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Sample records for stressful events increases

  1. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...

  2. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L

    2005-01-01

    naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring......Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...... of the acoustic startle response. Further, a single aversive life event showed capable of changing the reactivity of prenatally stressed offspring, whereas offspring of dams going through a less stressful gestation was largely unaffected by this event. This suggests that circumstances dating back to the very...

  3. Foetal exposure to maternal stressful events increases the risk of having asthma and atopic diseases in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marco, Roberto; Pesce, Giancarlo; Girardi, Paolo; Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Rava, Marta; Ricci, Paolo; Marcon, Alessandro

    2012-12-01

    The natural history of asthma and atopic diseases begins in utero. Studies investigating the influence of foetal exposure to maternal stressful life events during pregnancy (SLEP) on asthma and atopic diseases are lacking. To test whether the children of mothers who had experienced SLEP are at an increased risk for asthma, atopic eczema and allergic rhinitis. The association between maternal SLEP (at least one among: divorce, mourning or loss of the job) and the occurrence of asthma and atopic diseases in childhood was studied in a population (n = 3854) of children, aged 3-14 yrs, living in Northern Italy. The parents filled in a standardized questionnaire about the children's health and the events occurred to their mothers during pregnancy. Three hundred and thirty-three (9%) of the mothers experienced SLEP. Their children had a statistically significantly higher lifetime prevalence of wheezing (31.6% vs. 23.1%), asthma (8.9% vs. 5.6%), allergic rhinitis (10.9% vs. 7.3%) and atopic eczema (29.7% vs. 21.1%) than those of mothers without SLEP. After adjusting for potential confounders, the foetal exposure to SLEP was positively associated with wheezing (OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.94), asthma (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.02-2.89), allergic rhinitis (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.08-2.84) and atopic eczema (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.11-2.10). The children of mothers who had experienced SLEP were at a moderately increased risk of having wheezing, asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis during their childhood. Maternal stress during pregnancy might enhance the expression of asthma and atopic phenotypes in children. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Stressful life events and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C; Prescott, E; Grønbaek, M

    2006-01-01

    In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer.......In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer....

  5. Country Stress Events; Does Governance Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Kochanova; Carlos Caceres

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the linkages between governance quality and country stress events. It focuses on two types of events: fiscal and political stress events, for which two innovative stress indicators are introduced. The results suggest that weaker governance quality is associated with a higher incidence of both fiscal and political stress events. In particular, internal accountability, which measures the responsiveness of governments to improving the quality of the bureaucracy, public servic...

  6. Stressful life events, vulnerable to stress and depression among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to observe the difference between male and female Eritrean students on the basis of stressful life events, vulnerable to stress and depression. Stressful life Events Questionnaire, Vulnerable to Stress Instrument and Beck Depression Scale were administered to gather information. The data ...

  7. Infant Coping with Everyday Stressful Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Katherine Hildebrandt; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Mothers of 6 cohorts of infants at ages 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 months were interviewed to determine their children's responses to potentially stressful daily events. Found older infants and temperamentally more difficult infants experienced more events and reacted with distress to a greater proportion of the events than did younger infants and…

  8. Maternal life event stress and congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, S L; Shaw, G M

    2000-01-01

    We used data from a population-based case-control study to explore the relation between certain life events during the periconceptional period and several types of congenital anomalies. We ascertained cases from pregnancies ending in 1987-1989 and randomly selected controls from eligible liveborn infants. In telephone interviews, women reported deaths of anyone close to them. They also reported job losses or separations/divorces, for themselves or anyone close to them. Experiencing at least one stressful event during the periconceptional period was associated with a prevalence odds ratio of 1.4-1.5 for the delivery of infants with conotruncal heart defects, neural tube defects, and isolated cleft lip with or without palate. These associations tended to be restricted to women who were not obese and women with less than or equal to a high school education. This study suggests that women who experience stressful life events around the time of conception or early gestation may be at increased risk of delivering infants with certain congenital anomalies.

  9. Stress, fatigue, and sleep quality leading up to and following a stressful life event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laethem, Michelle; Beckers, Debby G J; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Geurts, Sabine A E

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to examine (a) the time course of stress, fatigue, and sleep quality among PhD students awaiting a stressful event and (b) whether daily anticipation of this event influences day-level stress, fatigue, and sleep quality. Forty-four PhD students completed evening and morning questionnaires on eight days from 1 month before their dissertation defense until one month thereafter. Results showed increased stress leading up to the defense, while fatigue and sleep quality remained unchanged. Comparing the night before the defense with the night after, stress rapidly decreased, whereas fatigue and sleep quality increased. Following the defense, stress and sleep quality remained stable, whereas fatigue declined. Stress 1 month before the defense was higher than 1 month thereafter. Regarding day-level relations, stress was adversely affected by negative anticipation and favorably by positive outcome expectancy, whereas positive anticipation had no influence. Positive outcome expectancy was an important predictor of improved sleep quality. We conclude that stress may be elevated long before a stressful event takes place but that one can recover rather quickly from temporary stress. Positive outcome expectancy of a stressful event may be an important predictor of reduced day-level stress and improved day-level sleep quality leading up to a stressful event. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Job stress and productivity increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramola, Samson Sunday

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines mental and physical pressures that workers bear at work. The authors discuss how on the-job stress affects a person's capabilities and productivity, and how such pressures lend to higher incidences of accidents at work. The paper also discuss methods of reducing job-related stress and increasing productivity. An intervention was conducted amongst workers in a private firm. It shows mental and emotional pressure can affect performance and productivity of a worker on the job. One of the biggest influences of today's worker is on the-job stress. Job stress occurs when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. This consequently affects how a person would normally deal with customer service problems, grievances, violence, conflict, and decisions on the job. Stress is an inevitable part of everyday life, and is therefore a distinct part of a person's job. To properly control the outcome of stress, there are certain precautions and methods that should be taken that will boost productivity.

  11. Increasing the Operational Value of Event Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Smith, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the health of a space mission has traditionally been performed using telemetry analysis tools. Parameter values are compared to known operational limits and are plotted over various time periods. This presentation begins with the notion that there is an incredible amount of untapped information contained within the mission s event message logs. Through creative advancements in message handling tools, the event message logs can be used to better assess spacecraft and ground system status and to highlight and report on conditions not readily apparent when messages are evaluated one-at-a-time during a real-time pass. Work in this area is being funded as part of a larger NASA effort at the Goddard Space Flight Center to create component-based, middleware-based, standards-based general purpose ground system architecture referred to as GMSEC - the GSFC Mission Services Evolution Center. The new capabilities and operational concepts for event display, event data analyses and data mining are being developed by Lockheed Martin and the new subsystem has been named GREAT - the GMSEC Reusable Event Analysis Toolkit. Planned for use on existing and future missions, GREAT has the potential to increase operational efficiency in areas of problem detection and analysis, general status reporting, and real-time situational awareness.

  12. Stressful life events and leucocyte telomere length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Bendix, Laila; Rask, Lene

    2016-01-01

    , and markers of low-grade inflammation. A cohort of Danish men born in 1953 has been followed since birth in the Metropolit Cohort. These men underwent a health examination including blood sampling in 2010 and a subset of 324 also had a quantitative PCR-based measurement of TL. The relation between stressful......=-0.02); P=0.05). This relation was particularly strong for being placed away from home (β=-0.16; P... (9%). This study suggests that stressful events in childhood are associated with shorter TL in middle-aged men and that part of this relation is explained by depressive mood and low grade inflammation....

  13. [Compassion as a mediator between stressful events and perceived stress in Greek students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholouli, E; Maridaki-Kassotaki, A; Varvogli, L; Chrousos, G P

    2016-01-01

    Compassion is closely related with human's survival as a mammal and has been developed through evolution for pain reduction, for forming affiliative bonds and alliances with non kin in order to increase protection and cope with external threats. Compassion seems to influence people's ability to deal with life's adverse situations such as stress and it is linked with lower psychopathology and greater wellbeing. Compassion is closely related to empathy and altruism and it is defined as the recognition of the pain of the self or others' that is accompanied with the will to take action in order to relieve the person from pain. Its main features are kindness instead of self-judgment and indifference, the recognition of common humanity instead of the feeling of separation and mindfulness when facing adverse conditions instead of over-identification with one's pain or disengagement with the pain of others. According to the biopsychosocial approach, stress can be defined by three dimensions such as the cause or stressful factors that can be major life events or daily hassles, the perception of stress that is manifested through cognitive, emotional and behavioural reactions and the physiological response for achieving homeostasis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of compassion for self and others in the occurrence of stressful events and levels of perceived stress in students. Participants were 280 undergraduate students from two Greek universities. Results indicated that students who had experienced a greater amount of stressful events during the past year reported having higher levels of perceived stress and that higher self-compassion was correlated with less perceived stress. Moreover, the adverse effect of stressful events on perceived stress was partially explained by the mediating role of self-compassion. Students who reported more stressful events showed higher compassion for others in opposition to compassion towards themselves but

  14. Stressful life events and depression symptoms: the effect of childhood emotional abuse on stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Black, Shimrit K; Liu, Richard T; Klugman, Joshua; Bender, Rachel E; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-03-01

    Stressful life events are associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and the onset of major depression. Importantly, research has shown that the role of stress changes over the course of depression. The present study extends the current literature by examining the effects of early life stress on emotional reactivity to current stressors. In a multiwave study (N = 281, mean age = 18.76; 68% female), we investigated the proximal changes that occur in depressive symptoms when individuals are faced with life stress and whether a history of childhood emotional abuse moderates this relationship. Results support the stress sensitivity hypothesis for early emotional abuse history. Individuals with greater childhood emotional abuse severity experienced greater increases in depressive symptoms when confronted with current dependent stressors, controlling for childhood physical and sexual abuse. This study highlights the importance of emotional abuse as an indicator for reactivity to stressful life events. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Stressful life events and occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Dias, Adriano

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between stressful life events and occupational accidents. This was a population-based case-control study, carried out in the city of Botucatu, in southeast Brazil. The cases consisted of 108 workers who had recently experienced occupational accidents. Each case was matched with three controls. The cases and controls answered a questionnaire about recent exposure to stressful life events. Reporting of "environmental problems", "being a victim of assault", "not having enough food at home" and "nonoccupational fatigue" were found to be risk factors for work-related accidents with estimated incidence rate ratios of 1.4 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-1.7], 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.7), 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.6), and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2-1.7) respectively. The findings of the study suggested that nonwork variables contribute to occupational accidents, thus broadening the understanding of these phenomena, which can support new approaches to the prevention of occupational accidents.

  16. The stressed eyewitness: the interaction of thematic arousal and post-event stress in memory for central and peripheral event information

    OpenAIRE

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Wolf, Oliver T.

    2012-01-01

    Both arousal during the encoding of stimuli and subsequent stress can affect memory, often by increasing memory for important or central information. We explored whether event-based (thematic) arousal and post-event stress interact to selectively enhance eyewitnesses' memory for the central aspects of an observed incident. Specifically, we argue that memory for stimuli should be enhanced when (1) the stimuli are encoded under arousal (vs. non-arousal), and (2) stress is experienced soon after...

  17. The Association of Sever Stressful Life Events and Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rozita Naeeni; Zlbar Soltanzadeh; Homan Salimipour; Zahra Vahhabi; Samira Yadegari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stressful life events have suggested as one of etiologic cause of the disease from the middle of last century, but controversies still is going on. Materials and Methods: This study is a case- control study conducted on 100 MS patients in neurology clinic of Shariati Hospital during one year. History of stressful life events one year before beginning of the disease was questioned. These events, according to Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale, were severe and affected the disease progres...

  18. The Measurement of Stressful Events in Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Lin, Chong-De; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    The "Chinese College Stress Scale" was developed to ascertain stress in university students. Results suggested that the psychometric properties of the "Chinese College Stress Scale" were satisfactory. Overall, student stress was primarily related to academic, personal, and negative life events. Approximately 8% of Chinese…

  19. Childhood maltreatment, stressful life events, and alcohol craving in adult drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, June H.; Martins, Silvia S.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Santaella, Julian; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship of stressful life events and alcohol craving in the general population, and whether a history of childhood maltreatment sensitizes individuals to crave alcohol after adult stressors. Methods Participants were 22,147 past-year drinkers from Wave 2 (2004-2006) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. A structured, face-to-face interview assessed past-year stressful life events, alcohol craving, and history of childhood maltreatment. Logistic regression was used to generate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) to evaluate the relationship between stressful life events and craving, adjusting for demographic characteristics and parental history of alcoholism. Interaction between stressful life events and childhood maltreatment was also assessed. Results Compared to participants with no stressful life events, those with ≥3 events had increased odds of moderate alcohol craving (aOR=3.15 [95% CI=2.30-4.33]) and severe craving (aOR=8.47 [95% CI=4.78-15.01]). Stressful life events and childhood maltreatment interacted in predicting severe craving (p=0.017); those with ≥3 events were at higher risk for craving if they had been exposed to childhood maltreatment. Conclusion A direct relationship between stressful life events and risk for alcohol craving was observed. Further, history of childhood maltreatment increased the salience of stressful life events in adulthood. Future studies should examine the role of psychiatric comorbidity in more complex models of stress sensitization and alcohol craving. PMID:24961735

  20. The stressed eyewitness: The interaction of thematic arousal and post-event stress in memory for central and peripheral event information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald eEchterhoff

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Both arousal during the encoding of stimuli and subsequent stress can affect memory, often by increasing memory for important or central information. We explored whether event-based (thematic arousal and post-event stress interact to selectively enhance eyewitnesses’ memory for the central aspects of an observed incident. Specifically, we argue that memory for stimuli should be enhanced when (a the stimuli are encoded under arousal (vs. non-arousal, and (b stress is experienced soon after the encoding episode.We designed an experiment that extended previous research by manipulating arousal without changing the stimulus material, distinguishing between central and peripheral event information, and using a dynamic, life-like event instead of static pictures. After watching a video depicting a burglary under high or low thematic arousal, psychosocial stress was induced or not induced by the Trier Social Stress Test. Salivary cortisol was measured at standard intervals. Consistent with our prediction, we found a significant thematic arousal x post-event stress x centrality interaction, indicating that the recognition advantage for central event items over peripheral event items was most pronounced under both high thematic arousal and post-event stress. Because stress was induced after encoding this interaction cannot be explained by possible differences at encoding, such as narrowed attention. The centrality effect of post-event stress under high thematic arousal was statistically mediated by the cortisol increase, which suggests a key role of the stress hormone. We discuss implications of our findings for psychological and neuroscientific theories of emotional memory formation.

  1. [The study on metabolic difference of human body affected by active stress and passive stress under special events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang-hong; Gu, Feng; Dong, Zhen-nan; Yuan, Xin-hong; Wang, Ling; Tian, Ya-ping

    2010-05-01

    To study the metabolic difference of body influenced by active stress and passive stress under special events. To detect serum multiple biochemistry index of 57 earthquake rescue medical team and 13 victims of a natural calamity in Wenchuan earthquake by using Hitachi 7600 automatic analyzer. Stress affected biochemistry index deeply. To compared with rescue medical team, the serum ADA, ALP and TG of victims increased obviously and TP, ALB, MAO, Cr, UA, K, Na, Cl, Ca, ApoA1 and HDL decreased obviously. Many biochemistry index have been changed under stress and it relate with stress extent. The human body function status was better in active stress than in passive stress.

  2. Stress: Specific Life Events in the Teaching Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martray, Carl R.; Adams, Ronald D.

    This study examined the greatest stressors in teaching situations that affect teachers, and how these events vary for groups of elementary, middle, and secondary school teachers. The list of possibly stressful situations was taken from the Teaching Events Stress Inventory (TESI), developed by Cichon and Koff in 1978. Data were collected from…

  3. Personality, Stressful Life Events, and Treatment Response in Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmash, Eric; Harkness, Kate L.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism or dependency moderated the effect of stressful life events on treatment response. Depressed outpatients (N = 113) were randomized to 16 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, or antidepressant medication (ADM). Stressful life events were…

  4. Major stressful life events in adulthood and risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Bager, Peter; Simonsen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether psychological stress is associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied the association between major stressful life events and MS in a nationwide cohort study using death of a child or a spouse or marital dissolution as indicators of severe stress....

  5. Changes in Appearance in the Presence of Major Stress Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Stitz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between experiencing major stress events (MSEs and changes in appearance (CAs was studied in a sample of 128 participants. All participants completed the Major Stress Event and Changes in Appearance Inventory. Results indicated a significant correlation between experiencing MSEs and considered or actual CAs (r = .50 p < .01. Scores on the Changes in Appearance Inventory were significantly higher in groups with moderate to high scores on the Major Stress Event scale. This relationship between MSEs and CAs was affected by age but not gender. These results suggest that stressful life events may prompt body image dissatisfaction and underlie motivations for changes in body appearance to promote self-image. Successive or dramatic appearance changes may be an important signal of stressful experiences.

  6. The Association of Sever Stressful Life Events and Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Naeeni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stressful life events have suggested as one of etiologic cause of the disease from the middle of last century, but controversies still is going on. Materials and Methods: This study is a case- control study conducted on 100 MS patients in neurology clinic of Shariati Hospital during one year. History of stressful life events one year before beginning of the disease was questioned. These events, according to Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale, were severe and affected the disease progression. The analysis of data was performed using SPSS 15. Results: The mean age of patients was 30.9 ± 7.1. Most of them (n=87 had relapsing- remitting MS. 51% of patients and 26% of controls had stressful life events (P<0.001. Odd's Ratio with confidence interval of 95% was 2.71. The most frequent stressful events were family problems and death of first degree relatives. Conclusion: This study showed that stressful life events were significantly more prevalent in MS, but we cannot conclude that stress lonely is a cause of MS. Although, major stress along with multiple other risk factors may be related to MS.

  7. Suicide in Relation to the Experience of Stressful Life Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsted, Rita; Teasdale, Thomas William; Jensen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Stressful life events have been associated with high risk of suicidal behavior. The aim of this study was to examine whether persons who died by suicide in Denmark had more frequently been exposed to stressful life events, specifically divorce, death of a close relative, exposure to violence......, and imprisonment, when compared to gender and age-matched controls. Data from Danish national registers were obtained for the period of 2000-2010 and a nested case-control design was applied. The association between exposure to stressful life events and suicide was examined using logistic regression analysis...... compared to controls. People who died by suicide had 1.5-fold (CI-95%: 1.3-1.6) higher risk of having experienced a divorce. Stressful life events, such as divorce and imprisonment, were more frequent in temporal proximity to the date of death among the suicide cases than for end of exposure for controls...

  8. Stressful Life Events and Irrational Beliefs as Predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stressful Life Events and Irrational Beliefs as Predictors of Psychological Wellbeing ... characterized with negative indicators, such as, anxiety, depression. Does similar relationship is evident referring to positive indicators of Psychological ...

  9. Periodontitis and increase in circulating oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Tomofuji

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are products of normal cellular metabolism. However, excessive production of ROS oxidizes DNA, lipids and proteins, inducing tissue damage. Studies have shown that periodontitis induces excessive ROS production in periodontal tissue. When periodontitis develops, ROS produced in the periodontal lesion diffuse into the blood stream, resulting in the oxidation of blood molecules (circulating oxidative stress. Such oxidation may be detrimental to systemic health. For instance, previous animal studies suggested that experimental periodontitis induces oxidative damage of the liver and descending aorta by increasing circulating oxidative stress. In addition, it has been revealed that clinical parameters in chronic periodontitis patients showed a significant improvement 2 months after periodontal treatment, which was accompanied by a significant reduction of reactive oxygen metabolites in plasma. Improvement of periodontitis by periodontal treatment could reduce the occurrence of circulating oxidative stress. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that the increase in circulating oxidative stress following diabetes mellitus and inappropriate nutrition damages periodontal tissues. In such cases, therapeutic approaches to systemic oxidative stress might be necessary to improve periodontal health.

  10. Negative life events and symptoms of depression and anxiety: stress causation and/or stress generation

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Anna C.; Carroll, Douglas; Der, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Stressful life events are known to contribute to development of depression, however, it is possible this link is bi-directional. The present study examined whether such stress generation effects are greater than the effects of stressful life events on depression, and whether stress generation is also evident with anxiety. Design: Participants were two large age cohorts (N = 732 aged 44 years; N = 705 aged 63 years) from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. Methods:...

  11. Negative life events and symptoms of depression and anxiety: stress causation and/or stress generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna C; Carroll, Douglas; Der, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events are known to contribute to development of depression; however, it is possible this link is bidirectional. The present study examined whether such stress generation effects are greater than the effects of stressful life events on depression, and whether stress generation is also evident with anxiety. Participants were two large age cohorts (N = 732 aged 44 years; N = 705 aged 63 years) from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. Stressful life events, depression, and anxiety symptoms were measured twice five years apart. Cross-lagged panel analysis examined the mutual influences of stressful life events on depression and on anxiety over time. Life events predicted later depressive symptomatology (p = .01), but the depression predicting life events relationship was less strong (p = .06), whereas earlier anxiety predicted life events five years later (p = .001). There was evidence of sex differences in the extent to which life events predicted later anxiety. This study provides evidence of stress causation for depression and weaker evidence for stress generation. In contrast, there was strong evidence of stress generation for anxiety but weaker evidence for stress causation, and that differed for men and women.

  12. A Factor Analytic Study of the Teaching Events Stress Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Livingston; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine if definitive factors emerge from the responses of teachers to the Teaching Events Stress Inventory (TESI). In a series of three studies during the years 1980 to 1982, data were collected to assess the levels and sources of stress experienced by 660 teachers in central and western Kentucky. The subjects…

  13. Stressful life events and alcohol use among university students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the association between stressful life events and alcohol use among young adults pursuing university education in a university in Botswana was studied. A total of 312 young adults participated in the study (55.4% females, mean age = 21.58 (SD =1.87)). Student Stress Scale adapted from Holmes and Rahe's ...

  14. Life Event Stress and Binge Eating Among Adolescents: The Roles of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xingwei; Cai, Taisheng; He, Jinbo; Lu, Yao; Wu, Siyao

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the relationships between life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating among adolescents and investigated the effects of early maladaptive schemas and impulsivity on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Specifically, we examined a moderated mediation model in which early maladaptive schemas mediated this relationship and impulsivity moderated the mediation effect. Life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating were investigated in a sample of 2172 seventh-, eighth- and tenth-grade middle and high school students (mean age = 14.55 years, standard deviation = 1.29). The results indicated that adolescents with greater life event stress, more early maladaptive schemas and higher levels of impulsivity displayed more severe binge eating. In addition, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between life event stress and binge eating, while impulsivity moderated this relationship. Furthermore, impulsivity also moderated the mediation effect of early maladaptive schemas; as impulsivity levels increased, the strength of the association between life event stress and early maladaptive schemas increased. This study illustrates the importance of understanding individual differences and their effects on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Stressful life events in pregnancy and head circumference at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2003-01-01

    A strong association between stress in pregnancy and small head circumference in infants at birth was reported in 1994. This important finding has never been replicated. In a follow-up study of 4211 participants with singleton pregnancies, information on life events was collected twice during...... pregnancy and head circumference measured shortly after birth following standard procedures. No association was found between experienced or perceived stress as a result of life events during pregnancy and head circumference in the infants. In conclusion, stress in pregnancy may influence foetal brain...

  16. Analyzing and Identifying Teens' Stressful Periods and Stressor Events From a Microblog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Xue, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Liang; Jia, Jia; Feng, Ling

    2017-09-01

    Increased health problems among adolescents caused by psychological stress have aroused worldwide attention. Long-standing stress without targeted assistance and guidance negatively impacts the healthy growth of adolescents, threatening the future development of our society. So far, research focused on detecting adolescent psychological stress revealed from each individual post on microblogs. However, beyond stressful moments, identifying teens' stressful periods and stressor events that trigger each stressful period is more desirable to understand the stress from appearance to essence. In this paper, we define the problem of identifying teens' stressful periods and stressor events from the open social media microblog. Starting from a case study of adolescents' posting behaviors during stressful school events, we build a Poisson-based probability model for the correlation between stressor events and stressful posting behaviors through a series of posts on Tencent Weibo (referred to as the microblog throughout the paper). With the model, we discover teens' maximal stressful periods and further extract details of possible stressor events that cause the stressful periods. We generalize and present the extracted stressor events in a hierarchy based on common stress dimensions and event types. Taking 122 scheduled stressful study-related events in a high school as the ground truth, we test the approach on 124 students' posts from January 1, 2012 to February 1, 2015 and obtain some promising experimental results: (stressful periods: recall 0.761, precision 0.737, and F 1 -measure 0.734) and (top-3 stressor events: recall 0.763, precision 0.756, and F 1 -measure 0.759). The most prominent stressor events extracted are in the self-cognition domain, followed by the school life domain. This conforms to the adolescent psychological investigation result that problems in school life usually accompanied with teens' inner cognition problems. Compared with the state-of-the-art top

  17. Associations among everyday stress, critical life events, and sexual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, Guy; Ledermann, Thomas; Blattner, Denise; Galluzzo, Claudia

    2006-07-01

    This study addresses the question of how stress is linked to sexual problems among women and men in close relationships. Psychological symptoms, relationship quality, internal daily stress (i.e., originating within the couple such as conflicts, worry for the partner), external daily stress (i.e., stress arising outside the couple such as job stress, stressful relatives, and so forth), and critical life events were examined with regard to their association with different sexual problems. The results support the hypotheses that (1) there is an incremental effect of stress on sexual problems after controlling for psychological symptoms and relationship quality, and that (2) it is primarily internal daily stress and in some cases critical life events rather than external daily stress that are related to sexual problems, particularly hypoactive sexual desire in women and men, sexual aversion in women, vaginismus in women, and premature ejaculation in men. Our findings indicate that the treatment of these sexual problems should address relationship issues and include a focus on helping individuals improve their stress management skills within their couple relationship.

  18. Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy predicts psychotic experiences via behaviour problems in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Kim S; Williams, Gail M; Najman, Jakob M; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy has been associated with later schizophrenia in offspring. We explore how prenatal stress and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in childhood associate to increase the risk of later psychotic experiences. Participants from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), an Australian based, pre-birth cohort study were examined for lifetime DSM-IV positive psychotic experiences at 21 years by a semi-structured interview (n = 2227). Structural equation modelling suggested psychotic experiences were best represented with a bifactor model including a general psychosis factor and two group factors. We tested for an association between prenatal stressful life events with the psychotic experiences, and examined for potential moderation and mediation by behaviour problems and cognitive ability in childhood. Prenatal stressful life events predicted psychotic experiences indirectly via behaviour problems at child age five years, and this relationship was not confounded by maternal stressful life events at child age five. We found no statistical evidence for an interaction between prenatal stressful life events and behaviour problems or cognitive ability. The measurable effect of prenatal stressful life events on later psychotic experiences in offspring manifested as behaviour problems by age 5. By identifying early abnormal behavioural development as an intermediary, this finding further confirms the role of prenatal stress to later psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stressful life events and depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Narayanan, Martina K; Nærde, Ane

    2018-04-01

    Parents of young children generally report more depressive symptoms than parents of adult children or people without children, mainly because the presence of young children increases exposure to significant stressors (such as stressful life events). However, most studies on the depressogenic role of stressful life events in parents of young children have focussed on mothers. Using data from 1138 families with young children in Norway, we investigated gender differences in the effect of stressful life events after a child's birth on the development of parental depressive symptoms in 3 follow-ups at child's ages 3-6 years. We also explored if gender differences in disposition (personality) may explain any gender differences in the depressogenic effect of life events. Nesting parents within families, we found a female gender bias for both neuroticism and depressive symptoms but no gender difference in the number of life events reported. Importantly, the number of stressful life events predicted the level and course of depressive symptoms similarly for mothers and fathers. Personality traits did not change the association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms in either mothers or fathers. Given the study design, causality cannot be inferred. There was no gender difference in the depressogenic effect of stressful life events in our sample. There was no evidence for a female dispositional sensitivity to the depressogenic effect of stressful life events, either. Stressful life events put both mothers and fathers of young children at risk of depression. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecological momentary assessment of stressful events and negative affect in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Lavender, Jason M; Peterson, Carol B; Crow, Scott J; Cao, Li; Mitchell, James E

    2014-02-01

    Negative affect precedes binge eating and purging in bulimia nervosa (BN), but little is known about factors that precipitate negative affect in relation to these behaviors. We aimed to assess the temporal relation among stressful events, negative affect, and bulimic events in the natural environment using ecological momentary assessment. A total of 133 women with current BN recorded their mood, eating behavior, and the occurrence of stressful events every day for 2 weeks. Multilevel structural equation mediation models evaluated the relations among Time 1 stress measures (i.e., interpersonal stressors, work/environment stressors, general daily hassles, and stress appraisal), Time 2 negative affect, and Time 2 binge eating and purging, controlling for Time 1 negative affect. Increases in negative affect from Time 1 to Time 2 significantly mediated the relations between Time 1 interpersonal stressors, work/environment stressors, general daily hassles, and stress appraisal and Time 2 binge eating and purging. When modeled simultaneously, confidence intervals for interpersonal stressors, general daily hassles, and stress appraisal did not overlap, suggesting that each had a distinct impact on negative affect in relation to binge eating and purging. Our findings indicate that stress precedes the occurrence of bulimic behaviors and that increases in negative affect following stressful events mediate this relation. Results suggest that stress and subsequent negative affect may function as maintenance factors for bulimic behaviors and should be targeted in treatment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Do positive or negative stressful events predict the development of new brain lesions in people with Multiple Sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michelle Nicole; Nawacki, Ewa; Kwasny, Mary J.; Pelletier, Daniel; Mohr, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stressful life events have long been suspected to contribute to multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity. The few studies examining the relationship between stressful events and neuroimaging markers have been small and inconsistent. This study examined whether different types of stressful events and perceived stress could predict development of brain lesions. Methods This was a secondary analysis of 121 patients with MS followed for 48 weeks during a randomized controlled trial comparing Stress Management Therapy for MS to a waitlist control. Patients underwent MRI’s every 8 weeks. Monthly, patients completed an interview measure assessing stressful life events, and self-report measures of perceived stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, which were used to predict the presence of gadolinium enhancing (Gd+) and T2 lesions on MRI’s 29–62 days later. Participants classified stressful events as positive or negative. Negative events were considered “major” if they involved physical threat or threat to the patient’s family structure, and “moderate” otherwise. Results Positive stressful events predicted decreased risk for subsequent Gd+ lesions in the control group (OR=.53 for each additional positive stressful event, 95% CI=.30–.91) and less risk for new or enlarging T2 lesions regardless of group assignment (OR=.74, 95% CI=.55–.99). Across groups, major negative stressful events predicted Gd+ lesions (OR=1.77, 95% CI=1.18–2.64) and new or enlarging T2 lesions (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.11–2.23), while moderate negative stressful events, perceived stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms did not. Conclusions Major negative stressful events predict increased risk for Gd+ and T2 lesions, while positive stressful events predict decreased risk. PMID:23680407

  2. Four-month-old infants' long-term memory for a stressful social event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Montirosso

    Full Text Available Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition; the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37 were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks. Given individual differences in infants' reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups' post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age.

  3. Four-month-old infants' long-term memory for a stressful social event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition); the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37) were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks). Given individual differences in infants' reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups' post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age.

  4. Four-Month-Old Infants’ Long-Term Memory for a Stressful Social Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants’ memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition); the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37) were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks). Given individual differences in infants’ reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups’ post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age. PMID:24349244

  5. On machine surface to the unit event causing residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalama, R.M.; Mannanb, M.A.; Spowageca, A.

    2005-01-01

    Integrity and reduce overall costs. Within the framework of surface integrity investigations, special emphasis is given to the measurement of residual stresses because they contribute directly to premature failure of components. Since the highest residual stresses are to be found in surface layers, these deserve special attention when dealing with dynamically, heavily loaded machine parts such as gas turbine components used in aero engines. Of the many techniques available for the measurement of residual stresses, the most highly developed and widely used non-destructive method is based on X-ray diffraction (XRD). However, it is not possible to use this technique for inspection of all the components, since it is time consuming, complicated as well as expensive. In this paper, a method is being proposed that augments the XRD method but at the same time capable of inspecting all the components. A non-destructive, visual inspection technique has been developed that can correlate the characteristic features on the surface to the unit event causing the residual stress and the type of residual stress generated on the machined surface. Pictures of the machined surfaces have been taken using a digital video microscope at a magnification of 500 and the surface feature correlated to the unit event causing the residual stress. Sharp and well defined long grooves indicate that the plastic deformation is dominated by a mechanical unit event while appearance of streaks and small areas of smeared material indicate that the plastic deformation is dominated by a thermal unit event. These trends have been confirmed by measuring the residual stresses using XRD. The proposed technique is an attempt at establishing a simple methodology that would be useful to industries manufacturing aerospace and other components that require good surface integrity. (Author)

  6. Stressful Life Events in Children With Functional Defecation Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Elise M; Peeters, Babette; Teeuw, Arianne H; Leenders, Arnold G E; Boluyt, Nicole; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; Benninga, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of stressful life events including (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders by performing a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO for cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies investigating the prevalence of stressful life events, including (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders. The search yielded 946 articles, of which 8 were included with data from 654 children with functional constipation and 1931 children with (constipation-associated) fecal incontinence (FI). Overall, children with functional defecation disorders had been significantly more exposed to stressful life events than healthy children, with prevalence rates ranging from 1.6% to 90.9%. Being bullied, being a relational victim, interruption of toilet training, punishment by parents during toilet training, and hospitalization were significantly related to FI, whereas separation from the best friend, failure in an examination, severe illness in a close family member, loss of job by a parent, frequent punishment, and living in a war-affected area were significantly related to constipation. Only 1 study measured the prevalence of child abuse, which reported a significantly higher prevalence of child (sexual) abuse in children with FI compared with controls. The prevalence of stressful life events, including (sexual) abuse is significantly higher in children with functional defecation disorders compared with healthy children. To gain more insight into the true prevalence of child (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders, more studies are clearly needed.

  7. Sibling Socialization: The Effects of Stressful Life Events and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Katherine J.; Stocker, Clare; McGuire, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    Stressful life events and experiences may disrupt the typical day-to-day interactions between sisters and brothers that provide the foundation of sibling socialization. This chapter examines four experiences that may affect patterns of sibling interaction: parental marital conflict, parental divorce and remarriage, foster care placement, and a…

  8. Stressful Life Events in Children With Functional Defecation Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, Elise M.; Peeters, Babette; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Leenders, Arnold G. E.; Boluyt, Nicole; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of stressful life events including (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders by performing a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO for cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies investigating the

  9. Effects of life event stress, exercise workload, hardiness and coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of life event stress, exercise workload, hardiness and coping style on susceptibility to the common cold. GA Struwig, M Papaikonomou, P Kruger. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and DanceVol. 12(4) 2006: pp. 369-383. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  10. Number of recent stressful life events and incident cardiovascular disease: Moderation by lifetime depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntson, Jessica; Patel, Jay S; Stewart, Jesse C

    2017-08-01

    We investigated whether number of recent stressful life events is associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether this relationship is stronger in adults with a history of clinical depression. Prospective data from 28,583 U.S. adults (mean age=45years) initially free of CVD who participated in Waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were examined. Number of past-year stressful life events (Wave 1), lifetime depressive disorder (Wave 1), and incident CVD (Wave 2) were determined by structured interviews. There were 1069 cases of incident CVD. Each additional stressful life event was associated with a 15% increased odds of incident CVD [Odds Ratio (OR)=1.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.11, 1.19]. As hypothesized, a stressful life events by lifetime depressive disorder interaction was detected (P=0.003). Stratified analyses indicated that stressful life events had a stronger association with incident CVD among adults with (OR=1.18, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.27, n=4908) versus without (OR=1.10, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.14, n=23,675) a lifetime depressive disorder. Our findings suggest that a greater number of recent stressful life events elevate the risk of new-onset CVD and that this risk is potentiated in adults with a history of clinical depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Medical student resilience and stressful clinical events during clinical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpy, Jennifer C; Lee, Wei Wei; Woodruff, James N; Pincavage, Amber T

    2017-01-01

    Medical students face numerous stressors during their clinical years, including difficult clinical events. Fostering resilience is a promising way to mitigate negative effects of stressors, prevent burnout, and help students thrive after difficult experiences. However, little is known about medical student resilience. To characterize medical student resilience and responses to difficult clinical events during clinical training. Sixty-two third-year (MS3) and 55 fourth-year (MS4) University of Chicago medical students completed surveys in 2016 assessing resilience (Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, CD-RISC 10), symptoms of burnout, need for resilience training, and responses to difficult clinical events. Medical student mean resilience was lower than in a general population sample. Resilience was higher in males, MS4s, those without burnout symptoms, and students who felt able to cope with difficult clinical events. When students experienced difficult events in the clinical setting, the majority identified poor team dynamics among the most stressful, and agreed their wellbeing was affected by difficult clinical events. A majority also would prefer to discuss these events with their team later that day. Students discussed events with peers more than with attendings or residents. Students comfortable discussing stress and burnout with peers had higher resilience. Most students believed resilience training would be helpful and most beneficial during MS3 year. Clinical medical student resilience was lower than in the general population but higher in MS4s and students reporting no burnout. Students had some insight into their resilience and most thought resilience training would be helpful. Students discussed difficult clinical events most often with peers. More curricula promoting medical student resilience are needed.

  12. Assessing traumatic event exposure: general issues and preliminary findings for the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, L A; Corcoran, C; Turner, K; Yuan, N; Green, B L

    1998-07-01

    This article reviews the psychometric properties of the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire (SLESQ), a recently developed trauma history screening measure, and discusses the complexities involved in assessing trauma exposure. There are relatively few general measures of exposure to a variety of types of traumatic events, and most of those that exist have not been subjected to rigorous psychometric evaluation. The SLESQ showed good test-retest reliability, with a median kappa of .73, adequate convergent validity (with a lengthier interview) with a median kappa of .64, and good discrimination between Criterion A and non-Criterion A events. The discussion addresses some of the challenges of assessing traumatic event exposure along the dimensions of defining traumatic events, assessment methodologies, reporting consistency, and incident validation.

  13. Pre-cold stress increases acid stress resistance and induces amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-cold stress increases acid stress resistance and induces amino acid homeostasis in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. ... Purpose: To investigate the effects of pre-cold stress treatments on subsequent acid stress resistance ... from 32 Countries:.

  14. Stressful life events and acute kidney injury in intensive and semi-intensive care unities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Denise Para; Marques, Daniella Aparecida; Blay, Sérgio Luis; Schor, Nestor

    2012-03-01

    Several studies point out that pathophysiological changes related to stress may influence renal function and are associated with disease onset and evolution. However, we have not found any studies about the influence of stress on renal function and acute kidney injury. To evaluate the association between stressful life events and acute kidney injury diagnosis, specifying the most stressful classes of events for these patients in the past 12 months. Case-control study. The study was carried out at Hospital São Paulo, in Universidade Federal de São Paulo and at Hospital dos Servidores do Estado de São Paulo, in Brazil. Patients with acute kidney injury and no chronic disease, admitted to the intensive or semi-intensive care units were included. Controls included patients in the same intensive care units with other acute diseases, except for the acute kidney injury, and also with no chronic disease. Out of the 579 patients initially identified, 475 answered to the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) questionnaire and 398 were paired by age and gender (199 cases and 199 controls). The rate of stressful life events was statistically similar between cases and controls. The logistic regression analysis to detect associated effects of the independent variables to the stressful events showed that: increasing age and economic classes A and B in one of the hospitals (Hospital São Paulo - UNIFESP) increased the chance of a stressful life event (SLE). This study did not show association between the Acute Kidney Injury Group with a higher frequency of stressful life events, but that old age, higher income, and type of clinical center were associated.

  15. Stressful life events in a clinical sample of depressed children in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, László; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J; Baji, Ildikó; Kapornai, Krisztina; Kiss, Eniko; Vetró, Agnes

    2009-05-01

    There is limited information on the characteristics of stressful life events in depressed pediatric clinical populations and the extent to which sex, age, and their interactions may influence the relations of life events and depression. Using a very large clinical sample of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD), we therefore examined life events in various ways, as well as their relations to age and sex. The study included a clinic-based sample of 434 children (ages 7-14) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of MDD and their mothers, and a school-based comparison sample of 724 children and their mothers. Life event information was obtained from the mothers. Children with MDD had twice the number of lifetime stressful events than did the comparison group, with very high levels of stressors by the age of 7-9 that stabilized across adolescence. In contrast, the comparison sample experienced a gradual increase in stressful life events as a function of age up to mid-adolescence. Parental health events, death of close relatives, and intrafamilial events were significantly associated with MDD diagnosis. There were significantly stronger associations between parental health- as well as death-event clusters and MDD diagnosis among younger children than adolescents. Geographical differences between the clinical and comparison samples, as well as possible parental reporting biases may affect the generalizability of these findings. The association between some stressful life events and MDD seems to be moderated by age, underscoring the need to examine specific events, as well as clusters of events. Better understanding of such interactions may facilitate early identification of possible risk factors for pediatric MDD.

  16. Social support and stressful events in two dimensions: life events and illness as an event.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Flap, H.D.; Foets, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Previous research on the buffering effects of social support focused mainly on life events as stressors, and mental illness as outcome. Furthermore, the question as to why support influences illness has not been subjected to theoretical or empirical study much. In this article we develop a

  17. The four faces of rumination to stressful events: A psychometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Felipe E; Duque, Almudena; Cova, Félix

    2017-11-01

    To increase the knowledge of rumination and its associations with stressful events, we explored the relationships between 4 types of rumination (brooding, reflection, intrusive, and deliberate rumination) in a sample of 750 adult participants who experienced a highly stressful event. We also explored the predictive value of the different types of rumination on posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth 6 months after the highly stressful event occurred. Participants completed the Ruminative Response Scale and the Event-Related Rumination Inventory. Brooding and reflection rumination were obtained from the Ruminative Response Scale, whereas deliberate and intrusive rumination were obtained from the Event-Related Rumination Inventory. Confirmatory factorial analyses were conducted using the 4 types of rumination to test 3 different models: (a) 4-factor model (brooding, reflection, intrusive, and deliberate rumination), (b) 2-factor model: adaptive rumination (reflection and deliberate) and maladaptive rumination (brooding and intrusive), and (c) 2-factor model: depressive rumination (brooding and reflection) and posttraumatic rumination (intrusive and deliberate). It was observed that the 4-factor model showed the best fit to the data. Moreover, 6 months later it was observed that the most significant predictor of posttraumatic symptoms was intrusive rumination, whereas deliberate rumination was the most significant predictor of posttraumatic growth. Results indicate that the 4 types of rumination are differentiated constructs. Ruminative thoughts experienced after a stressful event predicted posttraumatic consequences 6 months later. Implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Stressful Life Events Among Rural Women With HIV Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Jeanne K; MacKain, Sally; Alexander, Melissa; Reid, Paula; Jackson, Morgan Parks

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and stressful life events are frequent and distressing problems for women living with HIV (WLWH). Studies have independently focused on the impact of these problems, but little work has examined the relationship between PTSD and stressful life events. Our cross-sectional study examined relationships between PTSD and recent stressful life events in WLWH. A sample of 60 women recruited through HIV community agencies in southeastern North Carolina completed the Stressful Life Events Questionnaire and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). PTSD prevalence was high (43.2%). Two-thirds (66%) reported three or more recent life stressors. Women who experienced a higher number of recent life stressors scored higher on the PCL-C than those with fewer life stressors (p stressful life events may accelerate PTSD symptoms. Findings underscore the importance of addressing mental health issues in HIV treatment settings. Implications for nursing practice are provided. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Posttraumatic stress disorder in bosnian war veterans: Analysis of stress events and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljić Blagoje

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, the characteristics of stress-related events, and the risk factors for the development of PTSD. The total patient sample consisted of 100 Bosnian war veterans. Watson’s PTSD module was used in establishing PTSD diagnosis. Patients fulfilled the following questionnaires: personal data form, Posttraumatic Symptom Scale PTSS-10 (Holen, Impact of Event Scale (Horowitz, Life Event Scale, and Eysenck Personality Inventory. PTSD was diagnosed in 30% of the examined patients. Larger number of stress-related events, particularly of those regarded as life-threatening, wounding/death of a close person, and material losses were more frequent in persons with PTSD. The risk factors for the development of PTSD in this study were: age (30-40, marital status (married, lower level of education, the front-line combat exposure, neurotic manifestations, family problems in childhood, and neuroticism.

  20. Sleep spindles predict stress-related increases in sleep disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Thanh eDang-Vu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Predisposing factors place certain individuals at higher risk for insomnia, especially in the presence of precipitating conditions such as stressful life events. Sleep spindles have been shown to play an important role in the preservation of sleep continuity. Lower spindle density might thus constitute an objective predisposing factor for sleep reactivity to stress. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the relationship between baseline sleep spindle density and the prospective change in insomnia symptoms in response to a standardized academic stressor. Methods: 12 healthy students had a polysomnography (PSG recording during a period of lower stress at the beginning of the academic semester, along with an assessment of insomnia complaints using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI. They completed a second ISI assessment at the end of the semester, a period coinciding with the week prior to final examinations and thus higher stress. Spindle density, amplitude, duration and frequency, as well as sigma power were computed from C4-O2 electroencephalography (EEG derivation during stages N2-N3 of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM sleep, across the whole night and for each NREM sleep period. To test for the relationship between spindle density and changes in insomnia symptoms in response to academic stress, spindle measurements at baseline were correlated with changes in ISI across the academic semester.Results: Spindle density (as well as spindle amplitude and sigma power, particularly during the first NREM sleep period, negatively correlated with changes in ISI (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Lower spindle activity, especially at the beginning of the night, prospectively predicted larger increases in insomnia symptoms in response to stress. This result indicates that individual differences in sleep spindle activity contribute to the differential vulnerability to sleep disturbances in the face of precipitating factors.

  1. Pharmacist work stress and learning from quality related events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Todd A; Bishop, Andrea; Morrison, Bobbi; Murphy, Andrea; Barker, James; Ashcroft, Darren M; Phipps, Denham; Mahaffey, Thomas; MacKinnon, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many stresses faced by pharmacy staff, quality related event (QRE) learning can be among the most significant. In the absence of a supportive organizational culture, the potential for blaming individuals, versus identifying key process flaws, is significant and can be very intimidating to those involved in such discussions and may increase an already stressful work environment. This research develops and tests a model of the relationship between the work stress faced by pharmacists and the extent of QRE learning in community pharmacies. Building upon recent research models that explore job characteristics and safety climate, the model proposes that work stress captured by the effort that the pharmacist invests into job performance, the extent to which the pharmacist is rewarded for such efforts, and the extent of pharmacist work-related commitment to their job, influence pharmacist assessment of the working conditions within their community pharmacy. It is further proposed that working conditions influence the extent of a blame culture and safety focus in the pharmacy, which, in turn, influences organizational learning from QREs. This research formed part of a larger study focused on QRE reporting in community pharmacies. As part of the larger study, a total of 1035 questionnaires were mailed to community pharmacists, pharmacy managers, and pharmacy owners in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan during the fall of 2013 and winter and spring of 2014. Partial least squares (PLS) using SmartPLS was selected to test and further develop the proposed model. An examination of the statistical significance of latent variable paths, convergent validity, construct reliability, discriminant validity, and variance explained was used to assess the overall quality of the model. Of the 1035 questionnaire sent, a total of 432 questionnaires were returned for an initial response rate of approximately 42%. However, for this research, only questionnaires from staff

  2. Increased prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, V; Schlereth, T; Birklein, F; Maihöfner, C

    2017-03-01

    Although specific psychological disorders in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) have not been identified, studies suggest that CRPS patients may have increased rates of traumatic life events. Because these events do not always lead to apparent psychological symptoms, we systematically screened CRPS patients for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to determine if PTSD could be a risk factor for CRPS. Consecutive CRPS patients referred to two university hospital centres (University of Erlangen, UMC Mainz) between December 2011 and April 2013 were prospectively examined using a diagnostic PTSD instrument (Post-traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS). We also tested maladaptive coping strategies (brief-COPE inventory) and the PDS severity score as predictors for CRPS. Patients with non-CRPS extremity pain and healthy individuals were used as control groups. We collected data from 152 patients with CRPS, 55 control patients and 55 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Fifty-eight CRPS patients (38%), six non-CRPS pain patients (10%) and two healthy individuals (4%) met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Initial PTSD symptom onset was prior to CRPS in 50 CRPS patients (86%) and during the course of CRPS in eight patients. Results of a logistic regression revealed that the PTSD severity score was associated with CRPS (p CRPS than it is in the general population. Research has not yet provided support for specific psychological predictors for CRPS. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  3. Origins of Early Adolescents' Hope: Personality, Parental Attachment, and Stressful Life Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Kristin L.; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2016-01-01

    Psychology has recently increased attention to identifying psychological qualities in individuals that indicate positive mental health, such as hope. In an effort to understand further the origins of hope, we examined the relations among parental attachment, stressful life events, personality variables, and hope in a sample of 647 middle school…

  4. Recent negative life events increase hair cortisol concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Koenders, Manja A; Giltay, Erik J; Elzinga, Bernet M; Manenschijn, Laura; Hoencamp, Erik; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Spijker, Anne T

    2014-12-01

    Life events induce stress, which is considered to negatively impact the course of disease in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), its effects being predominantly mediated by cortisol. Cortisol in scalp hair has been identified as a biomarker for assessing long-term cortisol levels, and allows clarifying the relation between life events, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), and clinical course over time. In 71 BD patients, we analyzed the proximal 3 cm of hair, reflecting 3 months of cortisol production, and investigated the association between HCC, the number of life events, the amount of social support, and mood in the 3 months prior to the hair assessment and between HCC and mood in the subsequent 3 months. Although the total number of life events was not associated with HCC (p > 0.05), the number of negative life events was associated with increased HCC (r(2)( )= 0.04, p = 0.02). Social support showed an inverse association with HCC in patients reporting negative life events (r(2)( )= 0.07, p = 0.03). HCC and mood were not associated in the 3 months prior to hair sampling or in the subsequent 3 months. This study indicates that patients who experienced recent negative life events have increased hair cortisol levels, which seem to be attenuated by social support.

  5. Major stressful life events and other risk factors for first admission with mania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L.V.; Agerbo, E.; Mortensen, P.B.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether first admission with mania is associated with the occurrence of death in the family or with major stressful life events and to explore whether the associations change with age. METHODS: Case register study with linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Research...... was found on the association between life events and the first admission with mania, totally, or for men or women, separately regarding ageing. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of death in the family and the experience of major life events are associated with increased risk of first admission with bipolar...

  6. Prior adversities predict posttraumatic stress reactions in adolescents following the Oslo Terror events 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanger, Dag Ø.; Breivik, Kyrre; Haugland, Bente Storm; Lehmann, Stine; Mæhle, Magne; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Background Former studies suggest that prior exposure to adverse experiences such as violence or sexual abuse increases vulnerability to posttraumatic stress reactions in victims of subsequent trauma. However, little is known about how such a history affects responses to terror in the general adolescent population. Objective To explore the role of prior exposure to adverse experiences as risk factors for posttraumatic stress reactions to the Oslo Terror events. Method We used data from 10,220 high school students in a large cross-sectional survey of adolescents in Norway that took place seven months after the Oslo Terror events. Prior exposure assessed was: direct exposure to violence, witnessing of violence, and unwanted sexual acts. We explored how these prior adversities interact with well-established risk factors such as proximity to the events, perceived life threat during the terror events, and gender. Results All types of prior exposure as well as the other risk factors were associated with terror-related posttraumatic stress reactions. The effects of prior adversities were, although small, independent of adolescents’ proximity to the terror events. Among prior adversities, only the effect of direct exposure to violence was moderated by perceived life threat. Exposure to prior adversities increased the risk of posttraumatic stress reactions equally for both genders, but proximity to the terror events and perceived life threat increased the risk more in females. Conclusions Terror events can have a more destabilizing impact on victims of prior adversities, independent of their level of exposure. The findings may be relevant to mental health workers and others providing post-trauma health care. PMID:24872862

  7. Prior adversities predict posttraumatic stress reactions in adolescents following the Oslo Terror events 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Ø. Nordanger

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Former studies suggest that prior exposure to adverse experiences such as violence or sexual abuse increases vulnerability to posttraumatic stress reactions in victims of subsequent trauma. However, little is known about how such a history affects responses to terror in the general adolescent population. Objective: To explore the role of prior exposure to adverse experiences as risk factors for posttraumatic stress reactions to the Oslo Terror events. Method: We used data from 10,220 high school students in a large cross-sectional survey of adolescents in Norway that took place seven months after the Oslo Terror events. Prior exposure assessed was: direct exposure to violence, witnessing of violence, and unwanted sexual acts. We explored how these prior adversities interact with well-established risk factors such as proximity to the events, perceived life threat during the terror events, and gender. Results: All types of prior exposure as well as the other risk factors were associated with terror-related posttraumatic stress reactions. The effects of prior adversities were, although small, independent of adolescents’ proximity to the terror events. Among prior adversities, only the effect of direct exposure to violence was moderated by perceived life threat. Exposure to prior adversities increased the risk of posttraumatic stress reactions equally for both genders, but proximity to the terror events and perceived life threat increased the risk more in females. Conclusions: Terror events can have a more destabilizing impact on victims of prior adversities, independent of their level of exposure. The findings may be relevant to mental health workers and others providing post-trauma health care.

  8. Prior adversities predict posttraumatic stress reactions in adolescents following the Oslo Terror events 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanger, Dag Ø; Breivik, Kyrre; Haugland, Bente Storm; Lehmann, Stine; Mæhle, Magne; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Former studies suggest that prior exposure to adverse experiences such as violence or sexual abuse increases vulnerability to posttraumatic stress reactions in victims of subsequent trauma. However, little is known about how such a history affects responses to terror in the general adolescent population. To explore the role of prior exposure to adverse experiences as risk factors for posttraumatic stress reactions to the Oslo Terror events. We used data from 10,220 high school students in a large cross-sectional survey of adolescents in Norway that took place seven months after the Oslo Terror events. Prior exposure assessed was: direct exposure to violence, witnessing of violence, and unwanted sexual acts. We explored how these prior adversities interact with well-established risk factors such as proximity to the events, perceived life threat during the terror events, and gender. All types of prior exposure as well as the other risk factors were associated with terror-related posttraumatic stress reactions. The effects of prior adversities were, although small, independent of adolescents' proximity to the terror events. Among prior adversities, only the effect of direct exposure to violence was moderated by perceived life threat. Exposure to prior adversities increased the risk of posttraumatic stress reactions equally for both genders, but proximity to the terror events and perceived life threat increased the risk more in females. Terror events can have a more destabilizing impact on victims of prior adversities, independent of their level of exposure. The findings may be relevant to mental health workers and others providing post-trauma health care.

  9. Periodontitis and increase in circulating oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Takaaki Tomofuji; Koichiro Irie; Toshihiro Sanbe; Tetsuji Azuma; Daisuke Ekuni; Naofumi Tamaki; Tatsuo Yamamoto; Manabu Morita

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are products of normal cellular metabolism. However, excessive production of ROS oxidizes DNA, lipids and proteins, inducing tissue damage. Studies have shown that periodontitis induces excessive ROS production in periodontal tissue. When periodontitis develops, ROS produced in the periodontal lesion diffuse into the blood stream, resulting in the oxidation of blood molecules (circulating oxidative stress). Such oxidation may be detrimental to systemic health. Fo...

  10. The role of attributions in the cognitive appraisal of work-related stressful events : An event-recording approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, MCW; Schaufeli, WB; Buunk, BP

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a micro-analysis of the cognitive appraisal of daily stressful events in a sample of correctional officers (COs). More specifically, the authors examined whether three attribution dimensions mediated the relationship between the occurrence of stressful events and the

  11. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Pereira de Araujo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1 or positive (G2 for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results: G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%. During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 - 6.01; p = 0.016. The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 - 6.53; p = 0.022 and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia.

  12. Perceptions of Parental Awareness of Emotional Responses to Stressful Life Events

    OpenAIRE

    Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Parra, Gilbert R.; Buckholdt, Kelly E.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to better understand family processes related to recovery from past stressful life events. The present study aimed to investigate links between perceptions of parental awareness regarding stressful life events, continued event-related rumination, and current symptoms of depression. Students at a diverse, urban university completed a life events checklist and a semi-structured interview regarding family processing of stressful life events, as well as self-report measures of eve...

  13. SICKNESS PRESENCE AND STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerjanc, Alenka; Fikfak, Metoda Dodič

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between sickness presence and stressful life events among health care workers. Data were gathered from all health care workers at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana employed there in the period between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2010. Each employee obtained a questionnaire composed of two standardized international questionnaires. There were 57% of sickness present health care workers among the participants. The sickness present reported to have more diseases of family member than the non-sickness present (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-2.0), loan (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-1.6), their partner lost job (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-1.8), or they changed the place of living (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-2.0). The results of the study indicate that stressful life events with economic consequences might have an important influence on sickness presence.

  14. Depression symptoms and stressful life events among college students in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Rivera-Medina, Carmen L; Cámara-Fuentes, Luis; Suárez-Torres, Alba; Bernal, Guillermo

    2013-03-05

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is associated with stressful adaptation experiences that may increase symptoms of depression. We explored the prevalence and sex differences of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in freshmen Latino college students in Puerto Rico, and identified stressful life events that could contribute to symptoms of depression. Two thousand one hundred sixty-three freshmen college students from the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) public education system were assessed for depression symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and stressful life events using open questions. Nine percent of the sample reported depression symptoms at a moderate or severe level (BDI>20). Chi square analyses revealed a significantly higher prevalence for three of the stressful life events in females than males: relocation (10.2% females vs. 7.3% males; X(2) (1)=4.13, p=.042), break-up of a significant relationship (25.3% females vs. 17.8% males; X(2) (1)=13.76, pstressful life events are associated with an increased prevalence of depression symptoms. Early detection of depression and tailored prevention programs should be developed to improve both mental health and academic performance among the college population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Myocardial stress in patients with acute cerebrovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, C.M.; Hansen, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Signs of myocardial involvement are common in patients with acute cerebrovascular events. ST segment deviations, abnormal left ventricular function, increased N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), prolonged QT interval, and/or raised troponins are observed in up to one third...

  16. Perceptions of Parental Awareness of Emotional Responses to Stressful Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Parra, Gilbert R; Buckholdt, Kelly E

    2013-10-01

    There is a need to better understand family processes related to recovery from past stressful life events. The present study aimed to investigate links between perceptions of parental awareness regarding stressful life events, continued event-related rumination, and current symptoms of depression. Students at a diverse, urban university completed a life events checklist and a semi-structured interview regarding family processing of stressful life events, as well as self-report measures of event-related rumination and depression. Results indicated that perceptions of mothers' and fathers' awareness of sadness regarding stressful life events as well as mothers' and fathers' verbal event processing predicted symptoms of event-related rumination and depression. Results support the inclusion of perceptions of parental awareness in the understanding of how emerging adults continue to cope with past stressful life events.

  17. Heat stress during the Black Saturday event in Melbourne, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Stephanie J.; Vihma, Timo; Pezza, Alexandre B.

    2015-06-01

    The Black Saturday bushfire event of February 7, 2009, devastated the state of Victoria, Australia, resulting in 173 deaths. On this day, the maximum temperature in Melbourne (state capital of Victoria, population 4 million people) exceeded 46 °C, there were wind gusts of over 80 km h-1 and the relative humidity dropped below 5 %. We investigated the severe meteorological conditions of Black Saturday and the risk of heat stress and dehydration for the residents of Melbourne. This was through the analysis of weather station data, air pollution data, the apparent temperature (AT) and the COMfort FormulA human energy budget model. A very strong pressure gradient caused hot and dry air to be advected to Melbourne from the desert interior of Australia creating the extreme weather conditions. The AT showed that on Black Saturday, heat stress conditions were present, though underrepresented due to assumptions in the AT formula. Further investigation into the human energy budget revealed that the conditions required a sweating rate of 1.4 kg h-1 to prevent heat accumulation into the body. If sweating stopped, hyperthermia could occur in 15 min. Sensitivity tests indicated that the dry air and strong winds on Black Saturday helped to release latent heat, but the required sweating rate was virtually unattainable for an average person and would result in intense dehydration. Air particulates were at dangerous concentrations in Melbourne on Black Saturday, further intensifying the stresses to the human body. In the future, we recommend that the AT is not used as a thermal comfort measure as it underestimates the physical stress people experience.

  18. Predicting thermally stressful events in rivers with a strategy to evaluate management alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, K.O.; Cole, J.C.; Schmid, M.

    2016-01-01

    Water temperature is an important factor in river ecology. Numerous models have been developed to predict river temperature. However, many were not designed to predict thermally stressful periods. Because such events are rare, traditionally applied analyses are inappropriate. Here, we developed two logistic regression models to predict thermally stressful events in the Delaware River at the US Geological Survey gage near Lordville, New York. One model predicted the probability of an event >20.0 °C, and a second predicted an event >22.2 °C. Both models were strong (independent test data sensitivity 0.94 and 1.00, specificity 0.96 and 0.96) predicting 63 of 67 events in the >20.0 °C model and all 15 events in the >22.2 °C model. Both showed negative relationships with released volume from the upstream Cannonsville Reservoir and positive relationships with difference between air temperature and previous day's water temperature at Lordville. We further predicted how increasing release volumes from Cannonsville Reservoir affected the probabilities of correctly predicted events. For the >20.0 °C model, an increase of 0.5 to a proportionally adjusted release (that accounts for other sources) resulted in 35.9% of events in the training data falling below cutoffs; increasing this adjustment by 1.0 resulted in 81.7% falling below cutoffs. For the >22.2 °C these adjustments resulted in 71.1% and 100.0% of events falling below cutoffs. Results from these analyses can help managers make informed decisions on alternative release scenarios.

  19. Potential applications of heat and cold stress indices to sporting events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, D S

    2001-01-01

    Many recreational and elite athletes participate in sporting events every year. However, when these events are conducted under hostile environmental conditions, whether in cold or hot climates, the risk for environmental illnesses increases. The higher the stress, the greater is the potential for performance decrements, injuries and illnesses. The most common expected heat illnesses are heat exhaustion and heatstroke, whereas hypothermia and frostbite are the most common cold injuries. However, heat and cold stress indices can minimise the risk for environmental illnesses and dehydration by following the recommendations and guidelines which accompany these indices. Stress indices should be used by athletes, coaches and officials to prevent injury and improve safety conditions for competitors and participants in recreational activities. All participants should be made aware of warning signs, susceptibility and predisposing conditions. Coaches should be aware of their responsibility with regard to the safety of their trainees, and officials should organise and plan events at times that are likely to be of low environmental stress. However, they must also be prepared and equipped with the means necessary to reduce injuries and treat cases of collapse and environmental illnesses. The lack of a friendly, small and simple device for environmental stress assessment is probably the main reason why stress indices are not commonly used. We believe that developing a new portable heat and cold stress monitor in wristwatch format for use by those exposed to environmental stress could help in the decision making process of expected hazards caused by exercising and working in hostile environments, and might help prevent heat and cold illnesses.

  20. Pad stress tests with increasing load for the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimstad, Liv; Larsen, Elsa Skjønhaug; Schiøtz, Hjalmar A; Kulseng-Hanssen, Sigurd

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to test the ability of pad stress tests with increasing load (supine, jumping on the floor, and jumping on a trampoline) to document stress incontinence in subjectively stress incontinent women. In this prospective study 147 subjectively stress and mixed incontinent women performed consecutively the three pad stress tests with a bladder volume of 300 ml. Nineteen women performed a second trampoline pad stress test to test repeatability of the test. Nine continent women performed a trampoline pad stress test in order to determine if subjectively continent women would leak during the test. Seventy-two women (49%) leaked during the supine, 136 (93%) leaked during the jumping, and 146 (99%) leaked during the trampoline pad stress test. The differences between pad stress tests were significant with P trampoline pad stress tests was high at 0.8. None of the nine continent women leaked during the trampoline pad stress test. The supine pad stress test has low sensitivity and is therefore often falsely negative. The jumping pad stress test is a simple test to perform and is satisfactory for everyday use. Subjectively stress incontinent women who do not leak during the jumping pad stress test may perform a trampoline pad stress test to document stress incontinence. The trampoline pad stress test is also simple to perform and detected leakage in 91% of the women who did not leak during the jumping pad stress test. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The major stressful life events and cancer: stress history and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Karalar, Umran; Aliustaoglu, Mehmet; Keskin, Serkan; Can, Gulbeyaz; Cinar, Fatma Ebru

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the extent of stressful life events' etiology and to compare socio-demographic and medical characteristics of the presence and absence of stress in Turkish cancer patients. Patients with cancer who attended ambulatory patient care units answered the questionnaires. Medical information was reviewed from chart data. The study population comprised 465 women (60.5%) and 303 men (39.5%), in total 768 cases. The median age was 53 years, ranging between 18 and 94. Three-hundred and twenty patients (41.7%) had at least one type of stress since last year of the time of initial diagnosis. Among patients had stress, the median number of stress modalities presented was 1 (range 1-6). Death, lack of livelihood, quarrel, illness, and debt almost always consisted of stress types. History of stress within last year was found more in women (66.3% vs. 56.5%, P = 0.006) and overweight patients (57.5% vs. 47.2%, P = 0.005). Similarly, among cancer types, only patients with breast cancer (41.9% vs. 31.7%, P = 0.04) had lived more stressful situation. However, the married patients (72.2% vs. 80.6%, P = 0.03) had less stress. Patients with gastric cancer had more frequent debt (29.0%, P history (21.4%, P = 0.001). Additionally, in lung cancer patients, their rate of livelihood difficulty was highly less than average (2.4%, P = 0.003). We found that overweight patients had more illness history (68.9% vs. 51.6%, P = 0.004), patients who were not working had more death history (89.7% vs. 78%, P = 0.01), and female patients had more quarrel history (78.2% vs. 60.5%, P = 0.002). Likewise, history of debt in patients who is a member of large family (56.2% vs. 27.4%, P = 0.01) was more frequent. Additionally, the lack of livelihood was prominent in urban patients (92.8% vs. 78.6%, P = 0.002) and in patients with low income (48.5% vs. 66.7%, P = 0.004). The question of whether or not psychological factors originated from stressful life events have an

  2. Evaluating personality as a moderator of the association between life events stress and cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; O'Riordan, Adam; McMahon, Grace; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigated the possible interaction between life events stress and personality in predicting cardiovascular stress responses. Participants (N = 184) completed psychometric measures of life event stress and personality styles and had cardiovascular responses monitored during a standardised stress testing protocol. In adjusted models, the observed blunted association between life event stress and SBP and DBP was moderated by openness; this was more evident at -1SD below the mean openness value. Further, the association between life event stress and TPR vascular resistance was found to be moderated by conscientiousness. In particular, we found conscientiousness at both the mean and 1SD above the mean buffered against the negative impact of life stress on TPR reactivity. The findings are discussed in relation to theory and future directions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Glucocorticoid receptor number predicts increase in amygdala activity after severe stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, Elbert; van Wingen, Guido A.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Rademaker, Arthur R.; Vermetten, Eric; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Fernández, Guillén; Heijnen, Cobi J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals who are exposed to a traumatic event are at increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies have shown that increased amygdala activity is frequently found in patients with PTSD. In addition, pre-trauma glucocorticoid

  4. Increased amygdala reactivity following early life stress: a potential resilience enhancer role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Toki, Shigeru; Siegle, Greg J; Takamura, Masahiro; Takaishi, Yoshiyuki; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Okada, Go; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Nakao, Takashi; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Kaseda, Yumiko; Murakami, Tsuneji; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2017-01-18

    Amygdala hyper-reactivity is sometimes assumed to be a vulnerability factor that predates depression; however, in healthy people, who experience early life stress but do not become depressed, it may represent a resilience mechanism. We aimed to test these hypothesis examining whether increased amygdala activity in association with a history of early life stress (ELS) was negatively or positively associated with depressive symptoms and impact of negative life event stress in never-depressed adults. Twenty-four healthy participants completed an individually tailored negative mood induction task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessment along with evaluation of ELS. Mood change and amygdala reactivity were increased in never-depressed participants who reported ELS compared to participants who reported no ELS. Yet, increased amygdala reactivity lowered effects of ELS on depressive symptoms and negative life events stress. Amygdala reactivity also had positive functional connectivity with the bilateral DLPFC, motor cortex and striatum in people with ELS during sad memory recall. Increased amygdala activity in those with ELS was associated with decreased symptoms and increased neural features, consistent with emotion regulation, suggesting that preservation of robust amygdala reactions may reflect a stress buffering or resilience enhancing factor against depression and negative stressful events.

  5. Stressful life events and neuroticism as predictors of late-life versus early-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kerstin; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Herrmann, François R; Bartolomei, Javier; Digiorgio, Sergio; Ortiz Chicherio, Nadia; Delaloye, Christophe; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lecerf, Thierry; De Ribaupierre, Anik; Canuto, Alessandra

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of depression in younger adults is related to the combination of long-standing factors such as personality traits (neuroticism) and more acute factors such as the subjective impact of stressful life events. Whether an increase in physical illnesses changes these associations in old age depression remains a matter of debate. We compared 79 outpatients with major depression and 102 never-depressed controls; subjects included both young (mean age: 35 years) and older (mean age: 70 years) adults. Assessments included the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, NEO Personality Inventory and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. Logistic regression models analyzed the association between depression and subjective impact of stressful life events while controlling for neuroticism and physical illness. Patients and controls experienced the same number of stressful life events in the past 12 months. However, in contrast to the controls, patients associated the events with a subjective negative emotional impact. Negative stress impact and levels of neuroticism, but not physical illness, significantly predicted depression in young age. In old age, negative stress impact was weakly associated with depression. In this age group, depressive illness was also determined by physical illness burden and neuroticism. Our data suggest that the subjective impact of life stressors, although rated as of the same magnitude, plays a less important role in accounting for depression in older age compared to young age. They also indicate an increasing weight of physical illness burden in the prediction of depression occurrence in old age. © 2013 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2013 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  6. A shift in perspective: Decentering through mindful attention to imagined stressful events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebois, Lauren A M; Papies, Esther K; Gopinath, Kaundinya; Cabanban, Romeo; Quigley, Karen S; Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    Ruminative thoughts about a stressful event can seem subjectively real, as if the imagined event were happening in the moment. One possibility is that this subjective realism results from simulating the self as engaged in the stressful event (immersion). If so, then the process of

  7. Real-time observations of stressful events in the operating room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlNassar Sami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify and quantify factors causing stress in the operating room (OR and evaluate the relationship between these factors and surgeons′ stress level. Methods: This is a prospective observational study from 32 elective surgical procedures conducted in the OR of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Before each operation, each surgeon was asked of stressors. Two interns observed 16 surgeries each, separately. The interns watched and took notes during the entire surgical procedure. During each operation, the observer recorded anxiety-inducing activities and events that occurred in real time by means of a checklist of 8 potential stressors: technical, patient problems, teamwork problems, time and management issues, distractions and interruptions, equipment problems, personal problems, and teaching. After each operation, surgeons were asked to answer the validated State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire and self-report on their stress level from the 8 sources using a scale of 1-8 (1: stress free, 8: extremely stressful. The observer also recorded perceived stress levels experienced by the surgeons during the operation. Results: One hundred ten stressors were identified. Technical problems most frequently caused stress (16.4% and personal issues the least often (6.4%. Frequently encountered stressors (teaching and distractions/interruptions caused less stress to the surgeons. Technical factors, teamwork, and equipment problems occurred frequently and were also a major contributor to OR stress. All patients were discharged in good health and within 1 week of surgery. Conclusion: Certain stressful factors do occur among surgeons in the OR and can increase the potential for errors. Further research is required to determine the impact of stress on performance and the outcome of surgery.

  8. Adolescent internalizing symptoms and negative life events: the sensitizing effects of earlier life stress and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttle, Paula L; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Klein, Marjorie H; Essex, Marilyn J

    2014-11-01

    Although adolescence is marked by increased negative life events and internalizing problems, few studies investigate this association as an ongoing longitudinal process. Moreover, while there are considerable individual differences in the degree to which these phenomena are linked, little is known about the origins of these differences. The present study examines early life stress (ELS) exposure and early-adolescent longitudinal afternoon cortisol level as predictors of the covariation between internalizing symptoms and negative life events across high school. ELS was assessed by maternal report during infancy, and the measure of cortisol was derived from assessments at ages 11, 13, and 15 years. Life events and internalizing symptoms were assessed at ages 15, 17, and 18 years. A two-level hierarchical linear model revealed that ELS and cortisol were independent predictors of the covariation of internalizing symptoms and negative life events. Compared to those with lower levels of ELS, ELS-exposed adolescents displayed tighter covariation between internalizing symptoms and negative life events. Adolescents with lower longitudinal afternoon cortisol displayed tighter covariation between negative life events and internalizing symptoms, while those with higher cortisol demonstrated weaker covariation, partially due to increased levels of internalizing symptoms when faced with fewer negative life events.

  9. Increased neural responses to empathy for pain might explain how acute stress increases prosociality

    OpenAIRE

    Tomova, L.; Majdand?i?, J.; Hummer, A.; Windischberger, C.; Heinrichs, M.; Lamm, C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent behavioral investigations suggest that acute stress can increase prosocial behavior. Here, we investigated whether increased empathy represents a potential mechanism for this finding. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed the effects of acute stress on neural responses related to automatic and regulatory components of empathy for pain as well as subsequent prosocial behavior. Stress increased activation in brain areas associated with the automatic sharing of...

  10. Prolonged cardiac effects of momentary assessed stressful events and worry episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Suzanne; Brosschot, Jos F; van der Leeden, Rien; Thayer, Julian F

    2010-07-01

    To test the hypothesize that increased heart rate (HR) and decreased heart rate variability (HRV) are not only due to concurrent stressful events and worries but also to stressors and worries occurring in the preceding hours or stressors anticipated to occur in the next hour. Worry was expected to mediate at least part of the prolonged effects of stressors. Ambulatory HR and HRV of 73 teachers were recorded for 4 days, during which the participants reported occurrence and duration of worry episodes and stressful events on an hourly basis, using computerized diaries. Multilevel regression models were used, accounting for effects of several biobehavioral variables. Stressful events were not associated with changes in HR or HRV. However, worry episodes had effects on concurrent HR and HRV (2.55 beats/minute; -5.76 milliseconds) and HR and HRV in the succeeding hour (3.05 beats/minute; -5.80 milliseconds) and 2 hours later (1.52 beats/minute; -3.14 milliseconds). These findings were independent of emotions, physical activity, posture, and other biobehavioral factors. Worry has effects on cardiac activity, and these effects were still visible after 2 hours. The latter finding suggests that a considerable part of prolonged activation may be induced by unconscious stress-related cognition.

  11. Witnessing traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder: Insights from an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Salvi, Ankita; Liu, Hesong; Salim, Samina

    2015-07-23

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be acquired vicariously from witnessing traumatic events. Recently, we published an animal model called the "Trauma witness model" (TWM) which mimics PTSD-like symptoms in rats from witnessing daily traumatic events (social defeat of cage mate) [14]. Our TWM does not result in any physical injury. This is a major procedural advantage over the typical intruder paradigm in which it is difficult to delineate the inflammatory response of tissue injury and the response elicited from emotional distress. Using TWM paradigm, we examined behavioral and cognitive effects in rats [14] however, the long-term persistence of PTSD-like symptoms or a time-course of these events (anxiety and depression-like behaviors and cognitive deficits) and the contribution of olfactory and auditory stress vs visual reinforcement were not examined. This study demonstrates that some of the features of PTSD-like symptoms in rats are reversible after a significant time lapse of the witnessing of traumatic events. We also have established that witnessing is critical to the PTSD-like phenotype and cannot be acquired solely due to auditory or olfactory stresses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of stress areas, stress severity, and stressful life events on the onset of depressive disorder: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueboonthavatchai, Peeraphon

    2009-09-01

    Although the stress and stressful life events are known as the precipitation of depressive disorder, the areas of stress and types of stressful life events found in depression are varied by different socio-cultural context. Identify the stress areas, stress severity, and types of stressful life events associated with the onset of depressive disorder in Thai depressed patients. Ninety depressed and ninety non-depressed subjects, aged above 18 years old, from the Department of Psychiatry, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, were recruited into the present study between July 2007 and January 2008. All subjects completed a demographic data form, and a 1-Year Life Stress Event Questionnaire. The association between the number of stressful life events, stress areas, stress severity, types of stressful life events, and the onset of depressive disorder were analyzed by independent t-test and chi-square test. Logistic regression was performed to identify the predictors of depressive disorder. Most of the subjects were young and middle-aged women, living in Bangkok and the central region. The depressed subjects experienced more stressful life events than the non-depressed subjects (5.81 +/- 3.19 vs. 3.24 +/- 2.80 events in one year) (p stress areas (health-related, family-related, financial, occupational, and social stress), and overall stress were associated with the onset of depressive disorder (p stress in all areas were at the higher risk of depressive disorder than those with the mild stress (p stress was the stress area highest associated with the depressive disorder (OR = 5.93, 95% CI = 2.33-16.92, p stressful life events associated with the onset of depressive disorder were the medical hospitalization, medical illness leading to missing work or disturbed daily routine, change in sleeping habits, absence of recreation, arguments with spouse, sexual difficulties with spouse, family financial problems, job loss, and trouble with boss (p stress was the significant

  13. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peñasco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9, on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  14. Turbulent Reynolds stress and quadrant event activity in wind flow over a coastal foredune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Connie A.; Walker, Ian J.; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bauer, Bernard O.; Davidson-Arnott, Robin G. D.

    2012-05-01

    Recent research on quasi-instantaneous turbulent kinematic Reynolds stresses (RS, - u'w') and decomposed quadrant event activity (e.g., ejections and sweeps) over dunes in fluvial settings and in wind tunnels has shown that turbulent stresses at the toe of a dune often exceed time-averaged, streamwise shear stress (ρ u * 2) estimates. It is believed that semi-coherent turbulent structures are conveyed toward the bed along concave streamlines in this region and that impact of these structures cause fluctuations in local surface stresses that assist in grain entrainment. This has been hypothesized to explain how sand is supplied to the windward slope through a region of flow stagnation. Toward the crest, surface stress increases and becomes dominated by streamwise accelerations resulting from streamline compression and convexity that suppress vertical motions. High-frequency (32 Hz) measurements of turbulent wind flow from 3-D ultrasonic anemometers are analyzed for oblique onshore flow over a vegetated coastal foredune in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Reynolds stress and quadrant activity distributions varied with height (0.60 m and 1.66 m) and location over the dune. In general, quadrant 2 ejection (u' 0) and quadrant 4 sweep activity (u' > 0, w' 0, w' > 0) and quadrant 3 inward interaction (u' dune and may help to explain sand transport potential and dune maintenance. For example, areas with a high frequency of ejection and sweep activity may have higher rates of sediment entrainment and transport, whereas areas with lower ejection and sweep activity and an increase in outward and inward interactions, which contribute negatively to Reynolds stress generation, may experience a greater potential for deposition. Further research on associations between quadrant event activity and coincident sand transport is required to confirm this hypothesis and the resultant significance of the flow exuberance effect in aeolian dune morphodynamics.

  15. Four-Month-Old Infants? Long-Term Memory for a Stressful Social Event

    OpenAIRE

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to s...

  16. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus leads to increased lipid peroxidation in the body, followed by the development of chronic complications due to oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare total antioxidant (TAO) levels and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ...

  17. Isothermal martensitic transformation as an internal-stress-increasing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Xie, Z.L.; Haenninen, H.; Humbeeck, J. van; Pietikaeinen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the results that the magnitude of the stabilization of retained austenite increases with increasing the amount of martensite transformed, it has been assumed that the martensitic transformation is accompanied with an increase in internal resisting stress which subsequently results in the stabilization of retained austenite. By simplifying this internal resisting stress to be a type of hydrostatic compressive stress acting on retained austenite due to surrounding martensite plates, a thermodynamical analysis for an isothermal martensitic transformation under applied hydrostatic pressure has been performed. The calculated results, to some extent, show a good agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  18. Association of stressful life events with accelerated bone loss in older men: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Howard A.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Cauley, Jane A.; Taylor, Brent C.; Schousboe, John T.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Introduction Prior studies suggest that stressful life events may increase adverse health outcomes, including falls and possibly fractures. The current study builds on these findings and examines whether stressful life events are associated with increased bone loss. Methods 4388 men aged ≥65 years in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study completed total hip bone mineral density (BMD) measures at baseline and visit 2, approximately 4.6 years later, and self-reported stressful life events data mid-way between baseline and visit 2, and at visit 2. We used linear regression to model the association of stressful life events with concurrent annualized total hip BMD loss, and log binomial regression or Poisson regression to model risk of concurrent accelerated BMD loss (>1 SD more than mean annualized change). Results 75.3% of men reported ≥1 type of stressful life event, including 43.3% with ≥2 types of stressful life events. Mean annualized BMD loss was −0.36% (SD 0.88) and 13.9% of men were categorized with accelerated BMD loss (about 5.7% or more total loss). Rate of annualized BMD loss increased with the number of types of stressful life events after adjustment for age (pstressful life events (RR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.04–1.16]) per increase of 1 type of stressful life event). Fracture risk was not significantly different between stressful life event-accelerated bone loss subgroups (p=0.08). Conclusions In these older men, stressful life events were associated with a small, dose-related increase in risk of concurrent accelerated hip bone loss. Low frequency of fractures limited assessment of whether rapid bone loss mediates any association of stressful life events with incident fractures. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and to investigate the mechanism that may underlie this association. PMID:25169421

  19. Increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, N; Gotland, N; Uhre, M L

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An association between infection and arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) has been suggested. Here we examined the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and other ATE after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: Danish register-based nation-wide observational cohort study...

  20. Life event stress in duodenal ulcer compared with functional dyspepsia: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Hafeiz Hassan; Al Quorain Abdulaziz; Karim Ahmed; Al-Mangoor Shuaa

    1997-01-01

    This is a prospective study of life event stress in 80 duodenal ulcer patients compared with 80 patients with functional dyspepsia and 80 healthy controls; matched for age, sex and marital status. A semi structured psychiatric interview was used in the psychiatric assessment of the dyspeptic patients and controls. A modified version of Life Events Scale by Tennant and Andrews was used in the assessment of life event stress. More dyspeptic patients reported life events than the controls, but, ...

  1. Stressful life events are not associated with the development of dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Sundstr?m, Anna; R?nnlund, Michael; Adolfsson, Rolf; Nilsson, Lars-G?ran

    2014-01-01

    Background: The impact of stressful life events as a risk factor of dementia diseases is inconclusive. We sought to determine whether stressful negative life events are associated with incidental dementia in a population-based study with long-term follow-up. We also tested the hypothesis that the occurrence of positive life events could mitigate or overcome the possible adverse effects of negative life events on dementia conversion. Methods: The study involved 2,462 dementia-free participants...

  2. Association between serotonin 2A receptor genetic variations, stressful life events and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Asghar; Seifi, Morteza; Baybordi, Fatemeh; Danaei, Nasim; Samadi Rad, Bahram

    2018-06-05

    Life events are series of events that disrupt a person's psychological equilibrium and may enhance the development of a disorder such as suicide. Several studies have assessed a relationship between 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 2A receptor (5-HTR2A) gene polymorphisms with an increased risk of suicide. However, there has been no study about the association between three 5-HTR2A gene polymorphisms, A1438G (rs6311), T102C (rs6313) and C1354T (rs6314), suicide, stressful life, and loss events in a same time. Relatives of 191 suicide victims were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire designed according to Iranian culture. Venous blood was taken from all subjects for DNA isolation. 5-HTR2A polymorphisms in a total of 191 suicide victims and 218 healthy controls were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare genotype and allele frequencies between suicide and control groups. Correction for multiple comparisons was calculated using Bonferroni correction. There was a significant association between the 102 C/C genotype of 5-HTR2A gene and suicide (к 2  = 8.700, P = 0.012). Furthermore, we found that suicide victims with a 102 C/C genotype had a significantly higher number of stressful life and loss events (P suicide victims and control participants and there was no association between genotype distribution and higher number of stressful life and loss events (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that C102T (rs6313) polymorphism of 5-HTR2A gene may be involved in the susceptibility to suicide, higher number of stressful life and loss events, but A1438G (rs6311) and C1354T (rs6314) polymorphisms of 5-HTR2A gene were not associated with suicide, higher number of stressful life and loss events. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of new traumatic or stressful life events on pre-existing PTSD in traumatized refugees: results of a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Schock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A significant proportion of trauma survivors experience an additional critical life event in the aftermath. These renewed experiences of traumatic and stressful life events may lead to an increase in trauma-related mental health symptoms.Method: In a longitudinal study, the effects of renewed experiences of a trauma or stressful life event were examined. For this purpose, refugees seeking asylum in Germany were assessed for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS, anxiety, and depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist [HSCL-25] before treatment start as well as after 6 and 12 months during treatment (N=46. Stressful life events and traumatic events were recorded monthly. If a new event happened, PDS and HSCL were additionally assessed directly afterwards. Mann–Whitney U-tests were performed to calculate the differences between the group that experienced an additional critical event (stressful vs. trauma during treatment (n=23 and the group that did not (n=23, as well as differences within the critical event group between the stressful life event group (n=13 and the trauma group (n=10.Results: Refugees improved significantly during the 12-month period of our study, but remained severely distressed. In a comparison of refugees with a new stressful life event or trauma, significant increases in PTS, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were found directly after the experience, compared to the group without a renewed event during the 12 months of treatment. With regard to the different critical life events (stressful vs. trauma, no significant differences were found regarding overall PTS, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Only avoidance symptoms increased significantly in the group experiencing a stressful life event.Conclusion: Although all clinicians should be aware of possible PTS symptom reactivation, especially those working with refugees and asylum seekers, who often experience new critical life

  4. Impact of new traumatic or stressful life events on pre-existing PTSD in traumatized refugees: results of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Katrin; Böttche, Maria; Rosner, Rita; Wenk-Ansohn, Mechthild; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2016-01-01

    A significant proportion of trauma survivors experience an additional critical life event in the aftermath. These renewed experiences of traumatic and stressful life events may lead to an increase in trauma-related mental health symptoms. In a longitudinal study, the effects of renewed experiences of a trauma or stressful life event were examined. For this purpose, refugees seeking asylum in Germany were assessed for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS), Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), anxiety, and depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist [HSCL-25]) before treatment start as well as after 6 and 12 months during treatment ( N =46). Stressful life events and traumatic events were recorded monthly. If a new event happened, PDS and HSCL were additionally assessed directly afterwards. Mann-Whitney U -tests were performed to calculate the differences between the group that experienced an additional critical event (stressful vs. trauma) during treatment ( n =23) and the group that did not ( n =23), as well as differences within the critical event group between the stressful life event group ( n =13) and the trauma group ( n =10). Refugees improved significantly during the 12-month period of our study, but remained severely distressed. In a comparison of refugees with a new stressful life event or trauma, significant increases in PTS, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were found directly after the experience, compared to the group without a renewed event during the 12 months of treatment. With regard to the different critical life events (stressful vs. trauma), no significant differences were found regarding overall PTS, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Only avoidance symptoms increased significantly in the group experiencing a stressful life event. Although all clinicians should be aware of possible PTS symptom reactivation, especially those working with refugees and asylum seekers, who often experience new critical life events, should understand symptom

  5. Oxidative stress and apoptotic events during thermal stress in the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richier, Sophie; Sabourault, Cécile; Courtiade, Juliette; Zucchini, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola

    2006-09-01

    Symbiosis between cnidarian and photosynthetic protists is widely distributed over temperate and tropical seas. These symbioses can periodically breakdown, a phenomenon known as cnidarian bleaching. This event can be irreversible for some associations subjected to acute and/or prolonged environmental disturbances, and leads to the death of the animal host. During bleaching, oxidative stress has been described previously as acting at molecular level and apoptosis is suggested to be one of the mechanisms involved. We focused our study on the role of apoptosis in bleaching via oxidative stress in the association between the sea anemone Anemonia viridis and the dinoflagellates Symbiodinium species. Characterization of caspase-like enzymes were conducted at the biochemical and molecular level to confirm the presence of a caspase-dependent apoptotic phenomenon in the cnidarian host. We provide evidence of oxidative stress followed by induction of caspase-like activity in animal host cells after an elevated temperature stress, suggesting the concomitant action of these components in bleaching.

  6. Increased oxidative stress in patients with familial Mediterranean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05) comparing to HC group. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of antioxidant vitamin levels. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated increased oxidative stress in patients with FMF during AP.

  7. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21–25 ... Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South ... antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the .... glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycosylation.

  8. Acute stress decreases but chronic stress increases myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Eisenmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and cardiovascular disease is well-evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conversely, chronic stress is arrythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions.

  9. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Eric D; Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Zoladz, Phillip R

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions.

  10. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:27199778

  11. Reward anticipation modulates the effect of stress-related increases in cortisol on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quent, Jörn A; McCullough, Andrew M; Sazma, Matt; Wolf, Oliver T; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2018-01-01

    When acute stress is experienced shortly after an event is encoded into memory, this can slow the forgetting of the study event, which is thought to reflect the effect of cortisol on consolidation. In addition, when events are encoded under conditions of high reward they tend to be remembered better than those encoded under non-rewarding conditions, and these effects are thought to reflect the operation of the dopaminergic reward system. Although both modulatory systems are believed to impact the medial temporal lobe regions critical for episodic memory, the manner, and even the extent, to which these two systems interact is currently unknown. To address this question in the current study, participants encoded words under reward or non-reward conditions, then one half of the participants were stressed using the social evaluation cold pressor task and the other half completed a non-stress control task. After a two-hour delay, all participants received a free recall and recognition memory test. There were no significant effects of stress or reward on overall memory performance. However, for the non-reward items, increases in stress-related cortisol in stressed participants were related to increases in recall and increases in recollection-based recognition responses. In contrast, for the reward items, increases in stress-related cortisol were not related to increases in memory performance. The results indicate that the stress and the reward systems interact in the way they impact episodic memory. The results are consistent with tag and capture models in the sense that cortisol reactivity can only affect non-reward items because plasticity-related products are already provided by reward anticipation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Life stress versus traumatic stress: The impact of life events on psychological functioning in children with and without serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Victoria W; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2016-01-01

    To determine the differential impact of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and other stressful life events on psychological functioning in 2 groups of children: those with cancer and those without history of serious illness. Children with cancer age 8-17 (n = 254) and age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-matched controls (n = 142) completed self-report measures of stressful life events and psychological functioning. Stressful life events included those that may meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) A1 criteria (PTEs; 9 events) and others that would likely not (other events; 21 events). Children with cancer endorsed significantly more PTEs than control children. There were no differences between groups in number of other events experienced. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that number of other events accounted for significant variance in psychological functioning, above and beyond group status, demographic factors (age and socioeconomic status), and number of PTEs. The number of cumulative other events experienced is a significant predictor of psychological functioning in both youth with serious illness and controls. In contrast, cumulative PTEs appear to have a minor (albeit significant) impact on children's psychological functioning. Assessment of psychological functioning would benefit from a thorough history of stressful life events, regardless of their potential traumatic impact. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Response of coral assemblages to thermal stress: are bleaching intensity and spatial patterns consistent between events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penin, Lucie; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Adjeroud, Mehdi

    2013-06-01

    Mass bleaching events resulting in coral mortality are among the greatest threats to coral reefs, and are projected to increase in frequency and intensity with global warming. Achieving a better understanding of the consistency of the response of coral assemblages to thermal stress, both spatially and temporally, is essential to determine which reefs are more able to tolerate climate change. We compared variations in spatial and taxonomic patterns between two bleaching events at the scale of an island (Moorea Island, French Polynesia). Despite similar thermal stress and light conditions, bleaching intensity was significantly lower in 2007 (approximately 37 % of colonies showed signs of bleaching) than in 2002, when 55 % of the colonies bleached. Variations in the spatial patterns of bleaching intensity were consistent between the two events. Among nine sampling stations at three locations and three depths, the stations at which the bleaching response was lowest in 2002 were those that showed the lowest levels of bleaching in 2007. The taxonomic patterns of susceptibility to bleaching were also consistent between the two events. These findings have important implications for conservation because they indicate that corals are capable of acclimatization and/or adaptation and that, even at small spatial scales, some areas are consistently more susceptible to bleaching than others.

  14. Increased neural responses to empathy for pain might explain how acute stress increases prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomova, L; Majdandžic, J; Hummer, A; Windischberger, C; Heinrichs, M; Lamm, C

    2017-03-01

    Recent behavioral investigations suggest that acute stress can increase prosocial behavior. Here, we investigated whether increased empathy represents a potential mechanism for this finding. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed the effects of acute stress on neural responses related to automatic and regulatory components of empathy for pain as well as subsequent prosocial behavior. Stress increased activation in brain areas associated with the automatic sharing of others' pain, such as the anterior insula, the anterior midcingulate cortex, and the primary somatosensory cortex. In addition, we found increased prosocial behavior under stress. Furthermore, activation in the anterior midcingulate cortex mediated the effects of stress on prosocial behavior. However, stressed participants also displayed stronger and inappropriate other-related responses in situations which required them to take the perspective of another person, and to regulate their automatic affective responses. Thus, while acute stress may increase prosocial behavior by intensifying the sharing of others' emotions, this comes at the cost of reduced cognitive appraisal abilities. Depending on the contextual constraints, stress may therefore affect empathy in ways that are either beneficial or detrimental. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Coping with serious events at work: a study of traumatic stress among nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, Bianca M.; Mank, Arno P. M.; Beijer, Hein J. M.; Olff, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Nurses often encounter serious events during their work, which can lead to traumatic stress. To examine how serious events, demographic variables, and coping strategies are associated with traumatic stress in a sample of nurses working in the medical department of a university teaching hospital. The

  16. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; de Bruijn-Kofman, AT; de Bruijn, HP; van de Wiel, HBM; Dijkstra, PU

    Objective: To determine to what extent stressful life events and psychological dysfunction play a role in the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS). Design: A comparative study between a CRPS group and a control group. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunction

  17. Acute psychosocial stress does not increase dysfunctional attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Su Ying; Wilkinson, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Dysfunctional attitudes about oneself, the world and the future, measured quantitatively by Weissman's Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), are thought to influence the onset and persistence of major depressive disorder. However, never-depressed individuals may also harbour latent negative schema which may become activated under stressful conditions, giving rise to dysfunctional negative cognitions. This study investigated whether everyday psychosocial stresses could be sufficient to activate dysfunctional self-schema and increase negative cognitions in a large group of healthy adolescents and a preliminary cohort of previously depressed adolescents. 92 never-depressed adolescents aged 17-19 and 18 previously depressed adolescents, recruited from the Cambridge ROOTS cohort, took either version A or B of the DAS at rest on day 1. On day 2, they were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test, a psychosocial stress paradigm, 22 minutes after which they took the other version of DAS. Stress did not affect the DAS score in either group. Brief psychosocial stress does not appear to influence negative assumptions in healthy young adults with or without a past history of depression. It is possible that this is because dysfunctional assumptions, unlike self-schemas, are not latent. More long-term stresses may be needed to activate negative thoughts to a level where risk of depression is increased.

  18. Bevacizumab increases the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with metastatic breast or colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kapelakis

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: The addition of bevacizumab to conventional chemotherapy for metastatic breast or colorectal cancer increases the incidence of cardiovascular events, which is mainly due to the increased prevalence of myocardial infarction and thromboembolic events.

  19. A cognitive stressor for event-related potential studies: the Portland arithmetic stress task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Rachel; Ellingson, Roger; Klee, Daniel; Memmott, Tabatha; Oken, Barry

    2017-05-01

    In this experiment, we developed and evaluated the Portland Arithmetic Stress Task (PAST) as a cognitive stressor to evaluate acute and sustained stress reactivity for event-related potential (ERP) studies. The PAST is a titrated arithmetic task adapted from the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with added experimental control over presentation parameters, improved and synchronized acoustic feedback and generation of timing markers needed for physiological analyzes of real-time brain activity. Thirty-one older adults (M = 60 years) completed the PAST. EEG was recorded to assess feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the magnitude of the stress response through autonomic nervous system activity and salivary cortisol. Physiological measures other than EEG included heart rate, respiration rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure and salivary cortisol. These measures were collected at several time points throughout the task. Feedback-related negativity evoked-potential responses were elicited and they significantly differed depending on whether positive or negative feedback was received. The PAST also increased systolic blood pressure, heart rate variability and respiration rates compared to a control condition attentional task. These preliminary results suggest that the PAST is an effective cognitive stressor. Successful measurement of the feedback-related negativity suggests that the PAST is conducive to EEG and time-sensitive ERP experiments. Moreover, the physiological findings support the PAST as a potent method for inducing stress in older adult participants. Further research is needed to confirm these results, but the PAST shows promise as a tool for cognitive stress induction for time-locked event-related potential experiments.

  20. Cancer as a stressful life event: Perceptions of children with cancer and their peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Katianne M Howard; Lindwall, Jennifer J; Willard, Victoria W; Long, Alanna M; Martin-Elbahesh, Karen M; Phipps, Sean

    2017-09-01

    The medical traumatic stress model is commonly applied to childhood cancer, assuming that the diagnosis of cancer is a traumatic event. However, to the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding what specifically children perceive as stressful about cancer or how it compares with other stressful events more often experienced by children. Children with cancer (254 children) and demographically similar peers without a history of serious illness (202 children) identified their most stressful life event as part of a diagnostic interview assessing for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The events identified as most stressful were categorized thematically, with categories established separately for cancer-related and non-cancer-related events. Events also were examined to assess whether they met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) A criteria for PTSD. In the group of children with cancer, 54% described a cancer-related event as the most stressful event they had experienced. Six distinct categories of cancer-related events and 10 categories of non-cancer-related events were identified. The same noncancer events were identified by children in both groups, and occurred at similar frequencies. The percentage of cancer-related events that met DSM A criteria for PTSD differed dramatically depending on which version of the DSM was applied. Children do not necessarily view their cancer experience as their most stressful life event. The findings of the current study suggest that the diagnosis of cancer might be better viewed as a manageable stressor rather than a major trauma, and are consistent with the change in the fifth edition of the DSM to eliminate the diagnosis of a life-threatening illness as a qualifying trauma for PTSD. Cancer 2017;123:3385-93. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  1. No interactions between genetic polymorphisms and stressful life events on outcome of antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2009-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms seem to influence the response on antidepressant treatment and moderate the impact of stress on depression. The present study aimed to assess, whether allelic variants and stressful life events interact on the clinical outcome of depression. In a sample of 290 systematically...... recruited patients diagnosed with a single depressive episode according to ICD-10, we assessed the outcome of antidepressant treatment and the presence of stressful life events in a 6-month period preceding onset of depression by means of structured interviews. Further, we genotyped nine polymorphisms...... dependent on stressful life events experienced by the individual prior to onset of depression....

  2. WeChat Addiction Suppresses the Impact of Stressful Life Events on Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bi; Wu, Yan; Jiang, Shengyi; Zhai, Huizhen

    2018-03-01

    The current study examined the influences of stressful life events and WeChat addiction on life satisfaction, and investigated the mediating role of WeChat addiction on the relationship between the two research variables. A total of 463 undergraduates completed self-reported scales for stressful life events, WeChat addiction, and life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the questionnaire data. The results showed the suppressing effect of WeChat addiction on the negative impact of stressful life events on life satisfaction. Stressful life events affect life satisfaction both directly and indirectly. Stressful life events are positively associated with WeChat addiction, which exerts positive impact on life satisfaction. The contributions of the findings are discussed.

  3. LIFE EVENTS WITH STRESSFUL EFFECT ON PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA ACCORDING TO THE SEX AND AGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Nikolova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature life events with stressful effect are significant both for initiation and progress of the schizophrenia. Having this in mind we set our aim to be investigating the relationship between life events (considered as stressful, sex and age trough questioning 50 patients with paranoid schizophrenia. The results of our study showed presence of correlation between some of the studied life events, assessed as stressful. The analysis of the data revealed that both sex and age are influencing the assessment of the significance of the life events and “increases” their importance both for women and men.

  4. Parental stress and air pollution increase childhood asthma in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qihong; Deng, Linjing; Lu, Chan; Li, Yuguo; Norbäck, Dan

    2018-08-01

    Although air pollution and social stress may independently increase childhood asthma, little is known on their synergistic effect on asthma, particularly in China with high levels of stress and air pollution. To examine associations between exposure to a combination of parental stress and air pollution and asthma prevalence in children. We conducted a cohort study of 2406 preschool children in Changsha (2011-2012). A questionnaire was used to collect children's lifetime prevalence of asthma and their parental stress. Parental socioeconomic and psychosocial stresses were respectively defined in terms of housing size and difficulty concentrating. Children's exposure to ambient air pollutants was estimated using concentrations measured at monitoring stations. Associations between exposure to parental stress and air pollution and childhood asthma were estimated by multiple logistic regression models using odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Life time prevalence of asthma in preschool children (6.7%) was significantly associated with parental socioeconomic and psychosocial stresses with OR (95% CI) respectively 1.48 (1.02-2.16) and 1.64 (1.00-2.71). Asthma was also associated with exposure to air pollutants, with adjusted OR (95% CI) during prenatal and postnatal periods respectively 1.43 (1.10-1.86) and 1.35 (1.02-1.79) for SO 2 and 1.61 (1.19-2.18) and 1.76 (1.19-2.61) for NO 2 . The association with air pollution was significant only in children exposed to high parental stress, the association with parental stress was significant only in children exposed to high air pollution, and the association was the strongest in children exposed to a combination of parental stress and air pollution. Sensitivity analysis showed that the synergistic effects of parental stress and air pollution on childhood asthma were stronger in boys. Parental stress and air pollution were synergistically associated with increased childhood asthma, indicating a common biological

  5. Association between witnessing traumatic events and psychopathology in the South African Stress and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwoli, Lukoye; Platt, Jonathan; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J; Koenen, Karestan C

    2015-08-01

    The high burden of witnessing traumatic events has been demonstrated in previous research in South Africa. However, previous work has focused on PTSD rather than a broader range of psychopathological outcomes. This study examined the association between witnessing trauma and multiple outcomes including mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Regression models measured the odds of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders among those who reported witnessing in the South African Stress and Health Study. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to examine whether witnessing was associated with earlier onset of mental disorders. Witnessing trauma was more commonly reported among males and those with low-average education. Posttraumatic stress disorder, mood, and anxiety disorders varied significantly with witnessing status, and witnessing was associated with exposure to a higher number of traumatic events compared to other types of traumatic events. Respondents reporting witnessing trauma had elevated odds of mood and anxiety disorders, but not substance use disorders. Witnessing trauma is common in the South African population and results in increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders. Interventions aimed at reducing the burden of trauma and its outcomes must now increase their focus on bystanders and other observers, rather than just focusing on those directly affected.

  6. Stressful life events in childhood and risk of infectious disease hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Simonsen, Jacob; Hviid, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Individuals exposed to high levels of stress might have an increased risk of infectious diseases. However, most of the previous studies have been conducted among adults. To examine the effect of childhood stress, we conducted a nationwide cohort study including all Danish children born from 1977 to 2004. Stressful life events (SFLE) included parental death, death of sibling or parental divorce. Outcome was defined as hospitalizations due to less severe (LSID) or severe infectious diseases (SID). Children were followed until the age of 15 years. The association between SFLE and risk of infections was evaluated through rate ratios (RR) comparing infectious disease incidence ratios in children with and without a history of SFLE. Overall, children exposed to SFLE were at 13% increased risk of LSID (RR = 1.13 (1.10-1.15)), but at no increased risk of SID hospitalization (RR = 1.05 (0.97-1.14)). Looking at the specific type of SFLE, parental divorce increased the risk of LSID (RR = 1.11 (1.09-1.14)) and SID hospitalization (1.11 (1.02-1.21)) by 11%, whereas no increased risk of LSID and SID hospitalization was observed following parental death. Finally, a 34% increased risk of LSID hospitalization (RR = 1.34 (1.23-1.45)) was observed following death of sibling, in contrast to no increased risk of SID hospitalization. Childhood exposure to SFLE, especially parental divorce seems to increase the risk of infectious disease hospitalization. Although we cannot determine whether our observations are the result of a biological effect of stress, adoption of unhealthy behaviours or increased likelihood of hospitalization, our findings do have public health relevance as a considerable proportion of the children today will be exposed to SFLE, the majority to parental divorce.

  7. Impact of chronic kidney disease and stress myocardial perfusion imaging as a predictor of cardiovascular events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Tatsuhiko; Joki, Nobuhiko; Hase, Hiroki; Masai, Hirofumi; Kunimasa, Taeko; Nakazato, Ryo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Sugi, Kaoru; Moroi, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is an established means of predicting cardiovascular events and is suitable in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of CKD parameters and an abnormal stress MPI for cardiovascular events. A total of 495 patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) or history of CAD including 130 CKD patients not undergoing hemodialysis, underwent stress MPI (313 males, mean age 70 years) and were followed up for 14 months (mean period). CKD was defined as an estimated GFR of 2 and/or persistent proteinuria. Cardiovascular events were defined as sudden cardiac death, acute coronary syndrome and congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization. Cardiovascular events occurred in 41 (8.3%) patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that CKD [hazard ratio (HR) =3.76, p<0.001] and a stress MPI summed difference score (SDS) of ≥2 (HR=3.78, p<0.001) were independent predictors of cardiovascular events; CKD plus abnormal stress MPI was also a strong predictor of cardiovascular events (non-CKD and SDS <2 vs. CKD and SDS ≥2, HR=15.9, p<0.001). Both CKD and myocardial ischemia detected by stress MPI are independent predictors for cardiovascular events. Coexistence of CKD and myocardial ischemia detected by stress MPI is more useful for short-term risk stratification of cardiovascular events. (author)

  8. Traumatic Experiences, Stressful Events, and Alexithymia in Chronic Migraine With Medication Overuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bottiroli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many factors are involved in the prognosis and outcome of Chronic Migraine and Medication Overuse Headache (CM+MOH, and their understanding is a topic of interest. It is well known that CM+MOH patients experience increased psychiatric comorbidity, such as anxiety, depression, or personality disorders. Other psychological factors still need to be explored. The present study is aimed to evaluate whether early life traumatic experiences, stressful life events, and alexithymia can be associated with CM+MOH.Methods: Three hundred and thirty-one individuals were recruited for this study. They belonged to one of the two following groups: CM+MOH (N = 179; 79% females, Age: 45.2 ± 9.8 and episodic migraine (EM (N = 152; 81% females; Age: 40.7 ± 11.0. Diagnosis was operationally defined according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3rd edition (ICHD-IIIβ. Data on early life (physical and emotional traumatic experiences, recent stressful events and alexithymia were collected by means of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Stressful life-events Questionnaire, and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20, respectively.Results: Data showed a higher prevalence of emotional (χ2 = 6.99; d.f. = 1; p = 0.006 and physical (χ2 = 6.18; d.f. = 1; p = 0.009 childhood trauma and of current stressful events of important impact (χ2 = 4.42; d.f. = 1; p = 0.025 in CM+MOH patients than in EM ones. CM+MOH patients were characterized by higher difficulties in a specific alexithymic trait (Factor 1 subscale of TAS-20 [F(1, 326 = 6.76, p = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.02] when compared to the EM group. The role of these factors was confirmed in a multivariate analysis, which showed an association of CM+MOH with emotional (OR 2.655; 95% CI 1.153–6.115, p = 0.022 or physical trauma (OR 2.763; 95% CI 1.322–5.771, p = 0.007, and a high score at the Factor 1 (OR 1.039; 95% CI 1.002–1.078, p = 0.040.Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated a clear

  9. Gender Differences in Rating Stressful Events, Depression, and Depressive Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Claudia J.; Lustman, Patrick J.

    1984-01-01

    Administered the Life Stress Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire to 140 students. Results showed significant sex differences. Men reported more stressful life change, but women rated the impact of stressors more severely and had higher depression. Men exhibited greater distortions in cognitive…

  10. Left atrial enlargement increases the risk of major adverse cardiac events independent of coronary vasodilator capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Angela S. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Murthy, Venkatesh L.; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gayed, Peter; Bruyere, John; Di Carli, Marcelo F. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Wu, Justina [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, and the Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Dorbala, Sharmila [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and the Division of Cardiology, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Section, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Longstanding uncontrolled atherogenic risk factors may contribute to left atrial (LA) hypertension, LA enlargement (LAE) and coronary vascular dysfunction. Together they may better identify risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic LA hypertension as assessed by LAE modifies the relationship between coronary vascular function and MACE. In 508 unselected subjects with a normal clinical {sup 82}Rb PET/CT, ejection fraction ≥40 %, no prior coronary artery disease, valve disease or atrial fibrillation, LAE was determined based on LA volumes estimated from the hybrid perfusion and CT transmission scan images and indexed to body surface area. Absolute myocardial blood flow and global coronary flow reserve (CFR) were calculated. Subjects were systematically followed-up for the primary end-point - MACE - a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure, stroke, coronary artery disease progression or revascularization. During a median follow-up of 862 days, 65 of the subjects experienced a composite event. Compared with subjects with normal LA size, subjects with LAE showed significantly lower CFR (2.25 ± 0.83 vs. 1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.01). LAE independently and incrementally predicted MACE even after accounting for clinical risk factors, medication use, stress left ventricular ejection fraction, stress left ventricular end-diastolic volume index and CFR (chi-squared statistic increased from 30.9 to 48.3; p = 0.001). Among subjects with normal CFR, those with LAE had significantly worse event-free survival (risk adjusted HR 5.4, 95 % CI 2.3 - 12.8, p < 0.0001). LAE and reduced CFR are related but distinct cardiovascular adaptations to atherogenic risk factors. LAE is a risk marker for MACE independent of clinical factors and left ventricular volumes; individuals with LAE may be at risk of MACE despite normal coronary vascular function. (orig.)

  11. Can stress in farm animals increase food safety risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostagno, Marcos H

    2009-09-01

    All farm animals will experience some level of stress during their lives. Stress reduces the fitness of an animal, which can be expressed through failure to achieve production performance standards, or through disease and death. Stress in farm animals can also have detrimental effects on the quality of food products. However, although a common assumption of a potential effect of stress on food safety exists, little is actually known about how this interaction may occur. The aim of this review was to examine the current knowledge of the potential impact of stress in farm animals on food safety risk. Colonization of farm animals by enteric pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Campylobacter, and their subsequent dissemination into the human food chain are a major public health and economic concern for the food industries. This review shows that there is increasing evidence to demonstrate that stress can have a significant deleterious effect on food safety through a variety of potential mechanisms. However, as the impact of stress is difficult to precisely determine, it is imperative that the issue receives more research attention in the interests of optimizing animal welfare and minimizing losses in product yield and quality, as well as to food safety risks to consumers. While there is some evidence linking stress with pathogen carriage and shedding in farm animals, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. Understanding when pathogen loads on the farm are the highest or when animals are most susceptible to infection will help identifying times when intervention strategies for pathogen control may be most effective, and consequently, increase the safety of food of animal origin.

  12. A self-medication hypothesis for increased vulnerability to drug abuse in prenatally restraint stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaert, Marie-Line; Marrocco, Jordan; Gatta, Eleonora; Mairesse, Jérôme; Van Camp, Gilles; Fagioli, Francesca; Maccari, Stefania; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Morley-Fletcher, Sara

    Stress-related events that occur in the perinatal period can permanently change brain and behavior of the developing individual and there is increasing evidence that early-life adversity is a contributing factor in the etiology of drug abuse and mood disorders. Neural adaptations resulting from early-life stress may mediate individual differences in novelty responsiveness and in turn contribute to drug abuse vulnerability. Prenatal restraint stress (PRS) in rats is a well-documented model of early stress known to induce long-lasting neurobiological and behavioral alterations including impaired feedback mechanisms of the HPA axis, enhanced novelty seeking, and increased sensitiveness to psychostimulants as well as anxiety/depression-like behavior. Together with the HPA axis, functional alterations of the mesolimbic dopamine system and of the metabotropic glutamate receptors system appear to be involved in the addiction-like profile of PRS rats.

  13. [Prevalence of violent events and post-traumatic stress disorder in the Mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Mora Icaza, Maria Elena; Borges-Guimaraes, Guilherme; Lara, Carmen; Ramos-Lira, Luciana; Zambrano, Joaquín; Fleiz-Bautista, Clara

    2005-01-01

    To report the rate of exposure to different violent events, their demographic correlates, the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and the impact on quality of life. The National Survey of Psychiatric Epidemiology is representative of the Mexican urban population aged 18 to 65. The survey was undertaken in 2001 and 2002 using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI- 15) computerized version. The statistical analyses take into account the multistage, stratified, and weighted sample design. Kaplan-Meier and logistic regressions were performed. Sixty-eight percent of the population has been exposed to at least one stressful life event. Exposure varies by sex (rape, harassment, and sexual abuse are more frequent in women; accidents and being a victim of burglary among men) and by age (more frequent in children, adolescents, young adult women, and the elderly). By sex, 2.3% of women and 0.49% of men present PTSD. Rape, harassment, kidnapping, and sexual abuse are the events most associated with PTSD. The results suggest the need to increase treatment coverage to attend the consequences of violence, taking into consideration the important gender and age variations.

  14. Assessing Thermally Stressful Events in a Rhode Island Coldwater Fish Habitat Using the SWAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Chambers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly important to recognize historical water quality trends so that the future impacts of climate change may be better understood. Climate studies have suggested that inland stream temperatures and average streamflow will increase over the next century in New England, thereby putting aquatic species sustained by coldwater habitats at risk. In this study we evaluated two different approaches for modeling historical streamflow and stream temperature in a Rhode Island, USA, watershed with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, using (i original SWAT and (ii SWAT plus a hydroclimatological model component that considers both hydrological inputs and air temperature. Based on daily calibration results with six years of measured streamflow and four years of stream temperature data, we examined occurrences of stressful conditions for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis using the hydroclimatological model. SWAT with the hydroclimatological component improved modestly during calibration (NSE of 0.93, R2 of 0.95 compared to the original SWAT (NSE of 0.83, R2 of 0.93. Between 1980–2009, the number of stressful events, a moment in time where high or low flows occur simultaneously with stream temperatures exceeding 21 °C, increased by 55% and average streamflow increased by 60%. This study supports using the hydroclimatological SWAT component and provides an example method for assessing stressful conditions in southern New England’s coldwater habitats.

  15. Prevalence of internet addiction and its association with stressful life events and psychological symptoms among adolescent internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Jiaji

    2014-03-01

    Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studies that examine the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescent internet users. We examined the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among a random sample of school students who were internet users (N=755) in Wuhan, China. Internet addiction, stressful life events, coping style and psychological symptoms were measured by self-rated scales. The prevalence rate of internet addiction was 6.0% among adolescent internet users. Logistic regression analyses indicated that stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with IA after controlling for demographic characteristics. Analyses examining the coping style with the IA revealed that negative coping style may mediate the effects of stressful life events to increase the risk of IA. However, no significant interaction of stressful life events and psychological symptoms was found. These findings of the current study indicate a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese adolescent internet users and highlight the importance of stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem as a risk factor for IA which mainly mediated through negative coping style. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-esteem, narcissism, and stressful life events: Testing for selection and socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Luciano, Eva C

    2015-10-01

    We examined whether self-esteem and narcissism predict the occurrence of stressful life events (i.e., selection) and whether stressful life events predict change in self-esteem and narcissism (i.e., socialization). The analyses were based on longitudinal data from 2 studies, including samples of 328 young adults (Study 1) and 371 adults (Study 2). The effects of self-esteem and narcissism were mutually controlled for each other and, moreover, controlled for effects of depression. After conducting the study-level analyses, we meta-analytically aggregated the findings. Self-esteem had a selection effect, suggesting that low self-esteem led to the occurrence of stressful life events; however, this effect became nonsignificant when depression was controlled for. Regardless of whether depression was controlled for or not, narcissism had a selection effect, suggesting that high narcissism led to the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, stressful life events had a socialization effect on self-esteem, but not on narcissism, suggesting that the occurrence of stressful life events decreased self-esteem. Analyses of trait-state models indicated that narcissism consisted almost exclusively of perfectly stable trait variance, providing a possible explanation for the absence of socialization effects on narcissism. The findings have significant implications because they suggest that a person's level of narcissism influences whether stressful life events occur, and that self-esteem is shaped by the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, we discuss the possibility that depression mediates the selection effect of low self-esteem on stressful life events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Normative Life Events and PTSD in Children: How Easy Stress Can Affect Children’s Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kousha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to traumatic events is common in children and adolescent. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an emotional reaction to traumatic events, which is increasingly recognized to be a prevalent and disabling disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of normative life events which predicts PTSD in youth who referred to an outpatient clinic in Rasht, Iran. This study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The samples of children and adolescents ranging from 1-18 yr old who were diagnosed PTSD based on DSM-IV criteria in psychiatric interview and K-SADS (Kiddie-schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia for school age children semi-structured diagnostic interview, from 2005 until 2008.The information consist of: age, sex, comorbidity with PTSD, events accompanying with PTSD, and time interval between events and visit. Eighty four youth who met the diagnosis of PTSD and their parents participated in the survey. Half of PTSD youth were 6-11 years old and admitted to clinic in the first 3 months after events. The most common events were witnessing violent or fearful scenes on TV followed by witnessing someone's death or funeral ceremony. The most comorbidity with PTSD included: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety. Our results indicate that youth exposure to violent or fearful scenes on TV could be very traumatic for them. Informing parents about the potential effect of low-magnitude stressors such as violent or fearful scenes on TV and funeral ceremony can decrease the prevalence of PTSD in youth.

  18. Emotions and stress increase respiratory resistance in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, T; Steptoe, A; DeWilde, S; Costa, M

    2000-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest that various emotions and types of stress can precipitate asthmatic symptoms, but there is little experimental evidence to substantiate this claim. We studied the impact of different emotional states and stress on respiratory resistance in asthmatic and nonasthmatic individuals. Participants (24 asthmatic and 24 nonasthmatic patients) viewed short film sequences selected to induce anxiety, anger, depression, elation, happiness, contentment, or a neutral affective state and completed two stressful tasks, mental arithmetic to induce active coping efforts and viewing of medical slides to induce passive coping efforts. Oscillatory resistance, heart rate, blood pressure, baroreflex sensitivity, skin conductance level, respiration rate and volume, and self-reported affective state were measured throughout the session. Uniform increases in oscillatory resistance were found in all emotional states compared with the neutral state and during mental arithmetic in both groups. Asthmatic patients showed stronger reactions to the medical slides than healthy control subjects, with significant increases in oscillatory resistance, blood pressure, skin conductance level, and minute volume, as well as higher levels of self-reported depression, arousal, and shortness of breath. Changes in oscillatory resistance were inconsistently correlated with other physiological indices. Various emotional states and stress increase oscillatory resistance largely independently of concurrent increases in autonomic or ventilatory activity. The particular sensitivity of asthmatics to passive coping demand requires additional research.

  19. [Increase in number of operations for stress urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhout, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of the minimally invasive tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) the number of operations performed for treatment of stress urinary incontinence has increased dramatically from over 1600 in 1999 to more than 4200 in 2003. Both gynaecologists and urologists now perform more TVTs and

  20. Stressful life events in countries of differing economic development: Nicaragua, Chile, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Rincón, Paulina Paz

    2007-08-01

    the aim was to describe a study involving 481 psychology students in the last courses of their degrees (M age = 21.9 yr., SD=4.2; 94 men and 386 women) from Nicaragua, Chile, and Spain. The study examined the potential risk of experiencing certain stressful life events, the number of stressors, and their characteristics. Also were analyzed the strength of their relation to social class and stressful life events experienced. Greater presence of stressful life events were reported among people from less developed countries, Chile and Nicaragua, and among people belonging to lower social class.

  1. Stressful life events are associated with a poor in vitro fertilization (IVF) - outcome: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Signe Maria Schneevoigt; Zachariae, Robert; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung

    2009-01-01

    -fertility-related, naturally occurring stressors may influence IVF pregnancy chances. Our aim was to explore the association between IVF-outcome and negative, i.e. stressful, life-events during the previous 12 months. METHODS: Prior to IVF, 809 women (mean age: 31.2 years) completed the List of Recent Events (LRE...... number of life-events perceived as having a negative impact on quality of life may indicate chronic stress, and the results of our study indicate that stress may reduce the chances of a successful outcome following IVF, possibly through psychobiological mechanisms affecting medical end...

  2. Observations of hydrotectonic stress/strain events at a basement high at the Nicoya outer rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, M. D.; Brown, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    There is substantial and growing evidence from heat flow and coring investigations that the oceanic plate off Costa Rica is highly hydrologically active and that this activity is responsible for one of the most anomalously cold thermal environments encountered in the oceanic environment. Recent work by Fisher, et al. has identified limited regions above certain topographic highs with extremely high heat flows. Pore water profiles from cores above these thinly sedimented basement highs suggest upward flow on the order of ~1 cm/yr. These highs may be the principal regions of out-flow from the basement in this region and, thus, can potentially be used to constrain the general level of hydrologic activity. The nine Chemical and Aqueous Transport (CAT) meters we deployed at one of the highest heatflow sites provide a temporal record of both in-flow and out-flow of aqueous fluids at rates as low as 0.1 mm/yr. Our objective was to provide a direct measurement of long term flow rates to address the following questions: (1) What are the characteristic fluid fluxes at basement highs of the low heat flow region of the northern Costa Rican incoming plate, and (2) is this flow temporally variable? The results of the instrument deployments agree quite closely in general with the coring results in that the background rates are on the order of 1 cm/yr or less. There is, however, considerable detail in the temporal records which suggest small scale tectonic stress transients causing temporary increases in flow rate. While this is certainly not an area of major tectonic activity, the site is located at the top of the outer rise where one would expect bending-related stress and fault reactivation to occur. The CAT meters are capable of detecting minute strain events in the underlying sediments and therefore may be detecting small localized strain events. Two periods of increased flow lasting a few weeks each occur during the 5 month deployment and are indicated on all of the

  3. Does perceived stress increase the risk of atrial fibrillation? A population-based cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Simon; Prior, Anders; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychological stress is associated with increased risk of acute cardiovascular diseases, as myocardial infarction. We recently found a higher risk of atrial fibrillation following an acute stressful life event, but it remains unknown whether this also applies to common and less acute....... Conclusions This large population-based cohort study did not reveal a higher risk of atrial fibrillation among persons with a high degree of perceived stress after adjustment for participants' baseline characteristics....

  4. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test.

  5. Biological stress systems, adverse life events and the onset of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain : a six-year cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Generaal, E.; Vogelzangs, N.; Macfarlane, G.J.; Geenen, R.; de Geus, E.; Smit, J.H.; Penninx, B.W.; Dekker, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dysregulated biological stress systems and adverse life events, both independently and in interaction, have been hypothesized to initiate chronic pain. Objectives We examine whether (i) function of biological stress systems, (ii) adverse life events, and (iii) their combination predict

  6. MINDFULNESS – MAY DIMINISH STRESS AND INCREASE ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronicus TORP

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is increasingly being applied in companies as a means to increase, among others, employee wellbeing and energy, and in the same time to diminish stress. This paper argues that there seems to be scientific evidence showing that certain mindfulness techniques may diminish stress and increase energy, yet it seems that there is a period in the beginning of the mindfulness practice where the techniques have the opposite effects. These findings seem to be contradictory to past findings, which indicated that only two thirds of people practicing mindfulness techniques have positive effects from that practice. It may be that everybody can have positive effects from the practice of the mentioned techniques, just that some need to practice for a longer period before obtaining these positive effects. Further scientific studies seem to be needed in order to clarify the full spectrum of effects and consequences of practicing different mindfulness techniques, and just as important, if these effects are valid for everybody.

  7. Self reported stressful life events and exacerbations in multiple sclerosis: prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Buljevac (Dragan); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); W. Reedeker; A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); R.Q. Hintzen (Rogier)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To study the relation between self reported stressful life events not related to multiple sclerosis and the occurrence of exacerbations in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. DESIGN: Longitudinal, prospective cohort study. SETTING: Outpatient clinic of

  8. Mental Health and Stressful Life Events in Coronary Heart Disease Patients and Non- Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Nateghian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: "n The main goal of this study is to compare stressful life events and mental health in coronary heart disease (CHD patients and non-patients. "nMethod: In this research, 120 participants (n=68 male, n= 52 female were divided into two groups of patients (n=60 and non-patients (n=60. They were selected from Vali Asr Hospital of Meshginshahr (Iran and completed the  General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and Stressful Life Events Inventory . "nResults: Data was analyzed using independent t-test. The results showed significant differences between CHD patients and non-patients in mental health and stressful life events. CHD patients showed high rates of physical symptoms and anxiety of GHQ . "nConclusion: CHD patients reported more stressful life events. Therefore, it can be inferred that psychological factors are important in coronary heart disease.

  9. Work stress and the risk of recurrent coronary heart disease events: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Min; Loerbroks, Adrian; Angerer, Peter; Siegrist, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Though much evidence indicates that work stress increases the risk of incident of coronary heart disease (CHD), little is known about the role of work stress in the development of recurrent CHD events. The objective of this study was to review and synthesize the existing epidemiological evidence on whether work stress increases the risk of recurrent CHD events in patients with the first CHD. A systematic literature search in the PubMed database (January 1990 - December 2013) for prospective studies was performed. Inclusion criteria included: peer-reviewed English papers with original data, studies with substantial follow-up (> 3 years), end points defined as cardiac death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, as well as work stress assessed with reliable and valid instruments. Meta-analysis using random-effects modeling was conducted in order to synthesize the observed effects across the studies. Five papers derived from 4 prospective studies conducted in Sweden and Canada were included in this systematic review. The measurement of work stress was based on the Demand- Control model (4 papers) or the Effort-Reward Imbalance model (1 paper). According to the estimation by meta-analysis based on 4 papers, a significant effect of work stress on the risk of recurrent CHD events (hazard ratio: 1.65, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-2.22) was observed. Our findings suggest that, in patients with the first CHD, work stress is associated with an increased relative risk of recurrent CHD events by 65%. Due to the limited literature, more well-designed prospective research is needed to examine this association, in particular, from other than western regions of the world. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  10. Tips for Survivors of a Traumatic Event: Managing Your Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Having trouble thinking clearly and concentrating. • Having difficulty making decisions. • Having difficulty giving or accepting help. U.S. DEPARTMENT ... feelings to loved ones and friends often. Pay Attention to Your Body, Feelings, and ... how your own past experiences affect your way of handling this event, and think ...

  11. Stressful life events and social health factors in women using anxiolytics and antidepressants: an Italian observational study in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Incau, Paola; Barbui, Corrado; Tubini, Jacopo; Conforti, Anita

    2011-04-01

    In Italy, as in all of Europe, women differ from men in that they are somewhat more sensitive to the depressogenic effects of stressful life events related to their social networks and emotional sphere. Women are more likely than men to have experienced poverty, gender discrimination, and physical and sexual abuse. The purpose of this study was to expand the knowledge about the occurrence of stressful life events in women exposed and not exposed to anxiolytics and antidepressants in a community pharmacy setting. Women attending 100 community pharmacies in the Italian Veneto region were surveyed by pharmacists with regard to a number of general features of their current pharmacologic treatment. Women independently completed a written self-assessment questionnaire that focused on stressful life events. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between anxiolytics and antidepressants use and potential factors, including stressful life events. The study population comprised 11,357 women. One or more stressful life events occurred in 90% of the women treated with anxiolytics and/or antidepressants (users [n = 3848]) and in 74% of the women not treated with these drugs (nonusers [n = 7509]) (odds ratio = 3.19; 95% CI, 2.83-3.60). On average, the life events occurred during the previous 6 months and the women considered the influence of these events on their well-being to be severe. After the unconditional logistic regression analysis, the association between anxiolytics and/or antidepressants use remained positive for most of the stressful life events studied as well as for other factors: separation/divorce, living alone or with others (family or friends), unemployment, whether currently being seen by a psychologist/psychiatrist, and treatment with drugs for the alimentary tract and metabolism, cardiovascular system, or nervous system. A significant association between stressful life events and anxiolytics and

  12. "MENTAL STRAIN, MORE IMPORTANT THAN STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS IN MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION"

    OpenAIRE

    M. Moosavi; M. Eslami; O. Sheikh Bagloo B. Birashk

    2004-01-01

    Stressful life events may play an important role in coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac death. This study was performed to compare the frequency of stressful events and mental strain in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and normal population. A case-control study was performed on 50 survivors of MI and 50 controls with no evidence of cardiovascular disease, matched by age, gender, education, race, and number of family members. A questionnaire was used to determine the numbe...

  13. Ion temperature increase during MHD events on the TST-2 spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, A.; Shiraiwa, S.; Takase, Y.; Yamada, T.; Nagashima, Y.; Kasahara, H.; Iijima, D.; Kobori, Y.; Nishi, T.; Taniguchi, T.; Aramasu, M.; Ohara, S.; Ushigome, M.; Yamagishi, K.

    2003-01-01

    Various types of MHD events including internal reconnection events are studied on the TST-2 spherical tokamak. In weak MHD events no positive current spike was observed, but in strong MHD events with positive current spikes, a rapid and significant impurity ion temperature increase was observed. The decrease in the poloidal magnetic energy is the most probable energy source for ion heating. The plasma current shows a stepwise change. The magnitude of this step correlates with the temperature increase and is found to be a good indicator of the strength of each event. (author)

  14. Stressful life events preceding the onset of depression in Asian patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Hatim, Ahmad; Si, Tian-Mei; Jeon, Hong Jin; Srisurapanont, Manit; Bautista, Dianne; Liu, Shen-ing; Chua, Hong Choon; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have identified the significant role of stressful life events in the onset of depressive episodes. However, there is a paucity of cross-national studies on stressful life events that precede depression. We aimed to compare types of stressful life events associated with the onset of depressive episodes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in five Asian countries. A total of 507 outpatients with MDD were recruited in China (n = 114), South Korea (n = 101), Malaysia (n = 90), Thailand (n = 103) and Taiwan (n = 99). All patients were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the List of Threatening Experiences. The prevalence of each type of stressful life events was calculated and compared between each country. The type of stressful life event that preceded the onset of a depressive episode differed between patients in China and Taiwan and those in South Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Patients in China and Taiwan were less likely to report interpersonal relationship problems and occupational/financial problems than patients in South Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Understanding the nature and basis of culturally determined susceptibilities to specific stressful life events is critical for establishing a policy of depression prevention and providing effective counseling services for depressed patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. NEUROENDOCRINE FUNCTIONS OF PUERPERAE WITH POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION AGGRAVATED BY STRESSFUL CHILDBIRTH-RELATED EVENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W; Yu, S

    2015-01-01

    In the period of gestation, delivery and post-delivery, fear and tension produced in puerperae are likely to evolve into depression as they worry too much about delivery pain. In recent years, it has been noted that stressful events during this period aggravate postpartum depression. To discuss the effect of these childbirth-related stressful events on neuroendocrine functions of patients with postpartum depression, 300 full-term puerperae who had been admitted to the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University between October, 2011 and October, 2013 and who had suffered from stressful childbirth-related events were enrolled as a study group. This group was divided into six subgroups, i.e., A, B, C, D, E and F, based on the number of stressful events they had suffered which were labeled by numbers 1 to 6. Additionally, 100 puerperae from the same hospital who had not suffered from childbirth-related stressful events were taken as controls. Relevant clinical indexes, including serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), plasma 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), noradrenaline ELISA (NE), dopamine (DA) and cortisol level were measured and compared. It was found that incidence probability of postpartum depression was significantly different between the study group (13.67%, 41/300) and the control group (7%, 7/100). Moreover, the incidence probability of postpartum depression of puerperae suffering from no less than 4 childbirth-related stressful events was higher than those suffering from no more than 3, and the difference was statistically significant (Pdepression.

  16. Posttraumatic stress among young urban children exposed to family violence and other potentially traumatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusto, Cindy A; Whitson, Melissa L; Walling, Sherry M; Feinn, Richard; Friedman, Stacey R; Reynolds, Jesse; Amer, Mona; Kaufman, Joy S

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between the number of types of traumatic events experienced by children 3 to 6 years old, parenting stress, and children's posttraumatic stress (PTS). Parents and caregivers provided data for 154 urban children admitted into community-based mental health or developmental services. By parent and caregiver report, children experienced an average of 4.9 different types of potentially traumatic events. Nearly one quarter of the children evidenced clinically significant PTS. Posttraumatic stress was positively and significantly related to family violence and other family-related trauma exposure, nonfamily violence and trauma exposure, and parenting stress. Additionally, parenting stress partially mediated the relationship between family violence and trauma exposure and PTS. This study highlights the need for early violence and trauma exposure screening in help-seeking populations so that appropriate interventions are initiated. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  17. Stressful Life Events and Psychosomatic Symptoms among Students Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodaj, Arta; Simic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the rate of stressful life events and psychosomatic symptoms among students smokers and non-smokers and examine the predictive contribution of stress and smoking to subjective health status. Methods were conducted on a convenience sample of 200 students from the University of Mostar, with a median age of…

  18. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

  19. Stress, Life Events, and Socioeconomic Disparities in Health: Results from the Americans' Changing Lives Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Paula M.; House, James S.; Mero, Richard P.; Williams, David R.

    2005-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that exposure to stress and negative life events is related to poor health outcomes, and that differential exposure to stress plays a role in socioeconomic disparities in health. Data from three waves of the Americans' Changing Lives study (n = 3,617) were analyzed to investigate prospectively the relationship among…

  20. The impact of stressful life events on excessive alcohol consumption in the French population: findings from the GAZEL cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamers, Sara L; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Bohl, Alex A; Guéguen, Alice; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Major life changes may play a causative role in health through lifestyle factors, such as alcohol. The objective was to examine the impact of stressful life events on heavy alcohol consumption among French adults. Trajectories of excessive alcohol consumption in 20,625 employees of the French national gas and electricity company for up to 5 years before and 5 years after an event, with annual measurements from 1992. We used repeated measures analysis of time series data indexed to events, employing generalized estimating equations. For women, excessive alcohol use increased before important purchase (p = 0.021), children leaving home (pdivorce, widowhood, and death of loved one (all pchildren leaving home and retirement, where we observed an increase (all pdivorce and increased after (all pimpact alcohol intake temporarily while others have longer-term implications. Research should disentangle women's and men's distinct perceptions of events over time.

  1. SOCIAL INTERACTIONS, STRESSFUL EVENTS AND NEGATIVE AFFECT AT WORK - A MICROANALYTIC APPROACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PEETERS, MCW; BUUNK, BP; SCHAUFELI, WB

    1995-01-01

    In the present study a daily event-recording method, the DIRO (Daily Interaction Record in Organizations), was employed for assessing social interactions, stressful events and negative affect at work. Forty-one secretaries filled out the records during the course of a week. This made it possible to

  2. Using Focus Groups to Explore the Stressful Life Events of Black College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Green, B. Lee; Goodson, Patricia; Guidry, Jeffrey Joseph; Stanley, Christine A.

    2007-01-01

    Black students who attend predominately White institutions (PWI) face many obstacles. This study identified the stressful life events of Black college men via focus group discussions and examined how these events impact their mental health and health behaviors. Forty-six participants from a PWI and a historically Black college/university (HBCU)…

  3. Gender Differences in Perceived Social Support and Stressful Life Events in Depressed Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, S; Bhat, S M; Latha, K S; Praharaj, S K

    2016-03-01

    To study the gender differences in perceived social support and life events in patients with depression. A total of 118 patients aged 18 to 60 years, with depressive disorder according to the DSM-IV-TR, were evaluated using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale. The perceived social support score was significantly higher in males than females (p friends than females (p life events as well as specific type of life events in males that became apparent after controlling for education (p life event in both males and females. Work-related problems were more commonly reported by males, whereas family and marital conflict were more frequently reported by females. Perceived social support and stressful life events were higher in males with depression than females.

  4. Left atrial enlargement increases the risk of major adverse cardiac events independent of coronary vasodilator capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Angela S; Murthy, Venkatesh L; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gayed, Peter; Bruyere, John; Wu, Justina; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Dorbala, Sharmila

    2015-09-01

    Longstanding uncontrolled atherogenic risk factors may contribute to left atrial (LA) hypertension, LA enlargement (LAE) and coronary vascular dysfunction. Together they may better identify risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic LA hypertension as assessed by LAE modifies the relationship between coronary vascular function and MACE. In 508 unselected subjects with a normal clinical (82)Rb PET/CT, ejection fraction ≥40 %, no prior coronary artery disease, valve disease or atrial fibrillation, LAE was determined based on LA volumes estimated from the hybrid perfusion and CT transmission scan images and indexed to body surface area. Absolute myocardial blood flow and global coronary flow reserve (CFR) were calculated. Subjects were systematically followed-up for the primary end-point - MACE - a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure, stroke, coronary artery disease progression or revascularization. During a median follow-up of 862 days, 65 of the subjects experienced a composite event. Compared with subjects with normal LA size, subjects with LAE showed significantly lower CFR (2.25 ± 0.83 vs. 1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.01). LAE independently and incrementally predicted MACE even after accounting for clinical risk factors, medication use, stress left ventricular ejection fraction, stress left ventricular end-diastolic volume index and CFR (chi-squared statistic increased from 30.9 to 48.3; p = 0.001). Among subjects with normal CFR, those with LAE had significantly worse event-free survival (risk adjusted HR 5.4, 95 % CI 2.3 - 12.8, p < 0.0001). LAE and reduced CFR are related but distinct cardiovascular adaptations to atherogenic risk factors. LAE is a risk marker for MACE independent of clinical factors and left ventricular volumes; individuals with LAE may be at risk of MACE despite normal coronary vascular function.

  5. Association of stressful life events with incident falls and fractures in older men: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Howard A.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Marshall, Lynn M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: small, retrospective studies suggest that major life events and/or sudden emotional stress may increase fall and fracture risk. The current study examines these associations prospectively. Methods: a total of 5,152 men aged ≥65 years in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study self-reported data on stressful life events for 1 year prior to study Visit 2. Incident falls and fractures were ascertained for 1 year after Visit 2. Fractures were centrally confirmed. Results: a total of 2,932 (56.9%) men reported ≥1 type of stressful life event. In men with complete stressful life event, fall and covariate data (n = 3,949), any stressful life event was associated with a 33% increased risk of incident fall [relative risk (RR) 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19–1.49] and 68% increased risk of multiple falls (RR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.40–2.01) in the year following Visit 2 after adjustment for age, education, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, stroke, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) impairment, chair stand time, walk speed, multiple past falls, depressive symptoms and antidepressant use. Risk increased with the number of types of stressful life events. Though any stressful life event was associated with a 58% increased age-adjusted risk for incident fracture, this association was attenuated and no longer statistically significant after additional adjustment for total hip bone mineral density, fracture after age 50, Parkinson's disease, stroke and IADL impairment. Conclusions: in this cohort of older men, stressful life events significantly increased risk of incident falls independent of other explanatory variables, but did not independently increase incident fracture risk. PMID:24002237

  6. Stresses on nuclear power plant buildings by extraordinary events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woelfel, E.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plant buildings must be functional to such an extend that even after the occurence of extraordinary events (earthquake, airoplane crash, gas cloud explosion), the reactor can be safety shut off, in order to avoid danger from the nuclear power plant. Evidence for this can only be given by calculations which shall meet the following requirements: The calculation results shall be safe and reliable. The calculation effort shall match the realizable accuracy. The calculation shall lead to an economical determination. An example of ascertainment of nuclear power plants in regard to earthquakes, shows the difficulties standing against a fulfillment of these requirements. (orig.) [de

  7. Thermomechanical Stresses Analysis of a Single Event Burnout Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tais, Carlos E.; Romero, Eduardo; Demarco, Gustavo L.

    2009-06-01

    This work analyzes the thermal and mechanical effects arising in a power Diffusion Metal Oxide Semiconductor (DMOS) during a Single Event Burnout (SEB) process. For studying these effects we propose a more detailed simulation structure than the previously used by other authors, solving the mathematical models by means of the Finite Element Method. We use a cylindrical heat generation region, with 5 W, 10 W, 50 W and 100 W for emulating the thermal phenomena occurring during SEB processes, avoiding the complexity of the mathematical treatment of the ion-semiconductor interaction.

  8. Symptoms of borderline personality disorder predict interpersonal (but not independent) stressful life events in a community sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Abigail D; Gleason, Marci E J; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often experience stressful life events at a higher frequency than those without BPD. It is less clear what specific types of events are involved in this effect, and it has not been determined whether some features of BPD are more important than others in accounting for this effect. The latter issue is important in light of the heterogeneous nature of this diagnostic construct. These issues were examined in a large, representative community sample of men and women, ages 55-64. Ten Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev., DSM-IV-TR, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) personality disorders were assessed at baseline using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality: SIDP-IV (B. Pfohl, N. Blum, & M. Zimmerman, 1997, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press). Life events were measured at three sequential assessments following baseline at 6-month (N = 1,294), 12-month (N = 1,070), and 18-month (N = 837) follow-ups. Stressful life events were identified using a self-report questionnaire (LTE-Q; List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire: A subset of prescribed life events with considerable long-term contextual threat by T. Brugha, C. Bebbington, P. Tennant, and J. Hurry, 1985, Psychological Medicine, Vol. 15, pp. 189-194.) followed by a telephone interview. Only borderline personality pathology was related to an increase in the frequency of interpersonal stressful life events. Three specific symptoms of BPD were largely responsible for this connection: unstable interpersonal relationships, impulsivity, and chronic feelings of emptiness (negative association). Symptoms of avoidant and schizoid personality disorders were associated with a reduced number of stressful life events that are considered to be outside a person's control (e.g., serious illness, injury, or death of a loved one). None of the personality disorders predicted an increase in the number of

  9. A Comparative Study of Stressful Life Events and Stress Coping Strategies in Coronary Heart Disease Patients and Non-Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heidari Pahlavian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Etiological researches suggest that biopsychosocial dimensions are responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD. The main goal of the present research was to compare stressful life events and stress coping strategies in coronary heart patients (Acute Myocardial Infarction and non-patients. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional research 102 patients (all males suffering from acute myocardial infarction and 162 non-patient individuals after matching were studied and compared with regard to psychosocial life events and stress coping strategies through coping response inventory (Moos, 1993 , scaling of life Events (paykel , 1971 and researcher made questionnaire. Results: The result established that myocardial infarction patients experienced more stress than the control group during one year before heart- attack and they used more inadequate stress coping strategies comparing with the control individuals. Conclusion: This study showed that stress and inadequate coping strategies are important variables for the development of coronary heart diseases. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3:33-38

  10. Stressful life events and Graves' disease: Results of a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintor, A.B.; Barrenechea, E.A.; Laureta, E.G.; Ligon, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Prolonged worry has generally been acknowledged as one of the main precipitating factors of the onset of Graves' disease. A review of literature reveals that emotional stresses of considerable severity precede the onset of hyperthyroidism in about 90% of cases. However, not everyone subscribes to the Stress/Graves' disease hypothesis. Attempts to resolve this issue have tended to focus on whether a correlation can be shown between the magnitude of antecedent life events and the disease. Hence the main objective of the present study was to identify the possible association between stressful life events and Graves' disease. This paper presents the results of a case-control study, involving patents and subjects from the Veterans Memorial Medical Centre of Manila. A total of 224 patients of Graves' disease, newly or previously diagnosed, representing the 'patient's' arm were interviewed. All patients were questioned regarding various stresses, which greatly affected their life style spanning over a 12-month period prior to the onset of the disease. Simultaneously, 224 control subjects were also interviewed, and their stresses spanning over a similar period preceding the dates of interviews were recorded in quantifiable terms. Different stresses were given different intensity scores based on a social readjustment scale taking into consideration the life situations, emotions and diseases. In cases of multiple stresses, intensity scores were added to obtain the total stress intensity. Results were expressed as mean, standard deviation, median, frequency and percent distribution. Scatter plot was also constructed for intensity of stressful life events. To determine association of different factors with Graves' disease, Students t-test and chi-square tests were applied to the data. Odds ratio (OR) was also computed to determine risk attributed to each factor. Since there was significant difference in gender distribution between the patients and controls, stratified Mantel

  11. Exposure of rat hippocampal astrocytes to Ziram increases oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Ann-Marie; Trombetta, Louis D

    2016-04-01

    Pesticides have been shown in several studies to be the leading candidates of environmental toxins and may contribute to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Ziram (zinc-bis(dimethyldithiocarbamate)) is an agricultural dithiocarbamate fungicide that is used to treat a variety of plant diseases. In spite of their generally acknowledged low toxicity, dithiocarbamates are known to cause a wide range of neurobehavioral effects as well as neuropathological changes in the brain. Astrocytes play a key role in normal brain physiology and in the pathology of the nervous system. This investigation studied the effects of 1.0 µM Ziram on rat hippocampal astrocytes. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay performed showed a significant increase in malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, in the Ziram-treated cells. Biochemical analysis also revealed a significant increase in the induction of 70 kDa heat shock and heme oxygenase 1 stress proteins. In addition, an increase of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and a significant increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were observed in the Ziram-treated cells. The ratio GSH to GSSG calculated from the treated cells was also decreased. Light and transmission electron microscopy supported the biochemical findings in Ziram-treated astrocytes. This data suggest that the cytotoxic effects observed with Ziram treatments may be related to the increase of oxidative stress. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Lifetime Exposure to Traumatic and Other Stressful Life Events and Hair Cortisol in a Multi-Racial/Ethnic Sample of Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M. C.; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Coull, Brent A.; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic events alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as indexed by hair cortisol, regardless of associated psychopathology, among pregnant women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. 180 women provided hair samples for measurement of integrated cortisol levels throughout pregnancy and information regarding their lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic life events. Results indicate that increased lifetime exposure to traumatic events was associated with significantly greater hair cortisol over the course of pregnancy. Similarly, greater lifetime exposure to stressful and traumatic events weighted by reported negative impact (over the previous 12 months) was associated with significantly greater hair cortisol during pregnancy. All analyses controlled for maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI), use of inhaled corticosteroids, race/ethnicity, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms. Following stratification by race/ethnicity, associations between stressful and traumatic life events and hair cortisol were found among Black women only. This is the first study to consider associations between lifetime stress exposures and hair cortisol in a sociodemographically diverse sample of pregnant women. Increased exposure to stressful and traumatic events, independent of PTSD and depressive symptoms, was associated with higher cortisol production, particularly in Black women. Future research should investigate the influence of such increased cortisol exposure on developmental outcomes among offspring. PMID:26551892

  13. Event terms in the response spectra prediction equation and their deviation due to stress drop variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, H.; Nakano, K.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the characteristics of strong ground motions separated from acceleration Fourier spectra and acceleration response spectra of 5% damping calculated from weak and moderate ground motions observed by K-NET, KiK-net, and the JMA Shindokei Network in Japan using the generalized spectral inversion method. The separation method used the outcrop motions at YMGH01 as reference where we extracted site responses due to shallow weathered layers. We include events with JMA magnitude equal to or larger than 4.5 observed from 1996 to 2011. We find that our frequency-dependent Q values are comparable to those of previous studies. From the corner frequencies of Fourier source spectra, we calculate Brune's stress parameters and found a clear magnitude dependence, in which smaller events tend to spread over a wider range while maintaining the same maximum value. We confirm that this is exactly the case for several mainshock-aftershock sequences. The average stress parameters for crustal earthquakes are much smaller than those of subduction zone, which can be explained by their depth dependence. We then compared the strong motion characteristics based on the acceleration response spectra and found that the separated characteristics of strong ground motions are different, especially in the lower frequency range less than 1Hz. These differences comes from the difference between Fourier spectra and response spectra found in the observed data; that is, predominant components in high frequency range of Fourier spectra contribute to increase the response in lower frequency range with small Fourier amplitude because strong high frequency component acts as an impulse to a Single-Degree-of-Freedom system. After the separation of the source terms for 5% damping response spectra we can obtain regression coefficients with respect to the magnitude, which lead to a new GMPE as shown in Fig.1 on the left. Although stress drops for inland earthquakes are 1/7 of the subduction

  14. Increased gluconeogenesis in rats exposed to hyper-G stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daligcon, B.C.; Oyama, J.; Hannak, K.

    1985-01-01

    The role of gluconeogenesis on the increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G (radial acceleration) stress was determined. Overnight-fasted, male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were injected i.p. with uniformly labeled 14 C lactate, alanine, or glycerol (5 μCi/rat) and immediately exposed to 3.1 G for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 hr. 14 C incorporation of the labeled substrates into plasma glucose and liver glycogen was measured and compared to noncentrifuged control rats injected in a similar manner. Significant increases in 14 C incorporation of all three labeled substrates into plasma glucose were observed in centrifuged rats at all exposure periods; 14 C incorporation into liver glycogen was significantly increased only at 0.50 and 1.0 hr. The i.p. administration (5 mg/100-g body wt) of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, a potent gluconeogenesis inhibitor, prior to centrifugation blocked the increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen during the first hour of centrifugation. The increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen was also abolished in adrenodemedullated rats exposed to centrifugation for 1.0 hr. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, suppressed the increase in plasma glucose of rats exposed to centrifugation for 0.25 hr. From the results of this study, it is concluded that the initial, rapid rise in plasma glucose as well as the increase in liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G stress can be attributed to an increased rate of gluconeogenesis, and that epinephrine plays a dominant role during the early stages of exposure to centrifugation. 11 references, 3 tables

  15. The evolution of crack-tip stresses during a fatigue overload event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steuwer, A.; Rahman, M.; Shterenlikht, A.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.; Edwards, L.; Withers, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the transient retardation or acceleration of fatigue crack growth subsequent to overloading are a matter of intense debate. Plasticity-induced closure and residual stresses have often been invoked to explain these phenomena, but closure mechanisms are disputed, especially under conditions approximating to generalised plane strain. In this paper we exploit synchrotron radiation to report very high spatial resolution two-dimensional elastic strain and stress maps at maximum and minimum loading measured under plane strain during a normal fatigue cycle, as well as during and after a 100% overload event, in ultra-fine grained AA5091 aluminium alloy. These observations provide direct evidence of the material stress state in the vicinity of the crack-tip in thick samples. Significant compressive residual stresses were found both in front of and behind the crack-tip immediately following the overload event. The effective stress intensity at the crack-tip was determined directly from the local stress field measured deep within the bulk (plane strain) by comparison with linear elastic fracture mechanical theory. This agrees well with that nominally applied at maximum load and 100% overload. After overload, however, the stress fields were not well described by classical K fields due to closure-related residual stresses. Little evidence of overload closure was observed sometime after the overload event, in our case possibly because the overload plastic zone was very small.

  16. Stressful Life Events and Child Anxiety: Examining Parent and Child Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Rheanna; Williams, Sarah R.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2015-01-01

    While a number of factors have been linked with excessive anxiety (e.g., parenting, child temperament), the impact of stressful life events remains under-studied. Moreover, much of this literature has examined bivariate associations rather than testing more complex theoretical models. The current study extends the literature on life events and child anxiety by testing a theory-driven meditational model. Specifically, one child factor (child cognitions/locus of control), two parent factors (parent psychopathology and parenting stress), and two parent-child relationship factors (parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parenting style) were examined as mediators in the relationship between stressful life events and severity of child anxiety. One hundred and thirty anxious parents and their nonanxious, high-risk children (ages ranged from 7 to 13 years) participated in this study. Results indicated that levels of parenting stress, parental anxious rearing, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction mediated the association between stressful life events and severity of anxiety symptoms. Child cognition and parent psychopathology factors failed to emerge as mediators. Findings provide support for more complex theoretical models linking life events and child anxiety and suggest potential targets of intervention. PMID:25772523

  17. The Impact of Sleep Disturbance on the Association Between Stressful Life Events and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Amanda; Burgard, Sarah; Zivin, Kara

    2016-01-01

    Sleep problems are common across the adult life span and may exacerbate depressive symptoms and the effect of common risk factors for depressive symptoms such as life stress. We examine sleep disturbance as a moderator of the association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms across five waves (25 years) of the nationally representative, longitudinal American Changing Lives Study. The sample includes 3,597 adults aged 25 years or older who were surveyed up to five times over 25 years. Multilevel models were run to examine between- and within-person variability in sleep disturbance and life event stress as predictors of depressive symptoms, and an interaction to test sleep disturbance as a moderator is included in a second step. Life events and sleep disturbance were associated with elevated depressive symptoms at the between- and within-person levels. A significant sleep disturbance by interaction of life events was found, indicating that when individuals experienced an above average number of life events and slept more restlessly than usual, they had a higher risk for depressive symptoms than individuals who experienced above average stress but slept well. Sleeping restfully may allow individuals the rejuvenation needed to manage stress adaptively and reduce depressive symptom burden. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Psychological distress and stressful life events in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Julia; Brehmer, Hannah; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Zernikow, Boris

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is little knowledge regarding the association between psychological factors and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in children. Specifically, it is not known which factors precipitate CRPS and which result from the ongoing painful disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as the experience of stressful life events in children with CRPS compared with children with chronic primary headaches and functional abdominal pain. METHODS: A retrospective chart study examined children with CRPS (n=37) who received intensive inpatient pain treatment between 2004 and 2010. They were compared with two control groups (chronic primary headaches and functional abdominal pain; each n=37), who also received intensive inpatient pain treatment. Control groups were matched with the CRPS group with regard to admission date, age and sex. Groups were compared on symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as stressful life events. RESULTS: Children with CRPS reported lower anxiety and depression scores compared with children with abdominal pain. A higher number of stressful life events before and after the onset of the pain condition was observed for children with CRPS. CONCLUSIONS: Children with CRPS are not particularly prone to symptoms of anxiety or depression. Importantly, children with CRPS experienced more stressful life events than children with chronic headaches or abdominal pain. Prospective long-term studies are needed to further explore the potential role of stressful life events in the etiology of CRPS. PMID:26035287

  19. Journalists' Occupational Stress: A Comparative Study between Reporting Critical Events and Domestic News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Susana; Marques-Pinto, Alexandra

    2017-07-27

    Nowadays, journalism is considered a stressful occupation, not only due to the stress perceived in journalists' daily work but also due to the critical, potentially traumatic events they report. However, research on journalists' occupational stress in both these professional settings is still scarce. This study aims to characterize and compare occupational stress variables perceived by journalists in their daily work and in critical scenarios. Taking the Holistic Model of Occupational Stress by Nelson and Simmons (2003) as a framework, 25 Portuguese journalists, all with experience in reporting critical events, were interviewed on their perceptions of some core variables of the model: occupational stressors, distress and eustress emotional reactions, and the consequences of these experiences on their well-being. Differences among these core variables, according to the number of deployments to a critical event, were statistically analysed in order to ascertain whether repeated exposure to trauma influenced journalists' occupational stress perceptions. The data content analysis showed that occupational stressors and emotional reactions differed across settings, while the consequences associated with journalists' experiences were perceived as being mainly negative in both occupational contexts. Significant differences were identified in some of these variables according to the number of deployments to a critical event (p studies.

  20. THE IMPACT OF STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS ON RELAPSE OF GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jennifer L.; Moitra, Ethan; Dyck, Ingrid; Keller, Martin B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Stressful life events (SLEs) are associated with the onset of psychiatric disorders but little is known about the effects of SLEs on individuals already diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, particularly generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in which worry about life events is a defining characteristic. This study examined the impact of SLEs on relapse in adults already diagnosed with GAD. Methods Data are obtained from the Harvard/Brown Anxiety Research Project (HARP), a naturalistic longitudinal study of adults with a current or past history of anxiety disorders. One hundred and twelve adults recovered from an episode of GAD and 27 subsequently relapsed during the study. Eight categories of SLEs were assessed via interview and were examined as predictors of GAD relapse. Results An increased total number of SLEs was associated with a higher cumulative probability of relapse into episode of GAD and there was a nonsignificant statistical trend indicating specific categories of SLEs including health, death, and family/friends/household were related to an increased probability of relapse into episodes of GAD. Conclusions SLEs impact the course of GAD and certain types of stressors may be more relevant to symptomatology than others. The change and uncertainty associated with SLEs may exacerbate existing worry tendencies even among those who have recovered from GAD. PMID:22431499

  1. Compelling Evidence of the Need for Corporate Work/Life Balance Initiatives: Results from a National Survey of Stressful Life-Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Charles J.; Delunas, Linda; Kesic, Dawn

    2001-01-01

    Considers how failure to balance excessive work and life/family demands can lead to negative consequences for both individuals and organizations, including higher stress levels, increased absenteeism, and lower productivity. Discusses results of a survey on stressful life events that offers an explanation of why work/life balance programs are so…

  2. [Emotional stress-induced Shanghuo syndrome increases disease susceptibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Si-Rui; Luo, Xiang; Li, Yi-Fang; Hiroshi, Kurihara; He, Rong-Rong

    2018-04-01

    Shanghuo(excessive internal heat) is a special organic state based on the concept of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), commonly known as the abnormal heating syndrome of body in folks. With the acceleration of modern life rhythm and the increase of the social competition pressure, emotional stress has become an important cause for the spread of Shanghuo symptoms. What's more, Shanghuo can impact the body physiological functions to cause the onset, recurrence and progression of common diseases, harming the health of the body. According to the long-term research findings, the author found that Shanghuo referred to the imbalance of multiple physiological functions, such as nerve, immunity and metabolism, caused by emotional stress. "Shanghuo" is not a disease itself, but it can increase the susceptibility to a variety of diseases. This study reviewed the traditional medicine theory and the modern medical studies, and explored the relevance and correlation mechanisms between the Shanghuo symptoms and disease susceptibility, so as to provide a reference to improve the state of sub-health and prevent or treat modern diseases. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Nest ectoparasites increase physiological stress in breeding birds: an experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Tomás, Gustavo; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa; Martínez, Javier

    2011-02-01

    Parasites are undoubtedly a biotic factor that produces stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important molecules buffering cellular damage under adverse conditions. During the breeding season, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (L.) adults are affected by blood parasites, nest-dwelling parasites and biting flies, potentially affecting their HSP-mediated responses. Here, we treated females with primaquine to reduce blood parasites and fumigated nests with permethrin to reduce nest-dwelling parasites to test whether these treatments affect HSP60 level during the breeding season. Medicated females, but not controls, had a significant reduction of the intensity of infection by Haemoproteus spp. blood parasites. However, final intensity of infection did not differ significantly between groups, and we did not find an effect of medication on change in HSP60 level. Fumigation reduced the abundance of nest-dwelling parasites (mites, fleas and blowfly larvae) and engorged biting midges in nests. Females breeding in non-fumigated nests increased HSP60 levels during the season more than those breeding in fumigated nests. Furthermore, the change in HSP60 level was positively correlated with the abundance of biting midges. These results show how infections by nest ectoparasites during the breeding period can increase the level of HSPs and suggest that biting midges impose physiological costs on breeding female blue tits. Although plausible, the alternative that biting midges prefer to feed on more stressed birds is poorly supported by previous studies.

  4. Going for gold : Investigating the (non)sense of increased advertising around major sports events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsenberg, Maarten J.

    Major sports events draw unsurpassed media attention. Companies are motivated to increase their advertising investments around these events to reach large audiences in a short period. Is such an advertising surge actually beneficial though, or should companies avoid advertising in these periods

  5. Reduced herbivory during simulated ENSO rainy events increases native herbaceous plants in semiarid Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manrique, R.; Gutierrez, J.R.; Holmgren, M.; Squeo, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have profound consequences for the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. Since increased climate variability is expected to favour the invasive success of exotic species, we conducted a field experiment to study the effects that simulated rainy ENSO events in

  6. Do stressful life events predict medical treatment outcome in first episode of depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Camilla; Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Vinberg, Maj

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether medical treatment outcome in first episode depression differ for patients with and without stressful life events prior to onset of depression. METHODS: Patients discharged with a diagnosis of a single depressive episode from a psychiatric in- or outpatient hospital......-II) and the interview of recent life events (IRLE). Medical treatment history was assessed in detail using standardised procedures (TRAQ). Remission was defined as a score or= 4 on TRAQ following (1) first trial of antidepressant treatment (2) two adequate trials of antidepressant treatment. RESULTS: A total of 399...... patients participated in the interview and among these 301 patients obtained a SCAN diagnosis of a single depressive episode. A total of 62.8% of the 301 patients experienced at least one moderate to severe stressful life event in a 6 months period prior to symptom onset. The presence of a stressful life...

  7. Seagrass proliferation precedes mortality during hypo-salinity events: a stress-induced morphometric response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J Collier

    Full Text Available Halophytes, such as seagrasses, predominantly form habitats in coastal and estuarine areas. These habitats can be seasonally exposed to hypo-salinity events during watershed runoff exposing them to dramatic salinity shifts and osmotic shock. The manifestation of this osmotic shock on seagrass morphology and phenology was tested in three Indo-Pacific seagrass species, Halophila ovalis, Halodule uninervis and Zostera muelleri, to hypo-salinity ranging from 3 to 36 PSU at 3 PSU increments for 10 weeks. All three species had broad salinity tolerance but demonstrated a moderate hypo-salinity stress response--analogous to a stress induced morphometric response (SIMR. Shoot proliferation occurred at salinities <30 PSU, with the largest increases, up to 400% increase in shoot density, occurring at the sub-lethal salinities <15 PSU, with the specific salinity associated with peak shoot density being variable among species. Resources were not diverted away from leaf growth or shoot development to support the new shoot production. However, at sub-lethal salinities where shoots proliferated, flowering was severely reduced for H. ovalis, the only species to flower during this experiment, demonstrating a diversion of resources away from sexual reproduction to support the investment in new shoots. This SIMR response preceded mortality, which occurred at 3 PSU for H. ovalis and 6 PSU for H. uninervis, while complete mortality was not reached for Z. muelleri. This is the first study to identify a SIMR in seagrasses, being detectable due to the fine resolution of salinity treatments tested. The detection of SIMR demonstrates the need for caution in interpreting in-situ changes in shoot density as shoot proliferation could be interpreted as a healthy or positive plant response to environmental conditions, when in fact it could signal pre-mortality stress.

  8. Posttraumatic Stress among Young Urban Children Exposed to Family Violence and Other Potentially Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusto, Cindy A.; Whitson, Melissa L.; Walling, Sherry N.; Feinn, Richard; Friedman, Stacey R.; Reynolds, Jesse; Amer, Mona; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the number of types of traumatic events experienced by children 3 to 6 years old, parenting stress, and children’s posttraumatic stress (PTS). Parents/caregivers provided data for 154 urban children admitted into community-based mental health and/or developmental services. By parent/caregiver report, children experienced an average of 4.9 different types of potentially traumatic events. Nearly one-quarter of the children evidenced clinically significant PTS. PTS was positively and significantly related to family violence and other family-related trauma exposure, nonfamily violence/trauma exposure, and parenting stress. Additionally, parenting stress partially mediated the relationship between family violence/trauma exposure and PTS. This study highlights the need for early violence/trauma exposure screening in help-seeking populations so that appropriate interventions are initiated. PMID:21171132

  9. A MICROANALYTIC EXPLORATION OF THE COGNITIVE APPRAISAL OF DAILY STRESSFUL EVENTS AT WORK - THE ROLE OF CONTROLLABILITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PEETERS, MCW; BUUNK, BP; SCHAUFELI, WB

    1995-01-01

    Employing a daily event-recording method the present study focuses on the nature of stressful events of secretaries, their outcomes and the intervening cognitive appraisal process. With regard to the latter, five factors were selected that may constitute the cognitive appraisal of a stressful event:

  10. A micro-analytic exploration of the cognitive appraisal of daily stressful events at work: The role of controllability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.C.W.; Buunk, B.P.; Schaufeli, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    Employing a daily event-recording method the present study focuses onthe nature of stressful events of secretaries, their outcomes and theintervening cognitive appraisal process. With regard to the latter, five factors were selected that may constitute the cognitive appraisal of a stressful event:

  11. Cognitive Moderators of Children's Adjustment to Stressful Divorce Events: The Role of Negative Cognitive Errors and Positive Illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Virdin, Lynn; Sandler, Irwin N.; West, Stephen G.

    1999-01-01

    Examined whether children's cognitive biases moderated impact of stressful divorce-related events on adjustment in 9- to 12-year olds. Found that endorsing negative cognitive errors for hypothetical divorce events moderated relations between stressful divorce events and self- and maternal-reports of internalizing and externalizing symptoms for…

  12. Life events and stress: do older men and women in Malaysia cope differently as consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Fon Sim; Phillips, David R; Chai, Sen Tyng

    2013-06-01

    The study of major life events and their effects on well-being has considerable relevance for scientific disciplines and policy making in understanding the consumer behaviour of older people. There is evidence of differences in reactions to and coping with stress between males and females but relatively little knowledge about such gender differences amongst older people, especially in middle-income countries. This study of older Malaysians looked at both coping strategies and gender differences in reactions to stress when people are confronted with certain life events. Seventeen major life events were used in interviews with 645 respondents aged 50 years or older in five major urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The analysis showed older women tended to experience higher levels of chronic stress than older men. They also had more health problems, had lower levels of self-esteem and were less satisfied with life. Whilst the results showed little support for gender differences in coping behaviours, stress had a significant influence on the way older men and women change store preferences. A hypothesis that older women would use more emotion-focused coping strategies was not supported. Knowledge of how older Malaysians cope with life events and stress and especially in this instance with regard to consumption behaviour, is likely to be of considerable academic and policy related interest.

  13. Low tryptophan diet increases stress-sensitivity, but does not affect habituation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanke, Marit A. C.; Alserda, Edwin; Doornbos, Bennard; van der Most, Peter J.; Goeman, Kitty; Postema, Folkert; Korf, Jakob

    Cerebral dysfunction of 5-HT (serotonin) has been associated with stress response and with affective disorders. Stress alone is insufficient to induce depression, since only a minor proportion of subjects that have experienced stressful life events develop depressive episodes. We investigated

  14. Potentially Traumatic Events, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Depression among Adults in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Cassie; Berenz, Erin C; Sheerin, Christina; Amstadter, Ananda B; Canino, Glorisa; Silberg, Judy

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; data available in males only), and depressive symptoms in a Puerto Rican sample of 678 adult caretakers (50% female) of twins participating in the Puerto Rican Infant Twin Study. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) was utilized to assess rates of PTEs, PTSD, and depression among male participants while an abbreviated version of the CIDI 3.0 and the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire were administered to females to assess PTEs and depressive symptoms. Significantly more males than females reported exposure to a PTE (76.6% vs. 44.2%, χ(2) = 64.44, p < 0.001). In males, endorsement of multiple PTEs was associated with increased level of PTSD symptomatology (β = 0.33, p < 0.001). With regard to depression, a similar dose-response relationship was found in both males and females, with depressive symptoms increasing as number of PTEs increased (βs = 0.15, 0.16, ps < 0.05). Exposure to an attack with a weapon was significantly associated with increased depression symptoms in both males and females (βs = 0.24, 0.20, ps < 0.01, respectively). These findings highlight the need for identification of putative risk and resilience factors among PTE-exposed individuals in Puerto Rico.

  15. Potentially Traumatic Events, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Depression among Adults in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassie eOverstreet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to examine the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; data available in males only, and depressive symptoms in a Puerto Rican sample of 678 adult caretakers (50% female of twins participating in the Puerto Rican Infant Twin Study. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0 was utilized to assess rates of PTEs, PTSD, and depression among male participants while an abbreviated version of the CIDI 3.0 and the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire were administered to females to assess PTEs and depressive symptoms. Significantly more males than females reported exposure to a PTE (76.6% vs. 44.2%, 2=64.44, p<.001. In males, endorsement of multiple PTEs was associated with increased level of PTSD symptomatology ( = .33, p < .001. With regard to depression, a similar dose-response relationship was found in both males and females, with depressive symptoms increasing as number of PTEs increased (s = .15, .16, ps < .05. Exposure to an attack with a weapon was significantly associated with increased depression symptoms in both males and females (s=.24, .20, ps<.01, respectively. These findings highlight the need for identification of putative risk and resilience factors among PTE-exposed individuals in Puerto Rico.

  16. High lung volume increases stress failure in pulmonary capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z.; Costello, M. L.; Tsukimoto, K.; Prediletto, R.; Elliott, A. R.; Mathieu-Costello, O.; West, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    We previously showed that when pulmonary capillaries in anesthetized rabbits are exposed to a transmural pressure (Ptm) of approximately 40 mmHg, stress failure of the walls occurs with disruption of the capillary endothelium, alveolar epithelium, or sometimes all layers. The present study was designed to test whether stress failure occurred more frequently at high than at low lung volumes for the same Ptm. Lungs of anesthetized rabbits were inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 20 cmH2O, perfused with autologous blood at 32.5 or 2.5 cmH2O Ptm, and fixed by intravascular perfusion. Samples were examined by both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared with those of a previous study in which the lung was inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O. There was a large increase in the frequency of stress failure of the capillary walls at the higher lung volume. For example, at 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the number of endothelial breaks per millimeter cell lining was 7.1 +/- 2.2 at the high lung volume compared with 0.7 +/- 0.4 at the low lung volume. The corresponding values for epithelium were 8.5 +/- 1.6 and 0.9 +/- 0.6. Both differences were significant (P less than 0.05). At 52.5 cmH2O Ptm, the results for endothelium were 20.7 +/- 7.6 (high volume) and 7.1 +/- 2.1 (low volume), and the corresponding results for epithelium were 32.8 +/- 11.9 and 11.4 +/- 3.7. At 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the thickness of the blood-gas barrier was greater at the higher lung volume, consistent with the development of more interstitial edema. Ballooning of the epithelium caused by accumulation of edema fluid between the epithelial cell and its basement membrane was seen at 32.5 and 52.5 cmH2O Ptm. At high lung volume, the breaks tended to be narrower and fewer were oriented perpendicular to the axis of the pulmonary capillaries than at low lung volumes. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy measurements agreed well. Our findings provide a physiological

  17. Increased thermohaline stratification as a possible cause for an ocean anoxic event in the Cretaceous period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbacher, J; Huber, B T; Norris, R D; Markey, M

    2001-01-18

    Ocean anoxic events were periods of high carbon burial that led to drawdown of atmospheric carbon dioxide, lowering of bottom-water oxygen concentrations and, in many cases, significant biological extinction. Most ocean anoxic events are thought to be caused by high productivity and export of carbon from surface waters which is then preserved in organic-rich sediments, known as black shales. But the factors that triggered some of these events remain uncertain. Here we present stable isotope data from a mid-Cretaceous ocean anoxic event that occurred 112 Myr ago, and that point to increased thermohaline stratification as the probable cause. Ocean anoxic event 1b is associated with an increase in surface-water temperatures and runoff that led to decreased bottom-water formation and elevated carbon burial in the restricted basins of the western Tethys and North Atlantic. This event is in many ways similar to that which led to the more recent Plio-Pleistocene Mediterranean sapropels, but the greater geographical extent and longer duration (approximately 46 kyr) of ocean anoxic event 1b suggest that processes leading to such ocean anoxic events in the North Atlantic and western Tethys were able to act over a much larger region, and sequester far more carbon, than any of the Quaternary sapropels.

  18. Stressful life events during pregnancy as risk factors for developing autistic disorder in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Abdi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to examine the role of prenatal stressful events in mothers of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in 2014. A total number of 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected by convenience method from the autism rehabilitation centers in Tabriz, Iran. Moreover, 112 typically developing (TD children and adolescents were selected from public schools using a random clustering method. Two groups were matched in terms of mother's and child's age and mother's educational level. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS semi-structured diagnostic interview was used to evaluate the presence of psychiatric disorders. The diagnosis of AD was made based on the DSM-IV criteria during separate diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The life stressful events’ inventory was used to assess the presence of stressful events during pregnancy. Results: According to Fisher's exact test, the frequency of stressful life events including failure to achieve life goals, high debt, frequent marital conflict, conflict with spouse's family, changes in sleeping habits, and sexual difficulties in the mothers of AD children during pregnancy was significantly higher than the mothers of TD children. Also, mothers of AD children reported significantly higher frequency for the positive stressful life events including the major job progress, starting or finishing education, change of education, location, and summer vacation during pregnancy. Conclusion: Some stressful life events in mothers during pregnancy may be considered as risk factors for developing AD in their children. Further researches are needed to establish the results of this study.

  19. Self-critical perfectionism, daily stress, and disclosure of daily emotional events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Clarissa M E; Rice, Kenneth G

    2015-10-01

    Although disclosure of stressful events can alleviate distress, self-critical perfectionism may pose an especially strong impediment to disclosure during stress, likely contributing to poorer psychological well-being. In the current study, after completing a measure of self-critical perfectionism (the Discrepancy subscale of the Almost Perfect Scale--Revised; Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001), 396 undergraduates completed measures of stress and disclosure at the end of each day for 1 week. Consistent with hypotheses and previous research, multilevel modeling results indicated significant intraindividual coupling of daily stress and daily disclosure where disclosure was more likely when experiencing high stress than low stress. As hypothesized, Discrepancy moderated the relationship between daily stress and daily disclosure. Individuals higher in self-critical perfectionism (Discrepancy) were less likely to engage in disclosure under high stress, when disclosure is often most beneficial, than those with lower Discrepancy scores. These results have implications for understanding the role of stress and coping in the daily lives of self-critical perfectionists. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Structure of high and low shear-stress events in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomit, G.; de Kat, R.; Ganapathisubramani, B.

    2018-01-01

    Simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and wall-shear-stress sensor measurements were performed to study structures associated with shear-stress events in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at a Reynolds number Reτ≈4000 . The PIV field of view covers 8 δ (where δ is the boundary layer thickness) along the streamwise direction and captures the entire boundary layer in the wall-normal direction. Simultaneously, wall-shear-stress measurements that capture the large-scale fluctuations were taken using a spanwise array of hot-film skin-friction sensors (spanning 2 δ ). Based on this combination of measurements, the organization of the conditional wall-normal and streamwise velocity fluctuations (u and v ) and of the Reynolds shear stress (-u v ) can be extracted. Conditional averages of the velocity field are computed by dividing the histogram of the large-scale wall-shear-stress fluctuations into four quartiles, each containing 25% of the occurrences. The conditional events corresponding to the extreme quartiles of the histogram (positive and negative) predominantly contribute to a change of velocity profile associated with the large structures and in the modulation of the small scales. A detailed examination of the Reynolds shear-stress contribution related to each of the four quartiles shows that the flow above a low wall-shear-stress event carries a larger amount of Reynolds shear stress than the other quartiles. The contribution of the small and large scales to this observation is discussed based on a scale decomposition of the velocity field.

  1. Perceiving a negative event as central to one's identity partially mediates age differences in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boals, Adriel; Hayslip, Bert; Knowles, Laura R; Banks, Jonathan B

    2012-04-01

    Older adults report fewer posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms than younger adults, but the reasons for this age difference are unclear. In the current study, the authors explored the extent to which they may be due to age differences in event centrality (the extent to which a person construes a stressful event as central to their identity). A sample of older and younger adults nominated their most stressful event and completed measures of PTSD symptoms and event centrality. The results revealed that older adults were less likely to construe a stressful event as central to identity, even after controlling for type of event, how long ago the event occurred, and gender. In addition, the results of a mediation analysis indicated that age-related differences in event centrality partially mediated age-related differences in PTSD symptoms. The results are consistent with the Socioemotional Selectivity Theory view that older adults tend to use cognitive strategies designed to protect emotional health.

  2. Measurement Differences from Rating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Response to Differentially Distressing Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhai, Jon D.; Fine, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a result of rating symptoms from two separate, differentially distressing traumatic events. In an initial sample of 400 nonclinical participants, the authors inquired through a web survey about previous psychological trauma, instructing participants to nominate…

  3. Stressful Events and Depressive Symptoms among Old Women and Men: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Chi, Iris

    2000-01-01

    Examines the impact of a series of common stressful life events (SLEs) on changes in depressive symptoms among older adults (N=260) aged 70 or older. Results show that of eight SLEs only widowhood was associated with depression symptoms three years later. SLEs influenced the depression of men and women differently. (Author/MKA)

  4. Green space as a buffer between stressful life events and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.; Maas, J.; Verheij, R.A.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether the presence of green space can attenuate negative health impacts of stressful life events. Individual-level data on health and socio-demographic characteristics were drawn from a representative two-stage sample of 4529 Dutch respondents to the second Dutch National

  5. Green space as a buffer between stressful life events and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Agnes E.; Maas, Jolanda; Verheij, Robert A.; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    This study investigates whether the presence of green space can attenuate negative health impacts of stressful life events. Individual-level data on health and socio-demographic characteristics were drawn from a representative two-stage sample of 4529 Dutch respondents to the second Dutch National

  6. Green space as a buffer between stressful life events and health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Berg, A. van den; Verheij, R.A.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether the presence of green space can attenuate negative health impacts of stressful life events. Individual-level data on health and socio-demographic characteristics were drawn from a representative two-stage sample of 4529 Dutch respondents to the second Dutch National

  7. Risk Factors for Preschool Depression: The Mediating Role of Early Stressful Life Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.; Belden, Andy C.; Spitznagel, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Background: Family history of mood disorders and stressful life events are both established risk factors for childhood depression. However, the role of mediators in risk trajectories, which are potential targets for intervention, remains understudied. To date, there have been no investigations of mediating relationships between risk factors and…

  8. The Relationship Between Stressful Life Events, Locus of Control, and Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau, James J.

    Numerous studies involving suicide attempters and those who commit suicide suggest that the suicidal individual perceives limited control over the environment, the occurrence of stressful life events and a diminished probability of future success. Results of the present study indicate a relationship between the frequency of suicidal thoughts among…

  9. Major stressful life events and other risk factors for first admission with mania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Agerbo, Esben; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether first admission with mania is associated with the occurrence of death in the family or with major stressful life events and to explore whether the associations change with age. METHODS: Case register study with linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Research ...... disorder. The susceptibility to major life stressors of inducing mania does not seem to change throughout life....

  10. A Negative Life Event Impairs Psychosocial Stress, Recovery and Running Economy of Runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, R. T. A.; Brink, M. S.; Diercks, R. L.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.

    The purpose was to investigate how a negative life event (NLE) affects perceived psychosocial stress, recovery and running economy (RE). Competitive runners were monitored in a prospective non-experimental cohort study over one full training season in which they experienced the same unplanned severe

  11. Stressful Events and Continued Smoking and Continued Alcohol Consumption during Mid-Pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, C.; Ormel, J.; Meijer, J. L.; Verbeek, T.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Burger, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: to examine whether the severity of different categories of stressful events is associated with continued smoking and alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy. Also, we explored the explanation of these associations by anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Finally, we studied whether

  12. Stressful events and continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, Chantal; Ormel, Johan; Meijer, Judith L; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Burger, Huibert

    2014-01-01

    Aim: to examine whether the severity of different categories of stressful events is associated with continued smoking and alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy. Also, we explored the explanation of these associations by anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Finally, we studied whether

  13. The influence of pubertal timing and stressful life events on depression and delinquency among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Yu, Jing; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Jianxin

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influences of pubertal timing and stressful life events on Chinese adolescents' depression and delinquency. Sex differences in these influences were also examined. A large sample with 4,228 participants aged 12-15 years (53% girls) was recruited in Beijing, China. Participants' pubertal development, stressful life events, depressive symptoms, and delinquency were measured using self-reported questionnaires. Both early maturing girls and boys displayed more delinquency than their same-sex on-time and late maturing peers. Early maturing girls displayed more depressive symptoms than on-time and late maturing girls, but boys in the three maturation groups showed similar levels of depressive symptoms. The interactive effects between early pubertal timing and stressful life events were significant in predicting depression and delinquency, particularly for girls. Early pubertal maturation is an important risk factor for Chinese adolescents' depression and delinquency. Stressful life events intensified the detrimental effects of early pubertal maturation on adolescents' depression and delinquency, particularly for girls. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Potentially Stressful Life Events and Emotional Closeness between Grandparents and Adult Grandchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Suzanne; Liossis, Poppy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the variation in emotional closeness in the adult grandchild and grandparent relationship in relation to the occurrence of potentially stressful life events in childhood. A sample of university students (N = 119) completed a questionnaire measuring elements of intergenerational solidarity. Comparisons were…

  15. Correlation of chronic kidney disease, diabetes and peripheral artery disease with cardiovascular events in patients using stress myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Tatsuhiko; Masai, Hirofumi; Kunimasa, Taeko; Nakazato, Ryo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Sugi, Kaoru; Moroi, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Normal stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) studies generally suggest an excellent prognosis for cardiovascular events. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes and peripheral artery disease (PAD) have been established as the risk factors for cardiovascular events. However, whether these risk factors significantly predict cardiovascular events in patients with normal stress MPI is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of these risk factors in patients with normal stress MPI. Patients with normal stress MPI (n=372, male=215 and female=157, age=69 years, CKD without hemodialysis=95, diabetes=99, PAD=19, previous coronary artery disease=116) were followed up for 14 months. Normal stress MPI was defined as a summed stress score of 2 and/or persistent proteinuria. Cardiovascular events included cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization. Cardiovascular events occurred in 20 of 372 patients (5.4%). In univariate Cox regression analysis, PAD, diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, insulin use, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, CKD, left ventricular ejection fraction and pharmacological stress tests were significant predictors of cardiovascular events. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, PAD, diabetes and CKD were independent and significant predictors for cardiovascular events, and their number was the strongest predictor for cardiovascular events (hazard ratio=21.7, P<0.001). PAD, diabetes and CKD are coexisting, independent and significant risk factors for cardiovascular events, CKD being the strongest predictor. The number of coexisting risk factors is important in predicting cardiovascular events in patients with normal stress MPI. (author)

  16. Cumulative effects of negative life events and family stress on children's mental health: the Bergen Child Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe, Tormod; Serlachius, Anna Sofia; Sivertsen, Børge; Petrie, Keith J; Hysing, Mari

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented that lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with increased mental health problems in children. One proposed pathway for this association has been differential exposure to accumulated risk factors in children of lower SES. The aim of the current study was to investigate the socioeconomic distribution of exposure to negative life events and family stress and to examine the direct and interactive association between lower SES and exposure to life events and family stress in relation with mental health problems. Using cross-sectional data from the second wave of the Bergen Child Study (conducted in 2006), the current study investigated the association between lower SES and exposure to negative life events, family life stressors, and mental health problems in a sample of 2043 Norwegian 11-13 years and their parents. Information about mental health was self-reported by the children using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, whereas information about SES and exposure to negative life events and family stressors were provided by their parents. The findings showed that lower SES was associated with more symptoms of emotional-, conduct-, hyperactivity/inattention-, and peer problems and that exposure to life events and family stress explained some of this association (10-29% of the total effects). Low SES and higher prevalence of negative life events and family stressors were associated with more symptoms of mental health problems. Overall, the effect sizes were smaller than previous investigations (f 2 s = 0.015-0.031), perhaps suggesting a buffering effect of the social safety net in place in Norway.

  17. Mating with stressed males increases the fitness of ant queens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schrempf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to sexual conflict theory, males can increase their own fitness by transferring substances during copulation that increase the short-term fecundity of their mating partners at the cost of the future life expectancy and re-mating capability of the latter. In contrast, sexual cooperation is expected in social insects. Mating indeed positively affects life span and fecundity of young queens of the male-polymorphic ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, even though males neither provide nuptial gifts nor any other care but leave their mates immediately after copulation and die shortly thereafter. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that mating with winged disperser males has a significantly stronger impact on life span and reproductive success of young queens of C. obscurior than mating with wingless fighter males. CONCLUSIONS: Winged males are reared mostly under stressful environmental conditions, which force young queens to disperse and found their own societies independently. In contrast, queens that mate with wingless males under favourable conditions usually start reproducing in the safety of the established maternal nest. Our study suggests that males of C. obscurior have evolved mechanisms to posthumously assist young queens during colony founding under adverse ecological conditions.

  18. Journaling about stressful events: effects of cognitive processing and emotional expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Philip M; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2002-01-01

    The effects of two journaling interventions, one focusing on emotional expression and the other on both cognitive processing and emotional expression, were compared during 1 month of journaling about a stressful or traumatic event. One hundred twenty-two students were randomly assigned to one of three writing conditions: (a) focusing on emotions related to a trauma or stressor, (b) focusing on cognitions and emotions related to a trauma or stressor, or (c) writing factually about media events. Writers focusing on cognitions and emotions developed greater awareness of the positive benefits of the stressful event than the other two groups. This effect was apparently mediated by greater cognitive processing during writing. Writers focusing on emotions alone reported more severe illness symptoms during the study than those in other conditions. This effect appeared to be mediated by a greater focus on negative emotional expression during writing.

  19. Associations between recent gay-related stressful events, emotional distress, social support and unprotected anal intercourse behavior among Chinese men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunyong, Liu; Zhe, Wang; Junting, Xu; Yan, Zhou; Xiaoxia, An; Li, Zhao; Yuan, Gu; Chao, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to assess the levels of and associations between gay-related stressful events, social support, emotional distress and the number of unprotected anal intercourse partners among Chinese men who have sex with men. Using a respondent-driven sampling method, 807 men who have sex with men were recruited in urban areas of northeast China and data were collected via face-to-face interviews. Gay-related stressful events were measured using the Gay-Related Stressful Life Events Scale; levels of depression, anxiety symptoms and social support were measured using the Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and the Social Support Rating Scale, respectively. Over a quarter of study participants experienced gay-related stressful events during the preceding 3 months. Their average Self-Rating Depression Scale, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Social Support scores differed significantly from the national norm. Gay-related stressful events significantly correlated with anxiety (r = 0.167, p Gay-related stressful events are common and are significantly associated with emotional distress, lack of social support and high-risk sexual behaviors among Chinese men who have sex with men. Multifaceted approaches are warranted to increase social support and reduce intolerance toward homosexual behaviors and to reduce risky sexual behaviors related to the rapid HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men population in China. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  20. Maternal posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in pediatric primary care: association with child maltreatment and frequency of child exposure to traumatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, Claude M; Gudiño, Omar G; Laraque, Danielle

    2013-11-01

    Maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with increased risk for child maltreatment and child exposure to traumatic events. Exposure to multiple traumatic events is associated with a wide range of adverse health and social outcomes in children. To examine the association of probable maternal depression, PTSD, and comorbid PTSD and depression with the risk for child maltreatment and parenting stress and with the number of traumatic events to which preschool children are exposed. Cross-sectional observational design. We used analysis of variance to determine whether probable maternal psychopathology groups differed on child maltreatment, parenting stress, and children's exposure to traumatic events. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine the unique and interactive effects of depression and PTSD severity scores on these outcomes. Urban pediatric primary care outpatient clinic. Ninety-seven mothers of children aged 3 to 5 years. Pediatric primary care visit. Probable maternal depression and/or PTSD, parenting stress, child exposure to traumatic events, and child maltreatment. Mothers with probable comorbid PTSD and depression reported greater child-directed psychological aggression and physical assault and greater parenting stress. The children of mothers with PTSD (mean number of events the child was exposed to, 5.0) or with comorbid PTSD and depression (3.5 events) experienced more traumatic events than those of mothers with depression (1.2 events) or neither disorder (1.4 events). Severity of depressive symptoms uniquely predicted physical assault and neglect. Symptom scores for PTSD and depression interacted to predict psychological aggression and child exposure to traumatic events. When PTSD symptom severity scores were high, psychological aggression and the number of traumatic events children experienced rose. Depressive symptom severity scores predicted the risk for psychological aggression and exposure to traumatic events

  1. The Interactive Effects of Stressful Family Life Events and Cortisol Reactivity on Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeger, Christine M.; Cook, Emily C.; Connell, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between stressful family life events and adolescent externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and the interactive effects of family life events and cortisol reactivity on problem behaviors. In a sample of 100 mothers and their adolescents (M age = 15.09; SD age = 0.98; 68% girls), adolescent cortisol reactivity was measured in response to a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task designed to elicit a stress response. Mothers reported on measures of family life events and adolescent problem behaviors. Results indicated that a heightened adolescent cortisol response moderated the relations between stressful family life events and both externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Results support context-dependent theoretical models, suggesting that for adolescents with higher cortisol reactivity (compared to those with lower cortisol reactivity), higher levels of stressful family life events were associated with greater problem behaviors, whereas lower levels of stressful family life events were related to fewer problem behaviors. PMID:26961703

  2. Stressful life-events in childhood and risk of multiple sclerosis: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo V; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Frisch, Morten

    2014-10-01

    Current knowledge concerning the association between exposure to stressful life-events (SFLEs) in childhood and later risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) is sparse. We studied the associations between SFLEs in childhood and subsequent risk of MS in a nationwide cohort of 2.9 million Danes born from 1968 to 2011. A SFLE in childhood was defined as exposure before age 18 years to parental divorce, parental death, or death of a sibling, using information from the Danish Civil Registration System. MS cases in the cohort were identified in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. Associations of SFLE with MS risk were evaluated by incidence rate ratios (RR) of MS obtained in log-linear Poisson regression models. Persons exposed to any SFLE in childhood were at 11% elevated risk of MS (RR = 1.11; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.20), compared to non-exposed persons. Stratification by subtype of SFLE showed that parental death and death of a sibling were not associated with MS risk. However, persons exposed to parental divorce were at 13% increased risk of developing MS compared to non-exposed (RR = 1.13; 1.04-1.23). Associations of SFLEs in childhood with risk of MS are weak. However, parental divorce is somehow associated with modestly increased risk of MS. © The Author(s), 2014.

  3. Plaque Structural Stress Estimations Improve Prediction of Future Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events After Intracoronary Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam J; Teng, Zhongzhao; Calvert, Patrick A; Rajani, Nikil K; Hennessy, Orla; Nerlekar, Nitesh; Obaid, Daniel R; Costopoulos, Charis; Huang, Yuan; Hoole, Stephen P; Goddard, Martin; West, Nick E J; Gillard, Jonathan H; Bennett, Martin R

    2016-06-01

    Although plaque rupture is responsible for most myocardial infarctions, few high-risk plaques identified by intracoronary imaging actually result in future major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Nonimaging markers of individual plaque behavior are therefore required. Rupture occurs when plaque structural stress (PSS) exceeds material strength. We therefore assessed whether PSS could predict future MACE in high-risk nonculprit lesions identified on virtual-histology intravascular ultrasound. Baseline nonculprit lesion features associated with MACE during long-term follow-up (median: 1115 days) were determined in 170 patients undergoing 3-vessel virtual-histology intravascular ultrasound. MACE was associated with plaque burden ≥70% (hazard ratio: 8.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.5-30.6; P<0.001) and minimal luminal area ≤4 mm(2) (hazard ratio: 6.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-20.1; P=0.036), although absolute event rates for high-risk lesions remained <10%. PSS derived from virtual-histology intravascular ultrasound was subsequently estimated in nonculprit lesions responsible for MACE (n=22) versus matched control lesions (n=22). PSS showed marked heterogeneity across and between similar lesions but was significantly increased in MACE lesions at high-risk regions, including plaque burden ≥70% (13.9±11.5 versus 10.2±4.7; P<0.001) and thin-cap fibroatheroma (14.0±8.9 versus 11.6±4.5; P=0.02). Furthermore, PSS improved the ability of virtual-histology intravascular ultrasound to predict MACE in plaques with plaque burden ≥70% (adjusted log-rank, P=0.003) and minimal luminal area ≤4 mm(2) (P=0.002). Plaques responsible for MACE had larger superficial calcium inclusions, which acted to increase PSS (P<0.05). Baseline PSS is increased in plaques responsible for MACE and improves the ability of intracoronary imaging to predict events. Biomechanical modeling may complement plaque imaging for risk stratification of coronary nonculprit lesions. © 2016

  4. Can stress increase Alzheimer's disease risk in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Lena

    2014-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid peptides and neurofibrilllary tangles in brain, resulting in neuronal death and loss of cognitive abilities. It has been hypothesized that longstanding psychological stress can result in neural degeneration and AD due to pathological alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In recent years several epidemiological studies been published on stress as a risk factor for AD. As women are more likely to suffer from stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder and clinical burnout syndrome, special effort has been made according to the gender differences in risk of AD. However, few studies have stratified for gender, due to small sample sizes and limited statistic power, and no reliable findings have been found. Additional longitudinal studies are therefore needed for studying gender differences and for determining what mediates the stress and AD association, in both genders.

  5. Stress in biological invasions: Introduced invasive grey squirrels increase physiological stress in native Eurasian red squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santicchia, Francesca; Dantzer, Ben; van Kesteren, Freya; Palme, Rupert; Martinoli, Adriano; Ferrari, Nicola; Wauters, Lucas Armand

    2018-05-23

    Invasive alien species can cause extinction of native species through processes including predation, interspecific competition for resources or disease-mediated competition. Increases in stress hormones in vertebrates may be associated with these processes and contribute to the decline in survival or reproduction of the native species. Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) have gone extinct across much of the British Isles and parts of Northern Italy following the introduction of North American invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis). We extracted glucocorticoid metabolites from faecal samples to measure whether the presence of the invasive species causes an increase in physiological stress in individuals of the native species. We show that native red squirrels in seven sites where they co-occurred with invasive grey squirrels had glucocorticoid concentrations that were three times higher than those in five sites without the invasive species. Moreover, in a longitudinal study, stress hormones in native red squirrels increased after colonisation by grey squirrels. When we experimentally reduced the abundance of the invasive grey squirrels, the concentration of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in co-occurring red squirrels decreased significantly between pre- and postremoval periods. Hence, we found that the invasive species acts as a stressor which significantly increases the concentrations of glucocorticoids in the native species. Given that sustained elevations in glucocorticoids could reduce body growth and reproductive rate, our results are consistent with previous studies where the co-occurrence of the invasive grey squirrel was associated with smaller size and lower reproductive output in red squirrels. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2018 British Ecological Society.

  6. Reduced fatalism and increased prevention behavior after two high-profile lung cancer events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, David B; Leach, Corinne R; Kaufman, Annette R; Moser, Richard P; Alfano, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    The positive impact of media coverage of high-profile cancer events on cancer prevention behaviors is well-established. However, less work has focused on potential adverse psychological reactions to such events, such as fatalism. Conducting 3 studies, the authors explored how the lung cancer death of Peter Jennings and diagnosis of Dana Reeve in 2005 related to fatalism. Analysis of a national media sample in Study 1 found that media coverage of these events often focused on reiterating the typical profile of those diagnosed with lung cancer; 38% of the media mentioned at least 1 known risk factor for lung cancer, most often smoking. Data from a nationally representative survey in Study 2 found that respondents reported lower lung cancer fatalism, after, compared with before, the events (OR = 0.16, 95% CI [0.03, 0.93]). A sustained increase in call volume to the national tobacco Quitline after these events was found in Study 3. These results suggest that there is a temporal association between high-profile cancer events, the subsequent media coverage, psychological outcomes, and cancer prevention behaviors. These results suggest that high-profile cancer events could be leveraged as an opportunity for large-scale public heath communication campaigns through the dissemination of cancer prevention messages and services.

  7. Fluoxetine reverts chronic restraint stress-induced depression-like behaviour and increases neuropeptide Y and galanin expression in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren Hofman Oliveira; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2011-01-01

    Stressful life events and chronic stress are implicated in the development of depressive disorder in humans. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin have been shown to modulate the stress response, and exert antidepressant-like effects in rodents. To further investigate these neuropeptides in depression......-like behaviour, NPY and galanin gene expression was studied in brains of mice subjected to chronic restraint stress (CRS) and concomitant treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX). CRS caused a significant increase in depression-like behaviour that was associated with increased NPY mRNA levels...... in the medial amygdala. Concomitant FLX treatment reverted depression-like effects of CRS and led to significant increases in levels of NPY and galanin mRNA in the dentate gyrus, amygdala, and piriform cortex. These findings suggest that effects on NPY and galanin gene expression could play a role...

  8. Enduring somatic threat perceptions and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in survivors of cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Laura; Alcántara, Carmela; Sumner, Jennifer A; Swan, Brendan; Chang, Bernard P; Edmondson, Donald

    2017-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder due to acute cardiovascular events may be uniquely defined by enduring perceptions of somatic threat. We tested whether post-traumatic stress disorder at 1 month post-acute coronary syndrome indeed required both high peritraumatic threat during the acute coronary syndrome and ongoing cardiac threat perceptions. We assessed peritraumatic threat during emergency department enrollment of 284 patients with a provisional acute coronary syndrome diagnosis and cardiac threat perceptions and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms 1 month post-discharge. In a multiple regression model with adjustment for important covariates, emergency department threat perceptions were associated with higher 1 month post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms only among those with high levels of ongoing cardiac threat.

  9. Why do some adolescents encounter everyday events that increase their civic interest whereas others do not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stattin, Håkan; Hussein, Oula; Özdemir, Metin; Russo, Silvia

    2017-02-01

    Using a longitudinal design, we asked 2 age cohorts of adolescents (15- and 18-year-olds) whether they, during the last year, had experienced events that had increased their civic interest and about details of their experiences. Based on self-determination theory, we predicted that the adolescents who reported having experienced events of this kind had already been more interested and had had more positive feelings about politics much earlier in time, and that this original interest would have increased more over time, than that of other adolescents. Second, we proposed that the adolescents who had encountered events that triggered their civic interest would have been engaged in behaviors that reflected their needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence, much earlier in time, and that, over time, they would have increased these behaviors more than other adolescents. These 2 predictions were largely confirmed. As for the content of the events the adolescents reported, many of them concerned national and international issues experienced as threatening, and that challenged the adolescents' beliefs and morality. Overall, a previous interest in politics and engagement in exploratory behaviors that reflect the adolescents' psychological needs seem to play crucial roles in understanding why adolescents in their everyday life encounter events that trigger their civic interest. Further, the findings show that having had everyday experiences that trigger the adolescents' civic interests are associated with a later increase in political interest more broadly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Increasing stress on disaster risk finance due to large floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Brenden; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Feyen, Luc; Aerts, Jeroen; Mechler, Reinhard; Botzen, Wouter; Bouwer, Laurens; Pflug, Georg; Rojas, Rodrigo; Ward, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Recent major flood disasters have shown that single extreme events can affect multiple countries simultaneously, which puts high pressure on trans-national risk reduction and risk transfer mechanisms. To date, little is known about such flood hazard interdependencies across regions, and the corresponding joint risks at regional to continental scales. Reliable information on correlated loss probabilities is crucial for developing robust insurance schemes and public adaptation funds, and for enhancing our understanding of climate change impacts. Here we show that extreme discharges are strongly correlated across European river basins and that these correlations can, or should, be used in national to continental scale risk assessment. We present probabilistic trends in continental flood risk, and demonstrate that currently observed extreme flood losses could more than double in frequency by 2050 under future climate change and socioeconomic development. The results demonstrate that accounting for tail dependencies leads to higher estimates of extreme losses than estimates based on the traditional assumption of independence between basins. We suggest that risk management for these increasing losses is largely feasible, and we demonstrate that risk can be shared by expanding risk transfer financing, reduced by investing in flood protection, or absorbed by enhanced solidarity between countries. We conclude that these measures have vastly different efficiency, equity and acceptability implications, which need to be taken into account in broader consultation, for which our analysis provides a basis.

  11. Extremely high wall-shear stress events in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chong; Kwon, Yongseok

    2018-04-01

    The present work studies the fluctuating characteristics of the streamwise wall-shear stress in a DNS of a turbulent boundary layer at Re τ =1500 from a structural view. The two-dimensional field of the fluctuating friction velocity u‧ τ (x,z) is decomposed into the large- and small-scale components via a recently proposed scale separation algorithm, Quasi-bivariate Variational Mode Decomposition (QB-VMD). Both components are found to be dominated by streak-like structures, which can be regarded as the wall signature of the inner-layer streaks and the outer-layer LSMs, respectively. Extreme positive/negative wall-shear stress fluctuation events are detected in the large-scale component. The former’s occurrence frequency is nearly one order of magnitude higher than the latter; therefore, they contribute a significant portion of the long tail of the wall-shear stress distribution. Both two-point correlations and conditional averages show that these extreme positive wall-shear stress events are embedded in the large-scale positive u‧ τ streaks. They seem to be formed by near-wall ‘splatting’ process, which are related to strong finger-like sweeping (Q4) events originated from the outer-layer positive LSMs.

  12. Development and validation of the Questionnaire of Stressful Life Events (QSLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butjosa, Anna; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Barajas, Ana; Baños, Iris; Usall, Judith; Grau, Norma; Granell, Luis; Sola, Andrea; Carlson, Janina; Dolz, Montserrat; Sánchez, Bernardo; Haro, Josep Maria; Ochoa, Susana

    2017-12-01

    Stressful life events (SLEs) are important indicators prior to the onset of first-episode psychosis (FEP). Although there are well-validated interviews and self-reports for assessing SLE on proximate events, unfortunately there are no instruments to assess SLE covering an entire lifetime. This study includes detailed specific items of childhood, adolescence, and adulthood focused on the presence of SLE, emotional impact (stressfulness), and the age at which the event occurred. Our research describes 2 studies designed to develop and validate a new scale to assess SLE: the Questionnaire of Stressful Life Events (QSLE). In Study 1, an over-inclusive item pool was generated based on review of group of experts at Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu and content validity was examined by an Expert Survey. The whole scale represents the content domain. In Study 2, item-level analyses revealed good distributional properties, intra-rater reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity. In the sensitivity and specificity analysis, 18 items had high relevance in the discriminability between patients with FEP and healthy controls. We note that there was an AUC of 0.676, indicating a good predictor. Using 7 as a cutoff to predict an individual as a patient would yield a sensitivity of 64.8% and a specificity of 65%. Overall, the QSLE displayed satisfactory psychometric characteristics in a Spanish population. These results suggest that QSLE gives us the opportunity to investigate childhood, adolescent, and adult life events by measuring the stress and age at the moment on a continuous scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Social connectedness, stressful life events, and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrynikola, Natalia; Miranda, Regina; Soffer, Ariella

    2018-01-01

    Preventing self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) is particularly challenging on commuter campuses, given lower social cohesion and higher levels of stress than among traditional college populations. The present study examined the relationship between stressful life events (SLEs) and risk for different forms of SITBs, along with the potential buffering role of social connectedness, in a diverse sample of young adults from a commuter college. Participants were 1712 (81% female; 61% racial/ethnic minority; 20% sexual minority) undergraduate and graduate students from a public commuter college in New York City. Participants completed an anonymous survey that inquired about lifetime and recent (past 12months) history of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), along with social connectedness and lifetime history of SLEs. Lower levels of social connectedness and exposure to a higher number of SLEs were associated with engaging in SITBs in the past year, particularly both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury. However, social connectedness did not buffer against the impact of SLEs on SITBs. Data are cross-sectional, limiting conclusions about directionality, and females were overrepresented. Identifying ways to increase social connectedness on diverse commuter campuses may help decrease risk of SITBs. However, it may not buffer against the impact of SLEs on risk of SITBs. Future studies should examine contextual variables (e.g., type and timing of social support) that may play a role in protecting against SITBs, particularly for those with a history of adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Making memories of stressful events: a journey along epigenetic, gene transcription and signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes M.H.M. eReul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong psychologically stressful events are known to have a long-lasting impact on behavior. The consolidation of such, largely adaptive, behavioral responses to stressful events involves changes in gene expression in limbic brain regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. The underlying molecular mechanisms however were until recently unresolved. More than a decade ago we started to investigate the role of these hormones in signaling and epigenetic mechanisms participating in the effects of stress on gene transcription in hippocampal neurons. We discovered a novel, rapid non-genomic mechanism in which glucocorticoids via glucocorticoid receptors (GRs facilitate signaling of the ERK MAPK signaling pathway to the downstream nuclear kinases MSK1 and Elk-1 in dentate gyrus (DG granule neurons. Activation of this signaling pathway results in serine10 (S10 phosphorylation and lysine14 (K14 acetylation at histone H3 (H3S10p-K14ac, leading to the induction of the immediate early genes c-Fos and Egr-1. In addition, we found a role of the DNA methylation status of gene promoters. A series of studies showed that these molecular mechanisms play a critical role in the long-lasting consolidation of behavioral responses in the forced swim test and Morris water maze. Furthermore, an important role of GABA was found in controlling the epigenetic and gene transcriptional responses to psychological stress. Thus, psychologically stressful events evoke a long-term impact on behavior through changes in hippocampal function brought about by distinct glutamatergic and glucocorticoid-driven changes in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription which are modulated by (local GABAergic interneurons and limbic afferent inputs. These epigenetic processes may play an important role in the etiology of stress-related mental disorders such as major depressive and anxiety disorders like PTSD.

  15. Event-related stresses in energy systems and their effects on energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry; Ranjan, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Energy systems change over time as events, such as grid failures, new energy sources, and extreme weather conditions, occur, often affecting the system's energy security. Understanding events, their causes, and how they are handled, can help a jurisdiction and its energy stakeholders develop better, evidence-based energy policy. This paper employs a definition of stress in combination with systems analysis to specify methods for explaining the states through which an energy process, chain, or system passes in response to an event and how this response results in energy security improving, deteriorating, or being maintained. The definition uses three dimensions-availability, affordability, and acceptability-derived from the International Energy Agency's definition of energy security to show when and how a system's energy security will change. Examples are used to illustrate the application of the methods. - Highlights: • A generic set of methods and a common terminology to formalize the ongoing energy security discourse is proposed. • The methods define, measure and explain how energy security can change when events cause stresses in an energy system. • Events are classified in terms of three dimensions derived from the IEA's definition of energy security. • The application of the method is illustrated with detailed examples

  16. Pre-event trajectories of mental health and health-related disabilities, and post-event traumatic stress symptoms and health : A 7-wave population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Peter; Bosmans, Mark; van der Meulen, Erik; Vermunt, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown to what extent classes of trajectories of pre-event mental health problems (MHP) and health-related disabilities (HRD), predict post-event traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), MHP and HRD. Aim of the present 7-wave study was to assess the predictive values using a representative sample of

  17. Learner-centred medical education: Improved learning or increased stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Michelle; Gibbs, Trevor J

    2009-12-01

    Globally, as medical education undergoes significant reform towards more "learner-centred" approaches, specific implications arise for medical educators and learners. Although this learner-centredness is grounded in educational theory, a point of discussion would be whether the application and practice of these new curricula alleviate or exacerbate student difficulties and levels of stress. This commentary will argue that while this reform in medical education is laudable, with positive implications for learning, medical educators may not have understood or perhaps not embraced "learner-centredness" in its entirety. During their training, medical students are expected to be "patient-centred". They are asked to apply a biopsychosocial model, which takes cognisance of all aspects of a patient's well-being. While many medical schools profess that their curricula reflect these principles, in reality, many may not always practice what they preach. Medical training all too often remains grounded in the biomedical model, with the cognitive domain overshadowing the psychosocial development and needs of learners. Entrusted by parents and society with the education and training of future healthcare professionals, medical education needs to move to a "learner-centred philosophy", in which the "whole" student is acknowledged. As undergraduate and post-graduate students increasingly apply their skills in an international arena, this learner-centredness should equally encapsulate the gender, cultural and religious diversity of both patients and students. Appropriate support structures, role models and faculty development are required to develop skills, attitudes and professional behaviour that will allow our graduates to become caring and sensitive healthcare providers.

  18. Abnormal early cleavage events predict early embryo demise: sperm oxidative stress and early abnormal cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-10-13

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors.

  19. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and cardiovascular disease is well-evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conversely, chronic stress is arrythmogenic and incr...

  20. Interaction between genetic polymorphisms and stressful life events in first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2009-01-01

    of depression among participants. METHOD: We applied a case-only design, including 290 ethnically homogeneous patients suffering exclusively from first episode depression. Psychiatric mo-morbidity, personality traits and disorders and stressful life events in a six months period preceding onset of depression......BACKGROUND: A polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene seems to moderate the influence of stressful life events on depression. However, the results from previous studies of gene-environment interactions in depression are inconsistent and might be confounded by the history......A, 2A, and 2C. RESULTS: The low activity variants of the 5-HTT-linked polymorphic region in the serotonin transporter gene and the Met-allele of a single nucleotide polymorphism (Val66Met) in the gene encoding brain derived neurotrophic factor were independently associated with the presence...

  1. Psychosocial Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment in Brazil – Perception of Parenting Style, Stressful Events and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pereira da Cruz Benetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the association between measures of exposure to violence, stressful events, family socialization practices, and demographic characteristics in a group of adolescents from a Southern region of Brazil. Three hundred adolescents were investigated in a case-control study. The results showed that adolescents with emotional and behavioral problems had significant higher stressful events, violence exposure, and negative parental practices, compared with controls. However, exposure to violence was the most deteriorating condition associated with the adolescents’ clinical internalization and externalization behaviors. Findings suggest the benefit of targeting actions geared to strengthen the quality of family interactions as well as to implement preventive programs to reduce community violence impact and to enhance support in the community.

  2. El Salvador earthquakes: relationships among acute stress disorder symptoms, depression, traumatic event exposure, and resource loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, David N; de Alvarado, Ana Maria Glower; de Castro, Norma Blandon; Male, Robert Van; Zetino, A M; Vega, Raphael

    2006-12-01

    Four and seven weeks after powerful earthquakes in El Salvador, the authors examined the relationships among demographics, traumatic event exposure, social support, resource loss, acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms, depression, and posttraumatic growth. Participants were 253 college students (Study 1) and 83 people in the community (Study 2). In Study 1, female gender, traumatic event exposure, low social support, and loss of personal characteristic, condition, and energy resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. In Study 2, damage to home and loss of personal characteristic and object resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. Posttraumatic growth was not associated with ASD symptoms or depression. Findings support the conservation of resources stress theory (Hobfoll, 1998). Resource loss spirals, excessive demands on coping, and exposure to multiple disasters are discussed.

  3. Facility-level association of preoperative stress testing and postoperative adverse cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Javier A; Graham, Laura; Thiruvoipati, Thejasvi; Grunwald, Gary; Armstrong, Ehrin J; Maddox, Thomas M; Hawn, Mary T; Bradley, Steven M

    2018-06-22

    Despite limited indications, preoperative stress testing is often used prior to non-cardiac surgery. Patient-level analyses of stress testing and outcomes are limited by case mix and selection bias. Therefore, we sought to describe facility-level rates of preoperative stress testing for non-cardiac surgery, and to determine the association between facility-level preoperative stress testing and postoperative major adverse cardiac events (MACE). We identified patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery within 2 years of percutaneous coronary intervention in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System, from 2004 to 2011, facility-level rates of preoperative stress testing and postoperative MACE (death, myocardial infarction (MI) or revascularisation within 30 days). We determined risk-standardised facility-level rates of stress testing and postoperative MACE, and the relationship between facility-level preoperative stress testing and postoperative MACE. Among 29 937 patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery at 131 VA facilities, the median facility rate of preoperative stress testing was 13.2% (IQR 9.7%-15.9%; range 6.0%-21.5%), and 30-day postoperative MACE was 4.0% (IQR 2.4%-5.4%). After risk standardisation, the median facility-level rate of stress testing was 12.7% (IQR 8.4%-17.4%) and postoperative MACE was 3.8% (IQR 2.3%-5.6%). There was no correlation between risk-standardised stress testing and composite MACE at the facility level (r=0.022, p=0.81), or with individual outcomes of death, MI or revascularisation. In a national cohort of veterans undergoing non-cardiac surgery, we observed substantial variation in facility-level rates of preoperative stress testing. Facilities with higher rates of preoperative stress testing were not associated with better postoperative outcomes. These findings suggest an opportunity to reduce variation in preoperative stress testing without sacrificing patient outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  4. Green space as a buffer between stressful life events and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Agnes E; Maas, Jolanda; Verheij, Robert A; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2010-04-01

    This study investigates whether the presence of green space can attenuate negative health impacts of stressful life events. Individual-level data on health and socio-demographic characteristics were drawn from a representative two-stage sample of 4529 Dutch respondents to the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2), conducted in 2000-2002. Health measures included: (1) the number of health complaints in the last 14 days; (2) perceived mental health (measured by the GHQ-12); and (3) a single item measure of perceived general health ranging from 'excellent' to 'poor'. Percentages of green space in a 1-km and 3-km radius around the home were derived from the 2001 National Land cover Classification database (LGN4). Data were analysed using multilevel regression analysis, with GP practices as the group-level units. All analyses were controlled for age, gender, income, education level, and level of urbanity. The results show that the relationships of stressful life events with number of health complaints and perceived general health were significantly moderated by amount of green space in a 3-km radius. Respondents with a high amount of green space in a 3-km radius were less affected by experiencing a stressful life event than respondents with a low amount of green space in this radius. The same pattern was observed for perceived mental health, although it was marginally significant. The moderating effects of green space were found only for green space within 3 km, and not for green space within 1 km of residents' homes, presumably because the 3-km indicator is more affected by the presence of larger areas of green space, that are supposed to sustain deeper forms of restoration. These results support the notion that green space can provide a buffer against the negative health impact of stressful life events. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perfectionism and Stressful Life Events as Vulnerabilities to Depression Symptoms in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Kiani; Mohamad Reza Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionThe mood disorders such as depression are the most common mental disorders among individuals. In addition to, girls’ students as a group at high risk are known for developing this disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of perfectionism and stressful life events in predicting disordered depression symptoms among girls’ students. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study on 344 girl students of Tehran’s high schools, who were selected by multiple cluster...

  6. Associations among depressive symptoms, childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events in the general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kotaro Ono,1 Yoshikazu Takaesu,1 Yukiei Nakai,2 Akiyoshi Shimura,1 Yasuyuki Ono,1 Akiko Murakoshi,1 Yasunori Matsumoto,1 Hajime Tanabe,3 Ichiro Kusumi,2 Takeshi Inoue1 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido, 3Department of Clinical Human Sciences, Graduate school of Humanities and Social Sciences, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan Background: Recent studies have suggested that the interactions among several factors affect the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder. This study investigated how childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events interact with one another and affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods: A total of 413 participants from the nonclinical general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, the neuroticism subscale of the shortened Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised, and the Life Experiences Survey, which are self-report scales. Structural equation modeling (Mplus version 7.3 and single and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. Results: Childhood abuse, neuroticism, and negative evaluation of life events increased the severity of the depressive symptoms directly. Childhood abuse also indirectly increased the negative appraisal of life events and the severity of the depressive symptoms through enhanced neuroticism in the structural equation modeling. Limitations: There was recall bias in this study. The causal relationship was not clear because this study was conducted using a cross-sectional design. Conclusion: This study suggested that neuroticism is the mediating factor for the two effects of childhood abuse on adulthood depressive symptoms and negative evaluation of life events. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms

  7. Quality of Life and Stressful Life Events in First and Second Generation Immigrant Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Lemos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine differences in quality of life and stressful life events, in first and second generation immigrant adolescents living in Algarve. A total of 172 immigrant adolescents participated in the study, completing the kidscreen-52, the stressful and negative life events inventory and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Results suggest that younger immigrant adolescents report more physical well-being and a higher mood level. Concerning gender differences, girls scored higher than boys in physical well-being, mood and self-perception, but no differences were found on the other kidscreen subscales. First generation immigrants scored significantly higher than second generation ones on the general quality of life index, psychological well-being, autonomy, financial resources and school environment. However, the second-generation immigrants did not seem to be more exposed to stressful life events than the first-generation group. When selecting relevant variables for well-being promotion and for intervention, we must consider that immigrants are more exposed to economic vulnerability, may experience difficulties in adapting to a different school context, and are at higher risk of social exclusion.

  8. Progranulin causes adipose insulin resistance via increased autophagy resulting from activated oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinyue; Xu, Lin; Li, Huixia; Sun, Hongzhi; Liu, Jiali; Wu, Shufang; Zhou, Bo

    2017-01-31

    Progranulin (PGRN) has recently emerged as an important regulator for insulin resistance. However, the direct effect of progranulin in adipose insulin resistance associated with the autophagy mechanism is not fully understood. In the present study, progranulin was administered to 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C57BL/6 J mice with/without specific inhibitors of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy markers were assessed. Progranulin treatment increased iNOS expression, NO synthesis and ROS generation, and elevated protein expressions of CHOP, GRP78 and the phosphorylation of PERK, and caused a significant increase in Atg7 and LC3-II protein expression and a decreased p62 expression, and decreased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and glucose uptake, demonstrating that progranulin activated oxidative stress and ER stress, elevated autophagy and induced insulin insensitivity in adipocytes and adipose tissue of mice. Interestingly, inhibition of iNOS and ER stress both reversed progranulin-induced stress response and increased autophagy, protecting against insulin resistance in adipocytes. Furthermore, the administration of the ER stress inhibitor 4-phenyl butyric acid reversed the negative effect of progranulin in vivo. Our findings showed the clinical potential of the novel adipokine progranulin in the regulation of insulin resistance, suggesting that progranulin might mediate adipose insulin resistance, at least in part, by inducing autophagy via activated oxidative stress and ER stress.

  9. Humor Use Moderates the Relation of Stressful Life Events With Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Heidi L; Russek, Leslie N; Dillon, Melissa M

    2017-06-01

    Three studies examined humor and adjustment to stressful events. In Study 1, patients with fibromyalgia syndrome ( N = 22) reported on mental and physical adjustment, social interaction, and reappraisal of their illness. Dispositional humor was associated with reduced distress and fewer physical symptoms. Study 2 ( N = 109) examined undergraduates' reports of stressful events. Dispositional, self-enhancing, affiliative, and self-defeating humor showed direct effects on distress, which were mediated by social interaction and reappraisal. Moreover, dispositional and aggressive humor showed stress-buffering effects. Study 3 ( N = 105) examined undergraduates' adjustment to the September 11, 2001, attacks at 1 and 3 months postattack. At T1, affiliative humor showed a stress-buffering effect on distress. Social interaction mediated the relation of self-enhancing humor with reduced T1 distress, and mediated relations of aggressive and self-defeating humor with greater distress. Relations of T1 dispositional and self-defeating humor to changes in T2 distress were mediated by reappraisal.

  10. Biomass production and potential water stress increase with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The choice of planting density and tree genotype are basic decisions when establishing a forest stand. Understanding the interaction between planting density and genotype, and their relationship with biomass production and potential water stress, is crucial as forest managers are faced with a changing climate. However ...

  11. Gamma-ray dose rate increase at rainfall events and their air-mass origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2007-01-01

    The environmental γ-ray dose rate and precipitation rates were measured at our institute, in Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan. We analyzed 425 rainfall events in which the precipitation rate was over 0.5 mm from April through November during the years 2003 to 2005. Backward trajectories for 5 d starting from 1000 m above Rokkasho at the time of the maximum dose rate in a rainfall event, were calculated by using the HYSPLIT model of the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory. The trajectories for 5 d were classified by visual inspection according to the passage areas; Pacific Ocean, Asian Continent and Japan Islands. The increase of cumulative environmental γ-ray dose during a rainfall event was plotted against the precipitation in the event, and their relationship was separately examined according to the air-mass passage area, i.e. origin of the air-mass. Our results showed that the origin of air-mass was an important factor affecting the increase of environmental γ-ray dose rate by rainfall. (author)

  12. Elevated Serum Neopterin is Associated with Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Santoso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neopterin is a soluble biomarker of monocyte activation and its increased concentration might be expressed in atherosclerosis. Until recently, there has been lacking of information on the prognostic role of neopterin in acute coronary syndromes (ACS. The study was aimed at measuring the associations between elevated serum neopterin and increased risk of cardiovascular (CV events in ACS. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study, recruited 71 ACS patients from January 31 through August 31, 2007 in Sanglah Hospital of Udayana School of Medicine, Denpasar, Bali. Cardiovascular events, such as: CV death, recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke and recurrent myocardial ischemia were previously defined. Relative risk and survival rate were measured successively by Cox proportional model and Kaplan-Meier curve. RESULTS: Of 71 ACS patients aged 56.8±9.5 years, 21 (29.5% subjects underwent CV events. Overall mean followup was 151.6 (95% CI: 129.7-173.5 days. Baseline characteristic were similarly distributed between groups with the highest quartile neopterin level (≥14.7 nmol/L than those with lowest quartile (≤6.2 nmol/L. Patients with the highest quartile had the worst survival curve than those with the lowest quartile (log-rank test; p=0.047. On Cox proportional model, relative risk of highest quartile group was 5.84 (95% CI: 1.19-28.47; p=0.029 compared to lowest quartile, after being adjusted with other predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum neopterin is associated with increased risk of CV events in acute coronary syndromes. KEYWORDS: neopterin, cardiovascular events, acute coronary syndromes.

  13. Stress reaction process-based hierarchical recognition algorithm for continuous intrusion events in optical fiber prewarning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hongquan; Yuan, Shijiao; Wang, Yanping; Yang, Dan

    2018-04-01

    To improve the recognition performance of optical fiber prewarning system (OFPS), this study proposed a hierarchical recognition algorithm (HRA). Compared with traditional methods, which employ only a complex algorithm that includes multiple extracted features and complex classifiers to increase the recognition rate with a considerable decrease in recognition speed, HRA takes advantage of the continuity of intrusion events, thereby creating a staged recognition flow inspired by stress reaction. HRA is expected to achieve high-level recognition accuracy with less time consumption. First, this work analyzed the continuity of intrusion events and then presented the algorithm based on the mechanism of stress reaction. Finally, it verified the time consumption through theoretical analysis and experiments, and the recognition accuracy was obtained through experiments. Experiment results show that the processing speed of HRA is 3.3 times faster than that of a traditional complicated algorithm and has a similar recognition rate of 98%. The study is of great significance to fast intrusion event recognition in OFPS.

  14. Effects of increased rock strata stresses on coal gettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Skoczynski, W [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes effects of rock strata pressure on a coal seam, its cracking and on energy consumption of coal cutting by shearer loaders and coal plows. Effects of mining depth on stresses in a coal seam rib side were analyzed using formulae developed by Budryk, Chudek and Borecki. Formulae used for selecting optimum yield strength of powered supports at working faces are reviewed. Four types of spontaneous separation of coal seam blocks caused by rock strata stresses are evaluated: layers parallel to the face with constant thickness, coal blocks with thickness decreasing in the direction of the floor or roof (blocks with a planar triangle cross-cut), blocks situated in the seam layer adjacent to the floor or roof. Causes of each type of coal seam separation are analyzed. 9 refs.

  15. Violence and other stressful life events as triggers of depression and anxiety: what psychosocial resources protect African American mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J; Ronzio, Cynthia R

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the risk and protective factors related to maternal mental health problems is important for improving the well-being of mothers and children, particularly in African American populations which may be at greater risk for maternal depression and resulting child behavior problems. This study explored whether three psychosocial resources--emotional resilience, social support, and ethnic identity--serve as protective factors in the face of specific stressful events that may trigger African American mothers' depression and anxiety symptoms. Standard self-report measures of depression, anxiety, negative life events, community violence, abuse, emotional resilience, social support, and ethnic identity were administered to African American mothers (N=209) of 2-18 month-old children. Linear regression models revealed main effects of negative life events and abuse on increased depression and anxiety symptoms, while emotional resilience and social support predicted decreased symptoms. There was also a significant interaction revealing a protective-reactive effect of ethnic identity on the associations of witnessed community violence with depression and anxiety symptoms. It is important for primary care providers to screen African American mothers for negative life events and abuse to identify those at increased risk for maternal depression and anxiety symptoms. Treatment programs should target emotional resilience, enhanced social support, and stronger ethnic group affiliation, which may be most effective at preventing mental health problems among mothers exposed to relative lower levels of community violence.

  16. Roles of the cytoskeleton and of Protein Phosphorylation Events in the Osmotic Stress Response in EEL Intestinal Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lionetto, Maria G; Pedersen, Stine F; Hoffmann, Else K

    2002-01-01

    The eel intestinal epithelium responds to an acute hypertonic challenge by a biphasic increase of the rate of Cl(-) absorption (measured as short circuit current, Isc, and creating a negative transepithelial potential, V(te), at the basolateral side of the epithelium). While the first, transient...... phase is bumetanide-insensitive, the second, sustained phase is bumetanide-sensitive, reflecting activation of the apically located Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) (NKCC) cotransporter, which correlates with the cellular RVI response. Here, we investigated the involvement of the cytoskeleton and of serine....../threonine phosphorylation events in the osmotic stress-induced ion transport in the eel intestinal epithelium, focusing on the sustained RVI phase, as well as on the previously uncharacterized response to hypotonic stress. The study was carried out using confocal laser scanning microscopy, a quantitative F-actin assay...

  17. Increased risk of severe hypoglycemic events with increasing frequency of non-severe hypoglycemic events in patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sreenan, Seamus

    2014-07-15

    Severe hypoglycemic events (SHEs) are associated with significant morbidity, mortality and costs. However, the more common non-severe hypoglycemic events (NSHEs) are less well explored. We investigated the association between reported frequency of NSHEs and SHEs among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the PREDICTIVE study.

  18. Association of PER2 genotype and stressful life events with alcohol drinking in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Blomeyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clock genes govern circadian rhythms and shape the effect of alcohol use on the physiological system. Exposure to severe negative life events is related to both heavy drinking and disturbed circadian rhythmicity. The aim of this study was 1 to extend previous findings suggesting an association of a haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphism of PER2 gene with drinking patterns, and 2 to examine a possible role for an interaction of this gene with life stress in hazardous drinking. METHODS: Data were collected as part of an epidemiological cohort study on the outcome of early risk factors followed since birth. At age 19 years, 268 young adults (126 males, 142 females were genotyped for PER2 rs56013859 and were administered a 45-day alcohol timeline follow-back interview and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. Life stress was assessed as the number of severe negative life events during the past four years reported in a questionnaire and validated by interview. RESULTS: Individuals with the minor G allele of rs56013859 were found to be less engaged in alcohol use, drinking at only 72% of the days compared to homozygotes for the major A allele. Moreover, among regular drinkers, a gene x environment interaction emerged (p = .020. While no effects of genotype appeared under conditions of low stress, carriers of the G allele exhibited less hazardous drinking than those homozygous for the A allele when exposed to high stress. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may suggest a role of the circadian rhythm gene PER2 in both the drinking patterns of young adults and in moderating the impact of severe life stress on hazardous drinking in experienced alcohol users. However, in light of the likely burden of multiple tests, the nature of the measures used and the nominal evidence of interaction, replication is needed before drawing firm conclusions.

  19. Life events, coping, and posttraumatic stress symptoms among Chinese adolescents exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Zheng

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between negative life events, coping styles, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD among adolescent survivors exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China. METHODS: A survey was conducted in a sample of 2250 adolescent students from two schools in Dujiangyan District, a seriously damaged area, 20 kilometers away from the epicenter, 6 months after the earthquake. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographics, negative life events, coping styles, and PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: Academic pressure was the strongest predictor of adolescents' PTSD symptoms among all negative life events. Main effects of negative life events, positive coping and negative coping on PTSD symptoms were significant in both younger adolescents and older adolescents, while the moderator effects of two coping styles were found significant only within older adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Coping may play a role to moderate the relationship between post-earthquake negative life events and PTSD symptom, but the function seems to depend on the age of participants. Psychosocial coping skills training may be important in the prevention and intervention of mental health problems in adolescent survivors of traumatic earthquake.

  20. Digoxin Is Associated With Increased Shock Events and Electrical Storms in Patients With Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, George S; Acharya, Madan; Shepherd, Taylor; Gobrial, George; Tekeste, Michael; Watti, Hussam; Bhandari, Ruchi; Saini, Aditya; Reddy, Pratap; Dominic, Paari

    2018-03-01

    Recently, digoxin use has been found to associate with higher mortality. Yet, potential mechanisms by which digoxin use increases mortality remain unclear. Increased arrhythmogenicity from digoxin use is one possibility. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the relation between digoxin and shock events in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients with ICDs and at least 1 device interrogation at our institution between January 1, 2012, and January 1, 2015. We aimed to cover 1 year of interrogation period. Patients with heart failure, atrial fibrillation, or both were included in the analysis. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on digoxin use, defined as use of digoxin for any period of time during ICD interrogation period. Incidence of ICD shock events and electrical storms and hospitalizations were compared between the 2 groups. The study included 202 patients. Of those, 55 patients were on digoxin and 147 were not on digoxin. Patients on digoxin were more likely to receive ICD shocks (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.01-6.18, P = .04) and have increased risk of electrical storms ( P = .02). Moreover, total hospitalizations were higher in digoxin users ( P = .02). Multivariate logistic regression analysis also showed that digoxin use was an independent predictor of shock events (OR = 4.07, 95% CI = 1.43-11.58, P = .009). Digoxin is associated with increased shock events and electrical storms in patients with ICDs; however, large randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  1. Comorbidity in illness-induced posttraumatic stress disorder versus posttraumatic stress disorder due to external events in a nationally representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Jordana L; Mota, Natalie; Edmondson, Donald; El-Gabalawy, Renée

    2018-05-10

    The current study compared physical and mental health characteristics and quality of life of illness-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus those with PTSD due to external traumatic events in a population-based sample. PTSD was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS-5) using DSM-5 criteria in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Participants with past-year PTSD (n = 1779) were categorized into two groups: illness-induced (6.5%) and other trauma-induced PTSD (92.9%) based on index trauma. Group differences in physical health, mental health, and quality of life were estimated using multiple logistic and linear regressions with adjustment for demographics and medical morbidity. Compared to PTSD due to external events, illness-induced PTSD had higher rates of life-threatening illness in the past year. Illness-induced PTSD compared to PTSD due to external events was associated with reduced odds of depressive/bipolar disorders and antisocial personality disorder, but increased odds of cannabis use disorder. The groups did not differ on quality of life after accounting for medical morbidity. Illness-induced PTSD is common among American adults and has a similar impact on quality of life as PTSD due to external events, but may have distinct mental health correlates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of stressful life events with acute myocardial infarction in population in the city of Niš within the period from 1998-2000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deljanin Zorana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Stressful life events present a very important category of psychosocial stress. A few studies have showed that a psychosocial stress represents a very important risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI, but measures of stress may not be suitable for different countries, cultures and ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of stressful life events with AMI in the period of 1998-2000 in the population of the city of Niš. Methods. A case-control study included 100 patients with the first MI (in the period 1998-2000 and 100 healthy subjects, matched with respect to sex and age (± 2 years from the city of Niš. The data of stressful life events were obtained by the Scaling of life events by Paykel ES, modified by the authors consistent with the examined population and the period of investigation. The Yates χ2 test, odds ratio - OR and their 99% interval of confidence were used as statistical procedures. Results. The results showed that stressful life events in the period of investigation were very important risk factors for AMI with a statistically significant level (p = 0.000. Huge financial problems (OR = 202.36, Ci = 24.82-4387.58, violation of law (OR = 168.00, Ci = 10.66-6658.96 and serious illness of family members (OR = 159.60, Ci = 19.05- 3514.81 were the highest risk for AMI. The patients who reported that his/her son or other member of family had been gone to the army (or mobilization before the illness onset, had 138 times higher risk of AMI (Ci = 14.98-3222.47, χ2 = 40.95, p = 0.000, while the patients who had mobilized themselves had 84 times higher risk (Ci = 7.00- 2363.06, χ2 = 23.87, p = 0.000. Effect of several stressful life events lead to significantly increased risk of AMI and that significance is larger as the number of life events is more frequent (one life event: OR = 28.41, Ci = 3.73- 593.52; χ2 = 17.40, p = 0.000; ≥ 4: OR = 336.00, Ci = 28.31- 9760.28, χ2 = 50

  3. Association Between Stressful Life Events and Depression; Intersection of Race and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2016-06-01

    Although stressful life events (SLEs) and depression are associated, we do not know if the intersection of race and gender modifies the magnitude of this link. Using a nationally representative sample of adults in the USA, we tested if the association between SLE and major depressive episode (MDE) depends on the intersection of race and gender. Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2003, a cross-sectional survey that enrolled 5899 adults including 5008 Blacks (African-Americans or Caribbean Blacks), and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Logistic regression was used for data analysis. Stressful life events (past 30 days) was the independent variable, 12-month MDE was the dependent variable, and age, educational level, marital status, employment, and region of country were controls. In the pooled sample, SLE was associated with MDE above and beyond all covariates, without the SLE × race interaction term being significant. Among men, the SLE × race interaction was significant, suggesting a stronger association between SLE and MDE among White men compared to Black men. Such interaction between SLE × race could not be found among women. The association between SLE and depression may be stronger for White men than Black men; however, this link does not differ between White and Black women. More research is needed to better understand the mechanism behind race by gender variation in the stress-depression link.

  4. Stressful life events predict delayed functional recovery following treatment for mania in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Meier, Leslie; Eberhart, Nicole K; Hammen, Constance L; Gitlin, Michael; Sokolski, Kenneth; Altshuler, Lori

    2011-04-30

    Identifying predictors of functional recovery in bipolar disorder is critical to treatment efforts to help patients re-establish premorbid levels of role adjustment following an acute manic episode. The current study examined the role of stressful life events as potential obstacles to recovery of functioning in various roles. 65 patients with bipolar I disorder participated in a longitudinal study of functional recovery following clinical recovery from a manic episode. Stressful life events were assessed as predictors of concurrent vs. delayed recovery of role functioning in 4 domains (friends, family, home duties, work/school). Despite clinical recovery, a subset of patients experienced delayed functional recovery in various role domains. Moreover, delayed functional recovery was significantly associated with presence of one or more stressors in the prior 3 months, even after controlling for mood symptoms. Presence of a stressor predicted longer time to functional recovery in life domains, up to 112 days in work/school. Interventions that provide monitoring, support, and problem-solving may be needed to help prevent or mitigate the effects of stress on functional recovery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Induced groundwater flux by increases in the aquifer's total stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Min; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2015-01-01

    Fluid-filled granular soils experience changes in total stress because of earth and oceanic tides, earthquakes, erosion, sedimentation, and changes in atmospheric pressure. The pore volume may deform in response to the changes in stress and this may lead to changes in pore fluid pressure. The transient fluid flow can therefore be induced by the gradient in excess pressure in a fluid-saturated porous medium. This work demonstrates the use of stochastic methodology in prediction of induced one-dimensional field-scale groundwater flow through a heterogeneous aquifer. A closed-form of mean groundwater flux is developed to quantify the induced field-scale mean behavior of groundwater flow and analyze the impacts of the spatial correlation length scale of log hydraulic conductivity and the pore compressibility. The findings provided here could be useful for the rational planning and management of groundwater resources in aquifers that contain lenses with large vertical aquifer matrix compressibility values. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  6. Increased oxidative stress in infants exposed to passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of passive cigarette smoking on the oxidative and anti-oxidative status of plasma in infants. Eighty-four infants aged 6-28 weeks were divided into two groups: the study group included infants who had been exposed to passive smoking via at least five cigarettes per day for at least the past 6 weeks at home, while the control group included infants who had never been exposed to passive smoking. The antioxidative status of plasma was assessed by the measurement of individual antioxidant components: vitamin C, albumin, bilirubin, uric acid, thiol contents and total antioxidant capacity (TAC 1 and TAC 2). Oxidative status was assessed by the determination of total peroxide levels and the oxidative stress index (OSI 1 and OSI 2). Plasma vitamin C, thiol concentration and TAC 1 and TAC 2 levels were significantly lower, whereas plasma total peroxide levels and OSI 1 and OSI 2 were significantly higher, in passive smoking infants than in the controls (Pantioxidant defence system in infants, and exposes them to potent oxidative stress.

  7. Arbutin increases Caenorhabditis elegans longevity and stress resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbutin (p-hydroxyphenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor, has been widely used as a cosmetic whitening agent. Although its natural role is to scavenge free radicals within cells, it has also exhibited useful activities for the treatment of diuresis, bacterial infections and cancer, as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-tussive activities. Because function of free radical scavenging is also related to antioxidant and the effects of arbutin on longevity and stress resistance in animals have not yet been confirmed, here the effects of arbutin on Caenorhabditis elegans were investigated. The results demonstrated that optimal concentrations of arbutin could extend lifespan and enhance resistance to oxidative stress. The underlying molecular mechanism for these effects involves decreased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, improvement of daf-16 nuclear localization, and up-regulated expression of daf-16 and its downstream targets, including sod-3 and hsp16.2. In this work the roles of arbutin in lifespan and health are studied and the results support that arbutin is an antioxidant for maintaining overall health.

  8. Reduced salinity increases susceptibility of zooxanthellate jellyfish to herbicide toxicity during a simulated rainfall event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Shannon G.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Carroll, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately predicting how marine biota are likely to respond to changing ocean conditions requires accurate simulation of interacting stressors, exposure regimes and recovery periods. Jellyfish populations have increased in some parts of the world and, despite few direct empirical tests, are hypothesised to be increasing because they are robust to a range of environmental stressors. Here, we investigated the effects of contaminated runoff on a zooxanthellate jellyfish by exposing juvenile Cassiopea sp. medusae to a photosystem II (PSII) herbicide, atrazine and reduced salinity conditions that occur following rainfall. Four levels of atrazine (0ngL"−"1, 10ngL"−"1, 2μgL"−"1, 20μgL"−"1) and three levels of salinity (35 ppt, 25 ppt, 17 ppt) were varied, mimicking the timeline of light, moderate and heavy rainfall events. Normal conditions were then slowly re-established over four days to mimic the recovery of the ecosystem post-rain and the experiment continued for a further 7 days to observe potential recovery of the medusae. Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence, growth and bell contraction rates of medusae were measured. Medusae exposed to the combination of high atrazine and lowest salinity died. After 3 days of exposure, bell contraction rates were reduced by 88% and medusae were 16% smaller in the lowest salinity treatments. By Day 5 of the experiment, all medusae that survived the initial pulse event began to recover quickly. Although atrazine decreased YII under normal salinity conditions, YII was further reduced when medusae were exposed to both low salinity and atrazine simultaneously. Atrazine breakdown products were more concentrated in jellyfish tissues than atrazine at the end of the experiment, suggesting that although bioaccumulation occurred, atrazine was metabolised. Our results suggest that reduced salinity may increase the susceptibility of medusae to herbicide exposure during heavy rainfall events. - Highlights:

  9. Prediction of cardiac events in patients with transient left ventricle dilation on stress myocardial perfusion SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi; Moroi, Masao

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiac events in patients with transient left ventricle (LV) dilation on stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography images (MPI). Consecutive patients (n=53, 31 males, mean age 71 years) with transient LV dilation on thallium-201 stress MPI (treadmill: 21, pharmacologic: 32) were followed for 17 months. Follow-up time was censored at the occurrence of cardiac death, congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndrome, or revascularization. Images were scored and then the summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score, and summed difference score were calculated. Cardiac death occurred in 3 patients, hospitalization occurred in 8 patients, and revascularization occurred in 20 patients. The combined cardiac event rate was 59% (76% for exercise stress vs 47% for pharmacologic stress, p=0.034.). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that a combination of higher SSS and slow washout rate was the best predictor of cardiac events (hazard ratio=3.3, p=0.029). A high cardiac event rate is associated with transient LV dilation on thallium-201 stress MPI. The event rate is particularly high for exercise stress MPI. Furthermore, a combination of the SSS and thallium-201 slow washout is the best predictor of cardiac events in patients with transient LV dilation. (author)

  10. Hair cortisol concentrations and cortisol stress reactivity predict PTSD symptom increase after trauma exposure during military deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Schönfeld, Sabine; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Trautmann, Sebastian; Alexander, Nina; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-09-01

    Previous evidence on endocrine risk markers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been inconclusive. Here, we report results of the first prospective study to investigate whether long-term hair cortisol levels and experimentally-induced cortisol stress reactivity are predictive of the development of PTSD symptomatology in response to trauma during military deployment. Male soldiers were examined before deployment to Afghanistan and at a 12-month post-deployment follow-up using dimensional measures for psychopathological symptoms. The predictive value of baseline (i) hair cortisol concentrations (HCC, N=90) and (ii) salivary cortisol stress reactivity (measured by the Trier Social Stress Test, N=80) for the development of PTSD symptomatology after being exposed to new-onset traumatic events was analyzed. Baseline cortisol activity significantly predicted PTSD symptom change from baseline to follow-up upon trauma exposure. Specifically, our results consistently revealed that lower HCC and lower cortisol stress reactivity were predictive of a greater increase in PTSD symptomatology in soldiers who had experienced new-onset traumatic events (explaining 5% and 10.3% of variance, respectively). Longitudinal analyses revealed an increase in HCC from baseline to follow-up and a trend for a negative relationship between HCC changes and the number of new-onset traumatic events. Additional pre-deployment analyses revealed that trauma history was reflected in lower HCC (at trend level) and that HCC were negatively related to stressful load. Our data indicate that attenuated cortisol secretion is a risk marker for subsequent development of PTSD symptomatology upon trauma exposure. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings in other samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute hypoxia stress induced abundant differential expression genes and alternative splicing events in heart of tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun Hong; Li, Hong Lian; Li, Bi Jun; Gu, Xiao Hui; Lin, Hao Ran

    2018-01-10

    Hypoxia is one of the critical environmental stressors for fish in aquatic environments. Although accumulating evidences indicate that gene expression is regulated by hypoxia stress in fish, how genes undergoing differential gene expression and/or alternative splicing (AS) in response to hypoxia stress in heart are not well understood. Using RNA-seq, we surveyed and detected 289 differential expressed genes (DEG) and 103 genes that undergo differential usage of exons and splice junctions events (DUES) in heart of a hypoxia tolerant fish, Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus following 12h hypoxic treatment. The spatio-temporal expression analysis validated the significant association of differential exon usages in two randomly selected DUES genes (fam162a and ndrg2) in 5 tissues (heart, liver, brain, gill and spleen) sampled at three time points (6h, 12h, and 24h) under acute hypoxia treatment. Functional analysis significantly associated the differential expressed genes with the categories related to energy conservation, protein synthesis and immune response. Different enrichment categories were found between the DEG and DUES dataset. The Isomerase activity, Oxidoreductase activity, Glycolysis and Oxidative stress process were significantly enriched for the DEG gene dataset, but the Structural constituent of ribosome and Structural molecule activity, Ribosomal protein and RNA binding protein were significantly enriched only for the DUES genes. Our comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals abundant stress responsive genes and their differential regulation function in the heart tissues of Nile tilapia under acute hypoxia stress. Our findings will facilitate future investigation on transcriptome complexity and AS regulation during hypoxia stress in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Absence of DJ-1 causes age-related retinal abnormalities in association with increased oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Vera L; Bell, Brent A; Rayborn, Mary E; Samuels, Ivy S; King, Anna; Hollyfield, Joe G; Xie, Chengsong; Cai, Huaibin

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative stress alters physiological function in most biological tissues and can lead to cell death. In the retina, oxidative stress initiates a cascade of events leading to focal loss of RPE and photoreceptors, which is thought to be a major contributing factor to geographic atrophy. Despite these implications, the molecular regulation of RPE oxidative stress under normal and pathological conditions remains largely unknown. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in regulating RPE and photoreceptors oxidative stress response is greatly needed. To this end we evaluated photoreceptor and RPE changes in mice deficient in DJ-1, a protein that is thought to be important in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Young (3 months) and aged (18 months) DJ-1 knockout (DJ-1 KO) and age-matched wild-type mice were examined. In both group of aged mice, scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) showed the presence of a few autofluorescent foci. The 18 month-old DJ-1 KO retinas were also characterized by a noticeable increase in RPE fluorescence to wild-type. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging demonstrated that all retinal layers were present in the eyes of both DJ-1 KO groups. ERG comparisons showed that older DJ-1 KO mice had reduced sensitivity under dark- and light-adapted conditions compared to age-matched control. Histologically, the RPE contained prominent vacuoles in young DJ-1 KO group with the appearance of enlarged irregularly shaped RPE cells in the older group. These were also evident in OCT and in whole mount RPE/choroid preparations labeled with phalloidin. Photoreceptors in the older DJ-1 KO mice displayed decreased immunoreactivity to rhodopsin and localized reduction in cone markers compared to the wild-type control group. Lower levels of activated Nrf2 were evident in retina/RPE lysates in both young and old DJ-1 KO mouse groups compared to wild-type control levels. Conversely, higher levels of protein carbonyl derivatives and i

  13. Do levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age after age 65? A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanovic-Thunström, Almira; Mossello, Enrico; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2015-09-01

    psychological and health-related stressors often occur in advanced ages, but little is known about perceived stress in adults aged 65 and over. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age and to detect factors that may account for the association. a dementia-free cohort of 1,656 adults aged 66-97 years living at home or in institutions, participating in the Swedish National Aging and Care study, Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) was assessed for levels of perceived stress using the 10-item perceived stress scale (PSS). prevalence of high stress according to the top tertile of the population (PSS score 20+) was 7.8% in adults aged 81+ years, 7.5% in adults aged 72-78 and 6.2% in adults aged 66 years (P = 0.020). More women than men reported high stress, 8.3 versus 5.4% (P = 0.001). Levels of stress increased with increasing age (P = 0.001) in the linear regression model. This association remained after adjustment for demographic and psychosocial factors, but no longer was present after adjusting for health-related factors. health-related stress is highly prevalent in older adults and seems to play an important role in the association between levels of perceived stress and age in older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Convection of wall shear stress events in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Rommel; Mills, David; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark

    2017-11-01

    The fluctuating wall shear stress is measured in a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer of Reτ 1700 simultaneously with velocity measurements using either hot-wire anemometry or particle image velocimetry. These experiments elucidate the patterns of large scale structures in a single point measurement of the wall shear stress, as well as their convection velocity at the wall. The wall shear stress sensor is a CS-A05 one-dimensional capacitice floating element from Interdisciplinary Consulting Corp. It has a nominal bandwidth from DC to 5 kHz and a floating element size of 1 mm in the principal sensing direction (streamwise) and 0.2 mm in the cross direction (spanwise), allowing the large scales to be well resolved in the current experimental conditions. In addition, a two sensor array of CS-A05 aligned in the spanwise direction with streamwise separations O (δ) is utilized to capture the convection velocity of specific scales of the shear stress through a bandpass filter and peaks in the correlation. Thus, an average wall normal position for the corresponding convecting event can be inferred at least as high as the equivalent local streamwise velocity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.

  15. Maternal undernutrition significantly impacts ovarian follicle number and increases ovarian oxidative stress in adult rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B Bernal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have shown recently that maternal undernutrition (UN advanced female pubertal onset in a manner that is dependent upon the timing of UN. The long-term consequence of this accelerated puberty on ovarian function is unknown. Recent findings suggest that oxidative stress may be one mechanism whereby early life events impact on later physiological functioning. Therefore, using an established rodent model of maternal UN at critical windows of development, we examined maternal UN-induced changes in offspring ovarian function and determined whether these changes were underpinned by ovarian oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study is the first to show that maternal UN significantly reduced primordial and secondary follicle number in offspring in a manner that was dependent upon the timing of maternal UN. Specifically, a reduction in these early stage follicles was observed in offspring born to mothers undernourished throughout both pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, antral follicle number was reduced in offspring born to all mothers that were UN regardless of whether the period of UN was restricted to pregnancy or lactation or both. These reductions were associated with decreased mRNA levels of genes critical for follicle maturation and ovulation. Increased ovarian protein carbonyls were observed in offspring born to mothers UN during pregnancy and/or lactation and this was associated with peroxiredoxin 3 hyperoxidation and reduced mRNA levels; suggesting compromised antioxidant defence. This was not observed in offspring of mothers UN during lactation alone. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that maternal UN, particularly at a time-point that includes pregnancy, results in reduced offspring ovarian follicle numbers and mRNA levels of regulatory genes and may be mediated by increased ovarian oxidative stress coupled with a decreased ability to repair the resultant oxidative damage. Together these data are suggestive of

  16. Increased oxidative stress in preschool children exposed to passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Faruk; Sermetow, Kabil; Aycicek, Ali; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Erel, Ozcan

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on plasma oxidative and antioxidative status in passive smoking preschool children and to compare them with controls. Thirty-four passive smoking (five to 50 cigarettes per day) preschool children (study group) and 32 controls who had never been exposed to cigarette smoke were randomly chosen from children aged from 4 to 6 years. Urinary cotinine and plasma indicators of oxidative and antioxidative status, i.e., total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI), were determined. Mean environmental cigarette consumption was 22±13 cigarettes per day in passive smoking children. Mean urinary cotinine levels were 77.6±41.4 ng/mL and 11.9±2.3 ng/mL in the study and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean plasma TAC levels were 0.95±0.13 mmol Trolox equivalent/L and 1.01±0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent/L, respectively (p = 0.039). Mean plasma TOS levels were 28.6±7.9 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L and 18.5±6.3 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean OSI levels were 3.08±0.98 arbitrary units and 1.84±0.64 arbitrary units, respectively (p < 0.001). A small amount of cigarette smoke (five to 10 cigarettes per day) causes considerable oxidative stress. There were significant correlations between number of cigarettes consumed and oxidant status and OSI levels. Passive smoke is a potent oxidant in preschool children. Its deleterious effects are not limited just to heavy passive smoking, but also occur with exposure to small amounts of smoke.

  17. [Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with neurogenic amnesia for the traumatic event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoll, K; Kunert, H J; Sass, H

    2000-10-01

    The development of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with neurogenic amnesia for the traumatic event is recorded in 2 own patients and in 19 cases from the clinical literature. With a single exception, all patients were accident victims with closed head injuries. Only about three quarters of the patients completely fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria of PTSD. Nineteen patients displayed involuntary conscious memories of aspects of the traumatic event (presenting as recurrent intrusive thoughts, images or dreams) co-existent with a complete or partial lack of voluntary conscious memories of the trauma, suggesting that different memory systems and distinct brain mechanisms subserve these phenomena. The said clinical observations are discussed against the background of current neuropsychological models of multiple memory systems. The recorded cases demonstrate that declarative episodic memory is not necessary for symptoms of PTSD to emerge, whereas preserved functions of non-declarative memory systems represent a sufficient condition for the development of PTSD symptoms.

  18. Cognitive moderators of children's adjustment to stressful divorce events: the role of negative cognitive errors and positive illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, E; Wolchik, S A; Virdin, L; Sandler, I N; West, S G

    1999-01-01

    This study examined whether children's cognitive appraisal biases moderate the impact of stressful divorce-related events on psychological adjustment in 355 children ages 9 to 12, whose families had experienced divorce within the past 2 years. Multiple regression indicated that endorsement of negative cognitive errors for hypothetical divorce events moderates the relations between stressful divorce events and self- and maternal reports of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but only for older children. Positive illusions buffer the effects of stressful divorce events on child-reported depression and mother-reported externalizing problems. Implications of these results for theories of stress and coping, as well as for interventions for children of divorced families, are discussed.

  19. Transcriptome and metabolome of synthetic Solanum autotetraploids reveal key genomic stress events following polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Carlo; Diretto, Gianfranco; Aversano, Riccardo; D'Agostino, Nunzio; Di Matteo, Antonio; Frusciante, Luigi; Giuliano, Giovanni; Carputo, Domenico

    2016-06-01

    Polyploids are generally classified as autopolyploids, derived from a single species, and allopolyploids, arising from interspecific hybridization. The former represent ideal materials with which to study the consequences of genome doubling and ascertain whether there are molecular and functional rules operating following polyploidization events. To investigate whether the effects of autopolyploidization are common to different species, or if species-specific or stochastic events are prevalent, we performed a comprehensive transcriptomic and metabolomic characterization of diploids and autotetraploids of Solanum commersonii and Solanum bulbocastanum. Autopolyploidization remodelled the transcriptome and the metabolome of both species. In S. commersonii, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were highly enriched in pericentromeric regions. Most changes were stochastic, suggesting a strong genotypic response. However, a set of robustly regulated transcripts and metabolites was also detected, including purine bases and nucleosides, which are likely to underlie a common response to polyploidization. We hypothesize that autopolyploidization results in nucleotide pool imbalance, which in turn triggers a genomic shock responsible for the stochastic events observed. The more extensive genomic stress and the higher number of stochastic events observed in S. commersonii with respect to S. bulbocastanum could be the result of the higher nucleoside depletion observed in this species. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Traumatic life events and posttraumatic stress disorder among Mexican adolescents: results from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Ricardo; Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, María Elena; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and the association of Traumatic Life Events (LEs) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) adolescent population. Adolescents aged 12 to 17 were administered the adolescent version of the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (n=3 005). Data were collected using a stratified, multistage and probability sample. Prevalence, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for LEs and PTSD (assessed with DSM-IV criteria) were obtained. The percentage of adolescents reporting at least one traumatic event in their lifetimes was 68.9%, with differences by sex. Prevalence for PTSD were 1.8% (2.4% females and 1.2% males), and sexual-related traumas were the LEs most associated with PTSD [OR=3.9 (CI95%=1.8-8.2)], adjusted by sex, education and age. Exposure to traumatic life events is not uncommon among Mexico City adolescents. Effort should be made to reduce child and adolescent sexual abuse, a very traumatic event highly associated with PTSD.

  1. [Study on the correlation among adolescents' family function, negative life events stress amount and suicide ideation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Chen, Ling; Yin, Dan; Miao, Jinping; Sun, Yehuan

    2014-07-01

    To explore the correlation between suicide ideation and family function & negative life events, as well as other influential factors in adolescents, thus present a theoretical base for clinicians and school staff to develop intervention for those problems. By adopting current situation random sampling method, Self-Rating Idea of Suicide Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List and Family APGAR Index were used to assess adolescents at random in a hygiene vocational school in Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province and a collage in Wuhu City, Anhui Province. 3700 questionnaires were granted, 3675 questionnaires were collected, among which 3620 were valid. Chi-square test, t-test, and univariate logistic regression were employed in univariate analysis, multivariate logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis. The detection rate of suicide ideation is 7.0%, and the top five suicide ideation characteristics were: poor academic performance (33.6%), serious family functional impairment (25.8%), lower-middle academic performance (11.7%), bad economic conditions (10.8%) and study in Grade Three (9.9%). Multiple logistic regression showed that the following three high-level stress amount in negative life events are most crucial for suicide ideation. They are "relationships" (OR = 1.135, 95% CI 1.071 - 1. 202), "academic pressure" (OR = 1.169, 95% CI 1.101 - 1.241), and "external events" (OR = 1.278, 95% CI 1.187 - 1.376). What' s more, the stress of attending higher grades (OR = 1.980, 95% CI 1.302 - 3.008), poor academic performance (OR = 7.206, 95% CI 1.745 - 9.789), moderate family functional impairment (OR = 2.562, 95% CI 1.527 - 2.892) and its serious level (OR = 8.287, 95% CI 3.154 - 6.917) are also influential factors for suicide ideation. Severe family functional impairment and high-level stress amount of negative life events produced the main factors of suicide ideation. Therefore, necessary and sufficient support should be given to adolescents by

  2. Thermomechanical processing of 5083 aluminum to increase strength without increasing susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edstrom, C.M.; Blakeslee, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    5083 aluminium with 25% cold work must be processed above 215 0 C or below 70 0 C to avoid forming continuous precipitate in the grain boundaries which makes the material susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Time at temperature above 215 0 C should be held to minimum (less than 30 min) to retain some strength from the 25% cold work

  3. Common stressful life events and difficulties are associated with mental health symptoms and substance use in young adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nancy CP

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stressful life events are associated with mood disorders in adults in clinical settings. Less described in the literature is the association between common life stressors and a wide range of psychopathology in young adolescents. This study uses a large non-clinical sample of young adolescents to describe the associations among worry or stress about common life events/difficulties, mental health and substance use. Methods Data on lifetime stress or worry about common life events/difficulties (i.e., romantic breakups, family disruption, interpersonal difficulties, and personal stress (health, weight, school work, symptoms of depression, conduct disorder symptoms, and substance use were collected from 1025 grade 7 students (mean age 12.9 years; 45% male. The association between each source of stress and each mental health and substance use indicator was modeled in separate logistic regression analyses. Results The proportion of adolescents reporting worry or stress ranged from 7% for new family to 53% for schoolwork. Romantic breakup stress was statistically significantly associated with all the mental health and substance use indicators except illicit drug use. Family disruption was statistically significantly associated with depression symptoms, marijuana use, and cigarette use. Interpersonal difficulties stress was statistically significantly associated with depression symptoms. All sources of personal stress were statistically significantly related to depression symptoms. In addition, health-related stress was inversely related to binge drinking. Conclusion Young adolescents may benefit from learning positive coping skills to manage worry or stress about common stressors and in particular, worry or stress related to romantic breakups. Appropriate management of mental health symptoms and substance use related to common stressful life events and difficulties may help reduce emerging psychopathology.

  4. No increase in autism-associated genetic events in children conceived by assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Sean; Wenegrat, Julia; Rettew, David; Althoff, Robert; Bernier, Raphael

    2014-08-01

    To understand the rate of genetic events in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who were exposed to assisted reproduction. Case control study using genetics data. Twelve collaborating data collection sites across North America as part of the Simons Simplex Collection. 2,760 children with ASD, for whom 1,994 had published copy number variation data and 424 had published gene mutation status available. None. Rates of autism-associated genetic events in children with ASD conceived with assisted reproduction versus those conceived naturally. No statistically significant differences in copy number variations or autism-associated gene-disrupting events were found when comparing ASD patients exposed to assisted reproduction with those not exposed to assisted reproduction. This is the first large genetic association to concurrently examine the genotype of individuals with ASD in relation to their exposure to ART versus natural conception, and it adds reassuring evidence to the argument that ART does not increase the risk of ASD. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pre-cold stress increases acid stress resistance and induces amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pre-adapted to cold stress revealed induction of amino acid homeostasis and energy ... substrate, thereby reducing yeast and mould ..... spontaneous mutation of llmg_1816 (gdpp) induced by .... species to UV-B-induced damage in bacteria. J.

  6. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  7. The Moderating Effect of Impulsivity on the Relationship between Stressful Life Events and Depression among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Based on the transpersonal model of stress, the purpose of the study was to investigate the moderating effect of impulsivity on the relationship between stressful life events (SLE) and depression among first year university women. Impulsivity consists of tendencies towards lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, urgency and sensation seeking.…

  8. Reading the Bible for guidance, comfort, and strength during stressful life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jill B; Moore, Angelo D; Johnson, Khishaana A; Koenig, Harold G

    2013-01-01

    The use of religious practices to promote mental health among African Americans is well documented. African Americans are more likely to report strong religious affiliations and to use religion over prescribed medications for mental health problems. However, few studies have explored how African Americans use religious practices in response to stressful life events. The aim of this study is to examine how African American women and men find comfort in using scripture passages from The Bible. Fifty-four African American adults residing in the Southeastern United States participated in a qualitative descriptive study using open-ended semistructured interviews. Participants were asked to describe their use of scripture passages from The Bible and the personal meanings associated with these scriptures in the context of a family death or life-threatening illness. These participants used scripture passages categorized as God as Protector, God as Beneficent, Praise and Thanksgiving, God as Healer, Memory of Forefathers, Prayers to God, and Life after Death. Few gender differences were noted. However, women were more likely to use scripture passages of God as Protector and Life after Death, whereas men were more likely to use God as Beneficent and God as Healer. The religious practice of reading scripture passages from The Bible is a mental health-promoting strategy used during stressful life events. The findings of this study have practical uses for nurses and can be used to inform acceptable and sensitive approaches in addressing mental health issues and spiritual care needs in African American patients.

  9. EFFECTS OF STRESSFUL EVENTS IN FRANCE (1968) AND JAPAN (1995) ON THE SEX RATIO AT BIRTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor; Zammit, Dorota; Scherb, Hagen

    2017-09-01

    Males are usually born in excess of females. The sex ratio at birth (SR) is often expressed as the ratio of male to total births. A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence SR, including terrorist attacks, which have been shown to reduce SR. This paper reviews the effects on SR outcomes of the stressful events in France in 1968 (in association with the student and worker riots) and in Japan following the Aum Shinrikyo religious cult's attack on the Tokyo subway using sarin nerve gas in 1995. Both countries displayed seasonal variation in SR. France exhibited a decline in SR in 1968 (p=0.042), with a particularly strong dip in May of that year (p=0.015). For Japan, there was no statistically significant dip for 1995 but there was a significant dip in June of that year (p=0.026). The SR dips follow catastrophic or tragic events if these are perceived to be momentous enough by a given populace. It is believed that SR slumps may be caused by population stress, which is known to lead to the culling of frail/small male fetuses. It has been observed that these fluctuations are comparable in intensity to a substantial proportion of quoted values for perinatal mortality, potentially making this a public health issue.

  10. Stressful Life Events Predict Eating Disorder Relapse Following Remission: Six-Year Prospective Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Pagano, Maria E.; Stout, Robert L.; Markowitz, John C.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pinto, Anthony; Zanarini, Mary C.; Yen, Shirley; Skodol, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine prospectively the natural course of bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorder not-otherwise-specified (EDNOS) and test for the effects of stressful life events (SLE) on relapse after remission from these eating disorders. Method 117 female patients with BN (N = 35) or EDNOS (N = 82) were prospectively followed for 72 months using structured interviews performed at baseline, 6- and 12-months, and then yearly thereafter. ED were assessed with the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, and monitored over time with the longitudinal interval follow-up evaluation. Personality disorders were assessed with the diagnostic interview for DSM-IV-personality-disorders, and monitored over time with the follow-along-version. The occurrence and specific timing of SLE were assessed with the life events assessment interview. Cox proportional-hazard-regression-analyses tested associations between time-varying levels of SLE and ED relapse, controlling for comorbid psychiatric disorders, ED duration, and time-varying personality-disorder status. Results ED relapse probability was 43%; BN and EDNOS did not differ in time to relapse. Negative SLE significantly predicted ED relapse; elevated work and social stressors were significant predictors. Psychiatric comorbidity, ED duration, and time-varying personality-disorder status were not significant predictors. Discussion Higher work and social stress represent significant warning signs for triggering relapse for women with remitted BN and EDNOS. PMID:21448971

  11. The effect of consumer pressure and abiotic stress on positive plant interactions are mediated by extreme climatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filazzola, Alessandro; Liczner, Amanda Rae; Westphal, Michael; Lortie, Christopher J

    2018-01-01

    Environmental extremes resulting from a changing climate can have profound implications for plant interactions in desert communities. Positive interactions can buffer plant communities from abiotic stress and consumer pressure caused by climatic extremes, but limited research has explored this empirically. We tested the hypothesis that the mechanism of shrub facilitation on an annual plant community can change with precipitation extremes in deserts. During years of extreme drought and above-average rainfall in a desert, we measured plant interactions and biomass while manipulating a soil moisture gradient and reducing consumer pressure. Shrubs facilitated the annual plant community at all levels of soil moisture through reductions in microclimatic stress in both years and herbivore protection in the wet year only. Shrub facilitation and the high rainfall year contributed to the dominance of a competitive annual species in the plant community. Precipitation patterns in deserts determine the magnitude and type of facilitation mechanisms. Moreover, shrub facilitation mediates the interspecific competition within the associated annual community between years with different rainfall amounts. Examining multiple drivers during extreme climate events is a challenging area of research, but it is a necessary consideration given forecasts predicting that these events will increase in frequency and magnitude. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Stressful Life Events and Daily Stressors Affect Awakening Cortisol Level in Midlife Mothers of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jen D.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The current study examines the awakening cortisol level in midlife mothers (M=51.4 years old, SD=8.4) of individuals (M=22.1 years old, SD=7.1) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) under stressful conditions that are not specific to the son or daughter's ASD symptoms. Methods In addition to completing a set of questionnaires and in-home interviews, 82 mothers from the Adolescents and Adults with Autism Study (AAA) participated in a Daily Diary Study. Results Findings from the multilevel models indicated that mothers who previously were exposed to no negative life events in the previous period had an increased awakening cortisol level on days following a greater number and more severe stressors, a normative stress response. In contrast, we observed a flatter cortisol level of daily stressors in mothers who experienced a greater number of negative life events in the previous period. Conclusion These findings highlight the sustained toll that global and everyday stressors have on awakening cortisol level of midlife and aging mothers of individuals with ASD. PMID:22640177

  13. Latitudinal Patterns in European Seagrass Carbon Reserves: Influence of Seasonal Fluctuations versus Short-Term Stress and Disturbance Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soissons, Laura M.; Haanstra, Eeke P.; van Katwijk, Marieke M.; Asmus, Ragnhild; Auby, Isabelle; Barillé, Laurent; Brun, Fernando G.; Cardoso, Patricia G.; Desroy, Nicolas; Fournier, Jerome; Ganthy, Florian; Garmendia, Joxe-Mikel; Godet, Laurent; Grilo, Tiago F.; Kadel, Petra; Ondiviela, Barbara; Peralta, Gloria; Puente, Araceli; Recio, Maria; Rigouin, Loic; Valle, Mireia; Herman, Peter M. J.; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2018-01-01

    Seagrass meadows form highly productive and valuable ecosystems in the marine environment. Throughout the year, seagrass meadows are exposed to abiotic and biotic variations linked to (i) seasonal fluctuations, (ii) short-term stress events such as, e.g., local nutrient enrichment, and (iii) small-scale disturbances such as, e.g., biomass removal by grazing. We hypothesized that short-term stress events and small-scale disturbances may affect seagrass chance for survival in temperate latitudes. To test this hypothesis we focused on seagrass carbon reserves in the form of starch stored seasonally in rhizomes, as these have been defined as a good indicator for winter survival. Twelve Zostera noltei meadows were monitored along a latitudinal gradient in Western Europe to firstly assess the seasonal change of their rhizomal starch content. Secondly, we tested the effects of nutrient enrichment and/or biomass removal on the corresponding starch content by using a short-term manipulative field experiment at a single latitude in the Netherlands. At the end of the growing season, we observed a weak but significant linear increase of starch content along the latitudinal gradient from south to north. This agrees with the contention that such reserves are essential for regrowth after winter, which is more severe in the north. In addition, we also observed a weak but significant positive relationship between starch content at the beginning of the growing season and past winter temperatures. This implies a lower regrowth potential after severe winters, due to diminished starch content at the beginning of the growing season. Short-term stress and disturbances may intensify these patterns, because our manipulative experiments show that when nutrient enrichment and biomass loss co-occurred at the end of the growing season, Z. noltei starch content declined. In temperate zones, the capacity of seagrasses to accumulate carbon reserves is expected to determine carbon-based regrowth

  14. Latitudinal Patterns in European Seagrass Carbon Reserves: Influence of Seasonal Fluctuations versus Short-Term Stress and Disturbance Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Soissons

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows form highly productive and valuable ecosystems in the marine environment. Throughout the year, seagrass meadows are exposed to abiotic and biotic variations linked to (i seasonal fluctuations, (ii short-term stress events such as, e.g., local nutrient enrichment, and (iii small-scale disturbances such as, e.g., biomass removal by grazing. We hypothesized that short-term stress events and small-scale disturbances may affect seagrass chance for survival in temperate latitudes. To test this hypothesis we focused on seagrass carbon reserves in the form of starch stored seasonally in rhizomes, as these have been defined as a good indicator for winter survival. Twelve Zostera noltei meadows were monitored along a latitudinal gradient in Western Europe to firstly assess the seasonal change of their rhizomal starch content. Secondly, we tested the effects of nutrient enrichment and/or biomass removal on the corresponding starch content by using a short-term manipulative field experiment at a single latitude in the Netherlands. At the end of the growing season, we observed a weak but significant linear increase of starch content along the latitudinal gradient from south to north. This agrees with the contention that such reserves are essential for regrowth after winter, which is more severe in the north. In addition, we also observed a weak but significant positive relationship between starch content at the beginning of the growing season and past winter temperatures. This implies a lower regrowth potential after severe winters, due to diminished starch content at the beginning of the growing season. Short-term stress and disturbances may intensify these patterns, because our manipulative experiments show that when nutrient enrichment and biomass loss co-occurred at the end of the growing season, Z. noltei starch content declined. In temperate zones, the capacity of seagrasses to accumulate carbon reserves is expected to determine carbon

  15. Increased accumulation of cuticular wax and expression of lipid transfer protein in response to periodic drying events in leaves of tree tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kimberly D; Teece, Mark A; Smart, Lawrence B

    2006-01-01

    Cuticular wax deposition and composition affects drought tolerance and yield in plants. We examined the relationship between wax and dehydration stress by characterizing the leaf cuticular wax of tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca L. Graham) grown under periodic dehydration stress. Total leaf cuticular wax load increased after each of three periods of dehydration stress using a CH2Cl2 extraction process. Overall, total wax load increased 1.5- to 2.5-fold, but composition of the wax was not altered. Homologous series of wax components were classified into organic groups; n-hentriacontane was the largest component (>75%) with alcohols and fatty acids representing drying event. Leaves excised from plants subjected to multiple drying events were more resistant to water loss compared to leaves excised from well-watered plants, indicating that there is a negative relationship between total wax load and epidermal conductance. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are thought to be involved in the transfer of lipids through the extracellular matrix for the formation of cuticular wax. Using northern analysis, a 6-fold increase of tree tobacco LTP gene transcripts was observed after three drying events, providing further evidence that LTP is involved in cuticle deposition. The simplicity of wax composition and the dramatic wax bloom displayed by tree tobacco make this an excellent species in which to study the relationship between leaf wax deposition and drought tolerance.

  16. The association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratous, Sokratis; Merkouris, Anastasios; Middleton, Nicos; Karanikola, Maria

    2013-12-05

    Previous findings suggest that stressful life events have a causal relationship with depressive symptoms. However, to date little is known concerning the contribution of the number and severity of recent stressful life events on the prevalence of depressive symptoms among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with the number and the severity of self-reported stressful life events among university students in Cyprus. A descriptive correlational design with cross sectional comparison was used. The CES-D scale was applied for the assessment of depressive symptoms and the LESS instrument for stressful life events. Both scales were completed anonymously and voluntarily by 1.500 students (response rate 85%). The prevalence of mild to moderate depressive symptoms [CES-D score between 16 and 21] and of clinically significant depressive symptoms [CES-D score ≥ 22] were 18.8% and 25.3% respectively. There were statistically significant differences in clinically significant depressive symptoms by gender, with higher rates among women (x(2) = 8.53, df = 1, p = 0.003). Higher scores on the LESS scale were associated with more frequent reports of clinical depressive symptoms (x(2) = 70.63, df = 4, p life events and clinical depressive symptoms (x(2) = 40.06, df = 4, p stressful life events during the previous year (OR = 2.64 95% CI: 1.02, 6.83) and a severe degree of stress due to these events (total LESS score > 351, OR = 3.03 95% CI: 1.66, 5.39) were more likely to manifest clinical depressive symptoms. The high frequency of occurrence of depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students, as well as the strong association with stressful life events, highlights the need for psychological empowerment strategies towards students by institutional counseling services.

  17. Pathways from assaultive violence to post-traumatic stress, depression, and generalized anxiety symptoms through stressful life events: longitudinal mediation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, S R; Joshi, S; Galea, S; Aiello, A E; Uddin, M; Koenen, K C; Cerdá, M

    2017-10-01

    Assaultive violence events are associated with increased risk for adverse psychiatric outcomes, including post-traumatic stress (PTS), depression, and generalized anxiety. Prior research has indicated that economic, legal, and social stressors that could follow assaultive events may explain the increased risk for adverse psychiatric outcomes, yet longitudinal studies have not adequately examined this pathway. In the current study, we aimed to address this limitation. Participants (N = 1360) were part of a longitudinal population-based study of adults living in Detroit. At three waves, participants indicated their exposure to assaultive violence and economic, legal, and social stressors, and completed inventories of PTS, depression, and generalized anxiety. Longitudinal mediation models were used to test the hypothesized pathway from assaultive violence to each psychiatric outcome. The hypothesized models evidenced good fit with the data and, in each, the paths from Wave 1 (W1) assaultive violence to W2 stressors, and from W2 stressors to W3 symptoms were significant (range of Standardized Estimates: 0.09-0.15, all p violence to W3 symptoms were significant (range of Standardized Estimates: 0.01-0.02, all p violence increase risk for a range of psychiatric symptoms. Although future research is needed, the results suggest that investment in interventions that prevent and mitigate assaultive violence survivors' exposure to such stressors may be an effective way to prevent mental illness in the aftermath of violent assaults.

  18. Increase of resistance to cracking on stress relieving of hardened steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, V.V.; Zabil'skij, V.V.; Mikheev, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    Regularities of increase of resistance to cracking during stress relieving of hardened low-alloyed steels were studied, using complex of methods. Effect of carbon, stress concentrator radius, duration and temperature of stress relieving was studies in particular. Results of investigating kinetics of change of physicomechanical properties, hydrogen desorption from hardened specimens showed, that increase of resistance to cracking was caused by desorption from grain boundaries of diffusion-mobile hydrogen, formed during hardening. 18 refs., 8 figs

  19. Traumatic Stress Interacts With Bipolar Disorder Genetic Risk to Increase Risk for Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Holly C; Fullerton, Janice M; Glowinski, Anne L; Benke, Kelly; Kamali, Masoud; Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Stapp, Emma K; Edenberg, Howard J; Roberts, Gloria M P; Ghaziuddin, Neera; Fisher, Carrie; Brucksch, Christine; Frankland, Andrew; Toma, Claudio; Shaw, Alex D; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Miller, Leslie; McInnis, Melvin G; Mitchell, Philip B; Nurnberger, John I

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the most heritable psychiatric conditions and is associated with high suicide risk. To explore the reasons for this link, this study examined the interaction between traumatic stress and BD polygenic risk score in relation to suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescent and young adult offspring and relatives of persons with BD (BD-relatives) compared with adolescent and young adult offspring of individuals without psychiatric disorders (controls). Data were collected from 4 sites in the United States and 1 site in Australia from 2006 through 2012. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare rates of ideation, attempts, and NSSI between BD-relatives (n = 307) and controls (n = 166) and to determine the contribution of demographic factors, traumatic stress exposure, lifetime mood or substance (alcohol/drug) use disorders, and BD polygenic risk score. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and mood and substance use disorders, BD-relatives were at increased risk for suicidal ideation and attempts but not for NSSI. Independent of BD-relative versus control status, demographic factors, or mood and substance use disorders, exposure to trauma within the past year (including bullying, sexual abuse, and domestic violence) was associated with suicide attempts (p = .014), and BD polygenic risk score was marginally associated with attempts (p = .061). Importantly, the interaction between BD polygenic risk score and traumatic event exposures was significantly associated with attempts, independent of demographics, relative versus control status, and mood and substance use disorders (p = .041). BD-relatives are at increased risk for suicide attempts and ideation, especially if they are exposed to trauma and have evidence of increased genetic vulnerability. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxidative stress increases internal calcium stores and reduces a key mitochondrial enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Gary E; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Hui; Park, Larry C H; Jeitner, Thomas M

    2002-03-16

    Fibroblasts from patients with genetic and non-genetic forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) show many abnormalities including increased bombesin-releasable calcium stores (BRCS), diminished activities of the mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC), and an altered ability to handle oxidative stress. The link between genetic mutations (and the unknown primary event in non-genetic forms) and these other cellular abnormalities is unknown. To determine whether oxidative stress could be a convergence point that produces the other AD-related changes, these experiments tested in fibroblasts the effects of H(2)O(2), in the presence or absence of select antioxidants, on BRCS and KGDHC. H(2)O(2) concentrations that elevated carboxy-dichlorofluorescein (c-H(2)DCF)-detectable ROS increased BRCS and decreased KGDHC activity. These changes are in the same direction as those in fibroblasts from AD patients. Acute treatments with the antioxidants Trolox, or DMSO decreased c-H(2)DCF-detectable ROS by about 90%, but exaggerated the H(2)O(2)-induced increases in BRCS by about 4-fold and did not alter the reduction in KGDHC. Chronic pretreatments with Trolox more than doubled the BRCS, tripled KGDHC activities, and reduced the effects of H(2)O(2). Pretreatment with DMSO or N-acetyl cysteine diminished the BRCS and either had no effect, or exaggerated the H(2)O(2)-induced changes in these variables. The results demonstrate that BRCS and KGDHC are more sensitive to H(2)O(2) derived species than c-H(2)DCF, and that oxidized derivatives of the antioxidants exaggerate the actions of H(2)O(2). The findings support the hypothesis that select abnormalities in oxidative processes are a critical part of a cascade that leads to the cellular abnormalities in cells from AD patients.

  1. Does ego development increase during midlife? The effects of openness and accommodative processing of difficult events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilgendahl, Jennifer Pals; Helson, Ravenna; John, Oliver P

    2013-08-01

    Although Loevinger's model of ego development is a theory of personality growth, there are few studies that have examined age-related change in ego level over developmentally significant periods of adulthood. To address this gap in the literature, we examined mean-level change and individual differences in change in ego level over 18 years of midlife. In this longitudinal study, participants were 79 predominantly White, college-educated women who completed the Washington University Sentence Completion Test in early (age 43) and late (age 61) midlife as well as measures of the trait of Openness (ages 21, 43, 52, and 61) and accommodative processing (assessed from narratives of difficult life events at age 52). As hypothesized, the sample overall showed a mean-level increase in ego level from age 43 to age 61. Additionally, a regression analysis showed that both the trait of Openness at age 21 and accommodative processing of difficult events that occurred during (as opposed to prior to) midlife were each predictive of increasing ego level from age 43 to age 61. These findings counter prior claims that ego level remains stable during adulthood and contribute to our understanding of the underlying processes involved in personality growth in midlife. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Encoding negative events under stress: high subjective arousal is related to accurate emotional memory despite misinformation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; LaBar, Kevin S; Ryan, Lee; Jacobs, W Jake; Nadel, Lynn

    2014-07-01

    Stress at encoding affects memory processes, typically enhancing, or preserving, memory for emotional information. These effects have interesting implications for eyewitness accounts, which in real-world contexts typically involve encoding an aversive event under stressful conditions followed by potential exposure to misinformation. The present study investigated memory for a negative event encoded under stress and subsequent misinformation endorsement. Healthy young adults participated in a between-groups design with three experimental sessions conducted 48 h apart. Session one consisted of a psychosocial stress induction (or control task) followed by incidental encoding of a negative slideshow. During session two, participants were asked questions about the slideshow, during which a random subgroup was exposed to misinformation. Memory for the slideshow was tested during the third session. Assessment of memory accuracy across stress and no-stress groups revealed that stress induced just prior to encoding led to significantly better memory for the slideshow overall. The classic misinformation effect was also observed - participants exposed to misinformation were significantly more likely to endorse false information during memory testing. In the stress group, however, memory accuracy and misinformation effects were moderated by arousal experienced during encoding of the negative event. Misinformed-stress group participants who reported that the negative slideshow elicited high arousal during encoding were less likely to endorse misinformation for the most aversive phase of the story. Furthermore, these individuals showed better memory for components of the aversive slideshow phase that had been directly misinformed. Results from the current study provide evidence that stress and high subjective arousal elicited by a negative event act concomitantly during encoding to enhance emotional memory such that the most aversive aspects of the event are well remembered and

  3. Prenatal Stress Produces Sex Specific Changes in Depression-like Behavior in Rats: Implications for Increased Vulnerability in Females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Arentzen, Tine S; Dyrby, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Stress during rat gestation can elicit depression-like physiological and behavioral responses in the offspring. However, human clinical depression is more prevalent among females than males. Accordingly, we examined how repeated variable prenatal stress (PS) alters rat anxiety- and depression...... and measured anxiety- (elevated plus maze, EPM) and depression-like (forced swim test, FST) behaviors in the offspring at a young adult age. As a stressful event later in life (in addition to PS) may be needed to actually trigger an episode of clinical depression, half of the animals were exposed to an acute...... affected in control animals after acute stressor exposure, however, this response was blunted in PS offspring. Moreover, FST immobility, as an indicator of depressive-like behavior, was increased in female but not male PS rats. Altogether, our results identify both sex- and circadian phase-specific effects...

  4. Wound-healing ability is conserved during periods of chronic stress and costly life history events in a wild-caught bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, S E; de Bruijn, R; Tran, M N; Romero, L M

    2016-04-01

    Chronic stress, potentially through the actions of corticosterone, is thought to directly impair the function of immune cells. However, chronic stress may also have an indirect effect by influencing allocation of energy, ultimately shifting resources away from the immune system. If so, the effects of chronic stress on immune responses may be greater during energetically-costly life history events. To test whether the effects of chronic stress on immune responses differ during expensive life history events we measured wound healing rate in molting and non-molting European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exposed to control or chronic stress conditions. To determine whether corticosterone correlated with wound healing rates before starting chronic stress, we measured baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and two estimates of corticosterone release and regulation, negative feedback (using dexamethasone injection), and maximal capacity of the adrenals to secrete corticosterone (using adrenocorticotropin hormone [ACTH] injection). After 8days of exposure to chronic stress, we wounded both control and chronically stressed birds and monitored healing daily. We monitored nighttime heart rate, which strongly correlates with energy expenditure, and body mass throughout the study. Measures of corticosterone did not differ with molt status. Contrary to work on lizards and small mammals, all birds, regardless of stress or molt status, fully-healed wounds at similar rates. Although chronic stress did not influence healing rates, individuals with low baseline corticosterone or strong negative feedback had faster healing rates than individuals with high baseline corticosterone or weak negative feedback. In addition, wound healing does appear to be linked to energy expenditure and body mass. Non-molting, chronically stressed birds decreased nighttime heart rate during healing, but this pattern did not exist in molting birds. Additionally, birds of heavier body mass at the start of

  5. Development and validation of a Thai stressful life events rating scale for patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenic methamphetamine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ek-uma Imkome

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to psychometrically test a Thai Stressful Life Events Rating Scale (TSLERS. Factor analysis was done on data collected from 313 patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse in Thailand from April to May, 2015. Results identified the following problems impacting physical and mental health: social relationship and social concerns, money, family life, life security, and career. Evaluation of the psychometric scale properties demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. TSLERS provided scientific and empirical data about stressful life events of patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse, and was suitable for stress detection and suggesting further innovations.

  6. Increases in anxiety-like behavior induced by acute stress are reversed by ethanol in adolescent but not adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2012-01-01

    Repeated exposure to stressors has been found to increase anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents, with the social anxiety induced by repeated restraint being extremely sensitive to anxiolytic effects of ethanol in both adolescent and adult rats. No studies, however, have compared social anxiogenic effects of acute stress or the capacity of ethanol to reverse this anxiety in adolescent and adult animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether adolescent [postnatal day (P35)] Sprague-Dawley rats differ from their adult counterparts (P70) in the impact of acute restraint stress on social anxiety and in their sensitivity to the social anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Animals were restrained for 90 min, followed by examination of stress- and ethanol-induced (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 g/kg) alterations in social behavior using a modified social interaction test in a familiar environment. Acute restraint stress increased anxiety, as indexed by reduced levels of social investigation at both ages, and decreased social preference among adolescents. These increases in anxiety were dramatically reversed among adolescents by acute ethanol. No anxiolytic-like effects of ethanol emerged following restraint stress in adults. The social suppression seen in response to higher doses of ethanol was reversed by restraint stress in animals of both ages. To the extent that these data are applicable to humans, the results of the present study provide some experimental evidence that stressful life events may increase the attractiveness of alcohol as an anxiolytic agent for adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Disentangling the effects of low self-esteem and stressful events on depression: findings from three longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Meier, Laurenz L

    2009-08-01

    Diathesis-stress models of depression suggest that low self-esteem and stressful events jointly influence the development of depressive affect. More specifically, the self-esteem buffering hypothesis states that, in the face of challenging life circumstances, individuals with low self-esteem are prone to depression because they lack sufficient coping resources, whereas those with high self-esteem are able to cope effectively and consequently avoid spiraling downward into depression. The authors used data from 3 longitudinal studies of adolescents and young adults, who were assessed 4 times over a 3-year period (Study 1; N = 359), 3 times over a 6-week period (Study 2; N = 249), and 4 times over a 6-year period (Study 3; N = 2,403). In all 3 studies, low self-esteem and stressful events independently predicted subsequent depression but did not interact in the prediction. Thus, the results did not support the self-esteem buffering hypothesis but suggest that low self-esteem and stressful events operate as independent risk factors for depression. In addition, the authors found evidence in all 3 studies that depression, but not low self-esteem, is reciprocally related to stressful events, suggesting that individuals high in depression are more inclined to subsequently experience stressful events.

  8. Validation of the Revised Stressful Life Event Questionnaire Using a Hybrid Model of Genetic Algorithm and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Sali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Stressors have a serious role in precipitating mental and somatic disorders and are an interesting subject for many clinical and community-based studies. Hence, the proper and accurate measurement of them is very important. We revised the stressful life event (SLE questionnaire by adding weights to the events in order to measure and determine a cut point. Methods. A total of 4569 adults aged between 18 and 85 years completed the SLE questionnaire and the general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12. A hybrid model of genetic algorithm (GA and artificial neural networks (ANNs was applied to extract the relation between the stressful life events (evaluated by a 6-point Likert scale and the GHQ score as a response variable. In this model, GA is used in order to set some parameter of ANN for achieving more accurate results. Results. For each stressful life event, the number is defined as weight. Among all stressful life events, death of parents, spouse, or siblings is the most important and impactful stressor in the studied population. Sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 81% were obtained for the cut point 100. Conclusion. The SLE-revised (SLE-R questionnaire despite simplicity is a high-performance screening tool for investigating the stress level of life events and its management in both community and primary care settings. The SLE-R questionnaire is user-friendly and easy to be self-administered. This questionnaire allows the individuals to be aware of their own health status.

  9. Examining the Associations of Racism, Sexism, and Stressful Life Events on Psychological Distress among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.

    2013-01-01

    African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African American women, and are correlated both with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434

  10. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-10-01

    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: a strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina S Redman

    Full Text Available Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients.Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions.The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20-30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization.These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

  12. Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: a strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Regina S; Kim, Yong Ok; Woodward, Claire J D A; Greer, Chris; Espino, Luis; Doty, Sharon L; Rodriguez, Rusty J

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients.Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions.The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20-30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization).These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

  13. Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: A strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, R.S.; Kim, Y.-O.; Woodward, C.J.D.A.; Greer, C.; Espino, L.; Doty, S.L.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients. Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions. The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20–30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization). These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

  14. 'Gun! Gun! Gun!': An exploration of law enforcement officers' decision-making and coping under stress during actual events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kevin R; Eccles, David W; Freeman, Carlos; Ward, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Research on decision-making under stress has mainly involved laboratory-based studies with few contextual descriptions of decision-making under stress in the natural ecology. We examined how police officers prepared for, coped with and made decisions under threat-of-death stress during real events. A delayed retrospective report method was used to elicit skilled police officers' thoughts and feelings during attempts to resolve such events. Reports were analysed to identify experiences of stress and coping, and thought processes underpinning decision-making during the event. Officers experienced a wide range of events, coped with stress predominantly via problem-focused strategies, and adapted their decision-making under stress based on the available context. Future officer training should involve a greater variety of training scenarios than is involved in current training, and expose trainees to the possible variants of each situation to foster better situational representation and, thus, a more reliable and adaptive mental model for use in decision-making. Practitioner Summary: This study concerns decision-making and coping strategies used by skilled police officers during real threat-of-death situations. Officers' decision-making strategies differed according to the complexity of the situation and they coped with the stress of these situations via attempts to resolve the situations (e.g. by planning responses) and, to a lesser extent, via attempts to deal with their emotions.

  15. Do prescription stimulants increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events?: A systematic review

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    Westover Arthur N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing concern that prescription stimulants may be associated with adverse cardiovascular events such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Public health concerns are amplified by increasing use of prescription stimulants among adults. Methods The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the evidence of an association between prescription stimulant use and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Google Scholar searches were conducted using key words related to these topics (MESH: ADHD; Adults; Amphetamine; Amphetamines; Arrhythmias, Cardiac; Cardiovascular Diseases; Cardiovascular System; Central Nervous Stimulants; Cerebrovascular; Cohort Studies; Case–control Studies; Death; Death, Sudden, Cardiac; Dextroamphetamine; Drug Toxicity; Methamphetamine; Methylphenidate; Myocardial Infarction; Stimulant; Stroke; Safety. Eligible studies were population-based studies of children, adolescents, or adults using prescription stimulant use as the independent variable and a hard cardiovascular outcome as the dependent variable. Results Ten population-based observational studies which evaluated prescription stimulant use with cardiovascular outcomes were reviewed. Six out of seven studies in children and adolescents did not show an association between stimulant use and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In contrast, two out of three studies in adults found an association. Conclusions Findings of an association between prescription stimulant use and adverse cardiovascular outcomes are mixed. Studies of children and adolescents suggest that statistical power is limited in available study populations, and the absolute risk of an event is low. More suggestive of a safety signal, studies of adults found an increased risk for transient ischemic attack and sudden death/ventricular arrhythmia. Interpretation was limited due to differences in population, cardiovascular outcome

  16. Does red noise increase or decrease extinction risk? Single extreme events versus series of unfavorable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwager, Monika; Johst, Karin; Jeltsch, Florian

    2006-06-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown contrasting effects of temporal correlation of environmental fluctuations (red noise) on the risk of population extinction. It is still debated whether and under which conditions red noise increases or decreases extinction risk compared with uncorrelated (white) noise. Here, we explain the opposing effects by introducing two features of red noise time series. On the one hand, positive autocorrelation increases the probability of series of poor environmental conditions, implying increasing extinction risk. On the other hand, for a given time period, the probability of at least one extremely bad year ("catastrophe") is reduced compared with white noise, implying decreasing extinction risk. Which of these two features determines extinction risk depends on the strength of environmental fluctuations and the sensitivity of population dynamics to these fluctuations. If extreme (catastrophic) events can occur (strong noise) or sensitivity is high (overcompensatory density dependence), then temporal correlation decreases extinction risk; otherwise, it increases it. Thus, our results provide a simple explanation for the contrasting previous findings and are a crucial step toward a general understanding of the effect of noise color on extinction risk.

  17. Psychological characteristics, stressful life events and deliberate self-harm: findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-harm in Europe (CASE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madge, Nicola; Hawton, Keith; McMahon, Elaine M; Corcoran, Paul; De Leo, Diego; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; Ystgaard, Mette; Arensman, Ella

    2011-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest that both psychological characteristics and stressful life events are contributory factors in deliberate self-harm among young people. These links, and the possibility of a dose-response relationship between self-harm and both psychological health and life events, were investigated in the context of a seven-country school-based study. Over 30,000, mainly 15 and 16 year olds, completed anonymous questionnaires at secondary schools in Belgium, England, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway and Australia. Pupils were asked to report on thoughts and episodes of self-harm, complete scales on depression and anxiety symptoms, impulsivity and self-esteem and indicate stressful events in their lives. Level and frequency of self-harm was judged according to whether they had thought about harming themselves or reported single or multiple self-harm episodes. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the extent to which psychological characteristics and stressful life events distinguished between adolescents with different self-harm histories. Increased severity of self-harm history was associated with greater depression, anxiety and impulsivity and lower self-esteem and an increased prevalence of all ten life event categories. Female gender, higher impulsivity and experiencing the suicide or self-harm of others, physical or sexual abuse and worries about sexual orientation independently differentiated single-episode self-harmers from adolescents with self-harm thoughts only. Female gender, higher depression, lower self-esteem, experiencing the suicide or self-harm of others, and trouble with the police independently distinguished multiple- from single-episode self-harmers. The findings reinforce the importance of psychological characteristics and stressful life events in adolescent self-harm but nonetheless suggest that some factors are more likely than others to be implicated.

  18. Bilingualism and increased attention to speech: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Jan Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-10-01

    A number of studies have shown that from an early age, bilinguals outperform their monolingual peers on executive control tasks. We previously found that bilingual children and adults also display greater attention to unexpected language switches within speech. Here, we investigated the effect of a bilingual upbringing on speech perception in one language. We recorded monolingual and bilingual toddlers' event-related potentials (ERPs) to spoken words preceded by pictures. Words matching the picture prime elicited an early frontal positivity in bilingual participants only, whereas later ERP amplitudes associated with semantic processing did not differ between groups. These results add to the growing body of evidence that bilingualism increases overall attention during speech perception whilst semantic integration is unaffected. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stressful task increases drive for thinness and bulimia: a laboratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eSassaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The scientific literature has suggested that stress undergirds the development of eating disorders (ED. Therefore, this study explored whether laboratory induced stress increases self-reported drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms measured via self-report. The relationship between control, perfectionism, stress, and cognition related to ED was examined using correlational methodology. 86 participants completed an experimental task using a personal computer. All individuals completed a battery of tests before and after the stressful task. Analyses showed a significant statistical increase in average scores on the drive for thinness and bulimia measured before and after a stressful task, and path analysis revealed two different cognitive models for the mechanism leading to drive for thinness and bulimia. These findings suggest that stress is an important factor in the development of the drive for thinness and bulimia.

  20. Work stress and patient safety: observer-rated work stressors as predictors of characteristics of safety-related events reported by young nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, A; Semmer, N K; Grebner, S

    This study investigates the link between workplace stress and the 'non-singularity' of patient safety-related incidents in the hospital setting. Over a period of 2 working weeks 23 young nurses from 19 hospitals in Switzerland documented 314 daily stressful events using a self-observation method (pocket diaries); 62 events were related to patient safety. Familiarity of safety-related events and probability of recurrence, as indicators of non-singularity, were the dependent variables in multilevel regression analyses. Predictor variables were both situational (self-reported situational control, safety compliance) and chronic variables (job stressors such as time pressure, or concentration demands and job control). Chronic work characteristics were rated by trained observers. The most frequent safety-related stressful events included incomplete or incorrect documentation (40.3%), medication errors (near misses 21%), delays in delivery of patient care (9.7%), and violent patients (9.7%). Familiarity of events and probability of recurrence were significantly predicted by chronic job stressors and low job control in multilevel regression analyses. Job stressors and low job control were shown to be risk factors for patient safety. The results suggest that job redesign to enhance job control and decrease job stressors may be an important intervention to increase patient safety.

  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with traumatic brain injury and amnesia for the event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, D L; Labbate, L A; Salazar, A M; Nelson, R; Sheley, E; Staudenmeier, J; Martin, E

    1997-01-01

    Frequency of DSM-III-R posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was studied in 47 active-duty service members (46 male, 1 female; mean age 27 = 7) with moderate traumatic brain injury and neurogenic amnesia for the event. Patients had attained "oriented and cooperative" recovery level. When evaluated with a modified Present State Examination and other questions at various points from study entry to 24-month follow-up, no patients met full criteria for PTSD or met criterion B (reexperience); 6 (13%) met both C (avoidance) and D (arousal) criteria. Five of these 6 also had organic mood disorder, depressed type, and/or organic anxiety disorder. Posttraumatic amnesia following moderate head injury may protect against recurring memories and the development of PTSD. Some patients with neurogenic amnesia may develop a form of PTSD without the reexperiencing symptoms.

  2. Disruption of perineuronal nets increases the frequency of sharp wave ripple events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi Yong; Bozzelli, P Lorenzo; Caccavano, Adam; Allen, Megan; Balmuth, Jason; Vicini, Stefano; Wu, Jian-Young; Conant, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Hippocampal sharp wave ripples (SWRs) represent irregularly occurring synchronous neuronal population events that are observed during phases of rest and slow wave sleep. SWR activity that follows learning involves sequential replay of training-associated neuronal assemblies and is critical for systems level memory consolidation. SWRs are initiated by CA2 or CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs) and require initial excitation of CA1 PCs as well as participation of parvalbumin (PV) expressing fast spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons. These interneurons are relatively unique in that they represent the major neuronal cell type known to be surrounded by perineuronal nets (PNNs), lattice like structures composed of a hyaluronin backbone that surround the cell soma and proximal dendrites. Though the function of the PNN is not completely understood, previous studies suggest it may serve to localize glutamatergic input to synaptic contacts and thus influence the activity of ensheathed cells. Noting that FS PV interneurons impact the activity of PCs thought to initiate SWRs, and that their activity is critical to ripple expression, we examine the effects of PNN integrity on SWR activity in the hippocampus. Extracellular recordings from the stratum radiatum of horizontal murine hippocampal hemisections demonstrate SWRs that occur spontaneously in CA1. As compared with vehicle, pre-treatment (120 min) of paired hemislices with hyaluronidase, which cleaves the hyaluronin backbone of the PNN, decreases PNN integrity and increases SWR frequency. Pre-treatment with chondroitinase, which cleaves PNN side chains, also increases SWR frequency. Together, these data contribute to an emerging appreciation of extracellular matrix as a regulator of neuronal plasticity and suggest that one function of mature perineuronal nets could be to modulate the frequency of SWR events. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Adverse life events increase risk for postpartum psychiatric episodes: A population-based epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer-Brody, S; Larsen, J T; Petersen, L; Guintivano, J; Florio, A Di; Miller, W C; Sullivan, P F; Munk-Olsen, T

    2018-02-01

    Trauma histories may increase risk of perinatal psychiatric episodes. We designed an epidemiological population-based cohort study to explore if adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in girls increases risk of later postpartum psychiatric episodes. Using Danish registers, we identified women born in Denmark between January 1980 and December 1998 (129,439 childbirths). Exposure variables were ACE between ages 0 and 15 including: (1) family disruption, (2) parental somatic illness, (3) parental labor market exclusion, (4) parental criminality, (5) parental death, (6) placement in out-of-home care, (7) parental psychopathology excluding substance use, and (8) parental substance use disorder. Primary outcome was first occurrence of in- or outpatient contact 0-6 months postpartum at a psychiatric treatment facility with any psychiatric diagnoses, ICD-10, F00-F99 (N = 651). We conducted survival analyses using Cox proportional hazard regressions of postpartum psychiatric episodes. Approximately 52% of the sample experienced ACE, significantly increasing risk of any postpartum psychiatric diagnosis. Highest risks were observed among women who experienced out-of-home placement, hazard ratio (HR) 2.57 (95% CI: 1.90-3.48). Women experiencing two adverse life events had higher risks of postpartum psychiatric diagnosis HR: 1.88 (95% CI: 1.51-2.36), compared to those with one ACE, HR: 1.24 (95% CI: 1.03-49) and no ACE, HR: 1.00 (reference group). ACE primarily due to parental psychopathology and disability contributes to increased risk of postpartum psychiatric episodes; and greater numbers of ACE increases risk for postpartum psychiatric illness with an observed dose-response effect. Future work should explore genetic and environmental factors that increase risk and/or confer resilience. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Overprotective social support leads to increased cardiovascular and subjective stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zniva, Richard; Pauli, Paul; Schulz, Stefan M

    2017-02-01

    Self-determination theory suggests that autonomy-enhancing social support helps individuals to perceive stressors as challenging rather than stressing. Overprotective support may reduce stress in the short-run but undermines autonomy, thus hampering stress-coping in the long run, particularly when social support is terminated. Heartrate, blood-pressure and ratings were examined in N=44 undergraduate students receiving autonomy support (calculation steps) or overprotection (solutions) from a close friend or no support for solving arithmetic tasks as well as during a subsequent stress-challenge (solving arithmetic tasks alone). Overprotection resulted in increased heartrate, diastolic blood-pressure, stress ratings, and decreased subjective control during stress-challenge. Autonomy support did not lead to unfavorable stress responding. The current findings are in line with assumptions derived from self-determination theory and indicate that autonomy support can help to prevent stress. Overprotection does not buffer stress and is associated with increased stress when discontinued. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during worry forecasts stress-related increases in psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Deschênes, Sonya S; Dugas, Michel J

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been conceptualized as an index of emotion regulation abilities. Although resting RSA has been associated with both concurrent and prospective affective responses to stress, the impact of RSA reactivity on emotional responses to stress is inconsistent across studies. The type of emotional stimuli used to elicit these phasic RSA responses may influence the adaptive value of RSA reactivity. We propose that RSA reactivity to a personally relevant worry-based stressor might forecast future affective responses to stress. To evaluate whether resting RSA and RSA reactivity to worry inductions predict stress-related increases in psychological distress, an academic stress model was used to prospectively examine changes in psychological distress from the well-defined low- and high-stress periods. During the low-stress period, 76 participants completed self-report mood measures and had their RSA assessed during a resting baseline, free worry period and worry catastrophizing interview. Participants completed another mood assessment during the high-stress period. Results indicated that baseline psychological distress predicted larger decreases in RSA during the worry inductions. Lower resting RSA and greater RSA suppression to the worry inductions at baseline prospectively predicted larger increases in psychological distress from the low- to high-stress period, even after accounting for the impact of baseline distress on RSA. These results provide further evidence that RSA may represent a unique index of emotion regulation abilities in times of stress.

  6. Stressful task increases drive for thinness and bulimia: a laboratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Sassaroli, Sandra; Fiore, Francesca; Mezzaluna, Clarice; Ruggiero, Giovanni Maria

    2015-01-01

    The scientific literature has suggested that stress undergirds the development of eating disorders (ED). Therefore, this study explored whether laboratory induced stress increases self-reported drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms measured via self-report. The relationship between control, perfectionism, stress, and cognition related to ED was examined using correlational methodology. Eighty-six participants completed an experimental task using a personal computer (PC). All individuals com...

  7. Prediction of Increasing Production Activities using Combination of Query Aggregation on Complex Events Processing and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Arwan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakProduksi, order, penjualan, dan pengiriman adalah serangkaian event yang saling terkait dalam industri manufaktur. Selanjutnya hasil dari event tersebut dicatat dalam event log. Complex Event Processing adalah metode yang digunakan untuk menganalisis apakah terdapat pola kombinasi peristiwa tertentu (peluang/ancaman yang terjadi pada sebuah sistem, sehingga dapat ditangani secara cepat dan tepat. Jaringan saraf tiruan adalah metode yang digunakan untuk mengklasifikasi data peningkatan proses produksi. Hasil pencatatan rangkaian proses yang menyebabkan peningkatan produksi digunakan sebagai data latih untuk mendapatkan fungsi aktivasi dari jaringan saraf tiruan. Penjumlahan hasil catatan event log dimasukkan ke input jaringan saraf tiruan untuk perhitungan nilai aktivasi. Ketika nilai aktivasi lebih dari batas yang ditentukan, maka sistem mengeluarkan sinyal untuk meningkatkan produksi, jika tidak, sistem tetap memantau kejadian. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa akurasi dari metode ini adalah 77% dari 39 rangkaian aliran event.Kata kunci: complex event processing, event, jaringan saraf tiruan, prediksi peningkatan produksi, proses. AbstractProductions, orders, sales, and shipments are series of interrelated events within manufacturing industry. Further these events were recorded in the event log. Complex event processing is a method that used to analyze whether there are patterns of combinations of certain events (opportunities / threats that occur in a system, so it can be addressed quickly and appropriately. Artificial neural network is a method that we used to classify production increase activities. The series of events that cause the increase of the production used as a dataset to train the weight of neural network which result activation value. An aggregate stream of events inserted into the neural network input to compute the value of activation. When the value is over a certain threshold (the activation value results

  8. Pre-event trajectories of mental health and health-related disabilities, and post-event traumatic stress symptoms and health: A 7-wave population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Peter G; Bosmans, Mark W G; van der Meulen, Erik; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2016-12-30

    It is unknown to what extent classes of trajectories of pre-event mental health problems (MHP) and health-related disabilities (HRD), predict post-event traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), MHP and HRD. Aim of the present 7-wave study was to assess the predictive values using a representative sample of adult Dutch (N=4052) participating in three health-surveys in November-December 2009 (T1), 2010 (T2), 2011 (T3). In total, 2988 out of 4052 also participated in trauma-surveys in April(T4), August(T5) and December(T6) 2012 and a fourth health-survey in November-December 2012 (T7). About 10% (N=314) was confronted with potentially traumatic events (PTE) in the 4 months before T4 or T5. Latent class analyses among 4052 respondents identified four classes of pre-event MHP and HRD. Series of multivariate logistic regression analyses with class membership, peri-traumatic stress, type of event, gender, age and education as predictors, showed that classes with high levels of MHP or HRD, were more at risk for high levels of PTSS at baseline and follow-ups at 4 and 8 months, than classes with low levels of MHP or HRD. These classes were very strong predictors for high levels of post-event MHP and HRD: no differences were found between non-affected and affected respondents with different levels of peri-traumatic stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationships between stressful life events during childhood and differentiation of self and intergenerational triangulation in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ora

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationships between stressful life events in childhood and differentiation of self and intergenerational triangulation in adulthood. The sample included 217 students (173 females and 44 males) from a college in northern Israel. Participants completed the Hebrew versions of Life Events Checklist (LEC), Differentiation of Self Inventory-Revised (DSI-R) and intergenerational triangulation (INTRI). The main findings were that levels of stressful life events during childhood and adolescence among both genders were positively correlated with the levels of fusion with others and intergenerational triangulation. The levels of positive life events were negatively related to levels of emotional reactivity, emotional cut-off and intergenerational triangulation. Levels of stressful life events in females were positively correlated with emotional reactivity. Intergenerational triangulation was correlated with emotional reactivity, emotional cut-off, fusion with others and I-position. Findings suggest that families that experience higher levels of stressful life events may be at risk for higher levels of intergenerational triangulation and lower levels of differentiation of self. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Calcification and associated physiological parameters during a stress event in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Aurélie; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Furla, Paola; Richier, Sophie; Tambutté, Eric; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2008-09-01

    High calcification rates observed in reef coral organisms are due to the symbiotic relationship established between scleractinian corals and their photosynthetic dinoflagellates, commonly called zooxanthellae. Zooxanthellae are known to enhance calcification in the light, a process referred as "light-enhanced calcification". The disruption of the relationship between corals and their zooxanthellae leads to bleaching. Bleaching is one of the major causes of the present decline of coral reefs related to climate change and anthropogenic activities. In our aquaria, corals experienced a chemical pollution leading to bleaching and ending with the death of corals. During the time course of this bleaching event, we measured multiple parameters and could evidence four major consecutive steps: 1) at month 1 (January 2005), the stress affected primarily the photosystem II machinery of zooxanthellae resulting in an immediate decrease of photosystem II efficiency, 2) at month 2, the stress affected the photosynthetic production of O2 by zooxanthellae and the rate of light calcification, 3) at month 3, there was a decrease in both light and dark calcification rates, the appearance of the first oxidative damage in the zooxanthellae, the disruption of symbiosis, 4) and finally the death of corals at month 6.

  11. A procedure for temperature-stress fields calculation of WWER-1000 primary circuit in PTS event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkov, G [Technical Univ., Dept. Thermal and Nuclear Power Engineering, Sofia (Bulgaria); Groudev, P; Argirov, J [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1997-09-01

    The paper presents the procedure of an investigation of WWER-1000 primary circuit temperature-stress field by the use of thermohydraulic computation data for a pressurized thermal shock event ``Core overcooling``. The procedure is based on a model of the plane stress state with ideal contact between wall and medium for the calculation. The computation data are calculated on the base of WWER-1000 thermohydraulic model by the RELAP5/MOD3 codes. This model was developed jointly by the Bulgarian and BNL/USA staff to provide an analytical tool for performing safety analysis. As a result of calculations by codes the computation data for temperature field law (linear laws of a few distinguished parts) and pressure of coolant at points on inner surface of WWER-1000 primary circuit equipment are received. Such calculations can be used as a base for determination of all-important load-carrying sections of the primary circuit pipes and vessels, which need further consideration. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  12. Learning from today's extreme weather events to increase our resilience to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruin, I.; Lutoff, C.; Borga, M.; Creutin, J.-D.; Anquetin, S.; Gruntfest, E.; Scolobig, A.

    2009-04-01

    According to the IPCC, flooding is the most widespread serious potential impact of climate change on human settlement. Vulnerability to floods can be thought as a function of exposure and adaptive capacity, and all three entities have been increasing in many areas. Therefore, in order to inform decision-makers, it is crucial to better understand what are the vulnerability factors but also to what extend individuals and societies are capable to adapt their way of life to their changing environment. In this perspective, flash flood events offer a good example of the kind of extremes that our societies may have to face more often in the future. Characterized by their suddenness, fast and violent movement, rarity and small scale, they are particularly difficult to forecast accurately and leave very little lead-time for warnings. In this context, our interdisciplinary team conducts research focusing on individual and human organization responses to warning and crisis situations by using a comprehensive, coupled natural—human system approach over time and space scales. The objective is to understand i) what cognitive and situational factors help individuals and communities to shift from normal daily activities to adapted crisis response and ii) what is the dynamic of this process compared to the one of the natural phenomenon. In this regard, our research learned both from individual perception and behavioral intent survey ("what if" type of survey) than from actual behavioral data gathered in a context of post-event investigations. The review of the literature shows that behavioral intent surveys do not accurately predict warning and crisis response as well as behavioral data do. Knowing that, the difficulty is to obtain consistent and accurate spatio-temporal behavioral data. According to our experience, this is particularly difficult in the context of crisis situations. Behavioral verification requires real-time observations and data collection of indicators

  13. Retinal metabolic events in preconditioning light stress as revealed by wide-spectrum targeted metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Barca, Juan Manuel Chao; Huang, Nuan-Ting; Jiao, Haihan; Tessier, Lydie; Gadras, Cédric; Simard, Gilles; Natoli, Riccardo; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Reynier, Pascal; Valter, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    Light is the primary stimulus for vision, but may also cause damage to the retina. Pre-exposing the retina to sub-lethal amount of light (or preconditioning) improves chances for retinal cells to survive acute damaging light stress. This study aims at exploring the changes in retinal metabolome after mild light stress and identifying mechanisms that may be involved in preconditioning. Retinas from 12 rats exposed to mild light stress (1000 lux × for 12 h) and 12 controls were collected one and seven days after light stress (LS). One retina was used for targeted metabolomics analysis using the Biocrates p180 kit while the fellow retina was used for histological and immunohistochemistry analysis. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that in this experiment, a mild LS with retinal immune response and minimal photoreceptor loss occurred. Compared to controls, LS induced an increased concentration in phosphatidylcholines. The concentration in some amino acids and biogenic amines, particularly those related to the nitric oxide pathway (like asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), arginine and citrulline) also increased 1 day after LS. 7 days after LS, the concentration in two sphingomyelins and phenylethylamine was found to be higher. We further found that in controls, retina metabolome was different between males and females: male retinas had an increased concentration in tyrosine, acetyl-ornithine, phosphatidylcholines and (acyl)-carnitines. Besides retinal sexual metabolic dimorphism, this study shows that preconditioning is mostly associated with re-organisation of lipid metabolism and changes in amino acid composition, likely reflecting the involvement of arginine-dependent NO signalling.

  14. Stress Echocardiography and Major Cardiac Events in Patients with Normal Exercise Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasans, Flávia Ricci; Santos, Bruno Fernandes de Oliveira; Silveira, Débora Consuelo Rocha; de Araújo, Ana Carla Pereira; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Barreto-Filho, José Augusto; Sousa, Antônio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise test (ET) is the preferred initial noninvasive test for the diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease (CAD), however, its lower sensitivity may fail to identify patients at greater risk of adverse events. Objective To assess the value of stress echocardiography (SE) for predicting all-cause mortality and major cardiac events (MACE) in patients with intermediate pretest probability of CAD and a normal ET. Methods 397 patients with intermediate CAD pretest probability, estimated by the Morise score, and normal ET who underwent SE were studied. The patients were divided into two groups according to the absence (G1) or presence (G2) of myocardial ischemia on SE .End points evaluated were all-cause mortality and MACE, defined as cardiac death and nonfatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Results G1 group was comprised of 329 (82.8%) patients. The mean age of the patients was 57.37 ± 11 years and 44.1% were male. During a mean follow-up of 75.94 ± 17.24 months, 13 patients died, three of them due to cardiac causes, and 13 patients suffered nonfatal AMI. Myocardial ischemia remained an independent predictor of MACE (HR 2.49; [CI] 95% 1.74-3.58). The independent predictors for all-cause mortality were male gender (HR 9.83; [CI] 95% 2.15-44.97) and age over 60 years (HR 4.57; [CI] 95% 1.39-15.23). Conclusion Positive SE for myocardial ischemia is a predictor of MACE in the studied sample, which helps to identify a subgroup of patients at higher risk of events despite having normal ET. PMID:23765384

  15. Posttraumatic stress disorder increases risk for suicide attempt in adults with recurrent major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Daniel; Wilcox, Holly C; MacKinnon, Dean F; Mondimore, Francis M; Schweizer, Barbara; Jancic, Dunya; Coryell, William H; Weissman, Myrna M; Levinson, Douglas F; Potash, James B

    2013-10-01

    Genetics of Recurrent Early-Onset Depression study (GenRED II) data were used to examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and attempted suicide in a population of 1,433 individuals with recurrent early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD). We tested the hypothesis that PTSD resulting from assaultive trauma increases risk for attempted suicide among individuals with recurrent MDD. Data on lifetime trauma exposures and clinical symptoms were collected using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies version 3.0 and best estimate diagnoses of MDD, PTSD, and other DSM-IV Axis I disorders were reported with best estimated age of onset. The lifetime prevalence of suicide attempt in this sample was 28%. Lifetime PTSD was diagnosed in 205 (14.3%) participants. We used discrete time-survival analyses to take into account timing in the PTSD-suicide attempt relationship while adjusting for demographic variables (gender, race, age, and education level) and comorbid diagnoses prior to trauma exposure. PTSD was an independent predictor of subsequent suicide attempt (HR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.6, 3.8; P < .0001). Neither assaultive nor nonassaultive trauma without PTSD significantly predicted subsequent suicide attempt after Bonferroni correction. The association between PTSD and subsequent suicide attempt was driven by traumatic events involving assaultive violence (HR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3, 2.2; P< .0001). Among those with recurrent MDD, PTSD appears to be a vulnerability marker of maladaptive responses to traumatic events and an independent risk factor for attempted suicide. Additional studies examining differences between those with and without PTSD on biological measures might shed light on this potential vulnerability. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Emotional response patterns of depression, grief, sadness and stress to differing life events: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Paterson, Amelia; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan

    2015-04-01

    In clarifying the clinical definition of an episode of major depression, DSM-5 equates bereavement with a number of other loss-related stressors (e.g. financial ruin, serious medical problems) and infers differences between such loss-related and non-loss-related responses. We undertook a study with the aim of examining the likelihood of varying life stressors leading to depression or to other emotional responses, and so allowing consideration as to whether bereavement might be equivalent to other loss-related stressful triggers. We studied a sample comprising sub-sets of those likely to have either experienced or never experienced a clinical depressive episode and report data for both the whole sample and the separate sub-sets. Participants were asked to report their exposure to 16 differing stressors and, given definitions of depression, grief, sadness and stress, to rate (in order of importance) their primary and secondary reactions if so experienced. Only one event (i.e. the individual being left by their partner) generated depression as the most likely response within the sample. A grief reaction was nominated as the most likely primary response to the death of a first-degree relative (52%) and was also a relatively common primary response to the death of a more distant relative or close family friend (36%). While one-fourth (24%) nominated grief as the primary response to being left by one's partner, it was rarely nominated as a primary response to all other events, including the DSM-5 'loss-related' exemplars of a financial crisis and of a medical illness (rates of 3% and 2%, respectively). As participants were given a definition of the emotional responses and candidate contexts, their responses may have been a reflection of the definitions provided. Additionally, a retrospective, self-report design was used which may have impacted on the veracity of responses. Findings position a grief response as showing relative specificity to bereavement events and that

  17. Increased risk of coronary heart disease among individuals reporting adverse impact of stress on their health: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Hermann; Kivimäki, Mika; Batty, G David; Shipley, Martin J; Britton, Annie; Brunner, Eric J; Vahtera, Jussi; Lemogne, Cédric; Elbaz, Alexis; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2013-09-01

    Response to stress can vary greatly between individuals. However, it remains unknown whether perceived impact of stress on health is associated with adverse health outcomes. We examined whether individuals who report that stress adversely affects their health are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) compared with those who report that stress has no adverse health impact. Analyses are based on 7268 men and women (mean age: 49.5 years, interquartile range: 11 years) from the British Whitehall II cohort study. Over 18 years of follow-up, there were 352 coronary deaths or first non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) events. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, participants who reported at baseline that stress has affected their health 'a lot or extremely' had a 2.12 times higher (95% CI 1.52-2.98) risk of coronary death or incident non-fatal MI when compared with those who reported no effect of stress on their health. This association was attenuated but remained statistically significant after adjustment for biological, behavioural, and other psychological risk factors including perceived stress levels, and measures of social support; fully adjusted hazard ratio: 1.49 (95% CI 1.01-2.22). In this prospective cohort study, the perception that stress affects health, different from perceived stress levels, was associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether disease risk can be reduced by increasing clinical attention to those who complain that stress greatly affects their health.

  18. When Natural Disaster Follows Economic Downturn: The Incremental Impact of Multiple Stressor Events on Trajectories of Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandavia, Amar D; Bonanno, George A

    2018-04-29

    To determine whether there were incremental mental health impacts, specifically on depression trajectories, as a result of the 2008 economic crisis (the Great Recession) and subsequent Hurricane Sandy. Using latent growth mixture modeling and the ORANJ BOWL dataset, we examined prospective trajectories of depression among older adults (mean age, 60.67; SD, 6.86) who were exposed to the 2 events. We also collected community economic and criminal justice data to examine their impact upon depression trajectories. Participants (N=1172) were assessed at 3 times for affect, successful aging, and symptoms of depression. We additionally assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology after Hurricane Sandy. We identified 3 prospective trajectories of depression. The majority (83.6%) had no significant change in depression from before to after these events (resilience), while 7.2% of the sample increased in depression incrementally after each event (incremental depression). A third group (9.2%) went from high to low depression symptomology following the 2 events (depressive-improving). Only those in the incremental depression group had significant PTSD symptoms following Hurricane Sandy. We identified a small group of individuals for whom the experience of multiple stressful events had an incremental negative effect on mental health outcomes. These results highlight the importance of understanding the perseveration of depression symptomology from one event to another. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 10).

  19. Increased risk taking in relation to chronic stress in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandita eCeccato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured learning-independent risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS. We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify chronic cortisol exposure. We discovered a significant, positive correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations.

  20. Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Increases in Fear Memory Consolidation within the Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Antonio V; Serrano, Peter A; Burghardt, Nesha S

    2016-01-01

    Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects the amygdala and amygdala-dependent fear memories remain unclear. Here we review the literature on the enhancing effects of acute and chronic stress on the acquisition and/or consolidation of a fear memory, as measured by auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning, and discuss potential mechanisms by which these changes occur in the amygdala. We hypothesize that stress-mediated activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and norepinephrine release within the amygdala leads to the mobilization of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors to the synapse, which underlies stress-induced increases in fear memory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for evaluating the effects of stress on extinction and for developing treatments for anxiety disorders. Understanding how stress-induced changes in glucocorticoid and norepinephrine signaling might converge to affect emotional learning by increasing the trafficking of AMPA receptors and enhancing amygdala excitability is a promising area for future research.

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Increases in Fear Memory Consolidation Within the Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aubry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects the amygdala and amygdala-dependent fear memories remain unclear. Here we review the literature on the enhancing effects of acute and chronic stress on the acquisition and/or consolidation of a fear memory, as measured by auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning, and discuss potential mechanisms by which these changes occur in the amygdala. We hypothesize that stress-mediated activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR and norepinephrine release within the amygdala leads to the mobilization of AMPA receptors to the synapse, which underlies stress-induced increases in fear memory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for evaluating the effects of stress on extinction and for developing treatments for anxiety disorders. Understanding how stress-induced changes in glucocorticoid and norepinephrine signaling might converge to affect emotional learning by increasing the trafficking of AMPA receptors and enhancing amygdala excitability is a promising area for future research.

  2. Increased Cardiovascular Events and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: 1 Year Prospective Single Centre Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Ruscitti

    Full Text Available Several studies showed the close relationship between Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA and cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis during the course of RA and we evaluated the possible role of both traditional cardiovascular (CV and disease related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and the onset of subclinical atherosclerosis.We designed a single centre, bias-adjusted, prospective, observational study to investigate, in a homogeneous subset of RA patients, the occurrence of new onset of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the role of traditional CV and disease-related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis.We enrolled 347 RA patients prospectively followed for 12 months. An increased percentage of patients experienced CVEs, developed subclinical atherosclerosis and was affected by systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS, at the end of follow up. Our analysis showed that the insurgence of both SAH and MS, during the follow up, the older age, the CVE familiarity and the lack of clinical response, were associated with a significantly increased risk to experience CVEs and to develop subclinical atherosclerosis.Our study quantifies the increased expected risk for CVEs in a cohort of RA patients prospectively followed for 1 year. The occurrence of both new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis in RA patients may be explained by inflammatory burden as well as traditional CV risk factors.

  3. Stress history increases alcohol intake in relapse: relation to phosphodiesterase 10A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logrip, Marian L; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2012-09-01

    Stressful experiences can result in elevated alcohol drinking, as exemplified in many individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. However, how stress history, rather than acute stressors, influences alcohol intake remains uncertain. To model the protracted effects of past stress, male Wistar rats were subjected to light-cued footshock (stress history) or light cues alone (control) prior to acquisition of alcohol self-administration (1-hour sessions, fixed ratio 1-3, 100 µl of 10% v/v alcohol as reinforcer). Stress history did not alter mean alcohol intake during acquisition of self-administration, but it increased preference for the alcohol-paired lever over the inactive lever. Following an extinction period, rats with a history of stress exposure and low baseline alcohol intake showed a twofold elevation in alcohol self-administration, as compared with low-drinking rats with no stress history. Similar effects were not seen in rats self-administering 0.1% sucrose. Analysis of mRNA levels of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A), a dual-specificity cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate hydrolyzing enzyme, showed that stress history increased Pde10a mRNA levels in the basolateral amygdala and, in low-drinking rats, the prelimbic prefrontal cortex (plPFC). Pde10a mRNA levels in the plPFC correlated directly with greater alcohol self-administration during the relapse-like phase, and greater BLA Pde10a mRNA levels correlated with increased ethanol preference after acquisition. The data demonstrate that stress history sensitizes otherwise low alcohol drinkers to consume more alcohol in a relapse-like situation and identify stress-induced neuroadaptations in amygdala and prefrontal cortical Pde10a expression as changes that may drive heightened alcohol intake and preference in susceptible individuals. © 2012 The Authors. Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Ozone Exposure Increases Circulating Stress Hormones and Lipid Metabolites in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Air pollution has been associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. We have shown that acute ozone exposure in rats induces release of stress hormones, hyperglycemia, leptinemia, and gluoose intolerance that are assoc...

  5. Oral contraceptive therapy increases oxidative stress in pre-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui Tung Chen

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The use of OCT may increase oxidative stress levels, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, in pre-menopausal women, providing new insights to the primary prevention of vascular complications in these subjects.

  6. The role of stressful life events preceding death by suicide: Evidence from two samples of suicide decedents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Chu, Carol; Michaels, Matthew S; Hames, Jennifer L; Silva, Caroline; Hagan, Christopher R; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Selby, Edward A; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-10-01

    Stressful life events (SLEs) are associated with increased risk for suicidal behavior. Less is known regarding the intensity of SLEs and how this may vary as a function of suicide attempt history. As a large percentage of suicide decedents do not have a history of suicidal behavior, SLEs precipitating suicide may help characterize suicidality in this understudied population. This paper examines the intensity, number, and accumulation of SLEs preceding death by suicide among decedents with varying suicide attempt histories. Suicide attempts, SLEs, and suicide methods were examined in two samples: 62 prison-based and 117 community-based suicide decedents. Regression was used to compare the level of stressor precipitating death by suicide in decedents who died on a first attempt versus multiple previous attempts. A non-significant trend was observed in the prison population which was supported by significant findings in the community-based sample. Decedents who died on a first attempt experienced a stressor of a lower magnitude when compared to decedents with multiple previous suicide attempts. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to the stress-diathesis model for suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Academic stress and personality interact to increase the neural response to high-calorie food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neseliler, Selin; Tannenbaum, Beth; Zacchia, Maria; Larcher, Kevin; Coulter, Kirsty; Lamarche, Marie; Marliss, Errol B; Pruessner, Jens; Dagher, Alain

    2017-09-01

    Psychosocial stress is associated with an increased intake of palatable foods and weight gain in stress-reactive individuals. Personality traits have been shown to predict stress-reactivity. However, it is not known if personality traits influence brain activity in regions implicated in appetite control during psychosocial stress. The current study assessed whether Gray's Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) scale, a measure of stress-reactivity, was related to the activity of brain regions implicated in appetite control during a stressful period. Twenty-two undergraduate students participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment once during a non-exam period and once during final exams in a counter-balanced order. In the scanner, they viewed food and scenery pictures. In the exam compared with the non-exam condition, BIS scores related to increased perceived stress and correlated with increased blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response to high-calorie food images in regions implicated in food reward and subjective value, such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, (vmPFC) and the amygdala. BIS scores negatively related to the functional connectivity between the vmPFC and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The results demonstrate that the BIS trait influences stress reactivity. This is observed both as an increased activity in brain regions implicated in computing the value of food cues and decreased connectivity of these regions to prefrontal regions implicated in self-control. This suggests that the effects of real life stress on appetitive brain function and self-control is modulated by a personality trait. This may help to explain why stressful periods can lead to overeating in vulnerable individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Did Cultural and Artistic Education in the Netherlands increase Student Participation in High Cultural Events?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, Marie Louise; Van Klaveren, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether Cultural and Artistic Education in the Netherlands caused students to participate more in high cultural events. A unique feature of the intervention was that students were free to choose the type of cultural event they participated in. So the intervention relied on the

  9. Evolution of multicellularity coincided with increased diversification of cyanobacteria and the Great Oxidation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmeister, Bettina E.; de Vos, Jurriaan M.; Antonelli, Alexandre; Bagheri, Homayoun C.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are among the most diverse prokaryotic phyla, with morphotypes ranging from unicellular to multicellular filamentous forms, including those able to terminally (i.e., irreversibly) differentiate in form and function. It has been suggested that cyanobacteria raised oxygen levels in the atmosphere around 2.45–2.32 billion y ago during the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), hence dramatically changing life on the planet. However, little is known about the temporal evolution of cyanobacterial lineages, and possible interplay between the origin of multicellularity, diversification of cyanobacteria, and the rise of atmospheric oxygen. We estimated divergence times of extant cyanobacterial lineages under Bayesian relaxed clocks for a dataset of 16S rRNA sequences representing the entire known diversity of this phylum. We tested whether the evolution of multicellularity overlaps with the GOE, and whether multicellularity is associated with significant shifts in diversification rates in cyanobacteria. Our results indicate an origin of cyanobacteria before the rise of atmospheric oxygen. The evolution of multicellular forms coincides with the onset of the GOE and an increase in diversification rates. These results suggest that multicellularity could have played a key role in triggering cyanobacterial evolution around the GOE. PMID:23319632

  10. Antiherding in Financial Decision Increases Valuation of Return on Investment: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuicui Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using event-related potentials, this study investigated how financial herding or antiherding affected the valuation of subsequent outcomes. For each trial, subjects decided whether to buy the stock according to its net money flow information which could be used to reflect the strength of buying power or selling power of the stock. The return on investment (ROI as feedback included the increase or decrease percentage after subjects’ responses. Results showed that, compared with herding, antiherding induced larger discrepancies of FRN and P300 amplitude between positive ROI and negative ROI, indicating that individuals under antiherding condition had stronger motivation and paid more attention in the evaluation process of ROI. Moreover, only for positive ROI, the amplitudes of FRN and P300 were modulated by two kinds of behaviors. We suggested that individuals making antiherd decisions were more confident with their own ability and choices, which reduced the positive outcome prediction error and gave more mental resources to evaluate positive outcome. However, negative outcomes evoked no different motivational meaning and negative emotion for individuals between herding and antiherding. The study may provide new insights into neurocognitive processes of herding and antiherding in financial market.

  11. Antiherding in Financial Decision Increases Valuation of Return on Investment: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Jin, Jia; Vieito, João Paulo; Ma, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    Using event-related potentials, this study investigated how financial herding or antiherding affected the valuation of subsequent outcomes. For each trial, subjects decided whether to buy the stock according to its net money flow information which could be used to reflect the strength of buying power or selling power of the stock. The return on investment (ROI) as feedback included the increase or decrease percentage after subjects' responses. Results showed that, compared with herding, antiherding induced larger discrepancies of FRN and P300 amplitude between positive ROI and negative ROI, indicating that individuals under antiherding condition had stronger motivation and paid more attention in the evaluation process of ROI. Moreover, only for positive ROI, the amplitudes of FRN and P300 were modulated by two kinds of behaviors. We suggested that individuals making antiherd decisions were more confident with their own ability and choices, which reduced the positive outcome prediction error and gave more mental resources to evaluate positive outcome. However, negative outcomes evoked no different motivational meaning and negative emotion for individuals between herding and antiherding. The study may provide new insights into neurocognitive processes of herding and antiherding in financial market.

  12. Prior stress exposure increases pain behaviors in a rat model of full thickness thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Jennifer E; McLean, Samuel A; Averitt, Dayna L

    2015-12-01

    Thermal burns among individuals working in highly stressful environments, such as firefighters and military Service Members, are common. Evidence suggests that pre-injury stress may exaggerate pain following thermal injury; however current animal models of burn have not evaluated the potential influence of pre-burn stress. This sham-controlled study evaluated the influence of prior stress exposure on post-burn thermal and mechanical sensitivity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were exposed to 20 min of inescapable swim stress or sham stress once per day for three days. Exposure to inescapable swim stress (1) increased the intensity and duration of thermal hyperalgesia after subsequent burn and (2) accelerated the onset of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia after subsequent burn. This stress-induced exacerbation of pain sensitivity was reversed by pretreatment and concurrent treatment with the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) duloxetine. These data suggest a better understanding of mechanisms by which prior stress augments pain after thermal burn may lead to improved pain treatments for burn survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing peanut BTF3 exhibit increased growth and tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthvi, V; Rama, N; Parvathi, M S; Nataraja, K N

    2017-05-01

    Abiotic stresses limit crop growth and productivity worldwide. Cellular tolerance, an important abiotic stress adaptive trait, involves coordinated activities of multiple proteins linked to signalling cascades, transcriptional regulation and other diverse processes. Basal transcriptional machinery is considered to be critical for maintaining transcription under stressful conditions. From this context, discovery of novel basal transcription regulators from stress adapted crops like peanut would be useful for improving tolerance of sensitive plant types. In this study, we prospected a basal transcription factor, BTF3 from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) and studied its relevance in stress acclimation by over expression in tobacco. AhBTF3 was induced under PEG-, NaCl-, and methyl viologen-induced stresses in peanut. The constitutive expression of AhBTF3 in tobacco increased plant growth under non stress condition. The transgenic plants exhibited superior phenotype compared to wild type under mannitol- and NaCl-induced stresses at seedling level. The enhanced cellular tolerance of transgenic plants was evidenced by higher cell membrane stability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity, seedling survival and vigour than wild type. The transgenic lines showed better in vitro regeneration capacity on growth media supplemented with NaCl than wild type. Superior phenotype of transgenic plants under osmotic and salinity stresses seems to be due to constitutive activation of genes of multiple pathways linked to growth and stress adaptation. The study demonstrated that AhBTF3 is a positive regulator of growth and stress acclimation and hence can be considered as a potential candidate gene for crop improvement towards stress adaptation. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is increased in adipose tissue of women with gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Liong

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are two increasingly common and important obstetric complications that are associated with severe long-term health risks to mothers and babies. IL-1β, which is increased in obese and GDM pregnancies, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of these two pregnancy complications. In non-pregnant tissues, endoplasmic (ER stress is increased in diabetes and can induce IL-1β via inflammasome activation. The aim of this study was to determine whether ER stress is increased in omental adipose tissue of women with GDM, and if ER stress can also upregulate inflammasome-dependent secretion of IL-1β. ER stress markers IRE1α, GRP78 and XBP-1s were significantly increased in adipose tissue of obese compared to lean pregnant women. ER stress was also increased in adipose tissue of women with GDM compared to BMI-matched normal glucose tolerant (NGT women. Thapsigargin, an ER stress activator, induced upregulated secretion of mature IL-1α and IL-1β in human omental adipose tissue explants primed with bacterial endotoxin LPS, the viral dsRNA analogue poly(I:C or the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Inhibition of capase-1 with Ac-YVAD-CHO resulted in decreased IL-1α and IL-1β secretion, whereas inhibition of pannexin-1 with carbenoxolone suppressed IL-1β secretion only. Treatment with anti-diabetic drugs metformin and glibenclamide also reduced IL-1α and IL-1β secretion in infection and cytokine-primed adipose tissue. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated ER stress to activate the inflammasome in pregnant adipose tissue. Therefore, increased ER stress may contribute towards the pathophysiology of obesity in pregnancy and GDM.

  15. Stressful life events, perceived stress, and 12-month course of geriatric depression: direct effects and moderation by the 5-HTTLPR and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannas, Anthony S; McQuoid, Douglas R; Steffens, David C; Chrousos, George P; Taylor, Warren D

    2012-07-01

    Although the relation between stressful life events (SLEs) and risk of major depressive disorder is well established, important questions remain about the effects of stress on the course of geriatric depression. Our objectives were (1) to examine how baseline stress and change in stress is associated with course of geriatric depression and (2) to test whether polymorphisms of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met) genes moderate this relation. Two-hundred and sixteen depressed subjects aged 60 years or older were categorized by remission status (Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale≤6) at 6 and 12 months. At 6 months, greater baseline numbers of self-reported negative and total SLEs and greater baseline perceived stress severity were associated with lower odds of remission. At 12 months, only baseline perceived stress predicted remission. When we examined change in stress, 12-month decrease in negative SLEs and level of perceived stress were associated with improved odds of 12-month remission. When genotype data were included, COMT Val158Met genotype did not influence these relations. However, when compared with 5-HTTLPR L/L homozygotes, S allele carriers with greater baseline numbers of negative SLEs and with greater decrease in negative SLEs were more likely to remit at 12 months. This study demonstrates that baseline SLEs and perceived stress severity may influence the 12-month course of geriatric depression. Moreover, changes in these stress measures over time correlate with depression outcomes. 5-HTTLPR S carriers appear to be more susceptible to both the effects of enduring stress and the benefit of interval stress reduction.

  16. The impact of resilience and subsequent stressful life events on MDD and GAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, Christina M; Lind, Mackenzie J; Brown, Emily A; Gardner, Charles O; Kendler, Kenneth S; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2018-02-01

    There remains a dearth of research examining the "buffering" effect of resilience, wherein resilience at one point in time would be expected to protect an individual against development of psychopathology following future adverse life events. Using longitudinal data from an epidemiological twin sample (N = 7463), this study tested whether resilience would act as a buffer for stressful life events (SLEs) against risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Resilience, demographics, and psychopathology were measured at Time 1 and recent SLEs and current MDD and GAD were measured at Time 2. Final models, controlling for demographic covariates and Time 1 diagnosis, examined the impact of Time 1 resilience, recent SLEs, their interaction, and a three-way interaction adding sex on MDD and GAD. The pattern of findings was the same for MDD and GAD, wherein main effects and two-way interactions of resilience and SLEs were significant, such that greater resilience was protective even in the context of high numbers of past-year SLEs. The three-way interaction was not significant, suggesting that the relationship between SLEs and resilience on psychopathology was the same for both men and women. Findings support the conceptualization of resilience as a buffer against the impact of future life stressors on common internalizing psychopathology. Longitudinal designs and trajectory-based studies that include recurring measures of SLEs could inform conceptualizations of resilience in the context of ongoing adversity and aid in developing interventions aimed at fostering healthy adaptation in the face of stressors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Frequency and Type of Traumatic Events in Children and Adolescents with a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Sabine; Wolf, Saskia; Tutus, Dunja; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The risk for children and adolescents to be exposed to a potentially traumatic event (PTE) is high. The present study examines the frequency of PTEs in children and adolescents with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), the type of index trauma, and its relation to PTSD symptom severity and gender. A clinical sample of 159 children and adolescents between 7-16 years was assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA). All reported PTEs from the checklist were analyzed according to frequency. The index events were categorized according to the following categories: cause (random vs. intentional), relation to offender (intrafamilial vs. extrafamilial), patient's role (victim, witness or vicarious traumatization), and type of PTE (physical or sexual violence). Relation between categories and PTSD symptom severity and sex were analyzed with inferential statistics. On average participants reported five PTEs, most frequently physical violence without weapons (57.9%), loss of loved person through death (45.9%), and sexual abuse/assaults (44%). The most frequent index traumata were intentional (76.7%). Regarding trauma type, there was a significant difference concerning higher symptom severity in children and adolescents who experienced sexual abuse/assault compared to physical violence (t=-1.913(109), p=0.05). A significantly higher symptom severity was found for girls compared to boys for the trauma categories extrafamilial offender (z=-2,27, p=0.02), victim (z=-2,11, p=0,04), and sexual abuse/assault (z=-2,43, p=0,01). Clinical and diagnostic implications are discussed in relation to the amendments of PTSD diagnostic criteria in DSM-5.

  18. Association of Maternal Psychosocial Stress With Increased Risk of Asthma Development in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C; Wright, Rosalind J; Røysamb, Espen; Parr, Christine L; Karlstad, Øystein; Page, Christian M; Nafstad, Per; Håberg, Siri E; London, Stephanie J; Nystad, Wenche

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Prenatal maternal psychosocial stress might influence the development of childhood asthma. Evaluating paternal psychosocial stress and conducting a sibling comparison could provide further insight into the role of unmeasured confounding. We examined the associations of parental psychosocial stress during and after pregnancy with asthma at age 7 years in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 63,626; children born in 2000–2007). Measures of psychosocial stress included lifetime major depressive symptoms, current anxiety/depression symptoms, use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and/or hypnotics, life satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, work stress, and social support. Childhood asthma was associated with maternal lifetime major depressive symptoms (adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.30), in addition to symptoms of anxiety/depression during pregnancy (aRR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.29) and 6 months after delivery (aRR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.28). Maternal negative life events during pregnancy (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.13) and 6 months after delivery (aRR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.18) were also associated with asthma. These associations were not replicated when evaluated within sibling groups. There were no associations with paternal psychosocial stress. In conclusion, maternal anxiety/depression and negative life events were associated with offspring asthma, but this might be explained by unmeasured maternal background characteristics that remain stable across deliveries. PMID:29244063

  19. Increased Dicarbonyl Stress as a Novel Mechanism of Multi-Organ Failure in Critical Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas C. T. van Bussel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular pathological pathways leading to multi-organ failure in critical illness are progressively being unravelled. However, attempts to modulate these pathways have not yet improved the clinical outcome. Therefore, new targetable mechanisms should be investigated. We hypothesize that increased dicarbonyl stress is such a mechanism. Dicarbonyl stress is the accumulation of dicarbonyl metabolites (i.e., methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone that damages intracellular proteins, modifies extracellular matrix proteins, and alters plasma proteins. Increased dicarbonyl stress has been shown to impair the renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous system function, and possibly also the hepatic and respiratory function. In addition to hyperglycaemia, hypoxia and inflammation can cause increased dicarbonyl stress, and these conditions are prevalent in critical illness. Hypoxia and inflammation have been shown to drive the rapid intracellular accumulation of reactive dicarbonyls, i.e., through reduced glyoxalase-1 activity, which is the key enzyme in the dicarbonyl detoxification enzyme system. In critical illness, hypoxia and inflammation, with or without hyperglycaemia, could thus increase dicarbonyl stress in a way that might contribute to multi-organ failure. Thus, we hypothesize that increased dicarbonyl stress in critical illness, such as sepsis and major trauma, contributes to the development of multi-organ failure. This mechanism has the potential for new therapeutic intervention in critical care.

  20. Specific plasma oxylipins increase the odds of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, Stephanie P B; Aukema, Harold M; Ravandi, Amir; Lavallée, Renée; Guzman, Randy; Pierce, Grant N

    2017-08-01

    Oxylipins and fatty acids may be novel therapeutic targets for cardiovascular disease. The objective was to determine if plasma oxylipins or fatty acids can influence the odds of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events. In 98 patients (25 female, 73 male) with peripheral artery disease, the prevalence of transient ischemic attacks, cerebrovascular accidents, stable angina, and acute coronary syndrome was n = 16, 10, 16, and 24, respectively. Risk factors such as being male, diagnosed hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia were not associated with events. Plasma fatty acids and oxylipins were analyzed with gas chromatography and HPLC-MS/MS, respectively. None of 24 fatty acids quantified were associated with events. In contrast, 39 plasma oxylipins were quantified, and 8 were significantly associated with events. These 8 oxylipins are known regulators of vascular tone. For example, every 1 unit increase in Thromboxane B 2 /Prostaglandin F 1 α and every 1 nmol/L increase in plasma 16-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, thromboxane B2, or 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DiHETrE) increased the odds of having had ≥2 events versus no event (p < 0.05). The greatest predictor was plasma 8,9-DiHETrE, which increased the odds of acute coronary syndrome by 92-fold. In conclusion, specific oxylipins were highly associated with clinical events and may represent specific biomarkers and (or) therapeutic targets of cardiovascular disease.

  1. 0268 Is perceived stress related to an increase in salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Samuel; Peter Bonde, Jens; Agergaard Vammen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Perceived Stress is a suspected cause of many psychological and physical illnesses. However it remains to be discovered what physiological measures are involved. While it is widely known that acute stress leads to an increase in cortisol levels, the findings in prolonged stress research...... have not been consistent. This study explores the association between Perceived Stress and salivary cortisol levels using the largest population ever used in this field. METHOD: 4467 public employees in the PRISME cohort in 2007. 3217 of those did a similar follow up study in 2009. A 4-item Danish...... version of the PSS-scale was used to measure perceived stress and operationalized as the average score. Salivary cortisol samples were taken at 30 min post awakening and at 8 pm. A mean value of cortisol was calculated. In our analysis we applied logarithmic transformation to the concentrations. RESULTS...

  2. When bad stress goes good: increased threat reactivity predicts improved category learning performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Shawn W; Cosley, Brandon; McCoy, Shannon K

    2011-02-01

    The way in which we respond to everyday stressors can have a profound impact on cognitive functioning. Maladaptive stress responses in particular are generally associated with impaired cognitive performance. We argue, however, that the cognitive system mediating task performance is also a critical determinant of the stress-cognition relationship. Consistent with this prediction, we observed that stress reactivity consistent with a maladaptive, threat response differentially predicted performance on two categorization tasks. Increased threat reactivity predicted enhanced performance on an information-integration task (i.e., learning is thought to depend upon a procedural-based memory system), and a (nonsignificant) trend for impaired performance on a rule-based task (i.e., learning is thought to depend upon a hypothesis-testing system). These data suggest that it is critical to consider both variability in the stress response and variability in the cognitive system mediating task performance in order to fully understand the stress-cognition relationship.

  3. "Self-critical perfectionism, daily stress, and disclosure of daily emotional events": Correction to Richardson and Rice (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Reports an error in "Self-critical perfectionism, daily stress, and disclosure of daily emotional events" by Clarissa M. E. Richardson and Kenneth G. Rice (Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2015[Oct], Vol 62[4], 694-702). In the article, the labels of the two lines in Figure 1 were inadvertently transposed. The dotted line should be labeled High SCP and the solid line should be labeled Low SCP. The correct version is present in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-30890-001.) Although disclosure of stressful events can alleviate distress, self-critical perfectionism may pose an especially strong impediment to disclosure during stress, likely contributing to poorer psychological well-being. In the current study, after completing a measure of self-critical perfectionism (the Discrepancy subscale of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised; Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001), 396 undergraduates completed measures of stress and disclosure at the end of each day for 1 week. Consistent with hypotheses and previous research, multilevel modeling results indicated significant intraindividual coupling of daily stress and daily disclosure where disclosure was more likely when experiencing high stress than low stress. As hypothesized, Discrepancy moderated the relationship between daily stress and daily disclosure. Individuals higher in self-critical perfectionism (Discrepancy) were less likely to engage in disclosure under high stress, when disclosure is often most beneficial, than those with lower Discrepancy scores. These results have implications for understanding the role of stress and coping in the daily lives of self-critical perfectionists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Perceived Workplace Stress Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer before Age 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc-Lapierre, Audrey; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Parent, Marie-Elise

    2017-01-01

    Evidence is lacking regarding the potential role of chronic psychological stress on cancer incidence. The workplace is reported to be the main source of stress among Canadian men. We examined the association between perceived lifetime workplace stress and prostate cancer (PCa) risk in a large case-control study. Cases were 1,933 men, aged ≤ 75 years, newly diagnosed with PCa in 2005-2009 across hospitals in Montreal, Canada. Concurrently, 1994 population controls frequency-matched on age were randomly selected from the electoral list based on cases' residential districts. Detailed lifestyle and work histories (including perceived stress, from any type of work stressor, for each job held) were collected during in-person interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between work-related stress and PCa risk in multivariate analyses. Over the lifetime, 58% of subjects reported at least one job as stressful. Occupations described as stressful were most often among white-collar workers. Perceived workplace stress duration was associated with a higher risk of PCa (OR = 1.12, 95% CI:1.04-1.20 per 10-year increase) among men younger than 65 years, but not among older men. Associations were similar irrespective of PCa aggressiveness. Frequent or recent screening for PCa, age at first exposure and time since exposure to work-related stress, and socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, had little influence on risk estimates. Findings are in line with an association between reporting prolonged workplace stress and an increase in risk of PCa before age 65.

  5. Altered processing of visual emotional stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Shalev, Hadar; Kanthak, Magdalena K; Guez, Jonathan; Friedman, Alon; Cohen, Jonathan E

    2015-08-30

    Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display abnormal emotional processing and bias towards emotional content. Most neurophysiological studies in PTSD found higher amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to trauma-related visual content. Here we aimed to characterize brain electrical activity in PTSD subjects in response to non-trauma-related emotion-laden pictures (positive, neutral and negative). A combined behavioral-ERP study was conducted in 14 severe PTSD patients and 14 controls. Response time in PTSD patients was slower compared with that in controls, irrespective to emotional valence. In both PTSD and controls, response time to negative pictures was slower compared with that to neutral or positive pictures. Upon ranking, both control and PTSD subjects similarly discriminated between pictures with different emotional valences. ERP analysis revealed three distinctive components (at ~300, ~600 and ~1000 ms post-stimulus onset) for emotional valence in control subjects. In contrast, PTSD patients displayed a similar brain response across all emotional categories, resembling the response of controls to negative stimuli. We interpret these findings as a brain-circuit response tendency towards negative overgeneralization in PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of plasma hormones, nutritional status, and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmiarowska, Małgorzata; Safranow, Krzysztof; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Bialecka, Monika; Koziołek, Monika; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2014-02-06

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationships between plasma hormones, body weight parameters and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa (AN). 72 females in the active phase of AN were evaluated. 52 healthy women constituted the control group. RIA kits were used to measure plasma hormone levels. The concentrations of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, triiodothyronine, LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone were significantly lower and those of cortisol and growth hormone significantly higher in the AN than the control group. No hormonal differences between restrictive and binge-purging AN subtypes were found. Leptin, IGF-1, gonadotropins, and sex steroids correlated significantly negatively and growth hormone positively with total reduction of body weight or the degree of undernutrition. Associations were also found between lower insulin concentration and family violence, lower cortisol and psychiatric diseases in the family, higher testosterone and patient's alcohol or drug abuse. The changed activity of the somatotropin-somatomedin, gonadal, and corticotrophin axes corresponds to the clinical stage of AN. Plasma IGF-1 seems to be the most sensitive and useful independent hormonal marker of cachexia.

  7. Association of plasma hormones, nutritional status, and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Śmiarowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationships between plasma hormones, body weight parameters and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa (AN. Material and Methods: 72 females in the active phase of AN were evaluated. 52 healthy women constituted the control group. RIA kits were used to measure plasma hormone levels. Results: The concentrations of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, triiodothyronine, LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone were significantly lower and those of cortisol and growth hormone significantly higher in the AN than the control group. No hormonal differences between restrictive and binge-purging AN subtypes were found. Leptin, IGF-1, gonadotropins, and sex steroids correlated significantly negatively and growth hormone positively with total reduction of body weight or the degree of undernutrition. Associations were also found between lower insulin concentration and family violence, lower cortisol and psychiatric diseases in the family, higher testosterone and patient’s alcohol or drug abuse. Discussion: The changed activity of the somatotropin-somatomedin, gonadal, and corticotrophin axes corresponds to the clinical stage of AN. Plasma IGF-1 seems to be the most sensitive and useful independent hormonal marker of cachexia.

  8. Negative life events and depression in adolescents with HIV: a stress and coping analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jennifer V; Abramowitz, Susan; Koenig, Linda J; Chandwani, Sulachni; Orban, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of negative life events (NLE) and daily hassles, and their direct and moderated associations with depression, were examined among HIV-infected adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether the negative association with depression of NLE, daily hassles, and/or passive coping were moderated by social support or active coping strategies. Demographic characteristics, depression, coping, social support, NLE, and daily hassles were collected at baseline as part of the Adolescent Impact intervention via face-to-face and computer-assisted interviews. Of 166 HIV-infected adolescents, 53% were female, 72.9% black, 59.6% with perinatally acquired HIV (PIY), the most commonly reported NLE were death in family (81%), violence exposure (68%), school relocation (67%), and hospitalization (61%); and for daily hassles "not having enough money (65%)". Behaviorally infected youth (BIY--acquired HIV later in life) were significantly more likely to experience extensive (14-21) lifetime NLE (38.8% vs. 16.3%, p effect of NLE, such that NLE were associated with greater depression when social support was low, although the effect did not remain statistically significant when main effects of other variables were accounted for. Daily hassles, poor coping, and limited social support can adversely affect the psychological well-being of HIV-infected adolescents, particularly sexual minority youth with behaviorally acquired HIV. Multimodal interventions that enhance social support and teach adaptive coping skills may help youth cope with environmental stresses and improve mental health outcomes.

  9. Stressful Life Event Experiences of Homeless Adults: A Comparison of Single Men, Single Women, and Women with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugazaga, Carole

    2004-01-01

    This article describes stressful life events experienced by a multi-shelter sample of 162 homeless adults in the Central Florida area. Participants included homeless single men (n = 54), homeless single women (n = 54), and homeless women with children (n = 54). Subjects were interviewed with a modified version of the List of Threatening…

  10. Gene-Environment Interaction Effects of Peer Deviance, Parental Knowledge and Stressful Life Events on Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Megan E; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Latvala, Antti; Korhonen, Tellervo; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Salvatore, Jessica E; Dick, Danielle M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to address two methodological issues that have called into question whether previously reported gene-environment interaction (GxE) effects for adolescent alcohol use are 'real'. These issues are (1) the potential correlation between the environmental moderator and the outcome across twins and (2) non-linear transformations of the behavioral outcome. Three environments that have been previously studied (peer deviance, parental knowledge, and potentially stressful life events) were examined here. For each moderator (peer deviance, parental knowledge, and potentially stressful life events), a series of models was fit to both a raw and transformed measure of monthly adolescent alcohol use in a sample that included 825 dizygotic (DZ) and 803 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. The results showed that the moderating effect of peer deviance was robust to transformation, and that although the significance of moderating effects of parental knowledge and potentially stressful life events were dependent on the scale of the adolescent alcohol use outcome, the overall results were consistent across transformation. In addition, the findings did not vary across statistical models. The consistency of the peer deviance results and the shift of the parental knowledge and potentially stressful life events results between trending and significant, shed some light on why previous findings for certain moderators have been inconsistent and emphasize the importance of considering both methodological issues and previous findings when conducting and interpreting GxE analyses.

  11. The Relations of Stressful Events and Nonacademic Future Expectations in African American Adolescents: Gender Differences in Parental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Michael; Mars, Dustin E.; Burns, Lateela J.

    2012-01-01

    Urban African American high school students (N = 206) completed a study to examine gender differences in parental monitoring and the effect on the relationship between exposure to stressful life events and nonacademic future expectations. Participant's ages range from 13 to 18 (M = 15.78, SD = 1.19). Participants reported high exposure to…

  12. Associations Between Stressful Events and Self-Reported Mental Health Problems Among Non-Western Immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singhammer, John; Bancila, Delia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the relationships of stressful events with self-reported mental health problems in the general population, comparing non-western immigrants with Danish nationals. 11.500 individuals aged 18-64 years from eight ethnic groups were invited to participat...

  13. Stressful life events and onset of mood disorders in children of bipolar parents during 14-month follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wals, M; Hillegers, MHJ; Reichart, CG; Verhulst, FC; Nolen, WA; Ormel, J

    Background: Although multiple studies have examined the association between stressful life events (SLEs) and the development of mood disorders, the exact nature of the association and the degree to which it is independent from familial loading (FL) and gender-specific are still not fully elucidated.

  14. Type 2 diabetes mellitus induces congenital heart defects in murine embryos by increasing oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanqing; Reece, E Albert; Zhong, Jianxiang; Dong, Daoyin; Shen, Wei-Bin; Harman, Christopher R; Yang, Peixin

    2016-09-01

    Maternal type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus are strongly associated with high rates of severe structural birth defects, including congenital heart defects. Studies in type 1 diabetic embryopathy animal models have demonstrated that cellular stress-induced apoptosis mediates the teratogenicity of maternal diabetes leading to congenital heart defect formation. However, the mechanisms underlying maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus-induced congenital heart defects remain largely unknown. We aim to determine whether oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and excessive apoptosis are the intracellular molecular mechanisms underlying maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus-induced congenital heart defects. A mouse model of maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus was established by feeding female mice a high-fat diet (60% fat). After 15 weeks on the high-fat diet, the mice showed characteristics of maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus. Control dams were either fed a normal diet (10% fat) or the high-fat diet during pregnancy only. Female mice from the high-fat diet group and the 2 control groups were mated with male mice that were fed a normal diet. At E12.5, embryonic hearts were harvested to determine the levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide, endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, cleaved caspase 3 and 8, and apoptosis. E17.5 embryonic hearts were harvested for the detection of congenital heart defect formation using India ink vessel patterning and histological examination. Maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus significantly induced ventricular septal defects and persistent truncus arteriosus in the developing heart, along with increasing oxidative stress markers, including superoxide and lipid peroxidation; endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, including protein levels of phosphorylated-protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, phosphorylated-IRE1α, phosphorylated-eIF2α, C/EBP homologous protein, and binding immunoglobulin protein; endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gene

  15. Preoperative atrial fibrillation increases risk of thromboembolic events after left ventricular assist device implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulak, John M; Deo, Salil; Schirger, John; Aaronson, Keith D; Park, Soon J; Joyce, Lyle D; Daly, Richard C; Pagani, Francis D

    2013-12-01

    Because no series has specifically analyzed the impact of preoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) on patients already at higher risk of thromboembolism after implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), we review our experience with these patients. Between July 2003 and September 2011, 389 patients (308 male) underwent implantation of a continuous flow LVAD at University of Michigan Hospital and Mayo Clinic. Median age at implant was 60 years (range, 18 to 79 years). Preoperative AF was present in 120 patients (31%). Outcomes were analyzed for the association of preoperative AF and postoperative thromboembolic (TE) events defined as stroke, transient ischemic attack, hemolysis, or pump thrombosis. Thromboembolic events occurring within the first 30 days were not counted. One hundred thirty-eight TEs events occurred in 97/389 patients (25%) for an event rate of 0.31 TE events/patient-years of support. Freedom from a TE event in patients with preoperative AF was 62% at 1 year and 46% at 2 years compared with 79% and 72% at 1 and 2 years, respectively, in patients without preoperative AF (p < 0.001). Median survival was 10 months (maximum 7.2 years, total 439 patient-years). Preoperative AF did not decrease late survival at 1 and 2 years after LVAD implant (preop AF: 85% and 70% versus no preop AF: 82% and 70%, respectively; p = 0.55). Patients with preoperative AF have a lower freedom from TE events after LVAD implant. While overall late survival was not significantly reduced in these patients, refinement in anticoagulation strategies after VAD implant may be required. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How disentangled sense of agency and sense of ownership can interact with different emotional events on stress feelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We used the virtual hand illusion paradigm to study how sense of agency and sense of (body ownership can interact with different emotional events on stress feelings. Converging evidence for at least the partial independence of agency and ownership was found. For instance, sense of agency was a better predictor of individual anxiety levels than sense of ownership and males showed stronger effects related to agency—presumably due to gender-specific attribution styles and empathy skills. Moreover, agency and ownership also interacted with emotional events and led to different anxiety levels. Taken together, our findings suggest that the disentangled sense of agency and sense of ownership can interact with different emotional events and influenced stress feelings more in threatening situations than awarding ones.

  17. Exercise-induced hypertension, cardiovascular events, and mortality in patients undergoing exercise stress testing: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Martin G; Otahal, Petr; Cleland, Verity J; Blizzard, Leigh; Marwick, Thomas H; Sharman, James E

    2013-03-01

    The prognostic relevance of a hypertensive response to exercise (HRE) is ill-defined in individuals undergoing exercise stress testing. The study described here was intended to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature to determine the value of exercise-related blood pressure (BP) (independent of office BP) for predicting cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality. Online databases were searched for published longitudinal studies reporting exercise-related BP and CV events and mortality rates. We identified for review 12 longitudinal studies with a total of 46,314 individuals without significant coronary artery disease, with total CV event and mortality rates recorded over a mean follow-up of 15.2±4.0 years. After adjustment for age, office BP, and CV risk factors, an HRE at moderate exercise intensity carried a 36% greater rate of CV events and mortality (95% CI, 1.02-1.83, P = 0.039) than that of subjects without an HRE. Additionally, each 10mm Hg increase in systolic BP during exercise at moderate intensity was accompanied by a 4% increase in CV events and mortality, independent of office BP, age, or CV risk factors (95% CI, 1.01-1.07, P = 0.02). Systolic BP at maximal workload was not significantly associated with the outcome of an increased rate of CV, whether analyzed as a categorical (HR=1.49, 95% CI, 0.90-2.46, P = 0.12) or a continuous (HR=1.01, 95% CI, 0.98-1.04, P = 0.53) variable. An HRE at moderate exercise intensity during exercise stress testing is an independent risk factor for CV events and mortality. This highlights the need to determine underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise-induced hypertension.

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Increases in Fear Memory Consolidation within the Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Aubry, Antonio V.; Serrano, Peter A.; Burghardt, Nesha S.

    2016-01-01

    Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by w...

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Increases in Fear Memory Consolidation Within the Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Aubry; Antonio Aubry; Peter Serrano; Peter Serrano; Nesha Burghardt; Nesha Burghardt

    2016-01-01

    Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by...

  20. Stress during adolescence increases novelty seeking and risk taking behavior in male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eToledo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal and psychological change. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Likewise, stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. Previously, using a rat model of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform during the pre-pubertal period (postnatal days 28-30, we reported sex-specific effects on auditory and contextual fear conditioning. Here, we study the short-term impact of psychogenic stress before and during puberty (postnatal days 28-42 on behavior (novelty seeking, risk taking, anxiety and depression and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis activation during late adolescence (postnatal days 45-51. Peri-pubertal stress decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased risk taking and novelty seeking behaviors during late adolescence (measured with the elevated plus maze, open field and exposure to novel object tests and intake of chocopop pellets before or immediate after stress. Finally neither depressive-like behavior (measured at the forced swim test nor HPA response to stress (blood corticosterone and glucose were affected by peri-pubertal stress. Nevertheless, when controlling for the basal anxiety of the mothers, animals exposed to peri-pubertal stress showed a significant decrease in corticosterone levels immediate after an acute stressor. The results from this study suggest that exposure to mild stressors during the peri-pubertal period induces a broad spectrum of behavioral changes in late adolescence, which may exacerbate the independence-building behaviors naturally happening during this transitional period (increase in curiosity, sensation-seeking and risk taking behaviors.

  1. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism moderates the effect of stressful life events on drinking behavior in college students of African descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzler, Henry R; Scott, Denise; Tennen, Howard; Feinn, Richard; Williams, Carla; Armeli, Stephen; Taylor, Robert E; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Covault, Jonathan

    2012-07-01

    Covault et al. [Covault et al. (2007); Biol Psychiatry 61(5): 609-616] reported that the common functional polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter gene moderated the association between past-year stressful events and daily reports of drinking in a sample of European-American (EA) college students. We examined this effect in college students of African descent. Students recruited at a Historically Black University (n = 564) completed web-based measures of past-year stressful life experiences and daily reports of drinking and heavy drinking over a 30-day period. Participants were genotyped for the tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and dichotomized as low-activity S' allele carriers or high-activity L' homozygotes. Generalized linear models were used to examine the effects of life stress, genotype, and their interaction on the two drinking measures. In students who completed 15 or more daily surveys (n = 393), there was a significant interaction of past-year stressful events, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and gender on the number of drinking days (P = 0.002). Similar findings were obtained in relation to heavy drinking days (P = 0.007). Men showed a main effect of past-year stressful events on both drinking outcomes (P's life stressors on the frequency of drinking and heavy drinking days (P's stressful events were associated with more frequent drinking and heavy drinking, an effect that was moderated by the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. However, in contrast to the findings in EA students, in the current sample, 5-HTTLPR moderated the association only among women. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Moderate altitude but not additional endurance training increases markers of oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Ilmar; Boehler, Annette; Rechsteiner, Thomas; Bogdanova, Anna; Jelkmann, Wolfgang; Hofer, Markus; Rawlings, Pablo; Araneda, Oscar F; Behn, Claus; Gassmann, Max; Heinicke, Katja

    2009-07-01

    Oxidative stress occurs at altitude, and physical exertion might enhance this stress. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of exercise and moderate altitude on redox balance in ten endurance exercising biathletes, and five sedentary volunteers during a 6-week-stay at 2,800 m. As a marker for oxidative stress, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was analyzed by the biosensor measuring system Ecocheck, and 8-iso prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso PGF2alpha) was determined by enzyme immunoassay in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). To determine the whole blood antioxidative capacity, we measured reduced glutathione (GSH) enzymatically using Ellman's reagent. Exercising athletes and sedentary volunteers showed increased levels of oxidative markers at moderate altitude, contrary to our expectations; there was no difference between both groups. Therefore, all subjects' data were pooled to examine the oxidative stress response exclusively due to altitude exposure. H(2)O(2) levels increased at altitude and remained elevated for 3 days after returning to sea level (p altitude, but declined immediately after returning to sea level (p altitude resulted in elevated GSH levels (p altitude (p altitude for up to 6 weeks increases markers of oxidative stress in EBC independent of additional endurance training. Notably, this oxidative stress is still detectable 3 days upon return to sea level.

  3. Usefulness of type D personality in predicting five-year cardiac events above and beyond concurrent symptoms of stress in patients with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Vrints, Christiaan J

    2006-01-01

    Psychological stress and type D personality have been associated with adverse cardiac prognosis, but little is known about their relative effect on the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). "Type D" refers to the tendency to experience negative emotions and to inhibit the expression...... of these emotions in social interactions. We investigated the relative effect of stress and type D personality on prognosis at 5-year follow-up. At baseline, 337 patients with CHD who participated in cardiac rehabilitation filled in the General Health Questionnaire (psychological stress) and the Type D personality.......001) were related to an increased risk of developing a major adverse cardiac event after adjusting for gender, age, and biomedical risk factors. Multivariate analysis yielded left ventricular ejection fraction...

  4. Increased frequency of FBN1 truncating and splicing variants in Marfan syndrome patients with aortic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudhuin, Linnea M; Kotzer, Katrina E; Lagerstedt, Susan A

    2015-03-01

    Marfan syndrome is a systemic disorder that typically involves FBN1 mutations and cardiovascular manifestations. We investigated FBN1 genotype-phenotype correlations with aortic events (aortic dissection and prophylactic aortic surgery) in patients with Marfan syndrome. Genotype and phenotype information from probands (n = 179) with an FBN1 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant were assessed. A higher frequency of truncating or splicing FBN1 variants was observed in Ghent criteria-positive patients with an aortic event (n = 34) as compared with all other probands (n = 145) without a reported aortic event (79 vs. 39%; P Marfan syndrome patients with FBN1 truncating and splicing variants.Genet Med 17 3, 177-187.

  5. Recalling a witnessed event increases eyewitness suggestibility: the reversed testing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason C K; Thomas, Ayanna K; Bulevich, John B

    2009-01-01

    People's later memory of an event can be altered by exposure to misinformation about that event. The typical misinformation paradigm, however, does not include a recall test prior to the introduction of misinformation, contrary to what real-life eyewitnesses encounter when they report to a 911 operator or crime-scene officer. Because retrieval is a powerful memory enhancer (the testing effect), recalling a witnessed event prior to receiving misinformation about it should reduce eyewitness suggestibility. We show, however, that immediate cued recall actually exacerbates the later misinformation effect for both younger and older adults. The reversed testing effect we observed was based on two mechanisms: First, immediate cued recall enhanced learning of the misinformation; second, the initially recalled details became particularly susceptible to interference from later misinformation, a finding suggesting that even human episodic memory may undergo a reconsolidation process. These results show that real-life eyewitness memory may be even more susceptible to misinformation than is currently envisioned.

  6. Skin advanced glycation end products in HIV infection are increased and predictive of development of cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger, Herman G.; Bierman, Wouter F.; Martes, Melanie I.; Graaff, Reindert; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Smit, Andries J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: HIV-1 infection is associated with an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Advanced glycation end products are formed as stable markers of glycaemic and oxidative stress. Skin autofluorescence (SAF) as marker of accumulated advanced glycation end products is increased and

  7. DETECTING FOREST STRESS AND DECLINE IN RESPONSE TO INCREASING RIVER FLOW IN SOUTHWEST FLORIDA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest stress and decline resulting from increased river flows were investigated in Myakka River State Park (MRSP), Florida, USA. Since 1977, land-use changes around the upper Myakka River watershed have resulted in significant increases in water entering the river, which have...

  8. Prazosin Prevents Increased Anxiety Behavior That Occurs in Response to Stress During Alcohol Deprivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2017-01-01

    Stress-induced anxiety is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS)-active α 1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, would block the stress-induced increase in anxiety that occurs during alcohol deprivations. Selectively bred male alcohol-preferring (P) rats were given three cycles of 5 days of ad libitum voluntary alcohol drinking interrupted by 2 days of alcohol deprivation, with or without 1 h of restraint stress 4 h after the start of each of the first two alcohol deprivation cycles. Prazosin (1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle was administered before each restraint stress. Anxiety-like behavior during alcohol deprivation following the third 5-day cycle of alcohol drinking (7 days after the most recent restraint stress ± prazosin treatment) was measured by performance in an elevated plus-maze and in social approach/avoidance testing. Rats that received constant alcohol access, or alcohol access and deprivations without stress or prazosin treatments in the first two alcohol deprivations did not exhibit augmented anxiety-like behavior during the third deprivation. In contrast, rats that had been stressed during the first two alcohol deprivations exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior (compared with control rats) in both anxiety tests during the third deprivation. Prazosin given before stresses in the first two cycles of alcohol withdrawal prevented increased anxiety-like behavior during the third alcohol deprivation. Prazosin treatment before stresses experienced during alcohol deprivations may prevent the increased anxiety during subsequent deprivation/abstinence that is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. Administration of prazosin before stresses during repetitive alcohol deprivations in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats prevents increased anxiety during a subsequent deprivation without further prazosin treatment. Prazosin treatment during repeated

  9. Increased sensitivity to salt stress in tocopherol-deficient Arabidopsis mutants growing in a hydroponic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouzi, Hasna; Hamed, Karim Ben; Cela, Jana; Müller, Maren; Abdelly, Chedly; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that tocopherols could play physiological roles in salt tolerance but the mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, we analyzed changes in growth, mineral and oxidative status in vte1 and vte4 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants exposed to salt stress. vte1 and vte4 mutants lack α-tocopherol, but only the vte1 mutant is additionally deficient in γ-tocopherol. Results showed that a deficiency in vitamin E leads to reduced growth and increased oxidative stress in hydroponically-grown plants. This effect was observed at early stages, not only in rosettes but also in roots. The vte1 mutant was more sensitive to salt-induced oxidative stress than the wild type and the vte4 mutant. Salt sensitivity was associated with (i) high contents of Na+, (ii) reduced efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm ratio) and (iii) more pronounced oxidative stress as indicated by increased hydrogen peroxide and malondialdeyde levels. The vte 4 mutant, which accumulates γ- instead of α-tocopherol showed an intermediate sensitivity to salt stress between the wild type and the vte1 mutant. Contents of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were higher in the vte1 mutant than the vte4 mutant and wild type. It is concluded that vitamin E-deficient plants show an increased sensitivity to salt stress both in rosettes and roots, therefore indicating the positive role of tocopherols in stress tolerance, not only by minimizing oxidative stress, but also controlling Na+/K+ homeostasis and hormonal balance. PMID:23299430

  10. Stressful life events are associated with insulin resistance among Chinese immigrant women in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Y. Fang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This is one of the first studies to examine the associations between psychosocial stress and insulin resistance in Chinese immigrant women. These findings contribute to a growing body of literature on stress and diabetes risk in an immigrant population.

  11. Impaired photosynthesis and increased leaf construction costs may induce floral stress during episodes of global warming over macroevolutionary timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Matthew; Belcher, Claire M; Killi, Dilek; Dewhirst, Rebecca A; Materassi, Alessandro; Raschi, Antonio; Centritto, Mauro

    2018-04-18

    Global warming events have coincided with turnover of plant species at intervals in Earth history. As mean global temperatures rise, the number, frequency and duration of heat-waves will increase. Ginkgo biloba was grown under controlled climatic conditions at two different day/night temperature regimes (25/20 °C and 35/30 °C) to investigate the impact of heat stress. Photosynthetic CO 2 -uptake and electron transport were reduced at the higher temperature, while rates of respiration were greater; suggesting that the carbon balance of the leaves was adversely affected. Stomatal conductance and the potential for evaporative cooling of the leaves was reduced at the higher temperature. Furthermore, the capacity of the leaves to dissipate excess energy was also reduced at 35/30 °C, indicating that photo-protective mechanisms were no longer functioning effectively. Leaf economics were adversely affected by heat stress, exhibiting an increase in leaf mass per area and leaf construction costs. This may be consistent with the selective pressures experienced by fossil Ginkgoales during intervals of global warming such as the Triassic - Jurassic boundary or Early Eocene Climatic Optimum. The physiological and morphological responses of the G. biloba leaves were closely interrelated; these relationships may be used to infer the leaf economics and photosynthetic/stress physiology of fossil plants.

  12. Childhood trauma increases the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder in response to first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendall, Sarah; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Hulbert, Carol A; McGorry, Patrick D; Jackson, Henry J

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between childhood trauma, post-traumatic stress symptoms due to the experience of childhood trauma, and post-traumatic stress symptoms due to the experience of psychosis. The current study assessed childhood trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a result of both childhood trauma and psychosis using the Impact of Events Scale - Revised, in a group of 36 people with first-episode psychosis. Reported rates of clinical level post-psychotic PTSD symptoms, childhood trauma and childhood trauma-related clinical level PTSD symptoms were 47% (95% CI 31-64%), 64% (95% CI 48-80%) and 39% (95% CI 23-55%), respectively. Reporting childhood trauma increased the risk of developing post-psychosis PTSD 27-fold (95% CI 2.96-253.80, p = 0.01). Having childhood trauma-related PTSD increased the risk of developing post-psychosis PTSD 20-fold (95% CI 3.38-123.25, p = 0.01). These risks were not explained by illness factors such as duration of untreated psychosis, age of onset or severity of psychotic symptoms. Those without post-psychotic PTSD symptoms at clinical levels were unlikely to report childhood trauma (6%; 95% CI 3-8%). These results suggest the cognitive, social and biological consequences of childhood trauma can prevent effective recovery from the trauma of acute first-episode psychosis resulting in post-psychotic PTSD. Treatment strategies for post-psychotic PTSD must address childhood trauma and related PTSD.

  13. Did cultural and artistic education in the Netherlands increase student participation in high cultural events?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, M.-L.; van Klaveren, C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether Cultural and Artistic Education that was implemented by the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science in 1999 caused students to participate more in high cultural events. A unique feature of the intervention was that students were free to choose the type of

  14. Ecological momentary analysis of the relations among stressful events, affective reactivity, and smoking among smokers with high versus low depressive symptoms during a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Haruka; Frank, Brandon E; Bold, Krysten W; McCarthy, Danielle E

    2018-02-01

    To assess whether individuals trying to quit smoking who have high depressive symptoms (HD), compared with low depressive symptoms (LD): (1) report more frequent stressful events (SEs), (2) are more likely to smoke after SEs, (3) experience greater acute or persistent changes in affect after an SE, and (4) are at greater risk of smoking following affective changes. Smoking cessation data were analyzed using multi-level path modeling to examine the moderating effects of depressive symptoms on relations among SEs, subsequent affect, and smoking. An academic research center in Central New Jersey, USA. Seventy-one adult treatment-seeking daily smokers recruited from 2010 to 2012. Baseline depressive symptoms [HD: Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) ≥ 16 versus LD: CES-D affect, and smoking assessed during 21 days post-quit. Multi-level models indicated that HD smokers were more likely than LD smokers to report stressful events [odds ratio (OR) = 2.323, P = 0.009], but had similar post-stress acute affective changes (negative affect: b = -0.117, P = 0.137, positive affect: b = 0.020, P = 0.805). Only HD smokers reported increased negative affect (NA) (b = 0.199, P = 0.030) and decreased positive affect (PA) up to 12 hours later (b = -0.217, P = 0.021), and greater lapse risk up to 24 hours after an SE (OR = 3.213, P = 0.017). The persistence of elevated NA and suppressed PA was partially explained by increased odds of subsequent SEs among HD smokers. However, the heightened stress-lapse association over 24 hours found in HD smokers was not fully explained by sustained aversive affect or subsequent SEs. Depressed and non-depressed smokers trying to quit appear to experience similar acute affective changes following stress: however, depressed smokers experience higher rates of exposure to stress, longer-lasting post-stress affective disturbance and greater risk of smoking lapse 12-24 hours after a stressful event

  15. Increase in Operator's Sympathetic Nerve Activity during Complicated Hepatobiliary Surgery: Evidence for Surgeons' Mental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Kosho; Hayashida, Naomi; Kuba, Sayaka; Sakimura, Chika; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Togo, Michita; Katayama, Noritada; Takamura, Noboru; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-11-01

    Surgeons often experience stress during operations. The heart rate variability (HRV) is the variability in the beat-to-beat interval, which has been used as parameters of stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mental stress of surgeons before, during and after operations, especially during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Additionally, the parameters were compared in various procedures during the operations. By frequency domain method using electrocardiograph, we measured the high frequency (HF) component, representing the parasympathetic activity, and the low frequency (LF)/HF ratio, representing the sympathetic activity. In all 5 cases of PD, the surgeon showed significantly lower HF component and higher LF/HF during operation, indicating predominance of sympathetic nervous system and increased stress, than those before the operation (p operation. Out of the 4 LDLT cases, the value of HF was decreased in two and the LF/HF increased in three cases (p operation compared to those before the operation. In all cases, the value of HF was decreased and/or the LF/HF increased significantly during the reconstruction of the vessels or bile ducts than during the removal of the liver. Thus, sympathetic nerve activity increased during hepatobiliary surgery compared with the level before the operation, and various procedures during the operations induced diverse changes in the autonomic nervous activities. The HRV analysis could assess the chronological changes of mental stress by measuring the autonomic nervous balances.

  16. Potassium and zinc increase tolerance to salt stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Amin Ullah; Hadi, Fazal; Midrarullah; Nawaz, Muhammad Asif; Rahman, Khaista

    2017-07-01

    Potassium and zinc are essential elements in plant growth and metabolism and plays a vital role in salt stress tolerance. To investigate the physiological mechanism of salt stress tolerance, a pot experiment was conducted. Potassium and zinc significantly minimize the oxidative stress and increase root, shoot and spike length in wheat varieties. Fresh and dry biomass were significantly increased by potassium followed by zinc as compared to control C. The photosynthetic pigment and osmolyte regulator (proline, total phenolic, and total carbohydrate) were significantly enhanced by potassium and zinc. Salt stress increases MDA content in wheat varieties while potassium and zinc counteract the adverse effect of salinity and significantly increased membrane stability index. Salt stress decreases the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) while the exogenous application of potassium and zinc significantly enhanced the activities of these enzymes. A significant positive correlation was found of spike length with proline (R 2  = 0.966 ∗∗∗ ), phenolic (R 2  = 0.741 ∗ ) and chlorophyll (R 2  = 0.853 ∗∗ ). The MDA content showed significant negative correlation (R 2  = 0.983 ∗∗∗ ) with MSI. It is concluded that potassium and zinc reduced toxic effect of salinity while its combine application showed synergetic effect and significantly enhanced salt tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth on Alpha-Ketoglutarate Increases Oxidative Stress Resistance in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bayliak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG is an important intermediate in cell metabolism, linking anabolic and catabolic processes. The effect of exogenous AKG on stress resistance in S. cerevisiae cells was studied. The growth on AKG increased resistance of yeast cells to stresses, but the effects depended on AKG concentration and type of stressor. Wild-type yeast cells grown on AKG were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide, menadione, and transition metal ions (Fe2+ and Cu2+ but not to ethanol and heat stress as compared with control ones. Deficiency in SODs or catalases abolished stress-protective effects of AKG. AKG-supplemented growth led to higher values of total metabolic activity, level of low-molecular mass thiols, and activities of catalase and glutathione reductase in wild-type cells compared with the control. The results suggest that exogenous AKG may enhance cell metabolism leading to induction of mild oxidative stress. It turn, it results in activation of antioxidant system that increases resistance of S. cerevisiae cells to H2O2 and other stresses. The presence of genes encoding SODs or catalases is required for the expression of protective effects of AKG.

  18. Infant Birthweight in the US: The Role of Preconception Stressful Life Events and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Whitney P.; Mandell, Kara C.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Cheng, Erika R.; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Wakeel, Fathima; Park, Hyojun; Zarak, Dakota

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among preconception stressful life events (PSLEs), women’s alcohol and tobacco use before and during pregnancy, and infant birthweight. METHODS Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n=9,350). Data were collected in 2001. Exposure to PSLEs was defined by indications of death of a parent, spouse, or previous live born child; divorce or marital separation; or fertility problems prior to conception. Survey data determined alcohol and tobacco usage during the three months prior to and in the final three months of pregnancy. We used staged multivariable logistic regression to estimate the effects of women’s substance use and PSLEs on the risk of having a very low (<1,500 grams, VLBW) or low (1,500–2,499 grams, LBW) birthweight infant, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS Women who experienced any PSLE were more likely to give birth to VLBW infants (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–1.66) than women who did not experience any PSLE. Compared to women who never smoked, women who smoked prior to conception (AOR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.04–1.66) or during their last trimester (AOR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.56–2.52) were more likely to give birth to LBW infants. CONCLUSIONS PSLEs and women’s tobacco use before and during pregnancy are independent risk factors for having a lower birthweight baby. Interventions to improve birth outcomes may need to address women’s health and health behaviors in the preconception period. PMID:26767530

  19. Aspirin Does Not Increase Heart Failure Events in Heart Failure Patients: From the WARCEF Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerlink, John R; Qian, Min; Bello, Natalie A; Freudenberger, Ronald S; Levin, Bruce; Di Tullio, Marco R; Graham, Susan; Mann, Douglas L; Sacco, Ralph L; Mohr, J P; Lip, Gregory Y H; Labovitz, Arthur J; Lee, Seitetz C; Ponikowski, Piotr; Lok, Dirk J; Anker, Stefan D; Thompson, John L P; Homma, Shunichi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether aspirin increases heart failure (HF) hospitalization or death in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Because of its cyclooxygenase inhibiting properties, aspirin has been postulated to increase HF events in patients treated with ACE inhibitors or ARBs. However, no large randomized trial has addressed the clinical relevance of this issue. We compared aspirin and warfarin for HF events (hospitalization, death, or both) in the 2,305 patients enrolled in the WARCEF (Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction) trial (98.6% on ACE inhibitor or ARB treatment), using conventional Cox models for time to first event (489 events). In addition, to examine multiple HF hospitalizations, we used 2 extended Cox models, a conditional model and a total time marginal model, in time to recurrent event analyses (1,078 events). After adjustment for baseline covariates, aspirin- and warfarin-treated patients did not differ in time to first HF event (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.87; 95% confidence interval: 0.72 to 1.04; p = 0.117) or first hospitalization alone (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.88; 95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 1.06; p = 0.168). The extended Cox models also found no significant differences in all HF events or in HF hospitalizations alone after adjustment for covariates. Among patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction in the WARCEF trial, there was no significant difference in risk of HF events between the aspirin and warfarin-treated patients. (Warfarin Versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction trial [WARCEF]; NCT00041938). Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. All rights reserved.

  20. Stress-induced alterations in estradiol sensitivity increase risk for obesity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the United States continues to rise, increasing individual vulnerability to an array of adverse health outcomes. One factor that has been implicated causally in the increased accumulation of fat and excess food intake is the activity of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis in the face of relentless stressor exposure. However, translational and clinical research continues to understudy the effects sex and gonadal hormones and LHPA axis dysfunction in the etiology of obesity even though women continue to be at greater risk than men for stress-induced disorders, including depression, emotional feeding and obesity. The current review will emphasize the need for sex-specific evaluation of the relationship between stress exposure and LHPA axis activity on individual risk for obesity by summarizing data generated by animal models currently being leveraged to determine the etiology of stress-induced alterations in feeding behavior and metabolism. There exists a clear lack of translational models that have been used to study female-specific risk. One translational model of psychosocial stress exposure that has proven fruitful in elucidating potential mechanisms by which females are at increased risk for stress-induced adverse health outcomes is that of social subordination in socially housed female macaque monkeys. Data from subordinate female monkeys suggest that increased risk for emotional eating and the development of obesity in females may be due to LHPA axis-induced changes in the behavioral and physiological sensitivity of estradiol. The lack in understanding of the mechanisms underlying these alterations necessitate the need to account for the effects of sex and gonadal hormones in the rationale, design, implementation, analysis and interpretation of results in our studies of stress axis function in obesity. Doing so may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets with which to combat stress-induced obesity

  1. The Impact of Stressful Life Events on Alcohol Relapse: Findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Christina Delos; Pagano, Maria Elizabeth; Ronis, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    Alcohol relapse is impacted by a variety of environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal factors. We examined the interaction between stressful life events, personality disorder subtype, and alcohol relapse among individuals enrolled in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS). Negative life events predicted relapse in all subjects. In individuals with a history of an alcohol use disorder prior to study entry, positive life events also predicted alcohol relapse. Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) were found to be twice as likely to relapse in response to life stressors compared to individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD), who were half as likely to relapse in response to life stressors. Further analysis revealed that individuals with OCPD and no history of an alcohol use disorder were almost 10 times more likely to relapse in the face of a stressful romantic problem, while those with ASPD and a history of an alcohol use disorder were six times more likely to relapse in response to a stressful financial event. These findings have implications for both the assessment and the treatment of individuals who present with co-morbid personality and alcohol use disorders.

  2. Short-term stress enhances cellular immunity and increases early resistance to squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Saul, Alison N; Daugherty, Christine; Holmes, Tyson H; Bouley, Donna M; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to chronic/long-term stress that suppresses/dysregulates immune function, an acute/short-term fight-or-flight stress response experienced during immune activation can enhance innate and adaptive immunity. Moderate ultraviolet-B (UV) exposure provides a non-invasive system for studying the naturalistic emergence, progression and regression of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Because SCC is an immunoresponsive cancer, we hypothesized that short-term stress experienced before UV exposure would enhance protective immunity and increase resistance to SCC. Control and short-term stress groups were treated identically except that the short-term stress group was restrained (2.5h) before each of nine UV-exposure sessions (minimum erythemal dose, 3-times/week) during weeks 4-6 of the 10-week UV exposure protocol. Tumors were measured weekly, and tissue collected at weeks 7, 20, and 32. Chemokine and cytokine gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Compared to controls, the short-term stress group showed greater cutaneous T-cell attracting chemokine (CTACK)/CCL27, RANTES, IL-12, and IFN-gamma gene expression at weeks 7, 20, and 32, higher skin infiltrating T cell numbers (weeks 7 and 20), lower tumor incidence (weeks 11-20) and fewer tumors (weeks 11-26). These results suggest that activation of short-term stress physiology increased chemokine expression and T cell trafficking and/or function during/following UV exposure, and enhanced Type 1 cytokine-driven cell-mediated immunity that is crucial for resistance to SCC. Therefore, the physiological fight-or-flight stress response and its adjuvant-like immuno-enhancing effects, may provide a novel and important mechanism for enhancing immune system mediated tumor-detection/elimination that merits further investigation.

  3. Stress-induced neuroplasticity: (mal)adaptation to adverse life events in patients with PTSD--a critical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppermann, S; Storchak, H; Fallgatter, A J; Ehlis, A-C

    2014-12-26

    Stress is an adaptive response to demands of the environment and thus essential for survival. Exposure to stress triggers hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activation and associated neurochemical reactions, following glucocorticoid release from the adrenal glands, accompanied by rapid physiological responses. Stimulation of this pathway results in the activation of specific brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex which are enriched with glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Recent findings indicate that the activation of GRs mediates the regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF is crucial for neural plasticity, as it promotes cellular growth and synaptic changes. Hence stress-induced activation of these pathways leads to neuroplastic changes, including the formation of long-lasting memories of the experiences. As a consequence, organisms can learn from stressful events and respond in an adaptive manner to similar demands in the future. Whereas an optimal stress level leads to enhancement of memory performance, the exposure to extreme, traumatic or chronic stressors is a risk factor for psychopathologies which are associated with memory impairment and cognitive deficits such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this review article, we will outline the implications of stress exposure on memory formation involving the role of glucocorticoids and BDNF. Within this context, potential adverse effects of neuroplastic alterations will be discussed using the example of PTSD. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Short-acting anticholinergic bronchodilation does not increase cardiovascular events in smokers with mild to moderate pulmonary obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Emmy; van Dijk, Wouter D; Heijdra, Yvonne; Lenders, Jacques W M; van Weel, Chris; Akkermans, Reinier; Schermer, Tjard R J

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that bronchodilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increases the smoke-related risk to develop cardiovascular disease, and aimed to study the effect of short-acting anticholinergic bronchodilation and smoking on cardiovascular events. We performed a secondary analysis on data from the Lung Health Study, a large randomized clinical trial of smokers with mild to moderate pulmonary obstruction, 35-60 years old, without cardiovascular comorbidity. We used Cox proportional survival analysis, controlling for several confounders, to study the effect on 5-year risk of fatal and/or non-fatal cardiovascular events. Secondary outcome encompassed fatal and non-fatal coronary events. Of 2745 participants, 23 (0.8%) died of cardiovascular disease. One hundred and sixty-two participants were hospitalized for a cardiovascular event, and 94 participants due to a coronary event. Survival analysis revealed no effect between smoking and short-acting anticholinergic bronchodilation on fatal and/or non-fatal cardiovascular events, hazard ratio = 1.12 (0.58-2.19), nor on coronary events, hazard ratio = 1.46 (0.60-3.56). Our study results show that short-acting anticholinergic bronchodilation had no detrimental effect on cardiovascular disease in smokers with mild to moderate pulmonary obstruction. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  5. Stressful life events and depressive symptoms in a post-war context: which informal support makes a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, May H; Sibai, Abla M; Chaaya, Monique

    2009-03-01

    Gerontological literature utilizes the life stress paradigm to understand the impact of stress on psychological well-being, as well as the protective role that social resources play in buffering those effects; however these relationships are not well understood within various historical and social contexts. Utilizing a sample of 490 community-residing older adults in post-civil war Lebanon, this study investigates the moderating role of various social support factors in the stress-depression relationship. Contrary to expectations, results suggest that older Lebanese are more susceptible to the effects of health-decline and serious accident events than other types of stressors such as losses in the family and financial problems. Furthermore, findings provide evidence for a differential protective role for the respondent's spouse and children for only certain stressful events. The discussion highlights the role of family as a stress buffer in a shifting physical, social and political environmental context. Results from this study add to the discourse by emphasizing the importance of understanding the saliency of the stressor as well as source of support provided.

  6. The differential effects of increasing frequency and magnitude of extreme events on coral populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabina, Nicholas S; Baskett, Marissa L; Gross, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Extreme events, which have profound ecological consequences, are changing in both frequency and magnitude with climate change. Because extreme temperatures induce coral bleaching, we can explore the relative impacts of changes in frequency and magnitude of high temperature events on coral reefs. Here, we combined climate projections and a dynamic population model to determine how changing bleaching regimes influence coral persistence. We additionally explored how coral traits and competition with macroalgae mediate changes in bleaching regimes. Our results predict that severe bleaching events reduce coral persistence more than frequent bleaching. Corals with low adult mortality and high growth rates are successful when bleaching is mild, but bleaching resistance is necessary to persist when bleaching is severe, regardless of frequency. The existence of macroalgae-dominated stable states reduces coral persistence and changes the relative importance of coral traits. Building on previous studies, our results predict that management efforts may need to prioritize protection of "weaker" corals with high adult mortality when bleaching is mild, and protection of "stronger" corals with high bleaching resistance when bleaching is severe. In summary, future reef projections and conservation targets depend on both local bleaching regimes and biodiversity.

  7. Heat-stress increase under climate change twice as large in cities as in rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; De Ridder, Koen; Poelmans, Lien; Willems, Patrick; Brouwers, Johan; Hosseinzadehtalaei, Parisa; Tabari, Hossein; Vanden Broucke, Sam; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Demuzere, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Urban areas, being warmer than their surroundings, are particularly vulnerable to global warming and associated increases in extreme temperatures. Yet ensemble climate-model projections are generally performed on a scale that is too coarse to represent the evolution of temperatures in cities. Here, for the first time, we combine a 35-year convection-permitting climate model integrations with information from an ensemble of general circulation models to assess heat stress in a typical densely populated mid-latitude maritime region. We show that the heat-stress increase for the mid-21st century is twice as large in cities compared to their surrounding rural areas. The exacerbation is driven by the urban heat island itself, its concurrence with heatwaves, and urban expansion. Cities experience a heat-stress multiplication by a factor 1.4 and 15 depending on the scenario. Remarkably, the future heat-stress surpasses everywhere the urban hot spots of today. Our novel insights exemplify the need to combine information from climate models, acting on different scales, for climate-change risk assessment in heterogeneous regions. Moreover, these results highlight the necessity for adaptation to increasing heat stress, especially in urban areas.

  8. The multitasking framework: the effects of increasing workload on acute psychobiological stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Mark A; Carter, Kirsty

    2014-04-01

    A variety of techniques exist for eliciting acute psychological stress in the laboratory; however, they vary in terms of their ease of use, reliability to elicit consistent responses and the extent to which they represent the stressors encountered in everyday life. There is, therefore, a need to develop simple laboratory techniques that reliably elicit psychobiological stress reactivity that are representative of the types of stressors encountered in everyday life. The multitasking framework is a performance-based, cognitively demanding stressor, representative of environments where individuals are required to attend and respond to several different stimuli simultaneously with varying levels of workload. Psychological (mood and perceived workload) and physiological (heart rate and blood pressure) stress reactivity was observed in response to a 15-min period of multitasking at different levels of workload intensity in a sample of 20 healthy participants. Multitasking stress elicited increases in heart rate and blood pressure, and increased workload intensity elicited dose-response increases in levels of perceived workload and mood. As individuals rarely attend to single tasks in real life, the multitasking framework provides an alternative technique for modelling acute stress and workload in the laboratory. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Increasing fatty acid oxidation remodels the hypothalamic neurometabolome to mitigate stress and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W McFadden

    Full Text Available Modification of hypothalamic fatty acid (FA metabolism can improve energy homeostasis and prevent hyperphagia and excessive weight gain in diet-induced obesity (DIO from a diet high in saturated fatty acids. We have shown previously that C75, a stimulator of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1 and fatty acid oxidation (FAOx, exerts at least some of its hypophagic effects via neuronal mechanisms in the hypothalamus. In the present work, we characterized the effects of C75 and another anorexigenic compound, the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT inhibitor FSG67, on FA metabolism, metabolomics profiles, and metabolic stress responses in cultured hypothalamic neurons and hypothalamic neuronal cell lines during lipid excess with palmitate. Both compounds enhanced palmitate oxidation, increased ATP, and inactivated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in hypothalamic neurons in vitro. Lipidomics and untargeted metabolomics revealed that enhanced catabolism of FA decreased palmitate availability and prevented the production of fatty acylglycerols, ceramides, and cholesterol esters, lipids that are associated with lipotoxicity-provoked metabolic stress. This improved metabolic signature was accompanied by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and yet favorable changes in oxidative stress, overt ER stress, and inflammation. We propose that enhancing FAOx in hypothalamic neurons exposed to excess lipids promotes metabolic remodeling that reduces local inflammatory and cell stress responses. This shift would restore mitochondrial function such that increased FAOx can produce hypothalamic neuronal ATP and lead to decreased food intake and body weight to improve systemic metabolism.

  10. The interplay of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior among youth students in contemporary China: a large scale cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Fang; Xue, Fuzhong; Qin, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Stressful life events are common among youth students and may induce psychological problems and even suicidal behaviors in those with poor coping skills. This study aims to assess the influence of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior and to elucidate the underlying mechanism using a large sample of university students in China. Methods 5972 students, randoml...

  11. Biological stress systems, adverse life events and the onset of chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain: a six-year cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Generaal, E.; Vogelzangs, N.; MacFarlane, G.J.; Geenen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087017571; Smit, J.H.; de Geus, E.J.C.N.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Dekker, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Dysregulated biological stress systems and adverse life events, independently and in interaction, have been hypothesised to initiate chronic pain. We examine whether (1) function of biological stress systems, (2) adverse life events, and (3) their combination predict the onset of chronic

  12. PEG-albumin plasma expansion increases expression of MCP-1 evidencing increased circulatory wall shear stress: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Makena Hightower

    Full Text Available Treatment of blood loss with plasma expanders lowers blood viscosity, increasing cardiac output. However, increased flow velocity by conventional plasma expanders does not compensate for decreased viscosity in maintaining vessel wall shear stress (WSS, decreasing endothelial nitric oxide (NO production. A new type of plasma expander using polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb causes supra-perfusion when used in extreme hemodilution and is effective in treating hemorrhagic shock, although it is minimally viscogenic. An acute 40% hemodilution/exchange-transfusion protocol was used to compare 4% PEG-Alb to Ringer's lactate, Dextran 70 kDa and 6% Hetastarch (670 kDa in unanesthetized CD-1 mice. Serum cytokine analysis showed that PEG-Alb elevates monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, a member of a small inducible gene family, as well as expression of MIP-1α, and MIP-2. MCP-1 is specific to increased WSS. Given the direct link between increased WSS and production of NO, the beneficial resuscitation effects due to PEG-Alb plasma expansion appear to be due to increased WSS through increased perfusion and blood flow rather than blood viscosity.

  13. Post-traumatic stress symptoms in Swedish obstetricians and midwives after severe obstetric events: a cross-sectional retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Å; Andreen Sachs, M; Johannesson, K; Hallberg, G; Jonsson, M; Skoog Svanberg, A; Högberg, U

    2017-07-01

    To examine post-traumatic stress reactions among obstetricians and midwives, experiences of support and professional consequences after severe events in the labour ward. Cross-sectional online survey from January 7 to March 10, 2014. Members of the Swedish Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and the Swedish Association of Midwives. Potentially traumatic events were defined as: the child died or was severely injured during delivery; maternal near-miss; maternal mortality; and other events such as violence or threat. The validated Screen Questionnaire Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SQ-PTSD), based on DSM-IV (1994) 4th edition, was used to assess partial post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and probable PTSD. Partial or probable PTSD. The response rate was 47% for obstetricians (n = 706) and 40% (n = 1459) for midwives. Eighty-four percent of the obstetricians and 71% of the midwives reported experiencing at least one severe event on the delivery ward. Fifteen percent of both professions reported symptoms indicative of partial PTSD, whereas 7% of the obstetricians and 5% of the midwives indicated symptoms fulfilling PTSD criteria. Having experienced emotions of guilt or perceived insufficient support from friends predicted a higher risk of suffering from partial or probable PTSD. Obstetricians and midwives with partial PTSD symptoms chose to change their work to outpatient care significantly more often than colleagues without these symptoms. A substantial proportion of obstetricians and midwives reported symptoms of partial or probable PTSD after severe traumatic events experienced on the labour ward. Support and resilience training could avoid suffering and consequences for professional carers. In a survey 15% of Swedish obstetricians and midwives reported PTSD symptoms after their worst obstetric event. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Ropivacaine and Bupivacaine prevent increased pain sensitivity without altering neuroimmune activation following repeated social defeat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Caroline M; Kim, January K; Weber, Michael D; Jarrett, Brant L; Godbout, Jonathan P; Sheridan, John F; Humeidan, Michelle

    2018-03-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that stress influences the experience of pain. Exposure to psychosocial stress disrupts bi-directional communication pathways between the central nervous system and peripheral immune system, and can exacerbate the frequency and severity of pain experienced by stressed subjects. Repeated social defeat (RSD) is a murine model of psychosocial stress that recapitulates the immune and behavioral responses to stress observed in humans, including activation of stress-reactive neurocircuitry and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production. It is unclear, however, how these stress-induced neuroimmune responses contribute to increased pain sensitivity in mice exposed to RSD. Here we used a technique of regional analgesia with local anesthetics in mice to block the development of mechanical allodynia during RSD. We next investigated the degree to which pain blockade altered stress-induced neuroimmune activation and depressive-like behavior. Following development of a mouse model of regional analgesia with discrete sensory blockade over the dorsal-caudal aspect of the spine, C57BL/6 mice were divided into experimental groups and treated with Ropivacaine (0.08%), Liposomal Bupivacaine (0.08%), or Vehicle (0.9% NaCl) prior to exposure to stress. This specific region was selected for analgesia because it is the most frequent location for aggression-associated pain due to biting during RSD. Mechanical allodynia was assessed 12 h after the first, third, and sixth day of RSD after resolution of the sensory blockade. In a separate experiment, social avoidance behavior was determined after the sixth day of RSD. Blood, bone marrow, brain, and spinal cord were collected for immunological analyses after the last day of RSD in both experiments following behavioral assessments. RSD increased mechanical allodynia in an exposure-dependent manner that persisted for at least one week following cessation of the stressor. Mice treated with either Ropivacaine or

  15. Time dependent effects of stress prior to encoding on event-related potentials and 24 h delayed retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars; Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Stress can exert profound effects on memory encoding. Here, we investigated whether (sub)cortical information processing during encoding and memory retrieval at a 24 h delayed test are affected by the temporal proximity between stress and memory encoding. Sixty-four participants engaged in the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST) or a no-stress control condition either immediately before (i.e., proximate condition) or 30 min before (i.e., distant condition) a picture encoding task. In general, stress decreased the number of freely recalled and recognized pictures and increased the number of false alarms. However, timing of stress exposure did not differentially affect picture recall, recognition or selective attention processes (i.e., LPP). Nevertheless, stress-induced cortisol responses and correctly recognized neutral pictures were positively associated within the proximate stress condition but negatively associated within the distant stress condition. These findings suggest that the time at which a stressor is applied might differentially impact the association between stress-induced cortisol elevations and memory formation and indicate the need for a finer delineation of the time window during which glucocorticoids affect memory formation processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cold stress improves the production of artemisinin depending on the increase in endogenous jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanhong; Wang, Huanyan; Chen, Yupei; Zhu, Shunqin; Chen, Min; Lan, Xiaozhong; Chen, Guoping; Liao, Zhihua

    2017-05-01

    Previous publications reported that the artemisinin level was increased in Artemisia annua following a night-frost period. However, the molecular mechanism was not clear. In this study, we found that exogenous jasmonate (JA) effectively enhanced the freezing tolerance of A. annua. The JA biosynthetic genes (LOX1, LOX2, allene oxide cyclase [AOC], and jasmonate resistant 1 [JAR1]) were induced by cold stress, leading to an increase in endogenous JA in cold-treated A. annua. Increased endogenous JA enhanced the expression of three JA-responsive transcription factors, ethylene response factor 1, ethylene response factor 2, and octadecanoid-responsive AP2/ERF, all of which were reported to transcriptionally activate the expression of artemisinin biosynthetic genes, such as amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), CYP71AV1, DBR2, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1). Furthermore, the expression levels of the four artemisinin biosynthetic genes were also significantly increased under cold stress. Consequently, the levels of artemisinin and related secondary metabolites, such as dihydroartemisinic acid, artemisinin B, and artemisinic acid, were increased in A. annua under cold stress. Our study points to a molecular mechanism in which the production of artemisinin is regulated by cold stress in A. annua. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Financial strain is associated with increased oxidative stress levels: the Women's Health and Aging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Szanton, Sarah L; Semba, Richard D; Thorpe, Roland J; Varadhan, Ravi; Fried, Linda P

    2015-01-01

    Elevated oxidative stress levels may be one mechanism contributing to poor health outcomes. Financial strain and oxidative stress are each predictors of morbidity and mortality, but little research has investigated their relationship. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 728) from the Women's Health and Aging Studies I and II were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Financial strain was ascertained as an ordinal response to: "At the end of the month, do you have more than enough money left over, just enough, or not enough?" Oxidative stress was measured using serum protein carbonyl concentrations. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship between financial strain and oxidative stress. Participants who reported high financial strain exhibited 13.4% higher protein carbonyl concentrations compared to individuals who reported low financial strain (p = 0.002). High financial strain may be associated with increased oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress could mediate associations between financial strain and poor health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Benzimidazole Proton Pump Inhibitor Increases Growth and Tolerance to Salt Stress in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Van Oosten

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pre-treatment of tomato plants with micromolar concentrations of omeprazole (OP, a benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor in mammalian systems, improves plant growth in terms of fresh weight of shoot and roots by 49 and 55% and dry weight by 54 and 105% under salt stress conditions (200 mM NaCl, respectively. Assessment of gas exchange, ion distribution, and gene expression profile in different organs strongly indicates that OP interferes with key components of the stress adaptation machinery, including hormonal control of root development (improving length and branching, protection of the photosynthetic system (improving quantum yield of photosystem II and regulation of ion homeostasis (improving the K+:Na+ ratio in leaves and roots. To our knowledge OP is one of the few known molecules that at micromolar concentrations manifests a dual function as growth enhancer and salt stress protectant. Therefore, OP can be used as new inducer of stress tolerance to better understand molecular and physiological stress adaptation paths in plants and to design new products to improve crop performance under suboptimal growth conditions.Highlight: Omeprazole enhances growth of tomato and increases tolerance to salinity stress through alterations of gene expression and ion uptake and transport.

  19. Event-related potentials reveal increased distraction by salient global objects in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas

    Age-related changes in visual functions influence how older individuals perceive and react upon objects in their environment. In particular, older individuals might be more distracted by highly salient, irrelevant information. Kanizsa figures induce a ‘global precedence’ effect, which reflects...... a processing advantage for salient whole-object representations relative to configurations of local elements not inducing a global form. We investigated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of age-related decline in visual abilities, and specifically, distractibility by salient global objects in visual...

  20. Radioiodine therapy increases the risk of cerebrovascular events in hyperthyroid and euthyroid patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Jeppe Lerche; Jensen, Lars Thorbjoern; Vej-Hansen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    to radiation and is capable of inducing atherosclerosis. The objective of the study was to elucidate whether ionizing radiation from radioiodine might contribute to cerebrovascular morbidity. METHODS: In a retrospective register cohort study, 4000 hyperthyroid and 1022 euthyroid goitre patients treated...... with radioiodine between 1975 and 2008 were matched 1:4 on age and sex with random controls. The cohort was followed from the date of treatment until hospitalization due to cerebrovascular event, death, 20 years of follow-up or March 2013. Data were analyzed in competing risk models adjusting for age, sex...

  1. Establishing precursor events for stress corrosion cracking initiation in type 304L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.U.F.; Raja, V.S.; Roychowdhury, S.; Kain, V.

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempts to establish slip band emergence, due to localized deformation, as a precursor event for SCC initiation in type 304L SS. The unidirectional tensile loading was used for straining flat tensile specimen, less than 10% strain, in air, 0.5 M NaCl + 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 and boiling water reactor (BWR) simulated environment (288 C. degrees, 10 MPa). The surface features were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (including electron backscattered diffraction-EBSD) and atomic force microscopy. The study shows that with increase in strain level, during unidirectional slow strain rate test (SSRT), average slip band height increases in air and the attack on slip lines occurs in acidified chloride environment. In BWR simulated environment, preferential oxidation on slip lines and initiation of a few cracks on some of the slip lines are observed. Based on the observation, the study suggests slip bands, formed due to localized deformation, to act as a precursor for SCC initiation. (authors)

  2. Subchronic mild noise stress increases HRP permeability in rat small intestine in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, P. B.; van Raaij, M. T.; Dobbe, C. J.; Timmerman, A.; Kiliaan, A. J.; Taminiau, J. A.; Groot, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Recently we reported an increased trans- and paracellular protein permeability in rat small intestine after acute cold restraint stress. In the present study, we applied randomized 95- or 105-dB white noise pulses during 45 min/h, 12 h/day, duration 8 days, as a milder, but more chronic stressor to

  3. Ageing increases the sensitivity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds to imbibitional stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neya, O.; Golovina, E.A.; Nijsse, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Imbibitional stress was imposed on neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds by letting them soak for 1 h in water at unfavourable, low temperatures before further incubation at 30degreesC. Sensitivity to low imbibition temperatures increased with a decrease in seed moisture content (MC). To investigate a

  4. Climatic stress increases forest fire severity across the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip J. van Mantgem; Jonathan C.B. Nesmith; MaryBeth Keifer; Eric E. Knapp; Alan Flint; Lorriane Flint

    2013-01-01

    Pervasive warming can lead to chronic stress on forest trees, which may contribute to mortality resulting from fire-caused injuries. Longitudinal analyses of forest plots from across the western US show that high pre-fire climatic water deficit was related to increased post-fire tree mortality probabilities. This relationship between climate and fire was present after...

  5. Development and validation of a Thai stressful life events rating scale for patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenic methamphetamine abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ek-uma Imkome; JintanaYunibhand; Waraporn Chaiyawat

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to psychometrically test a Thai Stressful Life Events Rating Scale (TSLERS). Factor analysis was done on data collected from 313 patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse in Thailand from April to May, 2015. Results identified the following problems impacting physical and mental health: social relationship and social concerns, money, family life, life security, and career. Evaluation of the psychometric scale properties demonstrated acceptable validity ...

  6. Neonatal maternal separation increases susceptibility to experimental colitis and acute stress exposure in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella M. Fuentes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing early life stress can result in maladjusted stress response via dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and serves as a risk factor for developing chronic pelvic pain disorders. We investigated whether neonatal maternal separation (NMS would increase susceptibility to experimental colitis or exposure to acute or chronic stress. Male mice underwent NMS from postnatal day 1–21 and as adults were assessed for open field behavior, hindpaw sensitivity, and visceromotor response (VMR to colorectal distension (CRD. VMR was also measured before and after treatment with intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS or exposure to acute or chronic water avoidance stress (WAS. Myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, proinflammatory gene and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF receptor expression were measured in distal colon. Baseline VMR was not affected by NMS, but undergoing CRD increased anxiety-like behaviors and mechanical hindpaw sensitivity of NMS mice. Treatment with TNBS dose-dependently decreased body weight and survival only in NMS mice. Following TNBS treatment, IL-6 and artemin mRNA levels were decreased in the distal colon of NMS mice, despite increased MPO activity. A single WAS exposure increased VMR during CRD in NMS mice and increased IL-6 mRNA and CRF2 protein levels in the distal colon of naïve mice, whereas CRF2 protein levels were heightened in NMS colon both at baseline and post-WAS exposure. Taken together, these results suggest that NMS in mice disrupts inflammatory- and stress-induced gene expression in the colon, potentially contributing towards an exaggerated response to specific stressors later in life.

  7. Hypoxia increases the behavioural activity of schooling herring: a response to physiological stress or respiratory distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Neill A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2006-01-01

    a deviation in physiological homeostasis is associated with any change in behavioural activity, we exposed C. harengus in a school to a progressive stepwise decline in water oxygen pressure  and measured fish swimming speed and valid indicators of primary and secondary stress (i.e. blood cortisol, lactate......Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, increase their swimming speed during low O2 (hypoxia) and it has been hypothesised that the behavioural response is modulated by the degree of "respiratory distress" (i.e. a rise in anaerobic metabolism and severe physiological stress). To test directly whether...

  8. Effect of Trinexapac-ethyl on Increased Resistance to Drought Stress in Wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad hossein sheikh mohamadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drought is one of the most detrimental abiotic stresses for turfgrass growth across a wide range of geographic locations. Most cool-season grass species are not well adapted to extended periods of drought, particularly during summer months. Decline in turf quality caused by drought stress is a major concern in turfgrass culture. Therefore, developing management practices for improving drought resistance of turfgrasses has become essential in arid and semi-arid regions, especially during water use restriction. One strategy to improve plant drought resistance is to promote drought avoidance by reducing water loss during drought, which may be achieved by slowing growth rate of shoots and lowering leaf area canopy to reduce demand for water. Application of growth regulators is one of the methods for increasing resistance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. Trinexapac-ethyl (TE is one of the most widely used PGRs in the management of cool-season and warm-season turfgrass species. TE absorbed quickly by foliage and slow cell elongation through inhibiting of converting one form of gibberellic acid (GA20 to another (GA1. Most studies conducted under non-stressed conditions found that TE application increased chlorophyll content, turf quality, turf density and reduced shoot extension rate. We hypothesized that TE may influence plant tolerance to drought stress. Limited available data─ as reported in the above referred studies─ suggest that TE application may be beneficial for plant tolerance to stresses, but the effectiveness varies with turfgrass species, dose and duration of TE treatment, and type of stress. The main aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of Trinexapac-ethyl on increased resistance to drought stress in wheatgrass. Materials and Methods: Wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum L. was used in this study. This study was conducted in field conditions at Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.. Wheatgrass

  9. Impact of traumatic events on posttraumatic stress disorder among Danish survivors of sexual abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M; Palic, Sabina; Karsberg, Sidsel; Eriksen, Sara Bek

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  10. A model for removing the increased recall of recent events from the temporal distribution of autobiographical memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.M.J.; Gralak, A.; Murre, J.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The reminiscence bump is the tendency to recall relatively many personal events from the period in which the individual was between 10 and 30 years old. This effect has only been found in autobiographical memory studies that used participants who were older than 40 years of age. The increased recall

  11. Stressful Life Events and Predictors of Post-traumatic Growth among High-Risk Early Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpawong, Thalida E; Rohrbach, Louise A; Milam, Joel E; Unger, Jennifer B; Land, Helen; Sun, Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sussman, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Stressful life events (SLEs) may elicit positive psychosocial change among youth, referred to as Post-traumatic Growth (PTG). We assessed types of SLEs experienced, degree to which participants reported PTG, and variables predicting PTG across 24 months among a sample of high risk, ethnically diverse early emerging adults. Participants were recruited from alternative high schools ( n = 564; mean age=16.8; 65% Hispanic). Multi-level regression models were constructed to examine the impact of environmental (SLE quantity, severity) and personal factors (hedonic ability, perceived stress, developmental stage, future time orientation) on a composite score of PTG. The majority of participants reported positive changes resulted from their most life-altering SLE of the past two years. Predictors of PTG included fewer SLEs, less general stress, having a future time perspective, and greater identification with the developmental stage of Emerging Adulthood. Findings suggest intervention targets to foster positive adaptation among early emerging adults who experience frequent SLEs.

  12. Acute Stress Suppresses Synaptic Inhibition and Increases Anxiety via Endocannabinoid Release in the Basolateral Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Shi; Itoga, Christy A; Fisher, Marc O; Solomonow, Jonathan; Roltsch, Emily A; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Tasker, Jeffrey G

    2016-08-10

    Stress and glucocorticoids stimulate the rapid mobilization of endocannabinoids in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Cannabinoid receptors in the BLA contribute to anxiogenesis and fear-memory formation. We tested for rapid glucocorticoid-induced endocannabinoid regulation of synaptic inhibition in the rat BLA. Glucocorticoid application to amygdala slices elicited a rapid, nonreversible suppression of spontaneous, but not evoked, GABAergic synaptic currents in BLA principal neurons; the effect was also seen with a membrane-impermeant glucocorticoid, but not with intracellular glucocorticoid application, implicating a membrane-associated glucocorticoid receptor. The glucocorticoid suppression of GABA currents was not blocked by antagonists of nuclear corticosteroid receptors, or by inhibitors of gene transcription or protein synthesis, but was blocked by inhibiting postsynaptic G-protein activity, suggesting a postsynaptic nongenomic steroid signaling mechanism that stimulates the release of a retrograde messenger. The rapid glucocorticoid-induced suppression of inhibition was prevented by blocking CB1 receptors and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) synthesis, and it was mimicked and occluded by CB1 receptor agonists, indicating it was mediated by the retrograde release of the endocannabinoid 2-AG. The rapid glucocorticoid effect in BLA neurons in vitro was occluded by prior in vivo acute stress-induced, or prior in vitro glucocorticoid-induced, release of endocannabinoid. Acute stress also caused an increase in anxiety-like behavior that was attenuated by blocking CB1 receptor activation and inhibiting 2-AG synthesis in the BLA. Together, these findings suggest that acute stress causes a long-lasting suppression of synaptic inhibition in BLA neurons via a membrane glucocorticoid receptor-induced release of 2-AG at GABA synapses, which contributes to stress-induced anxiogenesis. We provide a cellular mechanism in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) for the rapid stress

  13. Voluntary exercise and increased food intake after mild chronic stress improve social avoidance behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Airi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is well-established that exercise can influence psychological conditions, cognitive function, and energy metabolism in peripheral tissues including the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether exercise can influence social interaction with others and alleviate defeat stress. This study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on impaired social interaction induced by chronic social defeat stress (SDS) using the resident-intruder social defeat model. Mice were divided into three groups: control, stress alone, and stress+exercise. SDS was performed by exposing C57BL/6 mice to retired ICR mice for 2.5 min. The C57BL/6 mice were continuously defeated by these resident (aggressor) mice and, following 5 days of SDS, experienced 2 days of rest with no SDS. Mice in the stress+exercise group were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 2h after every SDS exposure. Two weeks later, compared to the control group, the stress group showed a higher ratio of time spent in the corner zone of a social interaction paradigm even though SDS did not elicit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. We also observed that voluntary exercise, which did not affect muscle weight and gene expression, decreased social avoidance behavior of stressed mice without clear changes in brain monoamine levels. Interestingly, food intake in the stress+exercise group was the greatest among the three groups. To test the effect of the exercise-induced increase in food intake on social behavior, we set up a pair-fed group where food intake was restricted. We then compared these mice to mice in the stress alone group. We found that the ratio of time spent in the corner zone of the social interaction test was not different between ad libitum- and pair-fed groups, although pair-fed mice spent more time in the corner zone when an aggressor mouse was present than when it was absent. In addition, pair-feeding did not show exercise-induced reductions of adrenal gland weight and enhanced the

  14. Oxidative Stress is Increased in Serum from Mexican Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genaro Gabriel Ortiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the oxidative stress markers in serum from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Methods: Blood samples from healthy controls and 22 patients 15 women (7 aged from 20 to 30 and 8 were > 40 years old and 7 men (5 aged from 20 to 30 and 2 were > 40 years old fulfilling the McDonald Criteria and classified as having Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis accordingly with Lublin were collected for oxidative stress markers quantification. Results: Nitric oxide metabolites (nitrates/nitrites, lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde plus 4-hidroxialkenals, and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly increased in serum of subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in comparison with that of healthy controls. These data support the hypothesis that multiple sclerosis is a component closely linked to oxidative stress.

  15. Increased salivary oxidative stress parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes: Relation with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Carlos; Moreno-Fernández, Ana María; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Morales-Portillo, Cristóbal; Serrano-Olmedo, Isabel; de la Cuesta Mayor, M Carmen; Martín Hernández, Tomás

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in salivary oxidative stress between patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and healthy non-diabetic patients, and whether this oxidative stress is associated with the presence of periodontal disease in diabetic patients. This observational study included 70 patients divided into three groups according to metabolic control levels: 19 non-diabetic patients (control group); 24 patients with good metabolic control (HbA1c7%). The following oxidative stress parameters were measured in all subjects: glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRd), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Periodontal health was determined by means of the community periodontal index (CPI) recommended by the WHO. The diabetic group with good metabolic control showed a significant increase in GPx and GRd activity in comparison with the control group (Pperiodontal health. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Life Stress and Adjustment: Effects of Life Events Experienced by Young Adolescents and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Used a longitudinal design to test the effects of life events experienced by young adolescents and their parents. Criteria were the adolescents' depression, anxiety and self-esteem. Analysis showed a significant effect for the adolescents' controllable, but not uncontrollable, negative events. (Author/RWB)

  17. Stressful life events as predictors of functioning: findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, M. E.; Skodol, A. E.; Stout, R. L.; Shea, M. T.; Yen, S.; Grilo, C. M.; Sanislow, C. A.; Bender, D. S.; McGlashan, T. H.; Zanarini, M. C.; Gunderson, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Although much attention has been given to the effects of adverse childhood experiences on the development of personality disorders (PDs), we know far less about how recent life events influence the ongoing course of functioning. We examined the extent to which PD subjects differ in rates of life events and the extent to which life events impact psychosocial functioning. Method A total of 633 subjects were drawn from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS), a multi-site study of four personality disorders – schizotypal (STPD), borderline (BPD), avoidant (AVPD), obsessive-compulsive (OCPD) – and a comparison group of major depressive disorders (MDD) without PD. Results Borderline personality disorder subjects reported significantly more total negative life events than other PDs or subjects with MDD. Negative events, especially interpersonal events, predicted decreased psychosocial functioning over time. Conclusion Our findings indicate higher rates of negative events in subjects with more severe PDs and suggest that negative life events adversely impact multiple areas of psychosocial functioning. PMID:15521826

  18. Working the night shift causes increased vascular stress and delayed recovery in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Hsiang; Lin, Lian-Yu; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Chang, Yu-Yin; Liau, Chiau-Suong; Wang, Jung-Der

    2010-08-01

    Shiftwork has been associated with elevated blood pressure (BP) and decreased heart-rate variability (HRV), factors that may increase the long-term risk of cardiovascular-related mortality and morbidity. This study explored the effect of shiftwork on dynamic changes in autonomic control of HRV (cardiac stress), systolic BP and diastolic BP, i.e., SBP and DBP (vascular stress), and recovery in the same subjects working different shifts. By studying the same subjects, the authors could reduce the effect of possible contribution of between-subject variation from genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The authors recruited 16 young female nurses working rotating shifts--day (08:00-16:00 h), evening (16:00-00:00 h), and night (00:00-08:00 h)--and 6 others working the regular day shift. Each nurse received simultaneous and repeated 48-h ambulatory electrocardiography and BP monitoring during their work day and the following off-duty day. Using a linear mixed-effect model to adjust for day shift, the results of the repeated-measurements and self-comparisons found significant shift differences in vascular stress. While working the night shift, the nurses showed significant increases in vascular stress, with increased SBP of 9.7 mm Hg. The changes of SBP and DBP seemed to peak during waking time at the same time on the day off as they did on the working day. Whereas HRV profiles usually returned to baseline level after each shift, the SBP and DBP of night-shift workers did not completely return to baseline levels the following off-duty day (p night shift, they do not completely recover from increases in vascular stress on that day.

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases AT1R mRNA expression via TIA-1-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, Michael; Paukku, Kirsi; Kontula, Kimmo K; Lehtonen, Jukka Y A

    2016-04-20

    As the formation of ribonucleoprotein complexes is a major mechanism of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) regulation, we sought to identify novel AT1R mRNA binding proteins. By affinity purification and mass spectroscopy, we identified TIA-1. This interaction was confirmed by colocalization of AT1R mRNA and TIA-1 by FISH and immunofluorescence microscopy. In immunoprecipitates of endogenous TIA- 1, reverse transcription-PCR amplified AT1R mRNA. TIA-1 has two binding sites within AT1R 3'-UTR. The binding site proximal to the coding region is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-dependent whereas the distal binding site is not. TIA-1 functions as a part of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response leading to stress granule (SG) formation and translational silencing. We and others have shown that AT1R expression is increased by ER stress-inducing factors. In unstressed cells, TIA-1 binds to AT1R mRNA and decreases AT1R protein expression. Fluorescence microscopy shows that ER stress induced by thapsigargin leads to the transfer of TIA-1 to SGs. In FISH analysis AT1R mRNA remains in the cytoplasm and no longer colocalizes with TIA-1. Thus, release of TIA-1-mediated suppression by ER stress increases AT1R protein expression. In conclusion, AT1R mRNA is regulated by TIA-1 in a ER stress-dependent manner. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. The association between rotating shift work and increased occupational stress in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Chen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Pan, Shung-Mei; Chen, Yao-Mei; Pan, Chih-Hong; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether rotating shift work increases occupational stress in nurses. This study measured shift work scheduling and occupational stress by using the Effort-Reward Imbalance model with self-reported questionnaires in a sample of 654 female nurses. Overcommitment risk was higher in nurses who worked rotating shifts than in those who worked day/non-night shifts (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.03-4.66). However, an effort/reward imbalance was not directly associated with work schedules (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.87-4.35). Among nurses working rotation rotating shifts, those who had 2 days off after their most recent night shifts showed an alleviated risk of overcommitment (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32-0.82), but those who had worked for at least one series of 7 consecutive work days per month had an increased risk of effort/reward imbalance (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.69-4.48). Additionally, those who had little or no participation in planning working hours and shift scheduling and worked overtime at least three times per week during the preceding 2 months tended to have high stress. The nurses who worked rotating shifts tended to experience work-related stress, but their stress levels improved if they had at least 2 days off after their most recent night shift and if they were not scheduled to work 7 consecutive days. These empirical data can be used to optimize work schedules for nurses to alleviate work stress.

  1. Chronic stress undermines the compensatory sleep efficiency increase in response to sleep restriction in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astill, Rebecca G; Verhoeven, Dorit; Vijzelaar, Romy L; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effects of real-life stress on the sleep of adolescents, we performed a repeated-measures study on actigraphic sleep estimates and subjective measures during one regular school week, two stressful examination weeks and a week's holiday. Twenty-four adolescents aged 17.63 ± 0.10 years (mean ± standard error of the mean) wore actigraphs and completed diaries on subjective stress, fatigue, sleep quality, number of examinations and consumption of caffeine and alcohol for 4 weeks during their final year of secondary school. The resulting almost 500 assessments were analysed using mixed-effect models to estimate the effects of mere school attendance and additional examination stress on sleep estimates and subjective ratings. Total sleep time decreased from 7:38 h ± 12 min during holidays to 6:40 h ± 12 min during a regular school week. This 13% decrease elicited a partial compensation, as indicated by a 3% increase in sleep efficiency and a 6% decrease in the duration of nocturnal awakenings. During examination weeks total sleep time decreased to 6:23 h ± 8 min, but it was now accompanied by a decrease in sleep efficiency and subjective sleep quality and an increase in wake bout duration. In conclusion, school examination stress affects the sleep of adolescents. The compensatory mechanism of more consolidated sleep, as elicited by the sleep restriction associated with mere school attendance, collapsed during 2 weeks of sustained examination stress. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Stress induces endotoxemia and low-grade inflammation by increasing barrier permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin ede Punder

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs are the leading causes of work absence, disability and mortality worldwide. Most of these diseases are associated with low-grade inflammation. Here we hypothesize that stresses (defined as homeostatic disturbances can induce low-grade inflammation by increasing the availability of water, sodium and energy-rich substances to meet the increased metabolic demand induced by the stressor. One way of triggering low-grade inflammation is by increasing intestinal barrier permeability through activation of various components of the stress system. Although beneficial to meet the demands necessary during stress, increased intestinal barrier permeability also raises the possibility of the translocation of bacteria and their toxins across the intestinal lumen into the blood circulation. In combination with modern life-style factors, the increase in bacteria/bacterial toxin translocation arising from a more permeable intestinal wall causes a low-grade inflammatory state. We support this hypothesis with numerous studies finding associations with NCDs and markers of endotoxemia, suggesting that this process plays a pivotal and perhaps even a causal role in the development of low-grade inflammation and its related diseases.

  3. Obesity-induced oxidative stress, accelerated functional decline with age and increased mortality in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Fischer, Kathleen E; Soto, Vanessa; Liu, Yuhong; Sosnowska, Danuta; Richardson, Arlan; Salmon, Adam B

    2015-06-15

    Obesity is a serious chronic disease that increases the risk of numerous co-morbidities including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and cancer as well as increases risk of mortality, leading some to suggest this condition represents accelerated aging. Obesity is associated with significant increases in oxidative stress in vivo and, despite the well-explored relationship between oxidative stress and aging, the role this plays in the increased mortality of obese subjects remains an unanswered question. Here, we addressed this by undertaking a comprehensive, longitudinal study of a group of high fat-fed obese mice and assessed both their changes in oxidative stress and in their performance in physiological assays known to decline with aging. In female C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet starting in adulthood, mortality was significantly increased as was oxidative damage in vivo. High fat-feeding significantly accelerated the decline in performance in several assays, including activity, gait, and rotarod. However, we also found that obesity had little effect on other markers of function and actually improved performance in grip strength, a marker of muscular function. Together, this first comprehensive assessment of longitudinal, functional changes in high fat-fed mice suggests that obesity may induce segmental acceleration of some of the aging process. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. LPS from P. gingivalis and Hypoxia Increases Oxidative Stress in Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts and Contributes to Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gölz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is characterized by an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and plays a key role in the progression of inflammatory diseases. We hypothesize that hypoxic and inflammatory events induce oxidative stress in the periodontal ligament (PDL by activating NOX4. Human primary PDL fibroblasts were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis (LPS-PG, a periodontal pathogen bacterium under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. By quantitative PCR, immunoblot, immunostaining, and a specific ROS assay we determined the amount of NOX4, ROS, and several redox systems. Healthy and inflamed periodontal tissues were collected to evaluate NOX4 and redox systems by immunohistochemistry. We found significantly increased NOX4 levels after hypoxic or inflammatory stimulation in PDL cells (P<0.001 which was even more pronounced after combination of the stimuli. This was accompanied by a significant upregulation of ROS and catalase (P<0.001. However, prolonged incubation with both stimuli induced a reduction of catalase indicating a collapse of the protective machinery favoring ROS increase and the progression of inflammatory oral diseases. Analysis of inflamed tissues confirmed our hypothesis. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the interplay of NOX4 and redox systems is crucial for ROS formation which plays a pivotal role during oral diseases.

  5. Acute social stress increases biochemical and self report markers of stress without altering spatial learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopp, Christine; Garcia, Carlos; Schulman, Allan H; Ward, Christopher P; Tartar, Jaime L

    2012-01-01

    Spatial learning is shown to be influenced by acute stress in both human and other animals. However, the intricacies of this relationship are unclear. Based on prior findings we hypothesized that compared to a control condition, a social stress condition would not affect spatial learning performance despite elevated biochemical markers of stress. The present study tested the effects of social stress in human males and females on a subsequent spatial learning task. Social stress induction consisted of evaluative stress (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) compared to a placebo social stress. Compared to the placebo condition, the TSST resulted in significantly elevated cortisol and alpha amylase levels at multiple time points following stress induction. In accord, cognitive appraisal measures also showed that participants in the TSST group experienced greater perceived stress compared to the placebo group. However, there were no group differences in performance on a spatial learning task. Our findings suggest that unlike physiological stress, social stress does not result in alterations in spatial learning in humans. It is possible that moderate social evaluative stress in humans works to prevent acute stress-mediated alterations in hippocampal learning processes..

  6. [The effect of work-related stress on the occurrence of increased blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaj, A; Cybulski, J; Kułakowski, P; Makowska, E; Rezler, J; Lange, J; Gorzkowska, J; Abramowski, S

    In 546 officials the arterial blood pressure was measured twice at the beginning and at the end of a working day, filling also an inquiry form. As hypertension systolic BP over 160 mm Hg (21.3 kPa) or more, and diastolic BP 96 mm Hg (12.7 kPa) or more were accepted. In 90 subjects (16.5%) above normal pressure values were found. Hypertension had been diagnosed previously in 50 subjects in this group (55.5%) but only 13 of them (26%) were treated systematically. Excessive stress of work was complained of by 62.6% of the subjects. Increased blood pressure was found significantly more frequently in the group perceiving excessive stress of work (19.9%) as compared to those not experiencing this stress (10.8%, p less than 0.1). In the group in managerial posts these proportions were 24.8% and 14.4% respectively (p less than 0.1). Blood pressure rise to abnormal levels during the working day occurred also significantly more frequently in the group experiencing it this was noted only in 1.6% of cases (p less than 0.5). The knowledge of own hypertension was very low in this group. These results indicate the necessity of increasing prophylactic measures in the form of greater frequency of control measurements of the blood pressure, better health education, and limitation of stress situations in working environment.

  7. Increased oxidative stress mediates the antitumor effect of PARP inhibition in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hou

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available PARP inhibitors have been widely tested in clinical trials, especially for the treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer, and were shown to be highly successful. Because PARP primarily functions in sensing and repairing DNA strand breaks, the therapeutic effect of PARP inhibition is generally believed to be attributed to impaired DNA repair. We here report that oxidative stress is also increased by PARP inhibition and mediates the antitumor effect. We showed that PARP1 is highly expressed in specimens of high grade serous ovarian carcinoma and its activity is required for unperturbed proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. Inhibition or depletion of PARP leads to not only an increase in DNA damage, but also an elevation in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Importantly, antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC significantly attenuated the induction of DNA damage and the perturbation of proliferation by PARP inhibition or depletion. We further showed that NADPH oxidases 1 and 4 were significantly upregulated by PARP inhibition and were partially responsible for the induction of oxidative stress. Depletion of NOX1 and NOX4 partially rescued the growth inhibition of PARP1-deficient tumor xenografts. Our findings suggest that in addition to compromising the repair of DNA damage, PARP inhibition or depletion may exert extra antitumor effect by elevating oxidative stress in ovarian cancer cells. Keywords: PARP1, Oxidative stress, NADPH oxidases, Ovarian cancer

  8. Increased intracellular proteolysis reduces disease severity in an ER stress-associated dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Lorna A; Mularczyk, Ewa J; Kung, Louise H; Forouhan, Mitra; Wragg, Jordan Ma; Goodacre, Royston; Bateman, John F; Swanton, Eileithyia; Briggs, Michael D; Boot-Handford, Raymond P

    2017-10-02

    The short-limbed dwarfism metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid (MCDS) is linked to mutations in type X collagen, which increase ER stress by inducing misfolding of the mutant protein and subsequently disrupting hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation. Here, we show that carbamazepine (CBZ), an autophagy-stimulating drug that is clinically approved for the treatment of seizures and bipolar disease, reduced the ER stress induced by 4 different MCDS-causing mutant forms of collagen X in human cell culture. Depending on the nature of the mutation, CBZ application stimulated proteolysis of misfolded collagen X by either autophagy or proteasomal degradation, thereby reducing intracellular accumulation of mutant collagen. In MCDS mice expressing the Col10a1.pN617K mutation, CBZ reduced the MCDS-associated expansion of the growth plate hypertrophic zone, attenuated enhanced expression of ER stress markers such as Bip and Atf4, increased bone growth, and reduced skeletal dysplasia. CBZ produced these beneficial effects by reducing the MCDS-associated abnormalities in hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation. Stimulation of intracellular proteolysis using CBZ treatment may therefore be a clinically viable way of treating the ER stress-associated dwarfism MCDS.

  9. Oral sucrose for heel lance increases adenosine triphosphate use and oxidative stress in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmerom, Yayesh; Slater, Laurel; Boskovic, Danilo S; Bahjri, Khaled; Holden, Megan S; Phillips, Raylene; Deming, Douglas; Ashwal, Stephen; Fayard, Elba; Angeles, Danilyn M

    2013-07-01

    To examine the effects of sucrose on pain and biochemical markers of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) degradation and oxidative stress in preterm neonates experiencing a clinically required heel lance. Preterm neonates that met study criteria (n = 131) were randomized into 3 groups: (1) control; (2) heel lance treated with placebo and non-nutritive sucking; and (3) heel lance treated with sucrose and non-nutritive sucking. Plasma markers of ATP degradation (hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid) and oxidative stress (allantoin) were measured before and after the heel lance. Pain was measured with the Premature Infant Pain Profile. Data were analyzed by the use of repeated-measures ANOVA and Spearman rho. We found significant increases in plasma hypoxanthine and uric acid over time in neonates who received sucrose. We also found a significant negative correlation between pain scores and plasma allantoin concentration in a subgroup of neonates who received sucrose. A single dose of oral sucrose, given before heel lance, significantly increased ATP use and oxidative stress in premature neonates. Because neonates are given multiple doses of sucrose per day, randomized trials are needed to examine the effects of repeated sucrose administration on ATP degradation, oxidative stress, and cell injury. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Finnish physicians' stress related to information systems keeps increasing: a longitudinal three-wave survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Hyppönen, Hannele; Vehko, Tuulikki; Kujala, Sari; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Vänskä, Jukka; Elovainio, Marko

    2017-10-17

    Poorly functioning, time-consuming, and inadequate information systems are among the most important work-related psychosocial factors causing stress in physicians. The present study examined the trend in the perceived stress that was related to information systems (SRIS) among Finnish physicians during a nine-year follow-up. In addition, we examined the associations of gender, age, employment sector, specialization status, leadership position, on-call burden, and time pressure with SRIS change and levels. A longitudinal design with three survey data collection waves (2006, 2010 and 2015) based on a random sample of Finnish physicians in 2006 was used. The study sample included 1095 physicians (62.3% women, mean age 54.4 years) who provided data on SRIS in every wave. GLM repeated measures analyses were used to examine the associations between independent variables and the SRIS trend during the years 2006, 2010, and 2015. SRIS increased during the study period. The estimated marginal mean of SRIS in 2006 was 2.80 (95% CI = 2.68-2.92) and the mean increase was 0.46 (95% CI = 0.30-0.61) points from 2006 to 2010 and 0.25 (95% CI = 0.11-0.39) points from 2010 to 2015. Moreover, our results show that the increase was most pronounced in primary care, whereas in hospitals SRIS did not increase between 2010 and 2015. SRIS increased more among those in a leadership position. On-call duties and high time-pressures were associated with higher SRIS levels during all waves. Changing, difficult, and poorly functioning information systems (IS) are a prominent source of stress among Finnish physicians and this perceived stress continues to increase. Organizations should implement arrangements to ease stress stemming from IS especially for those with a high workload and on-call or leadership duties. To decrease IS-related stress, it would be important to study in more detail the main IS factors that contribute to SRIS. Earlier studies indicate that the usability and stability

  11. Impact of Traumatic Events on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Palic, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse...... survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk...... factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute...

  12. The Role of Trauma and Stressful Life Events among Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danessa Mayo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The experience of childhood trauma (CT and stressful life events (SLEs is associated with subsequent development of a variety of mental health conditions, including psychotic illness. Recent research identifying adolescents and young adults at clinical high risk (CHR for psychosis allows for prospective evaluation of the impact of trauma and adverse life events on psychosis onset and other outcomes, addressing etiological questions that cannot be answered in studies of fully psychotic or non-clinical populations. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current emerging literature on trauma and adverse life events in the CHR population. Up to 80% of CHR youth endorse a lifetime history of childhood traumatic events and victimization (e.g., bullying. Several studies have shown that the experience of CT predicts psychosis onset among CHR individuals, while the literature on the influence of recent SLEs (e.g., death of a loved one remains inconclusive. Multiple models have been proposed to explain the link between trauma and psychosis, including the stress-vulnerability and stress-sensitivity hypotheses, with emphases on both cognitive processes and neurobiological mechanisms (e.g., the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Despite the preponderance of CHR individuals who endorse either CT or SLEs, no clinical trials have been conducted evaluating interventions for trauma in CHR youth to date. Furthermore, the current process of formal identification and assessment of trauma, SLEs, and their impact on CHR youth is inconsistent in research and clinical practice. Recommendations for improving trauma assessment, treatment, and future research directions in the CHR field are provided.

  13. Thought control strategies and rumination in youth with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder following single-event trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Shepperd, Alicia; Glucksman, Ed; Dalgleish, Tim; Yule, William; Smith, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Certain thought control strategies for managing the intrusive symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are thought to play a key role in its onset and maintenance. Whereas measures exist for the empirical assessment of such thought control strategies in adults, relatively few studies have explored how children and adolescents manage posttraumatic intrusive phenomena. In a prospective longitudinal study of 10-16-year-olds with PTSD, who were survivors of road traffic collisions and assaults, a variety of thought control strategies were assessed in the acute phase. These included strategies thought to be protective (reappraisal, social support) as well as maladaptive (distraction, punishment, worry). Ruminative responses to the trauma were assessed at the follow-up assessment. Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) at each assessment were associated with the use of punishment and reappraisal, whereas social support and rumination were associated with PTSS symptoms at follow-up. Distraction was unrelated to PTSS at any time point. Rumination accounted for variance in PTSS symptoms at follow-up, even when accounting for baseline PTSS, and was found to mediate the relationships between reappraisal and punishment at baseline and PTSS at the follow-up assessment. The present study found no evidence to support advocating any particular thought control strategy for managing the intrusive symptoms of PTSD in youth in the acute posttrauma phase, and raised concerns over the use of reappraisal coping strategies. The study underscores the importance of ruminative responses in the onset and maintenance of PTSD in trauma-exposed youth.

  14. Recharge heterogeneity and high intensity rainfall events increase contamination risk for Mediterranean groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Jasechko, Scott; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Andreo, Bartolomé; Barberá, Juan Antonio; Brielmann, Heike; Charlier, Jean-Baptiste; Darling, George; Filippini, Maria; Garvelmann, Jakob; Goldscheider, Nico; Kralik, Martin; Kunstmann, Harald; Ladouche, Bernard; Lange, Jens; Mudarra, Matías; Francisco Martín, José; Rimmer, Alon; Sanchez, Damián; Stumpp, Christine; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Karst develops through the dissolution of carbonate rock and results in pronounced spatiotemporal heterogeneity of hydrological processes. Karst groundwater in Europe is a major source of fresh water contributing up to half of the total drinking water supply in some countries like Austria or Slovenia. Previous work showed that karstic recharge processes enhance and alter the sensitivity of recharge to climate variability. The enhanced preferential flow from the surface to the aquifer may be followed by enhanced risk of groundwater contamination. In this study we assess the contamination risk of karst aquifers over Europe and the Mediterranean using simulated transit time distributions. Using a new type of semi-distributed model that considers the spatial heterogeneity of karst hydraulic properties, we were able to simulate karstic groundwater recharge including its heterogeneous spatiotemporal dynamics. The model is driven by gridded daily climate data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Transit time distributions are calculated using virtual tracer experiments. We evaluated our simulations by independent information on transit times derived from observed time series of water isotopes of >70 karst springs over Europe. The simulations indicate that, compared to humid, mountain and desert regions, the Mediterranean region shows a stronger risk of contamination in Europe because preferential flow processes are most pronounced given thin soil layers and the seasonal abundance of high intensity rainfall events in autumn and winter. Our modelling approach includes strong simplifications and its results cannot easily be generalized but it still highlights that the combined effects of variable climate and heterogeneous catchment properties constitute a strong risk on water quality.

  15. Increased anion channel activity is an unavoidable event in ozone-induced programmed cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kadono

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ozone is a major secondary air pollutant often reaching high concentrations in urban areas under strong daylight, high temperature and stagnant high-pressure systems. Ozone in the troposphere is a pollutant that is harmful to the plant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By exposing cells to a strong pulse of ozonized air, an acute cell death was observed in suspension cells of Arabidopsis thaliana used as a model. We demonstrated that O(3 treatment induced the activation of a plasma membrane anion channel that is an early prerequisite of O(3-induced cell death in A. thaliana. Our data further suggest interplay of anion channel activation with well known plant responses to O(3, Ca(2+ influx and NADPH-oxidase generated reactive oxygen species (ROS in mediating the oxidative cell death. This interplay might be fuelled by several mechanisms in addition to the direct ROS generation by O(3; namely, H(2O(2 generation by salicylic and abscisic acids. Anion channel activation was also shown to promote the accumulation of transcripts encoding vacuolar processing enzymes, a family of proteases previously reported to contribute to the disruption of vacuole integrity observed during programmed cell death. SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, our data indicate that anion efflux is an early key component of morphological and biochemical events leading to O(3-induced programmed cell death. Because ion channels and more specifically anion channels assume a crucial position in cells, an understanding about the underlying role(s for ion channels in the signalling pathway leading to programmed cell death is a subject that warrants future investigation.

  16. Academic examination stress increases disordered eating symptomatology in female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costarelli, V; Patsai, A

    2012-09-01

    It is well documented that stress and anxiety can affect eating behaviour and food intake in humans. The purpose of the current study was to explore the possible effect of academic examination stress on disordered eating attitudes, emotional eating, restraint eating, body image, anxiety levels and self-esteem in a group of female university students. The interrelationships of the above parameters were also examined. Sixty Greek female university students, 18-25 years old, have been recruited and completed, on two separate occasions: a) during an examination stress period, and b) during a control period, the following questionnaires: the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale, the Body Image Pictorial Instrument Scale (COLLINS) and a specially designed General Background Questionnaire. Subjects reported significantly higher levels of disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26, p=0.01), higher levels of anxiety (p=0.000) and lower levels of self-esteem (p=0.016) during the examination stress period compared to the control period. Disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26) were significantly positively correlated with emotional eating (p=0.04) and restrained eating (p=0.010) and negatively correlated with levels of self-esteem (p=0.05) and perceived desired body image (p=0.008) during the exam stress period. Finally, EAT-26 was significantly positively correlated with levels of anxiety in both study periods. Academic examination stress seems to increase disordered eating symptomatology in female university students and is associated with lower levels of self-esteem, an important finding which warrants further investigation.

  17. Midlife Work-Related Stress Increases Dementia Risk in Later Life: The CAIDE 30-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindi, Shireen; Hagman, Göran; Håkansson, Krister; Kulmala, Jenni; Nilsen, Charlotta; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Soininen, Hilkka; Solomon, Alina; Kivipelto, Miia

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the associations between midlife work-related stress and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and Alzheimer's disease later in life, in a large representative population. Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study participants were randomly selected from independent population-based surveys (mean age 50 years). A random sample of 2,000 individuals was invited for two reexaminations including cognitive tests (at mean age 71 and mean age 78), and 1,511 subjects participated in at least one reexamination (mean follow-up 28.5 years). Work-related stress was measured using two questions on work demands that were administered in midlife. Analyses adjusted for important confounders. Higher levels of midlife work-related stress were associated with higher risk of MCI (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.76), dementia (OR, 1.53; CI, 1.13-2.07), and Alzheimer's disease (OR, 1.55; CI, 1.19-2.36) at the first follow-up among the CAIDE participants. Results remained significant after adjusting for several possible confounders. Work-related stress was not associated with MCI and dementia during the extended follow-up. Midlife work-related stress increases the risk for MCI, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease in later life. The association was not seen after the extended follow-up possibly reflecting selective survival/participation, heterogeneity in dementia among the oldest old, and a critical time window for the effects of midlife stress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Multiple Traumatic Events and Psychological Distress : The South Africa Stress and Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stacey L.; Williams, David R.; Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, Soraya; Jackson, Pamela B.; Moomal, Hashim

    2007-01-01

    Using nationally representative data from South Africa, we examine lifetime prevalence of traumas and multiple traumas (number of events). Employing multiple regression analysis, we study sociodemographic risk of trauma, and the association between trauma and distress. Results indicate most South Africans experience at least one traumatic event during their lives, with the majority reporting multiple. Consistent variation in risk is evident for gender and marital status but not other sociodem...

  19. Community College Presidents' Perspectives of Dichotomous Events: The Consequences of the Great Recession & Coincidental Increased Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Corey W.

    2013-01-01

    The community college, like all of higher education, has been significantly impacted by the Great Recession and coincidental increased enrollment. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the decision making processes of community college presidents as related to resource allocation and the impact of these decisions on the…

  20. Increasing Resilience to Traumatic Stress: Understanding the Protective Role of Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tory Toole, J; Rice, Mark A; Cargill, Jordan; Craddock, Travis J A; Nierenberg, Barry; Klimas, Nancy G; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Morris, Mariana; Zysman, Joel; Broderick, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    The brain maintains homeostasis in part through a network of feedback and feed-forward mechanisms, where neurochemicals and immune markers act as mediators. Using a previously constructed model of biobehavioral feedback, we found that in addition to healthy equilibrium another stable regulatory program supported chronic depression and anxiety. Exploring mechanisms that might underlie the contributions of subjective well-being to improved therapeutic outcomes in depression, we iteratively screened 288 candidate feedback patterns linking well-being to molecular signaling networks for those that maintained the original homeostatic regimes. Simulating stressful trigger events on each candidate network while maintaining high levels of subjective well-being isolated a specific feedback network where well-being was promoted by dopamine and acetylcholine, and itself promoted norepinephrine while inhibiting cortisol expression. This biobehavioral feedback mechanism was especially effective in reproducing well-being's clinically documented ability to promote resilience and protect against onset of depression and anxiety.

  1. Violent Video Games Don't Increase Hostility in Teens, but They Do Stress Girls Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Trigani, Benjamin; Pilato, Steven; Miller, Stephanie; Foley, Kimberly; Barr, Hayley

    2016-03-01

    The impact of violent video games (VVGs) on youth remains unclear given inconsistent results in past literature. Most previous experimental studies have been done with college students, not youth. The current study examined the impact of VVGs in an experimental study of teens (12-18). Participants were randomized to play either a violent or non-violent video game. Teens also reported their levels of stress and hostility both before and after video game play. Hostility levels neither decreased nor increased following violent game play, and Bayesian analyzes confirmed that results are supportive of the null hypothesis. By contrast, VVG exposure increased stress, but only for girls. The impact of VVGs on teen hostility is minimal. However, players unfamiliar with such games may find them unpleasant. These results are put into the context of Uses and Gratifications Theory with suggestions for how medical professionals should address the issue of VVG play with concerned parents.

  2. Stressful life events and maltreatment in conversion (functional neurological) disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Lea; Pasman, Joëlle A; Nicholson, Timothy; Aybek, Selma; David, Anthony S; Tuck, Sharon; Kanaan, Richard A; Roelofs, Karin; Carson, Alan; Stone, Jon

    2018-04-01

    Stressful life events and maltreatment have traditionally been considered crucial in the development of conversion (functional neurological) disorder, but the evidence underpinning this association is not clear. We aimed to assess the association between stressors and functional neurological disorder. We systematically reviewed controlled studies reporting stressors occurring in childhood or adulthood, such as stressful life events and maltreatment (including sexual, physical abuse, and emotional neglect) and functional neurological disorder. We did a meta-analysis, with assessments of methodology, sources of bias, and sensitivity analyses. 34 case-control studies, with 1405 patients, were eligible. Studies were of moderate-to-low quality. The frequency of childhood and adulthood stressors was increased in cases compared with controls. Odds ratios (OR) were higher for emotional neglect in childhood (49% for cases vs 20% for controls; OR 5·6, 95% CI 2·4-13·1) compared with sexual abuse (24% vs 10%; 3·3, 2·2-4·8) or physical abuse (30% vs 12%; 3·9, 2·2-7·2). An association with stressful life events preceding onset (OR 2·8, 95% CI 1·4-6·0) was stronger in studies with better methods (interviews; 4·3, 1·4-13·2). Heterogeneity was significant between studies (I 2 21·1-90·7%). 13 studies that specifically ascertained that the participants had not had either severe life events or any subtype of maltreatment all found a proportion of patients with functional neurological disorder reporting no stressor. Stressful life events and maltreatment are substantially more common in people with functional neurological disorder than in healthy controls and patient controls. Emotional neglect had a higher risk than traditionally emphasised sexual and physical abuse, but many cases report no stressors. This outcome supports changes to diagnostic criteria in DSM-5; stressors, although relevant to the cause in many patients, are not a core diagnostic feature. This

  3. Does Leisure Time as a Stress Coping Resource Increase Affective Complexity? Applying the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xinyi (Lisa); Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Affective complexity, a manifestation of psychological well-being, refers to the relative independence between positive and negative affect (PA, NA). According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful situations lead to highly inverse PA-NA relationship, reducing affective complexity. Meanwhile, positive events can sustain affective complexity by restoring PA-NA independence. Leisure, a type of positive events, has been identified as a coping resource. This study used the DMA to assess whether leisure time helps restore affective complexity on stressful days. We found that on days with more leisure time than usual, an individual experienced less negative PA-NA relationship after daily stressful events. The finding demonstrates the value of leisure time as a coping resource and the DMA’s contribution to coping research. PMID:24659826

  4. Drought stress release increased growth rate but did not affect levels of storage carbohydrates in Scots pine trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbeck, Leonie; Gessler, Arthur; Rigling, Andreas; Schaub, Marcus; Li, Mai-He

    2017-04-01

    For trees, energy storage in the form of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) plays an important role for survival and growth, especially during stress events such as drought. It is hypothesized, that tree individuals that experience long-term drought stress use up larger amounts of NSCs than trees that do not experience drought. Consequently, such drought-induced depletion might lead to a decrease in tree vigor and carbon starvation, a mechanism that is subject of intensive debates in recent literature. Hence, if carbon starvation is occurring during drought, drought stress release should again increase NSC concentrations. A long-term (13 years) irrigation experiment is being conducted in the Pfyn forest, the largest Pinus sylvestris dominated forest in Switzerland, located in the dry inner-Alpine Swiss Rhone valley (average precipitation 600 mm/year, with frequent dry spells). Water addition ( 600 mm/year) is executed every year during the growing season between April and October. Tree height, stem diameter and crown transparency are being measured since 2003. In February, July and October 2015, roots, stem sapwood and needles were harvested from 30 irrigated and 30 control trees and 5 different crown transparency classes. Shoot length, needle morphology, soluble sugars, starch concentrations, needle δ13C and δ15N were measured. Shoot and stem growth were higher in irrigated trees than in control trees. Growth decreased with increasing crown transparency in both treatments. Only in July, needle starch levels were higher in irrigated trees than in control trees but there was no treatment effect for wood and root starch concentrations. Tissue starch and sugar levels were negatively correlated with crown transparency, particularly in the roots (preduced NSC is related to reduced tree vigor under drought.

  5. Increasing Flood Risk due to Run-off Outflow near Estuarine City during Storm Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, S.; Lee, C.; Do, K.; Jung, T.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical cyclone easily causes inundation damage to low-lying coastal area and the damage may be amplified due to tide motion, sea-level rise, riverine discharges. Specifically, typhoons are accompanied by intensive rainfall, which will of course raise the river water level and thus enhance the flooding damages. If the tidal cycle coincides the high water, flooding will be even aggravated. In the present study, we simulated storm surge motions at the coastal area considering combined effects of tidal and river discharge with aim to improve the accuracy of flooding prediction. The quasi 3-dimension ocean circulation model, Delf3D was used which solves the unsteady shallow water equation in the 2D and 3D. Since Delft3D is much applicable to accommodate the indirect flooding factors such as riverine discharge and short waves, outer-coupled modeling system was established to account for combined tide-surge-riverine discharge effects. In such integrated system, 11 tidal constituents were input as open boundary condition using TPXO 7.2 model, while the water level per unit time was preliminary calculated by HEC-HMS model and input as the upstream boundary conditions for river inside the domain. Typhoon MAEMI which attacked Masan city located at southern coast of South Korea and caused severe inundation damages in 2003 was selected for the study event. Basic information for typhoon such as path, wind speed, atmospheric pressure every 3 hours was provided by the Korea Meteorological Agency and was adopted. The simulation was implemented with tide and storm surge boundary conditions focusing on the target area, Masan, while the additional consideration on the discharge of the river inside the domain was also made. Simulated water level at the fixed location was compared to the observation for its verification and the extent of inundation areas of Masan were compared between observed and calculated. The marginal contribution of riverine discharge on the flooding area

  6. Biosynthesis of vitamin C by yeast leads to increased stress resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Branduardi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In industrial large scale bio-reactions micro-organisms are generally exposed to a variety of environmental stresses, which might be detrimental for growth and productivity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a key role among the common stress factors--directly--through incomplete reduction of O(2 during respiration, or indirectly--caused by other stressing factors. Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid acts as a scavenger of ROS, thereby potentially protecting cells from harmful oxidative products. While most eukaryotes synthesize ascorbic acid, yeast cells produce erythro-ascorbic acid instead. The actual importance of this antioxidant substance for the yeast is still a subject of scientific debate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We set out to enable Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to produce ascorbic acid intracellularly to protect the cells from detrimental effects of environmental stresses. We report for the first time the biosynthesis of L-ascorbic acid from D-glucose by metabolically engineered yeast cells. The amount of L-ascorbic acid produced leads to an improved robustness of the recombinant cells when they are subjected to stress conditions as often met during industrial fermentations. Not only resistance against oxidative agents as H(2O(2 is increased, but also the tolerance to low pH and weak organic acids at low pH is increased. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This platform provides a new tool whose commercial applications may have a substantial impact on bio-industrial production of Vitamin C. Furthermore, we propose S. cerevisiae cells endogenously producing vitamin C as a cellular model to study the genesis/protection of ROS as well as genotoxicity.

  7. Increased levels of thioredoxin in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). A potential link of oxidative stress with AAA evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Pinna, R; Lindholt, Jes S.; Blanco-Colio, L M

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a main mechanism involved in vascular pathologies. Increased thioredoxin (TRX) levels have been observed in several oxidative stress-associated cardiovascular diseases. We aim to test the potential role of TRX as a biomarker of oxidative stress in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)....

  8. Increased oxidative stress in asymptomatic current chronic smokers and GOLD stage 0 COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Rytilä, Paula; Rehn, Tiina; Ilumets, Helen; Rouhos, Annamari; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Kinnula, Vuokko L

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased oxidative and nitrosative stress. The aim of our study was to assess the importance of these factors in the airways of healthy smokers and symptomatic smokers without airway obstruction, i.e. individuals with GOLD stage 0 COPD. Methods Exhaled NO (FENO) and induced sputum samples were collected from 22 current smokers (13 healthy smokers without any respiratory symptoms and 9 with symptoms i.e. stage...

  9. Chronic mild stress increases alcohol intake in mice with low dopamine D2 receptor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Foteini; Thanos, Panayotis K; Rombola, Christina; Rosko, Lauren; Grandy, David; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders emerge from a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Stress and dopamine D2 receptor levels (DRD2) have been shown to play a central role in alcoholism. To better understand the interactions between DRD2 and stress in ethanol intake behavior, we subjected Drd2 wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), and knockout (-/-) mice to 4 weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) and to an ethanol two-bottle choice during CMS weeks 2-4. Prior to and at the end of the experiment, the animals were tested in the forced swim and open field tests. We measured ethanol intake and preference, immobility in the force swim test, and activity in the open field. We show that under no CMS, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had lower ethanol intake and preference compared with Drd2+/+. Exposure to CMS decreased ethanol intake and preference in Drd2+/+ and increased them in Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice. At baseline, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had significantly lower activity in the open field than Drd2+/+, whereas no genotype differences were observed in the forced swim test. Exposure to CMS increased immobility during the forced swim test in Drd2+/- mice, but not in Drd2+/+ or Drd2-/- mice, and ethanol intake reversed this behavior. No changes were observed in open field test measures. These findings suggest that in the presence of a stressful environment, low DRD2 levels are associated with increased ethanol intake and preference and that under this condition, increased ethanol consumption could be used as a strategy to alleviate negative mood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Anindita; Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate > 100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM 10 and PM 2.5 , respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM 10 and PM 2.5 levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD. -- Highlights: ► E