WorldWideScience

Sample records for stressful crowd situations

  1. Simulation of Cognitive Pedestrian Agents Crowds in Crisis Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lyell

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In crisis situations in an urban environment, first responder teams often must deal with crowds of people. Consider the case of a building fire in a dense city environment. People may be injured; walkways may be blocked, with fire equipment attempting to reach the scene. Crowd behavior can become an issue when trying to reach the injured, ensure safety and restore conditions to normal. The motivations of pedestrians that form the crowd can vary. Some are there because they are curious about the crisis situation. Others, attending to their individual concerns, may have found themselves in the 'wrong' location. They may be trying to leave the area, but the density of people as well as the spatial layout of the walkways may be impeding their progress. Other individuals, unaware of the fire, may be attempting to reach their intended destinations that happen to be near the crisis area, thus adding to crowd congestion. With a model of crowd behavior, effective strategies for resource usage in managing crowd behavior can be developed. Our approach to this problem is that of agent-based modeling and simulation. We develop a cognitive pedestrian agent model. Utilizing this model, we simulate crowd behavior in a 'city fire' scenario. Characteristics of crowd behavior with different pedestrian personality mixes and a strategy for crowd management are investigated

  2. Crowd behaviour during high-stress evacuations in an immersive virtual environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Mubbasir; Thrash, Tyler; Sumner, Robert W.; Gross, Markus; Helbing, Dirk; Hölscher, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the collective dynamics of crowd movements during stressful emergency situations is central to reducing the risk of deadly crowd disasters. Yet, their systematic experimental study remains a challenging open problem due to ethical and methodological constraints. In this paper, we demonstrate the viability of shared three-dimensional virtual environments as an experimental platform for conducting crowd experiments with real people. In particular, we show that crowds of real human subjects moving and interacting in an immersive three-dimensional virtual environment exhibit typical patterns of real crowds as observed in real-life crowded situations. These include the manifestation of social conventions and the emergence of self-organized patterns during egress scenarios. High-stress evacuation experiments conducted in this virtual environment reveal movements characterized by mass herding and dangerous overcrowding as they occur in crowd disasters. We describe the behavioural mechanisms at play under such extreme conditions and identify critical zones where overcrowding may occur. Furthermore, we show that herding spontaneously emerges from a density effect without the need to assume an increase of the individual tendency to imitate peers. Our experiments reveal the promise of immersive virtual environments as an ethical, cost-efficient, yet accurate platform for exploring crowd behaviour in high-risk situations with real human subjects. PMID:27605166

  3. Crowd behaviour during high-stress evacuations in an immersive virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Kapadia, Mubbasir; Thrash, Tyler; Sumner, Robert W; Gross, Markus; Helbing, Dirk; Hölscher, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the collective dynamics of crowd movements during stressful emergency situations is central to reducing the risk of deadly crowd disasters. Yet, their systematic experimental study remains a challenging open problem due to ethical and methodological constraints. In this paper, we demonstrate the viability of shared three-dimensional virtual environments as an experimental platform for conducting crowd experiments with real people. In particular, we show that crowds of real human subjects moving and interacting in an immersive three-dimensional virtual environment exhibit typical patterns of real crowds as observed in real-life crowded situations. These include the manifestation of social conventions and the emergence of self-organized patterns during egress scenarios. High-stress evacuation experiments conducted in this virtual environment reveal movements characterized by mass herding and dangerous overcrowding as they occur in crowd disasters. We describe the behavioural mechanisms at play under such extreme conditions and identify critical zones where overcrowding may occur. Furthermore, we show that herding spontaneously emerges from a density effect without the need to assume an increase of the individual tendency to imitate peers. Our experiments reveal the promise of immersive virtual environments as an ethical, cost-efficient, yet accurate platform for exploring crowd behaviour in high-risk situations with real human subjects. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. PetroSim - a system to simulate crowd behaviors in emergency situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musse, Soraia R.; Silva, Andre T. da; Hardt, Katia; Barros, Leandro M.; Tonietto, Leandro [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia da Computacao; Roth, Bruno [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Rolim, Tuerte Amaral; Melo, Ricardo U.M.; Felipe, Luiz A.B. [PETROBRAS, Natal/Fortaleza, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios RN/CE

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a framework to simulate the behaviors of crowds in panic situations. The main motivation for this work is to provide to safety engineers the possibility of simulating several aspects of panic situations involving crowds in real time. To accomplish this, we propose a complete framework to model the semantically informed environment as well as the intelligent virtual agents (IVA), which form the crowd who lives in the simulated virtual city. This work includes the integration of many knowledge areas such as VR, behavioral and visualization aspects required to the development of PetroSim. (author)

  5. Agent Based Modeling and Simulation of Pedestrian Crowds In Panic Situations

    KAUST Repository

    Alrashed, Mohammed

    2016-11-01

    The increasing occurrence of panic stampedes during mass events has motivated studying the impact of panic on crowd dynamics and the simulation of pedestrian flows in panic situations. The lack of understanding of panic stampedes still causes hundreds of fatalities each year, not to mention the scarce methodical studies of panic behavior capable of envisaging such crowd dynamics. Under those circumstances, there are thousands of fatalities and twice that many of injuries every year caused be crowd stampede worldwide, despite the tremendous efforts of crowd control and massive numbers of safekeeping forces. Pedestrian crowd dynamics are generally predictable in high-density crowds where pedestrians cannot move freely and thus gives rise to self-propelling interactions between pedestrians. Although every pedestrian has personal preferences, the motion dynamics can be modeled as a social force in such crowds. These forces are representations of internal preferences and objectives to perform certain actions or movements. The corresponding forces can be controlled for each individual to represent a different variety of behaviors that can be associated with panic situations such as escaping danger, clustering, and pushing. In this thesis, we use an agent-based model of pedestrian behavior in panic situations to predict the collective human behavior in such crowd dynamics. The proposed simulations suggests a practical way to alleviate fatalities and minimize the evacuation time in panic situations. Moreover, we introduce contagious panic and pushing behavior, resulting in a more realistic crowd dynamics model. The proposed methodology describes the intensity and spread of panic for each individual as a function of distances between pedestrians.

  6. About Stressful Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make a new friend — plus catch up in social studies. Get support. Find someone to talk to about your situation. Ask for help or advice. Be with people who believe in you, make you laugh, and help you feel good about yourself. Sometimes just a listening ear helps a lot. It helps you know ...

  7. On current crowd management practices and the need for increased situation awareness, prediction, and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martella, C.; Li, J.; Conrado, C.; Vermeeren, A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent accidents (News, 2006, 2010, 2013, 2015) show that crowded events can quickly turn into tragedies. The goal of crowd management is to avoid such accidents through careful planning and implementation. Crowd management practices are collaborative efforts between the different actors of the

  8. Agent Based Modeling and Simulation of Pedestrian Crowds In Panic Situations

    KAUST Repository

    Alrashed, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    to self-propelling interactions between pedestrians. Although every pedestrian has personal preferences, the motion dynamics can be modeled as a social force in such crowds. These forces are representations of internal preferences and objectives to perform

  9. A comparative evaluation of crowding stress on muscle HSP90 and myostatin expression in salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galt, Nicholas J.; Froehlich, Jacob Michael; McCormick, Stephen; Biga, Peggy R.

    2018-01-01

    Stress is a major factor that contributes to poor production and animal welfare concerns in aquaculture. As such, a thorough understanding of mechanisms involved in the stress response is imperative to developing strategies to mitigate the negative side effects of stressors, including the impact of high stocking densities on growth. The purpose of this study was to determine how the muscle growth inhibitor, myostatin, and the stress-responsive gene HSP90 are regulated in response to crowding stress in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). All species exhibited higher cortisol and glucose levels following the handling stress, indicating physiological response to the treatment. Additionally, all species, except rainbow trout, exhibited higher HSP90 levels in muscle after a 48 h crowding stress. Crowding stress resulted in a decrease of myostatin-1ain brook trout white muscle but not red muscle, while, myostatin-1a and -2a levels increased in white muscle and myostatin-1b levels increased in red muscle in Atlantic salmon. In rainbow trout, no significant changes were detected in either muscle type, but myostatin-1awas upregulated in both white and red skeletal muscle in the closely related cutthroat trout. The variation in response to crowding suggests a complex and species-specific interaction between stress and the muscle gene regulation in these salmonids. Only Atlantic salmon and cutthroat trout exhibited increased muscle myostatin transcription, and also exhibited the largest increase in circulating glucose in response to crowding. These results suggest that species-specific farming practices should be carefully examined in order to optimize low stress culture conditions.

  10. Crowd Theory and the Management of Crowds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2013-01-01

    a turn towards rational approaches difficult, and, on the other hand, that the rational approaches in their ignorance of collective emotional arousal present an inadequate picture of crowds and consequently have limited scope as guidelines for crowd management strategies....... suggest, rational conceptions of crowds should inform contemporary crowd management. This article questions this plea on two grounds. First, it demonstrates that there is no unidirectional connection between sociological crowd theory (whatever its content) and practical strategies for governing crowds...... that, in spite of its current scholarly popularity, there is no guarantee that the call for a practical employment of the rational notion of crowds will necessarily be successful. This is demonstrated by stressing, on the one hand, that irrational notions of crowds continue to thrive, thereby rendering...

  11. STRESSFUL SITUATIONS IN TEACHING PROFESSION – CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Romanowska-Tołłoczko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose . Determination which areas of teacher’s work are primary sources of stress, denomination of the extent to which disciplinary problems with students were stress inducing, and what was the frequency and intensity of these situations. Material and methods. The study involved 180 teachers from junior high schools, among which two groups were selected: physical education teachers (74 persons and teachers of other subjects (106 persons. The reason for this division was the necessity of identifying the groups of teachers differing in specifics of school subjects, studies which they graduated from, and determine the typical areas of difficulty experienced. The research was based on a diagnostic survey and a questionnaire. Results . Teaching profession is considered as psychologically challenging occupation due to numerous occurrences of stressful situations. Yet it is not equally aggravating for everyone – there are well-functioning teachers who cope easily, but on the other hand, there are cases of serious psychosomatic consequences caused by frequent and prolonged pressures. Abilities of dealing with difficult situations largely depend upon one’s individual predispositions, resistance to stress, way of assessing a situation and resulting type of action. Conclusions . The ability (or lack of it of coping with range of educational activities may determine the intensity of experienced difficulties, and therefore the frequency of occurring stressful situations. Lack of skills in the area of interpersonal relations translates to inability to coping with problematic situations with pupils. This leads the teacher to awareness of own inefficiency and helplessness, which increases the intensity of experienced stress.

  12. Inventory of stress situations in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Jean, T.

    1986-04-01

    Anxious to pursue an in-depth analysis of stress phenomena in nuclear power plants in order to offer utilities appropriate solutions, Electricite de France and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique have jointly asked the Laboratoire de Psychologie du Travail to prepare an inventory of stress situations in nuclear electricity-generating centers. This document describes the approach used, the main concepts which have served as guidelines, and the methods of interpreting the results obtained through observations and questionnaires

  13. Hardiness and the response to stressful situations: Investigating mediating processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaij, R.; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Dam, K. van

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated mediating processes that explain how hardiness influences the way people respond to a stressful situation. Coping style and coping self-efficacy were investigated as mediating variables. Using a longitudinal design, hardiness, coping style and coping self-efficacy, and

  14. Effects of Ala-Gln feeding strategies on growth, metabolism, and crowding stress resistance of juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Mei; Guo, Gui-Liang; Sun, Li; Yang, Qiu-Shi; Wang, Gui-Qin; Qin, Gui-Xin; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different L-alanyl-l-glutamine (Ala-Gln) feeding strategies on the growth performance, metabolism and crowding stress resistance related parameters in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) under crowded condition (80 g/L). Juvenile Jian carp (initial weight 26.1 ± 0.6 g) were distributed into five groups which fed with graded concentrations (0% or 1.0%) of Ala-Gln for eight weeks. Control group (I, 0/0) fed with control diet (0% Ala-Gln) throughout the feeding trial. The other four groups employed different control and experimental diet feeding strategies ranging from two weeks control diet fed and two weeks experimental diet (1% Ala-Gln) fed (II, 0/2) to eight weeks experimental diet fed (V, 4/4). Results revealed that Mean weight gain (MEG) under all different feeding strategies of Ala-Gln were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05), and MEG of group II (201.90%) was even higher than that of group IV (184.70%). Liver glycogen and blood total protein of groups II, III and V were significantly higher than that in groups I and IV (p < 0.05). The highest level of serum thyroxine (10.07 ng/ml), insulin-like growth factor-I (52.40 ng/ml) and insulin (9.73 μ IU/mL) were observed in group V. However, diet supplemented with Ala-Gln did not affect the levels of serum glucose, cortisol and catecholamine in fish. The mRNA expression of GR1a, GR1b and GR2 were also significantly changed in Ala-Gln supplementation groups compared with control group (p < 0.05). After fish intraperitoneally injected with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila, the fish survival rates were significantly increased in all Ala-Gln supplementation groups compared with control group (p < 0.05). Results from the present experiment showed the importance of dietary supplementation of Ala-Gln in benefaction of the growth performance, metabolism and crowding stress resistance in Jian carp breeding. The

  15. Optimal crowd evacuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Daamen, W.; Duives, D.C.; Van Wageningen-Kessels, F.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimal allocation of routes, destination, and departure times to members of a crowd, for instance in case of an evacuation or another hazardous situation in which the people need to leave the area as quickly as possible. The generic approach minimizes the evacuation times,

  16. Crowdedness Mediates the Effect of Social Identification on Positive Emotion in a Crowd: A Survey of Two Crowd Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, David; Drury, John; Reicher, Stephen; Stott, Clifford

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to crowding is said to be aversive, yet people also seek out and enjoy crowded situations. We surveyed participants at two crowd events to test the prediction of self-categorization theory that variable emotional responses to crowding are a function of social identification with the crowd. In data collected from participants who attended a crowded outdoor music event (n = 48), identification with the crowd predicted feeling less crowded; and there was an indirect effect of identification with the crowd on positive emotion through feeling less crowded. Identification with the crowd also moderated the relation between feeling less crowded and positive emotion. In data collected at a demonstration march (n = 112), identification with the crowd predicted central (most dense) location in the crowd; and there was an indirect effect of identification with the crowd on positive emotion through central location in the crowd. Positive emotion in the crowd also increased over the duration of the crowd event. These findings are in line with the predictions of self-categorization theory. They are inconsistent with approaches that suggest that crowding is inherently aversive; and they cannot easily be explained through the concept of ‘personal space’. PMID:24236079

  17. Crowdedness mediates the effect of social identification on positive emotion in a crowd: a survey of two crowd events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Novelli

    Full Text Available Exposure to crowding is said to be aversive, yet people also seek out and enjoy crowded situations. We surveyed participants at two crowd events to test the prediction of self-categorization theory that variable emotional responses to crowding are a function of social identification with the crowd. In data collected from participants who attended a crowded outdoor music event (n = 48, identification with the crowd predicted feeling less crowded; and there was an indirect effect of identification with the crowd on positive emotion through feeling less crowded. Identification with the crowd also moderated the relation between feeling less crowded and positive emotion. In data collected at a demonstration march (n = 112, identification with the crowd predicted central (most dense location in the crowd; and there was an indirect effect of identification with the crowd on positive emotion through central location in the crowd. Positive emotion in the crowd also increased over the duration of the crowd event. These findings are in line with the predictions of self-categorization theory. They are inconsistent with approaches that suggest that crowding is inherently aversive; and they cannot easily be explained through the concept of 'personal space'.

  18. Crowd Sourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has contributed new words and slang to our daily vernacular. A few terms, such as tweeting, texting, sexting, blogging, and googling, have become common in most vocabularies and in many languages, and are now included in the dictionary. A new buzzword making the rounds in industry is crowd sourcing, which involves outsourcing an activity, task, or problem by sending it to people or groups outside a business or a practice. Crowd sourcing allows doctors and practices to tap the wisdom of many instead of relying only on the few members of their close-knit group. This article defines "crowd sourcing," offers examples, and explains how to get started with this approach that can increase your ability to finish a task or solve problems that you don't have the time or expertise to accomplish.

  19. Changes in Stress Perception and Coping during Adolescence: The Role of Situational and Personal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the interplay between developmental changes in stress and coping during early and late adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, stress perception and coping styles of 200 adolescents in 7 different stressful situations were investigated. Multilevel piecewise latent growth curve models showed that stress perception…

  20. New insights into turbulent pedestrian movement pattern in crowd-quakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J; Song, W G; Lo, S M; Fang, Z M

    2013-01-01

    Video recordings right before the Love Parade disaster have been quantitatively analyzed to explore the bursts of unusual crowd movement patterns, crowd-quakes. The pedestrian movement pattern in this incident was special for the reason that it happened in a congested counter flow scenario, where stopped pedestrians were involved. No one was believed to have pushed others intentionally at the beginning, however, under this situation, the body contacts among the pedestrians still induced a force spread, which then led to velocity fluctuation. As indicated by the individual velocity-related features, the densely crowded pedestrian movement displayed turbulent flow features. Further analyzing the overall flow field, we also found that the pedestrian flow field shared typical patterns with turbulent fluid flow. As a result of the turbulent state, different clusters of pedestrians displayed different velocity features. Thus crowd pressure which took into account the velocity and density information was proved to be a good indicator of crowd disasters. Based on these essential features of pedestrian crowd-quakes, a minimal model, i.e., a pedestrian crowd-quake model, was established. Effects including pedestrian gait, stress conservation level and personal intention to escape were explored. (paper)

  1. Stress leads to prosocial action in immediate need situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony W. Buchanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress clearly influences decision making, but the effects are complex. This review focuses on the potential for stress to promote prosocial decisions, serving others at a temporary cost to the self. Recent work has shown altruistic responses under stress, particularly when the target’s need is salient. We discuss potential mechanisms for these effects, including emotional contagion and offspring care mechanisms. These neurobiological mechanisms may promote prosocial—even heroic—action, particularly when an observer knows the appropriate response and can respond to a target in need. The effects of stress on behavior are not only negative, they can be adaptive and altruistic under conditions that promote survival and well-being at the individual and group level.

  2. Dream Content and Adaptation to a Stressful Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koninck, Joseph M.; Koulack, David

    1975-01-01

    The present study considered whether it is better to dream about a stressful presleep experience and have anxious dreams, or is it better to dream about something else and have pleasant dreams. (Author/RK)

  3. Wearable physiological sensors reflect mental stress state in office-like situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.L.P; Grundlehner, Bernard; Liu, Hao; Penders, Julien; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Timely mental stress detection can help to prevent stress-related health problems. The aim of this study was to identify those physiological signals and features suitable for detecting mental stress in office-like situations. Electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration, skin conductance and surface

  4. [Occupational stress situation analysis of different types of train drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenhui; Gu, Guizhen; Wu, Hui; Yu, Shanfa

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the status of occupational stress in different types of train drivers. By using cluster sampling method, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 339 train drivers (including 289 passenger train drivers, 637 freight trains drivers, 339 passenger shunting train drivers, and 74 high speed rail drivers) from a Railway Bureau depot. The survey included individual factors, occupational stress factors, stress response factors and stress mitigating factors. The occupational stress factors, stress response factors and mitigating factors were measured by the revised effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaires and occupational stress measurement scale. By using the method of covariance analysized the difference of occupational stress factors of all types train drivers, the method of Stepwise regression was used to analyze the effection (R(2)) of occupational stress factors and stress mitigating factors on stress response factors. Covariance analysis as covariates in age, education level, length of service and marital status showed that the scores of ERI (1.58 ± 0.05), extrinsic effort (19.88 ± 0.44), rewards (23.43 ± 0.43), intrinsic effort (17.86 ± 0.36), physical environment (5.70 ± 0.22), social support (30.51 ± 0.88) and daily tension (10.27 ± 0.38 ) of high speed rail drivers were higher than other drivers (F values were 6.06, 11.32, 7.05, 13.25, 5.20, 9.48 and 6.14 respectively, P occupational stress factors and mitigating factors to depressive symptoms of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.64), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0.44), passenger shunting train drivers (R(2) = 0.39), freight trains drivers (R(2) = 0.38); job satisfaction of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.68), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0.62), freight trains drivers (R(2) = 0.43), passenger shunting train drivers(R(2) = 0.38); to daily tension of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.54), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0

  5. Burnout Syndrome and Demotivation Among Health Care Personnel. Managing Stressful Situations: The Importance of Teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Campayo, J; Puebla-Guedea, M; Herrera-Mercadal, P; Daudén, E

    2016-06-01

    Almost one-third of our lives is spent in the workplace, where much of our interaction with others takes place and where we are exposed to stressful situations. Work-related stress has consequences for the individual's physical and mental health. Stress and professional burnout syndrome are the main consequences of work situations characterized by a constant state of tension. Stress is the second leading cause of absenteeism in the European Union, and around 12% of European workers are currently affected by burnout syndrome. It is therefore vital to identify demotivated and stressed staff in both large organizations (hospitals and clinics) and smaller centers (private practices) so as to facilitate preventive measures and ensure early intervention in situations of stress, with a view to improving the performance of work teams. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Designing for crowd well-being : Current designs, strategies and future design suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; de Ridder, H.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Conrado, C.; Martella, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of crowd well-being and the needs for sustaining it. Crowd well-being can be interpreted as crowd members’ evaluations on their emotional reactions, moods and judgments they form about their satisfactions, goals or needs fulfillment in a crowded situation according

  7. Preference for Social Support by Indian Street Children and Adolescents in Stressful Life Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anubha; Verma, Suman

    This study had three aims: (1) to identify stressful situations faced by Indian children and adolescents working on the streets; (2) to study their preference for social support when faced with stress; and (3) to identify gender differences in social support preferences. One hundred 8- to 18-year-olds, working as beggars, vendors, or ragpickers,…

  8. Cue-responding in a simulated bad news situation: exploring a stress hypothesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valck, C. de; Bruynooghe, R.; Bensing, J.; Kerssens, J.J.; Hulsman, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    The stress-coping paradigm of Folkman and Lazarus (1984) was applied to investigate if the communicative reactions of the physician in a bad news transaction are related to the stressfulness of the situation. A standardized video bad news consultation was presented to 88 medical students. To examine

  9. Cue-responding in a Simulated Bad News Situation: Exploring a Stress Hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valck, C.; Bruynooghe, R.; Bensing, J. M.; Kerssens, J. J.; Hulsman, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    The stress-coping paradigm of Folkman and Lazarus (1984) was applied to investigate if the communicative reactions of the physician in a bad news transaction are related to the stressfulness of the situation. A standardized video bad news consultation was presented to 88 medical students. To examine

  10. Microorganisms maintain crowding homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Jonas; Boersma, Arnold J; Poolman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Macromolecular crowding affects the mobility of biomolecules, protein folding and stability, and the association of macromolecules with each other. Local differences in crowding that arise as a result of subcellular components and supramolecular assemblies contribute to the structural organization

  11. Interrelationships between trait anxiety, situational stress and mental effort predict phonological processing efficiency, but not effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Mark S; Lyvers, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) describes the mechanisms associated with the relationship between anxiety and cognitive performance. We investigated the relationship between cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress and mental effort on phonological performance using a simple (forward-) and complex (backward-) word span task. Ninety undergraduate students participated in the study. Predictor variables were cognitive trait anxiety, indexed using questionnaire scores; situational stress, manipulated using ego threat instructions; and perceived level of mental effort, measured using a visual analogue scale. Criterion variables (a) performance effectiveness (accuracy) and (b) processing efficiency (accuracy divided by response time) were analyzed in separate multiple moderated-regression analyses. The results revealed (a) no relationship between the predictors and performance effectiveness, and (b) a significant 3-way interaction on processing efficiency for both the simple and complex tasks, such that at higher effort, trait anxiety and situational stress did not predict processing efficiency, whereas at lower effort, higher trait anxiety was associated with lower efficiency at high situational stress, but not at low situational stress. Our results were in full support of the assumptions of ACT and implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Coping strategies, stress and risk perception in a natural and industrial catastrophe risk situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vasquez, E.

    1998-01-01

    People are exposed to different environmental risks, their manifestations harm people according to the magnitude, intensity and the number of people concerned. This subject is very ample, therefore we consider only two kinds of risks: the natural risks (especially earthquakes) that have always threatened humanity, and the industrial risks that characterise our modern society. We are interested in risk perception, stress and coping strategies in these two kinds of extreme situations. We concentrate our study on two Mexican events: an industrial explosion accident in 1984 and 1985 (big earthquake, both devastated big urban zones. The consequences were enormous at all levels: personal, psychological, social, political and economical. Facing risk situations people can have stress reactions when a sign of danger appears. According to Jean RIVOLIER (1994), these situations must not be confounded with banal events of everyday life. Stress in those cases is not the stress we confront everyday, so people have to apply other strategies to face she stress and the incidents of the kind of extreme situations. To tackle our subject we are going to review some concepts used in our study: stress, coping strategies and risk perception. (author)

  13. Acute stress in residents during emergency care: a study of personal and situational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Roger Daglius; Scalabrini Neto, Augusto

    2017-05-01

    Providing care for simulated emergency patients may induce considerable acute stress in physicians. However, the acute stress provoked in a real-life emergency room (ER) is not well known. Our aim was to assess acute stress responses in residents during real emergency care and investigate the related personal and situational factors. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out at an emergency department of a tertiary teaching hospital. All second-year internal medicine residents were invited to voluntarily participate in this study. Acute stress markers were assessed at baseline (T1), before residents started their ER shift, and immediately after an emergency situation (T2), using heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure, salivary α-amylase activity, salivary interleukin-1 β, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s and STAI-t). Twenty-four residents were assessed during 40 emergency situations. All stress markers presented a statistically significant increase between T1 and T2. IL-1 β presented the highest percent increase (141.0%, p stress in residents. Resident experience, trait anxiety, and number of emergency procedures were independently associated with acute stress response.

  14. Potentially stressful situations for nurses considering the condition of accreditation of hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Higashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional study that aimed to evaluate and compare the frequency of perceived/self-reported stress by nurses in hospitals with and without accreditation. One conducted in an accredited and two non-accredited hospitals in São Paulo in 2010 and 2011. Data collection included a questionnaire and the Stress Inventory for Nurses, with 262 participants, who evaluated stressful situations in the categories: Intrinsic Factors of Work, Interpersonal Relationships at Work and Stressful Roles in Career. The differences among hospitals concerning nurses’ perception/self-declaration about potentially stressful factors were evaluated by the chi-square test, considering p <0.05 the critical level. Working in an accredited hospital protected against perception/self-declaration of stress caused by stressful factors in the categories: Intrinsic Factors of Work and Stressful Roles in their Career, being a risk factor related to the category Relationships at Work. One concludes that nurses from the accredited hospital perceived/self-reported more stressful factors in situations related to interpersonal relationships.

  15. Change of digesta passage rate in dairy cows after different acute stress situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bertoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Six dairy cows received 3 treatments after morning meal, in a double Latin square design. Treatments were ACTH challenge (SYN, hoof trimming (TRIM and saline (CTR. Measurements included: plasma cortisol and metabolic profile during the 24 h after treatments; the rate of digesta passage, faecal dry matter and pH. Both acute stress situations vs CTR caused a rapid and similar rise in plasma cortisol (P<0.001, while plasma glucose increased only in response to TRIM. Plasma concentrations of urea and BHB were increased for several hours after both stress situations. Most importantly, the transit time of digesta was reduced with SYN and TRIM (P<0.05. Our data demonstrate a reduced forestomach motility during acute stress and confirm a possible negative linkage between stress and gut functions, perhaps independent of diet composition. The mechanism seems linked to increased ACTH or cortisol rather than corticotrophin-releasing factor.

  16. STRESSFUL SITUATIONS IN THE WORK OF A MULTIPROFILE PEDIATRIC MEDICAL FACILITY'S CALL CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Spivak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stressful situations in the work of a pediatric medical facility's call center are associated with patients' violation of social communication norms and aggressive behavior, as well as the operator's professional/maternal conflict. The following psychological resources facilitate better stress resistance of operators: self-confidence, mature and rational attitude, personal activity, inner satisfaction, optimism, emotional breadth and emotional colleague support. 

  17. Stress Responses and Decision Making in Child Protection Workers Faced with High Conflict Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Vicki R.; Regehr, Cheryl; Shlonsky, Aron; Bogo, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The assessment of children at risk of abuse and neglect is a critical societal function performed by child protection workers in situations of acute stress and conflict. Despite efforts to improve the reliability of risk assessments through standardized measures, available tools continue to rely on subjective judgment. The goal of…

  18. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri

    2014-09-02

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.

  19. An audio-visual dataset of human-human interactions in stressful situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefter, I.; Burghouts, G.J.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Stressful situations are likely to occur at human operated service desks, as well as at human-computer interfaces used in public domain. Automatic surveillance can help notifying when extra assistance is needed. Human communication is inherently multimodal e.g. speech, gestures, facial expressions.

  20. Effects of l-tryptophan on the growth, intestinal enzyme activities and non-specific immune response of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) exposed to crowding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Endong; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng

    2018-04-01

    In order to reveal the effects of l-tryptophan (Trp) on the physiology and immune response of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) exposed to crowding stress, four density groups of sea cucumbers (i.e. 4, 8, 16 and 32 individuals per 40 L water, represented as L, ML, MH and H) were fed with diets containing 0, 1, 3 and 5% l-tryptophan respectively for 75 days. The results showed that the specific growth rates (SGR) of the sea cucumber fed with diet with 3% Trp (L, 2.1; ML, 1.76; MH, 1.2; H, 0.7) were significantly higher than those fed with basal diet without Trp supplementation (P sea cucumber fed diets with Trp (3%) had significantly higher phagocytic activities (0.28 OD540/10 6  cells, H) in coelomic fluid and respiratory burst activities (0.105 OD630/10 6  cells, MH) (P < .05). The results suggested that Trp cannot improve superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity at L, ML and MH densities. The alkaline phosphatase activity (AKP) significantly decreased at H stress density. Under the experimental conditions, the present results confirmed that a diet supplemented with 3% Trp was able to enhance intestinal enzyme activities, non-specific immune response and higher growth performance of A. japonicus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Handling and Crowding on the Stress Response and Viability of Chinook Salmon Parr and Smolts, 1984 Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congleton, James L.

    1985-02-01

    Transportation of migrating chinook salmon smolts from Snake River dams to the Columbia River estuary has not reversed a downward trend in Idaho stocks of this species that first became apparent in the late 1960s. Poor survival of transported smolts may be a consequence of physiological responses to stressful events during collection and transportation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the intensity of stress responses in transported smolts, to determine if stress responses decrease the viability of transported smolts, and to investigate ways of avoiding or mitigating stressful events during transportation. 34 refs., 58 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Coping styles adopted in stressful situations by self-harming adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jabłkowska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The state of stress and styles of coping with stress constitute an important component of life of every human being, particularly during adolescence. Effective coping mechanisms enable reduction of severity of stress experienced, while inability to manage stressful situations results in alterations in emotional and physiological domains, disturbances of mental well-being, somatic health and social functioning. Since a few years, we are witnessing a significant aggravation of the phenomenon of auto-aggression among children and adolescents, particularly in populations already undergoing psychiatric treatment. Such behaviours fulfil several functions: they may represent a way to express emotions, a means of adaptation or a style of coping with difficulties encountered in everyday life and emotional tension associated therewith. The aim of this study was to analyse predominating styles of coping with stressful situations, adopted by adolescen patients performing self-harm. The study population encompassed 35 patients, aged 16.60±0.18 years, there of 27 girls and 8 boys, hospitalised at the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry of the Medical University in Łódź, who had a history of deliberate self-harm (DSH. Control group included 32 healthy volunteers aged 16.91±0.16 years, thereof 23 girls and 9 boys. In view of the size of study population, it was subdivided into subgroups depending on whether episodes of DSH were sporadic or repetitive. Data were collected using the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS. This questionnaire was designed specifically to explore styles of coping with stress. Self-harming adolescents, both girls and boys, significantly more often adopted emotion-oriented style. Patients with repetitive DSH (over 4 episodes significantly more often adopted emotion-oriented style and/or avoidance-oriented style, particularly in the form of seeking social contacts – social diversion, as compared with those committing

  3. Designing for crowd well-being : Needs and design suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; De Ridder, H.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Conrado, C.; Martella, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the needs or criteria for sustaining well-being in crowded situations through two focus group discussions with a total of ten participants. We conclude that pursuing crowd well-being could be divided into two different cases: one is obtaining the enhancement of the current

  4. Quantitative Comparison Between Crowd Models for Evacuation Planning and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viswanathan, V.; Lee, C.E.; Lees, M.H.; Cheong, S.A.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Crowd simulation is rapidly becoming a standard tool for evacuation planning and evaluation. However, the many crowd models in the literature are structurally different, and few have been rigorously calibrated against real-world egress data, especially in emergency situations. In this paper we

  5. Use of structured personality survey techniques to indicate operator response to stressful situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Under given circumstances, a person will tend to operate in one of four dominant orientations: (1) to perform tasks; (2) to achieve consensus; (3) to achieve understanding, or (4) to maintain structure. Historically, personality survey techniques, such as the Myers-Briggs type indicator, have been used to determine these tendencies. While these techniques can accurately reflect a person's orientation under normal social situations, under different sets of conditions, the same person may exhibit other tendencies, displaying a similar or entirely different orientation. While most do not exhibit extreme tendencies or changes of orientation, the shift in personality from normal to stressful conditions can be rather dramatic, depending on the individual. Structured personality survey techniques have been used to indicate operator response to stressful situations. These techniques have been extended to indicate the balance between orientations that the control room team has through the various levels of cognizance

  6. Family-Related Opinions and Stressful Situations Associated with Psychological Distress in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Takaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540 at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%. The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6. The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05 and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.

  7. Crowding and Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Design and Environment, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Three-part report pinpointing problems and uncovering solutions for the dual concepts of density (ratio of people to space) and crowding (psychological response to density). Section one, A Primer on Crowding,'' reviews new psychological and social findings; section two, Density in the Suburbs,'' shows conflict between status quo and increased…

  8. Crowding as appropriation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to address the relation between crowds andpublic space as a question of appropriation. With the newliberal constitutions in Europe, several phenomena of crowdingemerge in major cities, of which Copenhagen is taken as anexample. By focusing on the crowd as an agglomeration...... ofbodies, it is assessed how the agency of the crowd works on animmediate level and in its more lasting effects on urban space.The notion of appropriation is related to the crowd’s claim,formal and informal, as resulting from a negotiation of this,mostly public, space, and articulated in empirical cases...

  9. Dense Crowds of Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stüvel, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel crowd simulation method `Torso Crowds', aimed at the simulation of dense crowds. The method is based on the results of user studies and a motion capture experiment, which are also described in this thesis. Torso Crowds introduces a capsule shape to represent people in

  10. APPROACHES AND METHODS FOR OVERCOMING OF POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS IN CONNECTION WITH DISASTER SITUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Todorova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The disaster situations have become more and more frequent for the last decade, and they have intensified the manifestation of fragmentation of the modern society, bringing about a sense of helplessness. In those conditions, the art therapeutic groups provide a sense of connection with the other people and interpersonal support. The aim of the current study is an examination of the way, by which the brain and body react to events causing an acute stress reaction. Assessment of art therapy applicability and helpfulness is done in connection with disaster situations, and comparative analysis of the main approaches and methods, used in practice of work with people who had suffered traumatic events. The results of the study show that the new type of art therapists may disclose an emotional problem, related to trauma sustained, that the client cannot cope with on his/her own. The focus - in connection with the choice of method - is concentrated on the therapeutic needs of the person. In terms of the particular individual, the different methods of art therapy create a medium for the achievement of alleviation from insurmountable emotions or traumas. In social terms, the latter methods help to be achieved an increase of the sense for social adaptation of people from all ages, and of whole families. In conclusion, it may be stated, that the use of different forms of support after disaster situations, has major significance for recovery and maintenance of the physical, emotional, and mental health of the population.

  11. Crowds and Speculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondo Hansen, Kristian

    and crowd phenomena in order to fully understand how markets were perceived and conceptualised in the given historical period. Inspired by Michel Foucault’s reflections on the analysis of problematisations, the dissertation explores how practical, academic and popular accounts of financial markets...... problematised (i.e. reflected upon, contested and responded to) various crowd phenomena as they occurred in the markets. As part of the historical exposition, the dissertation examines how financial writers employed tropes and terminology from late nineteenth century crowd theories when describing and seeking....... Drawing on an archive of handbooks on how to become a successful investor or speculator, scholarly work on financial markets (from the academic fields of economics, sociology and psychology) as well as a range of popular (fictional and non-fictional) textual accounts of trading in financial markets...

  12. Engineering Requirements for crowds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogeiro Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the software project the interested parts are highly distributed and form numerous and heterogeneous groups, online or face, constituting what could be called crowds. The development of social applications and cloud computing and mobile has generated a marked increase in environments based requirements in crowds. Technical Requirements Engineering (RE traditional face these scalability issues, and require the co-presence of interested and engineers in joint meetings that can not be made in common physical environments. While different approaches have been introduced to partially automate RE in these contexts, still is required a multi-method approach to semi-automate all activities related to work with crowds. In this paper is propose an approach that integrates existing elicitation techniques and requirements analysis and is complemented by introducing new concepts. The information is collected through direct interaction and social collaboration, and through data mining techniques.

  13. Firms, crowds, and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felin, Teppo; Lakhani, Karim R; Tushman, Michael L

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a (preliminary) taxonomy and research agenda for the topic of "firms, crowds, and innovation" and to provide an introduction to the associated special issue. We specifically discuss how various crowd-related phenomena and practices-for example, crowdsourcing, crowdfunding, user innovation, and peer production-relate to theories of the firm, with particular attention on "sociality" in firms and markets. We first briefly review extant theories of the firm and then discuss three theoretical aspects of sociality related to crowds in the context of strategy, organizations, and innovation: (1) the functions of sociality (sociality as extension of rationality, sociality as sensing and signaling, sociality as matching and identity), (2) the forms of sociality (independent/aggregate and interacting/emergent forms of sociality), and (3) the failures of sociality (misattribution and misapplication). We conclude with an outline of future research directions and introduce the special issue papers and essays.

  14. The Subject in the Crowd: A Critical Discussion of Jodi Dean’s “Crowds and Party”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Johanssen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical discussion of Jodi Dean’s (2016 book “Crowds and Party”. I pay particular attention to her discussion of crowds that is influenced by psychoanalysis. Dean has put forward an important argument for the affectivity within crowds that may be transformed into a Communist Party that is characterised by a similar affective infrastructure. I suggest that Dean’s discussion of affect is slightly vague at times and may be supplemented with Sigmund Freud’s work on affect. In contrast to Dean, who stresses the collectivity and deindividuation of the crowd, I argue that the crowd needs to be thought of as a place where individuality and collectivity come together and remain in tension.

  15. Using the crowd as an innovation partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Kevin J; Lakhani, Karim R

    2013-04-01

    From Apple to Merck to Wikipedia, more and more organizations are turning to crowds for help in solving their most vexing innovation and research questions, but managers remain understandably cautious. It seems risky and even unnatural to push problems out to vast groups of strangers distributed around the world, particularly for companies built on a history of internal innovation. How can intellectual property be protected? How can a crowd-sourced solution be integrated into corporate operations? What about the costs? These concerns are all reasonable, the authors write, but excluding crowdsourcing from the corporate innovation tool kit means losing an opportunity. After a decade of study, they have identified when crowds tend to outperform internal organizations (or not). They outline four ways to tap into crowd-powered problem solving--contests, collaborative communities, complementors, and labor markets--and offer a system for picking the best one in a given situation. Contests, for example, are suited to highly challenging technical, analytical, and scientific problems; design problems; and creative or aesthetic projects. They are akin to running a series of independent experiments that generate multiple solutions--and if those solutions cluster at some extreme, a company can gain insight into where a problem's "technical frontier" lies. (Internal R&D may generate far less information.)

  16. Experimentally studied laser fluorescence method for remote sensing of plant stress situation induced by improper plants watering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Fedotov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stressful situations of plants can be caused by a lack of nutrients; mechanical damages; diseases; low or high temperatures; lack of illumination; insufficient or excess humidity of the soil; soil salinization; soil pollution by oil products or heavy metals; the increased acidity of the soil; use of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, etc.At early stages it is often difficult to detect seemingly that the plants are in stressful situations caused by adverse external factors. However, the fluorescent analysis potentially allows detection of the stressful situations of plants by deformation of laser-induced fluorescence spectra. The paper conducts experimental investigations to learn the capabilities of the laser fluorescent method to monitor plant situations at 532nm wavelength of fluorescence excitation in the stressful situations induced by improper watering (at excess of moisture in the soil and at a lack of moisture.Researches of fluorescence spectra have been conducted using a created laboratory installation. As a source to excite fluorescence radiation the second harmonica of YAG:Nd laser is used. The subsystem to record fluorescence radiation is designed using a polychromator and a highly sensitive matrix detector with the amplifier of brightness.Experimental investigations have been conducted for fast-growing and unpretentious species of plants, namely different sorts of salad.Experimental studies of laser-induced fluorescence spectra of plants for 532nm excitement wavelength show that the impact of stressful factors on a plant due to the improper watering, significantly distorts a fluorescence spectrum of plants. Influence of a stressful factor can be shown as a changing profile of a fluorescence spectrum (an identifying factor, here, is a relationship of fluorescence intensities at two wavelengths, namely 685 nm and 740 nm or (and as a changing level of fluorescence that can be the basis for the laser method for monitoring the plant

  17. Coping in Parkinson's disease: an examination of the coping inventory for stressful situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, C S; Thomas, B A; Burn, D J; Hindle, J V; Landau, S; Samuel, M; Wilson, K C M; Brown, R G

    2011-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) brings with it a range of stresses and challenges with which a patient must cope. The type of coping strategies employed can impact upon well-being, although findings from coping studies in PD remain inconsistent. The variety of coping scales used without validation in PD has been cited as a possible cause of this inconsistency. The present study sought to examine the validity of the coping inventory for stressful situations (CISS) in a sample of patients with PD. Five hundred and twenty-five patients with PD were recruited as part of a longitudinal investigation of mood states in PD. Four hundred and seventy-one participants completed the CISS. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to explore the structural validity of the scale. Internal reliability, test-retest reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity were assessed using Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlations and Pearson's correlations. Both three and four factor solutions were examined. The four factor model was found to provide a better fit of the data than the three factor model. The internal reliability, discriminant validity, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability of the CISS scales were shown to be good. Use of emotion-focused coping was associated with greater depression and anxiety whilst, task-oriented coping was associated with better psychological well-being. The results provide support for the validity and reliability of the CISS as a measure of coping in patients with PD. Further research into the relationship between coping and well-being is warranted. The identification of helpful and unhelpful coping strategies may guide the development of evidence-based therapies to improve well-being in patients with PD. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Effects of occupational future time perspective on managing stressful work situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Henry C Y; Yeung, Dannii Y

    2016-08-01

    According to the socioemotional selectivity theory (SST; Carstensen, 2006), older adults perceive their future time as increasingly limited, which motivates them to focus more on emotional goals and prefer passive emotion-focused strategies. This study aims to investigate the effect of occupational future time perspective (OFTP) on the use of problem-solving strategies in stressful work situations and to examine the effectiveness of these strategies on psychological well-being. A sample of 199 Chinese clerical workers responded to a structured questionnaire on problem-solving strategy use in relation to hypothetical work scenarios. Results revealed that relative to those with limited OFTP, workers with expansive OFTP preferred problem-focused and proactive strategies in both low- and high-emotionally salient scenarios. Workers with limited OFTP consistently preferred passive strategies irrespective of emotional salience. OFTP moderated the effect of problem-focused strategies on psychological distress. In particular, there was a significant negative relationship between problem-focused strategies and psychological distress among workers with expansive OFTP, but such pattern of relationship was not observed among workers with limited OFTP. Findings of this study inform the training strategies employed by practitioners to fit the developmental goals of workers in order to maximise their strengths at work. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Adapting the short form of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations into Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li C

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chun Li,1 Qing Liu,2 Ti Hu,3 Xiaoyan Jin1 1International School of Chinese Studies, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine and Medical PET Center, The Second Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 3School of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objectives: The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS is a measurement tool for evaluating stress that has good psychometric properties. We investigated the applicability of a short-form version of the CISS in a large sample of Chinese university students. Methods: Nine hundred and seventy-two Chinese university students aged 18–30 years (mean =20.15, standard deviation =3.26 were chosen as subjects, of whom 101 were randomly selected to be retested after a 2-week interval. Results: The results of a confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the root mean square error of approximation of a four-factor model was 0.06, while the comparative fit index was 0.91, the incremental fit index was 0.93, the non-normed fit index was 0.91, and the root mean residual was 0.07. The Cronbach’s α coefficients for the task-oriented, emotion-oriented, distraction, and social diversion coping subscales were 0.81, 0.74, 0.7, and 0.66, respectively. The 2-week test–retest reliability was 0.78, 0.74, 0.7, and 0.65 for the task-oriented, emotion-oriented, distraction, and social diversion coping subscales, respectively. In the Chinese version of the CISS short form, task-oriented coping was positively correlated with positive affect and extraversion and negatively correlated with neuroticism; emotion-oriented coping was negatively correlated with extraversion and positively correlated with negative affect, anxiety, and neuroticism; distraction coping was positively correlated with neuroticism, extroversion, anxiety, positive affect, and negative affect and negatively

  20. Deep Learning from Crowds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Filipe; Pereira, Francisco Camara

    Over the last few years, deep learning has revolutionized the field of machine learning by dramatically improving the stateof-the-art in various domains. However, as the size of supervised artificial neural networks grows, typically so does the need for larger labeled datasets. Recently...... networks from crowds. We begin by describing an EM algorithm for jointly learning the parameters of the network and the reliabilities of the annotators. Then, a novel general-purpose crowd layer is proposed, which allows us to train deep neural networks end-to-end, directly from the noisy labels......, crowdsourcing has established itself as an efficient and cost-effective solution for labeling large sets of data in a scalable manner, but it often requires aggregating labels from multiple noisy contributors with different levels of expertise. In this paper, we address the problem of learning deep neural...

  1. Crowds and Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    The November Revolution in 1918 made manifest and further unleashed a political crisis in Germany, the consequences of which have been thoroughly examined. What has attracted less attention is how the Revolution also triggered a semantic crisis within sociology, namely with regard to conceptions...... selected aspects of classical crowd semantics – in particular notions of imitation and suggestibility – and for placing them centrally in the understanding of the social, in times of crisis and not....

  2. Nest-crowdcontrol: Advanced video-based crowd monitoring for large public events

    OpenAIRE

    Monari, Eduardo; Fischer, Yvonne; Anneken, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Current video surveillance systems still lack of intelligent video and data analysis modules for supporting situation awareness of decision makers. Especially in mass gatherings like large public events, the decision maker would benefit from different views of the area, especially from crowd density estimations. This article describes a multi-camera system called NEST and its application for crowd density analysis. First, the overall system design is presented. Based on this, the crowd densit...

  3. The Crowd in Mind and Crowded Minds: An Experimental Investigation of Crowding Effects on Students' Views Regarding Tuition Fees in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Jens H.; Jucks, Regina

    2017-01-01

    In higher education, just amounts of tuition fees are often a topic of heated debate among different groups such as students, university teachers, administrative staff, and policymakers. We investigated whether unpleasant situations that students often experience at university due to social crowding can affect students' views on the justified…

  4. Individual differences in anxiety responses to stressful situations : A three-mode component analysis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mechelen, Iven; Kiers, Henk A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The three-mode component analysis model is discussed as a tool for a contextualized study of personality. When applied to person x situation x response data, the model includes sets of latent dimensions for persons, situations, and responses as well as a so-called core array, which may be considered

  5. Taming Crowded Visual Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-12

    Nolan Warner, Mubarak Shah. Tracking in Dense Crowds Using Prominenceand Neighborhood Motion Concurrence, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis...of  computer  vision,   computer   graphics  and  evacuation  dynamics  by  providing  a  common  platform,  and  provides...areas  that  includes  Computer  Vision,  Computer   Graphics ,  and  Pedestrian   Evacuation  Dynamics.  Despite  the

  6. What Macromolecular Crowding Can Do to a Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Irina M.; Turoverov, Konstantin K.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular environment represents an extremely crowded milieu, with a limited amount of free water and an almost complete lack of unoccupied space. Obviously, slightly salted aqueous solutions containing low concentrations of a biomolecule of interest are too simplistic to mimic the “real life” situation, where the biomolecule of interest scrambles and wades through the tightly packed crowd. In laboratory practice, such macromolecular crowding is typically mimicked by concentrated solutions of various polymers that serve as model “crowding agents”. Studies under these conditions revealed that macromolecular crowding might affect protein structure, folding, shape, conformational stability, binding of small molecules, enzymatic activity, protein-protein interactions, protein-nucleic acid interactions, and pathological aggregation. The goal of this review is to systematically analyze currently available experimental data on the variety of effects of macromolecular crowding on a protein molecule. The review covers more than 320 papers and therefore represents one of the most comprehensive compendia of the current knowledge in this exciting area. PMID:25514413

  7. Setting up crowd science projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheliga, Kaja; Friesike, Sascha; Puschmann, Cornelius; Fecher, Benedikt

    2016-11-29

    Crowd science is scientific research that is conducted with the participation of volunteers who are not professional scientists. Thanks to the Internet and online platforms, project initiators can draw on a potentially large number of volunteers. This crowd can be involved to support data-rich or labour-intensive projects that would otherwise be unfeasible. So far, research on crowd science has mainly focused on analysing individual crowd science projects. In our research, we focus on the perspective of project initiators and explore how crowd science projects are set up. Based on multiple case study research, we discuss the objectives of crowd science projects and the strategies of their initiators for accessing volunteers. We also categorise the tasks allocated to volunteers and reflect on the issue of quality assurance as well as feedback mechanisms. With this article, we contribute to a better understanding of how crowd science projects are set up and how volunteers can contribute to science. We suggest that our findings are of practical relevance for initiators of crowd science projects, for science communication as well as for informed science policy making. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Setting up crowd science projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheliga, Kaja; Friesike, Sascha; Puschmann, Cornelius; Fecher, Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Crowd science is scientific research that is conducted with the participation of volunteers who are not professional scientists. Thanks to the Internet and online platforms, project initiators can draw on a potentially large number of volunteers. This crowd can be involved to support data-rich or

  9. Molecular Crowding and Early Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ranajay; Pohorille, Andrew; Chen, Irene A.

    2014-12-01

    The environment of protocells might have been crowded with small molecules and functional and non-specific polymers. In addition to altering conformational equilibria, affecting reaction rates and changing the structure and activity of water, crowding might have enhanced the capabilities of protocells for evolutionary innovation through the creation of extended neutral networks in the fitness landscape.

  10. Molecular crowding and early evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ranajay; Pohorille, Andrew; Chen, Irene A

    2014-12-01

    The environment of protocells might have been crowded with small molecules and functional and non-specific polymers. In addition to altering conformational equilibria, affecting reaction rates and changing the structure and activity of water, crowding might have enhanced the capabilities of protocells for evolutionary innovation through the creation of extended neutral networks in the fitness landscape.

  11. Stressful situations in life, use and abuse of alcohol and drugs by elderly in Monterrey, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo,Bertha Alicia Alonso; Marziale,Maria Helena Palucci; Castillo,Maria Magdalena Alonso; Facundo,Francisco Rafael Guzmán; Meza,Marco Vinicio Gómez

    2008-01-01

    This is a descriptive, qualitative, and correlation study with 112 elderly aged 60 years or older. This study aimed to identify differences in alcohol consumption according to gender and marital status, and differences in the consumption of medical drugs by gender. It also aims to determine differences in stressful life events by gender, and differences in stressful life events associated to alcohol and medical drugs use and abuse, as well as to know their perceptions on the most stressful li...

  12. Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeiton, V. S.; Papadopoulos, D. P.; Georgilas, I. P.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Adamatzky, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    In all the living organisms, the self-preservation behaviour is almost universal. Even the most simple of living organisms, like slime mould, is typically under intense selective pressure to evolve a response to ensure their evolution and safety in the best possible way. On the other hand, evacuation of a place can be easily characterized as one of the most stressful situations for the individuals taking part on it. Taking inspiration from the slime mould behaviour, we are introducing a computational bio-inspired model crowd evacuation model. Cellular Automata (CA) were selected as a fully parallel advanced computation tool able to mimic the Physarum's behaviour. In particular, the proposed CA model takes into account while mimicking the Physarum foraging process, the food diffusion, the organism's growth, the creation of tubes for each organism, the selection of optimum tube for each human in correspondence to the crowd evacuation under study and finally, the movement of all humans at each time step towards near exit. To test the model's efficiency and robustness, several simulation scenarios were proposed both in virtual and real-life indoor environments (namely, the first floor of office building B of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace). The proposed model is further evaluated in a purely quantitative way by comparing the simulation results with the corresponding ones from the bibliography taken by real data. The examined fundamental diagrams of velocity-density and flow-density are found in full agreement with many of the already published corresponding results proving the adequacy, the fitness and the resulting dynamics of the model. Finally, several real Physarum experiments were conducted in an archetype of the aforementioned real-life environment proving at last that the proposed model succeeded in reproducing sufficiently the Physarum's recorded behaviour derived from observation of the aforementioned

  13. Unpaid Crowd Complementors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreau, Kevin J.; Jeppesen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    on network effects and strategies to attract large numbers of complementors remain advisable in such contexts? We test hypotheses related to these issues using data from 85 online multi-player game platforms with unpaid complementors. We find that complementor development responds to platform growth even......Platforms have evolved beyond just being organized as multi-sided markets with complementors selling to users. Complementors are often unpaid, working outside of a price system and driven by heterogeneous sources of motivation— which should affect how they respond to platform growth. Does reliance...... without sales incentives, but that attracting complementors has a net zero effect on on-going development and fails to stimulate network effects. We discuss conditions under which a strategy of using unpaid crowd complementors remains advantageous....

  14. Crowd wisdom drives intelligent manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Lu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – A fundamental problem for intelligent manufacturing is to equip the agents with the ability to automatically make judgments and decisions. This paper aims to introduce the basic principle for intelligent crowds in an attempt to show that crowd wisdom could help in making accurate judgments and proper decisions. This further shows the positive effects that crowd wisdom could bring to the entire manufacturing process. Design/methodology/approach – Efforts to support the critical role of crowd wisdom in intelligent manufacturing involve theoretical explanation, including a discussion of several prevailing concepts, such as consumer-to-business (C2B, crowdfunding and an interpretation of the contemporary Big Data mania. In addition, an empirical study with three business cases was conducted to prove the conclusion that our ideas could well explain the current business phenomena and guide the future of manufacturing. Findings – This paper shows that crowd wisdom could help make accurate judgments and proper decisions. It further shows the positive effects that crowd wisdom could bring to the entire manufacturing process. Originality/value – The paper highlights the importance of crowd wisdom in manufacturing with sufficient theoretical and empirical analysis, potentially providing a guideline for future industry.

  15. Stressful situations and factors in students of nursing in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Ofélia Llapa Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Objective.To assess the risk factors for stress in undergraduate students of nursing in clinical practice in a public university in the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods. Cross-sectional descriptive study with 116 students from the fifth to the ninth period. The bilingual KEZKAK questionnaire, validated for Portuguese, was used. Stress was considered to be present when the score was equal or superior to 2. Results. The students with stress in clinical practice were 18 to 22 years old (2.82 ± 0.98, women (2.81 ± 0.96, married (2.80 ± 0.97, and who were permanent contracted employees (2.74 ± 0.94. The factors which were most associated with stress were: Lack of competence (2.99 ± 0.88; Impotence and uncertainty (2.98 ± 0.85; and Patients seeking a closer relationship (2.93 ± 1.01. The students of the sixth period were the most vulnerable to stress (2.85±0.96. Conclusion. The studies showed the main risk factors for stress among students of nursing in their clinical practice. These results could be used in the development of strategies seeking to reduce stress in this context as well as to contribute to promoting mental health.

  16. Stressful situations and factors in students of nursing in clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Llapa Rodrigues, Eliana Ofélia; Almeida Marques, Daniel; Lopes Neto, David; López Montesinos, María José; Amado de Oliveira, Adriana Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Objective.To assess the risk factors for stress in undergraduate students of nursing in clinical practice in a public university in the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods. Cross-sectional descriptive study with 116 students from the fifth to the ninth period. The bilingual KEZKAK questionnaire, validated for Portuguese, was used. Stress was considered to be present when the score was equal or superior to 2. Results. The students with stress in clinical practice were 18 to 22 years old (2.82 ...

  17. Personality, threat, and cognitive and emotional reactions to stressful intercultural situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, K; van Oudenhoven, JP; de Grijs, E

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in appraisal of and affective reactions to intercultural situations. A sample of 160 students filled out the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) and participated in an experiment in which they received a description of an intercultural

  18. Social crowding in the night-time reduces an anxiety-like behavior and increases social interaction in adolescent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ago, Yukio; Tanaka, Tatsunori; Ota, Yuki; Kitamoto, Mari; Imoto, Emina; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2014-08-15

    Rearing in crowded conditions is a psychosocial stressor that affects biological functions. The effects of continuous crowding for many days have been studied, but those of crowding over a limited time have not. In this study, we examined the effects of night-time or daytime crowding over 2 weeks on behavior in adolescent and adult mice. Crowding (20 mice/cage) in either the night-time or daytime did not affect locomotor activity in the open field test or cognitive function in the fear conditioning test. In contrast, night-time crowding, but not daytime crowding, had an anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze test and increased social interaction in adolescent mice, but not in adult mice. The first night-time, but not daytime, crowding increased plasma corticosterone levels in adolescent mice, although night-time crowding over 2 weeks did not affect the corticosterone levels. Furthermore, no significant effects of the first crowding were observed in adult mice. In a second crowding condition (six mice/small cage), the anxiolytic-like effects of night-time crowding and the change in plasma corticosterone levels were not observed, suggesting that the density of mice is not important for the behavioral consequences of crowding. Night-time crowding did not affect neurotrophic/growth factor levels and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent mice. These findings suggest that night-time crowding leads to anxiolytic-like behaviors in adolescent mice, and imply that night-time crowding stress in adolescence may be beneficial to brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Crowding effects in vehicular traffic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Samuel L Combinido

    Full Text Available While the impact of crowding on the diffusive transport of molecules within a cell is widely studied in biology, it has thus far been neglected in traffic systems where bulk behavior is the main concern. Here, we study the effects of crowding due to car density and driving fluctuations on the transport of vehicles. Using a microscopic model for traffic, we found that crowding can push car movement from a superballistic down to a subdiffusive state. The transition is also associated with a change in the shape of the probability distribution of positions from a negatively-skewed normal to an exponential distribution. Moreover, crowding broadens the distribution of cars' trap times and cluster sizes. At steady state, the subdiffusive state persists only when there is a large variability in car speeds. We further relate our work to prior findings from random walk models of transport in cellular systems.

  20. Code Lavender: Cultivating Intentional Acts of Kindness in Response to Stressful Work Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Judy E; Graham, Patricia; Montross-Thomas, Lori; Norcross, William; Zerbi, Giovanna

    Providing healthcare can be stressful. Gone unchecked, clinicians may experience decreased compassion, and increased burnout or secondary traumatic stress. Code Lavender is designed to increase acts of kindness after stressful workplace events occur. To test the feasibility of providing Code Lavender. After stressful events in the workplace, staff will provide, receive, and recommend Code Lavender to others. The provision of Code Lavender will improve Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQoL) scores, general job satisfaction, and feeling cared for in the workplace. Pilot program testing and evaluation. Staff and physicians on four hospital units were informed of the Code Lavender kit availability, which includes words of comfort, chocolate, lavender essential oil, and employee health referral information. Feasibility data and ProQoL scores were collected at baseline and three months. At baseline, 48% (n = 164) reported a stressful event at work in the last three months. Post-intervention, 51% reported experiencing a stressful workplace event, with 32% receiving a Code Lavender kit from their co-workers as a result (n = 83). Of those who received the Code Lavender intervention; 100% found it helpful, and 84% would recommend it to others. No significant changes were demonstrated before and after the intervention in ProQoL scores or job satisfaction, however the emotion of feeling cared-for improved. Results warrant continuation and further dissemination of Code Lavender. Investigators have received requests to expand the program implying positive reception of the intervention. Additional interventions are needed to overcome workplace stressors. A more intense peer support program is being tested. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The Crowding out Effect on the Labor Market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Hrisanta DOBRE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrimination expresses any distinction, exclusion, restriction, preference or different treatment that disadvantages a person or group, in comparison with others in similar situations. The crowding out effect was first formulated by Bergmann (1974 and explains that an individual can obtain lower returns if he belongs to a branch dominated by the members of another group. The difference in pay between women and men is also reinforced by the segregation in the labor market, which may explain the crowding out effect. In this article we analyzed the level of segregation in the Romanian labor market starting from the workers professional status and their distribution by branch from 2003 to 2008. Crowding out effect was analyzed based on the gain function of the two groups (women and men.

  2. First Year Nursing Students' Coping Strategies in Stressful Clinical Practice Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodys-Cupak, Iwona; Majda, Anna; Skowron, Justyna; Zalewska-Puchala, Joanna; Trzcinska, Aneta

    2018-01-01

    Performing the social service professions, to which a profession of nurse includes, is considered one of the most stress-inducing jobs. The reason behind this is deep emotional involvement in contact with patient followed by responsibility for human health and life. The time dedicated to gaining knowledge and practical skills constitutes both a…

  3. The influence of stress and mood on decision making in critical situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rondeel, E.W.M.; Kempen, M.H.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.; Nieuwenhuis, C.H.M.; Holland, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    In this position paper a number of hypotheses are outlined concerning the effect of three measurable human factors, namely subjective stress, arousal and mood, on human decision making performance; taking into account the amount of risk involved in the decision. The proposed domain of application

  4. EFFICACY OF A STRUCTURED GROUP PROGRAM IN COPYING STRATEGIES FOR POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN ADULTS AND ADOLESCENTS IN DISPLACEMENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA CLARA RODRÍGUEZ DÍAZ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an analysis is made on the efficacy of a structured group program in emotional, cognitiveand social coping skills for the treatment of a sample of adults and adolescents that developedposttraumatic stress disorder after a forced displacement situation. The participants completed a 10-session intervention including pre and post assessments about the severity level of the symptoms usingthe PSD scale (Foa, 1995 and an additional measure one month after. The results showed significantimprovements in symptoms in both groups and in each one of the possible comparisons. Recoveryshows that the decrease in the severity level of symptoms affects the functioning level positively.

  5. Households' ethnic background and crowding in public housing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crowded housing is one of the housing stresses that bother policy makers and housing ... ethnic and cultural origins occupying Lagos State Development and Property ... groups should be deliberately mixed to achieve ethnic and social integration. ... FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  6. How Farm Animals React and Perceive Stressful Situations Such As Handling, Restraint, and Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple Grandin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An animal that has been carefully acclimated to handling may willingly re-enter a restrainer. Another animal may have an intense agitated behavioral reaction or refuse to re-enter the handling facility. Physiological measures of stress such as cortisol may be very low in the animal that re-enters willingly and higher in animals that actively resist restraint. Carefully acclimating young animals to handling and restraint can help improve both productivity and welfare by reducing fear stress. Some of the topics covered in this review are: How an animal perceives handling and restraint, the detrimental effects of a sudden novel event, descriptions of temperament and aversion tests and the importance of good stockmanship.

  7. Experimental determination of the stress/strain situation in a sheared tunnel model with canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1978-03-01

    A previous report concerned a technical matter which could be of great importance as regards the mechanical strength of canisters embedded in a bentonite/quartz buffer mass, i.e. the effect of a differential movement triggered by a critical deviatoric stress condition. Even if this is extremely unlikeley to occur it was considered to be of importance to verify the theoretical expressions for the maximum bending moment and maximum shear force. A special reason was to test the hypothesis that the contact pressure would soon reach a high value and then stay fairly constant when the displacement increased. The theoretical approach requires that the stress/strain properties of the fill are thoroghly investigated and described in therms of a mathematical model. Experience shows that this may be a tedions and difficult task. (L.E.)

  8. Deep situationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matejskova, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    as a Slovak national with immigration experi- ence, a nominal outsider to both the country of research, Germany, and its immigrant subjects, the post-Soviet Russian-speaking migrants. Focusing on the production of time-spaces of proximity as a deeply situational process, I stress in particular the un...

  9. Crowded: a crowd-sourced perspective of events as they happen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantingham, Richard; Hossain, Aleem

    2013-05-01

    `Crowded' is a web-based application developed by the Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (Dstl) that collates imagery of a particular location from a variety of media sources to provide an operator with real-time situational awareness. Emergency services and other relevant agencies have detected or become aware of an event - a riot or an explosion, for instance - and its location or text associated with it. The ubiquity of mobile devices allows people to collect and upload media of the incident to the Internet, in real time. Crowded manages the interactions with online sources of media: Flickr; Instagram; YouTube; Twitter; and Transport for London traffic cameras, to retrieve imagery that is being uploaded at that point in time. In doing so, it aims to provide human operators with near-instantaneous `eyes-on' from a variety of different perspectives. The first instantiation of Crowded was implemented as a series of integrated web-services with the aim of rapidly understanding whether the approach was viable. In doing so, it demonstrated how non-traditional, open sources can be used to provide a richer current intelligence picture than can be obtained alone from classified sources. The development of Crowded also explored how open source technology and cloud-based services can be used in the modern intelligence and security environment to provide a multi-agency Common Operating Picture to help achieve a co-ordinated response. The lessons learned in building the prototype are currently being used to design and develop a second version, and identify options and priorities for future development.

  10. What Differentiates Employees' Job Performance Under Stressful Situations: The Role of General Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chang-Qin; Du, Dan-Yang; Xu, Xiao-Min

    2016-10-02

    The aim of this research is to verify the two-dimensional challenge-hindrance stressor framework in the Chinese context, and investigate the moderating effect of general self-efficacy in the stress process. Data were collected from 164 Chinese employee-supervisor dyads. The results demonstrated that challenge stressors were positively related to job performance while hindrance stressors were negatively related to job performance. Furthermore, general self-efficacy strengthened the positive relationship between challenge stressors and job performance, whereas the attenuating effect of general self-efficacy on the negative relationship between hindrance stressors and job performance was nonsignificant. These findings qualify the two-dimensional challenge-hindrance stressor framework, and support the notion that employees with high self-efficacy benefit more from the positive effect of challenge stressors in the workplace. By investigating the role of an individual difference variable in the challenge-hindrance stressor framework, this research provides a more accurate picture of the nature of job stress, and enhances our understanding of the job stressor-job performance relationship.

  11. To See (Like a Crowd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Ziada

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dynamics through which design drawings structure spatial strategies, particularly those with an agenda for socio-political change, while interrogating the drawings’ impacts on subjectivity. It dissects an early Soviet architectural drawing addressing the 1920s-30s' crowd-design-problem': using architectural space to generate a robust intersubjectivity in mass crowds. Revolutionary Soviet artists challenged inherited graphic regimes of viewing crowds from an alienating distance, proposing devices of 'immersion' to radically re-visualize mass crowds and re-conceptualize collectivity. Drawing on Suprematist compositions, the avant-garde Soviet Rationalist architects translated immersive principles from contemporary revolutionary art. The paper articulates the Rationalists’ alternative graphic framework which immerses the observer-cum-designer within crowd dynamics in a distinctively architectural way, while identifying its implications on spatial design: a space of undulating grounds, rhythmic choreographies and ‘textured’ visual fields. The paper also speculates on its implications redefining subjectivity; re-introducing emotion amongst the relations of production challenges canonical Historical Materialism.

  12. Conflict management by hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) during crowding: a tension-reduction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, P G; Griffaton, N S; Fincke, A M

    2006-10-01

    Primates change a variety of behavioral responses during short-term exposure to crowding. Under crowded conditions, rates of aggression, submissive behavior, and affiliative behavior may increase or decrease. Different patterns of change among these three categories of response have been interpreted as various coping "strategies" for managing the increased risk of conflict under crowded conditions. Grooming is of particular interest because this behavior is known to have a calming influence on the recipient and could be used to manage conflict under tense situations. A captive group of nine hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) composed of two harems was observed under short-term crowding to determine whether this species adopts conflict-management strategies similar to those described in other primates. The aggression, submission, affiliation, and displacement activities of the six adults in the group (two males and four females) were recorded, and behaviors in their small indoor quarters was compared with baseline behaviors in the outdoor section of their enclosure, which had over 10 times more space. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare behavioral rates during crowding with baseline rates recorded immediately after crowding and during matched controls collected at the same time of day as the crowding sessions. Aggression and submission rates did not change significantly across conditions. Huddling together and proximity increased during crowding, and females increased grooming of their harem male during crowding. Displacement activities (e.g., pacing and self-grooming) increased during crowding, but scratching, an indicator of anxiety in primates, did not. The pattern of behavior exhibited by this group conforms to an active "tension-reduction" strategy in which animals successfully reduce the higher risk of aggression during crowding.

  13. Current density redistribution from no current crowding to current crowding in Pb-free solder joints with an extremely thick Cu layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jung Kyu; Choi, Daechul; Fujiyoshi, Masaru; Chiwata, Nobuhiko; Tu, King-Ning

    2012-01-01

    In order to remove the effect of current crowding on electromigration, thick Cu under-bump metallization has been widely adopted in the electronics industry. Three-dimensional (3-D) integrated circuits, using through Si via Cu column interconnects, is being developed, and it seems that current crowding may not be a reliability issue. However, statistical experiments and 3-D finite element simulation indicate that there is a transition from no current crowding to current crowding, caused by void growth at the cathode. An analysis of the electromigration-induced failure mechanism in solder joints having a very thick Cu layer is presented. It is a unique failure mechanism, different from that in flip chip technology. Moreover, the study of marker displacement shows two different stages of drift velocity, which clearly demonstrates the back-stress effect and the development of compressive stress.

  14. Spatial and Social Aspects of Crowding Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Andrew; Davis, Glenn E.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses mediation of the crowding experience in architectural interiors by three environmental variables: setting orientation, room color, and visual complexity of the interior. Data indicated interior design does influence space perception and crowding thresholds. (RH)

  15. Towards a South African crowd control model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modise, M

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available . Phase 3, will be the development of decision support system for crowd control. This paper discusses Phase 1 of the project, which includes identification of various variables regarding crowd control and their relationships. During the Arab Spring...

  16. Orientation-crowding within contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, James C; Dakin, Steven C

    2013-07-15

    We examined how crowding (the breakdown of object recognition in the periphery caused by interference from "clutter") depends on the global arrangement of target and distracting flanker elements. Specifically we probed orientation discrimination using a near-vertical target Gabor flanked by two vertical distractor Gabors (one above and one below the target). By applying variable (opposite-sign) horizontal offsets to the positions of the two flankers we arranged the elements so that on some trials they formed contours with the target and on others they did not. While the presence of flankers generally elevated orientation discrimination thresholds for the target we observe maximal crowding not when flanker and targets were co-aligned but when a small spatial offset was applied to flanker location, so that contours formed between flanker and targets only when the target orientation was cued. We also report that observers' orientation judgments are biased, with target orientation appearing either attracted or repulsed by the global/contour orientation. A second experiment reveals that the sign of this effect is dependent both on observer and on eccentricity. In general, the magnitude of repulsion is reduced with eccentricity but whether this becomes attraction (of element orientation to contour orientation) is dependent on observer. We note however that across observers and eccentricities, the magnitude of repulsion correlates positively with the amount of release from crowding observed with co-aligned targets and flankers, supporting the notion of fluctuating bias as the basis for elevated crowding within contours.

  17. Multiple scales modelling approaches to social interaction in crowd dynamics and crisis management. Comment on "Human behaviours in evacuation crowd dynamics: From modelling to "big data" toward crisis management" by Nicola Bellomo et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucu, Dumitru

    2016-09-01

    In this comprehensive review concerning the modelling of human behaviours in crowd dynamics [3], the authors explore a wide range of mathematical approaches spanning over multiple scales that are suitable to describe emerging crowd behaviours in extreme situations. Focused on deciphering the key aspects leading to emerging crowd patterns evolutions in challenging times such as those requiring an evacuation on a complex venue, the authors address this complex dynamics at both microscale (individual level), mesoscale (probability distributions of interacting individuals), and macroscale (population level), ultimately aiming to gain valuable understanding and knowledge that would inform decision making in managing crisis situations.

  18. Caring Situation, Health, Self-efficacy, and Stress in Young Informal Carers of Family and Friends with Mental Illness in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Lilas; Krevers, Barbro; Skärsäter, Ingela

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the caring situation, health, self-efficacy, and stress of young (16-25) informal carers (YICs) supporting a family member with mental illness with that of YICs supporting a friend. A sample of 225 carers, assigned to a family group (n = 97) or a friend group (n = 128) completed the questionnaire. It was found that the family group experiences a lower level of support and friends experienced a lower positive value of caring. No other differences in health, general self-efficacy and stress were found. YICs endure different social situations, which is why further study of the needs of YICs, especially those supporting friends, is urgently needed.

  19. Kinetic models for crowd dynamics. Comment on "Human behaviours in evacuation crowd dynamics: From modelling to "big data" toward crisis management" by N. Bellomo et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasiak, J.

    2016-09-01

    There has been a hierarchy of models of crowd behaviour. One can consider the crowd at the so called microscopic level, as a collection of individuals, and derive its description in the form of a (large) system of ordinary differential equations describing the position and velocity of each individual, in parallel to the Newton's description of matter, see e.g. [10]. Another possibility is to describe crowd, in analogy to fluid dynamics, by providing its density and velocity at a given point, see e.g. [11,12]. At the same time, it is recognized that crowd is 'living, social' system that is prone to exhibit rare, not easily predictable, behaviour in response to stress induced by the perception of danger, or of the action of specific agents, see e.g. [1,2]. This high probability of the occurrence of events that are far from average, makes the crowd behaviour similar to the processes with fat-tailed distribution of events. Such unlikely events have been metaphorically termed black swans in [14], or Lévy flights in [13]. While microscopic and macroscopic models can capture many features of crowd dynamics, including obstacles, see [3,8], such models are described by differential equations that inherently are local in space. At the same time, black swan events are often caused by non-local interactions such as self-organization, learning or adherence to some averaged group behaviour. It is known that such interactions are well described by mean field models best represented by integro-differential equations, such as the Boltzmann equation of the rarefied gas theory. This has made plausible to introduce crowd models at the intermediate, (meso) scale by describing the crowd by the one particle distribution function that gives the density of individuals at any particular state; that is, at a given point in the domain and moving with a specific velocity.

  20. CrowdAidRepair: A Crowd-Aided Interactive Data Repairing Method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Zhixu; Gu, Binbin; Xie, Qing; Zhu, Jia; Zhang, Xiangliang; Li, Guoliang

    2016-01-01

    turn to use the power of crowd in data repairing, but the crowd power has its own drawbacks such as high human intervention cost and inevitable low efficiency. In this paper, we propose a crowd-aided interactive data repairing method which takes

  1. Socialization of Social Anxiety in Adolescent Crowds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zalk, Nejra; Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we looked at whether social anxiety is socialized, or influenced by peers' social anxiety, more in some peer crowds than others. Adolescents in crowds with eye-catching appearances such as Goths and Punks (here termed "Radical"), were compared with three comparison groups. Using data from 796 adolescents (353 girls and 443 boys; M…

  2. Is word recognition crowded in pure alexia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Katrine; Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Pure alexia is a selective deficit in reading, which arises following damage to the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Crowding, the inability to recognise objects in a clutter, has recently been hypothesised to be the underlying deficit of apperceptive visual agnosia1. Crowding normally occurs...

  3. How crowded is the prokaryotic cytoplasm?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitzer, Jan; Poolman, Bert; Ferguson, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    We consider biomacromolecular crowding within the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells as a two-phase system of 'supercrowded' cytogel and 'dilute' cytosol; we simplify and quantify this model for a coccoid cell over a wide range of biomacromolecular crowding. The key result shows that the supercrowded

  4. Avenues for crowd science in Hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Julian; Stisen, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Crowd science describes research that is conducted with the participation of the general public (the crowd) and gives the opportunity to involve the crowd in research design, data collection and analysis. In various fields, scientists have already drawn on underused human resources to advance research at low cost, with high transparency and large acceptance of the public due to the bottom up structure and the participatory process. Within the hydrological sciences, crowd research has quite recently become more established in the form of crowd observatories to generate hydrological data on water quality, precipitation or river flow. These innovative observatories complement more traditional ways of monitoring hydrological data and strengthen a community-based environmental decision making. However, the full potential of crowd science lies in internet based participation of the crowd and it is not yet fully exploited in the field of Hydrology. New avenues that are not primarily based on the outsourcing of labor, but instead capitalize the full potential of human capabilities have to emerge. In multiple realms of solving complex problems, like image detection, optimization tasks, narrowing of possible solutions, humans still remain more effective than computer algorithms. The most successful online crowd science projects Foldit and Galaxy Zoo have proven that the collective of tens of thousands users could clearly outperform traditional computer based science approaches. Our study takes advantage of the well trained human perception to conduct a spatial sensitivity analysis of land-surface variables of a distributed hydrological model to identify the most sensitive spatial inputs. True spatial performance metrics, that quantitatively compare patterns, are not trivial to choose and their applicability is often not universal. On the other hand humans can quickly integrate spatial information at various scales and are therefore a trusted competence. We selected

  5. Multiple Level Crowding: Crowding at the Object Parts Level and at the Object Configural level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Pirkner, Yossef

    2015-01-01

    In crowding, identification of a peripheral target in the presence of nearby flankers is worse than when the target appears alone. Prevailing theories hold that crowding occurs because of integration or "pooling" of low-level features at a single, relatively early stage of visual processing. Recent studies suggest that crowding can occur also between high-level object representations. The most relevant findings come from studies with faces and may be specific to faces. We examined whether crowding can occur at the object configural level in addition to part-level crowding, using nonface objects. Target (a disconnected square or diamond made of four elements) identification was measured at varying eccentricities. The flankers were similar either to the target parts or to the target configuration. The results showed crowding in both cases: Flankers interfered with target identification such that identification accuracy decreased with an increase in eccentricity, and no interference was observed at the fovea. Crowding by object parts, however, was weaker and had smaller spatial extent than crowding by object configurations; we related this finding to the relationship between crowding and perceptual organization. These results provide strong evidence that crowding occurs not only between object parts but also between configural representations of objects. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. An Energy based Method to Measure the Crowd Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, H.; Li, D.; Zheng, X.

    2014-01-01

    How to evaluate crowd safety in crowded areas is a tough, but important, problem. According to accident-causing theory, uncontrolled release of hazardous energy among overcrowded pedestrians is the basic cause of crowd disaster. Therefore, crowd energy is modeled in this paper, which takes both

  7. The Relationship Between Alcoholism, Context of Retirement Variable and Coping with Stressful Situations in a Military Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Crowley, 1985; Howard et al, 1982; George, 1980; Kasl, 1980). While most theories of retirement stress the adjustive demands engendered by this...element in a cognitive-phenomenological theory of stress (House, 1974, p. 14). The mechanism through which an individual attributes meaning to an...multidimensional phenomenon which may be defined in terms of types of support ( socioemotional or instrumental), the sources of support, and the structure

  8. The role of crowding in parallel search: Peripheral pooling is not responsible for logarithmic efficiency in parallel search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Anna; Lleras, Alejandro; Buetti, Simona

    2018-02-01

    Recent results from our laboratory showed that, in fixed-target parallel search tasks, reaction times increase in a logarithmic fashion with set size, and the slope of this logarithmic function is modulated by lure-target similarity. These results were interpreted as being consistent with a processing architecture where early vision (stage one) processes elements in the display in exhaustive fashion with unlimited capacity and with a limitation in resolution. Here, we evaluate the contribution of crowding to our recent logarithmic search slope findings, considering the possibility that peripheral pooling of features (as observed in crowding) may be responsible for logarithmic efficiency. Factors known to affect the strength of crowding were varied, specifically: item spacing and similarity. The results from three experiments converge on the same pattern of results: reaction times increased logarithmically with set size and were modulated by lure-target similarity even when crowding was minimized within displays through an inter-item spacing manipulation. Furthermore, we found logarithmic search efficiencies were overall improved in displays where crowding was minimized compared to displays where crowding was possible. The findings from these three experiments suggest logarithmic efficiency in efficient search is not the result peripheral pooling of features. That said, the presence of crowding does tend to reduce search efficiency, even in "pop-out" search situations.

  9. Association between changes in heart rate variability during the anticipation of a stressful situation and the stress-induced cortisol response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Raedt, Rudi

    2018-08-01

    Vagal activity - reflecting the activation of stress regulatory mechanisms and prefrontal cortex activation - is thought to play an inhibitory role in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, most studies investigating the association between stress-induced changes in heart rate variability (HRV, an index of cardiac vagal tone) and cortisol have shown a non-significant relationship. It has been proposed that physiological changes observed during anticipation of a stressor allow individuals to make behavioral, cognitive, and physiological adjustments that are necessary to deal with the upcoming actual stressor. In this study, in a large sample of 171 healthy adults (96 men and 75 women; mean age = 29.98, SD = 11.07), we investigated whether the cortisol response to a laboratory-based stress task was related to anticipation-induced or stress task-induced changes in HRV. As expected, regression analyses showed that a larger decrease in HRV during the anticipation of a stress task was related to higher stress task-induced cortisol increase, but not cortisol recovery. In line with prior research, the stress task-induced change in HRV was not significantly related to cortisol increase or recovery. Our results show for the first time that anticipatory HRV (reflecting differences in stress regulation and prefrontal activity before the encounter with the stressor) is important to understand the stress-induced cortisol increase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Accelerated recovery of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from effects of crowding by swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiseth, Eva; Fjaera, Svein Olav; Bjerkeng, Bjørn; Skjervold, Per Olav

    2006-07-01

    The effects of post-crowding swimming velocity (0, 0.35, and 0.70 m/s) and recovery time (1.5, 6, and 12 h) on physiological recovery and processing quality parameters of adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were determined. Atlantic salmon crowded to a density similar to that of a commercial slaughter process (>200 kg/m(3), 40 min) were transferred to a swimming chamber for recovery treatment. Osmolality and concentrations of cortisol, glucose and lactate in blood plasma were used as physiological stress indicators, whereas image analyses of extent and duration of rigor contraction, and fillet gaping were used as measures of processing quality. Crowded salmon had a 5.8-fold higher plasma cortisol concentration than control salmon (Prigor mortis contraction. However, subjecting crowded salmon to active swimming for 6 h before slaughter delayed the onset of rigor mortis contraction from 2.5 to 7.5 h post mortem. The extent of rigor mortis contraction was also affected by crowding and post-stress swimming activity (Prigor mortis contraction, which has a positive technological implication for the salmon processing industry.

  11. NIH Abroad: Pictures Are Crowd Pullers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. "Pictures Are Crowd Pullers …" Art, culture, and the Internet combine to intervene against malaria ... Not ripe mangoes. Not witchcraft. The images and words, which speak directly to local beliefs in villages ...

  12. Crowdings betydning for antallet af tvangsfikseringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jesper; Nielsen, Lea Marie; Hæssum, Birte

    2017-01-01

    I denne artikel vil vi beskrive et par af resultaterne fra forskningsprojektet ”Mechanical restraint. Preventive Factors in Theory and Practice” samt et eksempel fra praksis om crowdings betydning for hvor meget der bliver tvangsfikseret....

  13. Social dynamics in emergency evacuations: Disentangling crowd's attraction and repulsion effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghani, Milad; Sarvi, Majid

    2017-06-01

    The social dynamics of crowds in emergency escape scenarios have been conventionally modelled as the net effect of virtual forces exerted by the crowd on each individual (as self-driven particles), with the magnitude of the influence formulated as decreasing functions of inter-individual distances and the direction of effect assumed to be transitioning from repulsion to attraction by distance. Here, we revisit this conventional assumption using laboratory experimental data. We show based on robust econometric hypothesis-testing methods that individuals' perception of other escapees differs based on whether those individuals are jamming around exit destinations or are on the move towards the destinations. Also, for moving crowds, it differs based on whether the escape destination chosen by the moving flow is visible or invisible to the individual. The presence of crowd jams around a destination, also the movement of crowd flows towards visible destinations are both perceived on average as repulsion (or disutility) effects (with the former showing significantly larger magnitude than the latter). The movement of crowd flows towards an invisible destination, however, is on average perceived as attraction (or utility) effect. Yet, further hypothesis testing showed that neither of those effects in isolation determines adequately whether an individual would merge with or diverge from the crowd. Rather, the social interaction factors act (at significant levels) in conjunction with the physical factors of the environments (including spatial distances to exit destinations and destinations' visibility). In brief, our finding disentangles the conditions under which individuals are more likely to show mass behaviour from the situations where they are more likely to break from the herd. It identifies two factors that moderate the perception of social interactions, ;crowds' jam/movement status; and ;environmental setup;. Our results particularly challenge the taxonomy of

  14. Crowd Behavior Algorithm Development for COMBAT XXI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-30

    non-combatants to military operations in an urban area. We show how to link this model with COMBATXXI at the application programming interface (API...level so that the model can be run in tight conjunction with COMBATXXI. TRAC and other anaytic organizations can use this type of crowd model to... organizations , and materiel. crowd, agent-based modeling , combat models , COMBATXXI, NetLogo, mega-cities, civilians on the battlefield Unclassified U U U U 39

  15. Dynamics-Based Stranded-Crowd Model for Evacuation in Building Bottlenecks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidi Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In high-density public buildings, it is difficult to evacuate. So in this paper, we propose a novel quantitative evacuation model to insure people’s safety and reduce the risk of crowding. We analyze the mechanism of arch-like clogging phenomena during evacuation and the influencing factors in emergency situations at bottleneck passages; then we design a model based on crowd dynamics and apply the model to a stadium example. The example is used to compare evacuation results of crowd density with different egress widths in stranded zones. The results show this model proposed can guide the safe and dangerous egress widths in performance design and can help evacuation routes to be selected and optimized.

  16. Linking crowding, visual span, and reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingchen; Legge, Gordon E

    2017-09-01

    The visual span is hypothesized to be a sensory bottleneck on reading speed with crowding thought to be the major sensory factor limiting the size of the visual span. This proposed linkage between crowding, visual span, and reading speed is challenged by the finding that training to read crowded letters reduced crowding but did not improve reading speed (Chung, 2007). Here, we examined two properties of letter-recognition training that may influence the transfer to improved reading: the spatial arrangement of training stimuli and the presence of flankers. Three groups of nine young adults were trained with different configurations of letter stimuli at 10° in the lower visual field: a flanked-local group (flanked letters localized at one position), a flanked-distributed group (flanked letters distributed across different horizontal locations), and an isolated-distributed group (isolated and distributed letters). We found that distributed training, but not the presence of flankers, appears to be necessary for the training benefit to transfer to increased reading speed. Localized training may have biased attention to one specific, small area in the visual field, thereby failing to improve reading. We conclude that the visual span represents a sensory bottleneck on reading, but there may also be an attentional bottleneck. Reducing the impact of crowding can enlarge the visual span and can potentially facilitate reading, but not when adverse attentional bias is present. Our results clarify the association between crowding, visual span, and reading.

  17. A Crowd Avoidance Method Using Circular Avoidance Path for Robust Person Following

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Morishita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A life-support service robot must avoid both static and dynamic obstacles for working in a real environment. Here, a static obstacle means an obstacle that does not move, and a dynamic obstacle is the one that moves. Assuming the robot is following a target person, we discuss how the robot avoids a crowd through which the target person passes and arrives at the target position. The purpose of this paper is to propose a crowd avoidance method that makes a robot to be able to avoid both static and dynamic obstacles. The method uses the surface points of the obstacles to form an avoidance region, and the robot moves along the edge of the region. We conducted experiments assuming various situations such that the robot was blocked, there was a wide gap in the crowd, or a person in the crowd yielded for the robot to pass through. As an experimental result, it was confirmed the robot could avoid the crowd even when the obstacles were aligned in an “inverted wedge” shape.

  18. CrowdAidRepair: A Crowd-Aided Interactive Data Repairing Method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2016-03-25

    Data repairing aims at discovering and correcting erroneous data in databases. Traditional methods relying on predefined quality rules to detect the conflict between data may fail to choose the right way to fix the detected conflict. Recent efforts turn to use the power of crowd in data repairing, but the crowd power has its own drawbacks such as high human intervention cost and inevitable low efficiency. In this paper, we propose a crowd-aided interactive data repairing method which takes the advantages of both rule-based method and crowd-based method. Particularly, we investigate the interaction between crowd-based repairing and rule-based repairing, and show that by doing crowd-based repairing to a small portion of values, we can greatly improve the repairing quality of the rule-based repairing method. Although we prove that the optimal interaction scheme using the least number of values for crowd-based repairing to maximize the imputation recall is not feasible to be achieved, still, our proposed solution identifies an efficient scheme through investigating the inconsistencies and the dependencies between values in the repairing process. Our empirical study on three data collections demonstrates the high repairing quality of CrowdAidRepair, as well as the efficiency of the generated interaction scheme over baselines.

  19. Crowd Behavior, Crowd Control, and the Use of Non-Lethal Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    that U.S. forces know these repertoires of actions when they operate in different cultures. Dr. Waddington provided the example of the Zulu tribe in...6 The History of Hostile Crowds and Riots...Mobs, and Non-lethal Weapons,” by Lieutenant Sid Heal. The History of Hostile Crowds and Riots Dr. Wendy Gilpin conducted background research on hostile

  20. A method of emotion contagion for crowd evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengxiao; Zhang, Guijuan; Wang, Mengsi; Lu, Dianjie; Liu, Hong

    2017-10-01

    The current evacuation model does not consider the impact of emotion and personality on crowd evacuation. Thus, there is large difference between evacuation results and the real-life behavior of the crowd. In order to generate more realistic crowd evacuation results, we present a method of emotion contagion for crowd evacuation. First, we combine OCEAN (Openness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Conscientiousness) model and SIS (Susceptible Infected Susceptible) model to construct the P-SIS (Personalized SIS) emotional contagion model. The P-SIS model shows the diversity of individuals in crowd effectively. Second, we couple the P-SIS model with the social force model to simulate emotional contagion on crowd evacuation. Finally, the photo-realistic rendering method is employed to obtain the animation of crowd evacuation. Experimental results show that our method can simulate crowd evacuation realistically and has guiding significance for crowd evacuation in the emergency circumstances.

  1. Innovative funding solution for special projects: Crowd funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentot Imam Wahjono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of crowd funding knowledge, applica-tion, platform, and project initiator toward successful crowd funding. This study conducted by quantitative approach, data have been collected with web-based ques-tionnaires via Kickstarter.com direct message and e-mail to 200 successful crowd funding project initiators as a sample and as much 152 sets questionnaire returned by a complete answer and should be analyzed further. Deployment and data collection take 3 month from October to December 2013. This study found evidence that crowd funding knowledge, crowd funding application, crowd funding platform, and project initiator has positive and significant relationship toward the success of crowd funding. The implication from this research is crowd funding can be a source of capital to finance the projects, not just rely on traditional sources of financing just like banking and capital markets. Crowd funding can be innovative funding solution.

  2. Household crowding is associated with higher allostatic load among the Inuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Mylene; Plusquellec, Pierrich; Juster, Robert-Paul; Laouan-Sidi, Elhadji A; Abdous, Belkacem; Lucas, Michel; Dery, Serge; Dewailly, Eric

    2014-04-01

    Household crowding is an important problem in some aboriginal communities that is reaching particularly high levels among the circumpolar Inuit. Living in overcrowded conditions may endanger health via stress pathophysiology. This study examines whether higher household crowding is associated with stress-related physiological dysregulations among the Inuit. Cross-sectional data on 822 Inuit adults were taken from the 2004 Qanuippitaa? How are we? Nunavik Inuit Health Survey. Chronic stress was measured using the concept of allostatic load (AL) representing the multisystemic biological 'wear and tear' of chronic stress. A summary index of AL was constructed using 14 physiological indicators compiled into a traditional count-based index and a binary variable that contrasted people at risk on at least seven physiological indicators. Household crowding was measured using indicators of household size (total number of people and number of children per house) and overcrowding defined as more than one person per room. Data were analysed using weighted Generalised Estimating Equations controlling for participants' age, sex, income, diet and involvement in traditional activities. Higher household crowding was significantly associated with elevated AL levels and with greater odds of being at risk on at least seven physiological indicators, especially among women and independently of individuals' characteristics. This study demonstrates that household crowding is a source of chronic stress among the Inuit of Nunavik. Differential housing conditions are shown to be a marker of health inequalities among this population. Housing conditions are a critical public health issue in many aboriginal communities that must be investigated further to inform healthy and sustainable housing strategies.

  3. Secure Nearest Neighbor Query on Crowd-Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearest neighbor queries are fundamental in location-based services, and secure nearest neighbor queries mainly focus on how to securely and quickly retrieve the nearest neighbor in the outsourced cloud server. However, the previous big data system structure has changed because of the crowd-sensing data. On the one hand, sensing data terminals as the data owner are numerous and mistrustful, while, on the other hand, in most cases, the terminals find it difficult to finish many safety operation due to computation and storage capability constraints. In light of they Multi Owners and Multi Users (MOMU situation in the crowd-sensing data cloud environment, this paper presents a secure nearest neighbor query scheme based on the proxy server architecture, which is constructed by protocols of secure two-party computation and secure Voronoi diagram algorithm. It not only preserves the data confidentiality and query privacy but also effectively resists the collusion between the cloud server and the data owners or users. Finally, extensive theoretical and experimental evaluations are presented to show that our proposed scheme achieves a superior balance between the security and query performance compared to other schemes.

  4. People detection in crowded scenes using active contour models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidla, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The detection of pedestrians in real-world scenes is a daunting task, especially in crowded situations. Our experience over the last years has shown that active shape models (ASM) can contribute significantly to a robust pedestrian detection system. The paper starts with an overview of shape model approaches, it then explains our approach which builds on top of Eigenshape models which have been trained using real-world data. These models are placed over candidate regions and matched to image gradients using a scoring function which integrates i) point distribution, ii) local gradient orientations iii) local image gradient strengths. A matching and shape model update process is iteratively applied in order to fit the flexible models to the local image content. The weights of the scoring function have a significant impact on the ASM performance. We analyze different settings of scoring weights for gradient magnitude, relative orientation differences, distance between model and gradient in an experiment which uses real-world data. Although for only one pedestrian model in an image computation time is low, the number of necessary processing cycles which is needed to track many people in crowded scenes can become the bottleneck in a real-time application. We describe the measures which have been taken in order to improve the speed of the ASM implementation and make it real-time capable.

  5. Investigating burnout situations, nurses' stress perception and effect of a post-graduate education program in health care organizations of northern Italy: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Cristina; Caruso, Rosario; Campanella, Francesca; Berzolari, Francesca Gigli; Miazza, Daniela; Pelissero, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Burnout (BO) is increasingly considered a public health problem: it is not only harmful to the individual, but also for the organization. Therefore, in recent years, research has given particular attention to the study of the phenomenon and its antecedents among the nursing profession. In the last ten years, the literature shows the prevalence of BO in different clinical settings, but there are few recent data describing the phenomenon and its relationship with educational preventive programs. The aims of this study are: a) to describe the prevalence of nurses' risk of BO in the northern Italy area b) to describe nurses' coping and their perception of the BO antecedents. c) to describe the effects of education on the nurses' coping and their recognition of BO antecedents. The study is structured into two main parts. The first was cross-sectional, the second was prospective. Burnout Potential Inventory (BPI) questionnaire was used in the cross-sectional part to survey risk of BO in three big hospitals in Northern Italy. The Health Profession Stress and Coping Scale (HPSCS) was used in the prospective part to survey the nurses' stress perception and their coping mechanisms in a post-graduate educational program. Nurses' BO risk is within the normal range, although the BPI highlighted three borderline subscales: poor team work, work overload and poor feedback. Post-graduate education had a positive effect on the stress perception, but it is not sufficient to improve coping mechanisms. The study revealed the more stressful work situations and the effect of post-graduate education to prevent the effects of stress. This topic needs further investigation in the light of the result of this study.

  6. National conference on crowd-funding - Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bour, Daniel; Raguet, Alex; Arnaud, Christophe; Olive, Catherine; Herriou, Jean-Pierre; Lemaignan, Benoit; Camps, Mathieu; Gauduchon, Marie-Veronique; Hostache, Julien; Clerc, Jean-Marc; Feraudy, Nicolas de; Petit, Frederic; Blais, Armaury; Egnell, Luc; Desvigne, Alain; Floc'h, Romain; Forgues, Benoit; Kuzdzal, Matthieu

    2016-12-01

    This conference was organised in the framework of the CrowdFundRES European project (European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 646435). Its objectives were: - to provide a comprehensive overview of solar energy crowd-funding in Europe and in France; - to inform about the French legal framework; - to answer the pending questions regarding the conditions of application of the call for bids; - to identify the most suitable modalities for project developers; - to shed light on the possibilities offered to local communities and to their citizens; - to present concrete examples of realisations with their experience feedback; - to exchange on crowd-funding structuring at the service of energy transition in France and in regions. This document brings together the different presentations (slides) given at this conference

  7. Altered immunity in crowded locust reduced fungal (Metarhizium anisopliae pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yundan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress of living conditions, similar to infections, alters animal immunity. High population density is empirically considered to induce prophylactic immunity to reduce the infection risk, which was challenged by a model of low connectivity between infectious and susceptible individuals in crowded animals. The migratory locust, which exhibits polyphenism through gregarious and solitary phases in response to population density and displays different resistance to fungal biopesticide (Metarhizium anisopliae, was used to observe the prophylactic immunity of crowded animals. We applied an RNA-sequencing assay to investigate differential expression in fat body samples of gregarious and solitary locusts before and after infection. Solitary locusts devoted at least twice the number of genes for combating M. anisopliae infection than gregarious locusts. The transcription of immune molecules such as pattern recognition proteins, protease inhibitors, and anti-oxidation proteins, was increased in prophylactic immunity of gregarious locusts. The differentially expressed transcripts reducing gregarious locust susceptibility to M. anisopliae were confirmed at the transcriptional and translational level. Further investigation revealed that locust GNBP3 was susceptible to proteolysis while GNBP1, induced by M. anisopliae infection, resisted proteolysis. Silencing of gnbp3 by RNAi significantly shortened the life span of gregarious locusts but not solitary locusts. By contrast, gnbp1 silencing did not affect the life span of both gregarious and solitary locusts after M. anisopliae infection. Thus, the GNBP3-dependent immune responses were involved in the phenotypic resistance of gregarious locusts to fungal infection, but were redundant in solitary locusts. Our results indicated that gregarious locusts prophylactically activated upstream modulators of immune cascades rather than downstream effectors, preferring to quarantine rather than eliminate pathogens to

  8. Disaggregating Within- and Between-Person Effects of Social Identification on Subjective and Endocrinological Stress Reactions in a Real-Life Stress Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketturat, Charlene; Frisch, Johanna U; Ullrich, Johannes; Häusser, Jan A; van Dick, Rolf; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Several experimental and cross-sectional studies have established the stress-buffering effect of social identification, yet few longitudinal studies have been conducted within this area of research. This study is the first to make use of a multilevel approach to disaggregate between- and within-person effects of social identification on subjective and endocrinological stress reactions. Specifically, we conducted a study with 85 prospective students during their 1-day aptitude test for a university sports program. Ad hoc groups were formed, in which students completed several tests in various disciplines together. At four points in time, salivary cortisol, subjective strain, and identification with their group were measured. Results of multilevel analyses show a significant within-person effect of social identification: The more students identified with their group, the less stress they experienced and the lower their cortisol response was. Between-person effects were not significant. Advantages of using multilevel approaches within this field of research are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. Virtual Crowds Methods, Simulation, and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Pelechano, Nuria; Allbeck, Jan

    2008-01-01

    There are many applications of computer animation and simulation where it is necessary to model virtual crowds of autonomous agents. Some of these applications include site planning, education, entertainment, training, and human factors analysis for building evacuation. Other applications include simulations of scenarios where masses of people gather, flow, and disperse, such as transportation centers, sporting events, and concerts. Most crowd simulations include only basic locomotive behaviors possibly coupled with a few stochastic actions. Our goal in this survey is to establish a baseline o

  10. Directing the wisdom of the crowd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clauss, Thomas; Breitenecker, Robert J.; Kraus, Sascha

    2018-01-01

    and the community as well as among community members into account. We empirically investigated potential success factors for crowdfunding projects of entrepreneurs on the base of 430 projects from the German crowdfunding platform Visionbakery. Our results show that social interaction during a crowdfunding campaign...... indeed increases the likelihood of its success. As comments from crowd members on particular projects might be positive or negative and can also provide additional argumentation or raise questions, comments can cause a dialog among crowd members. This shows that herding might not only be related...

  11. EMOTIONAL CONTAGION AND MOOD IN CROWD SERVING AS AUDIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beno Arnejcic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The global world is gradually becoming a world of separated crowds despite the artificial wire and wireless connection through television and the Internet. Crowds remain a prevailing subject of research in different social studies, and the research of changes in the psychological structure of crowds and their characteristics is still of primary interest. The main focus of the research is on the interpretation of the results of the research paper about a special separated crowd called audience. It was observed how students, constituting the crowd, perceive a crowd on video. The observation was focused on the research of emotional contagion and mood in the crowd serving as audience. While watching a mass event on a big screen, the crowd serving as audience emotionally converges with someone else, in our case with public speakers.

  12. Crowd counting via scale-adaptive convolutional neural network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lu; Shi, Miaojing; Chen, Qiaobo

    2017-01-01

    The task of crowd counting is to automatically estimate the pedestrian number in crowd images. To cope with the scale and perspective changes that commonly exist in crowd images, state-of-the-art approaches employ multi-column CNN architectures to regress density maps of crowd images. Multiple columns have different receptive fields corresponding to pedestrians (heads) of different scales. We instead propose a scale-adaptive CNN (SaCNN) architecture with a backbone of fixed small receptive fi...

  13. The Behavioral Effects of Crowding: Definitions and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Larry M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Crews of 18 U.S. Navy combat vessels rated their living and working conditions aboard ship, including degree of crowding. Three different types of measures corresponding to different definitions of crowding were constructed. These separate crowding measures correlated uniquely with satisfaction and illness criteria. (Author/MA)

  14. The Crowd in Requirements Engineering: The Landscape and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Eduard C.; Seyff, Norbert; Ali, Raian; Dalpiaz, Fabiano; Doerr, Joerg; Guzman, Emitza; Hosseini, Mahmood; Marco, Jordi; Oriol, Marc; Perini, Anna; Stade, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Crowd-based requirements engineering (CrowdRE) could significantly change RE. Performing RE activities such as elicitation with the crowd of stakeholders turns RE into a participatory effort, leads to more accurate requirements, and ultimately boosts software quality. Although any stakeholder in the

  15. HER2 and β-catenin protein location: importance in the prognosis of breast cancer patients and their correlation when breast cancer cells suffer stressful situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello-Carrión, F Darío; Shortrede, Jorge E; Alvarez-Olmedo, Daiana; Cayado-Gutiérrez, Niubys; Castro, Gisela N; Zoppino, Felipe C M; Guerrero, Martín; Martinis, Estefania; Wuilloud, Rodolfo; Gómez, Nidia N; Biaggio, Verónica; Orozco, Javier; Gago, Francisco E; Ciocca, Leonardo A; Fanelli, Mariel A; Ciocca, Daniel R

    2015-02-01

    In human breast cancer, β-catenin localization has been related with disease prognosis. Since HER2-positive patients are an important subgroup, and that in breast cancer cells a direct interaction of β-catenin/HER2 has been reported, in the present study we have explored whether β-catenin location is related with the disease survival. The study was performed in a tumor bank from patients (n = 140) that did not receive specific anti-HER2 therapy. The proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry in serial sections, 47 (33.5%) patients were HER2-positive with a long follow-up. HER2-positive patients that displayed β-catenin at the plasma membrane (completely surrounding the tumour cells) showed a significant better disease-free survival and overall survival than the patients showing the protein on other locations. Then we explored the dynamics of the co-expression of β-catenin and HER2 in human MCF-7 and SKBR3 cells exposed to different stressful situations. In untreated conditions MCF-7 and SKBR3 cells showed very different β-catenin localization. In MCF-7 cells, cadmium administration caused a striking change in β-catenin localization driving it from plasma membrane to cytoplasmic and perinuclear areas and HER2 showed a similar localization patterns. The changes induced by cadmium were compared with heat shock, H2O2 and tamoxifen treatments. In conclusion, this study shows the dynamical associations of HER2 and β-catenin and their changes in subcellular localizations driven by stressful situations. In addition, we report for the first time the correlation between plasma membrane associated β-catenin in HER2-positive breast cancer and survival outcome, and the importance of the protein localization in breast cancer samples.

  16. Data For: Heading Through A Crowd

    OpenAIRE

    Riddell, Hugh; Lappe, Markus

    2018-01-01

    Data and analysis scripts to accompany the article "Heading Through A Crowd" by Dr. Hugh Riddell and Prof. Dr. Markus Lappe. All analysis scripts are in SPSS format. Data has been provided in SPSS and .txt formats. Any correspondence should be addressed to Prof. Dr. Markus Lappe.

  17. The crowd in the Occupy movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I recast Elias Canetti's notion of crowds by placing it in the framework provided by Friedrich Nietzsche's Heraclitean dialectic of Apollonian and Dionysian opposites. The argument is introduced that, in European societies, the forms of social existence are mainly Apollonian,

  18. Crowd-sourcing with Uncertain Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Bogetoft, Peter

    This article addresses two important issues in crowd-sourcing: ex ante uncertainty about the quality and cost of different workers and strategic behaviour. We present a novel multi-dimensional auction that incentivises the workers to make partial enquiry into the task and to honestly report quality...

  19. How to Move in a Jostling Crowd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For people living in big cities it is an ordeal to walk in a bus stand or a railway station. They get stuck helplessly in a crowd. They are simply pushed around and all their efforts to move forward appear futile. Only the most energetic can wade through the constantly moving sea of people. How about the weaker ones?

  20. Wise Crowd Content Assessment and Educational Rubrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passonneau, Rebecca J.; Poddar, Ananya; Gite, Gaurav; Krivokapic, Alisa; Yang, Qian; Perin, Dolores

    2018-01-01

    Development of reliable rubrics for educational intervention studies that address reading and writing skills is labor-intensive, and could benefit from an automated approach. We compare a main ideas rubric used in a successful writing intervention study to a highly reliable wise-crowd content assessment method developed to evaluate…

  1. Situated Transgressiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Sullivan, Katie Rose; Rich, Craig

    2016-01-01

    conversations within queer theory, transgender and organization studies by highlighting how situated contexts mediate the political potential of queer bodies at work. By developing the concept ‘situated transgressiveness’, this article challenges notions of transgender as a stable, ideal disruptive category......This study investigates the lived experience of one transwoman, Claire, a public advocate and a manager with client services responsibilities. We examine Claire's story in order to discuss how situated contexts, such as different roles, locales and interactions, shape the way she experiences...

  2. Emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  3. Situational Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Süttö, Marián

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is focused on field of leadership, particularly situational leadership model by Hersey and Blanchard. Thesis is mostly theoretical framework aimed to offer the possibility for reader to get overview in leadership issues. Theoretical framework of the thesis is focused on leadership definition, the most important leadership theories in the past, and especially to situational leadership approach. The focus of this thesis is to get detailed insight in this model and therefore offer in...

  4. On a mean field game optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in human crowds

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin; Di Francesco, Marco; Markowich, Peter A.; Wolfram, Marie Therese

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of fast exit and evacuation situations in crowd motion research has received a lot of scientific interest in the last decades. Security issues in larger facilities, like shopping malls, sports centers, or festivals necessitate a better understanding of the major driving forces in crowd dynamics. In this paper we present an optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in pedestrian crowds. The model is formulated in the framework of mean field games and based on a parabolic optimal control problem. We consider the case of a large human crowd trying to exit a room as fast as possible. The motion of every pedestrian is determined by minimizing a cost functional, which depends on his/her position and velocity, the overall density of people, and the time to exit. This microscopic setup leads in a mean-field formulation to a nonlinear macroscopic optimal control problem, which raises challenging questions for the analysis and numerical simulations.We discuss different aspects of the mathematical modeling and illustrate them with various computational results. ©2013 IEEE.

  5. On a mean field game optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in human crowds

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The understanding of fast exit and evacuation situations in crowd motion research has received a lot of scientific interest in the last decades. Security issues in larger facilities, like shopping malls, sports centers, or festivals necessitate a better understanding of the major driving forces in crowd dynamics. In this paper we present an optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in pedestrian crowds. The model is formulated in the framework of mean field games and based on a parabolic optimal control problem. We consider the case of a large human crowd trying to exit a room as fast as possible. The motion of every pedestrian is determined by minimizing a cost functional, which depends on his/her position and velocity, the overall density of people, and the time to exit. This microscopic setup leads in a mean-field formulation to a nonlinear macroscopic optimal control problem, which raises challenging questions for the analysis and numerical simulations.We discuss different aspects of the mathematical modeling and illustrate them with various computational results. ©2013 IEEE.

  6. Post-stress recovery of pituitary-adrenal hormones and glucose, but not the response during exposure to the stressor, is a marker of stress intensity in highly stressful situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Cristina; Belda, Xavier; Armario, Antonio

    2002-02-01

    Acute immobilization in male rats elicited the same ACTH, corticosterone and glucose response as foot shock when measured immediately after stress. However, post-stress recovery of plasma ACTH, corticosterone and glucose levels were delayed in immobilized versus shocked rats. Similarly, stress-induced anorexia was much greater in the former animals. All these data suggest that post-stress speed of recovery of some physiological variables is positively related to stressor intensity and could be used to evaluate it.

  7. Crowd-Sourced Intelligence Agency: Prototyping counterveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Gradecki; Derek Curry

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses how an interactive artwork, the Crowd-Sourced Intelligence Agency (CSIA), can contribute to discussions of Big Data intelligence analytics. The CSIA is a publicly accessible Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) system that was constructed using information gathered from technical manuals, research reports, academic papers, leaked documents, and Freedom of Information Act files. Using a visceral heuristic, the CSIA demonstrates how the statistical correlations made by automate...

  8. Microscopic and macroscopic models for pedestrian crowds

    OpenAIRE

    Makmul, Juntima

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with microscopic and macroscopic models for pedes- trian crowds. In the first chapter, we consider pedestrians exit choices and model human behaviour in an evacuation process. Two microscopic models, discrete and continuous, are studied in this chapter. The former is a cellular automaton model and the latter is a social force model. Different numerical test cases are investigated and their results are compared. In chapter 2, a hierarchy of models for...

  9. Associative Interactions in Crowded Solutions of Biopolymers Counteract Depletion Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Joost; Foschepoth, David; te Brinke, Esra; Boersma, Arnold J; Imamura, Hiromi; Rivas, Germán; Heus, Hans A; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2015-10-14

    The cytosol of Escherichia coli is an extremely crowded environment, containing high concentrations of biopolymers which occupy 20-30% of the available volume. Such conditions are expected to yield depletion forces, which strongly promote macromolecular complexation. However, crowded macromolecule solutions, like the cytosol, are very prone to nonspecific associative interactions that can potentially counteract depletion. It remains unclear how the cytosol balances these opposing interactions. We used a FRET-based probe to systematically study depletion in vitro in different crowded environments, including a cytosolic mimic, E. coli lysate. We also studied bundle formation of FtsZ protofilaments under identical crowded conditions as a probe for depletion interactions at much larger overlap volumes of the probe molecule. The FRET probe showed a more compact conformation in synthetic crowding agents, suggesting strong depletion interactions. However, depletion was completely negated in cell lysate and other protein crowding agents, where the FRET probe even occupied slightly more volume. In contrast, bundle formation of FtsZ protofilaments proceeded as readily in E. coli lysate and other protein solutions as in synthetic crowding agents. Our experimental results and model suggest that, in crowded biopolymer solutions, associative interactions counterbalance depletion forces for small macromolecules. Furthermore, the net effects of macromolecular crowding will be dependent on both the size of the macromolecule and its associative interactions with the crowded background.

  10. Situating Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    Our mobile phone is with us at all times. Habitually, we pick it up in the morning and carry it around on our daily routes and routines. Increasingly, we use it to locate ourselves and the things and people around us. With ubiquitous computing, technology is moving into the very fabric of our....... First, situationally appropriate forms of engagement that align well with citizens’ own conceptions are necessary in order to provide relevance and meaning of issues in the moment. Second, situated engagement requires a technological setup which facilitates the co-location of people, place...... with sophisticated prototypes in the wild. It proposes walkshops as a technique for collaborative exploration within actual outdoor environments and the use of field trials as part of an iterative design process in order to look ahead toward use practices that are still in the making....

  11. Two-stage perceptual learning to break visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziyun; Fan, Zhenzhi; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    When a target is presented with nearby flankers in the peripheral visual field, it becomes harder to identify, which is referred to as crowding. Crowding sets a fundamental limit of object recognition in peripheral vision, preventing us from fully appreciating cluttered visual scenes. We trained adult human subjects on a crowded orientation discrimination task and investigated whether crowding could be completely eliminated by training. We discovered a two-stage learning process with this training task. In the early stage, when the target and flankers were separated beyond a certain distance, subjects acquired a relatively general ability to break crowding, as evidenced by the fact that the breaking of crowding could transfer to another crowded orientation, even a crowded motion stimulus, although the transfer to the opposite visual hemi-field was weak. In the late stage, like many classical perceptual learning effects, subjects' performance gradually improved and showed specificity to the trained orientation. We also found that, when the target and flankers were spaced too finely, training could only reduce, rather than completely eliminate, the crowding effect. This two-stage learning process illustrates a learning strategy for our brain to deal with the notoriously difficult problem of identifying peripheral objects in clutter. The brain first learned to solve the "easy and general" part of the problem (i.e., improving the processing resolution and segmenting the target and flankers) and then tackle the "difficult and specific" part (i.e., refining the representation of the target).

  12. How to Mitigate Theme Park Crowding? A Prospective Coordination Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Crowding is a key factor in tourists’ experience in theme parks, and mitigating crowding makes parks more competitive. This study examines how to effectively mitigate crowding in theme parks. First, a Markov-based method is developed to predict the spatial-temporal distribution of tourists in the park. Then, a prospective coordination approach based on the tourist distribution prediction is proposed. To evaluate the performance of this approach, an experiment is constructed using an agent-based simulation platform. The results indicate that the proposed method significantly outperforms existing methods. Furthermore, we conduct two experiments and, based on the results, offer several recommendations for crowd management.

  13. Grouping and crowding affect target appearance over different spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Sayim

    Full Text Available Crowding is the impairment of peripheral target perception by nearby flankers. A number of recent studies have shown that crowding shares many features with grouping. Here, we investigate whether effects of crowding and grouping on target perception are related by asking whether they operate over the same spatial scale. A target letter T had two sets of flanking Ts of varying orientations. The first set was presented close to the target, yielding strong crowding. The second set was either close enough to cause crowding on their own or too far to cause crowding on their own. The Ts of the second set had the same orientation that either matched the target's orientation (Grouped condition or not (Ungrouped condition. In Experiment 1, the Grouped flankers reduced crowding independently of their distance from the target, suggesting that grouping operated over larger distances than crowding. In Experiments 2 and 3 we found that grouping did not affect sensitivity but produced a strong bias to report that the grouped orientation was present at the target location whether or not it was. Finally, we investigated whether this bias was a response or perceptual bias, rejecting the former in favor of a perceptual grouping explanation. We suggest that the effect of grouping is to assimilate the target to the identity of surrounding flankers when they are all the same, and that this shape assimilation effect differs in its spatial scale from the integration effect of crowding.

  14. Age-related changes in crowding and reading speed

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rong; Patel, Bhavika N.; Kwon, MiYoung

    2017-01-01

    Crowding, the inability to recognize objects in clutter, is known to play a role in developmental changes in reading speed. Here, we investigated whether crowding also plays a role in age-related changes in reading speed. We recruited 18 young (mean age: 22.6???3.5; range: 18~31) and 21 older adults (mean age: 58.2???7.0; range: 50~73) with normal vision. Reading speed was measured with short blocks of text. The degree of crowding was determined by measuring crowding zone (the distance betwee...

  15. The Financial Impact of Emergency Department Crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foley, Mathew

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The economic benefits of reducing emergency department (ED crowding are potentially substantial as they may decrease hospital length of stay. Hospital administrators and public officials may therefore be motivated to implement crowding protocols. We sought to identify a potential cost of ED crowding by evaluating the contribution of excess ED length of stay (LOS to overall hospital length of stay. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of administrative data of adult patients from two urban hospitals (one county and one university in Brooklyn, New York from 2006-2007. Data was provided by each facility. Extrapolating from prior research (Krochmal and Riley, 2005, we determined the increase in total hospital LOS due to extended ED lengths of stay, and applied cost and charge analyses for the two separate facilities. Results: We determined that 6,205 (5.0% admitted adult patients from the county facility and 3,017 (3.4% patients from the university facility were held in the ED greater than one day over a one-year period. From prior research, it has been estimated that each of these patient’s total hospital length of stay was increased on average by 11.7% (0.61 days at the county facility, and 0.71 days at the university facility. The increased charges over one year at the county facility due to the extended ED LOS was therefore approximately $9.8 million, while the increased costs at the university facility were approximately $3.9 million. Conclusion: Based on extrapolations from Krochmal and Riley applied to two New York urban hospitals, the county hospital could potentially save $9.8 million in charges and the university hospital $3.9 million in costs per year if they eliminate ED boarding of adult admitted patients by improving movement to the inpatient setting. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(2:192-197.

  16. Modelling asymmetric growth in crowded plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A class of models that may be used to quantify the effect of size-asymmetric competition in crowded plant communities by estimating a community specific degree of size-asymmetric growth for each species in the community is suggested. The model consists of two parts: an individual size......-asymmetric growth part, where growth is assumed to be proportional to a power function of the size of the individual, and a term that reduces the relative growth rate as a decreasing function of the individual plant size and the competitive interactions from other plants in the neighbourhood....

  17. Patterns in emergency-department arrivals and length of stay: Input for visualizations of crowding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Crowding is common in emergency departments (EDs) and increases the risk of medical errors, patient dissatisfaction, and clinician stress. The aim of this study is to investigate patterns in patient visits and bottlenecks in ED work in order to discuss the prospects of visualizing such patterns...... (mornings, boom days), patient throughput (staff work hours, linear workflows, manual data entry, overview of patient progress, personal competences), and patient output (no admissions at night, scheduling patient transfers, home transports). The patterns in patient arrivals and length of stay capture...... to help manage crowding. We analyze two years of data from a Danish ED for patterns in the patient visits and interview six clinicians from the ED about bottlenecks in their work. The hour of the day explains 50% of the variance in the number of patient arrivals. In addition, there are weekly and yearly...

  18. Crowd Sourcing to Improve Urban Stormwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsker, B. S.; Band, L. E.; Heidari Haratmeh, B.; Law, N. L.; Leonard, L. N.; Rai, A.

    2017-12-01

    Over half of the world's population currently lives in urban areas, a number predicted to grow to 60 percent by 2030. Urban areas face unprecedented and growing challenges that threaten society's long-term wellbeing, including poverty; chronic health problems; widespread pollution and resource degradation; and increased natural disasters. These are "wicked" problems involving "systems of systems" that require unprecedented information sharing and collaboration across disciplines and organizational boundaries. Cities are recognizing that the increasing stream of data and information ("Big Data"), informatics, and modeling can support rapid advances on these challenges. Nonetheless, information technology solutions can only be effective in addressing these challenges through deeply human and systems perspectives. A stakeholder-driven approach ("crowd sourcing") is needed to develop urban systems that address multiple needs, such as parks that capture and treat stormwater while improving human and ecosystem health and wellbeing. We have developed informatics- and Cloud-based collaborative methods that enable crowd sourcing of green stormwater infrastructure (GSI: rain gardens, bioswales, trees, etc.) design and management. The methods use machine learning, social media data, and interactive design tools (called IDEAS-GI) to identify locations and features of GSI that perform best on a suite of objectives, including life cycle cost, stormwater volume reduction, and air pollution reduction. Insights will be presented on GI features that best meet stakeholder needs and are therefore most likely to improve human wellbeing and be well maintained.

  19. Game theoretic aspects of crowd renting | Nwobi-Okoye | Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Politicians and businessmen use various strategies to outwit their opponents. One such strategy is crowd renting, a powerful virtual strategy. A mathematical model developed by Nwobi-Okoye using game theory is used to show that crowd renting would always be the equilibrium strategy in strategic interactions involving ...

  20. Navigation for Characters and Crowds in Complex Virtual Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Toll, W.G.

    2017-01-01

    In a crowd simulation, virtual walking characters need to compute and traverse paths through a virtual environment while avoiding collisions. Simulations of large crowds occur increasingly often in computer games, in which real-time performance is required. Also, there is an increasing demand for

  1. Fluorescence Dynamics of a FRET Probe Designed for Crowding Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Currie, Megan; Leopold, Hannah; Schwarz, Jacob; Boersma, Arnold J; Sheets, Erin D; Heikal, Ahmed A

    2017-01-01

    Living cells are crowded with macromolecules and organelles. As a result, there is an urgent need for molecular sensors for quantitative, site-specific assessment of the macromolecular crowding effects on a myriad of biochemical processes toward quantitative cell biology and biophysics. Here we

  2. Crowd-based innovaties: verschuivende verantwoordelijkheden in een institutional void

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, M.J.; Cuppen, E.H.W.J.; Doorn, N.; Galeano Galvan, M.J.; Klievink, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The crowd increasingly plays a key role in facilitating innovations in a variety of sectors, spurred on by IT developments and the concomitant increase in connectivity. Initiatives in this direction, captured under the umbrella term ‘crowd-based innovations’, offer novel opportunities in

  3. Effect of Households' Socio-Economic Condition on Crowding in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate a preponderance of gentrification, with attendant policy implications. The results also show that there is no significant difference in the degree of crowding among the different socio-economic classifications. This is inconsistent with the generally held understanding in urban housing studies that crowding ...

  4. Designing interactive technology for crowd experiences - beyond sanitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerasawmy, Rune

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the topic on designing interactive technology for crowd expe- riences. It takes the outset in the experience-oriented design approach within interaction design, exploring the research question how can we conceptually understand and design interactive technology for crowd...... experiences? Through theoretical studies of sociological crowd theory and pragmatist perspectives on experience combined with design exper- iments at sporting events this dissertation establishes an conceptual understanding of crowd experience. The outcome of this work is furthermore synthesized...... in a conceptual model of social experiences that presents crowd experiences as a distinct type of social experience. This is different from what previously have been explored within experi- ence-oriented design. This dissertation is composed of four research papers framed by an overview that summarizes...

  5. German crowd-investing platforms: Literature review and survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Grundy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of the current German crowd-investing market drawing on a data-set of 31 crowd-investing platforms including the analysis of 265 completed projects. While crowd-investing market still only represents a niche in the German venture capital market, there is potential for an increase in both market volume and in average project investment. The market share is distributed among a few crowd-investing platforms with high entry barriers for new platforms although platforms that specialise in certain sectors have managed to successfully enter the market. German crowd-investing platforms are found to promote mainly internet-based enterprises (36% followed by projects in real estate (24% and green projects (19%, with the median money raised 100,000 euro.

  6. Texas situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avant, R.V. Jr.; Bowmer, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was formed in 1981 to address the Texas low-level radioactive waste problem consistent with the direction of P.L. 96-573. The Authority has completed technical tasks, including source term evaluations, preliminary conceptual designs, economic assessments, and long-range planning, and has work in progress on facility design, site selection, operating procedures, and licensing. Site selection has been the major technical activity and will be completed in 1987 after on-site evaluations of potential sites. The Authority expects to have its site licensed and operating in 1992. Texas has been the leader in site selection. Political concerns and the uncertainty of the national agenda led Texas policy makers to slow down the state's progress. The lessons learned through the Texas situation should be instructive to other states and compacts and may well be a prediction of events for these other groups. This paper discusses the background and status of Texas development activities, future plans, and lessons learned

  7. The contrasting effect of macromolecular crowding on amyloid fibril formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ma

    Full Text Available Amyloid fibrils associated with neurodegenerative diseases can be considered biologically relevant failures of cellular quality control mechanisms. It is known that in vivo human Tau protein, human prion protein, and human copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1 have the tendency to form fibril deposits in a variety of tissues and they are associated with different neurodegenerative diseases, while rabbit prion protein and hen egg white lysozyme do not readily form fibrils and are unlikely to cause neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we have investigated the contrasting effect of macromolecular crowding on fibril formation of different proteins.As revealed by assays based on thioflavin T binding and turbidity, human Tau fragments, when phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase-3β, do not form filaments in the absence of a crowding agent but do form fibrils in the presence of a crowding agent, and the presence of a strong crowding agent dramatically promotes amyloid fibril formation of human prion protein and its two pathogenic mutants E196K and D178N. Such an enhancing effect of macromolecular crowding on fibril formation is also observed for a pathological human SOD1 mutant A4V. On the other hand, rabbit prion protein and hen lysozyme do not form amyloid fibrils when a crowding agent at 300 g/l is used but do form fibrils in the absence of a crowding agent. Furthermore, aggregation of these two proteins is remarkably inhibited by Ficoll 70 and dextran 70 at 200 g/l.We suggest that proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases are more likely to form amyloid fibrils under crowded conditions than in dilute solutions. By contrast, some of the proteins that are not neurodegenerative disease-associated are unlikely to misfold in crowded physiological environments. A possible explanation for the contrasting effect of macromolecular crowding on these two sets of proteins (amyloidogenic proteins and non-amyloidogenic proteins has been

  8. Eyes on crowding : Crowding is preserved when responding by eye and similarly affects identity and position accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, Funda; Meyer, Vincent; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    Peripheral vision guides recognition and selection of targets for eye movements. Crowding-a decline in recognition performance that occurs when a potential target is surrounded by other, similar, objects-influences peripheral object recognition. A recent model study suggests that crowding may be due

  9. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  10. Global crowd data to understand risk taking behavior: Understanding the costs of crowd sourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, J.; Johnson, J.

    2016-12-01

    Crowd sourcing is an increasingly common approach to collect data from a large number of places, people, or both, for a given phenomenon or observation. It is often thought of as a very cost effective approach to collect data from large spatial domains, or from difficult to reach areas, or for spatially discrete observations. While crowd sourcing data can provide a wealth of data beyond that which most research teams can collect themselves, there are many associated, and sometime unexpected costs with this approach. We present a case study of a crowd-sourced data collection campaign to collect GPS tracks of back country recreationalists in avalanche terrain. We ask the volunteers to track their outings using the GPS on their smart phone using a free application, and on the completion of their trip email us their track. On receipt of this track we automatically reply with a link to a decision making survey. In this way we collect data on both the physical attributes of their trip, as well as the social, psychological and demographic data about the person. While this approach has been very successful, it has come at a high cost time-wise. Much like the role of an online course instructor, instructor (or in this case researcher) presence is essential. Replying to emails, updating webpages, posting on social media, and connecting with your volunteer data collectors can become a full time job - and that's even before you start the data analysis. We encourage future researchers to plan ahead for this when starting a crowd sourcing project involving the general public, and seek advice and training in social media, web site development and communication techniques like semi-automated email.

  11. Crowded orbits conflict and cooperation in space

    CERN Document Server

    James

    2014-01-01

    Written for all readers, this expert analysis details the basics of space technology, diplomacy, commerce, exploration, and military applications from the mid-twentieth century to today. Space has become increasingly crowded since the end of the Cold War, and this book pays particular attention to the politics and economics of space and recent debates over national security, focusing on the competing themes of international competition and cooperation and the effort to avoid dangerous conflicts. Unfortunately, the growth of human space activity and challenges to existing international tools of management, such as rules, laws, and treaties, have increased the likelihood of conflict over a diminishing pool of space resources close to Earth. Drawing on more than twenty years of experience in international space debates and policy, James Clay Moltz points to the logic of cooperation and collaboration among the expanding number of space actors, considering their shared challenges regarding space traffic, orbital d...

  12. iCrowd: agent-based behavior modeling and crowd simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouriotis, Vassilios I.; Paterakis, Manolis; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2016-05-01

    Initially designed in the context of the TASS (Total Airport Security System) FP-7 project, the Crowd Simulation platform developed by the Integrated Systems Lab of the Institute of Informatics and Telecommunications at N.C.S.R. Demokritos, has evolved into a complete domain-independent agent-based behavior simulator with an emphasis on crowd behavior and building evacuation simulation. Under continuous development, it reflects an effort to implement a modern, multithreaded, data-oriented simulation engine employing latest state-of-the-art programming technologies and paradigms. It is based on an extensible architecture that separates core services from the individual layers of agent behavior, offering a concrete simulation kernel designed for high-performance and stability. Its primary goal is to deliver an abstract platform to facilitate implementation of several Agent-Based Simulation solutions with applicability in several domains of knowledge, such as: (i) Crowd behavior simulation during [in/out] door evacuation. (ii) Non-Player Character AI for Game-oriented applications and Gamification activities. (iii) Vessel traffic modeling and simulation for Maritime Security and Surveillance applications. (iv) Urban and Highway Traffic and Transportation Simulations. (v) Social Behavior Simulation and Modeling.

  13. Crowd-Sourced Global Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, S. E.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Murray, J. R.; Langbein, J. O.; Owen, S. E.; Iannucci, B. A.; Hauser, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Although earthquake early warning (EEW) has shown great promise for reducing loss of life and property, it has only been implemented in a few regions due, in part, to the prohibitive cost of building the required dense seismic and geodetic networks. However, many cars and consumer smartphones, tablets, laptops, and similar devices contain low-cost versions of the same sensors used for earthquake monitoring. If a workable EEW system could be implemented based on either crowd-sourced observations from consumer devices or very inexpensive networks of instruments built from consumer-quality sensors, EEW coverage could potentially be expanded worldwide. Controlled tests of several accelerometers and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers typically found in consumer devices show that, while they are significantly noisier than scientific-grade instruments, they are still accurate enough to capture displacements from moderate and large magnitude earthquakes. The accuracy of these sensors varies greatly depending on the type of data collected. Raw coarse acquisition (C/A) code GPS data are relatively noisy. These observations have a surface displacement detection threshold approaching ~1 m and would thus only be useful in large Mw 8+ earthquakes. However, incorporating either satellite-based differential corrections or using a Kalman filter to combine the raw GNSS data with low-cost acceleration data (such as from a smartphone) decreases the noise dramatically. These approaches allow detection thresholds as low as 5 cm, potentially enabling accurate warnings for earthquakes as small as Mw 6.5. Simulated performance tests show that, with data contributed from only a very small fraction of the population, a crowd-sourced EEW system would be capable of warning San Francisco and San Jose of a Mw 7 rupture on California's Hayward fault and could have accurately issued both earthquake and tsunami warnings for the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-oki, Japan earthquake.

  14. CrowdPhase: crowdsourcing the phase problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorda, Julien; Sawaya, Michael R. [Institute for Genomics and Proteomics, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Yeates, Todd O., E-mail: yeates@mbi.ucla.edu [Institute for Genomics and Proteomics, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Biology Institute, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); University of California, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The idea of attacking the phase problem by crowdsourcing is introduced. Using an interactive, multi-player, web-based system, participants work simultaneously to select phase sets that correspond to better electron-density maps in order to solve low-resolution phasing problems. The human mind innately excels at some complex tasks that are difficult to solve using computers alone. For complex problems amenable to parallelization, strategies can be developed to exploit human intelligence in a collective form: such approaches are sometimes referred to as ‘crowdsourcing’. Here, a first attempt at a crowdsourced approach for low-resolution ab initio phasing in macromolecular crystallography is proposed. A collaborative online game named CrowdPhase was designed, which relies on a human-powered genetic algorithm, where players control the selection mechanism during the evolutionary process. The algorithm starts from a population of ‘individuals’, each with a random genetic makeup, in this case a map prepared from a random set of phases, and tries to cause the population to evolve towards individuals with better phases based on Darwinian survival of the fittest. Players apply their pattern-recognition capabilities to evaluate the electron-density maps generated from these sets of phases and to select the fittest individuals. A user-friendly interface, a training stage and a competitive scoring system foster a network of well trained players who can guide the genetic algorithm towards better solutions from generation to generation via gameplay. CrowdPhase was applied to two synthetic low-resolution phasing puzzles and it was shown that players could successfully obtain phase sets in the 30° phase error range and corresponding molecular envelopes showing agreement with the low-resolution models. The successful preliminary studies suggest that with further development the crowdsourcing approach could fill a gap in current crystallographic methods by making it

  15. Rhythmic crowd bobbing on a grandstand simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, A. J.; Blakeborough, A.; Williams, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that concerted human activity such as bouncing or bobbing can excite cantilever grandstands. Crowd coordination can be unwitting and may be exacerbated by structural motion caused by resonant structural response. This is an area of uncertainty in the design and analysis of modern grandstands. This paper presents experimental measurement and analysis of rhythmic crowd bobbing loads obtained from tests on a grandstand simulator with two distinct support conditions; (a) rigid, and; (b) flexible. It was found that significant structural vibration at the bobbing frequency did not increase the effective bobbing load. Structural motion at the bobbing frequency caused a reduction in the dynamic load factor (DLF) at the frequency of the second harmonic while those at the first and third harmonics were unaffected. Two plausible reasons for this are: (a) the bobbing group were unable to supply significant energy to the system at the frequency of the second harmonic; (b) the bobbing group altered their bobbing style to reduce the response of the grandstand simulator. It was deduced that the bobbing group did not absorb energy from the dynamic system. Furthermore, dynamic load factors for groups of test subjects bobbing on a rigid structure were typically greater than those of synthesised groups derived from individuals bobbing alone, possibly due to group effects such as audio and visual stimuli from neighbouring test subjects. Last, the vibration levels experienced by the test subjects appear to be below levels likely to cause discomfort. This is to be expected as the test subjects were themselves controlling the magnitude and duration of vibration for the bobbing tests considered.

  16. CrowdPhase: crowdsourcing the phase problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorda, Julien; Sawaya, Michael R.; Yeates, Todd O.

    2014-01-01

    The idea of attacking the phase problem by crowdsourcing is introduced. Using an interactive, multi-player, web-based system, participants work simultaneously to select phase sets that correspond to better electron-density maps in order to solve low-resolution phasing problems. The human mind innately excels at some complex tasks that are difficult to solve using computers alone. For complex problems amenable to parallelization, strategies can be developed to exploit human intelligence in a collective form: such approaches are sometimes referred to as ‘crowdsourcing’. Here, a first attempt at a crowdsourced approach for low-resolution ab initio phasing in macromolecular crystallography is proposed. A collaborative online game named CrowdPhase was designed, which relies on a human-powered genetic algorithm, where players control the selection mechanism during the evolutionary process. The algorithm starts from a population of ‘individuals’, each with a random genetic makeup, in this case a map prepared from a random set of phases, and tries to cause the population to evolve towards individuals with better phases based on Darwinian survival of the fittest. Players apply their pattern-recognition capabilities to evaluate the electron-density maps generated from these sets of phases and to select the fittest individuals. A user-friendly interface, a training stage and a competitive scoring system foster a network of well trained players who can guide the genetic algorithm towards better solutions from generation to generation via gameplay. CrowdPhase was applied to two synthetic low-resolution phasing puzzles and it was shown that players could successfully obtain phase sets in the 30° phase error range and corresponding molecular envelopes showing agreement with the low-resolution models. The successful preliminary studies suggest that with further development the crowdsourcing approach could fill a gap in current crystallographic methods by making it

  17. Exits in order: How crowding affects particle lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penington, Catherine J.; Simpson, Matthew J. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Baker, Ruth E. [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-28

    Diffusive processes are often represented using stochastic random walk frameworks. The amount of time taken for an individual in a random walk to intersect with an absorbing boundary is a fundamental property that is often referred to as the particle lifetime, or the first passage time. The mean lifetime of particles in a random walk model of diffusion is related to the amount of time required for the diffusive process to reach a steady state. Mathematical analysis describing the mean lifetime of particles in a standard model of diffusion without crowding is well known. However, the lifetime of agents in a random walk with crowding has received much less attention. Since many applications of diffusion in biology and biophysics include crowding effects, here we study a discrete model of diffusion that incorporates crowding. Using simulations, we show that crowding has a dramatic effect on agent lifetimes, and we derive an approximate expression for the mean agent lifetime that includes crowding effects. Our expression matches simulation results very well, and highlights the importance of crowding effects that are sometimes overlooked.

  18. NECESSITY FACTORS AND PREDICTORS OF DENTAL CROWDING TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta ZEGAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the significant necessity and predictive factors of dental crowding treatment, on 422 subjects (165 boys and 257 girls from the North-East part of Romania. Correlations have been established between dental crowding and age, dentition, Angle class of malocclusions, the etiological factors, types and modalities of treatments, and types of orthodontic appliances employed (p0.05. The necessity and predictive factors of the treatment were adequate with age, dentition, severity of crowding and Angle class of malocclusion.

  19. Estimating the number of people in crowded scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjin; Kim, Wonjun; Kim, Changick

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the number of people in crowded scenes without using explicit object segmentation or tracking. The proposed method consists of three steps as follows: (1) extracting space-time interest points using eigenvalues of the local spatio-temporal gradient matrix, (2) generating crowd regions based on space-time interest points, and (3) estimating the crowd density based on the multiple regression. In experimental results, the efficiency and robustness of our proposed method are demonstrated by using PETS 2009 dataset.

  20. CROWDING AND SHOPPING VALUE IN LOW-INCOME RETAIL CENTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabelle Quezado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the great potential of low-income consumption, this research is based on the scales developed by Babin, Darden and Griffin (1994 and by Machleit, Kellaris and Eroglu (1994, aiming to investigate hedonic and utilitarian consumer behavior and its relation with low-income perception of crowding. A research was performed with 404 consumers in real store environment and the results showed that consumers revealed being prone to utilitarian behavior in both centers. About crowding phenomenon, the consumers felt more uncomfortable by crowding at the commercial center with less infrastructure. There were indices that this discomfort was less intense in hedonic consumers.

  1. The wisdom of the crowd in funding: information heterogeneity and social networks of crowdfunders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polzin, Friedemann; Toxopeus, Helen; Stam, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Crowdfunding has enabled large crowds to fund innovative projects. This type of funding might tap into the wisdom of crowds who were previously disconnected from the funding process. We distinguish between in-crowd and out-crowd funders (with and without ties to project creators) in order to test

  2. The wisdom of the crowd in funding: : Information heterogeneity and social networks of crowdfunder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polzin, F.H.J.; Toxopeus, H.S.; Stam, F.C.

    2016-01-01

    Crowdfunding has enabled large crowds to fund innovative projects. This type of funding might tap into the wisdom of crowds who were previously disconnected from the funding process. We distinguish between in-crowd and out-crowd funders (with and without ties to project creators) in order to test

  3. Two's a crowd? Crowding effect in a parasitic castrator drives differences in reproductive resource allocation in single vs double infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Caitlin R; Moron, Nancy A; Kuris, Armand M

    2017-04-01

    The 'crowding effect' is a result of competition by parasites within a host for finite resources. Typically, the severity of this effect increases with increasing numbers of parasites within a host and manifests in reduced body size and thus fitness. Evidence for the crowding effect is mixed - while some have found negative effects, others have found a positive effect of increased parasite load on parasite fitness. Parasites are consumers with diverse trophic strategies reflected in their life history traits. These distinctions are useful to predict the effects of crowding. We studied a parasitic castrator, a parasite that usurps host reproductive energy and renders the host sterile. Parasitic castrators typically occur as single infections within hosts. With multiple parasitic castrators, we expect strong competition and evidence of crowding. We directly assess the effect of crowding on reproductive success in a barnacle population infected by a unique parasitic castrator, Hemioniscus balani, an isopod parasite that infects and blocks reproduction of barnacles. We find (1) strong evidence of crowding in double infections, (2) increased frequency of double infections in larger barnacle hosts with more resources and (3) perfect compensation in egg production, supporting strong space limitation. Our results document that the effects of crowding are particularly severe for this parasitic castrator, and may be applicable to other castrators that are also resource or space limited.

  4. The sound of the crowd: auditory information modulates the perceived emotion of a crowd based on bodily expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Joanna E; Kearney, Gavin; Rice, Henry; Newell, Fiona N

    2012-02-01

    Although both auditory and visual information can influence the perceived emotion of an individual, how these modalities contribute to the perceived emotion of a crowd of characters was hitherto unknown. Here, we manipulated the ambiguity of the emotion of either a visual or auditory crowd of characters by varying the proportions of characters expressing one of two emotional states. Using an intersensory bias paradigm, unambiguous emotional information from an unattended modality was presented while participants determined the emotion of a crowd in an attended, but different, modality. We found that emotional information in an unattended modality can disambiguate the perceived emotion of a crowd. Moreover, the size of the crowd had little effect on these crossmodal influences. The role of audiovisual information appears to be similar in perceiving emotion from individuals or crowds. Our findings provide novel insights into the role of multisensory influences on the perception of social information from crowds of individuals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  5. [Fatal incidents by crowd crush during mass events. (Un)preventable phenomenon?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U; Fälker, A; Wenzel, V

    2013-01-01

    Crowd crushes with dozens or even hundreds of casualties have occurred several times at the Hajj in Saudi Arabia and also in soccer stadiums in Western Europe. As fatal accidents after human stampedes during mass events occur very rarely and are usually accompanied by many years of criminal court proceedings in order to identify underlying responsible mechanisms and culprits, it is very difficult to draw conclusions and formulate precautions from an emergency medical point of view. This study analyzed a fatal crowd crush which occurred on 4 December 1999 following the "Air & Style" snowboard contest with approximately 22,000 people attending in the Bergisel stadium in Innsbruck, Austria. Firstly, focused interviews were conducted with professional rescuers, police and physicians and secondly publicly available court records dealing with this incident in the district court of Innsbruck, Austria were analyzed. During the snowboard contest 87 emergency medical technicians, 6 emergency physicians, 1 leading emergency physician, 21 policemen and 140 security personnel were present. Following the accident additionally some 100 emergency medical technicians, 36 emergency medical service vehicles and 4 physician-staffed emergency medical service vehicles responded to the scene. The deadly crowd crush resulting in 6 fatalities, 4 patients still in a vegetative state and 38 injured, was due to a severe crowd accumulation at one stadium exit, which was not recognized and dispersed in time. Construction of the exit in line with darkness, steep slope and slippery surface contributed adversely to this dangerous situation, although panic did not occur at any time. Unfortunately, there is no patent remedy to completely prevent fatal accidents by a crowd crush at mass events. If planning is initiated early, sufficient material and personnel reserves are kept in reserve and despite conflicting interests of the organizers, the host community, security, police and emergency medical

  6. Nickel-titanium alloys: stress-related temperature transitional range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M; Beshers, D N

    2000-12-01

    The inducement of mechanical stress within nickel-titanium wires can influence the transitional temperature range of the alloy and therefore the expression of the superelastic properties. An analogous variation of the transitional temperature range may be expected during orthodontic therapy, when the archwires are engaged into the brackets. To investigate this possibility, samples of currently used orthodontic nickel-titanium wires (Sentalloy, GAC; Copper Ni-Ti superelastic at 27 degrees C, 35 degrees C, 40 degrees C, Ormco; Nitinol Heat-Activated, 3M-Unitek) were subjected to temperature cycles ranging between 4 degrees C and 60 degrees C. The wires were mounted in a plexiglass loading device designed to simulate clinical situations of minimum and severe dental crowding. Electrical resistivity was used to monitor the phase transformations. The data were analyzed with paired t tests. The results confirmed the presence of displacements of the transitional temperature ranges toward higher temperatures when stress was induced. Because nickel-titanium wires are most commonly used during the aligning stage in cases of severe dental crowding, particular attention was given to the performance of the orthodontic wires under maximum loading. An alloy with a stress-related transitional temperature range corresponding to the fluctuations of the oral temperature should express superelastic properties more consistently than others. According to our results, Copper Ni-Ti 27 degrees C and Nitinol Heat-Activated wires may be considered suitable alloys for the alignment stage.

  7. Design optimization of deep groove ball bearings using crowding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aparna Duggirala

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... The technique is applied to bearings used in transmission system of a tractor for the purpose of ... different types of AI techniques have been used [8–12]. ..... with a crowding distance based external archive maintenance.

  8. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate...... employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive......, monetary incentives are found to cause different crowding effects for these different types of intrinsic motivation. The results call for more theoretical work on the drivers of motivation crowding effects and for practitioners to pay more attention to what type of intrinsic motivation is at stake, when...

  9. Household Crowding During Childhood and Long-Term Education Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopoo, Leonard M; London, Andrew S

    2016-06-01

    Household crowding, or having more household members than rooms in one's residence, could potentially affect a child's educational attainment directly through a number of mechanisms. We use U.S. longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to derive new measures of childhood crowding and estimate negative associations between crowding during one's high school years and, respectively, high school graduation by age 19 and maximum education at age 25. These negative relationships persist in multivariate models in which we control for the influence of a variety of factors, including socioeconomic status and housing-cost burden. Given the importance of educational attainment for a range of midlife and later-life outcomes, this study suggests that household crowding during one's high school years is an engine of cumulative inequality over the life course.

  10. Diffusion in crowded biological environments: applications of Brownian dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Długosz, Maciej; Trylska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical reactions in living systems occur in complex, heterogeneous media with total concentrations of macromolecules in the range of 50 - 400 mg/ml. Molecular species occupy a significant fraction of the immersing medium, up to 40% of volume. Such complex and volume-occupied environments are generally termed 'crowded' and/or 'confined'. In crowded conditions non-specific interactions between macromolecules may hinder diffusion - a major process determining metabolism, transport, and sign...

  11. Modulation of calmodulin plasticity by the effect of macromolecular crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homouz, Dirar; Sanabria, Hugo; Waxham, M Neal; Cheung, Margaret S

    2009-09-04

    In vitro biochemical reactions are most often studied in dilute solution, a poor mimic of the intracellular space of eukaryotic cells, which are crowded with mobile and immobile macromolecules. Such crowded conditions exert volume exclusion and other entropic forces that have the potential to impact chemical equilibria and reaction rates. In this article, we used the well-characterized and ubiquitous molecule calmodulin (CaM) and a combination of theoretical and experimental approaches to address how crowding impacts CaM's conformational plasticity. CaM is a dumbbell-shaped molecule that contains four EF hands (two in the N-lobe and two in the C-lobe) that each could bind Ca(2+), leading to stabilization of certain substates that favor interactions with other target proteins. Using coarse-grained molecular simulations, we explored the distribution of CaM conformations in the presence of crowding agents. These predictions, in which crowding effects enhance the population of compact structures, were then confirmed in experimental measurements using fluorescence resonance energy transfer techniques of donor- and acceptor-labeled CaM under normal and crowded conditions. Using protein reconstruction methods, we further explored the folding-energy landscape and examined the structural characteristics of CaM at free-energy basins. We discovered that crowding stabilizes several different compact conformations, which reflects the inherent plasticity in CaM's structure. From these results, we suggest that the EF hands in the C-lobe are flexible and can be thought of as a switch, while those in the N-lobe are stiff, analogous to a rheostat. New combinatorial signaling properties may arise from the product of the differential plasticity of the two distinct lobes of CaM in the presence of crowding. We discuss the implications of these results for modulating CaM's ability to bind Ca(2+) and target proteins.

  12. Crowded letter and crowded picture logMAR acuity in children with amblyopia: a quantitative comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, Cathy; Chen, Sean I; Little, Julie-Anne

    2017-04-01

    Clinically, picture acuity tests are thought to overestimate visual acuity (VA) compared with letter tests, but this has not been systematically investigated in children with amblyopia. This study compared VA measurements with the LogMAR Crowded Kay Picture test to the LogMAR Crowded Keeler Letter acuity test in a group of young children with amblyopia. 58 children (34 male) with amblyopia (22 anisometropic, 18 strabismic and 18 with both strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia) aged 4-6 years (mean=68.7, range=48-83 months) underwent VA measurements. VA chart testing order was randomised, but the amblyopic eye was tested before the fellow eye. All participants wore up-to-date refractive correction. The Kay Picture test significantly overestimated VA by 0.098 logMAR (95% limits of agreement (LOA), 0.13) in the amblyopic eye and 0.088 logMAR (95% LOA, 0.13) in the fellow eye, respectively (pocclusion therapy, refractive correction or type of amblyopia on VA results (p>0.23). For both the amblyopic and fellow eyes, Bland-Altman plots demonstrated a systematic and predictable difference between Kay Picture and Keeler Letter charts across the range of acuities tested (Keeler acuity: amblyopic eye 0.75 to -0.05 logMAR; fellow eye 0.45 to -0.15 logMAR). Linear regression analysis (pamblyopia. Due to the predictable difference found between both crowded logMAR acuity tests, it is reasonable to adjust Kay Picture acuity thresholds by +0.10 logMAR to compute expected Keeler Letter acuity scores. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Further steps in the modeling of behavioural crowd dynamics, good news for safe handling. Comment on "Human behaviours in evacuation crowd dynamics: From modelling to "big data" toward crisis management" by Nicola Bellomo et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopoff, Damián A.

    2016-09-01

    The recent review paper [4] constitutes a valuable contribution on the understanding, modeling and simulation of crowd dynamics in extreme situations. It provides a very comprehensive revision about the complexity features of the system under consideration, scaling and the consequent justification of the used methods. In particular, macro and microscopic models have so far been used to model crowd dynamics [9] and authors appropriately explain that working at the mesoscale is a good choice to deal with the heterogeneous behaviour of walkers as well as with the difficulty of their deterministic identification. In this way, methods based on the kinetic theory and statistical dynamics are employed, more precisely the so-called kinetic theory for active particles [7]. This approach has successfully been applied in the modeling of several complex dynamics, with recent applications to learning [2,8] that constitutes the key to understand communication and is of great importance in social dynamics and behavioral sciences.

  14. CrowdMag - Crowdsourcing magnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M. C.; Boneh, N.; Chulliat, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the CrowdMag project, we explore whether digital magnetometers built in modern mobile phones can be used as scientific instruments to measure Earth's magnetic field. Most modern mobile phones have digital magnetometers to orient themselves. A phone's magnetometer measures three components of the local magnetic field with a typical sensitivity of about 150 to 600 nanotesla (nT). By combining data from vector magnetometers and accelerometers, phone's orientation is determined. Using phone's Internet connection, magnetic data and location are sent to a central server. At the server, we check quality of the magnetic data from all users and make the data available to the public as aggregate maps. We have two long-term goals. 1) Develop near-real-time models of Earth's time changing magnetic field by reducing man-made noise from crowdsourced data and combining it with geomagnetic data from other sources. 2) Improving accuracy of magnetic navigation by mapping magnetic noise sources (for e.g. power transformer and iron pipes). Key challenges to this endeavor are the low sensitivity of the phone's magnetometer and the noisy environment within and surrounding the phone. URL : http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/geomag/crowdmag.shtml

  15. Crowd-Sourced Intelligence Agency: Prototyping counterveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Gradecki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how an interactive artwork, the Crowd-Sourced Intelligence Agency (CSIA, can contribute to discussions of Big Data intelligence analytics. The CSIA is a publicly accessible Open Source Intelligence (OSINT system that was constructed using information gathered from technical manuals, research reports, academic papers, leaked documents, and Freedom of Information Act files. Using a visceral heuristic, the CSIA demonstrates how the statistical correlations made by automated classification systems are different from human judgment and can produce false-positives, as well as how the display of information through an interface can affect the judgment of an intelligence agent. The public has the right to ask questions about how a computer program determines if they are a threat to national security and to question the practicality of using statistical pattern recognition algorithms in place of human judgment. Currently, the public’s lack of access to both Big Data and the actual datasets intelligence agencies use to train their classification algorithms keeps the possibility of performing effective sous-dataveillance out of reach. Without this data, the results returned by the CSIA will not be identical to those of intelligence agencies. Because we have replicated how OSINT is processed, however, our results will resemble the type of results and mistakes made by OSINT systems. The CSIA takes some initial steps toward contributing to an informed public debate about large-scale monitoring of open source, social media data and provides a prototype for counterveillance and sousveillance tools for citizens.

  16. Nudging Cooperation in a Crowd Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niella, Tamara; Stier-Moses, Nicolás; Sigman, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that driven by a competition heuristic, people don't even reflect or consider whether a cooperation strategy may be better. As a paradigmatic example of this behavior we propose the zero-sum game fallacy, according to which people believe that resources are fixed even when they are not. We demonstrate that people only cooperate if the competitive heuristic is explicitly overridden in an experiment in which participants play two rounds of a game in which competition is suboptimal. The observed spontaneous behavior for most players was to compete. Then participants were explicitly reminded that the competing strategy may not be optimal. This minor intervention boosted cooperation, implying that competition does not result from lack of trust or willingness to cooperate but instead from the inability to inhibit the competition bias. This activity was performed in a controlled laboratory setting and also as a crowd experiment. Understanding the psychological underpinnings of these behaviors may help us improve cooperation and thus may have vast practical consequences to our society.

  17. Crowding with conjunctions of simple features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põder, Endel; Wagemans, Johan

    2007-11-20

    Several recent studies have related crowding with the feature integration stage in visual processing. In order to understand the mechanisms involved in this stage, it is important to use stimuli that have several features to integrate, and these features should be clearly defined and measurable. In this study, Gabor patches were used as target and distractor stimuli. The stimuli differed in three dimensions: spatial frequency, orientation, and color. A group of 3, 5, or 7 objects was presented briefly at 4 deg eccentricity of the visual field. The observers' task was to identify the object located in the center of the group. A strong effect of the number of distractors was observed, consistent with various spatial pooling models. The analysis of incorrect responses revealed that these were a mix of feature errors and mislocalizations of the target object. Feature errors were not purely random, but biased by the features of distractors. We propose a simple feature integration model that predicts most of the observed regularities.

  18. Stressful Situations of Air Force Nurses Recently Graduated from Pre-Service Baccalaureate Programs in Nursing as Identified by Critical Incident Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    possible care for their physical, psychological, physiological, biological, safety, belongingness , esteem, as- teem from others, emotional, spiritual... employee has come to enjoy. The result is a withdrawal of this young nurse from those situations since this young nurse is less established and will...expectations, this excess energy, and zeal to prove herself that disturbs the equilibrium and stability the older nurses and employees have come to

  19. Effects of macromolecular crowding on protein conformational changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Dong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many protein functions can be directly linked to conformational changes. Inside cells, the equilibria and transition rates between different conformations may be affected by macromolecular crowding. We have recently developed a new approach for modeling crowding effects, which enables an atomistic representation of "test" proteins. Here this approach is applied to study how crowding affects the equilibria and transition rates between open and closed conformations of seven proteins: yeast protein disulfide isomerase (yPDI, adenylate kinase (AdK, orotidine phosphate decarboxylase (ODCase, Trp repressor (TrpR, hemoglobin, DNA beta-glucosyltransferase, and Ap(4A hydrolase. For each protein, molecular dynamics simulations of the open and closed states are separately run. Representative open and closed conformations are then used to calculate the crowding-induced changes in chemical potential for the two states. The difference in chemical-potential change between the two states finally predicts the effects of crowding on the population ratio of the two states. Crowding is found to reduce the open population to various extents. In the presence of crowders with a 15 A radius and occupying 35% of volume, the open-to-closed population ratios of yPDI, AdK, ODCase and TrpR are reduced by 79%, 78%, 62% and 55%, respectively. The reductions for the remaining three proteins are 20-44%. As expected, the four proteins experiencing the stronger crowding effects are those with larger conformational changes between open and closed states (e.g., as measured by the change in radius of gyration. Larger proteins also tend to experience stronger crowding effects than smaller ones [e.g., comparing yPDI (480 residues and TrpR (98 residues]. The potentials of mean force along the open-closed reaction coordinate of apo and ligand-bound ODCase are altered by crowding, suggesting that transition rates are also affected. These quantitative results and qualitative trends will

  20. The allocation of attention and working memory in visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupo, Felix; Luck, Steven J

    2015-06-01

    When the distance between a visual target and nearby flankers falls below a critical distance, target discrimination declines precipitously. This is called "crowding." Many researchers have proposed that selective attention plays a role in crowding. However, although some research has examined the effects of directing attention toward versus away from the targets, no previous research has assessed how attentional allocation varies as a function of target-flanker distance in crowding. Here, we used ERPs to assess the operation of attention during crowding, focusing on the attention-related N2pc component. We used a typical crowding task in which participants were asked to report the category (vowel/consonant) of a lateralized target letter flanked by distractor letters at different distances. We tested the hypothesis that attention fails when the target-flanker distance becomes too small for attention to operate effectively. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that N2pc amplitude was maximal at intermediate target-flanker distances and decreased substantially when crowding became severe. In addition, we examined the sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN), which reflects the amount of information being maintained in working memory. Unlike the N2pc component, the SPCN increased in amplitude at small target-flanker distances, suggesting that observers stored information about the target and flankers in working memory when attention failed to select the target. Together, the N2pc and SPCN results suggest that attention and working memory play distinctive roles in crowding: Attention operates to minimize interference from the flankers at intermediate target-flanker distances, whereas working memory may be recruited when attention fails to select the target at small target-flanker distances.

  1. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  2. Acute effects of brisk walking on sugary snack cravings in overweight people, affect and responses to a manipulated stress situation and to a sugary snack cue: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledochowski, Larissa; Ruedl, Gerhard; Taylor, Adrian H; Kopp, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that acute exercise reduces urges for chocolate in normal weight people. This study aimed to examine the effects of an acute exercise bout on urges to consume sugary snacks, affect as well as 'psychological and physiological responses' to stress and a 'sugary snack cue', in overweight individuals. Following 3 days of chocolate-abstinence, 47 overweight, sugary snack consumers were assessed, in 2 randomly ordered conditions, in a within-subject design: 15-min brisk walk or passive control. Following each, participants completed 2 tasks: Stroop color-word interference task, and handling sugary snacks. Urges for sugary snacks, affective activation and valence were assessed. ANOVAs revealed significant condition x time interaction effects for: urges to consume sugary snacks, affective valence and activation. Obtained data show that exercise reduces urges for sugary snacks and attenuates urges in response to the stress situation and the cue in overweight people.

  3. Acute effects of brisk walking on sugary snack cravings in overweight people, affect and responses to a manipulated stress situation and to a sugary snack cue: a crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Ledochowski

    Full Text Available Research has shown that acute exercise reduces urges for chocolate in normal weight people. This study aimed to examine the effects of an acute exercise bout on urges to consume sugary snacks, affect as well as 'psychological and physiological responses' to stress and a 'sugary snack cue', in overweight individuals. Following 3 days of chocolate-abstinence, 47 overweight, sugary snack consumers were assessed, in 2 randomly ordered conditions, in a within-subject design: 15-min brisk walk or passive control. Following each, participants completed 2 tasks: Stroop color-word interference task, and handling sugary snacks. Urges for sugary snacks, affective activation and valence were assessed. ANOVAs revealed significant condition x time interaction effects for: urges to consume sugary snacks, affective valence and activation. Obtained data show that exercise reduces urges for sugary snacks and attenuates urges in response to the stress situation and the cue in overweight people.

  4. The influence of rock movement on the stress/strain situation in tunnels or bore holes with radioactive canisters embedded in a bentonite/quartz buffer mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1977-08-01

    The report presents the author's main ideas concerning the possible recurence of large unexpected movements in Swedish pre-Cambrian rock and gives the theoretical basis for the calculation of stress and strain in the canisters and the buffer mass. A rough calculation shows that a sudden and large shear strain at actual depths will only occur along already existing continous weak zones in the bedrock. In situ rock investigations to find and locate weak zones are essential. Shear tests with a model shear apparatus were run with the canister embedded in 10 percent bentonite 90 percent quarz buffer mass. The least favourable theory (Meyerhof) gave high contact pressures which cause high bending momentum on the canister. The stresses can be reduced by changing the geometry of the canister. (L.B.)

  5. Macromolecular crowding: chemistry and physics meet biology (Ascona, Switzerland, 10-14 June 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foffi, G.; Pastore, A.; Piazza, F.; Temussi, P. A.

    2013-08-01

    modification of the well-known Smoluchowski approach to calculate the encounter rate of diffusion-limited reactions, he showed how more realistic situations accounting for crowding effects could be treated equally well on the same theoretical grounds. This talk marked an important point in the conference as it reinforced the idea that simple models of theoretical physics still have the power to provide inspiring results in spite of the intrinsic simplifications of such theoretical approaches. Along the same lines, Nicolas Dorsaz, from the University of Cambridge (UK), proposed an extension of the Smoluchowski framework that incorporates repulsive and attracting interactions between the reactants. This approach was illustrated by reaction rates obtained from event-driven Brownian dynamics and dynamical Monte Carlo simulations. Another striking example of the physical subtleties associated with modelling crowding effects was provided by Jeffrey Skolnick, from the Georgia Institute of Technology (USA). He examined the role of hydrodynamic interactions in the self-organization of biological assemblies in the presence of crowding. His results strongly suggest that hydrodynamic interactions greatly affect the kinetics of self-assembly reactions, so that including them in the picture appears crucial for understanding the dynamics of biological systems in vivo . Margareth Cheung, from the University of Houston (USA), emphasized that how the crowded environment inside a cell affects the structural conformation of a protein with a spherical shape is a vital question because the geometry of proteins and protein-protein complexes are far from globules in vivo . Her work demonstrates the malleability of 'native' proteins and implies that crowding-induced shape changes may be important for protein function and malfunction in vivo . Huan-Xiang Zhou, from the Florida State University (USA), focused on atomistic simulations of protein folding and binding under crowding conditions. His lab has

  6. Macromolecular crowding: chemistry and physics meet biology (Ascona, Switzerland, 10-14 June 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foffi, G; Pastore, A; Piazza, F; Temussi, P A

    2013-08-02

    from a modification of the well-known Smoluchowski approach to calculate the encounter rate of diffusion-limited reactions, he showed how more realistic situations accounting for crowding effects could be treated equally well on the same theoretical grounds. This talk marked an important point in the conference as it reinforced the idea that simple models of theoretical physics still have the power to provide inspiring results in spite of the intrinsic simplifications of such theoretical approaches. Along the same lines, Nicolas Dorsaz, from the University of Cambridge (UK), proposed an extension of the Smoluchowski framework that incorporates repulsive and attracting interactions between the reactants. This approach was illustrated by reaction rates obtained from event-driven Brownian dynamics and dynamical Monte Carlo simulations. Another striking example of the physical subtleties associated with modelling crowding effects was provided by Jeffrey Skolnick, from the Georgia Institute of Technology (USA). He examined the role of hydrodynamic interactions in the self-organization of biological assemblies in the presence of crowding. His results strongly suggest that hydrodynamic interactions greatly affect the kinetics of self-assembly reactions, so that including them in the picture appears crucial for understanding the dynamics of biological systems in vivo . Margareth Cheung, from the University of Houston (USA), emphasized that how the crowded environment inside a cell affects the structural conformation of a protein with a spherical shape is a vital question because the geometry of proteins and protein-protein complexes are far from globules in vivo . Her work demonstrates the malleability of 'native' proteins and implies that crowding-induced shape changes may be important for protein function and malfunction in vivo . Huan-Xiang Zhou, from the Florida State University (USA), focused on atomistic simulations of protein folding and binding under crowding

  7. Developing an emergency department crowding dashboard: A design science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Niels; Bergs, Jochen; Eerdekens, Dorien; Depaire, Benoît; Verelst, Sandra

    2017-08-30

    As an emergency department (ED) is a complex adaptive system, the analysis of continuously gathered data is valuable to gain insight in the real-time patient flow. To support the analysis and management of ED operations, relevant data should be provided in an intuitive way. Within this context, this paper outlines the development of a dashboard which provides real-time information regarding ED crowding. The research project underlying this paper follows the principles of design science research, which involves the development and study of artifacts which aim to solve a generic problem. To determine the crowding indicators that are desired in the dashboard, a modified Delphi study is used. The dashboard is implemented using the open source Shinydashboard package in R. A dashboard is developed containing the desired crowding indicators, together with general patient flow characteristics. It is demonstrated using a dataset of a Flemish ED and fulfills the requirements which are defined a priori. The developed dashboard provides real-time information on ED crowding. This information enables ED staff to judge whether corrective actions are required in an effort to avoid the adverse effects of ED crowding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jifan; Lee, Chia-Lin; Li, Kuei-An; Tien, Yung-Hsuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding—the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery—does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1) and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3) measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination) integration—the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration—did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4). Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study. PMID:26890366

  9. Polymer crowding and shape distributions in polymer-nanoparticle mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Wei Kang; Denton, Alan R., E-mail: alan.denton@ndsu.edu [Department of Physics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58108-6050 (United States)

    2014-09-21

    Macromolecular crowding can influence polymer shapes, which is important for understanding the thermodynamic stability of polymer solutions and the structure and function of biopolymers (proteins, RNA, DNA) under confinement. We explore the influence of nanoparticle crowding on polymer shapes via Monte Carlo simulations and free-volume theory of a coarse-grained model of polymer-nanoparticle mixtures. Exploiting the geometry of random walks, we model polymer coils as effective penetrable ellipsoids, whose shapes fluctuate according to the probability distributions of the eigenvalues of the gyration tensor. Accounting for the entropic cost of a nanoparticle penetrating a larger polymer coil, we compute the crowding-induced shift in the shape distributions, radius of gyration, and asphericity of ideal polymers in a theta solvent. With increased nanoparticle crowding, we find that polymers become more compact (smaller, more spherical), in agreement with predictions of free-volume theory. Our approach can be easily extended to nonideal polymers in good solvents and used to model conformations of biopolymers in crowded environments.

  10. Is Malnutrition Associated with Crowding in Permanent Dentition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika B. A. F. Thomaz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that energy-protein malnutrition is associated with impaired growth and development of facial bones. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between nutritional status and reduced space for dental eruption (crowding in permanent dentition. A cross-sectional study with probabilistic sampling design was used. We evaluated 2,060 students aged 12 to 15 years enrolled in schools in the northeast of Brazil. Crowding was defined according to World Health Organization (WHO as misalignment of teeth due to lack of space for them to erupt in the correct position. Nutritional status was evaluated by means of body mass index and height-for-age, using the WHO’s reference curves. Parents and adolescents responded to a questionnaire about demographic, socioeconomic, biological and behavioral characteristics. The associations were estimated by odds ratio (OR in multivariate logistic regression analysis (alpha = 0.05. Confounding and effect-modification were taken into account. An association between low height-for-age (z-score < –1SD and crowding was only observed in adolescents with a prolonged history of mouth breathing (OR = 3.1. No association was observed between underweight and crowding. Malnutrition is related to crowding in permanent dentition among mouth-breathing adolescents. Policy actions aimed at reducing low height-for-age and unhealthy oral habits are strongly recommended. However, further studies are needed to increase the consistency of these findings and improve understanding of the subject.

  11. New insights into the crowd characteristics in Mina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. Y.; Weng, W. G.; Zhang, X. L.

    2014-11-01

    The significance of the study of the characteristics of crowd behavior is indubitable for safely organizing mass activities. There is insufficient material to conduct such research. In this paper, the Mina crowd disaster is quantitatively re-investigated. Its instantaneous velocity field is extracted from video material based on the cross-correlation algorithm. The properties of the stop-and-go waves, including fluctuation frequencies, wave propagation speeds, characteristic speeds, and time and space averaged velocity variances, are analyzed in detail. Thus, the database of the stop-and-go wave features is enriched, which is very important to crowd studies. The ‘turbulent’ flows are investigated with the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method which is widely used in fluid mechanics. And time series and spatial analysis are conducted to investigate the characteristics of the ‘turbulent’ flows. In this paper, the coherent structures and movement process are described by the POD method. The relationship between the jamming point and crowd path is analyzed. And the pressure buffer recognized in this paper is consistent with Helbing's high-pressure region. The results revealed here may be helpful for facilities design, modeling crowded scenarios and the organization of large-scale mass activities.

  12. Hailstorms over Switzerland: Verification of Crowd-sourced Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noti, Pascal-Andreas; Martynov, Andrey; Hering, Alessandro; Martius, Olivia

    2016-04-01

    The reports of smartphone users, witnessing hailstorms, can be used as source of independent, ground-based observation data on ground-reaching hailstorms with high temporal and spatial resolution. The presented work focuses on the verification of crowd-sourced data collected over Switzerland with the help of a smartphone application recently developed by MeteoSwiss. The precise location, time of hail precipitation and the hailstone size are included in the crowd-sourced data, assessed on the basis of the weather radar data of MeteoSwiss. Two radar-based hail detection algorithms, POH (Probability of Hail) and MESHS (Maximum Expected Severe Hail Size), in use at MeteoSwiss are confronted with the crowd-sourced data. The available data and investigation time period last from June to August 2015. Filter criteria have been applied in order to remove false reports from the crowd-sourced data. Neighborhood methods have been introduced to reduce the uncertainties which result from spatial and temporal biases. The crowd-sourced and radar data are converted into binary sequences according to previously set thresholds, allowing for using a categorical verification. Verification scores (e.g. hit rate) are then calculated from a 2x2 contingency table. The hail reporting activity and patterns corresponding to "hail" and "no hail" reports, sent from smartphones, have been analyzed. The relationship between the reported hailstone sizes and both radar-based hail detection algorithms have been investigated.

  13. Polymer crowding and shape distributions in polymer-nanoparticle mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Wei Kang; Denton, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Macromolecular crowding can influence polymer shapes, which is important for understanding the thermodynamic stability of polymer solutions and the structure and function of biopolymers (proteins, RNA, DNA) under confinement. We explore the influence of nanoparticle crowding on polymer shapes via Monte Carlo simulations and free-volume theory of a coarse-grained model of polymer-nanoparticle mixtures. Exploiting the geometry of random walks, we model polymer coils as effective penetrable ellipsoids, whose shapes fluctuate according to the probability distributions of the eigenvalues of the gyration tensor. Accounting for the entropic cost of a nanoparticle penetrating a larger polymer coil, we compute the crowding-induced shift in the shape distributions, radius of gyration, and asphericity of ideal polymers in a theta solvent. With increased nanoparticle crowding, we find that polymers become more compact (smaller, more spherical), in agreement with predictions of free-volume theory. Our approach can be easily extended to nonideal polymers in good solvents and used to model conformations of biopolymers in crowded environments

  14. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  15. Social identification moderates the effect of crowd density on safety at the Hajj.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnabulsi, Hani; Drury, John

    2014-06-24

    Crowd safety is a major concern for those attending and managing mass gatherings, such as the annual Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca (also called Makkah). One threat to crowd safety at such events is crowd density. However, recent research also suggests that psychological membership of crowds can have positive benefits. We tested the hypothesis that the effect of density on safety might vary depending on whether there is shared social identification in the crowd. We surveyed 1,194 pilgrims at the Holy Mosque, Mecca, during the 2012 Hajj. Analysis of the data showed that the negative effect of crowd density on reported safety was moderated by social identification with the crowd. Whereas low identifiers reported reduced safety with greater crowd density, high identifiers reported increased safety with greater crowd density. Mediation analysis suggested that a reason for these moderation effects was the perception that other crowd members were supportive. Differences in reported safety across national groups (Arab countries and Iran compared with the rest) were also explicable in terms of crowd identification and perceived support. These findings support a social identity account of crowd behavior and offer a novel perspective on crowd safety management.

  16. Origins of microstructural transformations in charged vesicle suspensions: the crowding hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Mansi; Ramachandran, Arun; Murch, Bruce P; Leal, L Gary

    2014-09-02

    It is observed that charged unilamellar vesicles in a suspension can spontaneously deflate and subsequently transition to form bilamellar vesicles, even in the absence of externally applied triggers such as salt or temperature gradients. We provide strong evidence that the driving force for this deflation-induced transition is the repulsive electrostatic pressure between charged vesicles in concentrated suspensions, above a critical effective volume fraction. We use volume fraction measurements and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy imaging to quantitatively follow both the macroscopic and microstructural time-evolution of cationic diC18:1 DEEDMAC vesicle suspensions at different surfactant and salt concentrations. A simple model is developed to estimate the extent of deflation of unilamellar vesicles caused by electrostatic interactions with neighboring vesicles. It is determined that when the effective volume fraction of the suspension exceeds a critical value, charged vesicles in a suspension can experience "crowding" due to overlap of their electrical double layers, which can result in deflation and subsequent microstructural transformations to reduce the effective volume fraction of the suspension. Ordinarily in polydisperse colloidal suspensions, particles interacting via a repulsive potential transform into a glassy state above a critical volume fraction. The behavior of charged vesicle suspensions reported in this paper thus represents a new mechanism for the relaxation of repulsive interactions in crowded situations.

  17. Cloud-based crowd sensing: a framework for location-based crowd analyzer and advisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aishwarya, K. C.; Nambi, A.; Hudson, S.; Nadesh, R. K.

    2017-11-01

    Cloud computing is an emerging field of computer science to integrate and explore large and powerful computing systems and storages for personal and also for enterprise requirements. Mobile Cloud Computing is the inheritance of this concept towards mobile hand-held devices. Crowdsensing, or to be precise, Mobile Crowdsensing is the process of sharing resources from an available group of mobile handheld devices that support sharing of different resources such as data, memory and bandwidth to perform a single task for collective reasons. In this paper, we propose a framework to use Crowdsensing and perform a crowd analyzer and advisor whether the user can go to the place or not. This is an ongoing research and is a new concept to which the direction of cloud computing has shifted and is viable for more expansion in the near future.

  18. Jammed Humans in High-Density Crowd Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottinelli, Arianna; Sumpter, David; Silverberg, Jesse

    When people gather in large groups like those found at Black Friday sales events, pilgrimages, heavy metal concerts, and parades, crowd density often becomes exceptionally high. As a consequence, these events can produce tragic outcomes such as stampedes and ''crowd crushes''. While human collective motion has been studied with active particle simulations, the underlying mechanisms for emergent behavior are less well understood. Here, we use techniques developed to study jammed granular materials to analyze an active matter model inspired by large groups of people gathering at a point of common interest. In the model, a single behavioral rule combined with body-contact interactions are sufficient for the emergence of a self-confined steady state, where particles fluctuate around a stable position. Applying mode analysis to this system, we find evidence for Goldstone modes, soft spots, and stochastic resonance, which may be the preferential mechanisms for dangerous emergent collective motions in crowds.

  19. Learning Multimodal Deep Representations for Crowd Anomaly Event Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaonian Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomaly event detection in crowd scenes is extremely important; however, the majority of existing studies merely use hand-crafted features to detect anomalies. In this study, a novel unsupervised deep learning framework is proposed to detect anomaly events in crowded scenes. Specifically, low-level visual features, energy features, and motion map features are simultaneously extracted based on spatiotemporal energy measurements. Three convolutional restricted Boltzmann machines are trained to model the mid-level feature representation of normal patterns. Then a multimodal fusion scheme is utilized to learn the deep representation of crowd patterns. Based on the learned deep representation, a one-class support vector machine model is used to detect anomaly events. The proposed method is evaluated using two available public datasets and compared with state-of-the-art methods. The experimental results show its competitive performance for anomaly event detection in video surveillance.

  20. Household crowding and psychosocial health among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    men and women are differently influenced by their housing conditions. METHODS: Data on more than 3,000 Inuit aged 18 years and older are from the Inuit health in transition Greenland survey. Associations between household crowding and composition, and mental well-being and binge drinking were examined......OBJECTIVES: Poor housing conditions experienced by many Indigenous peoples threaten their health and well-being. This study examines whether household crowding is associated with poorer psychosocial health among Greenlanders, and the mediating role of social support. It also assesses whether Inuit...... using logistic regression models, adjusting for individuals' characteristics. RESULTS: Household crowding was associated with poorer mental well-being. Binge drinking was more common among people living in households without children. These effects were more important for women than for men...

  1. Direct crowding out, optimal taxation and pollution abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Ploeg, Frederick [FEE, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bovenberg, A. Lans [CentER, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    1993-05-01

    The interactions between direct crowding out, the provision of public goods, optimal taxation and environmental policy are explored. Greener preferences induce a larger tax rate by raising the non-distortionary level of the tax rate. If the marginal productivity of public abatement diminishes rapidly environmental quality improves mainly through a fall in economic activity and emissions. In this case, public consumption increases which crowds out labour supply and private consumption. However, if environmental policy is very effective public consumption falls in order to make room for public abatement. In this case, if labour supply is inelastic with respect to the after-tax wage and direct crowding in is strong, labour supply and economic activity may expand. 1 fig., 7 refs.

  2. The wisdom of the crowd playing The Price Is Right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael D; Zhang, Shunan; Shi, Jenny

    2011-07-01

    In The Price Is Right game show, players compete to win a prize, by placing bids on its price. We ask whether it is possible to achieve a "wisdom of the crowd" effect, by combining the bids to produce an aggregate price estimate that is superior to the estimates of individual players. Using data from the game show, we show that a wisdom of the crowd effect is possible, especially by using models of the decision-making processes involved in bidding. The key insight is that, because of the competitive nature of the game, what people bid is not necessarily the same as what they know. This means better estimates are formed by aggregating latent knowledge than by aggregating observed bids. We use our results to highlight the usefulness of models of cognition and decision-making in studying the wisdom of the crowd, which are often approached only from non-psychological statistical perspectives.

  3. Towards Detecting the Crowd Involved in Social Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowing how people interact with urban environments is fundamental for a variety of fields, ranging from transportation to social science. Despite the fact that human mobility patterns have been a major topic of study in recent years, a challenge to understand large-scale human behavior when a certain event occurs remains due to a lack of either relevant data or suitable approaches. Psychological crowd refers to a group of people who are usually located at different places and show different behaviors, but who are very sensitively driven to take the same act (gather together by a certain event, which has been theoretically studied by social psychologists since the 19th century. This study aims to propose a computational approach using a machine learning method to model psychological crowds, contributing to the better understanding of human activity patterns under events. Psychological features and mental unity of the crowd are computed to detect the involved individuals. A national event happening across the USA in April, 2015 is analyzed using geotagged tweets as a case study to test our approach. The result shows that 81% of individuals in the crowd can be successfully detected. Through investigating the geospatial pattern of the involved users, not only can the event related users be identified but also those unobserved users before the event can be uncovered. The proposed approach can effectively represent the psychological feature and measure the mental unity of the psychological crowd, which sheds light on the study of large-scale psychological crowd and provides an innovative way to understanding human behavior under events.

  4. How social influence can undermine the wisdom of crowd effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Jan; Rauhut, Heiko; Schweitzer, Frank; Helbing, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Social groups can be remarkably smart and knowledgeable when their averaged judgements are compared with the judgements of individuals. Already Galton [Galton F (1907) Nature 75:7] found evidence that the median estimate of a group can be more accurate than estimates of experts. This wisdom of crowd effect was recently supported by examples from stock markets, political elections, and quiz shows [Surowiecki J (2004) The Wisdom of Crowds]. In contrast, we demonstrate by experimental evidence (N = 144) that even mild social influence can undermine the wisdom of crowd effect in simple estimation tasks. In the experiment, subjects could reconsider their response to factual questions after having received average or full information of the responses of other subjects. We compare subjects’ convergence of estimates and improvements in accuracy over five consecutive estimation periods with a control condition, in which no information about others’ responses was provided. Although groups are initially “wise,” knowledge about estimates of others narrows the diversity of opinions to such an extent that it undermines the wisdom of crowd effect in three different ways. The “social influence effect” diminishes the diversity of the crowd without improvements of its collective error. The “range reduction effect” moves the position of the truth to peripheral regions of the range of estimates so that the crowd becomes less reliable in providing expertise for external observers. The “confidence effect” boosts individuals’ confidence after convergence of their estimates despite lack of improved accuracy. Examples of the revealed mechanism range from misled elites to the recent global financial crisis. PMID:21576485

  5. Modeling, simulation and visual analysis of crowds a multidisciplinary perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Saad; Manocha, Dinesh; Shah, Mubarak

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several years there has been a growing interest in developing computational methodologies for modeling and analyzing movements and behaviors of 'crowds' of people. This interest spans several scientific areas that includes Computer Vision, Computer Graphics, and Pedestrian Evacuation Dynamics. Despite the fact that these different scientific fields are trying to model the same physical entity (i.e. a crowd of people), research ideas have evolved independently. As a result each discipline has developed techniques and perspectives that are characteristically their own.

  6. Crowd-sourced Archaeological Research: The MicroPasts Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bonacchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a brief introduction to MicroPasts, a web-enabled crowd-sourcing and crowd-funding project whose overall goal is to promote the collection and use of high quality research data via institutional and community collaborations, both on- and off-line. In addition to introducing this initiative, the discussion below is a reflection of its lead author’s core contribution to the project and will dwell in more detail on one particular aspect of MicroPasts: its relevance to research and practice in public archaeology, cultural policy and heritage studies.

  7. Leveraging the wisdom of the crowd in software testing

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Its scale, flexibility, cost effectiveness, and fast turnaround are just a few reasons why crowdsourced testing has received so much attention lately. While there are a few online resources that explain what crowdsourced testing is all about, there's been a need for a book that covers best practices, case studies, and the future of this technique.Filling this need, Leveraging the Wisdom of the Crowd in Software Testing shows you how to leverage the wisdom of the crowd in your software testing process. Its comprehensive coverage includes the history of crowdsourcing and crowdsourced testing, im

  8. Contemporary understanding of riots: Classical crowd psychology, ideology and the social identity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Clifford; Drury, John

    2016-04-01

    This article explores the origins and ideology of classical crowd psychology, a body of theory reflected in contemporary popularised understandings such as of the 2011 English 'riots'. This article argues that during the nineteenth century, the crowd came to symbolise a fear of 'mass society' and that 'classical' crowd psychology was a product of these fears. Classical crowd psychology pathologised, reified and decontextualised the crowd, offering the ruling elites a perceived opportunity to control it. We contend that classical theory misrepresents crowd psychology and survives in contemporary understanding because it is ideological. We conclude by discussing how classical theory has been supplanted in academic contexts by an identity-based crowd psychology that restores the meaning to crowd action, replaces it in its social context and in so doing transforms theoretical understanding of 'riots' and the nature of the self. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Workplace violence and occupational stress in healthcare workers: a chicken-and-egg situation-results of a 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    Violence at work (WV) is an important occupational hazard for health care workers (HCWs). A number of surveys addressing the causes and effects of WV have shown that it is associated with work-related stress. However, it is not clear what direction this relationship takes, that is, whether job strain facilitates aggression against HCWs or WV is the cause of job strain. From 2003 to 2009, HCWs from a public health care unit were asked to self-assess their level of work-related stress and to report aggression that occurred in the 12-month period preceding their routine medical examination. In 2009, physical and mental health and job satisfaction were also assessed. A total of 698 out of 723 HCWs (96.5%) completed the study. Job strain and lack of social support were predictors of the occurrence of nonphysical aggression during the ensuing year. HCWs who experienced WV reported high strain and low support at work in the following year. The experience of nonphysical violence and a prolonged state of strain and social isolation were significant predictors of psychological problems and bad health at follow-up. The relationship between work-related distress and WV is bidirectional. The monitoring of workers through questionnaires distributed before their periodic examination is a simple and effective way of studying WV and monitoring distress. The findings of the present study may facilitate the subsequent design of participatory intervention for the prevention of violence in healthcare facilities. This should always be accompanied by measures designed to reduce strain and improve social support. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  10. COPING WITH CROWDING IN HIGH-DENSITY KAMPUNG HOUSING OF JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evawani Ellisa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to draw attention to the architecture of kampung  housing, as an attempt to identify those circumstances under which people live in the context of limited space. A kampung housing is a dense non-formally planned cluster of residential dwellings in urban area, which are packed together in a contiguous area created by a large number of migrants. We tried to determine the way in which the spaces are arranged into a place to live, which implies a certain dynamic of survivability among the kampung’s inhabitants. The research methodology is conducted with questionnaire surveys, interviews, and detailed observations of daily life cycles, dwelling elements, and the pattern of domestic space arrangements. The study revealed that the characteristics of particular high-density settings have been adapted so that kampung inhabitants devised a particular set of rules and behavioral strategies to cope and support themselves in crowded situations.

  11. College Crowd-In: How Private Donations Positively Affect Alumni Giving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of donor behavior and crowding out has been pertinent in the economics literature, both theoretically and empirically. Aggregate research has not been decisive, nor have many studies analyzed education institutions. I begin with a theoretical model of crowding-out versus crowding-in donor behavior. I then employ a fixed effects…

  12. Crowd science : it is not just a matter of time (or funding)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadou, E.

    2014-01-01

    The last years, citizen science, or crowd science, has increased tremendously, both in number of projects, and number of participants. Most literature on crowd science focuses on its advantages, for both scientists, and the participating citizens. The challenges of crowd science come mainly from

  13. Social Crowding during Development Causes Changes in GnRH1 DNA Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Sebastian G; Lenkov, Kapa; Williams, Blake; Fernald, Russell D

    2015-01-01

    Gestational and developmental cues have important consequences for long-term health, behavior and adaptation to the environment. In addition, social stressors cause plastic molecular changes in the brain that underlie unique behavioral phenotypes that also modulate fitness. In the adult African cichlid, Astatotilapia burtoni, growth and social status of males are both directly regulated by social interactions in a dynamic social environment, which causes a suite of plastic changes in circuits, cells and gene transcription in the brain. We hypothesized that a possible mechanism underlying some molecular changes might be DNA methylation, a reversible modification made to cytosine nucleotides that is known to regulate gene function. Here we asked whether changes in DNA methylation of the GnRH1 gene, the central regulator of the reproductive axis, were altered during development of A. burtoni. We measured changes in methylation state of the GnRH1 gene during normal development and following the gestational and developmental stress of social crowding. We found differential DNA methylation within developing juveniles between 14-, 28- and 42-day-old. Following gestational crowding of mouth brooding mothers, we saw differential methylation and transcription of GnRH1 in their offspring. Taken together, our data provides evidence for social control of GnRH1 developmental responses to gestational cues through DNA methylation.

  14. Editorial Bias in Crowd-Sourced Political Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua L Kalla

    Full Text Available The Internet has dramatically expanded citizens' access to and ability to engage with political information. On many websites, any user can contribute and edit "crowd-sourced" information about important political figures. One of the most prominent examples of crowd-sourced information on the Internet is Wikipedia, a free and open encyclopedia created and edited entirely by users, and one of the world's most accessed websites. While previous studies of crowd-sourced information platforms have found them to be accurate, few have considered biases in what kinds of information are included. We report the results of four randomized field experiments that sought to explore what biases exist in the political articles of this collaborative website. By randomly assigning factually true but either positive or negative and cited or uncited information to the Wikipedia pages of U.S. senators, we uncover substantial evidence of an editorial bias toward positivity on Wikipedia: Negative facts are 36% more likely to be removed by Wikipedia editors than positive facts within 12 hours and 29% more likely within 3 days. Although citations substantially increase an edit's survival time, the editorial bias toward positivity is not eliminated by inclusion of a citation. We replicate this study on the Wikipedia pages of deceased as well as recently retired but living senators and find no evidence of an editorial bias in either. Our results demonstrate that crowd-sourced information is subject to an editorial bias that favors the politically active.

  15. Editorial Bias in Crowd-Sourced Political Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, Joshua L; Aronow, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has dramatically expanded citizens' access to and ability to engage with political information. On many websites, any user can contribute and edit "crowd-sourced" information about important political figures. One of the most prominent examples of crowd-sourced information on the Internet is Wikipedia, a free and open encyclopedia created and edited entirely by users, and one of the world's most accessed websites. While previous studies of crowd-sourced information platforms have found them to be accurate, few have considered biases in what kinds of information are included. We report the results of four randomized field experiments that sought to explore what biases exist in the political articles of this collaborative website. By randomly assigning factually true but either positive or negative and cited or uncited information to the Wikipedia pages of U.S. senators, we uncover substantial evidence of an editorial bias toward positivity on Wikipedia: Negative facts are 36% more likely to be removed by Wikipedia editors than positive facts within 12 hours and 29% more likely within 3 days. Although citations substantially increase an edit's survival time, the editorial bias toward positivity is not eliminated by inclusion of a citation. We replicate this study on the Wikipedia pages of deceased as well as recently retired but living senators and find no evidence of an editorial bias in either. Our results demonstrate that crowd-sourced information is subject to an editorial bias that favors the politically active.

  16. Nonlinear Effects in Examples of Crowd Evacuation Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens; Berg Thomsen, Kristian; Sørensen, Asger

    2014-01-01

    Severe accidents with many fatalities have occurred when too many pedestrians had to maneuver in too tight surroundings, as during evacuations of mass events. This demonstrates the importance of a better general understanding of pedestrians and emergent complex behavior in crowds. To this end, we...

  17. Indoor guided evacuation: TIN for graph generation and crowd evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengchao Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two complementary methods: an approach to compute a network data-set for indoor space of a building by using its two-dimensional (2D floor plans and limited semantic information, combined with an optimal crowd evacuation method. The approach includes three steps: (1 generate critical points in the space, (2 connect neighbour points to build up the network, and then (3 run the optimal algorithm for optimal crowd evacuation from a room to the exit gates of the building. Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN is used in the first two steps. The optimal evacuation crowd is not based on the nearest evacuation gate for a person but relies on optimal sorting of the waiting lists at each gate of the room to be evacuated. As an example case, a rectangular room with 52 persons with two gates is evacuated in 102 elementary interval times (one interval corresponds to the time for one step for normal velocity walking, whereas it would have been evacuated in not less than 167 elementary steps. The procedure for generating the customized network involves the use of 2D floor plans of a building and some common Geographic Information System (GIS functions. This method combined with the optimal sorting lists will be helpful for guiding crowd evacuation during any emergency.

  18. Sequential sampling, magnitude estimation, and the wisdom of crowds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik W.

    2017-01-01

    in the wisdom of crowds indicated by judgment distribution skewness. The present study reports findings from an experiment on magnitude estimation and supports these predictions. The study moreover demonstrates that systematic errors by groups of people can be corrected using information about the judgment...

  19. Crowding depression of UV-mutagenesis in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockrath, R.; Harper, D.; Kristoff, S.; Stanford Univ., CA

    1980-01-01

    Strains of E. coli Br were exposed to UV radiation and assayed for reversion mutation, using a standard selection medium. If more irradiated bacteria were assayed per petri dish, a proportional increase in the number of indicated reversion mutants was oud only up to a limiting plating density. Beyond a density of about 10 8 viable bacteria per petri dish, the number of indicated revertants per viable bacteriy assayed (the mutation frequency) decreased as the plating density was increased. The crowding depression of mutagenesis was more severe for de novo and converted suppressor mutations, the mutation frequency being reduced 100-fold at a plating density of about 6 x 10 9 viable bacteria per plate. The effect on backmutation was 10 times less. Crowding depression of mutagenesis occured in excision-proficient and -deficient strains, with identical effects in the 2 strains on de novo and converted suppressor mutation, but different effects on backmutations. There were no accompanying effects on viability. Irreversible loss of potential mutants during crowded growth was indicated in wash-off experiments. The kinetics suggested a half-life of approximately 1 h. Kinetics for accumulation by the bacteria of the limiting metabolite (tyrosine) on the assay plate indicated a short period of time for protein synthesis, but direct examination of the proteins synthesized during early growth on a crowded plate demonstrated successful induction of recA protein. (orig.)

  20. Chenang Beach and its Crowding Capacity: A Malaysian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This working paper focuses in enjoyment factors, specifically: number of beach users, perceived maximum number of beach users accepted, perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the tourism experience and perceived maximum number of beach users that affects the beach quality. At a deeper extent, the evaluation is categorized by number of visitation, visitation motivations, and Chenang Island’s push and pull factors. Relationships between variables were assessed using a two-phase evaluation framework where interestingly, only one demographic factor works with all the studied independent variables. It is also learned that the density of an area number of people seen is considered as a n accepted crowding factor, as opposed to this working paper scope experienced crowding . A unique relationship was observed for crowding level, and visitation satisfaction level and overall evaluation of Chenang beach quality. This working paper further supports the previous literature on the significance of beach carrying capacity management and it is learned that the idea of crowding standard is interlinks with ‘gender, ‘time spend’ and ‘number of boaters’. From findings, this working paper envisages the preferences polar exchange where this should be of interest to tourism-related personnel. It is within this working paper interest to highlight the pressing need in brandishing the image of Chenang Beach. This is to ensure that Chenang Beach, as a field, is maintaining its importance and popularity.

  1. The Gender Pay Gap, Fringe Benefits, and Occupational Crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Eric; Laughlin, Teresa

    1995-01-01

    In estimating earnings equations for seven occupations, when fringe benefits are excluded, women receive significantly lower wages in all but the most female-dominated occupation. Including fringe benefits makes gender significant in only one occupational category. Crowding of one gender into an occupation appears the primary determinant of the…

  2. Passengers, Crowding and Complexity : Models for passenger oriented public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Bouman (Paul)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractPassengers, Crowding and Complexity was written as part of the Complexity in Public Transport (ComPuTr) project funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). This thesis studies in three parts how microscopic data can be used in models that have the potential

  3. Track-based event recognition in a realistic crowded environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, J.R. van; Bouma, H.; Baan, J.; Burghouts, G.J.; Eendebak, P.T.; Hollander, R.J.M.; Dijk, J.; Rest, J.H.C. van

    2014-01-01

    Automatic detection of abnormal behavior in CCTV cameras is important to improve the security in crowded environments, such as shopping malls, airports and railway stations. This behavior can be characterized at different time scales, e.g., by small-scale subtle and obvious actions or by large-scale

  4. Crowd Analysis by Using Optical Flow and Density Based Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Francesco; Pedro, Sergio; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a system to detect and track crowds in a video sequence captured by a camera. In a first step, we compute optical flows by means of pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking. Afterwards, a density based clustering is used to group similar vectors. In the last step...

  5. Crowd science user contribution patterns and their implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauermann, Henry; Franzoni, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research performed with the involvement of the broader public (the crowd) attracts increasing attention from scientists and policy makers. A key premise is that project organizers may be able to draw on underused human resources to advance research at relatively low cost. Despite a growing number of examples, systematic research on the effort contributions volunteers are willing to make to crowd science projects is lacking. Analyzing data on seven different projects, we quantify the financial value volunteers can bring by comparing their unpaid contributions with counterfactual costs in traditional or online labor markets. The volume of total contributions is substantial, although some projects are much more successful in attracting effort than others. Moreover, contributions received by projects are very uneven across time-a tendency toward declining activity is interrupted by spikes typically resulting from outreach efforts or media attention. Analyzing user-level data, we find that most contributors participate only once and with little effort, leaving a relatively small share of users who return responsible for most of the work. Although top contributor status is earned primarily through higher levels of effort, top contributors also tend to work faster. This speed advantage develops over multiple sessions, suggesting that it reflects learning rather than inherent differences in skills. Our findings inform recent discussions about potential benefits from crowd science, suggest that involving the crowd may be more effective for some kinds of projects than others, provide guidance for project managers, and raise important questions for future research.

  6. Some Numerical Aspects on Crowd Motion - The Hughes Model

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Machado Velho, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Here, we study a crowd model proposed by R. Hughes in [5] and we describe a numerical approach to solve it. This model comprises a Fokker-Planck equation coupled with an Eikonal equation with Dirichlet or Neumann data. First, we establish a priori

  7. Which updates during an equity crowdfunding campaign increase crowd participation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Block, J. (Jörn); Hornuf, L. (Lars); Moritz, A. (Alexandra)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractStart-ups often post updates during equity crowdfunding campaigns. However, little is known about the effects of such updates on crowd participation. We investigate this question by using hand-collected data from 71 funding campaigns and 39,399 investment decisions on two German equity

  8. DNA strand exchange catalyzed by molecular crowding in PEG solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Bobo; Frykholm, Karolin; Nordé n, Bengt; Westerlund, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    DNA strand exchange is catalyzed by molecular crowding and hydrophobic interactions in concentrated aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol, a discovery of relevance for understanding the function of recombination enzymes and with potential applications to DNA nanotechnology. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Crowd science and engineering: concept and research framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueting Chai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The synthetic application and interaction of/between the internet, Internet of Things, cloud computing, big data, Industry 4.0 and other new patterns and new technologies shall breed future Web-based industrial operation system and social operation management patterns, manifesting as a crowd cyber eco-system composed of multiple interconnected intelligent agents (enterprises, individuals and governmental agencies and its dynamic behaviors. This paper aims to explore the basic principles and laws of such a system and its behavior. Design/methodology/approach – The authors propose the concepts of crowd science and engineering (CSE and expound its main content, thus forming a research framework of theories and methodologies of crowd science. Findings – CSE is expected to substantially promote the formation and development of crowd science and thus lay a foundation for the advancement of Web-based industrial operation system and social operation management patterns. Originality/value – This paper is the first one to propose the concepts of CSE, which lights the beacon for the future research in this area.

  10. Crowds As Complex Adaptive Systems: Strategic Implications For Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    spread by word -of- mouth , news outlets, and social media .186 According to David Karpf, an assistant professor at George Washington University, the...71 6. A Word about Social Media ...such as the police. 6. A Word about Social Media The burgeoning role of social media is a significant development in crowd system dynamics. Social

  11. Stress and fish reproduction: The roles of allostasis and hormesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, C.B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a review of the effects of stress on reproduction in fishes. I hope to further the development of the concepts of allostasis and hormesis as relevant to understanding reproduction in general and in fish in particular. The main contentions I derive in this review are the following: Stressors affect fish reproduction in a variety of ways depending on the nature and severity of the stressor. The effects are transduced through a hormonal cascade initiated by perception of the stressor and involving the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis, the catecholamines, and also cytokines. Mounting a stress response and resisting a stressor is an energetically costly process, including costs associated with allostasis, attempting to reset homeostatic norms. Responses in emergency situations (e.g., being chased by a predator or a net) can be different from those where fish can cope (e.g., being in a more crowded environment) with a stressor, but both situations involve energy re-budgeting. Emergency responses happen in concert with the onset of energy limitations (e.g., the fish may not eat), while coping with allostatic overload can happen in a more energy-rich environment (e.g., the fish can continue to eat). Low levels of stress may have a positive effect on reproductive processes while greater stress has negative effects on fish reproduction. The concept of hormesis is a useful way to think about the effect of stressors on fish reproduction since responses can be nonmonotonal, often biphasic.

  12. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  13. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  14. Pedestrian Dynamics Feedback Control of Crowd Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Kachroo, Pushkin P.E; Al-nasur, Sadeq J; Shende, Apoorva

    2008-01-01

    Effective evacuation of people from closed spaces is an extremely important topic, since it can save real lives in emergency situations that can be brought about by natural and human made disasters. Usually there are static maps posted at various places at buildings that illustrate routes that should be taken during emergencies. However, when disasters happen, some of these routes might not be valid because of structural problems due to the disaster itself and more importantly because of the distribution of congestion of people spread over the area. The average flow of traffic depends on the traffic density. Therefore, if all the people follow the same route, or follow a route without knowing the congestion situation, they can end up being part of the congestion which results in very low flow rate or worse a traffic jam. Hence it becomes extremely important to design evacuations that inform people how fast and in which direction to move based on real-time information obtained about the people distribution usi...

  15. How update schemes influence crowd simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Michael J; Köster, Gerta

    2014-01-01

    Time discretization is a key modeling aspect of dynamic computer simulations. In current pedestrian motion models based on discrete events, e.g. cellular automata and the Optimal Steps Model, fixed-order sequential updates and shuffle updates are prevalent. We propose to use event-driven updates that process events in the order they occur, and thus better match natural movement. In addition, we present a parallel update with collision detection and resolution for situations where computational speed is crucial. Two simulation studies serve to demonstrate the practical impact of the choice of update scheme. Not only do density-speed relations differ, but there is a statistically significant effect on evacuation times. Fixed-order sequential and random shuffle updates with a short update period come close to event-driven updates. The parallel update scheme overestimates evacuation times. All schemes can be employed for arbitrary simulation models with discrete events, such as car traffic or animal behavior. (paper)

  16. Factors Influencing Perceived Crowding of Tourists and Sustainable Tourism Destination Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on tourists crowding are developed to explore the perception of crowding, and these studies indicate crowding influence on sustainable development of tourist destinations. This study aims to reveal the influential factors of tourists’ perceived crowding. We obtained data from interviewing over 400 tourists and five senior tourism officials in Xi’an, China. This study firstly applies factor analysis to identify the constructed variables of tourists’ motivations from the principle component analysis. It then examines the correlation between nationality and perceived crowding. Consequently, a multiple regression is used to identify the connection between motivations and perceived crowding. The results of the study indicate nationality and motivation as two significant influential factors to perceived crowding management. This study also shows that management in tourist destinations would benefit from provision of the authentic travel experience integrated with zoning the travel destination.

  17. Adolescent peer crowds and patterns of belief in the boundaries of personal authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddis, Christopher

    2010-10-01

    Patterns of authority beliefs were examined among peer crowds in 598 middle school (M=12.97 years), early high school (M=15.10 years), and late high school adolescents (M=18.25 years). Participants reported beliefs regarding the boundaries of personal authority across personal, prudential, conventional, moral, and multifaceted issues. As expected, analyses revealed persistent differences in belief patterns among crowds within each age group. Tough and Alternative crowds asserted personal authority across all issues, while Prep and Outcast crowds endorsed parental authority. Jock, Hip Hop, and Normal crowds presented with shared-control patterns, but each crowd ceded and asserted authority over different issues. Discussion focused on crowds' roles in the development of group differences in the boundaries of personal authority.

  18. Estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas pela equipe de enfermagem de um CTI adulto perante situações de estresse Coping strategies used by the nursing staff of an adult ICU in stress situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelle Graziottin Colossi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Para os profissionais da saúde lidar com situações de estresse, como por exemplo, a eminência da morte dos pacientes, parece ser uma das maiores dificuldades vividas em sue ambiente de trabalho. Frente a este contexto, cada pessoa lança mão de estratégias próprias para o enfrentamento de situações estressantes (coping, as quais são determinadas pelo ambiente e por características de personalidade. Objetivo: Identificar as estratégias de enfrentamento (coping dos profissionais de enfermagem de um CTI adulto diante de situações estressantes inerentes a sua profissão. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo transversal, no qual foi aplicado o Inventário COPE, em trinta e oito técnicos de enfermagem e/ou enfermeiros. Os dados do inventário foram analisados em termos descritivos. Resultados: As estratégias de enfrentamento mais utilizadas foram as relacionadas à capacidade pró-ativa do sujeito (reinterpretação positiva, coping ativo e busca por suporte social e as menos utilizadas foram as relacionadas às emoções (foco nas emoções e humor. Conclusão: Na amostra estudada, os profissionais buscam estratégias que antecedam as dificuldades inerentes a sua prática diária, isolando os aspectos mais irrelevantes dos estressores e focalizando a atenção no resultado de suas ações, o que permite uma melhor percepção de seu trabalho e o sentimento de realização profissional.Introduction: For health professionals, to deal with stressful situations, such as the imminence of death of their patients, seems to be one of the greatest difficulties experienced in the workplace. In these situations, each person makes use of their own strategies in order to cope with stressful situations, which are determined by the environment and the personality traits. Objective: To identify the coping strategies used by nursing professionals of an adult ICU while facing stressful situations inherent to their

  19. Peer Crowd Identification and Adolescent Health Behaviors: Results From a Statewide Representative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey W; Stalgaitis, Carolyn A; Charles, John; Madden, Patrick A; Radhakrishnan, Anjana G; Saggese, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Peer crowds are macro-level subcultures that share similarities across geographic areas. Over the past decade, dozens of studies have explored the association between adolescent peer crowds and risk behaviors, and how they can inform public health efforts. However, despite the interest, researchers have not yet reported on crowd size and risk levels from a representative sample, making it difficult for practitioners to apply peer crowd science to interventions. The current study reports findings from the first statewide representative sample of adolescent peer crowd identification and health behaviors. Weighted data were analyzed from the 2015 Virginia Youth Survey of Health Behaviors ( n = 4,367). Peer crowds were measured via the I-Base Survey™, a photo-based peer crowd survey instrument. Frequencies and confidence intervals of select behaviors including tobacco use, substance use, nutrition, physical activity, and violence were examined to identify high- and low-risk crowds. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios for each crowd and behavior. Risky behaviors clustered in two peer crowds. Hip Hop crowd identification was associated with substance use, violence, and some depression and suicidal behaviors. Alternative crowd identification was associated with increased risk for some substance use behaviors, depression and suicide, bullying, physical inactivity, and obesity. Mainstream and, to a lesser extent, Popular, identities were associated with decreased risk for most behaviors. Findings from the first representative study of peer crowds and adolescent behavior identify two high-risk groups, providing critical insights for practitioners seeking to maximize public health interventions by targeting high-risk crowds.

  20. Dynamics of Situation Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dongseop; Moro, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Situation definition is the process and product of actors' interpretive activities toward a given situation. By reviewing a number of psychological studies conducted in experimental settings, we found that the studies have only explicated a part of the situation definition process and have neglected its dynamic aspects. We need to focus on the…

  1. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  2. Quality-Aware Incentive Mechanism for Mobile Crowd Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yun Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile crowd sensing (MCS is a novel sensing paradigm which can sense human-centered daily activities and the surrounding environment. The impact of mobility and selfishness of participants on the data reliability cannot be ignored in most mobile crowd sensing systems. To address this issue, we present a universal system model based on the reverse auction framework and formulate the problem as the Multiple Quality Multiple User Selection (MQMUS problem. The quality-aware incentive mechanism (QAIM is proposed to meet the quality requirement of data reliability. We demonstrate that the proposed incentive mechanism achieves the properties of computational efficiency, individual rationality, and truthfulness. And meanwhile, we evaluate the performance and validate the theoretical properties of our incentive mechanism through extensive simulation experiments.

  3. Crowding-facilitated macromolecular transport in attractive micropost arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Fan-Tso; Lin, Po-Keng; Chien, Wei; Hung, Cheng-Hsiang; Yu, Ming-Hung; Chou, Chia-Fu; Chen, Yeng-Long

    2017-05-02

    Our study of DNA dynamics in weakly attractive nanofabricated post arrays revealed crowding enhances polymer transport, contrary to hindered transport in repulsive medium. The coupling of DNA diffusion and adsorption to the microposts results in more frequent cross-post hopping and increased long-term diffusivity with increased crowding density. We performed Langevin dynamics simulations and found maximum long-term diffusivity in post arrays with gap sizes comparable to the polymer radius of gyration. We found that macromolecular transport in weakly attractive post arrays is faster than in non-attractive dense medium. Furthermore, we employed hidden Markov analysis to determine the transition of macromolecular adsorption-desorption on posts and hopping between posts. The apparent free energy barriers are comparable to theoretical estimates determined from polymer conformational fluctuations.

  4. Disaster Risk Reduction through Innovative Uses of Crowd Sourcing (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J.; Greene, M.

    2010-12-01

    Crowd sourcing can be described as a method of distributed problem-solving. It takes advantage of the power of the crowd, which can in some cases be a community of experts and in other cases the collective insight of a broader range of contributors with varying degrees of domain knowledge. The term crowd sourcing was first used by Jeff Howe in a June 2006 Wired magazine article “The Rise of Crowdsourcing,” and is a combination of the terms “crowd” and “outsourcing.” Some commonly known examples of crowd sourcing, in its broadest sense, include Wikepedia, distributed participatory design projects, and consumer websites such as Yelp and Angie’s List. The popularity and success of early large-scale crowd sourcing activities is made possible through leveraging Web 2.0 technologies that allow for mass participation from distributed individuals. The Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) in Oakland, California recently participated in two crowd sourcing projects. One was initiated and coordinated by EERI, while in the second case EERI was invited to contribute once the crowd sourcing activity was underway. In both projects there was: 1) the determination of a problem or set of tasks that could benefit immediately from the engagement of an informed volunteer group of professionals; 2) a segmenting of the problem into discrete pieces that could be completed in a short period of time (from ten minutes to four hours); 3) a call to action, where an interested community was made aware of the project; and 4) the collection, aggregation, vetting and ultimately distribution of the results in a relatively short period of time. The first EERI crowd sourcing example was the use of practicing engineers and engineering students in California to help estimate the number of pre-1980 concrete buildings in the high seismic risk counties in the state. This building type is known to perform poorly in earthquakes, and state officials were interested in understanding

  5. Crowd-Sourcing the Aesthetics of Platform Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2014-01-01

    What are the aesthetics of platform games and what makes a platform level engaging, challenging and/or frustrating? We attempt to answer such questions through mining a large-set of crowd-sourced gameplay data of a clone of the classic platform game Super Mario Bros. The data consists of 40 short...... game levels that differ along six key level design parameters. Collectively, these levels are played 1560 times over the Internet and the perceived experience is annotated by experiment participants via self-reported ranking (pairwise preferences). Given the wealth of this crowd-sourced data, as all...... details about players’ in-game behaviour are logged, the problem becomes one of extracting meaningful numerical features at the appropriate level of abstraction for the construction of generic computational models of player experience and, thereby, game aesthetics. We explore dissimilar types of features...

  6. Facilitated aggregation of FG nucleoporins under molecular crowding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milles, Sigrid; Huy Bui, Khanh; Koehler, Christine; Eltsov, Mikhail; Beck, Martin; Lemke, Edward A

    2013-02-01

    Intrinsically disordered and phenylalanine-glycine-rich nucleoporins (FG Nups) form a crowded and selective transport conduit inside the NPC that can only be transited with the help of nuclear transport receptors (NTRs). It has been shown in vitro that FG Nups can assemble into two distinct appearances, amyloids and hydrogels. If and how these phenomena are linked and if they have a physiological role still remains unclear. Using a variety of high-resolution fluorescence and electron microscopic (EM) tools, we reveal that crowding conditions mimicking the NPC environment can accelerate the aggregation and amyloid formation speed of yeast and human FG Nups by orders of magnitude. Aggregation can be inhibited by NTRs, providing a rationale on how the cell might control amyloid formation of FG Nups. The superb spatial resolving power of EM also reveals that hydrogels are enlaced amyloid fibres, and these findings have implications for existing transport models and for NPC assembly.

  7. Facilitated diffusion in a crowded environment: from kinetics to stochastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meroz, Yasmine; Klafter, Joseph; Eliazar, Iddo

    2009-01-01

    Facilitated diffusion is a fundamental search process used to describe the problem of a searcher protein finding a specific target site over a very large DNA strand. In recent years macromolecular crowding has been recognized to affect this search process. In this paper, we bridge between two different modelling methodologies of facilitated diffusion: the physics-oriented kinetic approach, which yields the reaction rate of the search process, and the probability-oriented stochastic approach, which yields the probability distribution of the search duration. We translate the former approach to the latter, ascertaining that the two approaches yield coinciding results, both with and without macromolecular crowding. We further show that the stochastic approach markedly generalizes the kinetic approach by accommodating a vast array of search mechanisms, including mechanisms having no reaction rates, and thus being beyond the realm of the kinetic approach.

  8. Stochastic reaction-diffusion algorithms for macromolecular crowding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Compartment-based (lattice-based) reaction-diffusion algorithms are often used for studying complex stochastic spatio-temporal processes inside cells. In this paper the influence of macromolecular crowding on stochastic reaction-diffusion simulations is investigated. Reaction-diffusion processes are considered on two different kinds of compartmental lattice, a cubic lattice and a hexagonal close packed lattice, and solved using two different algorithms, the stochastic simulation algorithm and the spatiocyte algorithm (Arjunan and Tomita 2010 Syst. Synth. Biol. 4, 35-53). Obstacles (modelling macromolecular crowding) are shown to have substantial effects on the mean squared displacement and average number of molecules in the domain but the nature of these effects is dependent on the choice of lattice, with the cubic lattice being more susceptible to the effects of the obstacles. Finally, improvements for both algorithms are presented.

  9. SPITZER IRAC PHOTOMETRY FOR TIME SERIES IN CROWDED FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novati, S. Calchi; Beichman, C. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gould, A.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Pogge, R. W.; Wibking, B.; Zhu, W.; Poleski, R. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Yee, J. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bryden, G.; Henderson, C. B.; Shvartzvald, Y. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Carey, S. [Spitzer, Science Center, MS 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Udalski, A.; Pawlak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Collaboration: Spitzer team; OGLE group; and others

    2015-12-01

    We develop a new photometry algorithm that is optimized for the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Spitzer time series in crowded fields and that is particularly adapted to faint or heavily blended targets. We apply this to the 170 targets from the 2015 Spitzer microlensing campaign and present the results of three variants of this algorithm in an online catalog. We present detailed accounts of the application of this algorithm to two difficult cases, one very faint and the other very crowded. Several of Spitzer's instrumental characteristics that drive the specific features of this algorithm are shared by Kepler and WFIRST, implying that these features may prove to be a useful starting point for algorithms designed for microlensing campaigns by these other missions.

  10. Crowd Sourced Formal Verification-Augmentation (CSFV-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Projects Agency (DARPA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Charles River Analytics Inc., and TopCoder, Inc. will be holding a contest to reward...CROWD SOURCED FORMAL VERIFICATION – AUGMENTATION (CSFV-A) CHARLES RIVER ANALYTICS, INC. JUNE 2016 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC...CSFV 5e. TASK NUMBER TC 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER RA 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Charles River Analytics, Inc. 625 Mount Auburn

  11. Crowding out intrinsic motivation in the public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Georgellis, Y; Iossa, E; Tabvuma, V

    2011-01-01

    Employing intrinsically motivated individuals has been proposed as a means of improving public sector performance. In this article, we investigate whether intrinsic motivation affects the sorting of employees between the private and the public sectors, paying particular attention to whether extrinsic rewards crowd out intrinsic motivation. Using British longitudinal data, we find that individuals are attracted to the public sector by the intrinsic rather than the extrinsic rewards that the se...

  12. Crowded, Confined, and Frustrated: Dynamics of Molecules Tethered to Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Praveen

    2012-12-01

    Above a critical chemistry-dependent molecular weight, all polymer molecules entangle and, as a result, exhibit slow dynamics, enhanced viscosity, and elasticity. Herein we report on the dynamics of low molecular weight polymers tethered to nanoparticles and find that even conventionally unentangled chains manifest dynamical features similar to entangled, long-chain molecules. Our findings are shown to imply that crowding and confinement of polymers on particles produce topological constraints analogous to those in entangled systems. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  13. Characterizing Crowd Participation and Productivity of Foldit Through Web Scraping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    of home computer users as a method to tackle other problems. Howe first coined “Crowdsourcing” in an article for Wired magazine titled “The Rise of...terms of biotechnology , DNA technology has applications ranging from self-assembling nanotechnology to logical circuits and programming. Taking some...crowdsourcing,” Wired Magazine , vol. 14, pp. 1–4, 2006. [22] D. C. Brabham, “The myth of amateur crowds: A critical discourse analysis of crowdsourcing

  14. Structures and functions in the crowded nucleus: new biophysical insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald eHancock

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Concepts and methods from the physical sciences have catalysed remarkable progress in understanding the cell nucleus in recent years. To share this excitement with physicists and encourage their interest in this field, this review offers an overview of how the physics which underlies structures and functions in the nucleus is becoming more clear thanks to methods which have been developed to simulate and study macromolecules, polymers, and colloids. The environment in the nucleus is very crowded with macromolecules, making entropic (depletion forces major determinants of interactions. Simulation and experiments are consistent with their key role in forming membraneless compartments such as nucleoli, PML and Cajal bodies, and discrete territories for chromosomes. The chromosomes, giant linear polyelectrolyte polymers, exist in vivo in a state like a polymer melt. Looped conformations are predicted in crowded conditions, and have been confirmed experimentally and are central to the regulation of gene expression. Polymer theory has revealed how the chromosomes are so highly compacted in the nucleus, forming a crumpled globule with fractal properties which avoids knots and entanglements in DNA while allowing facile accessibility for its replication and transcription. Entropic repulsion between looped polymers can explain the confinement of each chromosome to a discrete region of the nucleus. Crowding and looping are predicted to facilitate finding the specific targets of factors which modulate activities of DNA. Simulation shows that entropic effects contribute to finding and repairing potentially lethal double-strand breaks in DNA by increasing the mobility of the broken ends, favouring their juxtaposition for repair. Signaling pathways are strongly influenced by crowding, which favours a processive mode of response (consecutive reactions without releasing substrates. This new information contributes to understanding the sometimes counter

  15. The effect of music tempo on perceived crowding in retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Fiksdal, Taisiya; Hua, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Masteroppgave(MSc) in Master of Science in Strategic Marketing Management - Handelshøyskolen BI, 2016 In the marketing field the influence of in-store atmospherics on consumers’ shopping behavior is widely accepted. We seek to understand the effects of instore music tempo on perceived crowding and how music tempo can affect emotions, arousal and perceived control occurring in retail stores. Hence, our research questions are the following: Does music tempo influence the perce...

  16. The multi-niche crowding genetic algorithm: Analysis and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedeno, Walter [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The ability of organisms to evolve and adapt to the environment has provided mother nature with a rich and diverse set of species. Only organisms well adapted to their environment can survive from one generation to the next, transferring on the traits, that made them successful, to their offspring. Competition for resources and the ever changing environment drives some species to extinction and at the same time others evolve to maintain the delicate balance in nature. In this disertation we present the multi-niche crowding genetic algorithm, a computational metaphor to the survival of species in ecological niches in the face of competition. The multi-niche crowding genetic algorithm maintains stable subpopulations of solutions in multiple niches in multimodal landscapes. The algorithm introduces the concept of crowding selection to promote mating among members with qirnilar traits while allowing many members of the population to participate in mating. The algorithm uses worst among most similar replacement policy to promote competition among members with similar traits while allowing competition among members of different niches as well. We present empirical and theoretical results for the success of the multiniche crowding genetic algorithm for multimodal function optimization. The properties of the algorithm using different parameters are examined. We test the performance of the algorithm on problems of DNA Mapping, Aquifer Management, and the File Design Problem. Applications that combine the use of heuristics and special operators to solve problems in the areas of combinatorial optimization, grouping, and multi-objective optimization. We conclude by presenting the advantages and disadvantages of the algorithm and describing avenues for future investigation to answer other questions raised by this study.

  17. Combining Crowd and Expert Labels using Decision Theoretic Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-11

    including those la- beled by a classifier trained on using the labels acquired so far). For example, a simple loss function would just be the number...model is used to predict the probability that each crowd la- beled item is correct. This estimate is in turn used to weight the corresponding...costs) for each state using Algorithm 1 as a subroutine. We consider taking the possible action for each item not yet la- beled by the expert. Thus each

  18. Traffic instabilities in self-organized pedestrian crowds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moussaïd

    Full Text Available In human crowds as well as in many animal societies, local interactions among individuals often give rise to self-organized collective organizations that offer functional benefits to the group. For instance, flows of pedestrians moving in opposite directions spontaneously segregate into lanes of uniform walking directions. This phenomenon is often referred to as a smart collective pattern, as it increases the traffic efficiency with no need of external control. However, the functional benefits of this emergent organization have never been experimentally measured, and the underlying behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In this work, we have studied this phenomenon under controlled laboratory conditions. We found that the traffic segregation exhibits structural instabilities characterized by the alternation of organized and disorganized states, where the lifetime of well-organized clusters of pedestrians follow a stretched exponential relaxation process. Further analysis show that the inter-pedestrian variability of comfortable walking speeds is a key variable at the origin of the observed traffic perturbations. We show that the collective benefit of the emerging pattern is maximized when all pedestrians walk at the average speed of the group. In practice, however, local interactions between slow- and fast-walking pedestrians trigger global breakdowns of organization, which reduce the collective and the individual payoff provided by the traffic segregation. This work is a step ahead toward the understanding of traffic self-organization in crowds, which turns out to be modulated by complex behavioral mechanisms that do not always maximize the group's benefits. The quantitative understanding of crowd behaviors opens the way for designing bottom-up management strategies bound to promote the emergence of efficient collective behaviors in crowds.

  19. Patterns of residential crowding among Hispanics in later life: immigration, assimilation, and housing market factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Jeffrey A; Mutchler, Jan E; Gerst, Kerstin

    2010-11-01

    We describe patterns of residential crowding among older Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. We also examine hypotheses about the relationship of residential crowding with assimilation (language and duration of residence) and housing market characteristics. We employ a multilevel research design, using data from the 2000 U.S. Census of Population. Hierarchical linear models are utilized to estimate the association between residential crowding and both individual and housing market factors. Approximately one third of older Hispanics in metropolitan areas live in crowded housing compared with only one tenth of older non-Hispanic Whites. Foreign-born older persons report higher levels of crowding than U.S.-born older persons. Residential crowding differences between older Hispanics and non-Hispanics are not eliminated after controls are included. Older Hispanics who report better English language skills and a longer duration of residence in the United States live in less crowded housing. We do not find evidence for a relationship between crowding and residential segregation, but we find consistent evidence for an association between residential crowding and relative size of the Hispanic population. The forces that shape household composition and access to housing among older Hispanics appear to result in higher levels of residential crowding for this population.

  20. Statistical analysis of passenger-crowding in bus transport network of Harbin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baoyu; Feng, Shumin; Li, Jinyang; Zhao, Hu

    2018-01-01

    Passenger flow data is indispensable but rare in the study of public transport networks. In this study, we focus on the passenger-crowding characteristics of the bus transport network of Harbin (BTN-H) based on passenger flow investigation. The three frequency histograms for all the uplinks and downlinks in Harbin are presented, including passengers on the bus at each section, crowding coefficients, and position parameters of crowded sections. The differences in crowding position are analyzed on each route. The distributions of degree and crowding degree (in directed space L) follow an exponential law. The new finding indicates that there are many stations with few crowded sections and a few stations with many crowded sections. The distributions of path length and crowded length (in directed space P) are presented based on the minimum transfer times, and it is found that they can be fitted by a composite Gaussian function and a Gaussian function, respectively. The stations and paths can be divided into three crowd levels. We conclude that BTN-H is crowded from a network-based perspective.

  1. Foot force models of crowd dynamics on a wobbly bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belykh, Igor; Jeter, Russell; Belykh, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Modern pedestrian and suspension bridges are designed using industry standard packages, yet disastrous resonant vibrations are observed, necessitating multimillion dollar repairs. Recent examples include pedestrian-induced vibrations during the opening of the Solférino Bridge in Paris in 1999 and the increased bouncing of the Squibb Park Bridge in Brooklyn in 2014. The most prominent example of an unstable lively bridge is the London Millennium Bridge, which started wobbling as a result of pedestrian-bridge interactions. Pedestrian phase locking due to footstep phase adjustment is suspected to be the main cause of its large lateral vibrations; however, its role in the initiation of wobbling was debated. We develop foot force models of pedestrians' response to bridge motion and detailed, yet analytically tractable, models of crowd phase locking. We use biomechanically inspired models of crowd lateral movement to investigate to what degree pedestrian synchrony must be present for a bridge to wobble significantly and what is a critical crowd size. Our results can be used as a safety guideline for designing pedestrian bridges or limiting the maximum occupancy of an existing bridge. The pedestrian models can be used as "crash test dummies" when numerically probing a specific bridge design. This is particularly important because the U.S. code for designing pedestrian bridges does not contain explicit guidelines that account for the collective pedestrian behavior.

  2. Anatomy of the Crowd4Discovery crowdfunding campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlstein, Ethan O

    2013-01-01

    Crowdfunding allows the public to fund creative projects, including curiosity-driven scientific research. Last Fall, I was part of a team that raised $25,460 from an international coalition of "micropatrons" for an open, pharmacological research project called Crowd4Discovery. The goal of Crowd4Discovery is to determine the precise location of amphetamines inside mouse brain cells, and we are sharing the results of this project on the Internet as they trickle in. In this commentary, I will describe the genesis of Crowd4Discovery, our motivations for crowdfunding, an analysis of our fundraising data, and the nuts and bolts of running a crowdfunding campaign. Science crowdfunding is in its infancy but has already been successfully used by an array of scientists in academia and in the private sector as both a supplement and a substitute to grants. With traditional government sources of funding for basic scientific research contracting, an alternative model that couples fundraising and outreach - and in the process encourages more openness and accountability - may be increasingly attractive to researchers seeking to diversify their funding streams.

  3. Demotivating incentives and motivation crowding out in charitable giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Matthew

    2017-07-11

    Research has shown that extrinsic incentives can crowd out intrinsic motivation in many contexts. Despite this, many nonprofits offer conditional thank-you gifts, such as mugs or tote bags, in exchange for donations. In collaboration with a nonprofit, this study implements a direct mail field experiment and demonstrates that thank-you gifts reduced donation rates in a fundraising campaign. Attention-based multiattribute choice models suggest that this is because prospective donors shift attention to the salient gift offer, causing them to underweight less salient intrinsic motives. Attention to the gift may also cause individuals to adopt a more cost-benefit mindset, further de-emphasizing intrinsic motives. Consistent with these hypotheses, crowding out was driven by those who donated higher amounts in the previous year (i.e., those who likely had higher intrinsic motivation). In a complementary online experiment, thank-you gifts also reduced donation rates but only when the gift was visually salient. This corroborates the mediating role of attention in crowding out. Taken together, the laboratory and field results demonstrate that this fundraising technique can be demotivating in some contexts and that this may occur through an attention-based mechanism.

  4. Conceptualizing intragroup and intergroup dynamics within a controlled crowd evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzie, Terra; Frydenlund, Erika; Collins, Andrew J; Robinson, R Michael

    2015-01-01

    Social dynamics play a critical role in successful pedestrian evacuations. Crowd modeling research has made progress in capturing the way individual and group dynamics affect evacuations; however, few studies have simultaneously examined how individuals and groups interact with one another during egress. To address this gap, the researchers present a conceptual agent-based model (ABM) designed to study the ways in which autonomous, heterogeneous, decision-making individuals negotiate intragroup and intergroup behavior while exiting a large venue. A key feature of this proposed model is the examination of the dynamics among and between various groupings, where heterogeneity at the individual level dynamically affects group behavior and subsequently group/group interactions. ABM provides a means of representing the important social factors that affect decision making among diverse social groups. Expanding on the 2013 work of Vizzari et al., the researchers focus specifically on social factors and decision making at the individual/group and group/group levels to more realistically portray dynamic crowd systems during a pedestrian evacuation. By developing a model with individual, intragroup, and intergroup interactions, the ABM provides a more representative approximation of real-world crowd egress. The simulation will enable more informed planning by disaster managers, emergency planners, and other decision makers. This pedestrian behavioral concept is one piece of a larger simulation model. Future research will build toward an integrated model capturing decision-making interactions between pedestrians and vehicles that affect evacuation outcomes.

  5. Bayesian network model of crowd emotion and negative behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurulhuda; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Hatta, Zulkarnain Ahmad; Hashim, Intan Hashimah Mohd; Sulong, Jasni; Mahudin, Nor Diana Mohd; Rahman, Shukran Abd; Saad, Zarina Mat

    2014-12-01

    The effects of overcrowding have become a major concern for event organizers. One aspect of this concern has been the idea that overcrowding can enhance the occurrence of serious incidents during events. As one of the largest Muslim religious gathering attended by pilgrims from all over the world, Hajj has become extremely overcrowded with many incidents being reported. The purpose of this study is to analyze the nature of human emotion and negative behavior resulting from overcrowding during Hajj events from data gathered in Malaysian Hajj Experience Survey in 2013. The sample comprised of 147 Malaysian pilgrims (70 males and 77 females). Utilizing a probabilistic model called Bayesian network, this paper models the dependence structure between different emotions and negative behaviors of pilgrims in the crowd. The model included the following variables of emotion: negative, negative comfortable, positive, positive comfortable and positive spiritual and variables of negative behaviors; aggressive and hazardous acts. The study demonstrated that emotions of negative, negative comfortable, positive spiritual and positive emotion have a direct influence on aggressive behavior whereas emotion of negative comfortable, positive spiritual and positive have a direct influence on hazardous acts behavior. The sensitivity analysis showed that a low level of negative and negative comfortable emotions leads to a lower level of aggressive and hazardous behavior. Findings of the study can be further improved to identify the exact cause and risk factors of crowd-related incidents in preventing crowd disasters during the mass gathering events.

  6. POI Summarization by Aesthetics Evaluation From Crowd Source Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xueming; Li, Cheng; Lan, Ke; Hou, Xingsong; Li, Zhetao; Han, Junwei

    2018-03-01

    Place-of-Interest (POI) summarization by aesthetics evaluation can recommend a set of POI images to the user and it is significant in image retrieval. In this paper, we propose a system that summarizes a collection of POI images regarding both aesthetics and diversity of the distribution of cameras. First, we generate visual albums by a coarse-to-fine POI clustering approach and then generate 3D models for each album by the collected images from social media. Second, based on the 3D to 2D projection relationship, we select candidate photos in terms of the proposed crowd source saliency model. Third, in order to improve the performance of aesthetic measurement model, we propose a crowd-sourced saliency detection approach by exploring the distribution of salient regions in the 3D model. Then, we measure the composition aesthetics of each image and we explore crowd source salient feature to yield saliency map, based on which, we propose an adaptive image adoption approach. Finally, we combine the diversity and the aesthetics to recommend aesthetic pictures. Experimental results show that the proposed POI summarization approach can return images with diverse camera distributions and aesthetics.

  7. The Wisdom of e-crowds: Can Masses Create Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczerzycki Marcin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rising popularity of the Internet, interactions between companies and their consumers have become more common and meaningful. Researchers often tend to apply the metaphor of community to these on-line networks of B2C relationships. However, this term implies durability and a long-term orientation. It does not cover more incidental, short-lived groups of consumers, who therefore should not be treated as communities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the ability of these short-term, collective consumer phenomena (addressed as e-crowds within the scope of this paper to create value. Based on a critical literature analysis that considers works from several different fields of knowledge (including management, economics, psychology and media studies and empirical examples, we argue that while lacking a complex internal organization, e-crowds are capable of creating use, exchange and sign value when certain conditions are met. However, they are equally likely to perform value-destroying activities, which present real risks for companies that interact with e-crowds.

  8. Polymer Crowding in Confined Polymer-Nanoparticle Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Wyatt J.; Denton, Alan R.

    Crowding can influence the conformations and thus functionality of macromolecules in quasi-two-dimensional environments, such as DNA or proteins confined to a cell membrane. We explore such crowding within a model of polymers as penetrable ellipses, whose shapes are governed by the statistics of a 2D random walk. The principal radii of the polymers fluctuate according to probability distributions of the eigenvalues of the gyration tensor. Within this coarse-grained model, we perform Monte Carlo simulations of mixtures of polymers and hard nanodisks, including trial changes in polymer conformation (shape and orientation). Penetration of polymers by nanodisks is incorporated with a free energy cost predicted by polymer field theory. Over ranges of size ratio and nanodisk density, we analyze the influence of crowding on polymer shape by computing eigenvalue distributions, mean radius of gyration, and mean asphericity of the polymer. We compare results with predictions of free-volume theory and with corresponding results in three dimensions. Our approach may help to interpret recent (and motivate future) experimental studies of biopolymers interacting with cell membranes, with relevance for drug delivery and gene therapy. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1106331.

  9. Information Seeking in a Natural Stress Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, David T. A.

    1971-01-01

    Compares hospitalized tuberculosis patients with informative and uninformative physicians as to their use of library books. Finds that the two groups did not differ in general reading, but that those with uninformative physicians tended to seek out books about tuberculosis and its treatment more often. (MB)

  10. Situational Method Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ralyte, Jolita; Par, Agerfalk; Rossi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    While previously available methodologies for software – like those published in the early days of object technology – claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all t...

  11. Situational method engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ågerfalk, Pär J; Rossi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    While previously available methodologies for software ? like those published in the early days of object technology ? claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all the bits and pieces needed for an organization to develop software, including the software process, the

  12. A behavioral economics perspective on the overjustification effect: Crowding-in and crowding-out of intrinsic motivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Weibel, Antoinette; Wiemann, Meike; Osterloh, Margit

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, economic motivation research has undergone a paradigm shift when it comes to the effect of incentive schemes on individual performance and motivation. Inspired by self-determination theory, a new branch in economics evolved called behavioral economics. Especially by evidencing the negative effect of “pay-for-performance” on intrinsic motivation, called the “crowding-out” or “overjustification” effect, it challenges the economic paradigm of the relative price-effect an...

  13. Crowd Sourcing for Challenging Technical Problems and Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Crowd sourcing may be defined as the act of outsourcing tasks that are traditionally performed by an employee or contractor to an undefined, generally large group of people or community (a crowd) in the form of an open call. The open call may be issued by an organization wishing to find a solution to a particular problem or complete a task, or by an open innovation service provider on behalf of that organization. In 2008, the Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD), with the support of Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering, established and implemented pilot projects in open innovation (crowd sourcing) to determine if these new internet-based platforms could indeed find solutions to difficult technical challenges. These unsolved technical problems were converted to problem statements, also called "Challenges" or "Technical Needs" by the various open innovation service providers, and were then posted externally to seek solutions. In addition, an open call was issued internally to NASA employees Agency wide (10 Field Centers and NASA HQ) using an open innovation service provider crowd sourcing platform to post NASA challenges from each Center for the others to propose solutions). From 2008 to 2010, the SLSD issued 34 challenges, 14 externally and 20 internally. The 14 external problems or challenges were posted through three different vendors: InnoCentive, Yet2.com and TopCoder. The 20 internal challenges were conducted using the InnoCentive crowd sourcing platform designed for internal use by an organization. This platform was customized for NASA use and promoted as NASA@Work. The results were significant. Of the seven InnoCentive external challenges, two full and five partial awards were made in complex technical areas such as predicting solar flares and long-duration food packaging. Similarly, the TopCoder challenge yielded an optimization algorithm for designing a lunar medical kit. The Yet2.com challenges yielded many new industry and academic contacts in bone

  14. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  15. Crowd innovation : The role of uncertainty for opening up the innovation process in the public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Collm, Alexandra; Schedler, Kuno

    2011-01-01

    Innovations are complex processes that can be created internally, caused externally or generated collectively with stakeholders. Integrating crowdsourcing and open innovation and supported by Web 2.0 technologies, a new innovation practice, crowd innovation, has emerged. In this paper, we illustrate empirically the practice of crowd innovation and discuss institutional obstacles, which exist for implementing crowd innovation in the public sector. Referring to the normative mode of publicness ...

  16. A Situational Maintenance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxhoj, James T.; Thorsteinsson, Uffe; Riis, Jens Ove

    1997-01-01

    An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance.......An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance....

  17. Interactive Purchasing Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote Schaarsberg, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper introduces a new class of interactive cooperative purchasing situations and provides an explicit alternative characterization of the nucleolus of cooperative games, which offers an alternative to Kohlberg (1971). In our cooperative purchasing situation, the unit price of a

  18. Laterally situated sinus pericranii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshu, K.; Takahashi, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sinus pericranii has been reported to be situated usually along the midline. Two cases of laterally situated sinus pericranii are presented. Venous blood was obtained by puncturing the tumors directly. Injection of contrast medium into the tumors demonstrated a communication between the tumors and the intracranial venous sinuses through marked diploic veins. (orig.)

  19. Assessing Operational Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin

    In spite of the high level of automation commonly applied to today’s engineering system, humans’ skill and knowledge still plays a central role in the systems’ daily operation, critical decision making, and accident management. The complexity of the engineered system poses great challenge for human...... operators to perceive and understand the operational situation. The research domain of situation awareness approaches the operational challenges from the human cognition perspective while the presented thesis aims at supporting situation assessment from the system perspective. The thesis has reviewed...... different perspectives on situation awareness in the human factor studies and uses the knowledge reflectively for system representation and analysis. The human cognitive activities during complex plant operation and how they perceive a situation and what kind of knowledge has to be established in the human...

  20. Modeling crowd behavior based on the discrete-event multiagent approach

    OpenAIRE

    Лановой, Алексей Феликсович; Лановой, Артем Алексеевич

    2014-01-01

    The crowd is a temporary, relatively unorganized group of people, who are in close physical contact with each other. Individual behavior of human outside the crowd is determined by many factors, associated with his intellectual activities, but inside the crowd the man loses his identity and begins to obey more simple laws of behavior.One of approaches to the construction of multi-level model of the crowd using discrete-event multiagent approach was described in the paper.Based on this analysi...

  1. Thermodynamics of Macromolecular Association in Heterogeneous Crowding Environments: Theoretical and Simulation Studies with a Simplified Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Tadashi; Yu, Isseki; Feig, Michael; Sugita, Yuji

    2016-11-23

    The cytoplasm of a cell is crowded with many different kinds of macromolecules. The macromolecular crowding affects the thermodynamics and kinetics of biological reactions in a living cell, such as protein folding, association, and diffusion. Theoretical and simulation studies using simplified models focus on the essential features of the crowding effects and provide a basis for analyzing experimental data. In most of the previous studies on the crowding effects, a uniform crowder size is assumed, which is in contrast to the inhomogeneous size distribution of macromolecules in a living cell. Here, we evaluate the free energy changes upon macromolecular association in a cell-like inhomogeneous crowding system via a theory of hard-sphere fluids and free energy calculations using Brownian dynamics trajectories. The inhomogeneous crowding model based on 41 different types of macromolecules represented by spheres with different radii mimics the physiological concentrations of macromolecules in the cytoplasm of Mycoplasma genitalium. The free energy changes of macromolecular association evaluated by the theory and simulations were in good agreement with each other. The crowder size distribution affects both specific and nonspecific molecular associations, suggesting that not only the volume fraction but also the size distribution of macromolecules are important factors for evaluating in vivo crowding effects. This study relates in vitro experiments on macromolecular crowding to in vivo crowding effects by using the theory of hard-sphere fluids with crowder-size heterogeneity.

  2. High oxygen consumption rates and scale loss indicate elevated aggressive behaviour at low rearing density, while elevated brain serotonergic activity suggest chronic stress at high rearing densities in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Silva, P.I.M.; Larsen, Bodil Katrine

    2013-01-01

    of a previous study,where levels of crowding where determined using the spatial distribution of fish in two-tank systems. An un-crowded low density of 25 kg m−3, the highest density accepted by the fish without showing indications of crowding stress of 80 kg m−3 as the intermediate density, and the highest...... density accepted by the fish showing indications of crowding stress of 140 kg m−3 as the high density were investigated. The aimof the present study was to examine the effect of being held at these densities on indicators of welfare. This was achieved through oxygen consumption measurements using...

  3. Can the online crowd match real expert judgments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    , it is important that we better understand its possibilities and limitations. While previous results for low complexity coding tasks are encouraging, we assess whether and under what conditions simple and complex coding tasks can be outsourced to the crowd without sacrificing content validity in return...... for scalability. The simple task is to decide whether a party statement counts as positive reference to a concept – in our case equality. The complex task is to distinguish between five concepts of equality. To account for the crowdcoder’s contextual knowledge, we vary the IP restrictions. The basis for our...

  4. Learning Supervised Topic Models for Classification and Regression from Crowds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Filipe; Lourenco, Mariana; Ribeiro, Bernardete

    2017-01-01

    problems, which account for the heterogeneity and biases among different annotators that are encountered in practice when learning from crowds. We develop an efficient stochastic variational inference algorithm that is able to scale to very large datasets, and we empirically demonstrate the advantages...... annotation tasks, prone to ambiguity and noise, often with high volumes of documents, deem learning under a single-annotator assumption unrealistic or unpractical for most real-world applications. In this article, we propose two supervised topic models, one for classification and another for regression...

  5. Some Numerical Aspects on Crowd Motion - The Hughes Model

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-01-06

    Here, we study a crowd model proposed by R. Hughes in [5] and we describe a numerical approach to solve it. This model comprises a Fokker-Planck equation coupled with an Eikonal equation with Dirichlet or Neumann data. First, we establish a priori estimates for the solution. Second, we study radial solutions and identify a shock formation mechanism. Third, we illustrate the existence of congestion, the breakdown of the model, and the trend to the equilibrium. Finally, we propose a new numerical method and consider two numerical examples.

  6. An Improved Convolutional Neural Network on Crowd Density Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Shao-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method is proposed for crowd density estimation. An improved convolutional neural network is combined with traditional texture feature. The data calculated by the convolutional layer can be treated as a new kind of features.So more useful information of images can be extracted by different features.In the meantime, the size of image has little effect on the result of convolutional neural network. Experimental results indicate that our scheme has adequate performance to allow for its use in real world applications.

  7. Effect of form of obstacle on speed of crowd evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Ryosuke

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the form of an obstacle on the time that a crowd takes to evacuate a room, using a toy model. Pedestrians are modeled as active soft matter moving toward a point with intended velocities. An obstacle is placed in front of the exit, and it has one of four shapes: a cylindrical column, a triangular prism, a quadratic prism, or a diamond prism. Numerical results indicate that the evacuation-completion time depends on the shape of the obstacle. Obstacles with a circular cylinder (C.C.) shape yield the shortest evacuation-completion time in the proposed model.

  8. CrowdWater - Can people observe what models need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meerveld, I. H. J.; Seibert, J.; Vis, M.; Etter, S.; Strobl, B.

    2017-12-01

    CrowdWater (www.crowdwater.ch) is a citizen science project that explores the usefulness of crowd-sourced data for hydrological model calibration and prediction. Hydrological models are usually calibrated based on observed streamflow data but it is likely easier for people to estimate relative stream water levels, such as the water level above or below a rock, than streamflow. Relative stream water levels may, therefore, be a more suitable variable for citizen science projects than streamflow. In order to test this assumption, we held surveys near seven different sized rivers in Switzerland and asked more than 450 volunteers to estimate the water level class based on a picture with a virtual staff gauge. The results show that people can generally estimate the relative water level well, although there were also a few outliers. We also asked the volunteers to estimate streamflow based on the stick method. The median estimated streamflow was close to the observed streamflow but the spread in the streamflow estimates was large and there were very large outliers, suggesting that crowd-based streamflow data is highly uncertain. In order to determine the potential value of water level class data for model calibration, we converted streamflow time series for 100 catchments in the US to stream level class time series and used these to calibrate the HBV model. The model was then validated using the streamflow data. The results of this modeling exercise show that stream level class data are useful for constraining a simple runoff model. Time series of only two stream level classes, e.g. above or below a rock in the stream, were already informative, especially when the class boundary was chosen towards the highest stream levels. There was hardly any improvement in model performance when more than five water level classes were used. This suggests that if crowd-sourced stream level observations are available for otherwise ungauged catchments, these data can be used to constrain

  9. Electromyographic characteristic of orbicularis oris in patients with dental crowding in permanent occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytrenko, Maryna I; Kuroiedowa, Vira D

    2016-01-01

    electromyographic indices were developed for complex analysis of functional condition of orbicularis oris. to study electromyographic indices of orbicularis oris in patients with dental crowding in permanent occlusion. thirty four patients with malocclusion and a severe degree of severity of dental crowding (15 males, 19 females, aged 16-29 years) who underwent orthodontic examination. The treatment group was divided into three: Group Ia comprised 11 subjects with mandibular crowding (mean age 19,27 ± 1,08 years); group Ib, 10 patients with maxillary dental crowding (mean age 20,10 ± 1,60 years) and group Ic, 13 subjects with both maxillary and mandibular crowding (mean age 20,15 ± 1,45 years). The control group consisted of 10 patients with malocclusions but without dental crowding (mean age 20,70 ± 1,32 years). The findings were compared with similar indices in subjects with normal occlusion (mean age 21,3 ± 1,25 years). The index of orbicularis oris activity (ACTIV,%) was determined for each patient. A Student's t-test was used to analyze statistical difference between different groups. patients having crowding of maxillary teeth showed greater activity of muscles of the upper lip during maximum voluntary clenching (АCTІV= -0,99±7,44%). Activity of the muscles of the lower lip in patients with crowding of mandibular teeth (АСTІV=20,52±4,22%) and crowding of maxillary and mandibular teeth (АСTІV=17,93±4,33%) is prevailing. аctivity of the orbicularis oris in patients with malocclusion, complicated by dental crowding depend on clinical localization of crowding.

  10. Situating beyond the social

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soffer, Ann Katrine Bønnelykke

    2016-01-01

    Situated learning serves as an analytical framework for learning in a community of practice and has been widely used to understand the learning process that is entailed in becoming a nurse. Yet in this paper, the difficulties encountered with the original notion of situated learning once...... framework. I suggest the notion of multi-configured learning, which captures the heterogeneity and materiality encountered during ethnographic fieldwork at a Danish nursing school....

  11. Vehicular Visible Light Networks for Urban Mobile Crowd Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M. Masini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Crowd sensing is a powerful tool to map and predict interests and events. In the future, it could be boosted by an increasing number of connected vehicles sharing information and intentions. This will be made available by on board wireless connected devices able to continuously communicate with other vehicles and with the environment. Among the enabling technologies, visible light communication (VLC represents a low cost solution in the short term. In spite of the fact that vehicular communications cannot rely on the sole VLC due to the limitation provided by the light which allows communications in visibility only, VLC can however be considered to complement other wireless communication technologies which could be overloaded in dense scenarios. In this paper we evaluate the performance of VLC connected vehicles when urban crowd sensing is addressed and we compare the performance of sole vehicular visible light networks with that of VLC as a complementary technology of IEEE 802.11p. Results, obtained through a realistic simulation tool taking into account both the roadmap constraints and the technologies protocols, help to understand when VLC provides the major improvement in terms of delivered data varying the number and position of RSUs and the FOV of the receiver.

  12. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT PUBLIC HEALTH FROM ONLINE CROWD SURVEILLANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Shawndra; Merchant, Raina; Ungar, Lyle

    2013-09-10

    The Internet has forever changed the way people access information and make decisions about their healthcare needs. Patients now share information about their health at unprecedented rates on social networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook and on medical discussion boards. In addition to explicitly shared information about health conditions through posts, patients reveal data on their inner fears and desires about health when searching for health-related keywords on search engines. Data are also generated by the use of mobile phone applications that track users' health behaviors (e.g., eating and exercise habits) as well as give medical advice. The data generated through these applications are mined and repackaged by surveillance systems developed by academics, companies, and governments alike to provide insight to patients and healthcare providers for medical decisions. Until recently, most Internet research in public health has been surveillance focused or monitoring health behaviors. Only recently have researchers used and interacted with the crowd to ask questions and collect health-related data. In the future, we expect to move from this surveillance focus to the "ideal" of Internet-based patient-level interventions where healthcare providers help patients change their health behaviors. In this article, we highlight the results of our prior research on crowd surveillance and make suggestions for the future.

  13. Track-based event recognition in a realistic crowded environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Jasper R.; Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Burghouts, Gertjan J.; Eendebak, Pieter T.; den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Dijk, Judith; van Rest, Jeroen H.

    2014-10-01

    Automatic detection of abnormal behavior in CCTV cameras is important to improve the security in crowded environments, such as shopping malls, airports and railway stations. This behavior can be characterized at different time scales, e.g., by small-scale subtle and obvious actions or by large-scale walking patterns and interactions between people. For example, pickpocketing can be recognized by the actual snatch (small scale), when he follows the victim, or when he interacts with an accomplice before and after the incident (longer time scale). This paper focusses on event recognition by detecting large-scale track-based patterns. Our event recognition method consists of several steps: pedestrian detection, object tracking, track-based feature computation and rule-based event classification. In the experiment, we focused on single track actions (walk, run, loiter, stop, turn) and track interactions (pass, meet, merge, split). The experiment includes a controlled setup, where 10 actors perform these actions. The method is also applied to all tracks that are generated in a crowded shopping mall in a selected time frame. The results show that most of the actions can be detected reliably (on average 90%) at a low false positive rate (1.1%), and that the interactions obtain lower detection rates (70% at 0.3% FP). This method may become one of the components that assists operators to find threatening behavior and enrich the selection of videos that are to be observed.

  14. Effects of Soundscapes on Perceived Crowding and Encounter Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Oh; Shelby, Bo

    2011-07-01

    Soundscapes in recreation settings are becoming an important issue, but there are few studies of the effects of sounds on recreation experiences, especially crowding perceptions and encounter norms. This study compared effects of six types of sounds (an airplane, a truck engine, children playing, birds, water, and a control) on perceived crowding (PC) and encounter norms for hikers. Data were collected from 47 college students through lab experiments using simulated images, with moving hikers inserted in the original photo taken in the Jungmeori area of Mudeungsan Provincial Park in Korea. Overall, the motor-made sounds of the airplane and truck engine increased PC and decreased acceptability ratings, and the natural sounds of birds and water decreased PC and increased acceptability ratings. Ratings of the sound of children playing were similar to those in the control (i.e., no sound). In addition, as numbers of hikers increased, the overall effects of sounds decreased, and there were few significant differences in PC or acceptability ratings at the highest encounter levels. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.

  15. Network dynamics of social influence in the wisdom of crowds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Joshua; Brackbill, Devon; Centola, Damon

    2017-06-27

    A longstanding problem in the social, biological, and computational sciences is to determine how groups of distributed individuals can form intelligent collective judgments. Since Galton's discovery of the "wisdom of crowds" [Galton F (1907) Nature 75:450-451], theories of collective intelligence have suggested that the accuracy of group judgments requires individuals to be either independent, with uncorrelated beliefs, or diverse, with negatively correlated beliefs [Page S (2008) The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies ]. Previous experimental studies have supported this view by arguing that social influence undermines the wisdom of crowds. These results showed that individuals' estimates became more similar when subjects observed each other's beliefs, thereby reducing diversity without a corresponding increase in group accuracy [Lorenz J, Rauhut H, Schweitzer F, Helbing D (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:9020-9025]. By contrast, we show general network conditions under which social influence improves the accuracy of group estimates, even as individual beliefs become more similar. We present theoretical predictions and experimental results showing that, in decentralized communication networks, group estimates become reliably more accurate as a result of information exchange. We further show that the dynamics of group accuracy change with network structure. In centralized networks, where the influence of central individuals dominates the collective estimation process, group estimates become more likely to increase in error.

  16. Crowd-sourced assessment of surgical skills in cricothyrotomy procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdasi, Nava; Bly, Randall; White, Lee W; Hannaford, Blake; Moe, Kris; Lendvay, Thomas S

    2015-06-15

    Objective assessment of surgical skills is resource intensive and requires valuable time of expert surgeons. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of a large group of laypersons using a crowd-sourcing tool to grade a surgical procedure (cricothyrotomy) performed on a simulator. The grading included an assessment of the entire procedure by completing an objective assessment of technical skills survey. Two groups of graders were recruited as follows: (1) Amazon Mechanical Turk users and (2) three expert surgeons from University of Washington Department of Otolaryngology. Graders were presented with a video of participants performing the procedure on the simulator and were asked to grade the video using the objective assessment of technical skills questions. Mechanical Turk users were paid $0.50 for each completed survey. It took 10 h to obtain all responses from 30 Mechanical Turk users for 26 training participants (26 videos/tasks), whereas it took 60 d for three expert surgeons to complete the same 26 tasks. The assessment of surgical performance by a group (n = 30) of laypersons matched the assessment by a group (n = 3) of expert surgeons with a good level of agreement determined by Cronbach alpha coefficient = 0.83. We found crowd sourcing was an efficient, accurate, and inexpensive method for skills assessment with a good level of agreement to experts' grading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Deciphering the crowd: modeling and identification of pedestrian group motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Zeynep; Zanlungo, Francesco; Ikeda, Tetsushi; Miyashita, Takahiro; Hagita, Norihiro

    2013-01-14

    Associating attributes to pedestrians in a crowd is relevant for various areas like surveillance, customer profiling and service providing. The attributes of interest greatly depend on the application domain and might involve such social relations as friends or family as well as the hierarchy of the group including the leader or subordinates. Nevertheless, the complex social setting inherently complicates this task. We attack this problem by exploiting the small group structures in the crowd. The relations among individuals and their peers within a social group are reliable indicators of social attributes. To that end, this paper identifies social groups based on explicit motion models integrated through a hypothesis testing scheme. We develop two models relating positional and directional relations. A pair of pedestrians is identified as belonging to the same group or not by utilizing the two models in parallel, which defines a compound hypothesis testing scheme. By testing the proposed approach on three datasets with different environmental properties and group characteristics, it is demonstrated that we achieve an identification accuracy of 87% to 99%. The contribution of this study lies in its definition of positional and directional relation models, its description of compound evaluations, and the resolution of ambiguities with our proposed uncertainty measure based on the local and global indicators of group relation.

  18. Deciphering the Crowd: Modeling and Identification of Pedestrian Group Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Hagita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Associating attributes to pedestrians in a crowd is relevant for various areas like surveillance, customer profiling and service providing. The attributes of interest greatly depend on the application domain and might involve such social relations as friends or family as well as the hierarchy of the group including the leader or subordinates. Nevertheless, the complex social setting inherently complicates this task. We attack this problem by exploiting the small group structures in the crowd. The relations among individuals and their peers within a social group are reliable indicators of social attributes. To that end, this paper identifies social groups based on explicit motion models integrated through a hypothesis testing scheme. We develop two models relating positional and directional relations. A pair of pedestrians is identified as belonging to the same group or not by utilizing the two models in parallel, which defines a compound hypothesis testing scheme. By testing the proposed approach on three datasets with different environmental properties and group characteristics, it is demonstrated that we achieve an identification accuracy of 87% to 99%. The contribution of this study lies in its definition of positional and directional relation models, its description of compound evaluations, and the resolution of ambiguities with our proposed uncertainty measure based on the local and global indicators of group relation.

  19. Vehicular Visible Light Networks for Urban Mobile Crowd Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Barbara M; Bazzi, Alessandro; Zanella, Alberto

    2018-04-12

    Crowd sensing is a powerful tool to map and predict interests and events. In the future, it could be boosted by an increasing number of connected vehicles sharing information and intentions. This will be made available by on board wireless connected devices able to continuously communicate with other vehicles and with the environment. Among the enabling technologies, visible light communication (VLC) represents a low cost solution in the short term. In spite of the fact that vehicular communications cannot rely on the sole VLC due to the limitation provided by the light which allows communications in visibility only, VLC can however be considered to complement other wireless communication technologies which could be overloaded in dense scenarios. In this paper we evaluate the performance of VLC connected vehicles when urban crowd sensing is addressed and we compare the performance of sole vehicular visible light networks with that of VLC as a complementary technology of IEEE 802.11p. Results, obtained through a realistic simulation tool taking into account both the roadmap constraints and the technologies protocols, help to understand when VLC provides the major improvement in terms of delivered data varying the number and position of RSUs and the FOV of the receiver.

  20. Planet Candidate Validation in K2 Crowded Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampalli, Rayna; Vanderburg, Andrew; Latham, David; Quinn, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    In just three years, the K2 mission has yielded some remarkable outcomes with the discovery of over 100 confirmed planets and 500 reported planet candidates to be validated. One challenge with this mission is the search for planets located in star-crowded regions. Campaign 13 is one such example, located towards the galactic plane in the constellation of Taurus. We subject the potential planetary candidates to a validation process involving spectroscopy to derive certain stellar parameters. Seeing-limited on/off imaging follow-up is also utilized in order to rule out false positives due to nearby eclipsing binaries. Using Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis, the best-fit parameters for each candidate are generated. These will be suitable for finding a candidate’s false positive probability through methods including feeding such parameters into the Validation of Exoplanet Signals using a Probabilistic Algorithm (VESPA). These techniques and results serve as important tools for conducting candidate validation and follow-up observations for space-based missions such as the upcoming TESS mission since TESS’s large camera pixels resemble K2’s star-crowded fields.

  1. Crowd-Sourcing (Semantically) Structured Multilingual Educational Content (CoSMEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasowa, Darya; Auer, Sören; Khalili, Ali; Unbehauen, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The support of multilingual content becomes crucial for educational platforms due to the benefits it offers. In this paper we propose a concept that allows content authors to use the power of the crowd to create (semantically) structured multilingual educational content out of their material. To enable the collaboration of the crowd, we expand our…

  2. Stability analysis of predator-prey interaction with a crowding effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mathematical modeling of species interactions usually relies on competition models. However, it is known that species interactions may exhibit more complicated patterns with a crowding effect and this can be particularly important in benign environments. In this paper we discuss competition models with a crowding ...

  3. Crowding Valuation in Urban Tram and Bus Transportation based on Smart Card Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yap, M.D.; Cats, O.; Yu, S; van Arem, B.

    2017-01-01

    Crowding in public transport can be of major influence on passengers’ travel experience and therefore affect route and mode choice. Therefore, it is important to understand how crowding in urban public transport is perceived by passengers. The availability of individual smart card transactions

  4. On Streams and Incentives : A Synthesis of Individual and Collective Crowd Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goethem, Arthur; Jaklin, Norman; Cook IV, Atlas; Geraerts, Roland|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830291

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel crowd simulation model that combines the advantages of agent-based and ow-based paradigms while only relying on local information. Our model can handle arbitrary and dynamically changing crowd densities, and it enables agents to gradually interpolate between individual and

  5. Detection of High-Density Crowds in Aerial Images Using Texture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Meynberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic crowd detection in aerial images is certainly a useful source of information to prevent crowd disasters in large complex scenarios of mass events. A number of publications employ regression-based methods for crowd counting and crowd density estimation. However, these methods work only when a correct manual count is available to serve as a reference. Therefore, it is the objective of this paper to detect high-density crowds in aerial images, where counting– or regression–based approaches would fail. We compare two texture–classification methodologies on a dataset of aerial image patches which are grouped into ranges of different crowd density. These methodologies are: (1 a Bag–of–words (BoW model with two alternative local features encoded as Improved Fisher Vectors and (2 features based on a Gabor filter bank. Our results show that a classifier using either BoW or Gabor features can detect crowded image regions with 97% classification accuracy. In our tests of four classes of different crowd-density ranges, BoW–based features have a 5%–12% better accuracy than Gabor.

  6. Revisiting Gustave Le Bon’s crowd theory in light of present-day critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rasmus Beedholm; Møller, Verner

    2017-01-01

    understanding of crowd or mass behaviour that proves Le Bon’s crowd theory wrong. However, in this paper, we challenge this perception not only by questioning Drury, Reicher and Stott’s interpretation of Le Bon, but also suggesting that the dialogue strategy that is based upon the ESIM, in fact, validates Le...

  7. Towards Believable Crowds : A Generic Multi-Level Framework for Agent Navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Toll, Wouter; Jaklin, Norman; Geraerts, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Path planning and crowd simulation are important computational tasks in computer games and applications of high social relevance, such as crowd management and safety training. Virtual characters (agents) need to autonomously find a path from their current position to a designated goal position. This

  8. Cross-cultural differences in tolerance for crowding: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G W; Lepore, S J; Allen, K M

    2000-08-01

    It is widely believed that cultures vary in their tolerance for crowding. There is, however, little evidence to substantiate this belief, coupled with serious shortcomings in the extant literature. Tolerance for crowding has been confused with cultural differences in personal space preferences along with perceived crowding. Furthermore, the few studies that have examined cultural variability in reactions to crowding have compared subgroup correlations, which is not equivalent to a statistical interaction. Although the authors found a statistical interaction indicating that Asian Americans and Latin Americans differ in the way they perceive crowding in comparison to their fellow Anglo-American and African American citizens, all four ethnic groups suffer similar, negative psychological distress sequelae of high-density housing. These results hold independently of household income.

  9. Crowding in Visual Working Memory Reveals Its Spatial Resolution and the Nature of Its Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamber-Rosenau, Benjamin J; Fintzi, Anat R; Marois, René

    2015-09-01

    Spatial resolution fundamentally limits any image representation. Although this limit has been extensively investigated for perceptual representations by assessing how neighboring flankers degrade the perception of a peripheral target with visual crowding, the corresponding limit for representations held in visual working memory (VWM) is unknown. In the present study, we evoked crowding in VWM and directly compared resolution in VWM and perception. Remarkably, the spatial resolution of VWM proved to be no worse than that of perception. However, mixture modeling of errors caused by crowding revealed the qualitatively distinct nature of these representations. Perceptual crowding errors arose from both increased imprecision in target representations and substitution of flankers for targets. By contrast, VWM crowding errors arose exclusively from substitutions, which suggests that VWM transforms analog perceptual representations into discrete items. Thus, although perception and VWM share a common resolution limit, exceeding this limit reveals distinct mechanisms for perceiving images and holding them in mind. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Macromolecular crowding directs extracellular matrix organization and mesenchymal stem cell behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S Zeiger

    Full Text Available Microenvironments of biological cells are dominated in vivo by macromolecular crowding and resultant excluded volume effects. This feature is absent in dilute in vitro cell culture. Here, we induced macromolecular crowding in vitro by using synthetic macromolecular globules of nm-scale radius at physiological levels of fractional volume occupancy. We quantified the impact of induced crowding on the extracellular and intracellular protein organization of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs via immunocytochemistry, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and AFM-enabled nanoindentation. Macromolecular crowding in extracellular culture media directly induced supramolecular assembly and alignment of extracellular matrix proteins deposited by cells, which in turn increased alignment of the intracellular actin cytoskeleton. The resulting cell-matrix reciprocity further affected adhesion, proliferation, and migration behavior of MSCs. Macromolecular crowding can thus aid the design of more physiologically relevant in vitro studies and devices for MSCs and other cells, by increasing the fidelity between materials synthesized by cells in vivo and in vitro.

  11. Macromolecular crowding directs extracellular matrix organization and mesenchymal stem cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Adam S; Loe, Felicia C; Li, Ran; Raghunath, Michael; Van Vliet, Krystyn J

    2012-01-01

    Microenvironments of biological cells are dominated in vivo by macromolecular crowding and resultant excluded volume effects. This feature is absent in dilute in vitro cell culture. Here, we induced macromolecular crowding in vitro by using synthetic macromolecular globules of nm-scale radius at physiological levels of fractional volume occupancy. We quantified the impact of induced crowding on the extracellular and intracellular protein organization of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) via immunocytochemistry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and AFM-enabled nanoindentation. Macromolecular crowding in extracellular culture media directly induced supramolecular assembly and alignment of extracellular matrix proteins deposited by cells, which in turn increased alignment of the intracellular actin cytoskeleton. The resulting cell-matrix reciprocity further affected adhesion, proliferation, and migration behavior of MSCs. Macromolecular crowding can thus aid the design of more physiologically relevant in vitro studies and devices for MSCs and other cells, by increasing the fidelity between materials synthesized by cells in vivo and in vitro.

  12. The challenges of launching a crowd based platform : A single case study of a Swedish service provider

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, Robert; Viklund, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Using the concept of open innovation companies have started to look beyond their own borders using the crowd as a source for labour, knowledge and innovation. During the last few years the phenomena of crowdsourcing and crowdfunding have become increasingly popular as sources of competitive advantage through the crowd. While several studies have examined crowd based platforms focusing on the users, little attention has been brought to the companies starting these crowd based services. This st...

  13. Features of microscopic pedestrian movement in a panic situation based on cellular automata model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Najihah; Hassan, Fadratul Hafinaz

    2017-10-01

    Pedestrian movement is the one of the subset for the crowd management under simulation objective. During panic situation, pedestrian usually will create a microscopic movement that lead towards the self-organization. During self-organizing, the behavioral and physical factors had caused the mass effect on the pedestrian movement. The basic CA model will create a movement path for each pedestrian over a time step. However, due to the factors immerge, the CA model needs some enhancement that will establish a real simulation state. Hence, this concept paper will discuss on the enhanced features of CA model for microscopic pedestrian movement during panic situation for a better pedestrian simulation.

  14. Planning as situated design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    It is common to associate situated activity with concrete, craftlike or manual activity here and now and to reserve theoretical and abstract thinking for activities like theoretical experimentation and systematic planning. Much work has gone into demonstrating that these activities are concrete...... and situated, too. In this presentation it will be argued that the investigation of systematic planning as conflictual cooperation will help us see that situated activity is not only based on the present conditions, but also relates them to events spread out in time and space, thereby opening up for another...... understanding of theoretical thinking. Some material from the empirical research project developed with Klaus Nielsen on the design and engineering of a house will be presented. On this basis a conception of planning will be unfolded. It will be understood differently from the way it is understood...

  15. Situational theory of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D J; Smith, S R; Warnock, J T

    1989-11-01

    The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained, and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Early studies of leadership style identified two basic leadership styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Subsequent research found that most leaders exhibited one of four combinations of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership theory holds that the difference between the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used. The task maturity of the individual or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in terms of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness or ability to accept responsibility, and possession of the necessary education or experience for a specific task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be determined from the LEADSelf and LEADOther questionnaires. By applying the principles of the situational leadership theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific tasks and levels of follower maturity, the authors were successful in implementing 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by staff pharmacists with little previous experience in clinical services. The situational leadership model enables a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the task maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate leadership style, and modify the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers can use this model when implementing clinical pharmacy services.

  16. VACCINES AND IMMUNIZATION: WORLD SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Brundtland

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The last issue of the report «vaccines and immunization: world situation» stresses considerable success in immunization at the global level since the mid 90 s — completely total eradication of poliomyelitis across the world, as well as the drastic reduction of the new measles and tetanus cases among mothers and newborns in some poor countries. The report also briefly describes the progress in the development and implementation of the new life saving vaccines, which may save millions of lives annually. The authors have explained some of the reasons, why the global community should invest in immunization, as well as the perspectives for the use of vaccines and immunization in future.Key words: vaccine, immunization, children.

  17. Energy situation August 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-08-01

    This publication presents a monthly report of the French energy situation: primary energy consumption, energy independence and CO_2 emissions, national production, imports, exports, energy costs, average and spot prices. Data are presented separately for solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity in the form of tables and graphs

  18. Energy situation July 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    This publication presents a monthly report of the French energy situation: primary energy consumption, energy independence and CO_2 emissions, national production, imports, exports, energy costs, average and spot prices. Data are presented separately for solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity in the form of tables and graphs

  19. Energy situation July 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    The monthly energy situation in France at july 2004 is presented. Statistics are given on energy accounting, imports, exports, energy prices. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  20. Energy situation September 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    This publication presents a monthly report of the French energy situation: primary energy consumption, energy independence and CO_2 emissions, national production, imports, exports, energy costs, average and spot prices. Data are presented separately for solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity in the form of tables and graphs

  1. Energy situation, January 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    The monthly energy situation analysis in France, at January 2006, is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  2. Energy situation november 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    The monthly energy situation analysis in France at November 2005 is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  3. Energy situation november 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    The monthly situation analysis in France is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  4. Energy situation November 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    The monthly energy situation in France, at November 2006, is presented. Statistics are given for the energy expenses, consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  5. USSR - energy situation 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The energy situation of the USSR is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. Some remarks are made on international energy policy. (UA) [de

  6. Yugoslavia - energy situation 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The energy situation of Yugoslavia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA) [de

  7. France - energy situation 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The energy situation of France is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA) [de

  8. Sweden - energy situation 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The energy situation of Sweden is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA) [de

  9. Energy situation August 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    The monthly situation analysis in France is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  10. The France energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  11. France energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The monthly (May 1991) energy situation analysis in France is presented: the energy consumption rise is lowered and especially, oil imports have fallen from -3.1 pc; natural gas imports and domestic electric power production have risen. The energy import dependence rate have very slightly risen, around 50 pc. Diagrams for 1989, 1990, 1991 are presented [fr

  12. China - energy situation 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The energy situation of China is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA) [de

  13. Venezuela - energy situation 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The energy situation of Venezuela is reviewed on the basis of some relevant data. Its energy policy is commented on, and developments in electric power generation are described as well as the trends observed for the various energy sources. Figures are given on external trade and on the balance of payments.

  14. Analytic formalism for current crowding in light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu-Seok

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analytic approach to simulating current crowding (CC) in light-emitting diodes with parallel p- and n-contacts. The electrical potential difference across the p-i-n layers is derived from the Laplace equation, whereas the current density through the p-i-n layers is obtained from the current density - voltage relation of a single-diode model. Since these two properties influence each other, they are calculated iteratively. It is found that CC depends on the applied voltage (or the average current density), the sheet resistances of the p- and the n-contact layers, the width of the active region, and the specific series resistance and ideality factor of the p-i-n layers. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Hopping in the Crowd to Unveil Network Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asllani, Malbor; Carletti, Timoteo; Di Patti, Francesca; Fanelli, Duccio; Piazza, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a nonlinear operator to model diffusion on a complex undirected network under crowded conditions. We show that the asymptotic distribution of diffusing agents is a nonlinear function of the nodes' degree and saturates to a constant value for sufficiently large connectivities, at variance with standard diffusion in the absence of excluded-volume effects. Building on this observation, we define and solve an inverse problem, aimed at reconstructing the a priori unknown connectivity distribution. The method gathers all the necessary information by repeating a limited number of independent measurements of the asymptotic density at a single node, which can be chosen randomly. The technique is successfully tested against both synthetic and real data and is also shown to estimate with great accuracy the total number of nodes.

  16. Mobile Crowd Sensing for Traffic Prediction in Internet of Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiafu; Liu, Jianqi; Shao, Zehui; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Imran, Muhammad; Zhou, Keliang

    2016-01-11

    The advances in wireless communication techniques, mobile cloud computing, automotive and intelligent terminal technology are driving the evolution of vehicle ad hoc networks into the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) paradigm. This leads to a change in the vehicle routing problem from a calculation based on static data towards real-time traffic prediction. In this paper, we first address the taxonomy of cloud-assisted IoV from the viewpoint of the service relationship between cloud computing and IoV. Then, we review the traditional traffic prediction approached used by both Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) and Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) communications. On this basis, we propose a mobile crowd sensing technology to support the creation of dynamic route choices for drivers wishing to avoid congestion. Experiments were carried out to verify the proposed approaches. Finally, we discuss the outlook of reliable traffic prediction.

  17. Mobile Crowd Sensing for Traffic Prediction in Internet of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafu Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in wireless communication techniques, mobile cloud computing, automotive and intelligent terminal technology are driving the evolution of vehicle ad hoc networks into the Internet of Vehicles (IoV paradigm. This leads to a change in the vehicle routing problem from a calculation based on static data towards real-time traffic prediction. In this paper, we first address the taxonomy of cloud-assisted IoV from the viewpoint of the service relationship between cloud computing and IoV. Then, we review the traditional traffic prediction approached used by both Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I and Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V communications. On this basis, we propose a mobile crowd sensing technology to support the creation of dynamic route choices for drivers wishing to avoid congestion. Experiments were carried out to verify the proposed approaches. Finally, we discuss the outlook of reliable traffic prediction.

  18. Resolving stellar populations with crowded field 3D spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamann, S.; Wisotzki, L.; Roth, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new method of extracting the spectra of stars from observations of crowded stellar fields with integral field spectroscopy (IFS). Our approach extends the well-established concept of crowded field photometry in images into the domain of 3-dimensional spectroscopic datacubes. The main features of our algorithm follow. (1) We assume that a high-fidelity input source catalogue already exists, e.g. from HST data, and that it is not needed to perform sophisticated source detection in the IFS data. (2) Source positions and properties of the point spread function (PSF) vary smoothly between spectral layers of the datacube, and these variations can be described by simple fitting functions. (3) The shape of the PSF can be adequately described by an analytical function. Even without isolated PSF calibrator stars we can therefore estimate the PSF by a model fit to the full ensemble of stars visible within the field of view. (4) By using sparse matrices to describe the sources, the problem of extracting the spectra of many stars simultaneously becomes computationally tractable. We present extensive performance and validation tests of our algorithm using realistic simulated datacubes that closely reproduce actual IFS observations of the central regions of Galactic globular clusters. We investigate the quality of the extracted spectra under the effects of crowding with respect to the resulting signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) and any possible changes in the continuum level, as well as with respect to absorption line spectral parameters, radial velocities, and equivalent widths. The main effect of blending between two nearby stars is a decrease in the S/N in their spectra. The effect increases with the crowding in the field in a way that the maximum number of stars with useful spectra is always ~0.2 per spatial resolution element. This balance breaks down when exceeding a total source density of one significantly detected star per resolution element. We also explore the

  19. Can the online-crowd match real expert judgments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    ; using the coding of political texts as an example in which both strategies produce similar results. Since crowdcoding yields the potential to extend the replication standard to data production and to “scale” coding schemes based on a modest number of carefully devised test questions and answers......, it is important that we better understand its possibilities and limitations. While previous results for low complexity coding tasks are encouraging, we assess whether and under what conditions simple and complex coding tasks can be outsourced to the crowd without sacrificing content validity in return...... for scalability. The simple task is to decide whether a party statement counts as positive reference to a concept – in our case equality. The complex task is to distinguish between five concepts of equality. To account for the crowdcoder’s contextual knowledge, we vary the IP restrictions. The basis for our...

  20. Public Service Motivation and Monetary Incentives: Substitutes or Motivation Crowding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2011-01-01

    Motivation is probably one of the most important determinants for organizational performance, because it stimulates effort and effective behaviors among people in the organization. But what type of motivation should public managers rely on? The PSM literature has argued that public service...... motivation is the most important type of motivation in the delivery of public service, because it substitutes for egoistic motivation. Organizations whose members have high levels of PSM are therefore expected to be less dependent on utilitarian motivators such as monetary incentives. Motivation crowding...... theory, on the other hand, argues that the relationship is opposite, so it is the degree of incentives that affects motivation. Both arguments lead to expectations of an association between public service motivation and monetary incentives, but so far this complex relationship has not been entangled...

  1. Learning Supervised Topic Models for Classification and Regression from Crowds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Filipe; Lourenco, Mariana; Ribeiro, Bernardete; Pereira, Francisco C

    2017-12-01

    The growing need to analyze large collections of documents has led to great developments in topic modeling. Since documents are frequently associated with other related variables, such as labels or ratings, much interest has been placed on supervised topic models. However, the nature of most annotation tasks, prone to ambiguity and noise, often with high volumes of documents, deem learning under a single-annotator assumption unrealistic or unpractical for most real-world applications. In this article, we propose two supervised topic models, one for classification and another for regression problems, which account for the heterogeneity and biases among different annotators that are encountered in practice when learning from crowds. We develop an efficient stochastic variational inference algorithm that is able to scale to very large datasets, and we empirically demonstrate the advantages of the proposed model over state-of-the-art approaches.

  2. Cloud-Enhanced Robotic System for Smart City Crowd Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhlaqur Rahman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud robotics in smart cities is an emerging paradigm that enables autonomous robotic agents to communicate and collaborate with a cloud computing infrastructure. It complements the Internet of Things (IoT by creating an expanded network where robots offload data-intensive computation to the ubiquitous cloud to ensure quality of service (QoS. However, offloading for robots is significantly complex due to their unique characteristics of mobility, skill-learning, data collection, and decision-making capabilities. In this paper, a generic cloud robotics framework is proposed to realize smart city vision while taking into consideration its various complexities. Specifically, we present an integrated framework for a crowd control system where cloud-enhanced robots are deployed to perform necessary tasks. The task offloading is formulated as a constrained optimization problem capable of handling any task flow that can be characterized by a Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG. We consider two scenarios of minimizing energy and time, respectively, and develop a genetic algorithm (GA-based approach to identify the optimal task offloading decisions. The performance comparison with two benchmarks shows that our GA scheme achieves desired energy and time performance. We also show the adaptability of our algorithm by varying the values for bandwidth and movement. The results suggest their impact on offloading. Finally, we present a multi-task flow optimal path sequence problem that highlights how the robot can plan its task completion via movements that expend the minimum energy. This integrates path planning with offloading for robotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to evaluate cloud-based task offloading for a smart city crowd control system.

  3. The walking behaviour of pedestrian social groups and its impact on crowd dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moussaïd

    Full Text Available Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behaviour consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We show that the V-like walking pattern facilitates social interactions within the group, but reduces the flow because of its "non-aerodynamic" shape. Therefore, when crowd density increases, the group organization results from a trade-off between walking faster and facilitating social exchange. These insights demonstrate that crowd dynamics is not only determined by physical constraints induced by other pedestrians and the environment, but also significantly by communicative, social interactions among individuals.

  4. Routing in Dense Human Crowds Using Smartphone Movement Data and Optical Aerial Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Hillen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a navigation approach for smartphones that enables visitors of major events to avoid crowded areas or narrow streets and to navigate out of dense crowds quickly. Two types of sensor data are integrated. Real-time optical images acquired and transmitted by an airborne camera system are used to compute an estimation of a crowd density map. For this purpose, a patch-based approach with a Gabor filter bank for texture classification in combination with an interest point detector and a smoothing function is applied. Furthermore, the crowd density is estimated based on location and movement speed of in situ smartphone measurements. This information allows for the enhancement of the overall crowd density layer. The composed density information is input to a least-cost routing workflow. Two possible use cases are presented, namely (i an emergency application and (ii a basic routing application. A prototypical implementation of the system is conducted as proof of concept. Our approach is capable of increasing the security level for major events. Visitors are able to avoid dense crowds by routing around them, while security and rescue forces are able to find the fastest way into the crowd.

  5. Energy situation. November 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a balance sheet of the French energy situation (domestic demand, national production, consumption, imports, exports, sales, prices, stocks..) in November 1998. Data are presented using graphics and tables and as follows: energy bill of all energy sources (evolution since January 1996), primary energy (energy dependency, consumption after climate correction, CO 2 emissions), solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electric power. (J.S.)

  6. Nuclear situation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This analysis takes stock on the nuclear situation in Japan. It discusses the ambitious equipment program in collaboration with the France, the destabilization of the japanese nuclear industry following the accidents and the energy policy evolutions. It presents the projects of the japanese nuclear industry: the Monju reactor restart, the Pluthermal project, the reprocessing power plant of Rokkasho Mura, the new reactors, the russian weapons dismantling, the ITER site selection and the buy out of Westinghouse by Toshiba. (A.L.B.)

  7. Learning through Situated Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara; Wessels, Bridgette

    2014-01-01

    Specific, situated participatory design (PD) practices have always been at the heart of Participatory Design research. The role of the very situatedness and specificity of PD practice for theory-building within PD research is, however, seldom discussed explicitly. In this article, we explore why...... of such a pragmatic epistemology of PD on understanding and arguing for PD research approaches. These concepts are illustrated referring to PD practices as experienced in PD research projects. Our epistemological argumentation supports the emphasis on exploring new PD practices and learning and theorizing about PD...

  8. Energy situation in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badran, I

    1984-10-01

    The report briefly reviews the energy problem in the world, and then studies in detail the situation in Jordan. It covers the energy supply of crude oil, refined products, and non-commercial energy; energy demand; the current pattern of energy consumption of oil and electricity; a forecast of energy demand; the government subsidy of energy; new energy resources in Jordan (oil exploration and oil shale, tar sands, radioactive minerals, and renewable energy sources including geothermal, hydropower, solar, and wind). The report concludes that alternative energy sources must be developed by Jordan to meet the increased demand for energy and to reduce the dependence of Jordan on oil in the next decades.

  9. Situated Formative Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...... theoretical textual analysis method. Asynchronous written dialogue from an online master’s course at Aalborg University forms the empirical basis of the study. The findings suggests in general that students play an essential role in SFF and that students and educators are equal in the COP, but holds different...

  10. Explaining effervescence: Investigating the relationship between shared social identity and positive experience in crowds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Nick; Reicher, Stephen D; Khan, Sammyh S; Tewari, Shruti; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Stevenson, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the intensely positive emotional experiences arising from participation in a large-scale collective event. We predicted such experiences arise when those attending a collective event are (1) able to enact their valued collective identity and (2) experience close relations with other participants. In turn, we predicted both of these to be more likely when participants perceived crowd members to share a common collective identity. We investigated these predictions in a survey of pilgrims (N = 416) attending a month-long Hindu pilgrimage festival in north India. We found participants' perceptions of a shared identity amongst crowd members had an indirect effect on their positive experience at the event through (1) increasing participants' sense that they were able to enact their collective identity and (2) increasing the sense of intimacy with other crowd members. We discuss the implications of these data for how crowd emotion should be conceptualised.

  11. CrowdMapping: A Crowdsourcing-Based Terminology Mapping Method for Medical Data Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huajian; Chi, Chenyang; Huang, Boyu; Meng, Haibin; Yu, Jinghui; Zhao, Dongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Standardized terminology is the prerequisite of data exchange in analysis of clinical processes. However, data from different electronic health record systems are based on idiosyncratic terminology systems, especially when the data is from different hospitals and healthcare organizations. Terminology standardization is necessary for the medical data analysis. We propose a crowdsourcing-based terminology mapping method, CrowdMapping, to standardize the terminology in medical data. CrowdMapping uses a confidential model to determine how terminologies are mapped to a standard system, like ICD-10. The model uses mappings from different health care organizations and evaluates the diversity of the mapping to determine a more sophisticated mapping rule. Further, the CrowdMapping model enables users to rate the mapping result and interact with the model evaluation. CrowdMapping is a work-in-progress system, we present initial results mapping terminologies.

  12. Parallel Motion Simulation of Large-Scale Real-Time Crowd in a Hierarchical Environmental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parallel real-time crowd simulation method based on a hierarchical environmental model. A dynamical model of the complex environment should be constructed to simulate the state transition and propagation of individual motions. By modeling of a virtual environment where virtual crowds reside, we employ different parallel methods on a topological layer, a path layer and a perceptual layer. We propose a parallel motion path matching method based on the path layer and a parallel crowd simulation method based on the perceptual layer. The large-scale real-time crowd simulation becomes possible with these methods. Numerical experiments are carried out to demonstrate the methods and results.

  13. Translational and rotational motions of proteins in a protein crowded environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorilla, S.; Hink, M.A.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Lillo, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was used to measure the translational diffusion of labeled apomyoglobin (tracer) in concentrated solutions of ribonuclease A and human serum albumin (crowders), as a quantitative model system of protein diffusive motions in crowded physiological

  14. Structure, function and folding of phosphoglycerate kinase are strongly perturbed by macromolecular crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiotakis, Antonios; Dhar, Apratim; Ebbinghaus, Simon; Nienhaus, Lea; Homouz, Dirar; Gruebele, Martin; Cheung, Margaret

    2010-10-01

    We combine experiment and computer simulation to show how macromolecular crowding dramatically affects the structure, function and folding landscape of phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK). Fluorescence labeling shows that compact states of yeast PGK are populated as the amount of crowding agents (Ficoll 70) increases. Coarse-grained molecular simulations reveal three compact ensembles: C (crystal structure), CC (collapsed crystal) and Sph (spherical compact). With an adjustment for viscosity, crowded wild type PGK and fluorescent PGK are about 15 times or more active in 200 mg/ml Ficoll than in aqueous solution. Our results suggest a new solution to the classic problem of how the ADP and diphosphoglycerate binding sites of PGK come together to make ATP: rather than undergoing a hinge motion, the ADP and substrate sites are already located in proximity under crowded conditions that mimic the in vivo conditions under which the enzyme actually operates.

  15. Mathematical Capture of Human Crowd Behavioral Data for Computational Model Building, Verification, and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    throughout the experimental runs. Reliable and validated measures of anxiety ( Spielberger , 1983), as well as custom-constructed questionnaires about...Crowd modeling and simulation technologies. Transactions on modeling and computer simulation, 20(4). Spielberger , C. D. (1983

  16. Cockpit resources management and the theory of the situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, L.

    1984-01-01

    The cockpit resource management (CRM) and hypothetical cockpit situations are discussed. Four different conditions which influence pilot action are outlined: (1) wrong assumptions about a situation; (2) stress and workload; (3) frustration and delays to cause risk taking; and (4) ambigious incomplete or contradicting information. Human factors and behavior, and pilot communication and management in the simulator are outlined.

  17. Crowd-sourced assessment of technical skills: an adjunct to urology resident surgical simulation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Daniel; Kowalewski, Timothy M; White, Lee W; Brand, Timothy C; Harper, Jonathan D; Sorenson, Mathew D; Kirsch, Sarah; Lendvay, Thomas S

    2015-05-01

    Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining services from a large group of people, typically an online community. Validated methods of evaluating surgical video are time-intensive, expensive, and involve participation of multiple expert surgeons. We sought to obtain valid performance scores of urologic trainees and faculty on a dry-laboratory robotic surgery task module by using crowdsourcing through a web-based grading tool called Crowd Sourced Assessment of Technical Skill (CSATS). IRB approval was granted to test the technical skills grading accuracy of Amazon.com Mechanical Turk™ crowd-workers compared to three expert faculty surgeon graders. The two groups assessed dry-laboratory robotic surgical suturing performances of three urology residents (PGY-2, -4, -5) and two faculty using three performance domains from the validated Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills assessment tool. After an average of 2 hours 50 minutes, each of the five videos received 50 crowd-worker assessments. The inter-rater reliability (IRR) between the surgeons and crowd was 0.91 using Cronbach's alpha statistic (confidence intervals=0.20-0.92), indicating an agreement level between the two groups of "excellent." The crowds were able to discriminate the surgical level, and both the crowds and the expert faculty surgeon graders scored one senior trainee's performance above a faculty's performance. Surgery-naive crowd-workers can rapidly assess varying levels of surgical skill accurately relative to a panel of faculty raters. The crowds provided rapid feedback and were inexpensive. CSATS may be a valuable adjunct to surgical simulation training as requirements for more granular and iterative performance tracking of trainees become mandated and commonplace.

  18. Interaction with virtual crowd in Immersive and semi‐Immersive Virtual Reality systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriakou, Marios; Pan, Xueni; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos

    2016-01-01

    This study examines attributes of virtual human behavior that may increase the plausibility of a simulated crowd and affect the user's experience in Virtual Reality. Purpose-developed experiments in both Immersive and semi-Immersive Virtual Reality systems queried the impact of collision and basic interaction between real-users and the virtual crowd and their effect on the apparent realism and ease of navigation within Virtual Reality (VR). Participants' behavior and subjective measurements i...

  19. Investigating the In-Vehicle Crowding Cost Functions for Public Transit Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Feifei

    2014-01-01

    In the densely populated metropolitan area, empirical studies have found that overcrowding inside transit vehicles has become substantially worse and worse over recent years. Chronic in-vehicle crowding is not only caused by a lack of physical infrastructure, but also triggered by inadequate service provisions. Given the prevalence of overcrowded transit vehicles, this paper conducts both quantitative and qualitative studies, especially focusing on remodeling the in-vehicle crowding cost func...

  20. Multiscale diffusion of a molecular probe in a crowded environment: a concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Megan; Thao, Chang; Timerman, Randi; Welty, Robb; Berry, Brenden; Sheets, Erin D.; Heikal, Ahmed A.

    2015-08-01

    Living cells are crowded with macromolecules and organelles. Yet, it is not fully understood how macromolecular crowding affects the myriad of biochemical reactions, transport and the structural stability of biomolecules that are essential to cellular function and survival. These molecular processes, with or without electrostatic interactions, in living cells are therefore expected to be distinct from those carried out in test tube in dilute solutions where excluded volumes are absent. Thus there is an urgent need to understand the macromolecular crowding effects on cellular and molecular biophysics towards quantitative cell biology. In this report, we investigated how biomimetic crowding affects both the rotational and translation diffusion of a small probe (rhodamine green, RhG). For biomimetic crowding agents, we used Ficoll-70 (synthetic polymer), bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin (proteins) at various concentrations in a buffer at room temperature. As a control, we carried out similar measurements on glycerolenriched buffer as an environment with homogeneous viscosity as a function of glycerol concentration. The corresponding bulk viscosity was measured independently to test the validity of the Stokes-Einstein model of a diffusing species undergoing a random walk. For rotational diffusion (ps-ns time scale), we used time-resolved anisotropy measurements to examine potential binding of RhG as a function of the crowding agents (surface structure and size). For translational diffusion (μs-s time scale), we used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for single-molecule fluctuation analysis. Our results allow us to examine the diffusion model of a molecular probe in crowded environments as a function of concentration, length scale, homogeneous versus heterogeneous viscosity, size and surface structures. These biomimetic crowding studies, using non-invasive fluorescence spectroscopy methods, represent an important step towards understanding cellular biophysics and

  1. Intracellular crowding effects on the self-association of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Lamis; Sayyed-Ahmad, Abdallah

    2014-12-15

    The dimerization rate of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is strongly affected by the intracellular crowding. Yet the complexity of the intracellular environment makes it difficult to investigate via all-atom molecular dynamics or other detailed theoretical methods. We study the crowding effect on FtsZ dimerization which is the first step of an oligomerization process that results in more elaborate supramolecular structures. In particular, we consider the effect of intracellular crowding on the reaction rates, and their dependence on the different concentrations of crowding agents. We achieved this goal by using Brownian dynamics (BD) simulation techniques and a modified post-processing approach in which we decompose the rate constant in crowded media as a product of the rate constant in the dilute solution times a factor that incorporates the crowding effect. The latter factor accounts for the diffusion reduction and crowder induced energy. In addition we include the crowding effects on water viscosity in the BD simulations of crowded media. We finally show that biomolecular crowding has a considerable effect on the FtsZ dimerization by increasing the dimerization rate constant from 2.6×10(7)M(-1)s(-1) in the absence of crowders to 1.0×10(8)M(-1)s(-1) at crowding level of 0.30. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Solving the worldwide emergency department crowding problem - what can we learn from an Israeli ED?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Jesse M; Bernstein, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    ED crowding is a prevalent and important issue facing hospitals in Israel and around the world, including North and South America, Europe, Australia, Asia and Africa. ED crowding is associated with poorer quality of care and poorer health outcomes, along with extended waits for care. Crowding is caused by a periodic mismatch between the supply of ED and hospital resources and the demand for patient care. In a recent article in the Israel Journal of Health Policy Research, Bashkin et al. present an Ishikawa diagram describing several factors related to longer length of stay (LOS), and higher levels of ED crowding, including management, process, environmental, human factors, and resource issues. Several solutions exist to reduce ED crowding, which involve addressing several of the issues identified by Bashkin et al. This includes reducing the demand for and variation in care, and better matching the supply of resources to demands in care in real time. However, what is needed to reduce crowding is an institutional imperative from senior leadership, implemented by engaged ED and hospital leadership with multi-disciplinary cross-unit collaboration, sufficient resources to implement effective interventions, access to data, and a sustained commitment over time. This may move the culture of a hospital to facilitate improved flow within and across units and ultimately improve quality and safety over the long-term.

  3. Mixed emotions: Sensitivity to facial variance in a crowd of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Jason; Lee, Pegan; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    The visual system automatically represents summary information from crowds of faces, such as the average expression. This is a useful heuristic insofar as it provides critical information about the state of the world, not simply information about the state of one individual. However, the average alone is not sufficient for making decisions about how to respond to a crowd. The variance or heterogeneity of the crowd--the mixture of emotions--conveys information about the reliability of the average, essential for determining whether the average can be trusted. Despite its importance, the representation of variance within a crowd of faces has yet to be examined. This is addressed here in three experiments. In the first experiment, observers viewed a sample set of faces that varied in emotion, and then adjusted a subsequent set to match the variance of the sample set. To isolate variance as the summary statistic of interest, the average emotion of both sets was random. Results suggested that observers had information regarding crowd variance. The second experiment verified that this was indeed a uniquely high-level phenomenon, as observers were unable to derive the variance of an inverted set of faces as precisely as an upright set of faces. The third experiment replicated and extended the first two experiments using method-of-constant-stimuli. Together, these results show that the visual system is sensitive to emergent information about the emotional heterogeneity, or ambivalence, in crowds of faces.

  4. Emergency department crowding in Singapore: Insights from a systems thinking approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenenberger, Lukas K; Bayer, Steffen; Ansah, John P; Matchar, David B; Mohanavalli, Rajagopal L; Lam, Sean Sw; Ong, Marcus Eh

    2016-01-01

    Emergency Department crowding is a serious and international health care problem that seems to be resistant to most well intended but often reductionist policy approaches. In this study, we examine Emergency Department crowding in Singapore from a systems thinking perspective using causal loop diagramming to visualize the systemic structure underlying this complex phenomenon. Furthermore, we evaluate the relative impact of three different policies in reducing Emergency Department crowding in Singapore: introduction of geriatric emergency medicine, expansion of emergency medicine training, and implementation of enhanced primary care. The construction of the qualitative causal loop diagram is based on consultations with Emergency Department experts, direct observation, and a thorough literature review. For the purpose of policy analysis, a novel approach, the path analysis, is applied. The path analysis revealed that both the introduction of geriatric emergency medicine and the expansion of emergency medicine training may be associated with undesirable consequences contributing to Emergency Department crowding. In contrast, enhancing primary care was found to be germane in reducing Emergency Department crowding; in addition, it has apparently no negative side effects, considering the boundary of the model created. Causal loop diagramming was a powerful tool for eliciting the systemic structure of Emergency Department crowding in Singapore. Additionally, the developed model was valuable in testing different policy options.

  5. Household crowding associated with childhood otitis media hospitalisations in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Christopher; Pearson, Amber L; Campbell, Malcolm; Barnett, Ross

    2014-06-01

    To examine the association between hospitalisations for otitis media and area-level measures of household crowding among children in New Zealand. Counts of hospital admissions for otitis media by census area unit were offset against population data from the 2006 national census. Area-level household crowding, exposure to tobacco smoke in the home, equivalised income and individual-level characteristics age and sex were adjusted for. To examine effect modification by ethnicity, three separate poisson models were examined for the total, Māori and non-Māori populations. Household crowding was significantly associated with hospital admissions for otitis media after adjustment in all three models. Neighbourhoods with the highest compared to the lowest proportion of crowded homes exhibited incidence rate ratios of 1.25 (95%CI 1.12-1.37) in the total population, 1.59 (95%CI 1.21-2.04) in the Māori restricted model and 1.17 (95%CI 1.06-1.32) in the non-Māori restricted model. Otitis media hospitalisations are associated with area-level measures of household crowding and other risk factors in this ecological study. The largest increase in otitis media incidence relative to neighbourhood rates of household crowding was exhibited among Māori cases of otitis media. This study adds weight to the growing body of literature linking infectious disease risk to overcrowding in the home. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. Cluster Risk of Walking Scenarios Based on Macroscopic Flow Model and Crowding Force Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, accidents always happen in confined space such as metro stations because of congestion. Various researchers investigated the patterns of dense crowd behaviors in different scenarios via simulations or experiments and proposed methods for avoiding accidents. In this study, a classic continuum macroscopic model was applied to simulate the crowded pedestrian flow in typical scenarios such as at bottlenecks or with an obstacle. The Lax–Wendroff finite difference scheme and artificial viscosity filtering method were used to discretize the model to identify high-density risk areas. Furthermore, we introduced a contact crowding force test of the interactions among pedestrians at bottlenecks. Results revealed that in the most dangerous area, the individual on the corner position bears the maximum pressure in such scenarios is 90.2 N, and there is an approximate exponential relationship between crowding force and density indicated by our data. The results and findings presented in this paper can facilitate more reasonable and precise simulation models by utilizing crowding force and crowd density and ensure the safety of pedestrians in high-density scenarios.

  7. Effect of crowd size on patient volume at a large, multipurpose, indoor stadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, R A; Gray, B C; Bennett, P C; Lamparella, V J

    1989-01-01

    A prediction of patient volume expected at "mass gatherings" is desirable in order to provide optimal on-site emergency medical care. While several methods of predicting patient loads have been suggested, a reliable technique has not been established. This study examines the frequency of medical emergencies at the Syracuse University Carrier Dome, a 50,500-seat indoor stadium. Patient volume and level of care at collegiate basketball and football games as well as rock concerts, over a 7-year period were examined and tabulated. This information was analyzed using simple regression and nonparametric statistical methods to determine level of correlation between crowd size and patient volume. These analyses demonstrated no statistically significant increase in patient volume for increasing crowd size for basketball and football events. There was a small but statistically significant increase in patient volume for increasing crowd size for concerts. A comparison of similar crowd size for each of the three events showed that patient frequency is greatest for concerts and smallest for basketball. The study suggests that crowd size alone has only a minor influence on patient volume at any given event. Structuring medical services based solely on expected crowd size and not considering other influences such as event type and duration may give poor results.

  8. Study on Evaluation Indicators System of Crowd Management for Transfer Stations Based on Pedestrian Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghou Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving safety and convenience of transfer is one of the most vital tasks in subway system planning, design and operation management. Because of complicated space layout and crowded pedestrian, crowd control is a big challenge for management of transfer stations. Thus, a quantitative evaluation should be done before improvement measures are carried out. Literature review showed that present evaluation indicators about crowd management in subway system were all based on fixed value or experience. Dynamic effect caused by pedestrian congestion and various facility combination cannot be represented based on these indicators. Thus, in this paper, based on the pedestrian simulation tool, dynamic evaluation indicators system of crowd management was established from the point of safety, cost-effectiveness and comfort. In order to aid decision makers to identify the most appropriate scenario to improve the effectiveness of crowd management, Matter-Element Analysis (MEA was used to rate different scenarios. A pedestrian simulation model of a designing intermodal transfer station was built and four different scenarios were tested to demonstrate how to use this indicators system. Simulation results were evaluated based on the dynamic indicators system and MEA. The application results show that the dynamic evaluation indicators system is operational and can reflect level of the crowd management in transfer station comprehensively and precisely.

  9. Perceptual learning eases crowding by reducing recognition errors but not position errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying-Zi; Yu, Cong; Zhang, Jun-Yun

    2015-08-01

    When an observer reports a letter flanked by additional letters in the visual periphery, the response errors (the crowding effect) may result from failure to recognize the target letter (recognition errors), from mislocating a correctly recognized target letter at a flanker location (target misplacement errors), or from reporting a flanker as the target letter (flanker substitution errors). Crowding can be reduced through perceptual learning. However, it is not known how perceptual learning operates to reduce crowding. In this study we trained observers with a partial-report task (Experiment 1), in which they reported the central target letter of a three-letter string presented in the visual periphery, or a whole-report task (Experiment 2), in which they reported all three letters in order. We then assessed the impact of training on recognition of both unflanked and flanked targets, with particular attention to how perceptual learning affected the types of errors. Our results show that training improved target recognition but not single-letter recognition, indicating that training indeed affected crowding. However, training did not reduce target misplacement errors or flanker substitution errors. This dissociation between target recognition and flanker substitution errors supports the view that flanker substitution may be more likely a by-product (due to response bias), rather than a cause, of crowding. Moreover, the dissociation is not consistent with hypothesized mechanisms of crowding that would predict reduced positional errors.

  10. Crowd Computing as a Cooperation Problem: An Evolutionary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforou, Evgenia; Fernández Anta, Antonio; Georgiou, Chryssis; Mosteiro, Miguel A.; Sánchez, Angel

    2013-05-01

    Cooperation is one of the socio-economic issues that has received more attention from the physics community. The problem has been mostly considered by studying games such as the Prisoner's Dilemma or the Public Goods Game. Here, we take a step forward by studying cooperation in the context of crowd computing. We introduce a model loosely based on Principal-agent theory in which people (workers) contribute to the solution of a distributed problem by computing answers and reporting to the problem proposer (master). To go beyond classical approaches involving the concept of Nash equilibrium, we work on an evolutionary framework in which both the master and the workers update their behavior through reinforcement learning. Using a Markov chain approach, we show theoretically that under certain----not very restrictive—conditions, the master can ensure the reliability of the answer resulting of the process. Then, we study the model by numerical simulations, finding that convergence, meaning that the system reaches a point in which it always produces reliable answers, may in general be much faster than the upper bounds given by the theoretical calculation. We also discuss the effects of the master's level of tolerance to defectors, about which the theory does not provide information. The discussion shows that the system works even with very large tolerances. We conclude with a discussion of our results and possible directions to carry this research further.

  11. Automatic trajectory measurement of large numbers of crowded objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Ye; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2013-06-01

    Complex motion patterns of natural systems, such as fish schools, bird flocks, and cell groups, have attracted great attention from scientists for years. Trajectory measurement of individuals is vital for quantitative and high-throughput study of their collective behaviors. However, such data are rare mainly due to the challenges of detection and tracking of large numbers of objects with similar visual features and frequent occlusions. We present an automatic and effective framework to measure trajectories of large numbers of crowded oval-shaped objects, such as fish and cells. We first use a novel dual ellipse locator to detect the coarse position of each individual and then propose a variance minimization active contour method to obtain the optimal segmentation results. For tracking, cost matrix of assignment between consecutive frames is trainable via a random forest classifier with many spatial, texture, and shape features. The optimal trajectories are found for the whole image sequence by solving two linear assignment problems. We evaluate the proposed method on many challenging data sets.

  12. Library on Crowd Behavior for Agents Treatment on Videogames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Proenza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper covers the investigation process and further design and implementation of a library on crowd behaviors for videogames. Three methods were studied in order to pick up one of them, resulting to be Steering Behaviors method the one selected to be adopted. The library supports simulations with a large number of moving agents. It also copes with polygonal obstacles avoidance. Additionally, simulations can be adapted to many contexts by tuning some parameters. The library consists of an original design mostly based on Command Pattern that allows it to be easily usable and extendable.   Resumen Este documento cubre el proceso de investigación y el diseño e implementación de una biblioteca en los comportamientos de multitud de videojuegos. Tres métodos fueron estudiados con el fin de recoger a uno de ellos, el resultado es el método de dirección Comportamientos que se ha seleccionado para su adopción. La biblioteca admite simulaciones con un gran número de agentes móviles. También hace frente a la evitación obstáculos poligonales. Además, las simulaciones se pueden adaptar a diferentes contextos mediante la regulación de algunos parámetros. La biblioteca consta de un diseño original basado principalmente en modelo de comandos que permite que sea fácilmente utilizable y extensible.

  13. Using Telemedicine to Address Crowding in the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Benjamin; Mishkin, David; Sharma, Rahul

    2016-11-01

    Some health systems are piloting telemedicine solutions in the ED to address crowding and decrease patient wait times. One new program, implemented at the Lisa Perry Emergency Center at New York Presbyterian (NYP) Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York, involves offering low-acuity patients the option of visiting an off-site physician via telemedicine hookup. Administrators note that the approach can get patients in and out of the ED within 30 minutes, and patients have thus far been highly satisfied with the approach. However, an earlier telemedicine program piloted at the University of San Diego Health System’s (UCSD) Hillcrest Hospital in 2013 got bogged down due to administrative and insurance reimbursement hurdles, although the approach showed enough promise that there is interest in restarting the program. In the NYP program, patients are identified as appropriate candidates for the program at triage. They can opt to be seen remotely or through traditional means in the ED’s fast-track section. Administrators note that patients with complex problems requiring extensive workups are not suitable for the telemedicine approach. The most challenging aspect of implementing a successful telemedicine program in the ED is getting the workflows right, according to administrators. An earlier ED-based telemedicine program piloted at UCSD ran into difficulties because the model required the involvement of two physicians, and some insurers did not want to pay for the telemedicine visits. However, patients were receptive.

  14. The politics of the face-in-the-crowd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Mark; Smith, Kevin B; Hibbing, John R; Dodd, Michael D

    2014-06-01

    Recent work indicates that the more conservative one is, the faster one is to fixate on negative stimuli, whereas the less conservative one is, the faster one is to fixate on positive stimuli. The present series of experiments used the face-in-the-crowd paradigm to examine whether variability in the efficiency with which positive and negative stimuli are detected underlies such speed differences. Participants searched for a discrepant facial expression (happy or angry) amid a varying number of neutral distractors (Experiments 1 and 4). A combination of response time and eye movement analyses indicated that variability in search efficiency explained speed differences for happy expressions, whereas variability in post-selectional processes explained speed differences for angry expressions. These results appear to be emotionally mediated as search performance did not vary with political temperament when displays were inverted (Experiment 2) or when controlled processing was required for successful task performance (Experiment 3). Taken together, the present results suggest political temperament is at least partially instantiated by attentional biases for emotional material. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Theory of molecular crowding in Brownian hard-sphere liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Alessio; Terentjev, Eugene M

    2012-06-01

    We derive an analytical pair potential of mean force for Brownian molecules in the liquid state. Our approach accounts for many-particle correlations of crowding particles of the liquid and for diffusive transport across the spatially modulated local density of crowders in the dense environment. Focusing on the limit of equal-size particles, we show that this diffusive transport leads to additional density- and structure-dependent terms in the interaction potential and to a much stronger attraction (by a factor of ≈4 at average volume fraction of crowders φ{0}=0.25) than in the standard depletion interaction where the diffusive effects are neglected. As an illustration of the theory, we use it to study the size of a polymer chain in a solution of inert crowders. Even in the case of an athermal background solvent, when a classical chain should be fully swollen, we find a sharp coil-globule transition of the ideal chain collapsing at a critical value of the crowder volume fraction φ{c}≈0.145.

  16. Management Re-situated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    The purpose of this paper is to examine ways to situate management within philosophy, that is, ways to analyze the philosophical assumptions in management history, theory and practice. Since Burrell and Morgan suggested the idea that “all theories of organization are based upon philosophy...... of science“ (Burrell & Morgan, 1979:1), philosophical reflections in terms of a series of “isms” informed by different schools or paradigms (such as positivism, structuralism, phenomenology, critical theory, and so on and so forth) have been a central part of management studies. Thus, today, it has become...... common sense to categorize different approaches to management according to their assumptions of ontology, epistemology and methodology. My paper will argue first (1) that, although sometimes very abstract and obtuse writing that seems to owe more to competition among academics than to illumination...

  17. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  18. The satellite situation center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, M.J.; Sawyer, D.M.; Vette, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    Considerations related to the early planning for the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) took into account the desirability of an establishment of specific entities for generating and disseminating coordination information for both retrospective and predictive periods. The organizations established include the IMS/Satellite Situation Center (IMS/SSC) operated by NASA. The activities of the SSC are related to the preparation of reports on predicted and actually achieved satellite positions, the response to inquiries, the compilation of information on satellite experiments, and the issue of periodic status summaries. Attention is given to high-altitude satellite services, other correlative satellite services, non-IMS activities of the SSC, a summary of the SSC request activity, and post-IMS and future activities

  19. Situational simulations in interactive video

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.J.

    1991-07-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Advanced Training Technologies section is using situational simulations in several Interactive Video training courses. Two applications of situational simulations will be discussed. In the first, used in the Hanford General Employee Training course, the student evaluates employee's actions in simulations of possible workplace situations. In the second, used in the Criticality Safety course, students must follow well-defined procedures to complete tasks. Design and incorporation of situational simulations will be discussed. 3 refs.

  20. Situational simulations in interactive video

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.J.

    1991-07-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Advanced Training Technologies section is using situational simulations in several Interactive Video training courses. Two applications of situational simulations will be discussed. In the first, used in the Hanford General Employee Training course, the student evaluates employee's actions in simulations of possible workplace situations. In the second, used in the Criticality Safety course, students must follow well-defined procedures to complete tasks. Design and incorporation of situational simulations will be discussed. 3 refs

  1. PREFACE: Complex dynamics of fluids in disordered and crowded environments Complex dynamics of fluids in disordered and crowded environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coslovich, Daniele; Kahl, Gerhard; Krakoviack, Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Over the past two decades, the dynamics of fluids under nanoscale confinement has attracted much attention. Motivation for this rapidly increasing interest is based on both practical and fundamental reasons. On the practical and rather applied side, problems in a wide range of scientific topics, such as polymer and colloidal sciences, rheology, geology, or biophysics, benefit from a profound understanding of the dynamical behaviour of confined fluids. Further, effects similar to those observed in confinement are expected in fluids whose constituents have strong size or mass asymmetry, and in biological systems where crowding and obstruction phenomena in the cytosol are responsible for clear separations of time scales for macromolecular transport in the cell. In fundamental research, on the other hand, the interest focuses on the complex interplay between confinement and structural relaxation, which is responsible for the emergence of new phenomena in the dynamics of the system: in confinement, geometric constraints associated with the pore shape are imposed to the adsorbed fluids and an additional characteristic length scale, i.e. the pore size, comes into play. For many years, the topic has been mostly experimentally driven. Indeed, a broad spectrum of systems has been investigated by sophisticated experimental techniques, while theoretical and simulation studies were rather scarce due to conceptual and computational issues. In the past few years, however, theory and simulations could largely catch up with experiments. On one side, new theories have been put forward that duly take into account the porosity, the connectivity, and the randomness of the confinement. On the other side, the ever increasing available computational power now allows investigations that were far out of reach a few years ago. Nowadays, instead of isolated state points, systematic investigations on the dynamics of confined fluids, covering a wide range of system parameters, can be realized

  2. Problem situations in management activity

    OpenAIRE

    N.A. DUBINKO

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews contemporary methodological and theoretical approaches to the problem situations in management activity. Revealed and analyzed the types of problem situations managers dealing with in their activity. Rank correlation of problem situations shows distinctions depending on management work experience. Revealed gender distinctions in the managers' ideas of management problems.

  3. DEBATING ABOUT SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen CÎRSTEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the cirumstances of every day life which requires the need to adapt the leadership style. Leadership needs a lot of abilities and skills, including the capability to communicate. The paper deals with leader’s need of changing the style of leading as organizational circumstances change. The process is efficient only when the leaders and the followers have the right climate. The importance of this process is reflected in the productivity of the organization. As the economic climate changes the leadership style needs to be changed and also the style of communication throughout the leader coaches, coordinates, evaluates and supervises. Leadership is about organizing a group of people to achieve a goal. The leader may or may not have any formal authority. Students of leadership have produced theories involving traits, situational interaction, function, behavior, power, vision and values, charisma, and intelligence, among others. This paper describes the styles of leadership which the leaders must use and switch when is needed in comparison with what leadership is about.

  4. A simple quantitative model of macromolecular crowding effects on protein folding: Application to the murine prion protein(121-231)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergasa-Caceres, Fernando; Rabitz, Herschel A.

    2013-06-01

    A model of protein folding kinetics is applied to study the effects of macromolecular crowding on protein folding rate and stability. Macromolecular crowding is found to promote a decrease of the entropic cost of folding of proteins that produces an increase of both the stability and the folding rate. The acceleration of the folding rate due to macromolecular crowding is shown to be a topology-dependent effect. The model is applied to the folding dynamics of the murine prion protein (121-231). The differential effect of macromolecular crowding as a function of protein topology suffices to make non-native configurations relatively more accessible.

  5. Improvement of healthcare quality in pediatric neurology by crowd technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Guzeva

    2016-01-01

    , the solution of which requires that the government should invest a great deal of assets and may be rational only when crowd technologies are applied.

  6. Stress Management: A Rational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Cecil

    This workbook was designed for use as the primary resource tool during a l-day participatory stress management seminar in which participants identify stressful situations, conduct analyses, and develop approaches to manage the stressful situations more effectively. Small group warm-up activities designed to introduce participants, encourage…

  7. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  8. METHODOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana KOVALCHUK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of theoretical and methodological principles of situational analysis. The necessity of situational analysis is proved in modern conditions. The notion “situational analysis” is determined. We have concluded that situational analysis is a continuous system study which purpose is to identify dangerous situation signs, to evaluate comprehensively such signs influenced by a system of objective and subjective factors, to search for motivated targeted actions used to eliminate adverse effects of the exposure of the system to the situation now and in the future and to develop the managerial actions needed to bring the system back to norm. It is developed a methodological approach to the situational analysis, its goal is substantiated, proved the expediency of diagnostic, evaluative and searching functions in the process of situational analysis. The basic methodological elements of the situational analysis are grounded. The substantiation of the principal methodological elements of system analysis will enable the analyst to develop adaptive methods able to take into account the peculiar features of a unique object which is a situation that has emerged in a complex system, to diagnose such situation and subject it to system and in-depth analysis, to identify risks opportunities, to make timely management decisions as required by a particular period.

  9. Applying Crowd Psychology to Develop Recommendations for the Management of Mass Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, John; Rubin, G. James; Williams, Richard; Amlôt, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mass decontamination is a public health intervention employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological release. It involves a crowd of people whose interactions with each other and with the emergency responders managing the incident are likely to affect the success of the decontamination process. The way in which members of the public collectively experience decontamination is likely to affect their behavior and hence is crucial to the success of the decontamination process. Consequently, responders and the responsible authorities need to understand crowd psychology during mass emergencies and disasters. Recently, the social identity approach to crowd psychology has been applied to explain public perceptions and behavior during mass emergencies. This approach emphasizes that crowd events are characteristically intergroup encounters, in which the behavior of one group can affect the perceptions and behavior of another. We summarize the results from a program of research in which the social identity approach was applied to develop and test recommendations for the management of mass decontamination. The findings from this program of research show that (1) responders' perceptions of crowd behavior matter; (2) participants value greater communication and this affects their compliance; and (3) social identity processes explain the relationship between effective responder communication and relevant outcome variables, such as public compliance, public cooperation, and public anxiety. Based on this program of research, we recommend 4 responder management strategies that focus on increasing public compliance, increasing orderly and cooperative behavior among members of the public, reducing public anxiety, and respecting public needs for privacy. PMID:25812428

  10. Achieving external validity in home advantage research: generalizing crowd noise effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony D Myers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Different factors have been postulated to explain the home advantage phenomenon in sport. One plausible explanation investigated has been the influence of a partisan home crowd on sports officials’ decisions. Different types of studies have tested the crowd influence hypothesis including purposefully designed experiments. However, while experimental studies investigating crowd influences have high levels of internal validity, they suffer from a lack of external validity; decision-making in a laboratory setting bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. This focused review initially considers threats to external validity in applied and theoretical experimental research. Discussing how such threats can be addressed using representative design by focusing on a recently published study that arguably provides the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. The findings of this controlled experiment conducted in a real tournament setting offer some confirmation of the validity of laboratory experimental studies in the area. Finally directions for future research and the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed.

  11. Achieving external validity in home advantage research: generalizing crowd noise effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Tony D

    2014-01-01

    Different factors have been postulated to explain the home advantage phenomenon in sport. One plausible explanation investigated has been the influence of a partisan home crowd on sports officials' decisions. Different types of studies have tested the crowd influence hypothesis including purposefully designed experiments. However, while experimental studies investigating crowd influences have high levels of internal validity, they suffer from a lack of external validity; decision-making in a laboratory setting bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. This focused review initially considers threats to external validity in applied and theoretical experimental research. Discussing how such threats can be addressed using representative design by focusing on a recently published study that arguably provides the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. The findings of this controlled experiment conducted in a real tournament setting offer a level of confirmation of the findings of laboratory studies in the area. Finally directions for future research and the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed.

  12. Crowding and delivery of healthcare in emergency departments: the European perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jayaprakash, Namita

    2009-11-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding is a multifactorial problem, resulting in increased ED waiting times, decreased patient satisfaction and deleterious domino effects on the entire hospital. Although difficult to define and once limited to anecdotal evidence, crowding is receiving more attention as attempts are made to quantify the problem objectively. It is a worldwide phenomenon with regional influences, as exemplified when analyzing the problem in Europe compared to that of the United States. In both regions, an aging population, limited hospital resources, staff shortages and delayed ancillary services are key contributors; however, because the structure of healthcare differs from country to country, varying influences affect the issue of crowding. The approach to healthcare delivery as a right of all people, as opposed to a free market commodity, depends on governmental organization and appropriation of funds. Thus, public funding directly influences potential crowding factors, such as number of hospital beds, community care facilities, and staffing. Ultimately ED crowding is a universal problem with distinctly regional root causes; thus, any approach to address the problem must be tailored to regional influences.

  13. Optimal Acceleration-Velocity-Bounded Trajectory Planning in Dynamic Crowd Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yue-wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating complex and realistic crowd behaviors, such as pedestrian navigation behavior with dynamic obstacles, is a difficult and time consuming task. In this paper, we study one special type of crowd which is composed of urgent individuals, normal individuals, and normal groups. We use three steps to construct the crowd simulation in dynamic environment. The first one is that the urgent individuals move forward along a given path around dynamic obstacles and other crowd members. An optimal acceleration-velocity-bounded trajectory planning method is utilized to model their behaviors, which ensures that the durations of the generated trajectories are minimal and the urgent individuals are collision-free with dynamic obstacles (e.g., dynamic vehicles. In the second step, a pushing model is adopted to simulate the interactions between urgent members and normal ones, which ensures that the computational cost of the optimal trajectory planning is acceptable. The third step is obligated to imitate the interactions among normal members using collision avoidance behavior and flocking behavior. Various simulation results demonstrate that these three steps give realistic crowd phenomenon just like the real world.

  14. Applying crowd psychology to develop recommendations for the management of mass decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard; Amlôt, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mass decontamination is a public health intervention employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological release. It involves a crowd of people whose interactions with each other and with the emergency responders managing the incident are likely to affect the success of the decontamination process. The way in which members of the public collectively experience decontamination is likely to affect their behavior and hence is crucial to the success of the decontamination process. Consequently, responders and the responsible authorities need to understand crowd psychology during mass emergencies and disasters. Recently, the social identity approach to crowd psychology has been applied to explain public perceptions and behavior during mass emergencies. This approach emphasizes that crowd events are characteristically intergroup encounters, in which the behavior of one group can affect the perceptions and behavior of another. We summarize the results from a program of research in which the social identity approach was applied to develop and test recommendations for the management of mass decontamination. The findings from this program of research show that (1) responders' perceptions of crowd behavior matter; (2) participants value greater communication and this affects their compliance; and (3) social identity processes explain the relationship between effective responder communication and relevant outcome variables, such as public compliance, public cooperation, and public anxiety. Based on this program of research, we recommend 4 responder management strategies that focus on increasing public compliance, increasing orderly and cooperative behavior among members of the public, reducing public anxiety, and respecting public needs for privacy.

  15. Macromolecular crowding-assisted fabrication of liquid-crystalline imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2015-04-01

    A macromolecular crowding-assisted liquid-crystalline molecularly imprinted monolith (LC-MIM) was prepared successfully for the first time. The imprinted stationary phase was synthesized with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or polystyrene (PS) as the crowding agent, 4-cyanophenyl dicyclohexyl propylene (CPCE) as the liquid-crystal monomer, and hydroquinidine as the pseudo-template for the chiral separation of cinchona alkaloids in HPLC. A low level of cross-linker (26%) has been found to be sufficient to achieve molecular recognition on the crowding-assisted LC-MIM due to the physical cross-linking of mesogenic groups in place of chemical cross-linking, and baseline separation of quinidine and quinine could be achieved with good resolution (R(s) = 2.96), selectivity factor (α = 2.16), and column efficiency (N = 2650 plates/m). In contrast, the LC-MIM prepared without crowding agents displayed the smallest diastereoselectivity (α = 1.90), while the crowding-assisted MIM with high level of cross-linker (80%) obtained the greatest selectivity factor (α = 7.65), but the lowest column efficiency (N = 177 plates/m).

  16. A natural and readily available crowding agent: NMR studies of proteins in hen egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Gabriel; Adrover, Miquel; Kelly, Geoff; Temussi, Piero Andrea; Pastore, Annalisa

    2011-05-01

    In vitro studies of biological macromolecules are usually performed in dilute, buffered solutions containing one or just a few different biological macromolecules. Under these conditions, the interactions among molecules are diffusion limited. On the contrary, in living systems, macromolecules of a given type are surrounded by many others, at very high total concentrations. In the last few years, there has been an increasing effort to study biological macromolecules directly in natural crowded environments, as in intact bacterial cells or by mimicking natural crowding by adding proteins, polysaccharides, or even synthetic polymers. Here, we propose the use of hen egg white (HEW) as a simple natural medium, with all features of the media of crowded cells, that could be used by any researcher without difficulty and inexpensively. We present a study of the stability and dynamics behavior of model proteins in HEW, chosen as a prototypical, readily accessible natural medium that can mimic cytosol. We show that two typical globular proteins, dissolved in HEW, give NMR spectra very similar to those obtained in dilute buffers, although dynamic parameters are clearly affected by the crowded medium. The thermal stability of one of these proteins, measured in a range comprising both heat and cold denaturation, is also similar to that in buffer. Our data open new possibilities to the study of proteins in natural crowded media. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. A situational approach to the measurement of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmer, N.; Regennass, A.

    1997-01-01

    Values and social norms are the main target of most approaches to the study of safety culture and many existing survey methodologies directly ask for these norms and values. However, a number of considerations point to the dangers of limiting the evaluation of safety culture to the analysis of these responses. Therefore the necessity is stressed to also consider how actual situations activate norms and behaviours. This relates to the fact that in any given situation both aspects of the appraisal of reality are present: the objective definition of the situation and its personal evaluation. The latter not only reflects the ''official'' norms and values but also ''basic underlying assumptions''. The situational approach introduced in this paper confronts people with situations which contain a dilemma with conflicting social norms and where various costs and benefits are associated with different types of behaviour. In addition, the prerequisites and limitations of the situational approach are discussed. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig

  18. SPECIFICITY OF SELF-PRESERVATION MOTIVATION IN EXTREME SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Anatolevna Karacheva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study motivation of self-preservation in an extreme situation. Usually extreme situation unfold from the point of view of functioning, health, high negative level mental stress and tension. The extreme situation is the situation of human activity to which man acts, carrying out certain activities. The article provides an overview of russian and foreign authors dealing with this problem. Theoretical models of motivation of self-preservation Z. Freud, A. Maslow, G. Murray, M. Magomed-Eminov. The study explores the leading motivation in an extreme situation and analyzed the levels of motivation of self-preservation. The study was conducted in the Afghan veterans, using a method of unfinished sentences and other. Identified two levels of motivation of self-preservation: individual and personal. Revealed that the motivation of self-preservation is the leading motivation in an extreme situation.

  19. Spacing, crowding, and child mortality in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, P; Bukh, J; Lisse, I M; Smits, A J

    1983-07-16

    Evidence from a comparative survey of the Balantas in the Tombali region and the Mandingas and Fulas in the Oio region of Guinea-Bissau suggests that overcrowding is a risk factor for child health because the severity of infections increases when 2 or more children are sick simultaneously. Rural Mandingas and Fulas breastfeed for 30 months on average, while rural Balantas do so for 38 months. All groups abstain from sexual intercourse during lactation, resulting in fewer children among Balantas. Polygamy increases crowding in all groups, but adult Balanta men have separate households while Mandinga brothers often live together in the same household. On average, there were .93 children under 5 in Balanta households but 1.91 in Mandinga households. Each wife ideally has her own room among Balanta households, but Mandinga wives live together, with up to 10 women in the same circular hut. Balanta children leave their mothers' bed when the mother gives birth to another child, while Mandinga and Fula mothers may have several children in bed at the same time. Among Balantas an average of .17 persons slept in bed with a mother and child, while among the Mandingas .66 and among the Fulas .69 did so. The weight-for-age as a percentage of the World Health Organization standard for Balantas and Mandingas-Fulas respectively was 106% and 105% at 0-2 months; 104% and 92% at 3-5 months; 90% and 82% at 6-17 months; 86% and 77% at 18-35 months breastfed; and 89% and 81% at 18-35 months weaned. During 1980-81, when no major epidemics occurred, Balanta children under 6 months had a higher survival rate for the following year than did Mandinga and Fula children, with the mortality difference occuring while all children were still breastfed. 8% of Balanta children, 16% of Mandinga children, and 24% of Fula children died within 1 year of examination. Nutritional status did not determine risk of death, but variation in the severity of infection caused by overcrowding may have done so

  20. Waiting room crowding and agitation in a dedicated psychiatric emergency service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mallakh, Rif S; Whiteley, Amanda; Wozniak, Tanya; Ashby, McCray; Brown, Shawn; Colbert-Trowel, Danya; Pennington, Tammy; Thompson, Michael; Tasnin, Rokeya; Terrell, Christina L

    2012-05-01

    Emergency department crowding is a growing problem that impacts patient care and safety. The effect of crowding has not been examined in emergency psychiatric services. The association between patient census and use of restraints, seclusion, and anti-agitation medications as needed was examined for 1 month. A total of 689 patients were seen in 31 days. The average hourly census was 6.8 ± 2.8 (range 0 to 18). There were 33 incidences of seclusion or restraint and an additional 15 instances of medications administered for agitation. The use of seclusion, restraint, or medication for agitation was significantly associated with census (r2 = 0.3, F = 5.47, P = .036). Crowding in emergency psychiatric waiting rooms may increase the need for seclusion, restraint, or medications for agitation.

  1. Household behaviour crowds out support for climate change policy when sufficient progress is perceived

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Seth H.

    2017-07-01

    Household actions and government policies are both necessary to mitigate the effects of climate change. However, household behaviour may crowd out public support for government action by creating the perception of sufficient progress. Here we demonstrate this crowding-out effect in public opinion using survey experiments with more than 14,000 participants in Japan. Subjects who were randomly assigned to report their energy-saving actions following the shutdown of the Fukushima power plant were less likely to support a tax increase on carbon emissions. Treatment effects were larger for subjects who had completed more actions. Further evidence suggests that the crowding-out effect may have been driven by an increase in the perceived importance of individual actions relative to government regulation and a decrease in the perceived issue importance of energy and environmental sustainability.

  2. Synergistic rate boosting of collagen fibrillogenesis in heterogeneous mixtures of crowding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewavrin, Jean-Yves; Abdurrahiem, Muhammed; Blocki, Anna; Musib, Mrinal; Piazza, Francesco; Raghunath, Michael

    2015-03-26

    The competition for access to space that arises between macromolecules is the basis of the macromolecular crowding phenomenon, known to modulate biochemical reactions in subtle ways. Crowding is a highly conserved physiological condition in and around cells in metazoans, and originates from a mixture of heterogeneous biomolecules. Here, using collagen fibrillogenesis as an experimental test platform and ideas from the theory of nonideal solutions, we show that an entropy-based synergy is created by a mixture of two different populations of artificial crowders, providing small crowders with extra volume occupancy when in the vicinity of bigger crowders. We present the physiological mechanism by which synergistic effects maximize volume exclusion with the minimum amount of heterogeneous crowders, demonstrating how the evolutionarily optimized crowded conditions found in vivo can be reproduced effectively in vitro.

  3. Double Crowding-Out Effects of Means-Tested Public Provision for Long-Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Courbage

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Publicly provided long-term care (LTC insurance with means-tested benefits is suspected to crowd out either private saving or informal care. This contribution predicts crowding-out effects for both private saving and informal care for policy measures designed to relieve the public purse from LTC expenditure such as more stringent means testing and increased taxation of inheritance. These effects result from the interaction of a parent who decides on the amount of saving in retirement and a caregiver who decides on the effort devoted to informal care which lowers the probability of admission to a nursing home. Double crowding-out effects are also found to be the consequence of exogenous influences, notably a higher opportunity cost of caregiving.

  4. Effect on Perceived Stimulation dan Perceived Crowding on the Decision of the Unplanned Purchase (Impulse Buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enggal Sriwardiningsih

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purchase decisions aren’t made necessarily planned, because impulsive buying is such a result of environmental stimuli shopping. Things affecting unplanned purchasing decisions are perceived by stimulation and crowding. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are influences between perceived crowding and stimulation of impulse buying simultaneously or partial. The object used is one of the largest retailers in Cilegon. This research design is quantitative analysis of the consumer unit. The collecting data technique includes using questionnaires, interviews, and literature from previous research. Data processed using the SPSS 16.0 program through the validity and reliability, normality test, and regression analysis. The study states that there is significant influence between perceived crowding and perceived stimulation both simultaneous and partial response to impulse buying. 

  5. Ameliorating the emergency department workflow by involving the observation unit: effects on crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primiano Iannone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Crowding adversely affects the performance of emergency departments (EDs by worsening efficiency, timeliness of care, clinical outcomes and patients’ satisfaction. We describe in this study our attempt at improving crowding by modifying the roles and workflow of the ED physicians. The observation unit physician was given the additional duty of prioritizing admissions and managing unclear, complex cases, which were previously under the responsibility of front line emergency physicians. We analyzed two corresponding periods, both before the intervention (9897 ED attendances in 2012 and after the intervention (10,297 attendances in 2013. Most of the crowding indices improved significantly, including timeliness of triage, of first medical contact, access to resus area, and overall length of stay in ED. Also, emergency hospital admissions, average specialist consultations and imaging studies per patient decreased significantly. The observation unit workload increased. There was no significant excess of adverse events.

  6. Utilising spatial distribution in two-tank systems to investigate the level of aversiveness to crowding in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Andersson, Madelene Åberg; Silva, Patricia Isabel Mota

    2013-01-01

    of the fish between the tanks. Fish were stocked at equal quantities in each tank of the system. The doorway was opened and the fish moved between the two tanks. Typically, this resulted in one tank being occupied by a few highly aggressive dominant individuals (“dominant” tank) and the majority of the fish...... of fish in the “crowded” tank. A subsample of individuals was sacrificed for blood and brain samples every three days from the “crowded” tank, prior to the fish count. The neuroendocrine indicators of stress, elevated serotonergic activity levels which were not associated with high plasma levels...... of cortisol, suggested chronic stress in the fish at the highest total density stocked (80kgm−3). Taken together, these results indicated that a level of aversiveness to crowding had been reached at the highest density stocked, where the mean absolute density, irrespective of time of day, observed...

  7. Gamification for Measuring Cyber Security Situational Awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Best, Daniel M.; Manz, David O.; Popovsky, V. M.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.

    2013-03-01

    Cyber defense competitions arising from U.S. service academy exercises, offer a platform for collecting data that can inform research that ranges from characterizing the ideal cyber warrior to describing behaviors during certain challenging cyber defense situations. This knowledge could lead to better preparation of cyber defenders in both military and civilian settings. This paper describes how one regional competition, the PRCCDC, a participant in the national CCDC program, conducted proof of concept experimentation to collect data during the annual competition for later analysis. The intent is to create an ongoing research agenda that expands on this current work and incorporates augmented cognition and gamification methods for measuring cybersecurity situational awareness under the stress of cyber attack.

  8. The CrowdMag App - turning your smartphone into a travelling magnetic observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, Richard; Nair, Manoj

    2017-04-01

    In 2014, we started the "CrowdMag" Project to collect vector magnetic data from digital magnetometers in smartphones. In October 2014, we released our first-generation Android and iOS apps. Currently, the CrowdMag Project has more than 15,000 enthusiastic users contributing more than 12 million magnetic data points from around the world. NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), in partnership with the University of Colorado's Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences (CIRES) develops magnetic field models to aid navigation, resource exploration and scientific research. We use observatories, satellites and ship/airborne surveys to measure the magnetic data. However, the measurements leave gaps in coverage, particularly for short-wavelength urban noise. Our ultimate goal is to use data from the CrowdMag Project to improve global magnetic data coverage. Here we present some early results from the analysis of the crowdsourced magnetic data. A global magnetic model derived solely based on CrowdMag data is generally consistent with satellite-derived models such as World Magnetic Model. A unique contribution of the CrowdMag Project is the collection of ground level magnetic data in densely populated regions with an unprecedented spatial resolution. For example, we show a magnetic map (by binning the data collected into 100x100m cells) of central Boulder using 170,000 data points collected by about 60 devices over the duration October 2014- January 2016. The median magnetic field value is consistent with the expected magnitude of the Earth's background magnetic field. The standard deviation of the CrowdMag total field (F) values is much higher than the expected natural (i.e., diurnal and geologic) magnetic field variation. However, the phone's magnetometer is sensitive enough to capture the larger magnitude magnetic signature from the urban magnetic sources. We discuss the reliability of crowdsourced magnetic maps and their

  9. Situational Awareness and Logistics Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Situational Awareness and Logistics Division researches, develops, implements, and analyzes advanced systems to protect, enhance, and ensure resilienceof the...

  10. VGI, crowd-sourcing, citizen science and neogeography are not the same!

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available StreetMap Real-time traffic monitoring Brown Moses Arab Spring Cyber-bullying Foldit Online Protein Puzzle SETI@Home Amateur astronomer Zooniverse: Planet Hunters Mappiness WideNoise 2nd South African Bird Atlas Project (SABAP2) Household consumption diary...SMS PPGIS ABCD Transparency and accountability Empower communities Brown Moses Virtual land art Cyber-bullying Crisis mapping Arab Spring Neogeography © CSIR 2015 Crowd sourcing ≠ CiCrowd sourcing Amazon Mechanical Turk Wikipedia Brown Moses...

  11. Prominent effects and neural correlates of visual crowding in a neurodegenerative disease population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Keir X X; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Cash, Dave; Henley, Susie M D; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Ridgway, Gerard R; Golden, Hannah L; Warrington, Elizabeth K; Carton, Amelia M; Kaski, Diego; Schott, Jonathan M; Warren, Jason D; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2014-12-01

    Crowding is a breakdown in the ability to identify objects in clutter, and is a major constraint on object recognition. Crowding particularly impairs object perception in peripheral, amblyopic and possibly developing vision. Here we argue that crowding is also a critical factor limiting object perception in central vision of individuals with neurodegeneration of the occipital cortices. In the current study, individuals with posterior cortical atrophy (n=26), typical Alzheimer's disease (n=17) and healthy control subjects (n=14) completed centrally-presented tests of letter identification under six different flanking conditions (unflanked, and with letter, shape, number, same polarity and reverse polarity flankers) with two different target-flanker spacings (condensed, spaced). Patients with posterior cortical atrophy were significantly less accurate and slower to identify targets in the condensed than spaced condition even when the target letters were surrounded by flankers of a different category. Importantly, this spacing effect was observed for same, but not reverse, polarity flankers. The difference in accuracy between spaced and condensed stimuli was significantly associated with lower grey matter volume in the right collateral sulcus, in a region lying between the fusiform and lingual gyri. Detailed error analysis also revealed that similarity between the error response and the averaged target and flanker stimuli (but not individual target or flanker stimuli) was a significant predictor of error rate, more consistent with averaging than substitution accounts of crowding. Our findings suggest that crowding in posterior cortical atrophy can be regarded as a pre-attentive process that uses averaging to regularize the pathologically noisy representation of letter feature position in central vision. These results also help to clarify the cortical localization of feature integration components of crowding. More broadly, we suggest that posterior cortical atrophy

  12. An Application of Graphics Processing Units to Geosimulation of Collective Crowd Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cjoskāns Jānis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to assess the ways for computational performance and efficiency improvement of collective crowd behaviour simulation by using parallel computing methods implemented on graphics processing unit (GPU. To perform an experimental evaluation of benefits of parallel computing, a new GPU-based simulator prototype is proposed and the runtime performance is analysed. Based on practical examples of pedestrian dynamics geosimulation, the obtained performance measurements are compared to several other available multiagent simulation tools to determine the efficiency of the proposed simulator, as well as to provide generic guidelines for the efficiency improvements of the parallel simulation of collective crowd behaviour.

  13. Treating dental crowding with mandibular incisor extraction in an Angle Class I patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislana Braga Machado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular dental crowding often encourages patients to seek orthodontic treatment. The orthodontist should decide between protrusion of incisors or decrease in dental volume so as to achieve proper alignment and leveling. The present study reports the treatment of an Angle Class I malocclusion adolescent female brachyfacial patient with severe mandibular dental crowding, increased curve of Spee and deep overbite. The patient was treated with extraction of a mandibular incisor. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  14. Macromolecular crowding compacts unfolded apoflavodoxin and causes severe aggregation of the off-pathway intermediate during apoflavodoxin folding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, R.; Westphal, A.H.; Huberts, D.; Nabuurs, S.M.; Lindhoud, S.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Mierlo, van C.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    To understand how proteins fold in vivo, it is important to investigate the effects of macromolecular crowding on protein folding. Here, the influence of crowding on in vitro apoflavodoxin folding, which involves a relatively stable off-pathway intermediate with molten globule characteristics, is

  15. Changing attitudes toward smoking and smoking susceptibility through peer crowd targeting: more evidence from a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Sussman, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Peer crowd identification consistently predicts an adolescent's smoking behavior. As such, several interventions have targeted adolescents and young adults based on their identification with a specific crowd (e.g., Hipsters). This study uses a controlled experimental design to isolate and test the effect of peer crowd targeting in an antismoking ad on antismoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility. Two hundred and thirty-nine adolescents, age 13-15 years, completed a baseline survey and then viewed an antismoking ad targeting one of eight crowds; 1 week later they completed a posttest. Participants were assessed on antismoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility. Adolescents who strongly identified with the crowd targeted by the ad reported stronger antismoking attitudes and lower levels of smoking susceptibility. Those who disidentified with the crowd targeted in the ad exhibited not statistically significant increases in smoking susceptibility and weaker antismoking attitudes at posttest. These findings indicate that targeting youths based on their peer crowd is a useful strategy for antismoking interventions. Additional research should further examine whether youths who disidentify with the targeted crowd in an ad exhibit reactance against the message.

  16. Crowding and experience-use history: a study of the moderating effect of place attachment among water-based recreationists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budruk, Megha; Wilhem Stanis, Sonja A; Schneider, Ingrid E; Heisey, Jennifer J

    2008-04-01

    Effective recreation resource management relies on understanding visitor perceptions and behaviors. Given current and increasing pressures on water resources, understanding crowding evaluations seems important. Beyond crowding, however, variables that possibly relate to or influence crowding are of interest and in particular, place attachment and experience-use history (EUH). As EUH is related to place attachment and likely affects crowding, this study explored the moderating effect of place attachment dimensions on the relationships between EUH and visitor crowding evaluations. Water based recreationists at a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers site were contacted onsite and asked questions related to experience-use history, crowding evaluations, place attachment, and activity participation. Anglers and campers at the site identified similar crowding perceptions and place attachments. Only one of eight models tested revealed a moderating effect. Specifically, place identity moderated the relationship between the total times visited in the past twelve months and expected crowding among anglers. As such, the quest continues to understand the relationship among these important variables.

  17. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    the purpose to do science and not to participate in polemics or litigations. For this reason, ESO has until now been silent in these matters, but we have now become obliged to make our opinion known". The ESO representative also made it clear, that "ESO does not question the rights of the claimants to recur to the Chilean Tribunals which must decide on the matter of ownership, and that ESO cannot be party to this lawsuit". He added that "ESO fully trusts that the Chilean Government will do whatever is necessary to defend the immunity of ESO". THE CURRENT SITUATION During the past few days, declarations from high officials at the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs have been made which clearly confirm ESO's immunity of jurisdiction from Chilean Courts. The same opinion has been ventured by Chilean experts in international law, quoted in various Chilean newspapers. On Friday, February 17, the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose M. Insulza, made a similar, very eloquent statement. ESO welcomes these articulate expressions that support its official position and trusts that the current situation will be speedily resolved by the competent Chilean authorities, so that the construction work at Paranal will not be stopped. During the past three decades, ESO's presence in Chile has been characterised by good relations to all sides. The development of astronomy in Chile during the past decades has reached such a level that it will now benefit from a new quality of cooperation. In addition to its past and numerous services to Chilean astronomy, ESO has recently considered to establish a "guaranteed" observing time for astronomers from this country, both at La Silla and the future VLT observatory on Paranal. With a proposed 10 percent quota for the VLT, Chilean astronomers will in fact have free access to the equivalent of 40 percent of one 8.2-metre telescope; the associated, not insignificant cost is entirely carried by ESO. ESO has also considered to incorporate

  18. How to lead complex situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Pingel

    2013-01-01

    The military leader is experiencing increasingly more complex situations, whether it is as leader in a foreign combat environment or in the home-based public administration. Complex situations like these call for a special set of managerial responses and a special way of leading organisations...

  19. The impact of crowd noise on officiating in Muay Thai: achieving external validity in an experimental setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony D Myers

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous factors have been proposed to explain the home advantage in sport. Several authors have suggested that a partisan home crowd enhances home advantage and that this is at least in part a consequence of their influence on officiating. However, while experimental studies examining this phenomenon have high levels of internal validity (since only the ‘crowd noise’ intervention is allowed to vary, they suffer from a lack of external validity, with decision-making in a laboratory setting typically bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. Conversely, observational and quasi-experimental studies with high levels of external validity suffer from low levels of internal validity as countless factors besides crowd noise vary. The present study provides a unique opportunity to address these criticisms, by conducting a controlled experiment on the impact of crowd noise on officiating in a live tournament setting. Seventeen qualified judges officiated on thirty Thai boxing bouts in a live international tournament setting featuring ‘home’ and ‘away’ boxers. In each bout, judges were randomised into a ‘noise’ (live sound or ‘no crowd noise’ (noise cancelling headphones and white noise condition, resulting in 59 judgements in the ‘no crowd noise’ and 61 in the ‘crowd noise’ condition. The results provide the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. A cross-classified statistical model indicated that crowd noise had a statistically significant impact, equating to just over half a point per bout (in the context of five round bouts with the ‘ten point must’ scoring system shared with professional boxing. The practical significance of the findings, their implications for officiating and for the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed.

  20. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ruderman

    Full Text Available This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004.Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees.Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis.Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17, drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98, non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64, violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43, and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53.Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  1. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A; Wilson, Deirdra F; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53). Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  2. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A.; Wilson, Deirdra F.; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Background Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Methods Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Results Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05–4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00–2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73–2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45–2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37–2.53). Conclusions Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted. PMID:26492490

  3. The impact of crowd noise on officiating in muay thai: achieving external validity in an experimental setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Tony; Balmer, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Numerous factors have been proposed to explain the home advantage in sport. Several authors have suggested that a partisan home crowd enhances home advantage and that this is at least in part a consequence of their influence on officiating. However, while experimental studies examining this phenomenon have high levels of internal validity (since only the "crowd noise" intervention is allowed to vary), they suffer from a lack of external validity, with decision-making in a laboratory setting typically bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. Conversely, observational and quasi-experimental studies with high levels of external validity suffer from low levels of internal validity as countless factors besides crowd noise vary. The present study provides a unique opportunity to address these criticisms, by conducting a controlled experiment on the impact of crowd noise on officiating in a live tournament setting. Seventeen qualified judges officiated on thirty Thai boxing bouts in a live international tournament setting featuring "home" and "away" boxers. In each bout, judges were randomized into a "noise" (live sound) or "no crowd noise" (noise-canceling headphones and white noise) condition, resulting in 59 judgments in the "no crowd noise" and 61 in the "crowd noise" condition. The results provide the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. A cross-classified statistical model indicated that crowd noise had a statistically significant impact, equating to just over half a point per bout (in the context of five round bouts with the "10-point must" scoring system shared with professional boxing). The practical significance of the findings, their implications for officiating and for the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed.

  4. VIRTUAL REALITY FOR MANAGEMENT OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS DURING GLOBAL MASS GATHERINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Karsakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a training technology for staff of mass events for development of action skills in large gatherings of people, including crowd dynamic management and actions in extreme situations caused by the panic. The technology is based on the multi-agent model of crowd dynamic with dynamically re-computable navigation fields. We implemented the software system that provides a collaborative and distributed process of training activities in the virtual reality environment. The following characteristics of the developed software system available from experimental studies were analyzed: computational intensity of simulations, scalability of rendering system and reactivity of the final system when rendering computationally intensive scenes. The proposed models and infrastructure for training through collaborative immersion in the virtual reality can improve situational awareness of events staff prior to the event. The developed technology is a unique tool for improving the quality and safety of disposable and unique events involving the broad masses of people, including unfunded by retrospective experience mass gatherings. Developed technology was tested within the Kumbh Mela festival in Ujjain, India.

  5. Emergency situations; Les situations d'urgence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  6. Crowd science : it is not just a matter of time (or funding)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadou, E.

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science, or crowd science, or volunteer science, has increased in the last 4–5 years, with an accompanying increase in the literature. The main argument in such literature is that citizen science has many advantages, not only for scientists and the science that is produced, but also for the

  7. Crowding and Cognitive Development: The Mediating Role of Maternal Responsiveness among 36-Month-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.; Ricciuti, Henry N.; Hope, Steven; Schoon, Ingrid; Bradley, Robert H.; Corwyn, Robert F.; Hazan, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Residential crowding in both U.S. and U.K. samples of 36-month-old children is related concurrently to the Bracken scale, a standard index of early cognitive development skills including letter and color identification, shape recognition, and elementary numeric comprehension. In the U.S. sample, these effects also replicate prospectively.…

  8. Micro-flow synthesis and structural analysis of sterically crowded diimine ligands with five aryl rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Fuse

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sterically crowded diimine ligands with five aryl rings were prepared in one step in good yields using a micro-flow technique. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed the detailed structure of the bulky ligands. The nickel complexes prepared from the ligands exerted high polymerization activity in the ethylene homopolymerization and copolymerization of ethylene with polar monomers.

  9. Average interradicular sites for miniscrew insertion: should dental crowding be considered?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepedino, Michele; Cattaneo, Paolo; Masedu, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define a map of interradicular spaces where miniscrew can be likely placed at a level covered by attached gingiva, and to assess if a correlation between crowding and availability of space exists. METHODS: Panoramic radiographs and digital models of 40 patients were selected according...

  10. Crowded growth leads to the spontaneous evolution of semistable coexistence in laboratory yeast populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Evgeni M; McDonald, Michael J; Van Dyken, J David; Kosheleva, Katya; Lang, Gregory I; Desai, Michael M

    2015-09-08

    Identifying the mechanisms that create and maintain biodiversity is a central challenge in biology. Stable diversification of microbial populations often requires the evolution of differences in resource utilization. Alternatively, coexistence can be maintained by specialization to exploit spatial heterogeneity in the environment. Here, we report spontaneous diversification maintained by a related but distinct mechanism: crowding avoidance. During experimental evolution of laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations, we observed the repeated appearance of "adherent" (A) lineages able to grow as a dispersed film, in contrast to their crowded "bottom-dweller" (B) ancestors. These two types stably coexist because dispersal reduces interference competition for nutrients among kin, at the cost of a slower maximum growth rate. This tradeoff causes the frequencies of the two types to oscillate around equilibrium over the course of repeated cycles of growth, crowding, and dispersal. However, further coevolution of the A and B types can perturb and eventually destroy their coexistence over longer time scales. We introduce a simple mathematical model of this "semistable" coexistence, which explains the interplay between ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Because crowded growth generally limits nutrient access in biofilms, the mechanism we report here may be broadly important in maintaining diversity in these natural environments.

  11. Crowded and Sparse Domains in Object Recognition: Consequences for Categorization and Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Tim M.; Laws, Keith R.; Foley, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    Some models of object recognition propose that items from structurally crowded categories (e.g., living things) permit faster access to superordinate semantic information than structurally dissimilar categories (e.g., nonliving things), but slower access to individual object information when naming items. We present four experiments that utilize…

  12. Letter and symbol identification: No evidence for letter-specific crowding mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Eric; Descamps, Marine; Denis-Noël, Ambre; Colé, Pascale

    2017-09-01

    It has been proposed that letters, as opposed to symbols, trigger specialized crowding processes, boosting identification of the first and last letters of words. This hypothesis is based on evidence that single-letter accuracy as a function of within-string position has a W shape (the classic serial position function [SPF] in psycholinguistics) whereas an inverted V shape is obtained when measured with symbols. Our main goal was to test the robustness of the latter result. Our hypothesis was that any letter/symbol difference might result from short-term visual memory processes (due to the partial report [PR] procedures used in SPF studies) rather than from crowding. We therefore removed the involvement of short-term memory by precueing target-item position and compared SPFs with precueing and postcueing. Perimetric complexity was stringently matched between letters and symbols. In postcueing conditions similar to previous studies, we did not reproduce the inverted V shape for symbols: Clear-cut W shapes were observed with an overall smaller accuracy for symbols compared to letters. This letter/symbol difference was dramatically reduced in precueing conditions in keeping with our prediction. Our results are not consistent with the claim that letter strings trigger specialized crowding processes. We argue that PR procedures are not fit to isolate crowding processes.

  13. Clinical Efficiency of Two Sequences of Orthodontic Wires to Correct Crowding of the Lower Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria de Castro Serafim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared time to correction of mandibular anterior crowding using two arch wire sequences, one with conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi arch wires and the other with conventional and NiTi heat-activated arch wires. Twenty-two boys and girls (mean age: 16.68 ± 2.66 with moderate crowding (3–6 mm were assigned randomly to one of two groups and followed up for five months (six assessments when arch wires were changed. Time to crowding correction was analyzed statistically using the Kaplan-Meier method. Data were collected during the five-month follow-up, and time to correction was compared between groups using the log rank test. At the end of follow-up, mandibular crowding was corrected in 100% of the cases in the group treated with the sequence that included NiTi heat-activated arch wires, whereas about 30% of those treated with NiTi arch wires were not completely corrected. There was a significant difference in time to complete treatment between groups (log rank = 5.996; p<0.05. In the group treated with the sequence that included heat-activated wires, alignment and leveling of mandibular anterior teeth were completed earlier than in the group treated only with conventional NiTi arch wires. Clinical trial registration is found at RBR-7g5zng.

  14. Improved Point-source Detection in Crowded Fields Using Probabilistic Cataloging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Stephen K. N.; Lee, Benjamin C. G.; Daylan, Tansu; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.

    2017-10-01

    Cataloging is challenging in crowded fields because sources are extremely covariant with their neighbors and blending makes even the number of sources ambiguous. We present the first optical probabilistic catalog, cataloging a crowded (˜0.1 sources per pixel brighter than 22nd mag in F606W) Sloan Digital Sky Survey r-band image from M2. Probabilistic cataloging returns an ensemble of catalogs inferred from the image and thus can capture source-source covariance and deblending ambiguities. By comparing to a traditional catalog of the same image and a Hubble Space Telescope catalog of the same region, we show that our catalog ensemble better recovers sources from the image. It goes more than a magnitude deeper than the traditional catalog while having a lower false-discovery rate brighter than 20th mag. We also present an algorithm for reducing this catalog ensemble to a condensed catalog that is similar to a traditional catalog, except that it explicitly marginalizes over source-source covariances and nuisance parameters. We show that this condensed catalog has a similar completeness and false-discovery rate to the catalog ensemble. Future telescopes will be more sensitive, and thus more of their images will be crowded. Probabilistic cataloging performs better than existing software in crowded fields and so should be considered when creating photometric pipelines in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope era.

  15. Effect of macromolecular crowding on the rate of diffusion-limited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The enzymatic reaction rate has been shown to be affected by the presence of such macromolecules. A simple numerical model is proposed here based on percolation and diffusion in disordered systems to study the effect of macromolecular crowding on the enzymatic reaction rates. The model qualitatively explains some ...

  16. Crowd-induced vibrations of a steel footbridge in Reykjavík

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Gudmundsson, G. V.; Živanović, S.

    2012-01-01

    in relation to the results obtained from a controlled crowd test on a steel footbridge in Reykjavik, Iceland. A systematic quantification of the measured vibration response is carried out and the results are presented statistically through their probability distributions. Finally, testimonies from...

  17. The Effect of Attractive Interactions and Macromolecular Crowding on Crystallins Association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiachen Wei

    Full Text Available In living systems proteins are typically found in crowded environments where their effective interactions strongly depend on the surrounding medium. Yet, their association and dissociation needs to be robustly controlled in order to enable biological function. Uncontrolled protein aggregation often causes disease. For instance, cataract is caused by the clustering of lens proteins, i.e., crystallins, resulting in enhanced light scattering and impaired vision or blindness. To investigate the molecular origins of cataract formation and to design efficient treatments, a better understanding of crystallin association in macromolecular crowded environment is needed. Here we present a theoretical study of simple coarse grained colloidal models to characterize the general features of how the association equilibrium of proteins depends on the magnitude of intermolecular attraction. By comparing the analytic results to the available experimental data on the osmotic pressure in crystallin solutions, we identify the effective parameters regimes applicable to crystallins. Moreover, the combination of two models allows us to predict that the number of binding sites on crystallin is small, i.e. one to three per protein, which is different from previous estimates. We further observe that the crowding factor is sensitive to the size asymmetry between the reactants and crowding agents, the shape of the protein clusters, and to small variations of intermolecular attraction. Our work may provide general guidelines on how to steer the protein interactions in order to control their association.

  18. Soft Regulation with Crowd Recommendation: Coordinating Self-Interested Agents in Sociotechnical Systems under Imperfect Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Iyengar, Garud; Venkatasubramanian, Venkat

    2016-01-01

    Regulating emerging industries is challenging, even controversial at times. Under-regulation can result in safety threats to plant personnel, surrounding communities, and the environment. Over-regulation may hinder innovation, progress, and economic growth. Since one typically has limited understanding of, and experience with, the novel technology in practice, it is difficult to accomplish a properly balanced regulation. In this work, we propose a control and coordination policy called soft regulation that attempts to strike the right balance and create a collective learning environment. In soft regulation mechanism, individual agents can accept, reject, or partially accept the regulator's recommendation. This non-intrusive coordination does not interrupt normal operations. The extent to which an agent accepts the recommendation is mediated by a confidence level (from 0 to 100%). Among all possible recommendation methods, we investigate two in particular: the best recommendation wherein the regulator is completely informed and the crowd recommendation wherein the regulator collects the crowd's average and recommends that value. We show by analysis and simulations that soft regulation with crowd recommendation performs well. It converges to optimum, and is as good as the best recommendation for a wide range of confidence levels. This work sheds a new theoretical perspective on the concept of the wisdom of crowds.

  19. Simulating crowd evacuation with socio-cultural, cognitive, and emotional elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, C. Natalie; Formolo, Daniel; Robinson, Mark A.; Minkov, Michael; Bosse, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the effects of culture, cognitions, and emotions on crisis management and prevention are analysed. An agent-based crowd evacuation simulation model was created, named IMPACT, to study the evacuation process from a transport hub. To extend previous research, various socio-cultural,

  20. Attentional Allocation of Autism Spectrum Disorder Individuals: Searching for a Face-in-the-Crowd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David J.; Reidy, John; Heavey, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    A study is reported which tests the proposition that faces capture the attention of those with autism spectrum disorders less than a typical population. A visual search task based on the Face-in-the-Crowd paradigm was used to examine the attentional allocation of autism spectrum disorder adults for faces. Participants were required to search for…

  1. Extracting foreground ensemble features to detect abnormal crowd behavior in intelligent video-surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yi-Tung; Wang, Shuenn-Jyi; Tsai, Chung-Hsien

    2017-09-01

    Public safety is a matter of national security and people's livelihoods. In recent years, intelligent video-surveillance systems have become important active-protection systems. A surveillance system that provides early detection and threat assessment could protect people from crowd-related disasters and ensure public safety. Image processing is commonly used to extract features, e.g., people, from a surveillance video. However, little research has been conducted on the relationship between foreground detection and feature extraction. Most current video-surveillance research has been developed for restricted environments, in which the extracted features are limited by having information from a single foreground; they do not effectively represent the diversity of crowd behavior. This paper presents a general framework based on extracting ensemble features from the foreground of a surveillance video to analyze a crowd. The proposed method can flexibly integrate different foreground-detection technologies to adapt to various monitored environments. Furthermore, the extractable representative features depend on the heterogeneous foreground data. Finally, a classification algorithm is applied to these features to automatically model crowd behavior and distinguish an abnormal event from normal patterns. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method's performance is both comparable to that of state-of-the-art methods and satisfies the requirements of real-time applications.

  2. High fat diet prevents over-crowding induced decrease of sex ratio in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Shivajirao Dama

    Full Text Available Adaptive theory predicts that mothers would be advantaged by adjusting the sex ratio of their offspring in relation to their offspring's future reproductive success. In the present study, we tested the effect of housing mice under crowded condition on the sex ratio and whether the fat content of the diet has any influence on the outcome of pregnancies. Three-week-old mice were placed on the control diet (NFD for 3 weeks. Thereafter the mice were allotted randomly to two groups of 7 cages each with 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 mice in every cage to create increasing crowding gradient and fed either NFD or high fat diet (HFD. After 4 weeks, dams were bred and outcomes of pregnancy were analyzed. The average dam body weight (DBW at conception, litter size (LS and SR were significantly higher in HFD fed dams. Further, male biased litters declined with increasing crowding in NFD group but not in HFD. The LS and SR in NFD declined significantly with increasing crowding, whereas only LS was reduced in HFD group. We conclude that female mice housed under overcrowding conditions shift offspring SR in favor of daughters in consistent with the TW hypothesis and high fat diet reduces this influence of overcrowding.

  3. The problem of crowd crimes: the approach of P.N. Obninskiy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbatov D.S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the specific approach to crowd crimes proposed by prominent Russian lawyer and public figure of the XIX century P.N. Obninskiy. We clarify its fundamental differences from other concepts of Russian and foreign psychologists and lawyers. Particular attention is paid to the P.N. Obninskiy treatment of possible sanity and responsibility of participants of mass cholera riots of the late XIX century in various regions of the Russian Empire. We reveal the moral potential of his views. Crowd as a social associations, the personality changes in the crowd, the crowd propensity to violate the law, the issue of punishment for crimes committed by it – these are some of the questions that interested the public opinion of the time. The article emphasizes that the lack of trust and lack of equal dialogue between representatives of different social groups have played a negative role in the development of «contagion morale», and later became reasons for the even more tragic events of Russian history.

  4. Mindless thugs running riot? Mainstream, alternative and online media representations of football crowd violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the nature of media coverage of football (soccer) crowd violence in three European countries (England, The Netherlands and Spain). It presents an analytic framework that draws on etic (outsider) and emic (insider) perspectives, and illustrates how each perspective is

  5. Value of Crowding on Public Transport in Ile-de-France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, E.P.; Kouwenhoven, M.; Debrincat, L.; Pauget, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a research project that aimed to establish passenger values of crowding on public transport services in the Paris region. Qualitative research, stated preference (SP) experiments, and passenger counts and surveys were conducted to obtain such values. A simple

  6. AggNet: Deep Learning From Crowds for Mitosis Detection in Breast Cancer Histology Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarqouni, Shadi; Baur, Christoph; Achilles, Felix; Belagiannis, Vasileios; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    The lack of publicly available ground-truth data has been identified as the major challenge for transferring recent developments in deep learning to the biomedical imaging domain. Though crowdsourcing has enabled annotation of large scale databases for real world images, its application for biomedical purposes requires a deeper understanding and hence, more precise definition of the actual annotation task. The fact that expert tasks are being outsourced to non-expert users may lead to noisy annotations introducing disagreement between users. Despite being a valuable resource for learning annotation models from crowdsourcing, conventional machine-learning methods may have difficulties dealing with noisy annotations during training. In this manuscript, we present a new concept for learning from crowds that handle data aggregation directly as part of the learning process of the convolutional neural network (CNN) via additional crowdsourcing layer (AggNet). Besides, we present an experimental study on learning from crowds designed to answer the following questions. 1) Can deep CNN be trained with data collected from crowdsourcing? 2) How to adapt the CNN to train on multiple types of annotation datasets (ground truth and crowd-based)? 3) How does the choice of annotation and aggregation affect the accuracy? Our experimental setup involved Annot8, a self-implemented web-platform based on Crowdflower API realizing image annotation tasks for a publicly available biomedical image database. Our results give valuable insights into the functionality of deep CNN learning from crowd annotations and prove the necessity of data aggregation integration.

  7. Paying out and Crowding out? The Globalisation of Higher Education. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1299

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Stephen; Murphy, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the rapid influx of overseas students into UK higher education and the impact on the number of domestic students. Using administrative data since 1994/5, we find no evidence of crowd out of domestic undergraduate students and indications of increases in the domestic numbers of postgraduate students as overseas enrolments have grown.…

  8. Do monetary rewards crowd out intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano Fiorillo

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies the determinants of regular volunteering departing from previous literature on extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. It contributes to the literature investigating the role of monetary rewards to influence intrinsic motivation. Using a simple framework that allows me to study the effect of monetary rewards on intrinsic motivation, the paper shows, controlling for endogenous bias, that monetary rewards crowd-out intrinsic motivation.

  9. Evolution of increased adult longevity in Drosophila melanogaster populations selected for adaptation to larval crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoi, V N; Ali, S Z; Prasad, N G

    2016-02-01

    In holometabolous animals such as Drosophila melanogaster, larval crowding can affect a wide range of larval and adult traits. Adults emerging from high larval density cultures have smaller body size and increased mean life span compared to flies emerging from low larval density cultures. Therefore, adaptation to larval crowding could potentially affect adult longevity as a correlated response. We addressed this issue by studying a set of large, outbred populations of D. melanogaster, experimentally evolved for adaptation to larval crowding for 83 generations. We assayed longevity of adult flies from both selected (MCUs) and control populations (MBs) after growing them at different larval densities. We found that MCUs have evolved increased mean longevity compared to MBs at all larval densities. The interaction between selection regime and larval density was not significant, indicating that the density dependence of mean longevity had not evolved in the MCU populations. The increase in longevity in MCUs can be partially attributed to their lower rates of ageing. It is also noteworthy that reaction norm of dry body weight, a trait probably under direct selection in our populations, has indeed evolved in MCU populations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the evolution of adult longevity as a correlated response of adaptation to larval crowding. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Crowd-funding as a new source of financing of innovative activity in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    BOLDARUK D.Y.; BOLDARUK I.I.

    2015-01-01

    In article the new source of financing of innovative activity in agriculture for the Russian Federation is considered. Characteristics of crowd funding, its advantage and shortcomings are considered. Examples of real use of this tool are given. Prospects of development of a new source of financing in the market are described.

  11. How many people constitute a crowd and what do they do ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wiktionary is increasingly gaining influence in a wide variety of linguistic fields such as NLP and lexicography, and has great potential to become a serious competitor for publisher-based and academic dictionaries. However, little is known about the "crowd" that is responsible for the content of Wiktionary. In this article, we ...

  12. Crowded visual search in children with normal vision and children with visual impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Cox, Ralf F. A.; Vlaskamp, Björn N. S.; Boonstra, F. Nienke

    This study investigates the influence of oculomotor control, crowding, and attentional factors on visual search in children with normal vision ([NV], n = 11), children with visual impairment without nystagmus ([VI-nys], n = 11), and children with VI with accompanying nystagmus ([VI+nys], n = 26).

  13. Crowding related norms in outdoor recreation: U.S. versus international visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megha Budruk; Robert Manning

    2003-01-01

    Research on crowding-related norms has begun to explore differences across settings, time, activities, and visitor characteristics such as age, economic status, and country of origin. The literature examining visitors' country of origin suggests a mixed pattern. While there is some evidence of differences across country of origin, other studies have not indicated...

  14. What's in a crowd? Exploring crowdsourced versus traditional customer participation in the innovation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruner, Richard L.; Power, Damien

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the emerging crowdsourcing phenomenon, that is, the outsourcing of idea generation to the product users ('the crowd'), typically via online platforms to interact with many and diverse customers and glean valuable market insights. The study focuses on this phenomenon and the

  15. Effects of Crowding Combined with Mood on Working Memory Performance among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of crowding combined with mood on working memory performance among college students. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web…

  16. Crowding and hopping in a protein’s diffusive transport on DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koslover, Elena F; Spakowitz, Andrew J; Díaz de la Rosa, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion is a ubiquitous phenomenon that impacts virtually all processes that involve random fluctuations, and as such, the foundational work of Smoluchowski has proven to be instrumental in addressing innumerable problems. Here, we focus on a critical biological problem that relies on diffusive transport and is analyzed using a probabilistic treatment originally developed by Smoluchowski. The search of a DNA binding protein for its specific target site is believed to rely on non-specific binding to DNA with transient hops along the chain. In this work, we address the impact of protein crowding along the DNA on the transport of a DNA-binding protein. The crowders dramatically alter the dynamics of the protein while bound to the DNA, resulting in single-file transport that is subdiffusive in nature. However, transient unbinding and hopping results in a long-time behavior (shown to be superdiffusive) that is qualitatively unaffected by the crowding on the DNA. Thus, hopping along the chain mitigates the role that protein crowding has in restricting the translocation dynamics along the chain. The superdiffusion coefficient is influenced by the quantitative values of the effective binding rate, which is influenced by protein crowding. We show that vacancy fraction and superdiffusion coefficient exhibits a non-monotonic relationship under many circumstances. We leverage analytical theory and dynamic Monte Carlo simulations to address this problem. With several additional contributions, the core of our modeling work adopts a reaction-diffusion framework that is based on Smoluchowski’s original work. (paper)

  17. Agnosic vision is like peripheral vision, which is limited by crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strappini, Francesca; Pelli, Denis G; Di Pace, Enrico; Martelli, Marialuisa

    2017-04-01

    Visual agnosia is a neuropsychological impairment of visual object recognition despite near-normal acuity and visual fields. A century of research has provided only a rudimentary account of the functional damage underlying this deficit. We find that the object-recognition ability of agnosic patients viewing an object directly is like that of normally-sighted observers viewing it indirectly, with peripheral vision. Thus, agnosic vision is like peripheral vision. We obtained 14 visual-object-recognition tests that are commonly used for diagnosis of visual agnosia. Our "standard" normal observer took these tests at various eccentricities in his periphery. Analyzing the published data of 32 apperceptive agnosia patients and a group of 14 posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) patients on these tests, we find that each patient's pattern of object recognition deficits is well characterized by one number, the equivalent eccentricity at which our standard observer's peripheral vision is like the central vision of the agnosic patient. In other words, each agnosic patient's equivalent eccentricity is conserved across tests. Across patients, equivalent eccentricity ranges from 4 to 40 deg, which rates severity of the visual deficit. In normal peripheral vision, the required size to perceive a simple image (e.g., an isolated letter) is limited by acuity, and that for a complex image (e.g., a face or a word) is limited by crowding. In crowding, adjacent simple objects appear unrecognizably jumbled unless their spacing exceeds the crowding distance, which grows linearly with eccentricity. Besides conservation of equivalent eccentricity across object-recognition tests, we also find conservation, from eccentricity to agnosia, of the relative susceptibility of recognition of ten visual tests. These findings show that agnosic vision is like eccentric vision. Whence crowding? Peripheral vision, strabismic amblyopia, and possibly apperceptive agnosia are all limited by crowding, making it

  18. Relationship of crowded teeth and Oral Hygiene among urban population in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahirrah, Siti

    2018-03-01

    Crowded teeth could present a challenge in maintaining oral hygiene through brushing, as it is difficult to remove food debris in the interdental area, causing plaque accumulation and calculus formation, which leads to caries and gingivitis, or even destruction of the supporting tissue, which leads to tooth mobility. This study aims to determine the relationship of crowded teeth and oral hygiene among the urban population in Medan. This research is an analytic study with a cross-sectional design. The samples of this research consists of 100 adolescents in Medan. Based on the examination result of 100 subjects, 50 subjects with normal tooth arrangement, and 50 subjects with crowded teeth. This information was determined by examination of the dental condition and Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S) measurement. The examination was performed by placing the explorer on 1/3 incisal or occlusal area and gently moving it to the 1/3 gingival or cervical area on a specific tooth. The results of the study were tested with the Chi-square test. The result shows that subjects with normal tooth arrangement present average OHI-S score of 0.66 which is categorized as good oral hygiene. Subjects with a crowded dentition exhibit an average OHI-S score of 1.33 which was categorized as moderate oral hygiene. The findings of this research reveal that there is a significant correlation between of crowded teeth and oral hygiene among adolescents in Medan. Abnormal tooth arrangement influences the condition of oral hygiene among adolescents.

  19. Crowdsourcing Diagnosis for Patients With Undiagnosed Illnesses: An Evaluation of CrowdMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ashley N D; Longhurst, Christopher A; Singh, Hardeep

    2016-01-14

    Despite visits to multiple physicians, many patients remain undiagnosed. A new online program, CrowdMed, aims to leverage the "wisdom of the crowd" by giving patients an opportunity to submit their cases and interact with case solvers to obtain diagnostic possibilities. To describe CrowdMed and provide an independent assessment of its impact. Patients submit their cases online to CrowdMed and case solvers sign up to help diagnose patients. Case solvers attempt to solve patients' diagnostic dilemmas and often have an interactive online discussion with patients, including an exchange of additional diagnostic details. At the end, patients receive detailed reports containing diagnostic suggestions to discuss with their physicians and fill out surveys about their outcomes. We independently analyzed data collected from cases between May 2013 and April 2015 to determine patient and case solver characteristics and case outcomes. During the study period, 397 cases were completed. These patients previously visited a median of 5 physicians, incurred a median of US $10,000 in medical expenses, spent a median of 50 hours researching their illnesses online, and had symptoms for a median of 2.6 years. During this period, 357 active case solvers participated, of which 37.9% (132/348) were male and 58.3% (208/357) worked or studied in the medical industry. About half (50.9%, 202/397) of patients were likely to recommend CrowdMed to a friend, 59.6% (233/391) reported that the process gave insights that led them closer to the correct diagnoses, 57% (52/92) reported estimated decreases in medical expenses, and 38% (29/77) reported estimated improvement in school or work productivity. Some patients with undiagnosed illnesses reported receiving helpful guidance from crowdsourcing their diagnoses during their difficult diagnostic journeys. However, further development and use of crowdsourcing methods to facilitate diagnosis requires long-term evaluation as well as validation to account

  20. Influence of Music on the Behaviors of Crowd in Urban Open Public Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Zhao, Tingting; Kang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Sound environment plays an important role in urban open spaces, yet studies on the effects of perception of the sound environment on crowd behaviors have been limited. The aim of this study, therefore, is to explore how music, which is considered an important soundscape element, affects crowd behaviors in urban open spaces. On-site observations were performed at a 100 m × 70 m urban leisure square in Harbin, China. Typical music was used to study the effects of perception of the sound environment on crowd behaviors; then, these behaviors were classified into movement (passing by and walking around) and non-movement behaviors (sitting). The results show that the path of passing by in an urban leisure square with music was more centralized than without music. Without music, 8.3% of people passing by walked near the edge of the square, whereas with music, this percentage was zero. In terms of the speed of passing by behavior, no significant difference was observed with the presence or absence of background music. Regarding the effect of music on walking around behavior in the square, the mean area and perimeter when background music was played were smaller than without background music. The mean speed of those exhibiting walking around behavior with background music in the square was 0.296 m/s slower than when no background music was played. For those exhibiting sitting behavior, when background music was not present, crowd density showed no variation based on the distance from the sound source. When music was present, it was observed that as the distance from the sound source increased, crowd density of those sitting behavior decreased accordingly.

  1. Hostile intent in public crowded spaces: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eachus, Peter; Stedmon, Alex; Baillie, Les

    2013-09-01

    Hostile reconnaissance is vital to successful terrorist activity. Individuals carrying out this activity are likely to experience raised levels of stress and this will manifest itself at biological, physiological, psychological and behavioural levels, providing an opportunity for detection. A field trial was undertaken in an ecologically valid environment measuring variables considered likely to be salient during hostile intent. The parameters examined in the field trial varied in a predictable manner and suggest that stressed individuals secrete a volatile steroid based marker that could form the basis for remote detection. Thus, overall the findings of this research provide a validated model of hostile intent that can be used by other researchers to test interventions aimed at detecting or deterring hostile intent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Resiliency against stress among athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Litwic-Kaminska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a study concerning the relationship between resiliency and appraisal of a stressful situation, anxiety reactions and undertaken methods of coping among sportsmen. Participants and procedure The research concerned 192 competitors who actively train in one of the Olympic disciplines – individual or team. We used the following instruments: Resiliency Assessment Scale (SPP-25; Stress Appraisal Questionnaire A/B; Reactions to Competition Questionnaire; Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Sport Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire (SR3S, self-constructed. Results Athletes most frequently apply positive types of stress appraisal, and they cope with stress through a task-oriented style during competitions. There is a relationship between the level of resiliency and the analysed aspects of the process of stress. The higher the resiliency, the more positive is the appraisal of a stressful situation and the more task-oriented are the strategies applied. Similarly, in everyday situations resilient sportspeople positively appraise difficult situations and undertake mostly task-oriented strategies. Resiliency is connected with less frequently experiencing reactions in the form of anxiety. Conclusions The obtained results, similarly to previous research, suggest that resiliency is connected with experiencing positive emotions. It causes more frequent appraisal of stressful situations as a challenge. More resilient people also choose more effective and situation-appropriate coping strategies. Therefore they are more resistant to stress.

  3. Plan for radiological emergencies situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada Figueroa, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    The objective for the Emergencies plan it is to reestablish the stock that they should be executed by the regulatory Entity in Guatemala during a real potential radiological emergency situation in the national territory

  4. Adaptive Synthetic Forces: Situation Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Randall

    2001-01-01

    ...: perception, comprehension, and prediction. Building on these ideas, we developed techniques for improving the situation awareness in synthetic helicopter pilots for the ModSAF military simulation by giving them more human-like perception...

  5. Noncanonical structures and their thermodynamics of DNA and RNA under molecular crowding: beyond the Watson-Crick double helix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    How does molecular crowding affect the stability of nucleic acid structures inside cells? Water is the major solvent component in living cells, and the properties of water in the highly crowded media inside cells differ from that in buffered solution. As it is difficult to measure the thermodynamic behavior of nucleic acids in cells directly and quantitatively, we recently developed a cell-mimicking system using cosolutes as crowding reagents. The influences of molecular crowding on the structures and thermodynamics of various nucleic acid sequences have been reported. In this chapter, we discuss how the structures and thermodynamic properties of nucleic acids differ under various conditions such as highly crowded environments, compartment environments, and in the presence of ionic liquids, and the major determinants of the crowding effects on nucleic acids are discussed. The effects of molecular crowding on the activities of ribozymes and riboswitches on noncanonical structures of DNA- and RNA-like quadruplexes that play important roles in transcription and translation are also described. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Zur wirtschaftlichen Situation georgischer Landwirtschaftsbetriebe

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, Eberhard; Tillack, Peter; Mosashwili, Nodar

    2003-01-01

    Dieser Forschungsbericht beinhaltet die Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung von 200 Familienbetrieben im Osten Georgiens im Distrikt Sighnagi in der Kakheti-Region Ende 2001/Anfang 2002. Sie dienten dem Ziel, Erkenntnisse über die wirtschaftliche Situation georgischer Familienbetriebe sowie zum Teil der sozialen Situation in Bauernfamilien nach zehn Jahren Transformationsprozess in der Landwirtschaft zu gewinnen. Die Untersuchungen schlossen die Befragung der Betriebsleiter nach dem Alter, der Daue...

  7. The layperson in emergency situations

    OpenAIRE

    Pergola, AM; Araujo, IEM

    2008-01-01

    The layperson's qualification to provide early care in emergency situations and basic life support (BLS) is fundamental to save lives and prevent sequels. The objective was to identify the level of knowledge of lay people about approaching an emergency victim. Structured interviews in non-technical language were used with a 385-subject sample, average age 35.4 (+/- 14.55) years, with more than 50% having a high school or university education. Over 55% of these observed situations with loss of...

  8. Situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2014-01-01

    On the location of Aggersborg: landscape and local topography, sailing, harbourage and 'watch-and-ward', the Limfjord as a sailing route, a sailing connection northwards, crossing-places, roads......On the location of Aggersborg: landscape and local topography, sailing, harbourage and 'watch-and-ward', the Limfjord as a sailing route, a sailing connection northwards, crossing-places, roads...

  9. A modified social force model for crowd dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ummi Nurmasyitah; Zainuddin, Zarita; Abu-Sulyman, Ibtesam M.

    2017-08-01

    The Social Force Model (SFM) is one of the most successful models in microscopic pedestrian studies that is used to study the movement of pedestrians. Many modifications have been done to improvise the SFM by earlier researchers such as the incorporation of a constant respect factor into the self-stopping mechanism. Before the new mechanism is introduced, the researchers found out that a pedestrian will immediately come to a halt if other pedestrians are near to him, which seems to be an unrealistic behavior. Therefore, researchers introduce a self-slowing mechanism to gradually stop a pedestrian when he is approaching other pedestrians. Subsequently, the dynamic respect factor is introduced into the self-slowing mechanism based on the density of the pedestrians to make the model even more realistic. In real life situations, the respect factor of the pedestrians should be dynamic values instead of a constant value. However, when we reproduce the simulation of the dynamic respect factor, we found that the movement of the pedestrians are unrealistic because the pedestrians are lacking perception of the pedestrians in front of him. In this paper, we adopted both dynamic respect factor and dynamic angular parameter, called modified dynamic respect factor, which is dependent on the density of the pedestrians. Simulations are performed in a normal unidirectional walkway to compare the simulated pedestrians' movements produced by both models. The results obtained showed that the modified dynamic respect factor produces more realistic movement of the pedestrians which conform to the real situation. Moreover, we also found that the simulations endow the pedestrian with a self-slowing mechanism and a perception of other pedestrians in front of him.

  10. Flexibility damps macromolecular crowding effects on protein folding dynamics: Application to the murine prion protein (121-231)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergasa-Caceres, Fernando; Rabitz, Herschel A.

    2014-01-01

    A model of protein folding kinetics is applied to study the combined effects of protein flexibility and macromolecular crowding on protein folding rate and stability. It is found that the increase in stability and folding rate promoted by macromolecular crowding is damped for proteins with highly flexible native structures. The model is applied to the folding dynamics of the murine prion protein (121-231). It is found that the high flexibility of the native isoform of the murine prion protein (121-231) reduces the effects of macromolecular crowding on its folding dynamics. The relevance of these findings for the pathogenic mechanism are discussed.

  11. Effects of social stress and intrauterine position on sexual phenotype in wild-type house mice (Mus musculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Zielinski; John G. Vandenbergh; Monica M. Montano

    1991-01-01

    Wild-type house mice were used to test the effect of intrauterine position on anogenital distance (AGD) and to verify whether crowding stress would masculinize female pups, developing at all intrauterine positions, as has been demonstrated in CF-1 mice stressed by restraint, heat, and...

  12. The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  13. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  14. Project management in crisis situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Goździewska-Nowicka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s methodologies of project management attention is increasingly paid to the crises-related issues. Modern economy and the turbulent environment cause that an emergingcrisis can pose a serious threat to the implementation of any undertaking. This article focuses on the presentation of the conditions and causes of crisis situations, the essence of projects, and their effective management. The major objective of the paper, however, is to demonstrate how companies implementing projects cope with the occurrence of a crisis situation.

  15. Toward a Research Agenda for the Study of Situation Perceptions: A Variance Componential Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauthmann, John; Sherman, Ryne

    2018-04-01

    Situation perception represents the fulcrum of a "psychology of situations" because situation ratings are ubiquitous. However, no systematic research program exists so far, particularly because two competing traditions have not been integrated: Objectivist views stress situations' consensually shared meanings (social reality), and subjectivist views idiosyncratic meanings (personal reality). A componential framework can disentangle social from personal reality in situation perceptions: When multiple perceivers (P) rate multiple situations (S) on multiple situation characteristics (C), variance in those ratings can be decomposed according to S × C, P × S, and P × C breakdowns. Six grand questions of situation perception research are spawned from these decompositions: complexity, similarity, assimilation, consensus, uniqueness, and accuracy. Analyses of real data are provided to exemplify our ideas, along with customizable R codes for all methods. A componential framework allows novel and unique insights into different questions surrounding situation perceptions and provides a coherent research agenda.

  16. An evaluation of self-esteem and quality of life in orthodontic patients: effects of crowding and protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Ho

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of dental crowding and lip protrusion on self-esteem and quality of life (QOL) in female orthodontic patients with Class I malocclusion. The study sample consisted of 201 patients (mean age 22.6 ± 3.0 years) who sought orthodontic treatment. All the patients were evaluated before treatment in terms of their degree of dental crowding and lip protrusion. Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale and the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ) were used to determine self-esteem and QOL and to evaluate whether these values were related to malocclusion severity. The results indicated that severe crowding and severe protrusion can result in lower self-esteem and poorer QOL (P self-esteem and QOL scores than severe crowding or protrusion patients.

  17. ANALYSIS OF COMBINED UAV-BASED RGB AND THERMAL REMOTE SENSING DATA: A NEW APPROACH TO CROWD MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schulte

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Collecting vast amount of data does not solely help to fulfil information needs related to crowd monitoring, it is rather important to collect data that is suitable to meet specific information requirements. In order to address this issue, a prototype is developed to facilitate the combination of UAV-based RGB and thermal remote sensing datasets. In an experimental approach, image sensors were mounted on a remotely piloted aircraft and captured two video datasets over a crowd. A group of volunteers performed diverse movements that depict real world scenarios. The prototype is deriving the movement on the ground and is programmed in MATLAB. This novel detection approach using combined data is afterwards evaluated against detection algorithms that only use a single data source. Our tests show that the combination of RGB and thermal remote sensing data is beneficial for the field of crowd monitoring regarding the detection of crowd movement.

  18. The Effects of Family Size, Birth Order, Sibling Separation and Crowding on the Academic Achievement of Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Ena Vazquez; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Family constellation variables such as family size, birth order, spacing of children, and crowding were significantly associated with academic achievement when IQ was controlled. The effects of family constellation variables were found to be sex specific. (RC)

  19. Dialogue Police, Decision Making, and the Management of Public Order During Protest Crowd Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorringe, Hugo; Stott, Clifford; Rosie, Michael

    2012-01-01

    making and enhanced police proportionality. The subsequent impact upon crowd dynamics allowed for an improved capacity for proactive public order management, encouraged ‘self-regulation’ in the crowd, and avoided the unnecessary police use of force at moments of tension. The implications of the analysis......Following the major riots within England in August 2011, the efficacy of public order police decision making was brought into a sharp focus. None the less, the reform of this mode of policing within the UK was already underway with a strong emphasis upon policing through consent and the need...... in the north of England. This paper draws out lessons to be learned from what proved to be a highly successful dialogue-based approach to policing protests. We contend that dialogue and liaison were effective because they allowed for an ongoing dynamic risk assessment that improved command-level decision...

  20. Crowd density estimation based on convolutional neural networks with mixed pooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zheng, Hong; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Dongming

    2017-09-01

    Crowd density estimation is an important topic in the fields of machine learning and video surveillance. Existing methods do not provide satisfactory classification accuracy; moreover, they have difficulty in adapting to complex scenes. Therefore, we propose a method based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The proposed method improves performance of crowd density estimation in two key ways. First, we propose a feature pooling method named mixed pooling to regularize the CNNs. It replaces deterministic pooling operations with a parameter that, by studying the algorithm, could combine the conventional max pooling with average pooling methods. Second, we present a classification strategy, in which an image is divided into two cells and respectively categorized. The proposed approach was evaluated on three datasets: two ground truth image sequences and the University of California, San Diego, anomaly detection dataset. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach performs more effectively and easily than other methods.