work stressors on CMD remain after taking co-occurring non-work stressors into account. Method Data were from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a national population survey of participants ⩾16 years living in private households in England. This paper analyses data from employed working age participants (N=3383: 1804 males; 1579 females). ICD-10 diagnoses for depressive episode, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, panic or mixed anxiety and depression in the past week were derived using a structured diagnostic interview. Questionnaires assessed self-reported work stressors and non-work stressors. Results The effects of work stressors on CMD were not explained by co-existing non-work stressors. We found independent effects of work and non-work stressors on CMD. Job stress, whether conceptualized as job strain or effort–reward imbalance, together with lower levels of social support at work, recent stressful life events, domestic violence, caring responsibilities, lower levels of non-work social support, debt and poor housing quality were all independently associated with CMD. Social support at home and debt did not influence the effect of work stressors on CMD. Conclusions Non-work stressors do not appear to make people more susceptible to work stressors; both contribute to CMD. Tackling workplace stress is likely to benefit employee psychological health even if the employee's home life is stressful but interventions incorporating non-work stressors may also be effective. PMID:21896237

  5. The contribution of work and non-work stressors to common mental disorders in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C; Pike, C; McManus, S; Harris, J; Bebbington, P; Brugha, T; Jenkins, R; Meltzer, H; Weich, S; Stansfeld, S

    2012-04-01

    Evidence for an effect of work stressors on common mental disorders (CMD) has increased over the past decade. However, studies have not considered whether the effects of work stressors on CMD remain after taking co-occurring non-work stressors into account. Data were from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a national population survey of participants 6 years living in private households in England. This paper analyses data from employed working age participants (N=3383: 1804 males; 1579 females). ICD-10 diagnoses for depressive episode, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, panic or mixed anxiety and depression in the past week were derived using a structured diagnostic interview. Questionnaires assessed self-reported work stressors and non-work stressors. The effects of work stressors on CMD were not explained by co-existing non-work stressors. We found independent effects of work and non-work stressors on CMD. Job stress, whether conceptualized as job strain or effort-reward imbalance, together with lower levels of social support at work, recent stressful life events, domestic violence, caring responsibilities, lower levels of non-work social support, debt and poor housing quality were all independently associated with CMD. Social support at home and debt did not influence the effect of work stressors on CMD. Non-work stressors do not appear to make people more susceptible to work stressors; both contribute to CMD. Tackling workplace stress is likely to benefit employee psychological health even if the employee's home life is stressful but interventions incorporating non-work stressors may also be effective.

  6. The contribution of work and non-work stressors to common mental disorders in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, C.; Pike, C.; McManus, S.; Harris, J.; Bebbington, P.; Brugha, T.; Jenkins, R.; Meltzer, H.; Weich, S.; Stansfeld, S.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for an effect of work stressors on common mental disorders (CMD) has increased over the past decade. However, studies have not considered whether the effects of work stressors on CMD remain after taking co-occurring non-work stressors into account.\\ud \\ud Method. Data were from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a national population survey of participants\\ud >= 16 years living in private households in England. This paper analyses data from employed working age\\ud participa...

  7. Repeated Exposure to Conditioned Fear Stress Increases Anxiety and Delays Sleep Recovery Following Exposure to an Acute Traumatic Stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Thompson, Robert S.; Opp, Mark R.; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep–wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by human beings, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the develo...

  8. Experienced stressors and coping strategies among Iranian nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagani Hamid

    2007-11-01

    out how to deal with problems" (66.4% and "trying to improve themselves" (64.5%. The self-reliance strategy, "trying to make their own decisions" (62%; the social support strategies, "apologizing to people" (59.6%, "trying to help other people solve their problems" (56.3%, and "trying to keep up friendships or make new friends" (54.4%; the spiritual strategy, "praying" (65.8%; the seeking diversions strategy, "listening to music" (57.7%, the relaxing strategy "day dreaming" (52.5%, and the effort to "be close with someone cares about you" (50.5% were each used "often or always" by a majority of students. Most students reported that the avoiding strategies "smoking" (93.7% and "drinking beer or wine" (92.9%, the ventilating strategies "saying mean things to people" and "swearing" (85.8%, the professional support strategies "getting professional counseling" (74.6% and "talking to a teacher or counselor" (67.2% and the humorous strategy "joking and keeping a sense of humor" (51.9% were used "seldom or never". Conclusion First year nursing students are exposed to a variety of stressors. Establishing a student support system during the first year and improving it throughout nursing school is necessary to equip nursing students with effective coping skills. Efforts should include counseling helpers and their teachers, strategies that can be called upon in these students' future nursing careers.

  9. Repeated thermal stressor causes chronic elevation of baseline corticosterone and suppresses the physiological endocrine sensitivity to acute stressor in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-04-01

    Extreme environmental temperature could impact the physiology and ecology of animals. The stress endocrine axis provides necessary physiological stress response to acute (day-day) stressors. Presently, there are no empirical evidences showing that exposure to extreme thermal stressor could cause chronic stress in amphibians. This could also modulate the physiological endocrine sensitivity to acute stressors and have serious implications for stress coping in amphibians, particularly those living in fragmented and disease prone environments. We addressed this important question using the cane toad (Rhinella marina) model from its introduced range in Queensland, Australia. We quantified their physiological endocrine sensitivity to a standard acute (capture and handling) stressor after exposing the cane toads to thermal shock at 35°C for 30min daily for 34 days. Corticosterone (CORT) responses to the capture and handling protocol were measured on three sampling intervals (days 14, 24, and 34) to determine whether the physiological endocrine sensitivity was maintained or modulated over-time. Two control groups (C1 for baseline CORT measurement only and C2 acute handled only) and two temperature treatment groups (T1 received daily thermal shock up to day 14 only and a recovery phase of 20 days and T2 received thermal shock daily for 34 days). Results showed that baseline CORT levels remained high on day 14 (combined effect of capture, captivity and thermal stress) for both T1 and T2. Furthermore, baseline CORT levels decreased for T1 once the thermal shock was removed after day 14 and returned to baseline by day 29. On the contrary, baseline CORT levels kept on increasing for T2 over the 34 days of daily thermal shocks. Furthermore, the magnitudes of the acute CORT responses or physiological endocrine sensitivity were consistently high for both C1 and T1. However, acute CORT responses for T2 toads were dramatically reduced between days 24 and 34. These novel findings

  10. 75 FR 39843 - Stressor Determinations for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... the physical integrity of self or others'' implies that a veteran must experience an event that is... of hostile military or terrorist activity. Several commenters alleged that the rule implies that all... general haziness of memories are often hurdles in obtaining an adequate military history. Clinician's...

  11. Cytoskeletal protein translation and expression in the rat brain are stressor-dependent and region-specific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Sántha

    Full Text Available Stress is an integral component of life that can sometimes cause a critical overload, depending on the qualitative and quantitative natures of the stressors. The involvement of actin, the predominant component of dendritic integrity, is a plausible candidate factor in stress-induced neuronal cytoskeletal changes. The major aim of this study was to compare the effects of three different stress conditions on the transcription and translation of actin-related cytoskeletal genes in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats were exposed to one or other of the frequently used models of physical stress, i.e. electric foot shock stress (EFSS, forced swimming stress (FSS, or psychosocial stress (PSS for periods of 3, 7, 14, or 21 days. The relative mRNA and protein expressions of β-actin, cofilin and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK-1 were determined by qRT- PCR and western blotting from hippocampus and frontal cortex samples. Stressor-specific alterations in both β-actin and cofilin expression levels were seen after stress. These alterations were most pronounced in response to EFSS, and exhibited a U-shaped time course. FSS led to a significant β-actin mRNA expression elevation in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex after 3 and 7 days, respectively, without any subsequent change. PSS did not cause any change in β-actin or cofilin mRNA or protein expression in the examined brain regions. EFSS, FSS and PSS had no effect on the expression of MAPK-1 mRNA at any tested time point. These findings indicate a very delicate, stress type-dependent regulation of neuronal cytoskeletal components in the rat hippocampus and frontal cortex.

  12. Papel de los estresantes inmunológicos en la inmunodeficiencia Role of immunological stressors in immunodefiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giraldo Molina

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Se reseñan los postulados fundamentales de las dos hipótesis actuales sobre las causas del SIDA: La infecciosa-viral y la tóxico-nutricional; se analiza el concepto moderno de inmunotoxicología como una nueva rama del saber. Se describen las acciones adversas, sobre las células y las reacciones metabólicas inmunocompetentes, de los estresantes inmunológicos de origen químico, físico, biológico, mental y nutricional. Los principales efectos tóxico-degenerativos de los estresantes inmunológicos sobre el funcionamiento del sistema inmune se llevan a cabo mediante una variedad de mecanismos de óxidorreducción, que se describen con pormenores. Se incluye una bibliografía extensa para profundizar en estos temas, como forma de preparación para discutir acerca de las causas del SIDA, una de las polémicas científicas más fascinantes de nuestra época. After a brief description of the main postulates of the two current hypotheses to explain the causes of AIDS, namely: The infectious-viral and the toxic.nutritional, the modern concept of immunotoxicology is analyzed. The adverse actions of chemical, physical, biological, mental and nutritional stressors upon immunocompetent cells and metabolic reactions are described. The principal toxic-degenerative effects of immunological stressors upon the immune system network are carried out through a variety of oxidation-reduction mechanisms, which are described in detail; a biblio. graphy is suggested for those interested in studying these issues in depth, as a form of preparation for the discussion of the causes of AIDS, which is one of the most fascinating scientific polemics of our times.

  13. An Integrated Modeling Framework Forecasting Ecosystem Exposure-- A Systems Approach to the Cumulative Impacts of Multiple Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater habitats provide fishable, swimmable and drinkable resources and are a nexus of geophysical and biological processes. These processes in turn influence the persistence and sustainability of populations, communities and ecosystems. Climate change and landuse change encompass numerous stressors of potential exposure, including the introduction of toxic contaminants, invasive species, and disease in addition to physical drivers such as temperature and hydrologic regime. A systems approach that includes the scientific and technologic basis of assessing the health of ecosystems is needed to effectively protect human health and the environment. The Integrated Environmental Modeling Framework 'iemWatersheds' has been developed as a consistent and coherent means of forecasting the cumulative impact of co-occurring stressors. The Framework consists of three facilitating technologies: Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) that automates the collection and standardization of input data; the Framework for Risk Assessment of Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) that manages the flow of information between linked models; and the Supercomputer for Model Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation (SuperMUSE) that provides post-processing and analysis of model outputs, including uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. Five models are linked within the Framework to provide multimedia simulation capabilities for hydrology and water quality processes: the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) predicts surface water and sediment runoff and associated contaminants; the Watershed Mercury Model (WMM) predicts mercury runoff and loading to streams; the Water quality Analysis and Simulation Program (WASP) predicts water quality within the stream channel; the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model scores physicochemical habitat quality for individual fish species; and the Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator (BASS) predicts fish growth, population dynamics and bioaccumulation

  14. Are Leadership Fairness, Psychological Distress, and Role Stressors Interrelated? A Two-Wave Prospective Study of Forward and Reverse Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten B. Nielsen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While previous research has mainly considered leadership as an antecedent to psychological distress and role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict among subordinates, a reverse relationship where these variables influence reports of leadership is also possible. To determine the directionality of the associations this two-wave prospective study assesses bidirectional relationships between fair leadership and role stressors and examines whether psychological distress mediates the reciprocal associations between fair leadership and the role stressors. Analyses were conducted in a sample of 6,790 Norwegian employees with a 2-year time-lag between measurement points. Fair leadership was associated with lower stability adjusted role ambiguity, but not role conflict, over time. Role conflict, but not role ambiguity, was related to subsequent reports of the immediate leader as less fair. Psychological distress did neither mediate the relationship between fair leadership and subsequent reports of role stressors, nor the association between role stressors and subsequent reports of fair leadership. The findings suggest that the fair leadership – role stressor association is not a one-directional process, but that exposure to role stressors also influence subordinates’ perceptions of leadership. An implication of the findings is that theoretical models of organizational leadership should include this reverse impact of role stressors. To reduce the effects of role stressors, organizations could set consistent, clear and attractive goals and provide employees with necessary information for conducting their work tasks in order to help workers understand and master their roles at the workplace.

  15. Multiple stressor effects on marine infauna: responses of estuarine taxa and functional traits to sedimentation, nutrient and metal loading

    KAUST Repository

    Ellis, Joanne; Clark, D.; Atalah, J.; Jiang, W.; Taiapa, C.; Patterson, M.; Sinner, J.; Hewitt, J.

    2017-01-01

    loading and the documented interaction effects between multiple stressors have important implications for understanding and managing the ecological consequences of eutrophication, sedimentation and contaminants on coastal ecosystems.

  16. Are Leadership Fairness, Psychological Distress, and Role Stressors Interrelated? A Two-Wave Prospective Study of Forward and Reverse Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten B; Christensen, Jan O; Finne, Live B; Knardahl, Stein

    2018-01-01

    While previous research has mainly considered leadership as an antecedent to psychological distress and role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) among subordinates, a reverse relationship where these variables influence reports of leadership is also possible. To determine the directionality of the associations this two-wave prospective study assesses bidirectional relationships between fair leadership and role stressors and examines whether psychological distress mediates the reciprocal associations between fair leadership and the role stressors. Analyses were conducted in a sample of 6,790 Norwegian employees with a 2-year time-lag between measurement points. Fair leadership was associated with lower stability adjusted role ambiguity, but not role conflict, over time. Role conflict, but not role ambiguity, was related to subsequent reports of the immediate leader as less fair. Psychological distress did neither mediate the relationship between fair leadership and subsequent reports of role stressors, nor the association between role stressors and subsequent reports of fair leadership. The findings suggest that the fair leadership - role stressor association is not a one-directional process, but that exposure to role stressors also influence subordinates' perceptions of leadership. An implication of the findings is that theoretical models of organizational leadership should include this reverse impact of role stressors. To reduce the effects of role stressors, organizations could set consistent, clear and attractive goals and provide employees with necessary information for conducting their work tasks in order to help workers understand and master their roles at the workplace.

  17. Are Leadership Fairness, Psychological Distress, and Role Stressors Interrelated? A Two-Wave Prospective Study of Forward and Reverse Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten B.; Christensen, Jan O.; Finne, Live B.; Knardahl, Stein

    2018-01-01

    While previous research has mainly considered leadership as an antecedent to psychological distress and role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) among subordinates, a reverse relationship where these variables influence reports of leadership is also possible. To determine the directionality of the associations this two-wave prospective study assesses bidirectional relationships between fair leadership and role stressors and examines whether psychological distress mediates the reciprocal associations between fair leadership and the role stressors. Analyses were conducted in a sample of 6,790 Norwegian employees with a 2-year time-lag between measurement points. Fair leadership was associated with lower stability adjusted role ambiguity, but not role conflict, over time. Role conflict, but not role ambiguity, was related to subsequent reports of the immediate leader as less fair. Psychological distress did neither mediate the relationship between fair leadership and subsequent reports of role stressors, nor the association between role stressors and subsequent reports of fair leadership. The findings suggest that the fair leadership – role stressor association is not a one-directional process, but that exposure to role stressors also influence subordinates’ perceptions of leadership. An implication of the findings is that theoretical models of organizational leadership should include this reverse impact of role stressors. To reduce the effects of role stressors, organizations could set consistent, clear and attractive goals and provide employees with necessary information for conducting their work tasks in order to help workers understand and master their roles at the workplace. PMID:29467702

  18. Comparative analysis of two community stressors' long-term mental health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dew, M.A.; Bromet, E.J.; Schulberg, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation directly compared the long-term mental health consequences of two community-wide stressors, the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear accident and widespread unemployment due to layoff, in demographically comparable samples of women. Results showed a marked degree of similarity in the stressors' effects: Levels of subclinical symptomatology were elevated to similar degrees in each sample during the year following stressor onset, and symptom levels remained elevated in each sample 2 to 3 1/2 years later. Moreover, variables identified as predictors of enduring psychological distress were virtually identical for the two samples. Additional analyses revealed that the mental health status of unemployed husbands mediated the negative psychological effects of layoff on their wives. Implications of these results for understanding the long-term consequences of exposure to community-wide stress are discussed

  19. ROLE STRESSOR AS AN ANTECEDENT OF EMPLOYEES’ FAMILY CONFLICT: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman ISMAIL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of stressors is recognized as a crucial human resource development and management issue where it can have an overpowering consequence on organizational and employee performance. This study was conducted to discover the relationship between role stressor and family conflict using self-report questionnaires gathered from academic staff of a public comprehensive university in Sarawak, Malaysia. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model revealed three findings: first, role ambiguity significantly correlated with family conflict. Second, role conflict significantly correlated with family conflict. Third, role overload significantly correlated with family conflict. This finding demonstrates that role stressor is recognized in employees’ family conflict. The paper provides discussions, implications and conclusion.

  20. A cohort study on self-reported role stressors at work and poor sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Rugulies, Reiner

    2018-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the present study was to examine the bidirectional associations between subjective role ambiguity and role conflicts at work, respectively, and self-reported sleep 2 years later. In addition, we also examine whether sense of coherence (SOC) moderate or mediate the association...... were estimated using structural equation modelling. RESULTS: We found a prospective association between role stressors and sleep problems [beta values were 0.07 (95% CI 0.03-0.11) and 0.05 (CI 0.01-0.10) for DSI and AWI, respectively] when adjusting for sleep problems at baseline, age, sex, and life...... between role stressors and sleep problems. We also found support for sleep problems at baseline and role stressors 2 years later [DSI 0.04 (CI 0.00-0.08) and 0.15 (CI 0.09-0.21)] for role ambiguity and role conflicts, respectively. Similar results were observed for AWI. CONCLUSION: Subjective role...