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Sample records for stress-tolerance gm traits

  1. Soybean GmPHD-type transcription regulators improve stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

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    Wei Wei

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is one of the most important crops for oil and protein resource. Improvement of stress tolerance will be beneficial for soybean seed production.Six GmPHD genes encoding Alfin1-type PHD finger protein were identified and their expressions differentially responded to drought, salt, cold and ABA treatments. The six GmPHDs were nuclear proteins and showed ability to bind the cis-element "GTGGAG". The N-terminal domain of GmPHD played a major role in DNA binding. Using a protoplast assay system, we find that GmPHD1 to GmPHD5 had transcriptional suppression activity whereas GmPHD6 did not have. In yeast assay, the GmPHD6 can form homodimer and heterodimer with the other GmPHDs except GmPHD2. The N-terminal plus the variable regions but not the PHD-finger is required for the dimerization. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the GmPHD2 showed salt tolerance when compared with the wild type plants. This tolerance was likely achieved by diminishing the oxidative stress through regulation of downstream genes.These results provide important clues for soybean stress tolerance through manipulation of PHD-type transcription regulator.

  2. Phenotypic landscape of non-conventional yeast species for different stress tolerance traits desirable in bioethanol fermentation.

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    Mukherjee, Vaskar; Radecka, Dorota; Aerts, Guido; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Lievens, Bart; Thevelein, Johan M

    2017-01-01

    Non-conventional yeasts present a huge, yet barely exploited, resource of yeast biodiversity for industrial applications. This presents a great opportunity to explore alternative ethanol-fermenting yeasts that are more adapted to some of the stress factors present in the harsh environmental conditions in second-generation (2G) bioethanol fermentation. Extremely tolerant yeast species are interesting candidates to investigate the underlying tolerance mechanisms and to identify genes that when transferred to existing industrial strains could help to design more stress-tolerant cell factories. For this purpose, we performed a high-throughput phenotypic evaluation of a large collection of non-conventional yeast species to identify the tolerance limits of the different yeast species for desirable stress tolerance traits in 2G bioethanol production. Next, 12 multi-tolerant strains were selected and used in fermentations under different stressful conditions. Five strains out of which, showing desirable fermentation characteristics, were then evaluated in small-scale, semi-anaerobic fermentations with lignocellulose hydrolysates. Our results revealed the phenotypic landscape of many non-conventional yeast species which have not been previously characterized for tolerance to stress conditions relevant for bioethanol production. This has identified for each stress condition evaluated several extremely tolerant non- Saccharomyces yeasts. It also revealed multi-tolerance in several yeast species, which makes those species good candidates to investigate the molecular basis of a robust general stress tolerance. The results showed that some non-conventional yeast species have similar or even better fermentation efficiency compared to S. cerevisiae in the presence of certain stressful conditions. Prior to this study, our knowledge on extreme stress-tolerant phenotypes in non-conventional yeasts was limited to only few species. Our work has now revealed in a systematic way the

  3. PERSONALITY TRAITS RELATED TO "STRESS TOLERANCE" AS DETERMINANTS OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT.

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    KUETHE, JAMES L.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS INVESTIGATION WAS TO ISOLATE PERSONALITY TRAITS THAT ARE RELATED TO ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT INDEPENDENT OF CORRELATIONS WITH INTELLECTUAL CAPACITY AS MEASURED BY THE SCHOLASTIC APTITUDE TEST, ACADEMIC RANK AS A HIGH SCHOOL SENIOR, AND TEACHER RECOMMENDATIONS. THIS RESEARCH CENTERED ON THE CAPACITY OF THE INDIVIDUAL COLLEGE…

  4. Sow line differences in heat stress tolerance expressed in reproductive performance traits

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    Bloemhof, S.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Merks, J.W.M.; Knol, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to investigate if there were differences in the relation between temperature and reproductive performance traits in 2 different sow lines, a Yorkshire line producing mainly in temperate climates and a Large White line producing mainly in warm climates, and 2) to

  5. Salt and cadmium stress tolerance caused by overexpression of the Glycine Max Na+/H+ Antiporter (GmNHX1) gene in duckweed (Lemna turionifera 5511).

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    Yang, Lin; Han, Yujie; Wu, Di; Yong, Wang; Liu, Miaomiao; Wang, Sutong; Liu, Wenxin; Lu, Meiyi; Wei, Ying; Sun, Jinsheng

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution has aroused increasing attention due to its toxicity. It has been proved that Na + /H + Antiporter (NHX1) encodes a well-documented protein in Na + /H + trafficking, which leads to salt tolerance. This study showed that Glycine max Na + /H + Antiporter (GmNHX1) improved short-term cadmium and salt resistance in Lemna turionifera 5511. Expression of GmNHX1 prevented root from abscission and cell membrane damage, which also can enhance antioxidant system, inhibited of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and cause a less absorption of Cd under cadmium and salt stress. The cadmium tolerance suggested that NHX1 was involved under the cadmium stress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. GM trees with increased resistance to herbivores: trait efficiency and their potential to promote tree growth

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    Joakim eHjältén

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, as well as a more intensive forestry, is expected to increase the risk of damage by pests and pathogens on trees, which can already be a severe problem in tree plantations. Recent development of biotechnology theoretically allows for resistance enhancement that could help reduce these risks but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of benefits and tradeoffs with pest resistant GM (genetically modified trees. We synthesized the current knowledge on the effectiveness of GM forest trees with increased resistance to herbivores. There is ample evidence that induction of exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis genes reduce performance of target pests whereas upregulation of endogenous resistance traits e.g. phenolics, generates variable results. Our review identified very few studies estimating the realized benefits in tree growth of GM trees in the field. This is concerning as the realized benefit with insect resistant GM plants seems to be context-dependent and likely manifested only if herbivore pressure is sufficiently high. Future studies of secondary pest species and resistance evolution in pest to GM trees should be prioritized. But most importantly we need more long-term field tests to evaluate the benefits and risks with pest resistant GM trees.

  7. Ectopic phytocystatin expression leads to enhanced drought stress tolerance in soybean (Glycine max) and Arabidopsis thaliana through effects on strigolactone pathways and can also result in improved seed traits.

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    Quain, Marian D; Makgopa, Matome E; Márquez-García, Belén; Comadira, Gloria; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Olmos, Enrique; Schnaubelt, Daniel; Kunert, Karl J; Foyer, Christine H

    2014-09-01

    Ectopic cystatin expression has long been used in plant pest management, but the cysteine protease, targets of these inhibitors, might also have important functions in the control of plant lifespan and stress tolerance that remain poorly characterized. We therefore characterized the effects of expression of the rice cystatin, oryzacystatin-I (OCI), on the growth, development and stress tolerance of crop (soybean) and model (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. Ectopic OCI expression in soybean enhanced shoot branching and leaf chlorophyll accumulation at later stages of vegetative development and enhanced seed protein contents and decreased the abundance of mRNAs encoding strigolactone synthesis enzymes. The OCI-expressing A. thaliana showed a slow-growth phenotype, with increased leaf numbers and enhanced shoot branching at flowering. The OCI-dependent inhibition of cysteine proteases enhanced drought tolerance in soybean and A. thaliana, photosynthetic CO2 assimilation being much less sensitive to drought-induced inhibition in the OCI-expressing soybean lines. Ectopic OCI expression or treatment with the cysteine protease inhibitor E64 increased lateral root densities in A. thaliana. E64 treatment also increased lateral root densities in the max2-1 mutants that are defective in strigolactone signalling, but not in the max3-9 mutants that are defective in strigolactone synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that OCI-inhibited cysteine proteases participate in the control of growth and stress tolerance through effects on strigolactones. We conclude that cysteine proteases are important targets for manipulation of plant growth, development and stress tolerance, and also seed quality traits. © 2014 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Advances in improvement of stress tolerance by induced mutation and genetic transformation in alfalfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xin; Ye Hongxia; Shu Xiaoli; Wu Dianxing

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide references for stress-tolerant breeding of alfalfa, genetic basis of stress-tolerant traits was briefly introduced and advanced in improvement of stress-tolerance by induced mutation and genetic transformation in alfalfa were reviewed. (authors)

  9. Recent advances in utilizing transcription factors to improve plant abiotic stress tolerance by transgenic technology

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    Hongyan eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production and quality are adversely affected by various abiotic stresses worldwide and this will be exacerbated by the deterioration of global climate. To feed a growing world population, it is very urgent to breed stress-tolerant crops with higher yields and improved qualities against multiple environmental stresses. Since conventional breeding approaches had marginal success due to the complexity of stress tolerance traits, the transgenic approach is now being popularly used to breed stress-tolerant crops. So identifying and characterizing the the critical genes involved in plant stress responses is an essential prerequisite for engineering stress-tolerant crops. Far beyond the manipulation of single functional gene, engineering certain regulatory genes has emerged as an effective strategy now for controlling the expression of many stress-responsive genes. Transcription factors (TFs are good candidates for genetic engineering to breed stress-tolerant crop because of their role as master regulators of many stress-responsive genes. Many TFs belonging to families AP2/EREBP, MYB, WRKY, NAC, bZIP have been found to be involved in various abiotic stresses and some TF genes have also been engineered to improve stress tolerance in model and crop plants. In this review, we take five large families of TFs as examples and review the recent progress of TFs involved in plant abiotic stress responses and their potential utilization to improve multiple stress tolerance of crops in the field conditions.

  10. AFLP marker linked to water-stress-tolerant bulks in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

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    A. Altinkut

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP assay is an efficient method for the identification of molecular markers, useful in the improvement of numerous crop species. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA was used to identify AFLP markers associated with water-stress tolerance in barley, as this would permit rapid selection of water-stress tolerant genotypes in breeding programs. AFLP markers linked to water-stress tolerance was identified in two DNA pools (tolerant and sensitive, which were established using selected F2 individuals resulting from a cross between water-stress-tolerant and sensitive barley parental genotypes, based on their paraquat (PQ tolerance, leaf size, and relative water content (RWC. All these three traits were previously shown to be associated with water-stress tolerance in segregating F2 progeny of the barley cross used in a previous study. AFLP analysis was then performed on these DNA pools, using 40 primer pairs to detect AFLP fragments that are present/absent, respectively, in the two pools and their parental lines. One separate AFLP fragment, which was present in the tolerant parent and in the tolerant bulk, but absent in the sensitive parent and in the sensitive bulk, was identified. Polymorphism of the AFLP marker was tested among tolerant and sensitive F2 individuals. The presence of this marker that is associated with water-stress tolerance will greatly enhance selection for paraquat and water-stress tolerant genotypes in future breeding programs.

  11. RNA-seq analysis of unintended effects in transgenic wheat overexpressing the transcription factor GmDREB1

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    Qiyan Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The engineering of plants with enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses typically involves complex multigene networks and may therefore have a greater potential to introduce unintended effects than the genetic modification for simple monogenic traits. For this reason, it is essential to study the unintended effects in transgenic plants engineered for stress tolerance. We selected drought- and salt-tolerant transgenic wheat overexpressing the transcription factor, GmDREB1, to investigate unintended pleiotropic effects using RNA-seq analysis. We compared the transcriptome alteration of transgenic plants with that of wild-type plants subjected to salt stress as a control. We found that GmDREB1 overexpression had a minimal impact on gene expression under normal conditions. GmDREB1 overexpression resulted in transcriptional reprogramming of the salt response, but many of the genes with differential expression are known to mitigate salt stress and contribute incrementally to the enhanced stress tolerance of transgenic wheat. GmDREB1 overexpression did not activate unintended gene networks with respect to gene expression in the roots of transgenic wheat. This work is important for establishing a method of detecting unintended effects of genetic engineering and the safety of such traits with the development of marketable transgenic crops in the near future.

  12. Assessment of stress tolerance, productivity, and forage quality in T1 transgenic alfalfa co-overexpressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 from Zygophyllum xanthoxylum

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    Peng Kang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salinization, desertification, and soil nutrient deprivation are threatening the production of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in northern China. We have previously generated T0 transgenic alfalfa co-overexpressing Zygophyllum xanthoxylum ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 genes with enhanced salt and drought tolerance. To further develop this excellent breeding material into the new forage cultivar, stress tolerance, productivity, and forage quality of T1 transgenic alfalfa (GM were assessed in this study. The GM inherited the traits of salt and drought tolerance from T0 generation. Most importantly, co-overexpression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 enhanced the tolerance to Pi deficiency in GM, which was associated with more Pi accumulation in plants. Meanwhile, T1 transgenic alfalfa developed a larger root system with increased root size, root dry weight and root/shoot ratio, which may be one important reason for the improvement of phosphorus nutrition and high biomass accumulation in GM under various conditions. GM also accumulated more crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat, and crude ash than wild-type (WT plants, especially under stress conditions and in the field. More interestingly, the crude fat contents sharply dropped in WT (by 66%-74%, whereas showed no change or decreased less in GM, when subjected to salinity, drought or low-Pi. Our results indicate that T1 transgenic alfalfa co-overexpressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 shows stronger stress tolerance, higher productivity and better forage quality. This study provides a solid foundation for creating the alfalfa cultivars with high yield, good quality and wide adaptability on saline, dry and nutrient-deprived marginal lands of northern China.

  13. Assessment of Stress Tolerance, Productivity, and Forage Quality in T1 Transgenic Alfalfa Co-overexpressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 from Zygophyllum xanthoxylum

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    Kang, Peng; Bao, Ai-Ke; Kumar, Tanweer; Pan, Ya-Qing; Bao, Zhulatai; Wang, Fei; Wang, Suo-Min

    2016-01-01

    Salinization, desertification, and soil nutrient deprivation are threatening the production of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in northern China. We have previously generated T0 transgenic alfalfa co-overexpressing Zygophyllum xanthoxylum ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 genes with enhanced salt and drought tolerance. To further develop this excellent breeding material into the new forage cultivar, stress tolerance, productivity, and forage quality of T1 transgenic alfalfa (GM) were assessed in this study. The GM inherited the traits of salt and drought tolerance from T0 generation. Most importantly, co-overexpression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 enhanced the tolerance to Pi deficiency in GM, which was associated with more Pi accumulation in plants. Meanwhile, T1 transgenic alfalfa developed a larger root system with increased root size, root dry weight and root/shoot ratio, which may be one important reason for the improvement of phosphorus nutrition and high biomass accumulation in GM under various conditions. GM also accumulated more crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, and crude ash than wild-type (WT) plants, especially under stress conditions and in the field. More interestingly, the crude fat contents sharply dropped in WT (by 66-74%), whereas showed no change or decreased less in GM, when subjected to salinity, drought or low-Pi. Our results indicate that T1 transgenic alfalfa co-overexpressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 shows stronger stress tolerance, higher productivity and better forage quality. This study provides a solid foundation for creating the alfalfa cultivars with high yield, good quality and wide adaptability on saline, dry, and nutrient-deprived marginal lands of northern China. PMID:27833624

  14. Ayurvedic Amalaki Rasayana promotes improved stress tolerance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-15

    Oct 15, 2016 ... [Dwivedi V and Lakhotia SC 2016 Ayurvedic Amalaki Rasayana promotes improved stress tolerance and thus has anti-aging effects in Drosophila melanogaster. J. Biosci. 1. Introduction. The ancient Ayurvedic literature as available today does not elaborate the bases and mechanisms of actions of.

  15. Microbial stress tolerance for biofuels. Systems biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zonglin Lewis (ed.) [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA-ARS, Peoria, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The development of sustainable and renewable biofuels is attracting growing interest. It is vital to develop robust microbial strains for biocatalysts that are able to function under multiple stress conditions. This Microbiology Monograph provides an overview of methods for studying microbial stress tolerance for biofuels applications using a systems biology approach. Topics covered range from mechanisms to methodology for yeast and bacteria, including the genomics of yeast tolerance and detoxification; genetics and regulation of glycogen and trehalose metabolism; programmed cell death; high gravity fermentations; ethanol tolerance; improving biomass sugar utilization by engineered Saccharomyces; the genomics on tolerance of Zymomonas mobilis; microbial solvent tolerance; control of stress tolerance in bacterial host organisms; metabolomics for ethanologenic yeast; automated proteomics work cell systems for strain improvement; and unification of gene expression data for comparable analyses under stress conditions. (orig.)

  16. In vitro screening of potato genotypes for osmotic stress tolerance

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    Gelmesa Dandena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is a cool season crop which is susceptible to both drought and heat stresses. Lack of suitable varieties of the crop adapted to drought-prone areas of the lowland tropics deprives farmers living in such areas the opportunity to produce and use the crop as a source of food and income. As a step towards developing such varieties, the present research was conducted to evaluate different potato genotypes for osmotic stress tolerance under in vitro conditions and identify drought tolerant genotypes for future field evaluation. The experiment was carried out at the Leibniz University of Hannover, Germany, by inducing osmotic stress using sorbitol at two concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 M in the culture medium. A total of 43 genotypes collected from different sources (27 advanced clones from CIP, nine improved varieties, and seven farmers’ cultivars were used in a completely randomized design with four replications in two rounds. Data were collected on root and shoot growth. The results revealed that the main effects of genotype, sorbitol treatment, and their interactions significantly (P < 0.01 influenced root and shoot growthrelated traits. Under osmotic stress, all the measured root and shoot growth traits were significantly correlated. The dendrogram obtained from the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean allowed grouping of the genotypes into tolerant, moderately tolerant, and susceptible ones to a sorbitol concentration of 0.2 M in the culture medium. Five advanced clones (CIP304350.100, CIP304405.47, CIP392745.7, CIP388676.1, and CIP388615.22 produced shoots and rooted earlier than all other genotypes, with higher root numbers, root length, shoot and root mass under osmotic stress conditions induced by sorbitol. Some of these genotypes had been previously identified as drought-tolerant under field conditions, suggesting the capacity of the in vitro evaluation method to predict drought stress tolerant

  17. OsSUV3 functions in cadmium and zinc stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv IR64).

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    Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Protein of nuclear encoded SUV3 (suppressor of Var 3) gene is a DNA and RNA helicase, localized in mitochondria and is a subunit of the degradosome complex involved in regulation of RNA surveillance and turnover. To overcome the abiotic stress-induced loss of crop yield, a multi-stress tolerant trait is required. Beside salinity stress the heavy metals including cadmium and zinc also affect the yield and quality of food crops. Since rice is a one of the staple food therefore it is important to develop a multi-stress including salinity and metal tolerant variety. Recently we have reported the role of OsSUV3 in salinity stress tolerance in rice; however, its role in metal stress has not been studied so far. Here we report that in response to cadmium and zinc stress the OsSUV3 transcript level is induced in rice and its overexpression in transgenic IR64 rice plants confers the metal stress tolerance. In addition to its previously reported role in salinity stress tolerance, this study further shows the role of OsSUV3 helicase in cadmium and zinc stress tolerance suggesting its involvement in multi-stress tolerance.

  18. Age-related Decline of Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Young Drosophila melanogaster Adults.

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    Colinet, Hervé; Chertemps, Thomas; Boulogne, Isabelle; Siaussat, David

    2016-12-01

    Stress tolerance generally declines with age as a result of functional senescence. Age-dependent alteration of stress tolerance can also occur in early adult life. In Drosophila melanogaster, evidence of such a decline in young adults has only been reported for thermotolerance. It is not known whether early adult life entails a general stress tolerance reduction and whether the response is peculiar to thermal traits. The present work was designed to investigate whether newly eclosed D melanogaster adults present a high tolerance to a range of biotic and abiotic insults. We found that tolerance to most of the abiotic stressors tested (desiccation, paraquat, hydrogen peroxide, deltamethrin, and malathion) was high in newly eclosed adults before dramatically declining over the next days of adult life. No clear age-related pattern was found for resistance to biotic stress (septic or fungal infection) and starvation. These results suggest that newly eclosed adults present a culminating level of tolerance to extrinsic stress which is likely unrelated to immune process. We argue that stress tolerance variation at very young age is likely a residual attribute from the previous life stage (ontogenetic carryover) or a feature related to the posteclosion development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Safety aspects of genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance

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    Liang, C.; Prins, T.W.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Kok, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stress, such as drought, salinity, and temperature extremes, significantly reduce crop yields. Hence, development of abiotic stress-tolerant crops by modern biotechnology may contribute to global food security. Prior to introducing genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance to

  20. Osmotic stress tolerance in semi-terrestrial tardigrades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Nanna W T; Smith, Daniel K.; Hygum, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about ionic and osmotic stress tolerance in tardigrades. Here, we examine salt stress tolerance in Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri and Echiniscus testudo from Nivå (Denmark) and address whether limno-terrestrial tardigrades can enter a state of quiescence (osmobiosis) in the face of hig...... that the limno-terrestrial R. oberhaeuseri enters a state of quiescence in the face of high external osmotic pressure and that it, in this state, is highly tolerant of ionic and osmotic stress.......Little is known about ionic and osmotic stress tolerance in tardigrades. Here, we examine salt stress tolerance in Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri and Echiniscus testudo from Nivå (Denmark) and address whether limno-terrestrial tardigrades can enter a state of quiescence (osmobiosis) in the face of high...

  1. Ectopic expression of specific GA2 oxidase mutants promotes yield and stress tolerance in rice.

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    Lo, Shuen-Fang; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Liu, Yi-Lun; Jiang, Mirng-Jier; Hsieh, Kun-Ting; Chen, Ku-Ting; Yu, Lin-Chih; Lee, Miin-Huey; Chen, Chi-Yu; Huang, Tzu-Pi; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Yu, Su-May

    2017-07-01

    A major challenge of modern agricultural biotechnology is the optimization of plant architecture for enhanced productivity, stress tolerance and water use efficiency (WUE). To optimize plant height and tillering that directly link to grain yield in cereals and are known to be tightly regulated by gibberellins (GAs), we attenuated the endogenous levels of GAs in rice via its degradation. GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) is a key enzyme that inactivates endogenous GAs and their precursors. We identified three conserved domains in a unique class of C 20 GA2ox, GA2ox6, which is known to regulate the architecture and function of rice plants. We mutated nine specific amino acids in these conserved domains and observed a gradient of effects on plant height. Ectopic expression of some of these GA2ox6 mutants moderately lowered GA levels and reprogrammed transcriptional networks, leading to reduced plant height, more productive tillers, expanded root system, higher WUE and photosynthesis rate, and elevated abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in transgenic rice. Combinations of these beneficial traits conferred not only drought and disease tolerance but also increased grain yield by 10-30% in field trials. Our studies hold the promise of manipulating GA levels to substantially improve plant architecture, stress tolerance and grain yield in rice and possibly in other major crops. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Linking salinity stress tolerance with tissue-specific Na+ sequestration in wheat roots

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    Honghong eWu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress tolerance is a physiologically complex trait that is conferred by the large array of interacting mechanisms. Among these, vacuolar Na+ sequestration has always been considered as one of the key components differentiating between sensitive and tolerant species and genotypes. However, vacuolar Na+ sequestration has been rarely considered in the context of the tissue-specific expression and regulation of appropriate transporters contributing to Na+ removal from the cytosol. In this work, six bread wheat varieties contrasting in their salinity tolerance (three tolerant and three sensitive were used to understand the essentiality of vacuolar Na+ sequestration between functionally different root tissues, and link it with the overall salinity stress tolerance in this species. Roots of 4-d old wheat seedlings were treated with 100 mM NaCl for 3 days, and then Na+ distribution between cytosol and vacuole was quantified by CoroNa Green fluorescent dye imaging. Our major observations were as follows: 1 salinity stress tolerance correlated positively with vacuolar Na+ sequestration ability in the mature root zone but not in the root apex; 2 Contrary to expectations, cytosolic Na+ levels in root meristem were significantly higher in salt tolerant than sensitive group, while vacuolar Na+ levels showed an opposite trend. These results are interpreted as meristem cells playing a role of the salt sensor; 3 No significant difference in the vacuolar Na+ sequestration ability was found between sensitive and tolerant group in either transition or elongation zones; 4 The overall Na+ accumulation was highest in the elongation zone, suggesting its role in osmotic adjustment and turgor maintenance required to drive root expansion growth. Overall, the reported results suggest high tissue-specificity of Na+ uptake, signalling, and sequestration in wheat root. The implications of these findings for plant breeding for salinity stress tolerance are discussed.

  3. Ayurvedic Amalaki Rasayana promotes improved stress tolerance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amalaki Rasayana (AR) is a common Ayurvedic herbal formulation of Phyllanthus emblica fruits and some otheringredients, and is used for general good health and healthy aging. We reported it to improve life history traits and tosuppress neurodegeneration as well as induced apoptosis in Drosophila. The present study ...

  4. Ayurvedic Amalaki Rasayana promotes improved stress tolerance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amalaki Rasayana (AR) is a common Ayurvedic herbal formulation of Phyllanthus emblica fruits and some otheringredients, and is used for general good health and healthy aging. We reported it to improve life history traits and tosuppress neurodegeneration as well as induced apoptosis in Drosophila. The present study ...

  5. Grafting improves cucumber water stress tolerance in Saudi Arabia

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    Abdulaziz R. Al-Harbi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is a major limiting factor for crop productivity in arid and semi-arid areas. Grafting elite commercial cultivars onto selected vigorous rootstocks is considered as a useful strategy to alleviate the impact of environmental stresses. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of using grafting to improve fruit yield and quality of cucumber under water stress conditions. Alosama F1 cucumber cultivar (Cucumis sativus L. was grafted onto Affyne (Cucumis sativus L. and Shintoza A90 (Cucurbitamaxima × C. moschata rootstocks. Non-grafted plants were used as control. All genotypes were grown under three surface drip irrigation regimes: 50%, 75% and 100% of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc, which represent high-water stress, moderate-water stress and non-water stress conditions, respectively. Yield and fruit quality traits were analyzed and assessed. In comparison to the non-grafted plants, the best grafting treatment under water stress was Alosama F1 grafted onto Shintoza A90 rootstock. It had an overall improved yield and fruit quality under water stress owing to an increase in the total fruit yield by 27%, from 4.815 kg plant−1 in non-grafted treatment to 6.149 kg plant−1 in grafted treatment under moderate -water stress, total soluble solid contents (13%, titratable acidity (39% and vitamin C (33%. The soil water contents were low in soil surface and increase gradually with soil depth, while salt distribution showed an adverse trend. The positive effects of grafting on plant growth, productivity, and water use efficiency support this strategy as an useful tool for improving water stress tolerance in greenhouse grown cucumber in Saudi Arabia.

  6. Advances in functional genomics for investigating salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in cereals

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    Megan C Shelden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as low water availability and high salinity are major causes of cereal crop yield losses and significantly impact on sustainability. Wheat and barley are two of the most important cereal crops (after maize and rice and are grown in increasingly hostile environments with soil salinity and drought both expected to increase this century, reducing the availability of arable land. Barley and wheat are classified as glycophytes (salt-sensitive, yet they are more salt-tolerant than other cereal crops such as rice and so are good models for studying salt-tolerance in cereals. The exploitation of genetic variation of phenotypic traits through plant breeding could significantly improve growth of cereals in salinity-affected regions, thus leading to improved crop yields. Genetic variation in phenotypic traits for abiotic stress tolerance have been identified in land races and wild germplasm but the molecular basis of these differences is often difficult to determine due to the complex genetic nature of these species. High-throughput functional genomics technologies, such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics and ionomics are powerful tools for investigating the molecular responses of plants to abiotic stress. The advancement of these technologies has allowed for the identification and quantification of transcript /metabolites in specific cell types and/or tissues. Using these new technologies on plants will provide a powerful tool to uncovering genetic traits in more complex species such as wheat and barley and provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of salinity stress tolerance.

  7. Advances in functional genomics for investigating salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Megan C; Roessner, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as low water availability and high salinity are major causes of cereal crop yield losses and significantly impact on sustainability. Wheat and barley are two of the most important cereal crops (after maize and rice) and are grown in increasingly hostile environments with soil salinity and drought both expected to increase this century, reducing the availability of arable land. Barley and wheat are classified as glycophytes (salt-sensitive), yet they are more salt-tolerant than other cereal crops such as rice and so are good models for studying salt tolerance in cereals. The exploitation of genetic variation of phenotypic traits through plant breeding could significantly improve growth of cereals in salinity-affected regions, thus leading to improved crop yields. Genetic variation in phenotypic traits for abiotic stress tolerance have been identified in land races and wild germplasm but the molecular basis of these differences is often difficult to determine due to the complex genetic nature of these species. High-throughput functional genomics technologies, such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and ionomics are powerful tools for investigating the molecular responses of plants to abiotic stress. The advancement of these technologies has allowed for the identification and quantification of transcript/metabolites in specific cell types and/or tissues. Using these new technologies on plants will provide a powerful tool to uncovering genetic traits in more complex species such as wheat and barley and provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of salinity stress tolerance.

  8. Polyamines Function in Stress Tolerance: From Synthesis to Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hong eLiu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants are challenged by a variety of biotic or abiotic stresses, which can affect their growth and development, productivity and geographic distribution. In order to survive adverse environmental conditions, plants have evolved various adaptive strategies, among which is the accumulation of metabolites that play protective roles. A well-established example of the metabolites that are involved in stress responses, or stress tolerance, is the low-molecular-weight aliphatic polyamines, including putrescine,spermidine and spermine. The critical role of polyamines in stress tolerance is suggested by several lines of evidence: firstly, the transcript levels of polyamine biosynthetic genes, as well as the activities of the corresponding enzymes, are induced by stresses; secondly, elevation of endogenous polyamine levels by exogenous supply of polyamines, or overexpression of polyamine biosynthetic genes, results in enhanced stress tolerance; and thirdly, a reduction of endogenous polyamines is accompanied by compromised stress tolerance. A number of studies have demonstrated that polyamines function in stress tolerance largely by modulating the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS due to their direct, or indirect, roles in regulating antioxidant systems or suppressing ROS production. The transcriptional regulation of polyamine synthesis by transcription factors is also reviewed here. Meanwhile, future perspectives on polyamine research are also suggested.

  9. Breeding approaches in simultaneous selection for multiple stress tolerance of maize in tropical environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denić M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the principal crop and major staple food in the most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. However, due to the influence of abiotic and biotic stress factors, maize production faces serious constraints. Among the agro-ecological conditions, the main constraints are: lack and poor distribution of rainfall; low soil fertility; diseases (maize streak virus, downy mildew, leaf blights, rusts, gray leaf spot, stem/cob rots and pests (borers and storage pests. Among the socio-economic production constraints are: poor economy, serious shortage of trained manpower; insufficient management expertise, lack of use of improved varieties and poor cultivation practices. To develop desirable varieties, and thus consequently alleviate some of these constraints, appropriate breeding approaches and field-based methodologies in selection for multiple stress tolerance, were implemented. These approaches are mainly based on: a Crossing selected genotypes with more desirable stress tolerant and other agronomic traits; b Using the disease/pest spreader row method, combined with testing and selection of created progenies under strong to intermediate pressure of drought and low soil fertility in nurseries; and c Evaluation of the varieties developed in multi-location trials under low and "normal" inputs. These approaches provide testing and selection of large number of progenies, which is required for simultaneous selection for multiple stress tolerance. Data obtained revealed that remarkable improvement of the traits under selection was achieved. Biggest progress was obtained in selection for maize streak virus and downy mildew resistance, flintiness and earliness. In the case of drought stress, statistical analyses revealed significant negative correlation between yield and anthesis-silking interval, and between yield and days to silk, but positive correlation between yield and grain weight per ear.

  10. Improvement of Salinity Stress Tolerance in Rice: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi My Linh Hoang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is an important staple crop that feeds more than one half of the world’s population and is the model system for monocotyledonous plants. However, rice is very sensitive to salinity and is the most salt sensitive cereal crop with a threshold of 3 dSm−1 for most cultivated varieties. Despite many attempts using different strategies to improve salinity tolerance in rice, the achievements so far are quite modest. This review aims to discuss challenges that hinder the improvement of salinity stress tolerance in rice as well as potential opportunities for enhancing salinity stress tolerance in this important crop.

  11. Investigation of stress tolerance of endoglucanases of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ugochukwu Anieto

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... Full Length Research Paper. Investigation of stress tolerance of endoglucanases of the cellulosomes of Clostridium cellulolyticum to ethanol. Ugochukwu Anieto. Biological Sciences Department, University of North Texas, Denton Texas 76203, USA. Received 16 February, 2015; Accepted 17 June, 2015.

  12. Genetic diversity analysis of stress tolerant rice ( Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity analysis of stress tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L.) A S M Faridul Islam, M Raihan Ali, Glenn B Gregorio, M Rafiqul Islam. Abstract. Fourteen rice genotypes, composed of six salt tolerant, three submergence tolerant, two drought tolerant genotypes along with three high yielding genotypes, released from ...

  13. Screening of drought oxidative stress tolerance in Serbian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to examine and compare antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities of leaves of six different melliferous plant species (Populus alba, Robinia pseudoacacia, Sophora japonica, Euodia hupehensis, Tilia sp., Fraxinus sp.) from Serbia in order to evaluate their drought oxidative stress tolerance.

  14. Crop wild relatives of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]: Distributions, ex situ conservation status, and potential genetic resources for abiotic stress tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoury, C.K.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Sosa, C.C.; Bernau, V.; Kassa, M.T.; Norton, S.L.; Maesen, L.; Upadhyaya, H.D.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Jarvis, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is a versatile, stress-tolerant, and nutritious grain legume, possessing traits of value for enhancing the sustainability of dry sub-tropical and tropical agricultural systems. The use of crop wild relatives (CWR) in pigeonpea breeding has been successful in

  15. ATG18 and FAB1 are involved in dehydration stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Gema; Margalef-Català, Mar; Salinas, Francisco; Liti, Gianni; Cordero-Otero, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, different dehydration-based technologies have been evaluated for the purpose of cell and tissue preservation. Although some early results have been promising, they have not satisfied the requirements for large-scale applications. The long experience of using quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be a good model organism for studying the link between complex phenotypes and DNA variations. Here, we use QTL analysis as a tool for identifying the specific yeast traits involved in dehydration stress tolerance. Three hybrids obtained from stable haploids and sequenced in the Saccharomyces Genome Resequencing Project showed intermediate dehydration tolerance in most cases. The dehydration resistance trait of 96 segregants from each hybrid was quantified. A smooth, continuous distribution of the anhydrobiosis tolerance trait was found, suggesting that this trait is determined by multiple QTLs. Therefore, we carried out a QTL analysis to identify the determinants of this dehydration tolerance trait at the genomic level. Among the genes identified after reciprocal hemizygosity assays, RSM22, ATG18 and DBR1 had not been referenced in previous studies. We report new phenotypes for these genes using a previously validated test. Finally, our data illustrates the power of this approach in the investigation of the complex cell dehydration phenotype.

  16. Genome sequencing of four Aureobasidium pullulans varieties: biotechnological potential, stress tolerance, and description of new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostinčar, Cene; Ohm, Robin A; Kogej, Tina; Sonjak, Silva; Turk, Martina; Zajc, Janja; Zalar, Polona; Grube, Martin; Sun, Hui; Han, James; Sharma, Aditi; Chiniquy, Jennifer; Ngan, Chew Yee; Lipzen, Anna; Barry, Kerrie; Grigoriev, Igor V; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2014-07-01

    Aureobasidium pullulans is a black-yeast-like fungus used for production of the polysaccharide pullulan and the antimycotic aureobasidin A, and as a biocontrol agent in agriculture. It can cause opportunistic human infections, and it inhabits various extreme environments. To promote the understanding of these traits, we performed de-novo genome sequencing of the four varieties of A. pullulans. The 25.43-29.62 Mb genomes of these four varieties of A. pullulans encode between 10266 and 11866 predicted proteins. Their genomes encode most of the enzyme families involved in degradation of plant material and many sugar transporters, and they have genes possibly associated with degradation of plastic and aromatic compounds. Proteins believed to be involved in the synthesis of pullulan and siderophores, but not of aureobasidin A, are predicted. Putative stress-tolerance genes include several aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins, large numbers of alkali-metal cation transporters, genes for the synthesis of compatible solutes and melanin, all of the components of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway, and bacteriorhodopsin-like proteins. All of these genomes contain a homothallic mating-type locus. The differences between these four varieties of A. pullulans are large enough to justify their redefinition as separate species: A. pullulans, A. melanogenum, A. subglaciale and A. namibiae. The redundancy observed in several gene families can be linked to the nutritional versatility of these species and their particular stress tolerance. The availability of the genome sequences of the four Aureobasidium species should improve their biotechnological exploitation and promote our understanding of their stress-tolerance mechanisms, diverse lifestyles, and pathogenic potential.

  17. Stable expression of mtlD gene imparts multiple stress tolerance in finger millet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanna Hema

    Full Text Available Finger millet is susceptible to abiotic stresses, especially drought and salinity stress, in the field during seed germination and early stages of seedling development. Therefore developing stress tolerant finger millet plants combating drought, salinity and associated oxidative stress in these two growth stages is important. Cellular protection through osmotic adjustment and efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. Mannitol, an osmolyte, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses and thereby minimize stress damage in several plant species. In this study transgenic finger millet plants expressing the mannitol biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria, mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (mtlD, were developed through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. mtlD gene integration in the putative transgenic plants was confirmed by Southern blot. Further, performance of transgenic finger millet under drought, salinity and oxidative stress was studied at plant level in T1 generation and in T1 and T2 generation seedlings. Results from these experiments showed that transgenic finger millet had better growth under drought and salinity stress compared to wild-type. At plant level, transgenic plants showed better osmotic adjustment and chlorophyll retention under drought stress compared to the wild-type. However, the overall increase in stress tolerance of transgenics for the three stresses, especially for oxidative stress, was only marginal compared to other mtlD gene expressing plant species reported in the literature. Moreover, the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol developed for finger millet in this study can be used to introduce diverse traits of agronomic importance in finger millet.

  18. Stable Expression of mtlD Gene Imparts Multiple Stress Tolerance in Finger Millet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, Ramanna; Vemanna, Ramu S.; Sreeramulu, Shivakumar; Reddy, Chandrasekhara P.; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Udayakumar, Makarla

    2014-01-01

    Finger millet is susceptible to abiotic stresses, especially drought and salinity stress, in the field during seed germination and early stages of seedling development. Therefore developing stress tolerant finger millet plants combating drought, salinity and associated oxidative stress in these two growth stages is important. Cellular protection through osmotic adjustment and efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. Mannitol, an osmolyte, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses and thereby minimize stress damage in several plant species. In this study transgenic finger millet plants expressing the mannitol biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria, mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (mtlD), were developed through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. mtlD gene integration in the putative transgenic plants was confirmed by Southern blot. Further, performance of transgenic finger millet under drought, salinity and oxidative stress was studied at plant level in T1 generation and in T1 and T2 generation seedlings. Results from these experiments showed that transgenic finger millet had better growth under drought and salinity stress compared to wild-type. At plant level, transgenic plants showed better osmotic adjustment and chlorophyll retention under drought stress compared to the wild-type. However, the overall increase in stress tolerance of transgenics for the three stresses, especially for oxidative stress, was only marginal compared to other mtlD gene expressing plant species reported in the literature. Moreover, the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol developed for finger millet in this study can be used to introduce diverse traits of agronomic importance in finger millet. PMID:24922513

  19. Halophytes: Potential Resources for Salt Stress Tolerance Genes and Promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Avinash; Tanna, Bhakti

    2017-01-01

    Halophytes have demonstrated their capability to thrive under extremely saline conditions and thus considered as one of the best germplasm for saline agriculture. Salinity is a worldwide problem, and the salt-affected areas are increasing day-by-day because of scanty rainfall, poor irrigation system, salt ingression, water contamination, and other environmental factors. The salinity stress tolerance mechanism is a very complex phenomenon, and some pathways are coordinately linked for imparting salinity tolerance. Though a number of salt responsive genes have been reported from the halophytes, there is always a quest for promising stress-responsive genes that can modulate plant physiology according to the salt stress. Halophytes such as Aeluropus, Mesembryanthemum, Suaeda, Atriplex, Thellungiella, Cakile , and Salicornia serve as a potential candidate for the salt-responsive genes and promoters. Several known genes like antiporters ( NHX, SOS, HKT, VTPase ), ion channels (Cl - , Ca 2+ , aquaporins), antioxidant encoding genes ( APX, CAT, GST, BADH, SOD ) and some novel genes such as USP, SDR1, SRP etc. were isolated from halophytes and explored for developing stress tolerance in the crop plants (glycophytes). It is evidenced that stress triggers salt sensors that lead to the activation of stress tolerance mechanisms which involve multiple signaling proteins, up- or down-regulation of several genes, and finally the distinctive or collective effects of stress-responsive genes. In this review, halophytes are discussed as an excellent platform for salt responsive genes which can be utilized for developing salinity tolerance in crop plants through genetic engineering.

  20. Halophytes: Potential Resources for Salt Stress Tolerance Genes and Promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Mishra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes have demonstrated their capability to thrive under extremely saline conditions and thus considered as one of the best germplasm for saline agriculture. Salinity is a worldwide problem, and the salt-affected areas are increasing day-by-day because of scanty rainfall, poor irrigation system, salt ingression, water contamination, and other environmental factors. The salinity stress tolerance mechanism is a very complex phenomenon, and some pathways are coordinately linked for imparting salinity tolerance. Though a number of salt responsive genes have been reported from the halophytes, there is always a quest for promising stress-responsive genes that can modulate plant physiology according to the salt stress. Halophytes such as Aeluropus, Mesembryanthemum, Suaeda, Atriplex, Thellungiella, Cakile, and Salicornia serve as a potential candidate for the salt-responsive genes and promoters. Several known genes like antiporters (NHX, SOS, HKT, VTPase, ion channels (Cl−, Ca2+, aquaporins, antioxidant encoding genes (APX, CAT, GST, BADH, SOD and some novel genes such as USP, SDR1, SRP etc. were isolated from halophytes and explored for developing stress tolerance in the crop plants (glycophytes. It is evidenced that stress triggers salt sensors that lead to the activation of stress tolerance mechanisms which involve multiple signaling proteins, up- or down-regulation of several genes, and finally the distinctive or collective effects of stress-responsive genes. In this review, halophytes are discussed as an excellent platform for salt responsive genes which can be utilized for developing salinity tolerance in crop plants through genetic engineering.

  1. Overexpression of CaTLP1, a putative transcription factor in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), promotes stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhan, Vijay; Jahan, Kishwer; Gupta, Sonika; Chennareddy, Srinivasarao; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2012-07-01

    Dehydration is the most crucial environmental constraint on plant growth and development, and agricultural productivity. To understand the underlying mechanism of stress tolerance, and to identify proteins for improving such important trait, we screened the dehydration-responsive proteome of chickpea and identified a tubby-like protein, referred to as CaTLP1. The CaTLP1 was found to predominantly bind to double-stranded DNA but incapable of transcriptional activation. We investigated the gene structure and organization and demonstrated, for the first time, that CaTLP1 may be involved in osmotic stress response in plants. The transcripts are strongly expressed in vegetative tissues but weakly in reproductive tissues. CaTLP1 is upregulated by dehydration and high salinity, and by treatment with abscisic acid (ABA), suggesting that its stress-responsive function might be associated with ABA-dependent network. Overexpression of CaTLP1 in transgenic tobacco plants conferred dehydration, salinity and oxidative stress tolerance along with improved shoot and root architecture. Molecular genetic analysis showed differential expression of CaTLP1 under normal and stress condition, and its preferential expression in the nucleus might be associated with enhanced stress tolerance. Our work suggests important roles of CaTLP1 in stress response as well as in the regulation of plant development.

  2. Pectin methylesterase31 positively regulates salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jingwei; He, Huan; Fang, Lin; Zhang, Aying

    2018-02-05

    The alteration of cell wall component and structure is an important adaption to saline environment. Pectins, a major cell wall component, are often present in a highly methylesterified form. The level of methyl esterification determined by pectin methylesterases (PMEs) influences many important wall properties that are believed to relate to the adaption to saline stress. However, little is known about the function of PMEs in response to salt stress. Here, we established a link between pectin methylesterase31 (PME31) and salt stress tolerance. Salt stress significantly increases PME31 expression. PME31 is located in the plasma membrane and the expression level of PME31 was high in dry seeds. Knock-down mutants in PME31 conferred hypersensitive phenotypes to salt stress in seed germination and post-germination growth. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of several stress genes (DREB2A, RD29A and RD29B) are lower in pme31-2 mutant than that in the wild type in response to salt stress. These results suggested that PME31 could positively modulate salt stress tolerance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Salt stress tolerance of cucumber-grafted rootstocks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-Rong; Liu, Shu-Ren; Liu, Chao-Jie; Tian, Jing

    2012-05-01

    Taking 4 different Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata rootstocks for cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as test materials, a solution culture experiment was conducted to study their growth and antioxidative enzyme activities under the stresses of Ca(NO3)2 and NaCl, with the salt stress tolerance of the rootstocks evaluated by subordinate function. At 30 mmol x L(-1) of Ca (NO3)2 or 45 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl, the growth of the rootstock seedlings was improved; but at 60 and 120 mmol x L(-1) of Ca(NO3)2 or 90 and 180 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl, the growth and the antioxidative systems of the seedlings were inhibited, and the salt injury index of 'Qingzhen No. 1' was the smallest, with the decrement of biomass and SOD, POD and CAT activities and the increment of relative conductance being significantly lower than those of the others. Under the stress of high concentration Ca(NO3)2, the SOD, POD and CAT activities of test rootstocks were higher, and the salt injury index and relative conductance were lower, as compared with those under high concentration NaCl, suggesting that the damage of Ca(NO3)2 stress to cucumber-grafted rootstock were smaller than that of NaCl stress. Among the 4 rootstocks, 'Qingzhen No. 1' had the strongest salt stress tolerance, followed by 'Zuomu Nangua', 'Fengyuan Tiejia', and 'Chaoba Nangua'.

  4. Emmental Cheese Environment Enhances Propionibacterium freudenreichii Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnaire, Valérie; Jardin, Julien; Rabah, Houem; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Jan, Gwénaël

    2015-01-01

    Dairy propionibacteria are actinomycetales found in various fermented food products. The main species, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is generally recognized as safe and used both as probiotic and as cheese starter. Its probiotic efficacy tightly depends on its tolerance towards digestive stresses, which can be largely modulated by the ingested delivery vehicle. Indeed, tolerance of this bacterium is enhanced when it is consumed within a fermented dairy product, compared to a dried probiotic preparation. We investigated both stress tolerance and protein neosynthesis upon growth in i) chemically defined or ii) aqueous phase of Emmental cheeses. Although the same final population level was reached in both media, a slower growth and an enhanced survival of CIRM BIA 1 strain of P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii was observed in Emmental juice, compared to chemically defined medium. This was accompanied by differences in substrates used and products released as well as overexpression of various early stress adaptation proteins in Emmental juice, compared to chemically defined medium, implied in protein folding, in aspartate catabolism, in biosynthesis of valine, leucine and isoleucine, in pyruvate metabolism in citrate cycle, in the propionate metabolism, as well as in oxidoreductases. All these changes led to a higher digestive stress tolerance after growth in Emmental juice. Mechanisms of stress adaptation were induced in this environment, in accordance with enhanced survival. This opens perspectives for the use of hard and semi-hard cheeses as delivery vehicle for probiotics with enhanced efficacy.

  5. Emmental Cheese Environment Enhances Propionibacterium freudenreichii Stress Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Gagnaire

    Full Text Available Dairy propionibacteria are actinomycetales found in various fermented food products. The main species, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is generally recognized as safe and used both as probiotic and as cheese starter. Its probiotic efficacy tightly depends on its tolerance towards digestive stresses, which can be largely modulated by the ingested delivery vehicle. Indeed, tolerance of this bacterium is enhanced when it is consumed within a fermented dairy product, compared to a dried probiotic preparation. We investigated both stress tolerance and protein neosynthesis upon growth in i chemically defined or ii aqueous phase of Emmental cheeses. Although the same final population level was reached in both media, a slower growth and an enhanced survival of CIRM BIA 1 strain of P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii was observed in Emmental juice, compared to chemically defined medium. This was accompanied by differences in substrates used and products released as well as overexpression of various early stress adaptation proteins in Emmental juice, compared to chemically defined medium, implied in protein folding, in aspartate catabolism, in biosynthesis of valine, leucine and isoleucine, in pyruvate metabolism in citrate cycle, in the propionate metabolism, as well as in oxidoreductases. All these changes led to a higher digestive stress tolerance after growth in Emmental juice. Mechanisms of stress adaptation were induced in this environment, in accordance with enhanced survival. This opens perspectives for the use of hard and semi-hard cheeses as delivery vehicle for probiotics with enhanced efficacy.

  6. Stress tolerance and growth physiology of yeast strains from the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Bianca, B E; Gombert, A K

    2013-12-01

    Improved biofuels production requires a better understanding of industrial microorganisms. Some wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from the fuel ethanol industry in Brazil, present exceptional fermentation performance, persistence and prevalence in the harsh industrial environment. Nevertheless, their physiology has not yet been systematically investigated. Here we present a first systematic evaluation of the widely used industrial strains PE-2, CAT-1, BG-1 and JP1, in terms of their tolerance towards process-related stressors. We also analyzed their growth physiology under heat stress. These strains were evaluated in parallel to laboratory and baker's strains. Whereas the industrial strains performed in general better than the laboratory strains under ethanol or acetic acid stresses and on industrial media, high sugar stress was tolerated equally by all strains. Heat and low pH stresses clearly distinguished fuel ethanol strains from the others, indicating that these conditions might be the ones that mostly exert selective pressure on cells in the industrial environment. During shake-flask cultivations using a synthetic medium at 37 °C, industrial strains presented higher ethanol yields on glucose than the laboratory strains, indicating that they could have been selected for this trait-a response to energy-demanding fermentation conditions. These results might be useful to guide future improvements of large-scale fuel ethanol production via engineering of stress tolerance traits in other strains, and eventually also for promoting the use of these fuel ethanol strains in different industrial bioprocesses.

  7. Piriformospora indica: Potential and Significance in Plant Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sarvajeet S.; Gill, Ritu; Trivedi, Dipesh K.; Anjum, Naser A.; Sharma, Krishna K.; Ansari, Mohammed W.; Ansari, Abid A.; Johri, Atul K.; Prasad, Ram; Pereira, Eduarda; Varma, Ajit; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Owing to its exceptional ability to efficiently promote plant growth, protection and stress tolerance, a mycorrhiza like endophytic Agaricomycetes fungus Piriformospora indica has received a great attention over the last few decades. P. indica is an axenically cultiviable fungus which exhibits its versatility for colonizing/hosting a broad range of plant species through directly manipulating plant hormone-signaling pathway during the course of mutualism. P. indica-root colonization leads to a better plant performance in all respect, including enhanced root proliferation by indole-3-acetic acid production which in turn results into better nutrient-acquisition and subsequently to improved crop growth and productivity. Additionally, P. indica can induce both local and systemic resistance to fungal and viral plant diseases through signal transduction. P. indica-mediated stimulation in antioxidant defense system components and expressing stress-related genes can confer crop/plant stress tolerance. Therefore, P. indica can biotize micropropagated plantlets and also help these plants to overcome transplantation shock. Nevertheless, it can also be involved in a more complex symbiotic relationship, such as tripartite symbiosis and can enhance population dynamic of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. In brief, P. indica can be utilized as a plant promoter, bio-fertilizer, bioprotector, bioregulator, and biotization agent. The outcome of the recent literature appraised herein will help us to understand the physiological and molecular bases of mechanisms underlying P. indica-crop plant mutual relationship. Together, the discussion will be functional to comprehend the usefulness of crop plant-P. indica association in both achieving new insights into crop protection/improvement as well as in sustainable agriculture production. PMID:27047458

  8. Nitrogen nutrition and drought hardening exert opposite effects on the stress tolerance of Pinus pinea L. seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Salvador, Pedro; Peñuelas, Juan L; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2013-02-01

    Functional attributes determine the survival and growth of planted seedlings in reforestation projects. Nitrogen (N) and water are important resources in the cultivation of forest species, which have a strong effect on plant functional traits. We analyzed the influence of N nutrition on drought acclimation of Pinus pinea L. seedlings. Specifically, we addressed if high N fertilization reduces drought and frost tolerance of seedlings and whether drought hardening reverses the effect of high N fertilization on stress tolerance. Seedlings were grown under two N fertilization regimes (6 and 100 mg N per plant) and subjected to three drought-hardening levels (well-watered, moderate and strong hardening). Water relations, gas exchange, frost damage, N concentration and growth at the end of the drought-hardening period, and survival and growth of seedlings under controlled xeric and mesic outplanting conditions were measured. Relative to low-N plants, high-N plants were larger, had higher stomatal conductance (27%), residual transpiration (11%) and new root growth capacity and closed stomata at higher water potential. However, high N fertilization also increased frost damage (24%) and decreased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (9%). Drought hardening reversed to a great extent the reduction in stress tolerance caused by high N fertilization as it decreased frost damage, stomatal conductance and residual transpiration by 21, 31 and 24%, respectively, and increased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (8%). Drought hardening increased tissue non-structural carbohydrates and N concentration, especially in high-fertilized plants. Frost damage was positively related to the stability of plasmalemma to dehydration (r = 0.92) and both traits were negatively related to the concentration of reducing soluble sugars. No differences existed between moderate and strong drought-hardening treatments. Neither N nutrition nor drought hardening had any clear effect on seedling

  9. Genetic engineering strategies for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and quality enhancement in horticultural crops: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Nehanjali; Singh, Kunwar Harendra; Sharma, Deepika; Singh, Lal; Kumar, Pankaj; Nanjundan, J; Khan, Yasin Jeshima; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar; Thakur, Ajay Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Genetic engineering technique offers myriads of applications in improvement of horticultural crops for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and produce quality enhancement. During last two decades, a large number of transgenic horticultural crops has been developed and more are underway. A number of genes including natural and synthetic Cry genes, protease inhibitors, trypsin inhibitors and cystatin genes have been used to incorporate insect and nematode resistance. For providing protection against fungal and bacterial diseases, various genes like chitinase, glucanase, osmotin, defensin and pathogenesis-related genes are being transferred to many horticultural crops world over. RNAi technique has been found quite successful in inducing virus resistance in horticultural crops in addition to coat protein genes. Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat and salinity adversely affect production and productivity of horticultural crops and a number of genes encoding for biosynthesis of stress protecting compounds including mannitol, glycine betaine and heat shock proteins have been employed for abiotic stress tolerance besides various transcription factors like DREB1, MAPK, WRKY, etc. Antisense gene and RNAi technologies have revolutionized the pace of improvement of horticultural crops, particularly ornamentals for color modification, increasing shelf-life and reducing post-harvest losses. Precise genome editing tools, particularly CRISPR/Cas9, have been efficiently applied in tomato, petunia, citrus, grape, potato and apple for gene mutation, repression, activation and epigenome editing. This review provides comprehensive overview to draw the attention of researchers for better understanding of genetic engineering advancements in imparting biotic and abiotic stress tolerance as well as on improving various traits related to quality, texture, plant architecture modification, increasing shelf-life, etc. in different horticultural crops.

  10. Stress tolerant virulent strains of Cronobacter sakazakii from food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Fakruddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cronobacter sakazakii is considered as an emerging foodborne pathogen. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize virulent strains of Cronobacter sakazakii from food samples of Bangladesh. RESULT: Six (6 Cronobacter sakazakii was isolated and identified from 54 food samples on the basis of biochemical characteristics, sugar fermentation, SDS-PAGE of whole cell protein, plasmid profile and PCR of Cronobacter spp. specific genes (esak, gluA, zpx, ompA, ERIC, BOX-AIR and sequencing. These strains were found to have moderately high antibiotic resistance against common antibiotics and some are ESBL producer. Most of the C. sakazakii isolates were capable of producing biofilm (strong biofilm producer, extracellular protease and siderophores, curli expression, haemolysin, haemagglutinin, mannose resistant haemagglutinin, had high cell surface hydrophobicity, significant resistance to human serum, can tolerate high concentration of salt, bile and DNase production. Most of them produced enterotoxins of different molecular weight. The isolates pose significant serological cross-reactivity with other gram negative pathogens such as serotypes of Salmonella spp., Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri and Vibrio cholerae. They had significant tolerance to high temperature, low pH, dryness and osmotic stress. CONCLUSION: Special attention should be given in ensuring hygiene in production and post-processing to prevent contamination of food with such stress-tolerant virulent Cronobacter sakazakii.

  11. Acclimation improves salt stress tolerance in Zea mays plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Camilla; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-08-20

    Plants exposure to low level salinity activates an array of processes leading to an improvement of plant stress tolerance. Although the beneficial effect of acclimation was demonstrated in many herbaceous species, underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. In the present study we have addressed this issue by investigating ionic mechanisms underlying the process of plant acclimation to salinity stress in Zea mays. Effect of acclimation were examined in two parallel sets of experiments: a growth experiment for agronomic assessments, sap analysis, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, and confocal laser scanning imaging; and a lab experiment for in vivo ion flux measurements from root tissues. Being exposed to salinity, acclimated plants (1) retain more K(+) but accumulate less Na(+) in roots; (2) have better vacuolar Na(+) sequestration ability in leaves and thus are capable of accumulating larger amounts of Na(+) in the shoot without having any detrimental effect on leaf photochemistry; and (3) rely more on Na(+) for osmotic adjustment in the shoot. At the same time, acclimation affect was not related in increased root Na(+) exclusion ability. It appears that even in a such salt-sensitive species as maize, Na(+) exclusion from uptake is of a much less importance compared with the efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration in the shoot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Utilization of genes encoding osmoprotectants in transgenic plants for enhanced abiotic stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayyar Khan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global agriculture in the context of growing and expanding populations is under huge pressure to provide increased food, feed, and fiber. The recent phenomenon of climate change has further added fuel to the fire. It has been practically established now that the global temperature has been on the increase with associated fluctuations in annual rainfall regimes, and the resultant drought and flood events and increasing soil and water salinization. These challenges would be met with the introduction and utilization of new technologies coupled with conventional approaches. In recent years, transgenic technology has been proved very effective in terms of production of improved varieties of crop plants, resistant to biotic stresses. The abiotic stresses such as salt and drought are more complex traits, controlled by many genes. Transgenic plant development for these stresses has utilized many single genes. However, much emphasis has been placed on genes catalyzing the biosynthetic pathways of osmoprotectants. This review focuses on the current status of research on osmoprotectant genes and their role in abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic plants.

  13. RATIO FEATURES OF STRESS TOLERANCE AND ANXIETY IN MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Mikheeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the ratio of stress tolerance to the level of personal anxiety. It provides a definition of the term “stress tolerance”, analyzes the concept of the “disquietude” and the “anxiety”: how different authors define these phenomena, what is different and what is in common. The concepts of “personal anxiety” and “situational anxiety” are given consideration. The views of foreign and domestic authors on anxiety as a factor that contributes to stress, as well as its components are discussed. An overview of the methods of measuring stress and anxiety is provided: a stress questionnaire of S.V. Subbotin, anxiety scale of Spielberger - Hanin. The results of domestic and foreign research on the identification of correlations between the variables of stress tolerance and anxiety are analyzed. We also consider the results of our own research, conducted on a sample of 149 men and 142 women in 2015-2016 years in Moscow. The results of four subgroups of the respondents are reviewed: men with high stress tolerance, men with low stress tolerance, women with high stress tolerance, and women with low stress tolerance. In each of the subgroups the variables of reactive and personal anxiety and connections between indicators of anxiety and indicators of stress tolerance are analyzed; the conclusions about the relationship of stress and anxiety in each subgroup are drawn.

  14. RgpF Is Required for Maintenance of Stress Tolerance and Virulence in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, C J; Faustoferri, R C; Quivey, R G

    2017-12-15

    Bacterial cell wall dynamics have been implicated as important determinants of cellular physiology, stress tolerance, and virulence. In Streptococcus mutans , the cell wall is composed primarily of a rhamnose-glucose polysaccharide (RGP) linked to the peptidoglycan. Despite extensive studies describing its formation and composition, the potential roles for RGP in S. mutans biology have not been well investigated. The present study characterizes the impact of RGP disruption as a result of the deletion of rgpF , the gene encoding a rhamnosyltransferase involved in the construction of the core polyrhamnose backbone of RGP. The Δ rgpF mutant strain displayed an overall reduced fitness compared to the wild type, with heightened sensitivities to various stress-inducing culture conditions and an inability to tolerate acid challenge. The loss of rgpF caused a perturbation of membrane-associated functions known to be critical for aciduricity, a hallmark of S. mutans acid tolerance. The proton gradient across the membrane was disrupted, and the Δ rgpF mutant strain was unable to induce activity of the F 1 F o ATPase in cultures grown under low-pH conditions. Further, the virulence potential of S. mutans was also drastically reduced following the deletion of rgpF The Δ rgpF mutant strain produced significantly less robust biofilms, indicating an impairment in its ability to adhere to hydroxyapatite surfaces. Additionally, the Δ rgpF mutant lost competitive fitness against oral peroxigenic streptococci, and it displayed significantly attenuated virulence in an in vivo Galleria mellonella infection model. Collectively, these results highlight a critical function of the RGP in the maintenance of overall stress tolerance and virulence traits in S. mutans IMPORTANCE The cell wall of Streptococcus mutans , the bacterium most commonly associated with tooth decay, is abundant in rhamnose-glucose polysaccharides (RGP). While these structures are antigenically distinct to S. mutans

  15. Abiotic stress tolerance: from gene discovery in model organisms to crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Ray; Bohnert, Hans; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2009-01-01

    Productive and sustainable agriculture necessitates growing plants in sub-optimal environments with less input of precious resources such as fresh water. For a better understanding and rapid improvement of abiotic stress tolerance, it is important to link physiological and biochemical work to molecular studies in genetically tractable model organisms. With the use of several technologies for the discovery of stress tolerance genes and their appropriate alleles, transgenic approaches to improving stress tolerance in crops remarkably parallels breeding principles with a greatly expanded germplasm base and will succeed eventually.

  16. Roles of Soybean Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Protein GmPIP2;9 in Drought Tolerance and Seed Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghong Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins play an essential role in water uptake and transport in vascular plants. The soybean genome contains a total of 22 plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP genes. To identify candidate PIPs important for soybean yield and stress tolerance, we studied the transcript levels of all 22 soybean PIPs. We found that a GmPIP2 subfamily member, GmPIP2;9, was predominately expressed in roots and developing seeds. Here, we show that GmPIP2;9 localized to the plasma membrane and had high water channel activity when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Using transgenic soybean plants expressing a native GmPIP2;9 promoter driving a GUS-reporter gene, it was found high GUS expression in the roots, in particular, in the endoderm, pericycle, and vascular tissues of the roots of transgenic plants. In addition, GmPIP2;9 was also highly expressed in developing pods. GmPIP2;9 expression significantly increased in short term of polyethylene glycol (PEG-mediated drought stress treatment. GmPIP2;9 overexpression increased tolerance to drought stress in both solution cultures and soil plots. Drought stress in combination with GmPIP2;9 overexpression increased net CO2 assimilation of photosynthesis, stomata conductance, and transpiration rate, suggesting that GmPIP2;9-overexpressing transgenic plants were less stressed than wild-type (WT plants. Furthermore, field experiments showed that GmPIP2;9-overexpressing plants had significantly more pod numbers and larger seed sizes than WT plants. In summary, the study demonstrated that GmPIP2;9 has water transport activity. Its relative high expression levels in roots and developing pods are in agreement with the phenotypes of GmPIP2;9-overexpressing plants in drought stress tolerance and seed development.

  17. Overexpression of VOZ2 confers biotic stress tolerance but decreases abiotic stress resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Sumire; Kubo, Yasuyuki; Sato, Masa H

    2013-03-01

    VOZ (vascular plant one zinc-finger protein) is a plant specific one-zinc finger type transcriptional activator, which is highly conserved through land plant evolution. We have previously shown that loss-of-function mutations in VOZ1 and VOZ2 showed increased cold and drought stress tolerances whereas decreased biotic stress resistance in Arabidopsis. Here, we demonstrate that transgenic plants overexpressing VOZ2 impairs freezing and drought stress tolerances but increases resistance to a fungal pathogen, Colletoricum higginsianum. Consistent with changes in the tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, the expression of marker genes for these stresses is significantly altered compared with those of the wild-type plant. These results indicate that a overexpression of VOZ2 confers biotic stress tolerance but impairs abiotic stress tolerances in Arabidopsis.

  18. Abiotic Stress Tolerance: From Gene Discovery in Model Organisms to Crop Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Bressan, Ray; Bohnert, Hans; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2009-01-01

    Productive and sustainable agriculture necessitates growing plants in sub-optimal environments with less input of precious resources such as fresh water. For a better understanding and rapid improvement of abiotic stress tolerance, it is important to link physiological and biochemical work to molecular studies in genetically tractable model organisms. With the use of several technologies for the discovery of stress tolerance genes and their appropriate alleles, transgenic approaches to improv...

  19. GM Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Penny A. C.

    GM risk assessments play an important role in the decision-making process surrounding the regulation, notification and permission to handle Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Ultimately the role of a GM risk assessment will be to ensure the safe handling and containment of the GMO; and to assess any potential impacts on the environment and human health. A risk assessment should answer all ‘what if’ scenarios, based on scientific evidence.

  20. Genetically modified plants for salinity stress tolerance (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopory, S.K.; Singia-Pareek, S.I.; Kumar, S.; Rajgopal, D.; Aggarwal, P.; Kumar, D.; Reddy, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Several recent reports have indicated that the area under salinity is on the increase and currently very few genotypes of important crop plants are available for cultivation under these conditions. In this regard, identification of novel stress responsive genes and transgenic approach offers an important strategy to develop salt tolerant plants. Using an efficient PCR-based cDNA subtraction method a large number of genes upregulated under salinity and dehydration stress have been identified also in rice and Pennisetum. Functional analysis of some of these genes is being done using transgenic approach. Earlier, we reported on the role of one of the stress regulated genes, glyoxalse I in conferring salinity tolerance. We now show that by manipulating the expression of both the genes of the glyoxalse pathway, glyoxalse I and II together, the ability of the double transgenic plants to tolerate salinity stress is greatly enhanced as compared to the single transgenic plants harbouring either the glyoxalse I or glyoxalse II. The cDNA for glyoxalse II was cloned from rice and mobilized into pCAMBIA vector having hptII gene as the selection marker. The seedlings of the T1 generation transgenic plants survived better under high salinity compared to the wild type plants; the double transgenics had higher limits of tolerance as compared to the lines transformed with single gene. A similar trend was seen even when plants were grown in pots under glass house conditions and raised to maturity under the continued presence of NaCl. In this, the transgenic plants were able to grow, flower and set seeds. The overexpression of glyoxalse pathway was also found to confer stress tolerance in rice. We have also isolated a gene encoding vacuolar sodium/proton antiporter from Pennisetum and over expressed in Brassica juncea and rice. The transgenic plants were able to tolerate salinity stress. Our work along with many others' indicates the potential of transgenic technology in developing

  1. Benefits and costs of biologically contained GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.; Ansink, E.; van de Wiel, C.; Wesseler, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM) crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent

  2. Cell-Based Phenotyping Reveals QTL for Membrane Potential Maintenance Associated with Hypoxia and Salinity Stress Tolerance in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad B. Gill

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Waterlogging and salinity are two major abiotic stresses that hamper crop production world-wide resulting in multibillion losses. Plant abiotic stress tolerance is conferred by many interrelated mechanisms. Amongst these, the cell’s ability to maintain membrane potential (MP is considered to be amongst the most crucial traits, a positive relationship between the ability of plants to maintain highly negative MP and its tolerance to both salinity and waterlogging stress. However, no attempts have been made to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL conferring this trait. In this study, the microelectrode MIFE technique was used to measure the plasma membrane potential of epidermal root cells of 150 double haploid (DH lines of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. from a cross between a Chinese landrace TX9425 and Japanese malting cultivar Naso Nijo under hypoxic conditions. A major QTL for the MP in the epidermal root cells in hypoxia-exposed plants was identified. This QTL was located on 2H, at a similar position to the QTL for waterlogging and salinity tolerance reported in previous studies. Further analysis confirmed that MP showed a significant contribution to both waterlogging and salinity tolerance. The fact that the QTL for MP was controlled by a single major QTL illustrates the power of the single-cell phenotyping approach and opens prospects for fine mapping this QTL and thus being more effective in marker assisted selection.

  3. Safety of GM crops: compositional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Philip D; Culler, Angela Hendrickson; Ridley, William P; Walker, Kate

    2013-09-04

    The compositional analysis of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to be an important part of the overall evaluation in the safety assessment program for these materials. The variety and complexity of genetically engineered traits and modes of action that will be used in GM crops in the near future, as well as our expanded knowledge of compositional variability and factors that can affect composition, raise questions about compositional analysis and how it should be applied to evaluate the safety of traits. The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), a nonprofit foundation whose mission is to provide science that improves public health and well-being by fostering collaboration among experts from academia, government, and industry, convened a workshop in September 2012 to examine these and related questions, and a series of papers has been assembled to describe the outcomes of that meeting.

  4. The Formation of GM-free and GM Coasean Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten J.; Wesseler, Justus

    2018-01-01

    The unintended presence of traces of genetically modified (GM) crops in the harvests of non-GM crops plays a prominent role in the debate over the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. One way to address the issue is the formation of GM-free or GM-only clubs. We model the decisions of individual...... farmers to cultivate either GM or non-GM crops and combine this with a game theoretic model of club formation to investigate the feasibility of such clubs. We consider two liability regimes: GM farmers are liable or they are not.We consider two benchmarks: Nash equilibrium without negotiations...... and the efficient allocation and compare those with partial co-operation through a Coasean club. We find that in both regimes a relatively large club can form but they are not always necessary to reach the efficient allocation. In fact, if farmers can freely decide under profit maximisation what to cultivate...

  5. Stress Tolerance Variations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains from Diverse Ecological Sources and Geographical Locations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin Zheng

    Full Text Available The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a platform organism for bioethanol production from various feedstocks and robust strains are desirable for efficient fermentation because yeast cells inevitably encounter stressors during the process. Recently, diverse S. cerevisiae lineages were identified, which provided novel resources for understanding stress tolerance variations and related shaping factors in the yeast. This study characterized the tolerance of diverse S. cerevisiae strains to the stressors of high ethanol concentrations, temperature shocks, and osmotic stress. The results showed that the isolates from human-associated environments overall presented a higher level of stress tolerance compared with those from forests spared anthropogenic influences. Statistical analyses indicated that the variations of stress tolerance were significantly correlated with both ecological sources and geographical locations of the strains. This study provides guidelines for selection of robust S. cerevisiae strains for bioethanol production from nature.

  6. Stress Tolerance Variations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains from Diverse Ecological Sources and Geographical Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan-Lin; Wang, Shi-An

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a platform organism for bioethanol production from various feedstocks and robust strains are desirable for efficient fermentation because yeast cells inevitably encounter stressors during the process. Recently, diverse S. cerevisiae lineages were identified, which provided novel resources for understanding stress tolerance variations and related shaping factors in the yeast. This study characterized the tolerance of diverse S. cerevisiae strains to the stressors of high ethanol concentrations, temperature shocks, and osmotic stress. The results showed that the isolates from human-associated environments overall presented a higher level of stress tolerance compared with those from forests spared anthropogenic influences. Statistical analyses indicated that the variations of stress tolerance were significantly correlated with both ecological sources and geographical locations of the strains. This study provides guidelines for selection of robust S. cerevisiae strains for bioethanol production from nature.

  7. Regulatory roles of serotonin and melatonin in abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harmeet; Mukherjee, Soumya; Baluska, Frantisek; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the physiological and biochemical basis of abiotic stress tolerance in plants has always been one of the major aspects of research aiming to enhance plant productivity in arid and semi-arid cultivated lands all over the world. Growth of stress-tolerant transgenic crops and associated agricultural benefits through increased productivity, and related ethical issues, are also the major concerns of current research in various laboratories. Interesting data on the regulation of abiotic stress tolerance in plants by serotonin and melatonin has accumulated in the recent past. These two indoleamines possess antioxidative and growth-inducing properties, thus proving beneficial for stress acclimatization. Present review shall focus on the modes of serotonin and melatonin-induced regulation of abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Complex molecular interactions of serotonin and auxin-responsive genes have suggested their antagonistic nature. Data from genomic and metabolomic analyses of melatonin-induced abiotic stress signaling have lead to an understanding of the regulation of stress tolerance through the modulation of transcription factors, enzymes and various signaling molecules. Melatonin, nitric oxide (NO) and calmodulin interactions have provided new avenues for research on the molecular aspects of stress physiology in plants. Investigations on the characterization of receptors associated with serotonin and melatonin responses, are yet to be undertaken in plants. Patenting of biotechnological inventions pertaining to serotonin and melatonin formulations (through soil application or foliar spray) are expected to be some of the possible ways to regulate abiotic stress tolerance in plants. The present review, thus, summarizes the regulatory roles of serotonin and melatonin in modulating the signaling events accompanying abiotic stress in plants.

  8. Yeast functional screen to identify genetic determinants capable of conferring abiotic stress tolerance in Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar G Raja

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmentally inflicted stresses such as salinity and drought limit the plant productivity both in natural and agricultural system. Increasing emphasis has been directed to molecular breeding strategies to enhance the intrinsic ability of plant to survive stress conditions. Functional screens in microorganisms with heterologous genes are a rapid, effective and powerful tool to identify stress tolerant genes in plants. Jatropha curcas (Physic nut has been identified as a potential source of biodiesel plant. In order to improve its productivity under stress conditions to benefit commercial plantations, we initiated prospecting of novel genes expressed during stress in J. curcas that can be utilized to enhance stress tolerance ability of plant. Results To identify genes expressed during salt tolerance, cDNA expression libraries were constructed from salt-stressed roots of J. curcas, regulated under the control of the yeast GAL1 system. Using a replica based screening, twenty thousand yeast transformants were screened to identify transformants expressing heterologous gene sequences from J. curcas with enhanced ability to tolerate stress. From the screen we obtained 32 full length genes from J. curcas [GenBank accession numbers FJ489601-FJ489611, FJ619041-FJ619057 and FJ623457-FJ623460] that can confer abiotic stress tolerance. As a part of this screen, we optimized conditions for salt stress in J. curcas, defined parameters for salt stress in yeast, as well as isolated three salt hypersensitive yeast strains shs-2, shs-6 and shs-8 generated through a process of random mutagenesis, and exhibited growth retardation beyond 750 mM NaCl. Further, we demonstrated complementation of the salt sensitive phenotypes in the shs mutants, and analyzed the expression patterns for selected J. curcas genes obtained from the screen in both leaf and root tissues after salt stress treatments. Conclusions The approach described in this report

  9. Stress tolerance and ecophysiological ability of an invader and a native species in a seasonally dry tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marciel Teixeira; Matzek, Virginia; Dias Medeiros, Camila; Rivas, Rebeca; Falcão, Hiram Marinho; Santos, Mauro Guida

    2014-01-01

    Ecophysiological traits of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and a phylogenetically and ecologically similar native species, Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan, were studied to understand the invasive species' success in caatinga, a seasonally dry tropical forest ecosystem of the Brazilian Northeast. To determine if the invader exhibited a superior resource-capture or a resource-conservative strategy, we measured biophysical and biochemical parameters in both species during dry and wet months over the course of two years. The results show that P. juliflora benefits from a flexible strategy in which it frequently outperforms the native species in resource capture traits under favorable conditions (e.g., photosynthesis), while also showing better stress tolerance (e.g., antioxidant activity) and water-use efficiency in unfavorable conditions. In addition, across both seasons the invasive has the advantage over the native with higher chlorophyll/carotenoids and chlorophyll a/b ratios, percent N, and leaf protein. We conclude that Prosopis juliflora utilizes light, water and nutrients more efficiently than Anadenanthera colubrina, and suffers lower intensity oxidative stress in environments with reduced water availability and high light radiation.

  10. The impact of Genetically Modified (GM) crops in modern agriculture: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Ruchir

    2017-10-02

    Genetic modification in plants was first recorded 10,000 years ago in Southwest Asia where humans first bred plants through artificial selection and selective breeding. Since then, advancements in agriculture science and technology have brought about the current GM crop revolution. GM crops are promising to mitigate current and future problems in commercial agriculture, with proven case studies in Indian cotton and Australian canola. However, controversial studies such as the Monarch Butterfly study (1999) and the Séralini affair (2012) along with current problems linked to insect resistance and potential health risks have jeopardised its standing with the public and policymakers, even leading to full and partial bans in certain countries. Nevertheless, the current growth rate of the GM seed market at 9.83-10% CAGR along with promising research avenues in biofortification, precise DNA integration and stress tolerance have forecast it to bring productivity and prosperity to commercial agriculture.

  11. Governing the GM crop revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Paarlberg, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Will developing countries adopt policies that promote the planting of genetically modified (GM) crops, or will they select policies that slow the spread of the GM crop revolution? The evidence so far is mixed. In some prominent countries such as China, policies are in place that encourage the independent development and planting of GM crops. Yet in a number of other equally prominent countries the planting of GM crops is not yet officially approved. The inclination of developing countries to ...

  12. Labelling GM-free Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    . We asked them whether they produce ‘GM-free’ and to assess the ‘GM-free’ market in terms of (1) the current status, (2) potential benefits, (3) limitations and (4) risks. We find that smaller dairy companies mostly switch completely, whereas ‘GM-free’ production of larger dairy companies is often...

  13. Field Phenotyping of Soybean Roots for Drought Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu A. Fenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Root architecture was determined together with shoot parameters under well watered and drought conditions in the field in three soybean cultivars (A5409RG, Jackson and Prima 2000. Morphology parameters were used to classify the cultivars into different root phenotypes that could be important in conferring drought tolerance traits. A5409RG is a drought-sensitive cultivar with a shallow root phenotype and a root angle of <40°. In contrast, Jackson is a drought-escaping cultivar. It has a deep rooting phenotype with a root angle of >60°. Prima 2000 is an intermediate drought-tolerant cultivar with a root angle of 40°–60°. It has an intermediate root phenotype. Prima 2000 was the best performing cultivar under drought stress, having the greatest shoot biomass and grain yield under limited water availability. It had abundant root nodules even under drought conditions. A positive correlation was observed between nodule size, above-ground biomass and seed yield under well-watered and drought conditions. These findings demonstrate that root system phenotyping using markers that are easy-to-apply under field conditions can be used to determine genotypic differences in drought tolerance in soybean. The strong association between root and nodule parameters and whole plant productivity demonstrates the potential application of simple root phenotypic markers in screening for drought tolerance in soybean.

  14. Phytohormones and their metabolic engineering for abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabir H. Wani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses including drought, salinity, heat, cold, flooding, and ultraviolet radiation causes crop losses worldwide. In recent times, preventing these crop losses and producing more food and feed to meet the demands of ever-increasing human populations have gained unprecedented importance. However, the proportion of agricultural lands facing multiple abiotic stresses is expected only to rise under a changing global climate fueled by anthropogenic activities. Identifying the mechanisms developed and deployed by plants to counteract abiotic stresses and maintain their growth and survival under harsh conditions thus holds great significance. Recent investigations have shown that phytohormones, including the classical auxins, cytokinins, ethylene, and gibberellins, and newer members including brassinosteroids, jasmonates, and strigolactones may prove to be important metabolic engineering targets for producing abiotic stress-tolerant crop plants. In this review, we summarize and critically assess the roles that phytohormones play in plant growth and development and abiotic stress tolerance, besides their engineering for conferring abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic crops. We also describe recent successes in identifying the roles of phytohormones under stressful conditions. We conclude by describing the recent progress and future prospects including limitations and challenges of phytohormone engineering for inducing abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants.

  15. Unraveling the role of fungal symbionts in plant abiotic stress tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lamabam Peter

    2011-01-01

    Fungal symbionts have been found to be associated with every plant studied in the natural ecosystem, where they colonize and reside entirely or partially in the internal tissues of their host plant. Fungal endophytes can express/form a range of different lifestyle/relationships with different host including symbiotic, mutualistic, commensalistic and parasitic in response to host genotype and environmental factors. In mutualistic association fungal endophyte can enhance growth, increase reproductive success and confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to its host plant. Since abiotic stress such as, drought, high soil salinity, heat, cold, oxidative stress and heavy metal toxicity is the common adverse environmental conditions that affect and limit crop productivity worldwide. It may be a promising alternative strategy to exploit fungal endophytes to overcome the limitations to crop production brought by abiotic stress. There is an increasing interest in developing the potential biotechnological applications of fungal endophytes for improving plant stress tolerance and sustainable production of food crops. Here we have described the fungal symbioses, fungal symbionts and their role in abiotic stress tolerance. A putative mechanism of stress tolerance by symbionts has also been covered. PMID:21512319

  16. Quantifying the Impact of Physical Activity on Stress Tolerance in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Bigham, Lauren E.; Welle, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Stress experience by millennial college students can be crippling. While stress is a universal and unavoidable phenomenon for college students, the variance in ability to handle stress can be attributed to stress tolerance (Welle & Graf, 2011). Research is needed to identify effective tools that increase college students' ability to…

  17. Effect of tempol on redox homeostasis and stress tolerance in mimetically aged Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksu, Ugur; Yanar, Karolin; Terzioglu, Duygu; Erkol, Tugçe; Ece, Evrim; Aydin, Seval; Uslu, Ezel; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to test our hypothesis that scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) with tempol, a membrane permeable antioxidant, affects the type and magnitude of oxidative damage and stress tolerance through mimetic aging process in Drosophila. Drosophila colonies were randomly divided into three

  18. PDH45 overexpressing transgenic tobacco and rice plants provide salinity stress tolerance via less sodium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Manoj; Garg, Bharti; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress negatively affects the crop productivity worldwide, including that of rice. Coping with these losses is a major concern for all countries. The pea DNA helicase, PDH45 is a unique member of helicase family involved in the salinity stress tolerance. However, the exact mechanism of the PDH45 in salinity stress tolerance is yet to be established. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of PDH45-mediated salinity stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco and rice lines along with wild type (WT) plants using CoroNa Green dye based sodium localization in root and shoot sections. The results showed that under salinity stress root and shoot of PDH45 overexpressing transgenic tobacco and rice accumulated less sodium (Na(+)) as compared to their respective WT. The present study also reports salinity tolerant (FL478) and salinity susceptible (Pusa-44) varieties of rice accumulated lowest and highest Na(+) level, respectively. All the varieties and transgenic lines of rice accumulate differential Na(+) ions in root and shoot. However, roots accumulate high Na(+) as compared to the shoots in both tobacco and rice transgenic lines suggesting that the Na(+) transport in shoot is somehow inhibited. It is proposed that the PDH45 is probably involved in the deposition of apoplastic hydrophobic barriers and consequently inhibit Na(+) transport to shoot and therefore confers salinity stress tolerance to PDH45 overexpressing transgenic lines. This study concludes that tobacco (dicot) and rice (monocot) transgenic plants probably share common salinity tolerance mechanism mediated by PDH45 gene.

  19. The genome of the stress tolerant wild tomato species solanum pennellii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum pennellii is a wild tomato species endemic to Andean regions in South America, where it has evolved to thrive in arid habitats1. It exhibits extreme stress tolerance and introgression lines (ILs) in which large genomic regions of cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum) are replaced with the corr...

  20. Abiotic Stress Tolerance of Charophyte Green Algae: New Challenges for Omics Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Holzinger, Andreas; Pichrtov?, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Charophyte green algae are a paraphyletic group of freshwater and terrestrial green algae, comprising the classes of Chlorokybophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae, Klebsormidiophyceae, Zygnematophyceae, Mesostigmatophyceae, and Charo- phyceae. Zygnematophyceae (Conjugating green algae) are considered to be closest algal relatives to land plants (Embryophyta). Therefore, they are ideal model organisms for studying stress tolerance mechanisms connected with transition to land, one of the most important...

  1. Can GM sorghum impact Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Gerda M; Viljoen, Christopher D

    2008-02-01

    It is said that genetic modification (GM) of grain sorghum has the potential to alleviate hunger in Africa. To this end, millions of dollars have been committed to developing GM sorghum. Current developments in the genetic engineering of sorghum are similar to efforts to improve cassava and other traditional African crops, as well as rice in Asia. On closer analysis, GM sorghum is faced with the same limitations as 'Golden Rice' (GM rice) in the context of combating vitamin A deficiency (VAD) efficiently and sustainably. Thus, it is questionable whether the cost of developing GM sorghum can be justified when compared to the cost of investing in sustainable agricultural practice in Africa.

  2. Tasco®, a Product of Ascophyllum nodosum, Imparts Thermal Stress Tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Evans

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tasco®, a commercial product manufactured from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, has been shown to impart thermal stress tolerance in animals. We investigated the physiological, biochemical and molecular bases of this induced thermal stress tolerance using the invertebrate animal model, Caenorhabiditis elegans. Tasco® water extract (TWE at 300 µg/mL significantly enhanced thermal stress tolerance as well as extended the life span of C. elegans. The mean survival rate of the model animals under thermal stress (35 °C treated with 300 µg/mL and 600 µg/mL TWE, respectively, was 68% and 71% higher than the control animals. However, the TWE treatments did not affect the nematode body length, fertility or the cellular localization of daf-16. On the contrary, TWE under thermal stress significantly increased the pharyngeal pumping rate in treated animals compared to the control. Treatment with TWE also showed differential protein expression profiles over control following 2D gel-electrophoresis analysis. Furthermore, TWE significantly altered the expression of at least 40 proteins under thermal stress; among these proteins 34 were up-regulated while six were down-regulated. Mass spectroscopy analysis of the proteins altered by TWE treatment revealed that these proteins were related to heat stress tolerance, energy metabolism and a muscle structure related protein. Among them heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, saposin-like proteins 20, myosin regulatory light chain 1, cytochrome c oxidase RAS-like, GTP-binding protein RHO A, OS were significantly up-regulated, while eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 OS, 60S ribosomal protein L18 OS, peroxiredoxin protein 2 were down regulated by TWE treatment. These results were further validated by gene expression and reporter gene expression analyses. Overall results indicate that the water soluble components of Tasco® imparted thermal stress

  3. Evaluation of water-stress tolerance of Acala SJ 2 and Auburn 2 cotton cultivars in a phenotyping platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Morais Guimarães

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current scarcity of water, which may be aggravated by climate changes, it is important to develop cultivars tolerant to water stress. For this, information regarding the variability of the tolerance of cultivars to this stress is required. This information can be obtained by using phenotyping platforms, which allow a large-scale and automated assessment of crop traits related to productivity under water stress. This study took place in a greenhouse and used a phenotyping platform to evaluate some agronomic and physiological traits of two cotton cultivars with differing tolerances to this stress. The experiment was performed in a randomized block design, in a split-plot scheme with four replicates. The main plots were composed of five water regimes and the subplots of two cultivars, Acala SJ 2 and Auburn 2. The water regimes consisted of a well-irrigated treatment (daily replacement of 100% of evapotranspired water and four water restriction regimes (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of evapotranspired water at the well-irrigated treatment. The phenotyping platform and protocol (different percentages of daily replacement of evapotranspired water employed were suitable to the evaluated cotton cultivars for water-stress tolerance, and allowed the determination of the cultivar most tolerant (Acala SJ 2 and of the cultivar most sensitive (Auburn 2 to water stress. ‘Acala SJ 2’ displayed better physiological and agronomic traits in all water regimes, including higher root density in the upper soil layer, as well as higher water use than ‘Auburn 2’, which explained its higher seed yield under the conditions employed.

  4. Stress-inducible expression of AtDREB1A transcription factor greatly improves drought stress tolerance in transgenic indica rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, G; Manimaran, P; Voleti, S R; Subrahmanyam, D; Sundaram, R M; Bansal, K C; Viraktamath, B C; Balachandran, S M

    2014-06-01

    The cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major food crop, requires ample water (30 % of the fresh water available worldwide), and its productivity is greatly affected by drought, the most significant environmental factor. Much research has focussed on identifying quantitative trait loci, stress-regulated genes and transcription factors that will contribute towards the development of climate-resilient/tolerant crop plants in general and rice in particular. The transcription factor DREB1A, identified from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, has been reported to enhance stress tolerance against drought stress. We developed transgenic rice plants with AtDREB1A in the background of indica rice cultivar Samba Mahsuri through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The AtDREB1A gene was stably inherited and expressed in T1 and T2 plants and in subsequent generations, as indicated by the results of PCR, Southern blot and RT-PCR analyses. Expression of AtDREB1A was induced by drought stress in transgenic rice lines, which were highly tolerant to severe water deficit stress in both the vegetative and reproductive stages without affecting their morphological or agronomic traits. The physiological studies revealed that the expression of AtDREB1A was associated with an increased accumulation of the osmotic substance proline, maintenance of chlorophyll, increased relative water content and decreased ion leakage under drought stress. Most of the homozygous lines were highly tolerant to drought stress and showed significantly a higher grain yield and spikelet fertility relative to the nontransgenic control plants under both stressed and unstressed conditions. The improvement in drought stress tolerance in combination with agronomic traits is very essential in high premium indica rice cultivars, such as Samba Mahsuri, so that farmers can benefit in times of seasonal droughts and water scarcity.

  5. Are GM Crops for Yield and Resilience Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Matthew J; Nuccio, Michael L; Basu, Shib Sankar

    2018-01-01

    Crop yield improvements need to accelerate to avoid future food insecurity. Outside Europe, genetically modified (GM) crops for herbicide- and insect-resistance have been transformative in agriculture; other traits have also come to market. However, GM of yield potential and stress resilience has yet to impact on food security. Genes have been identified for yield such as grain number, size, leaf growth, resource allocation, and signaling for drought tolerance, but there is only one commercialized drought-tolerant GM variety. For GM and genome editing to impact on yield and resilience there is a need to understand yield-determining processes in a cell and developmental context combined with evaluation in the grower environment. We highlight a sugar signaling mechanism as a paradigm for this approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Arabidopsis PLAT domain protein1 is critically involved in abiotic stress tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; van der Graaff, Eric; Albacete, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Despite the completion of the Arabidopsis genome sequence, for only a relatively low percentage of the encoded proteins experimental evidence concerning their function is available. Plant proteins that harbour a single PLAT (Polycystin, Lipoxygenase, Alpha-toxin and Triacylglycerol lipase) domain...... and belong to the PLAT-plant-stress protein family are ubiquitously present in monocot and dicots. However, the function of PLAT-plant-stress proteins is still poorly understood. Therefore, we have assessed the function of the uncharacterised Arabidopsis PLAT-plant-stress family members through a combination...... of functional genetic and physiological approaches. PLAT1 overexpression conferred increased abiotic stress tolerance, including cold, drought and salt stress, while loss-of-function resulted in opposite effects on abiotic stress tolerance. Strikingly, PLAT1 promoted growth under non-stressed conditions...

  7. Drought-induced trans-generational tradeoff between stress tolerance and defence: consequences for range limits?

    OpenAIRE

    Alsdurf, Jacob D.; Ripley, Tayler J.; Matzner, Steven L.; Siemens, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Areas just across species range boundaries are often stressful, but even with ample genetic variation within and among range-margin populations, adaptation towards stress tolerance across range boundaries often does not occur. Adaptive trans-generational plasticity should allow organisms to circumvent these problems for temporary range expansion; however, range boundaries often persist. To investigate this dilemma, we drought stressed a parent generation of Boechera stricta (A.Gray) A. L?ve &...

  8. Cellulose synthesis genes CESA6 and CSI1 are important for salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang-Shuang; Sun, Le; Dong, Xinran; Lu, Sun-Jie; Tian, Weidong; Liu, Jian-Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Two salt hypersensitive mutants she1 and she2 were identified through genetic screening. SHE1 encodes a cellulose synthase CESA6 while SHE2 encodes a cellulose synthase-interactive protein CSI1. Both of them are involved in cellulose deposition. Our results demonstrated that the sustained cellulose synthesis is important for salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Hydrogen peroxide priming modulates abiotic oxidative stress tolerance: insights from ROS detoxification and scavenging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Hossain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are constantly challenged by various abiotic stresses that negatively affect growth and productivity worldwide. During the course of their evolution, plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to recognize external signals allowing them to respond appropriately to environmental conditions, although the degree of adjustability or tolerance to specific stresses differs from species to species. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2; superoxide, O2ˉ˙; hydroxyl radical, OH. and singlet oxygen, 1O2 is enhanced under abiotic and/or biotic stresses, which can cause oxidative damage to plant macromolecules and cell structures, leading to inhibition of plant growth and development, or to death. Among the various ROS, freely diffusible and relatively long-lived H2O2 acts as a central player in stress signal transduction pathways. These pathways can then activate multiple acclamatory responses that reinforce resistance to various abiotic and biotic stressors. To utilize H2O2 as a signaling molecule, non-toxic levels must be maintained in a delicate balancing act between H2O2 production and scavenging. Several recent studies have demonstrated that the H2O2-priming can enhance abiotic stress tolerance by modulating ROS detoxification and by regulating multiple stress-responsive pathways and gene expression. Despite the importance of the H2O2-priming, little is known about how this process improves the tolerance of plants to stress. Understanding the mechanisms of H2O2-priming-induced abiotic stress tolerance will be valuable for identifying biotechnological strategies to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. This review is an overview of our current knowledge of the possible mechanisms associated with H2O2-induced abiotic oxidative stress tolerance in plants, with special reference to antioxidant metabolism.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide priming modulates abiotic oxidative stress tolerance: insights from ROS detoxification and scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad A; Bhattacharjee, Soumen; Armin, Saed-Moucheshi; Qian, Pingping; Xin, Wang; Li, Hong-Yu; Burritt, David J; Fujita, Masayuki; Tran, Lam-Son P

    2015-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by various abiotic stresses that negatively affect growth and productivity worldwide. During the course of their evolution, plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to recognize external signals allowing them to respond appropriately to environmental conditions, although the degree of adjustability or tolerance to specific stresses differs from species to species. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS; hydrogen peroxide, H2O2; superoxide, [Formula: see text]; hydroxyl radical, OH(⋅) and singlet oxygen, (1)O2) is enhanced under abiotic and/or biotic stresses, which can cause oxidative damage to plant macromolecules and cell structures, leading to inhibition of plant growth and development, or to death. Among the various ROS, freely diffusible and relatively long-lived H2O2 acts as a central player in stress signal transduction pathways. These pathways can then activate multiple acclamatory responses that reinforce resistance to various abiotic and biotic stressors. To utilize H2O2 as a signaling molecule, non-toxic levels must be maintained in a delicate balancing act between H2O2 production and scavenging. Several recent studies have demonstrated that the H2O2-priming can enhance abiotic stress tolerance by modulating ROS detoxification and by regulating multiple stress-responsive pathways and gene expression. Despite the importance of the H2O2-priming, little is known about how this process improves the tolerance of plants to stress. Understanding the mechanisms of H2O2-priming-induced abiotic stress tolerance will be valuable for identifying biotechnological strategies to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. This review is an overview of our current knowledge of the possible mechanisms associated with H2O2-induced abiotic oxidative stress tolerance in plants, with special reference to antioxidant metabolism.

  11. Drought-induced trans-generational tradeoff between stress tolerance and defence: consequences for range limits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdurf, Jacob D; Ripley, Tayler J; Matzner, Steven L; Siemens, David H

    2013-01-01

    Areas just across species range boundaries are often stressful, but even with ample genetic variation within and among range-margin populations, adaptation towards stress tolerance across range boundaries often does not occur. Adaptive trans-generational plasticity should allow organisms to circumvent these problems for temporary range expansion; however, range boundaries often persist. To investigate this dilemma, we drought stressed a parent generation of Boechera stricta (A.Gray) A. Löve & D. Löve, a perennial wild relative of Arabidopsis, representing genetic variation within and among several low-elevation range margin populations. Boechera stricta is restricted to higher, moister elevations in temperate regions where generalist herbivores are often less common. Previous reports indicate a negative genetic correlation (genetic tradeoff) between chemical defence allocation and abiotic stress tolerance that may prevent the simultaneous evolution of defence and drought tolerance that would be needed for range expansion. In growth chamber experiments, the genetic tradeoff became undetectable among offspring sib-families whose parents had been drought treated, suggesting that the stress-induced trans-generational plasticity may circumvent the genetic tradeoff and thus enable range expansion. However, the trans-generational effects also included a conflict between plastic responses (environmental tradeoff); offspring whose parents were drought treated were more drought tolerant, but had lower levels of glucosinolate toxins that function in defence against generalist herbivores. We suggest that either the genetic or environmental tradeoff between defence allocation and stress tolerance has the potential to contribute to range limit development in upland mustards.

  12. A cascade of recently discovered molecular mechanisms involved in abiotic stress tolerance of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Muhammad; Dahab, Abdel hafiz Adam; Wangzhen, Guo; Tianzhen, Zhang

    2012-04-01

    Today, agriculture is facing a tremendous threat from the climate change menace. As human survival is dependent on a constant supply of food from plants as the primary producers, we must aware of the underlying molecular mechanisms that plants have acquired as a result of molecular evolution to cope this rapidly changing environment. This understanding will help us in designing programs aimed at developing crop plant cultivars best suited to our needs of a sustainable agriculture. The field of systems biology is rapidly progressing, and new insight is coming out about the molecular mechanisms involved in abiotic stress tolerance. There is a cascade of changes in transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome of plants during these stress responses. We have tried to cover most pronounced recent developments in the field of "omics" related to abiotic stress tolerance of plants. These changes are very coordinated, and often there is crosstalk between different components of stress tolerance. The functions of various molecular entities are becoming more clear and being associated with more precise biological phenomenon.

  13. Effect of tempol on redox homeostasis and stress tolerance in mimetically aged Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Ugur; Yanar, Karolin; Terzioglu, Duygu; Erkol, Tugçe; Ece, Evrim; Aydin, Seval; Uslu, Ezel; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to test our hypothesis that scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) with tempol, a membrane permeable antioxidant, affects the type and magnitude of oxidative damage and stress tolerance through mimetic aging process in Drosophila. Drosophila colonies were randomly divided into three groups: (1) no D-galactose, no tempol; (2) D-galactose without tempol; (3) D-galactose, but with tempol. Mimetic aging was induced by d-galactose administration. The tempol-administered flies received tempol at the concentration of 0.2% in addition to d-galactose. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) concentrations, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), sialic acid (SA) were determined. Additionally, stress tolerances were tested. Mimetically aged group without tempol led to a significant decrease in tolerance to heat, cold, and starvation (P tempol was used for these parameters. The Cu,Zn-SOD activity and SA concentrations were lower in both mimetically aged and tempol-administered Drosophila groups compared to control (P tempol-administered groups. Mimetically aged group without tempol led to a significant increase in tissue TBARS and AOPPs concentrations (P tempol could prevent these alterations. Scavenging ROS using tempol also restores redox homeostasis in mimetically aged group. Tempol partly restores age-related oxidative injury and increases stress tolerance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Characterization of Rhizobacteria from field grown Genetically Modified (GM and non-GM maizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Wihkochombom Bumunang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to examine the rhizobacteria from field grown Genetically Modified (GM maize and its non-GM counterpart. Rhizospheric soil samples were collected at 30 days after sowing (DAS and at post-harvest from two experimental fields in Gauteng, South Africa. Total rhizobacteria (cfu/g in GM and non-GM soil samples was not significantly different across the different media 30 DAS and at post-harvest. Rhizobacterial isolates obtained were biochemically characterized using the analytical profile index. Species of Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Sphingomonas, Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Ewingella and Bacillus were screened in vitro for plant growth promoting traits such as, ammonia production, catalase activity, indole acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, hydrogen cyanide production and antifungal activity. All the 32 rhizobacterial strains tested in this study were positive for catalase activity, ammonia production and IAA production; 90.6% were positive for phosphate solubilisation, 34.3% for indicate antifungal activity but none for hydrogen cyanide production. These findings contributed to the quest for potential biofertilizers and biocontrol agents for sustainable agriculture.

  15. Selection of Almond Vegetative Rootstocks for Water Stress Tolerance Based on the Morphological Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Shokouhian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the microbiological preparations used for this study was Effective Microorganisms (EM, being a commercial mixture of photosynthesizing bacteria, Actinomycetes, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and fermenting fungi. The microbiological composition of the EM concentrateincludesStreptomyces albus, Propioni bacterium freudenreichil, Streptococcus lactis, Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor hiemalis, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Candida utilis. Moreover, EM also contains an unspecified amount of Lactobacillus sp. Rhodo pseudomonas sp. and Streptomyces griseus. Effective Microorganisms have a positive effect on the decomposition of organic matter, limiting putrefaction, increasing nitrogen content in the root medium of plants, phosphorus, improving soil fertility and as a result contributing to the growth and development of the root systems of plants. Selection of almond vegetative rootstocks for water stress tolerance is important for almond crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. The study of the eco-morphological characteristics that determine the success of a rootstock in a particular environment is a powerful tool for both agricultural management and breeding purposes. The aim of this work was to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as Effective Microorganism (EM on morphological characteristics of almond rootstocks. Materials and Methods: In order to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as EMonmorphologicalcharacteristics of almondrootstocks were studiedin thedepartment ofHorticulture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2011-2012. The experiment was carried out with four replications in a completely random blockdesign to study the effects of two concentrations of EM (0 and 1%, three irrigation levels (normal irrigation 100%-control-and irrigation after depletion of 33 and 66% of available water, and four almond rootstocks including GF

  16. Coordinated Actions of Glyoxalase and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Conferring Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Hossain, Md Shahadat; Mahmud, Jubayer Al; Rahman, Anisur; Inafuku, Masashi; Oku, Hirosuke; Fujita, Masayuki

    2017-01-20

    Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sometimes ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense systems, which leads to oxidative stress. In line with ROS, plants also produce a high amount of methylglyoxal (MG), which is an α-oxoaldehyde compound, highly reactive, cytotoxic, and produced via different enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This MG can impair cells or cell components and can even destroy DNA or cause mutation. Under stress conditions, MG concentration in plants can be increased 2- to 6-fold compared with normal conditions depending on the plant species. However, plants have a system developed to detoxify this MG consisting of two major enzymes: glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II), and hence known as the glyoxalase system. Recently, a novel glyoxalase enzyme, named glyoxalase III (Gly III), has been detected in plants, providing a shorter pathway for MG detoxification, which is also a signpost in the research of abiotic stress tolerance. Glutathione (GSH) acts as a co-factor for this system. Therefore, this system not only detoxifies MG but also plays a role in maintaining GSH homeostasis and subsequent ROS detoxification. Upregulation of both Gly I and Gly II as well as their overexpression in plant species showed enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, metal toxicity, and extreme temperature. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of reports have indicated that both antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems have strong interactions in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants through the detoxification of ROS and MG. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of these interactions and the coordinated action of

  17. Abiotic stress tolerance of charophyte green algae: New challenges for omics techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eHolzinger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Charophyte green algae are a paraphyletic group of freshwater and terrestrial green algae, comprising the classes of Chlorokybophyceae, Coleochaetphyceae, Klebsormidiophyceae, Zygnematophyceae, Mesostigmatophyceae and Charophyceae. Zygnematophyceae (Conjugating green algae are considered to be closest algal relatives to land plants (Embryophyta. Therefore, they are ideal model organisms for studying stress tolerance mechanisms connected with transition to land, one of the most important events in plant evolution and the Earth’s history. In Zygnematophyceae, but also in Coleochaetophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Klebsormidiophyceae terrestrial members are found which are frequently exposed to naturally occurring abiotic stress scenarios like desiccation, freezing and high photosynthetic active (PAR as well as ultraviolet (UV irradiation. Here, we summarize current knowledge about various stress tolerance mechanisms including insight provided by pioneer transcriptomic and proteomic studies.While formation of dormant spores is a typical strategy of freshwater classes, true terrestrial groups are stress tolerant in vegetative state. Aggregation of cells, flexible cell walls, mucilage production and accumulation of osmotically active compounds are the most common desiccation tolerance strategies. In addition, high photophysiological plasticity and accumulation of UV-screening compounds are important protective mechanisms in conditions with high irradiation. Now a shift from classical chemical analysis to next-generation genome sequencing, gene reconstruction and annotation, genome-scale molecular analysis using omics technologies followed by computer-assisted analysis will give new insights in a systems biology approach. For example, changes in transcriptome and role of phytohormone signaling in Klebsormidium during desiccation were recently described. Application of these modern approaches will deeply enhance our understanding of stress reactions

  18. Abiotic Stress Tolerance of Charophyte Green Algae: New Challenges for Omics Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Pichrtová, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Charophyte green algae are a paraphyletic group of freshwater and terrestrial green algae, comprising the classes of Chlorokybophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae, Klebsormidiophyceae, Zygnematophyceae, Mesostigmatophyceae, and Charo- phyceae. Zygnematophyceae (Conjugating green algae) are considered to be closest algal relatives to land plants (Embryophyta). Therefore, they are ideal model organisms for studying stress tolerance mechanisms connected with transition to land, one of the most important events in plant evolution and the Earth's history. In Zygnematophyceae, but also in Coleochaetophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae, and Klebsormidiophyceae terrestrial members are found which are frequently exposed to naturally occurring abiotic stress scenarios like desiccation, freezing and high photosynthetic active (PAR) as well as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Here, we summarize current knowledge about various stress tolerance mechanisms including insight provided by pioneer transcriptomic and proteomic studies. While formation of dormant spores is a typical strategy of freshwater classes, true terrestrial groups are stress tolerant in vegetative state. Aggregation of cells, flexible cell walls, mucilage production and accumulation of osmotically active compounds are the most common desiccation tolerance strategies. In addition, high photophysiological plasticity and accumulation of UV-screening compounds are important protective mechanisms in conditions with high irradiation. Now a shift from classical chemical analysis to next-generation genome sequencing, gene reconstruction and annotation, genome-scale molecular analysis using omics technologies followed by computer-assisted analysis will give new insights in a systems biology approach. For example, changes in transcriptome and role of phytohormone signaling in Klebsormidium during desiccation were recently described. Application of these modern approaches will deeply enhance our understanding of stress reactions in an

  19. Salt and oxidative stress tolerance in Debaryomyces hansenii and Debaryomyces fabryi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michán, C.; Martínez, J.L.; Alvarez, M.C.; Turk, M.; Sychrová, Hana; Ramos, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2013), s. 180-188 ISSN 1567-1356 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10012; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0307 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200110901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Debaryomyces * stress tolerance * ROS content * sodium content * membrane fluidity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.436, year: 2013

  20. Stress Tolerance in Doughs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Trehalase Mutants Derived from Commercial Baker’s Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Shima, Jun; Hino, Akihiro; Yamada-Iyo, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuo; Nakajima, Ryouichi; Watanabe, Hajime; Mori, Katsumi; Takano, Hiroyuki

    1999-01-01

    Accumulation of trehalose is widely believed to be a critical determinant in improving the stress tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is commonly used in commercial bread dough. To retain the accumulation of trehalose in yeast cells, we constructed, for the first time, diploid homozygous neutral trehalase mutants (Δnth1), acid trehalase mutants (Δath1), and double mutants (Δnth1 ath1) by using commercial baker’s yeast strains as the parent strains and the gene disruption me...

  1. Moving beyond the GM debate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottoline Leyser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Once again, there are calls to reopen the debate on genetically modified (GM crops. I find these calls frustrating and unnecessarily decisive. In my opinion the GM debate, on both sides, continues to hamper the urgent need to address the diverse and pressing challenges of global food security and environmental sustainability. The destructive power of the debate comes from its conflation of unrelated issues, coupled with deeply rooted misconceptions of the nature of agriculture.

  2. Integrated genomics and molecular breeding approaches for dissecting the complex quantitative traits in crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujur, Alice; Saxena, Maneesha S; Bajaj, Deepak; Laxmi; Parida, Swarup K

    2013-12-01

    The enormous population growth, climate change and global warming are now considered major threats to agriculture and world's food security. To improve the productivity and sustainability of agriculture, the development of highyielding and durable abiotic and biotic stress-tolerant cultivars and/climate resilient crops is essential. Henceforth, understanding the molecular mechanism and dissection of complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits is the prime objective in current agricultural biotechnology research. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in plant genomics and molecular breeding research pertaining to conventional and next-generation whole genome, transcriptome and epigenome sequencing efforts, generation of huge genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic resources and development of modern genomics-assisted breeding approaches in diverse crop genotypes with contrasting yield and abiotic stress tolerance traits. Unfortunately, the detailed molecular mechanism and gene regulatory networks controlling such complex quantitative traits is not yet well understood in crop plants. Therefore, we propose an integrated strategies involving available enormous and diverse traditional and modern -omics (structural, functional, comparative and epigenomics) approaches/resources and genomics-assisted breeding methods which agricultural biotechnologist can adopt/utilize to dissect and decode the molecular and gene regulatory networks involved in the complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits in crop plants. This would provide clues and much needed inputs for rapid selection of novel functionally relevant molecular tags regulating such complex traits to expedite traditional and modern marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in target crop species for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant varieties.

  3. The genome of Austrofundulus limnaeus offers insights into extreme vertebrate stress tolerance and embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Josiah T; Singh, Param Priya; Romney, Amie L; Riggs, Claire L; Minx, Patrick; Woll, Steven C; Roush, Jake; Warren, Wesley C; Brunet, Anne; Podrabsky, Jason E

    2018-02-20

    The annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus inhabits ephemeral ponds in northern Venezuela, South America, and is an emerging extremophile model for vertebrate diapause, stress tolerance, and evolution. Embryos of A. limnaeus regularly experience extended periods of desiccation and anoxia as a part of their natural history and have unique metabolic and developmental adaptations. Currently, there are limited genomic resources available for gene expression and evolutionary studies that can take advantage of A. limnaeus as a unique model system. We describe the first draft genome sequence of A. limnaeus. The genome was assembled de novo using a merged assembly strategy and was annotated using the NCBI Eukaryotic Annotation Pipeline. We show that the assembled genome has a high degree of completeness in genic regions that is on par with several other teleost genomes. Using RNA-seq and phylogenetic-based approaches, we identify several candidate genes that may be important for embryonic stress tolerance and post-diapause development in A. limnaeus. Several of these genes include heat shock proteins that have unique expression patterns in A. limnaeus embryos and at least one of these may be under positive selection. The A. limnaeus genome is the first South American annual killifish genome made publicly available. This genome will be a valuable resource for comparative genomics to determine the genetic and evolutionary mechanisms that support the unique biology of annual killifishes. In a broader context, this genome will be a valuable tool for exploring genome-environment interactions and their impacts on vertebrate physiology and evolution.

  4. Building the crops of tomorrow: advantages of symbiont-based approaches to improving abiotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman-Derr, Devin; Tringe, Susannah G

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth in world population is feeding a steadily increasing global need for arable farmland, a resource that is already in high demand. This trend has led to increased farming on subprime arid and semi-arid lands, where limited availability of water and a host of environmental stresses often severely reduce crop productivity. The conventional approach to mitigating the abiotic stresses associated with arid climes is to breed for stress-tolerant cultivars, a time and labor intensive venture that often neglects the complex ecological context of the soil environment in which the crop is grown. In recent years, studies have attempted to identify microbial symbionts capable of conferring the same stress-tolerance to their plant hosts, and new developments in genomic technologies have greatly facilitated such research. Here, we highlight many of the advantages of these symbiont-based approaches and argue in favor of the broader recognition of crop species as ecological niches for a diverse community of microorganisms that function in concert with their plant hosts and each other to thrive under fluctuating environmental conditions.

  5. Chloroplast movement behavior varies widely among species and does not correlate with high light stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königer, Martina; Bollinger, Nicole

    2012-08-01

    It is well known that chloroplasts move in response to changes in blue light intensity in order to optimize light interception, however, little is known about interspecific variation and the relative importance of this mechanism for the high light stress tolerance of plants. We characterized chloroplast movement behavior as changes in light transmission through a leaf in a variety of species ranging from ferns to monocots and eudicots and found a wide spectrum of responses. Most species exhibited a distinct accumulation response compared to the dark positioning, and all species showed a distinct avoidance response. The speed with which transmission values changed during the avoidance response was consistently faster than that during the accumulation response and speeds varied greatly between species. Plants thriving in higher growth light intensities showed greater degrees of accumulation responses and faster changes in transmission than those that prefer lower light intensities. In some species, the chloroplasts on both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces changed their positioning in response to light, while in other species only the chloroplasts on one leaf side responded. No correlation was found between high light stress tolerance and the speed or degree of transmission changes, indicating that plants can compensate for slow and limited transmission changes using other photoprotective mechanisms.

  6. Building the crops of tomorrow: advantages of symbiont-based approaches to improving abiotic stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin eColeman-Derr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth in world population is feeding a steadily increasing global need for arable farmland, a resource that is already in high demand. This trend has led to increased farming on subprime arid and semi-arid lands, where limited availability of water and a host of environmental stresses often severely reduce crop productivity. The conventional approach to mitigating the abiotic stresses associated with arid climes is to breed for stress-tolerant cultivars, a time and labor intensive venture that often neglects the complex ecological context of the soil environment in which the crop is grown. In recent years, studies have attempted to identify microbial symbionts capable of conferring the same stress-tolerance to their plant hosts, and new developments in genomic technologies have greatly facilitated such research. Here, we highlight many of the advantages of these symbiont-based approaches and argue in favor of the broader recognition of crop species as ecological niches for a diverse community of microorganisms that function in concert with their plant hosts and each other to thrive under fluctuating environmental conditions.

  7. Molecular Genetic Approaches for Environmental Stress Tolerant Crop Plants: Progress and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ranjeet; Kumar Bhunia, Rupam; Ghosh, Ananta Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Global food security is threatened by the severe environmental conditions that have reduced the worldwide crop yield. Plants possess inherent mechanisms to cope with the initial stress phase but to ensure their survival through harsh climate, the intervention of genetic engineering is desirable. We present a comprehensive review on the progress made in the field of developing environmental stress tolerant crops and the prospects that can be undertaken for achieving it. We review the effects of abiotic and biotic stresses on crop plants, and the use of different molecular genetic approaches to cope with these environmental stresses for establishment of sustainable agriculture. The various strategies employed in different crops have also been discussed. We also summarized the major patents in the field of plant stress tolerance that have been granted in the last five years. On the basis of these analyses, we propose that genetic engineering of crops is the preferred approach over the traditional methods for yielding healthier and viable agriculture in response to the different stressful environments. The wild progenitors of cultivated crop species can prove to be highly potential genetic resources in this regard and can be exploited to produce better crops that are relatively tolerant towards various environmental stresses. Thus, elucidation of genetic loci and deciphering the underlying mechanisms that confer tolerance to plants against stressful conditions followed by its successful introgression into elite, high-yielding crop varieties can be an effective way to engineer the crops for sustainable agriculture.

  8. Isoamyl alcohol odor promotes longevity and stress tolerance via DAF-16 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurino, Chiho; Furuhashi, Tsubasa; Sudoh, Kaori; Sakamoto, Kazuichi

    2017-04-01

    The possibility that odor plays a role in lifespan regulation through effects on the nervous system is indicated by research on Caenorhabditis elegans. In fact, ablation of AWA and AWC, which are suggested as olfactory neurons, has been shown to extend lifespan via DAF-16, a homolog of FoxO. However, the effects of odor stimuli on the lifespan still remain unclear. Thus, we here aimed to clarify the effect of attractive and repulsive odors on longevity and stress tolerance in C. elegans and to analyze the pathways thereof. We used isoamyl alcohol as an attractive odor, and acetic acid as a repellent component, as identified by chemotaxis assay. We found that isoamyl alcohol stimulus promoted longevity in a DAF-16-dependent manner. On the other hand, acetic acid stimulus promoted thermotolerance through mechanisms independent of DAF-16. Above all, our results indicate that odor stimuli affect the lifespan and stress tolerance of C. elegans, with attractive and repulsive odors exerting their effects through different mechanisms, and that longevity is induced by both activation and inactivation of olfactory neurons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced water stress tolerance of transgenic maize plants over-expressing LEA Rab28 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Imen; Capellades, Montserrat; Ludevid, M Dolors; Pagès, Montserrat; Goday, Adela

    2013-06-15

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins participate in plant stress responses and contribute to the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. In this report Rab28 LEA gene has been over-expressed in maize plants under a constitutive maize promoter. The expression of Rab28 transcripts led to the accumulation and stability of Rab28 protein in the transgenic plants. Native Rab28 protein is localized to nucleoli in wild type maize embryo cells; here we find by whole-mount immunocytochemistry that in root cells of Rab28 transgenic and wild-type plants the protein is also associated to nucleolar structures. Transgenic plants were tested for stress tolerance and resulted in sustained growth under polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-mediated dehydration compared to wild-type controls. Under osmotic stress transgenic seedlings showed increased leaf and root areas, higher relative water content (RWC), reduced chlorophyll loss and lower Malondialdehyde (MDA) production in relation to wild-type plants. Moreover, transgenic seeds exhibited higher germination rates than wild-type seeds under water deficit. Overall, our results highlight the presence of transgenic Rab28 protein in nucleolar structures and point to the potential of group 5 LEA Rab28 gene as candidate to enhance stress tolerance in maize plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. A cellulose synthase-like protein is required for osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jianhua

    2010-04-16

    Osmotic stress imposed by soil salinity and drought stress significantly affects plant growth and development, but osmotic stress sensing and tolerance mechanisms are not well understood. Forward genetic screens using a root-bending assay have previously identified salt overly sensitive (sos) mutants of Arabidopsis that fall into five loci, SOS1 to SOS5. These loci are required for the regulation of ion homeostasis or cell expansion under salt stress, but do not play a major role in plant tolerance to the osmotic stress component of soil salinity or drought. Here we report an additional sos mutant, sos6-1, which defines a locus essential for osmotic stress tolerance. sos6-1 plants are hypersensitive to salt stress and osmotic stress imposed by mannitol or polyethylene glycol in culture media or by water deficit in the soil. SOS6 encodes a cellulose synthase-like protein, AtCSLD5. Only modest differences in cell wall chemical composition could be detected, but we found that sos6-1 mutant plants accumulate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under osmotic stress and are hypersensitive to the oxidative stress reagent methyl viologen. The results suggest that SOS6/AtCSLD5 is not required for normal plant growth and development but has a critical role in osmotic stress tolerance and this function likely involves its regulation of ROS under stress. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. A bi-functional xyloglucan galactosyltransferase is an indispensable salt stress tolerance determinant in arabidop

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wenbo

    2013-07-01

    Salinity is an abiotic stress that substantially limits crop production worldwide. To identify salt stress tolerance determinants, we screened for Arabidopsis mutants that are hypersensitive to salt stress and designated these mutants as short root in salt medium (rsa). One of these mutants, rsa3-1, is hypersensitive to NaCl and LiCl but not to CsCl or to general osmotic stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) over-accumulate in rsa3-1 plants under salt stress. Gene expression profiling with Affymetrix microarray analysis revealed that RSA3 controls expression of many genes including genes encoding proteins for ROS detoxification under salt stress. Map-based cloning showed that RSA3 encodes a xyloglucan galactosyltransferase, which is allelic to a gene previously named MUR3/KAM1. The RSA3/ MUR3/KAM1-encoded xylogluscan galactosyltransferase regulates actin microfilament organization (and thereby contributes to endomembrane distribution) and is also involved in cell wall biosynthesis. In rsa3-1, actin cannot assemble and form bundles as it does in the wild-type but instead aggregates in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, addition of phalloidin, which prevents actin depolymerization, can rescue salt hypersensitivity of rsa3-1. Together, these results suggest that RSA3/MUR3/KAM1 along with other cell wall-associated proteins plays a critical role in salt stress tolerance by maintaining the proper organization of actin microfilaments in order to minimize damage caused by excessive ROS. © 2013 The Author.

  12. Building the crops of tomorrow: advantages of symbiont-based approaches to improving abiotic stress tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman-Derr, Devin [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tringe, Susannah G. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2014-06-06

    The exponential growth in world population is feeding a steadily increasing global need for arable farmland, a resource that is already in high demand. This trend has led to increased farming on subprime arid and semi-arid lands, where limited availability of water and a host of environmental stresses often severely reduce crop productivity. The conventional approach to mitigating the abiotic stresses associated with arid climes is to breed for stress-tolerant cultivars, a time and labor intensive venture that often neglects the complex ecological context of the soil environment in which the crop is grown. In recent years, studies have attempted to identify microbial symbionts capable of conferring the same stress-tolerance to their plant hosts, and new developments in genomic technologies have greatly facilitated such research. Here in this paper, we highlight many of the advantages of these symbiont-based approaches and argue in favor of the broader recognition of crop species as ecological niches for a diverse community of microorganisms that function in concert with their plant hosts and each other to thrive under fluctuating environmental conditions

  13. Global Adoption of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops: Challenges for the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesing, Joseph E; Andres, David; Braverman, Michael P; Burns, Andrea; Felsot, Allan S; Harrigan, George G; Hellmich, Richard L; Reynolds, Alan; Shelton, Anthony M; Jansen van Rijssen, Wilna; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-01-20

    Advances in biotechnology continue to drive the development of a wide range of insect-protected, herbicide-tolerant, stress-tolerant, and nutritionally enhanced genetically modified (GM) crops, yet societal and public policy considerations may slow their commercialization. Such restrictions may disproportionately affect developing countries, as well as smaller entrepreneurial and public sector initiatives. The 2014 IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry (San Francisco, CA, USA; August 2014) included a symposium on "Challenges Associated with Global Adoption of Agricultural Biotechnology" to review current obstacles in promoting GM crops. Challenges identified by symposium presenters included (i) poor public understanding of GM technology and the need for enhanced communication strategies, (ii) nonharmonized and prescriptive regulatory requirements, and (iii) limited experience with regulations and product development within some public sector programs. The need for holistic resistance management programs to enable the most effective use of insect-protected crops was also a point of emphasis. This paper provides details on the symposium discussion and provides background information that can be used in support of further adoption of beneficial GM crops. Overall, it emphasizes that global adoption of modern agricultural biotechnology has not only provided benefits to growers and consumers but has great potential to provide solutions to an increasing global population and diminishing agricultural land. This potential will be realized by continued scientific innovation, harmonized regulatory systems, and broader communication of the benefits of the high-yielding, disease-resistant, and nutritionally enhanced crops attainable through modern biotechnology.

  14. Untangling metabolic and spatial interactions of stress tolerance in plants. 2. Accelerated method for measuring and predicting stress tolerance. Can we unravel the mysteries of the interactions between photosynthesis and respiration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Karl Y; Nishio, John N

    2010-09-01

    A simple method using the O(2) electrode that allows examination of the response of respiration and photosynthesis in leaf slices or algae to anoxia and high light under different temperatures useful for the examination of the interactions among photosynthesis, photorespiration, and respiration is described. The method provides a quantifiable assessment of stress tolerance that also permits us to examine fundamental biochemically and genetically related responses involved in stress tolerance and the cooperation among organelles. Additionally, we demonstrated a role for compounds, such as NO(-)(3) and oxaloacetate, as protective agents against photoinhibition, and we examined the role of dark adaptation in the activation of photosynthesis and NO(-)(3)-dependent O(2) oxygen evolution. A physiological and ecological role of a dark period (night) in stress tolerance is presented. Utilizing the method to follow changes in such metabolic activities as protein synthesis, protein conformation states, enzymes activity, carbon metabolism, and gene expression at different points during the treatments will be educational.

  15. How do GM / non GM coexistence regulations affect markets and welfare?

    OpenAIRE

    Desquilbet, Marion; Poret, Sylvaine

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical economic model assessing the effects of the level of mandatory genetically modified (GM) / non-GM coexistence regulations on market and welfare outcomes. We assume vertical differentiation of GM and non-GM goods on the consumer side. Producers are heterogeneous in their production cost for GM crops. Producers of non- GM crops face a probability of having their harvest downgraded if gene flow from GM fields raises its content in GMOs (geneticall...

  16. The future of starch bioengineering: GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Sagnelli, Domenico; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch...... processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots......, tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms. We here discuss these techniques in relation to important structural features and modifications of starches such as: starch phosphorylation, starch hydrolysis, chain transfer/branching and novel...

  17. Genetically engineered Rice with transcription factor DREB genes for abiotic stress tolerance(abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.; Datta, K.

    2005-01-01

    Water stress (drought and Salinity) is the most severe limitation to rice productivity. Several breeding approaches (MAS, QTL) applied to suitable genotypes are in place at IRRI and elsewhere. Phenotyping of water stress tolerance is in progress with potential predictability. Dr. Shinozaki's group has cloned a number of transcription factor genes, which have been shown to work in Arabidopsis to achieve drought, cold, and salinity tolerant plants. None of these genes have as yet displayed their potential functioning in rice. Genetic engineering aims at cross talk between different stress signaling pathways leading to stress tolerance. Osmotic Adjustment (OA) is an effective component of abiotic stress (drought and salinity) tolerance in many plants including rice. When plant experiences water stress, OA contributes to turgor maintenance of both shoots and roots. Conventional breeding could not achieve the OA in rice excepting a few rice cultivars, which are partially adapted to water-stress conditions. Several stress-related genes have now been cloned and transferred in to enhance the osmolytes and some transgenic lines showed increased tolerance to osmotic stress. A few strategies could be effectively deployed for a better understanding of water-stress tolerance in rice and to develop transgenic rice, which can survive for a critical period of water-stress conditions: 1) Switching on of transcription factor regulating the expression of several genes related to abiotic stress, 2) Use of a suitable stress inducible promoter driving the target gene for an efficient and directed expression in plants, 3) Understanding of phenotyping and GxE in a given environment, 4) Selection of a few adaptive rice cultivars suitable in drought/salinity prone areas, 5) Microarray, proteomics, QTL and MAS may expedite the cloning and characterizing the stress induced genes, and 6) Finally, the efficient transformation system for generating a large number of transgenic rice of different

  18. The future of starch bioengineering: GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Henrik eHebelstrup

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots, tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms. We here discuss these techniques in relation to important structural features and modifications of starches such as: starch phosphorylation, starch hydrolysis, chain transfer/branching and novel concepts of hybrid starch-based polysaccharides. In planta starch bioengineering is generally challenged by yield penalties and inefficient production of the desired product. However in some situations, GM crops for starch bioengineering without deleterious effects have been achieved.

  19. Stress inducible overexpression of AtHDG11 leads to improved drought and salt stress tolerance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banavath, Jayanna N.; Chakradhar, Thammineni; Pandit, Varakumar; Konduru, Sravani; Guduru, Krishna K.; Akila, Chandra S.; Podha, Sudhakar; Puli, Chandra O. R.

    2018-03-01

    Peanut is an important oilseed and food legume cultivated as a rain-fed crop in semi-arid tropics. Drought and high salinity are the major abiotic stresses limiting the peanut productivity in this region. Development of drought and salt tolerant peanut varieties with improved yield potential using biotechnological approach is highly desirable to improve the peanut productivity in marginal geographies. As abiotic stress tolerance and yield represent complex traits, engineering of regulatory genes to produce abiotic stress-resilient transgenic crops appears to be a viable approach. In the present study, we developed transgenic peanut plants expressing an Arabidopsis homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor (AtHDG11) under stress inducible rd29Apromoter. A stress-inducible expression of AtHDG11 in three independent homozygous transgenic peanut lines resulted in improved drought and salt tolerance through up-regulation of known stress responsive genes(LEA, HSP70, Cu/Zn SOD, APX, P5CS, NCED1, RRS5, ERF1, NAC4, MIPS, Aquaporin, TIP, ELIP ) in the stress gene network , antioxidative enzymes, free proline along with improved water use efficiency traits such as longer root system, reduced stomatal density, higher chlorophyll content, increased specific leaf area, improved photosynthetic rates and increased intrinsic instantaneous WUE. Transgenic peanut plants displayed high yield compared to non-transgenic plants under both drought and salt stress conditions. Holistically, our study demonstrates the potentiality of stress-induced expression of AtHDG11 to improve the drought, salt tolerance in peanut.

  20. Investigating inbreeding depression for heat stress tolerance in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    2012-01-01

    Mating between closely related individuals often causes reduced fitness, which is termed ‘inbreeding depression’. Inbreeding is, therefore, a threat towards the persistence of animal and plant populations. Here we present methods and results from a practical for high-school and first-year univers......Mating between closely related individuals often causes reduced fitness, which is termed ‘inbreeding depression’. Inbreeding is, therefore, a threat towards the persistence of animal and plant populations. Here we present methods and results from a practical for high-school and first...... into vials before exposure to 38°C heat stress in a water bath for 1 h. Half an hour later the number of comatose inbred and control flies were scored and chi-square statistic procedures were used to test for different degrees of heat stress tolerance between the two lines of flies. The practical introduces...

  1. Complete PHB mobilization in Escherichia coli enhances the stress tolerance: a potential biotechnological application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Zhen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB mobilization in bacteria has been proposed as a mechanism that can benefit their host for survival under stress conditions. Here we reported for the first time that a stress-induced system enabled E. coli, a non-PHB producer, to mobilize PHB in vivo by mimicking natural PHB accumulation bacteria. Results The successful expression of PHB biosynthesis and PHB depolymerase genes in E. coli was confirmed by PHB production and 3-hydroxybutyrate secretion. Starvation experiment demonstrated that the complete PHB mobilization system in E. coli served as an intracellular energy and carbon storage system, which increased the survival rate of the host when carbon resources were limited. Stress tolerance experiment indicated that E. coli strains with PHB production and mobilization system exhibited an enhanced stress resistance capability. Conclusion This engineered E. coli with PHB mobilization has a potential biotechnological application as immobilized cell factories for biocatalysis and biotransformation.

  2. The RNA chaperone Hfq enables the environmental stress tolerance super-phenotype of Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Calles, Belén; Nikel, Pablo I; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2016-10-01

    The natural physiological regime of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida involves incessant exposure to endogenous metabolic conflicts and environmental physicochemical insults. Yet, the role of assisted small RNA-mRNA pairing in the stress tolerance super-phenotype that is the trademark of this bacterium has not been accredited. We have thoroughly explored the physiological consequences -in particular those related to exogenous stress - of deleting the hfq gene of P. putida, which encodes the major RNA chaperone that promotes sRNA-target mRNA interactions. While the overall trend was a general weakening of every robustness descriptor of the Δhfq strain, growth parameters and production of central metabolic enzymes were comparatively less affected than other qualities that depend directly on energy status (e.g. motility, DNA repair). The overall catalytic vigour of the mutant decreased to putida. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Integrating Classical with Emerging Concepts for Better Understanding of Salinity Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep Kaur

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an important cereal crop responsible for world's food security. The sensitivity of rice plants toward a range of abiotic stresses is a prime challenge for its overall growth and productivity. Among these, salinity is a major stress which results in a significant loss of global rice yield annually. For finding straightforward and strict future solutions in order to assure the food security to growing world population, understanding of the various mechanisms responsible for salt stress tolerance in rice is of paramount importance. In classical studies, identification of salt tolerant cultivars and the genetic markers linked to salt tolerance and breeding approaches have been given emphasis. It further affirmed on the identification of various pathways regulating the complex process of salt stress adaptation. However, only limited success has been achieved in these approaches as salt tolerance is a complex process and is governed by multiple factors. Hence, for better understanding of salt tolerance mechanisms, a comprehensive approach involving physiological, biochemical and molecular studies is much warranted. Modern experimental and genetic resources have provided a momentum in this direction and have provided molecular insights into different salt stress responsive pathways at the signaling and regulatory level. The integrative knowledge of classical and modern research of the understanding of salt stress adaptive pathways can help the researchers for designing effective strategies to fight against salt stress. Hence, the present review is focused on the understanding of the salt stress tolerance mechanisms in rice through the consolidative knowledge of classical and modern concepts. It further highlights the emerging new trends of salt stress adaptive pathways in rice.

  4. Physiological Mechanism of Enhancing Salt Stress Tolerance of Perennial Ryegrass by 24-Epibrassinolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BR regulate plant tolerance to salt stress but the mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. This study was to investigate physiological mechanisms of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR's impact on salt stress tolerance in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. The grass seedlings were treated with EBR at 0, 10, and 100 nM, and subjected to salt stress (250 mM NaCl. The grass irrigated with regular water without EBR served as the control. Salt stress increased leaf electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA, and reduced photosynthetic rate (Pn. Exogenous EBR reduced EL and MDA, increased Pn, chlorophyll content, and stomatal conductance (gs. The EBR applications also alleviated decline of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity when compared to salt treatment alone. Salt stress increased leaf abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellin A4 (GA4 content but reduced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, zeatin riboside (ZR, isopentenyl adenosine (iPA, and salicylic acid (SA. Exogenous EBR at 10 nm and 100 nM increased ABA, and iPA content under salt stress. The EBR treatment at 100 nM also increased leaf IAA, ZR, JA, and SA. In addition, EBR treatments increased leaf proline and ions (K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ content, and reduced Na+/K+ in leaf tissues. The results of this study suggest that EBR treatment may improve salt stress tolerance by increasing the level of selected hormones and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT activity, promoting accumulation of proline and ions (K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in perennial ryegrass.

  5. Overexpression of Arabidopsis P3B increases heat and low temperature stress tolerance in transgenic sweetpotato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chang Yoon; Jin, Rong; Xu, Zhen; Kim, Ho Soo; Lee, Chan-Ju; Kang, Le; Kim, So-Eun; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Lee, Joon Seol; Kang, Chang Ho; Chi, Yong Hun; Lee, Sang Yeol; Xie, Yiping; Li, Hongmin; Ma, Daifu; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2017-08-14

    Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) is suitable for growth on marginal lands due to its abiotic stress tolerance. However, severe environmental conditions including low temperature pose a serious threat to the productivity and expanded cultivation of this crop. In this study, we aimed to develop sweetpotato plants with enhanced tolerance to temperature stress. P3 proteins are plant-specific ribosomal P-proteins that act as both protein and RNA chaperones to increase heat and cold stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. Here, we generated transgenic sweetpotato plants expressing the Arabidopsis ribosomal P3 (AtP3B) gene under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter (referred to as OP plants). Three OP lines (OP1, OP30, and OP32) were selected based on AtP3B transcript levels. The OP plants displayed greater heat tolerance and higher photosynthesis efficiency than wild type (WT) plants. The OP plants also exhibited enhanced low temperature tolerance, with higher photosynthesis efficiency and less membrane permeability than WT plants. In addition, OP plants had lower levels of hydrogen peroxide and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes such as peroxidase and catalase than WT plants under low temperature stress. The yields of tuberous roots and aerial parts of plants did not significantly differ between OP and WT plants under field cultivation. However, the tuberous roots of OP transgenic sweetpotato showed improved storage ability under low temperature conditions. The OP plants developed in this study exhibited increased tolerance to temperature stress and enhanced storage ability under low temperature compared to WT plants, suggesting that they could be used to enhance sustainable agriculture on marginal lands.

  6. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-02

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  7. Simulation and evaluation of GM and non-GM segregation management strategies among European grain merchants

    OpenAIRE

    Coléno, François,

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Considering the European regulations, a product need to be labelled as containing GM when the adventitious presence of GM material exceed 0.9%. During collection, crops from many fields are combined to fill a silo. Three management strategies to avoid the risk of mixing GM and non-GM crops were identified by a descriptive work based on cases studies in various region of France: defining GM and non-GM silos and production zones; specifying the timing of GM and non-GM cr...

  8. Dietary supplementation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) improves growth, stress tolerance, and disease resistance in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abass, David Attim; Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Campion, Benjamin Betey

    2018-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the commonest probiotics incorporated in aquafeeds. An 84-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of varying dietary inclusions of S. cerevisiae, 0% (control), 3% (YF3), 5% (YF5), and 7% (YF7), on growth, stress tolerance, and disease r...

  9. Development of stress tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains by metabolic engineering: New aspects from cell flocculation and zinc supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Zhang, Mingming; Xue, Chuang; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2017-02-01

    Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely studied for the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. However, economic production is currently challenged by the repression of cell growth and compromised fermentation performance of S. cerevisiae strains in the presence of various environmental stresses, including toxic level of final products, inhibitory compounds released from the pretreatment of cellulosic feedstocks, high temperature, and so on. Therefore, it is important to improve stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae to these stressful conditions to achieve efficient and economic production. In this review, the latest advances on development of stress tolerant S. cerevisiae strains are summarized, with the emphasis on the impact of cell flocculation and zinc addition. It was found that cell flocculation affected ethanol tolerance and acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae, and addition of zinc to a suitable level improved stress tolerance of yeast cells to ethanol, high temperature and acetic acid. Further studies on the underlying mechanisms by which cell flocculation and zinc status affect stress tolerance will not only enrich our knowledge on stress response and tolerance mechanisms of S. cerevisiae, but also provide novel metabolic engineering strategies to develop robust yeast strains for biofuels production. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. GM crops and the rat digestive tract: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, I M; Edwards, J W; Carman, J A; Haynes, J I

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between genetically modified (GM) crops and health, based on histopathological investigations of the digestive tract in rats. We reviewed published long-term feeding studies of crops containing one or more of three specific traits: herbicide tolerance via the EPSPS gene and insect resistance via cry1Ab or cry3Bb1 genes. These genes are commonly found in commercialised GM crops. Our search found 21 studies for nine (19%) out of the 47 crops approved for human and/or animal consumption. We could find no studies on the other 38 (81%) approved crops. Fourteen out of the 21 studies (67%) were general health assessments of the GM crop on rat health. Most of these studies (76%) were performed after the crop had been approved for human and/or animal consumption, with half of these being published at least nine years after approval. Our review also discovered an inconsistency in methodology and a lack of defined criteria for outcomes that would be considered toxicologically or pathologically significant. In addition, there was a lack of transparency in the methods and results, which made comparisons between the studies difficult. The evidence reviewed here demonstrates an incomplete picture regarding the toxicity (and safety) of GM products consumed by humans and animals. Therefore, each GM product should be assessed on merit, with appropriate studies performed to indicate the level of safety associated with them. Detailed guidelines should be developed which will allow for the generation of comparable and reproducible studies. This will establish a foundation for evidence-based guidelines, to better determine if GM food is safe for human and animal consumption. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. RNAi-based GM plants: food for thought for risk assessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Matthew; Devos, Yann; Lanzoni, Anna; Liu, Yi; Gomes, Ana; Gennaro, Andrea; Waigmann, Elisabeth

    2014-12-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging technology that offers new opportunities for the generation of new traits in genetically modified (GM) plants. Potential risks associated with RNAi-based GM plants and issues specific to their risk assessment were discussed during an international scientific workshop (June 2014) organized by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Selected key outcomes of the workshop are reported here. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Chemical And Physiological Studies On Drought Stress Tolerance Of Irradiated Communis Pear Using Tissue Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaied, N.S.; Ragab, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    The rooted in vitro irradiated pear rootstocks (Pyrus communis) were subjected to drought stress by using different concentrations of mannitol (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 gm/l), polyethylene glycol (PEG) at concentrations 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 % to culture medium and also agar at concentrations 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 gm/l to study their effects on tissue culture and chemical analysis and their tolerance to drought stress. The obtained results showed that the number of shoots, shoot length and number of leaves were higher at 20 and 40 gm/l mannitol. Increasing mannitol concentration enhanced the increase of chlorophyll b, reducing sugars, total indoles and total phenols up to the highest level at 100 gm/l. Adding PEG at concentration 2% to the culture medium encouraged significant increases in the number of shoots and number of leaves and increase chlorophyll a, and non-reducing sugars as well as significant decrease in number of shoots, shoots length, number of leaves, root length and number of roots with increasing agar concentrations to the culture medium. However, decreasing agar concentration in the culture medium induced increase in chlorophyll A and non-reducing sugar

  13. Fungal traits that drive ecosystem dynamics on land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treseder, Kathleen K; Lennon, Jay T

    2015-06-01

    Fungi contribute extensively to a wide range of ecosystem processes, including decomposition of organic carbon, deposition of recalcitrant carbon, and transformations of nitrogen and phosphorus. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge about physiological and morphological traits of fungi that directly influence these processes, and we describe the functional genes that encode these traits. In addition, we synthesize information from 157 whole fungal genomes in order to determine relationships among selected functional genes within fungal taxa. Ecosystem-related traits varied most at relatively coarse taxonomic levels. For example, we found that the maximum amount of variance for traits associated with carbon mineralization, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, and stress tolerance could be explained at the levels of order to phylum. Moreover, suites of traits tended to co-occur within taxa. Specifically, the genetic capacities for traits that improve stress tolerance-β-glucan synthesis, trehalose production, and cold-induced RNA helicases-were positively related to one another, and they were more evident in yeasts. Traits that regulate the decomposition of complex organic matter-lignin peroxidases, cellobiohydrolases, and crystalline cellulases-were also positively related, but they were more strongly associated with free-living filamentous fungi. Altogether, these relationships provide evidence for two functional groups: stress tolerators, which may contribute to soil carbon accumulation via the production of recalcitrant compounds; and decomposers, which may reduce soil carbon stocks. It is possible that ecosystem functions, such as soil carbon storage, may be mediated by shifts in the fungal community between stress tolerators and decomposers in response to environmental changes, such as drought and warming. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Metabolite profiling reveals abiotic stress tolerance in Tn5 mutant of Pseudomonas putida.

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    Vasvi Chaudhry

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas is an efficient plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR; however, intolerance to drought and high temperature limit its application in agriculture as a bioinoculant. Transposon 5 (Tn5 mutagenesis was used to generate a stress tolerant mutant from a PGPR Pseudomonas putida NBRI1108 isolated from chickpea rhizosphere. A mutant NBRI1108T, selected after screening of nearly 10,000 transconjugants, exhibited significant tolerance towards high temperature and drought. Southern hybridization analysis of EcoRI and XhoI restricted genomic DNA of NBRI1108T confirmed that it had a single Tn5 insertion. The metabolic changes in the polar and non-polar extracts of NBRI1108 and NBRI1108T were examined using 1H, 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Thirty six chemically diverse metabolites consisting of amino acids, fatty acids and phospholipids were identified and quantified. Insertion of Tn5 influenced amino acid and phospholipid metabolism and resulted in significantly higher concentration of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycinebetaine, glycerophosphatidylcholine (GPC and putrescine in NBRI1108T as compared to that in NBRI1108. The concentration of glutamic acid, glycinebetaine and GPC increased by 34%, 95% and 100%, respectively in the NBRI1108T as compared to that in NBRI1108. High concentration of glycerophosphatidylethanolamine (GPE and undetected GPC in NBRI1108 indicates that biosynthesis of GPE may have taken place via the methylation pathway of phospholipid biosynthesis. However, high GPC and low GPE concentration in NBRI1108T suggest that methylation pathway and phosphatidylcholine synthase (PCS pathway of phospholipid biosynthesis are being followed in the NBRI1108T. Application of multivariate principal component analysis (PCA on the quantified metabolites revealed clear variations in NBRI1108 and NBRI1108T in polar and non-polar metabolites. Identification of abiotic

  15. Improvement of multiple stress tolerance in yeast strain by sequential mutagenesis for enhanced bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rajni; Pramanik, Krishna

    2012-12-01

    The present work deals with the improvement of multiple stress tolerance in a glucose-xylose co-fermenting hybrid yeast strain RPR39 by sequential mutagenesis using ethyl methane sulfonate, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, near and far ultraviolet radiations. The mutants were evaluated for their tolerance to ethanol, temperature and fermentation inhibitors. Among these mutants, mutant RPRT90 exhibited highest tolerance to 10% initial ethanol concentration, 2 g L(-1) furfural and 8 g L(-1) acetic acid. The mutant also showed good growth at high temperature (39-40°C). A study on the combined effect of multiple stresses during fermentation of glucose-xylose mixture (3:1 ratio) was performed using mutant RPRT90. Under the combined effect of thermal (39°C) and inhibitor stress (0.25 g L(-1) vanillin, 0.5 g L(-1) furfural and 4 g L(-1) acetic acid), the mutant produced ethanol with a yield of 0.379 g g(-1), while under combined effect of ethanol (7% v/v) and inhibitor stress the ethanol yield obtained was 0.43 g g(-1). Further, under the synergistic effect of sugar (250 g L(-1)), thermal (39°C), ethanol (7% v/v) and inhibitors stress, the strain produced a maximum of 47.93 g L(-1) ethanol by utilizing 162.42 g L(-1) of glucose-xylose mixture giving an ethanol yield of 0.295 g g(-1) and productivity of 0.57 g L(-1) h(-1). Under same condition the fusant RPR39 produced a maximum of 30.0 g L(-1) ethanol giving a yield and productivity of 0.21 g g(-1) and 0.42 g L(-1) h(-1) respectively. The molecular characterization of mutant showed considerable difference in its genetic profile from hybrid RPR39. Thus, sequential mutagenesis was found to be effective to improve the stress tolerance properties in yeast. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Transformation of plum plants with a cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase transgene leads to enhanced water stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Faize, Lydia; Nicolás, Emilio; Clemente-Moreno, Maria José; Bru-Martinez, Roque; Burgos, Lorenzo; Hernández, José Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Water deficit is the most serious environmental factor limiting agricultural production. In this work, the tolerance to water stress (WS) of transgenic plum lines harbouring transgenes encoding cytosolic antioxidant enzymes was studied, with the aim of achieving the durable resistance of commercial plum trees. The acclimatization process was successful for two transgenic lines: line C3-1, co-expressing superoxide dismutase (two copies) and ascorbate peroxidase (one copy) transgenes simultaneously; and line J8-1, harbouring four copies of the cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase gene (cytapx). Plant water relations, chlorophyll fluorescence and the levels of antioxidant enzymes were analysed in both lines submitted to moderate (7 d) and severe (15 d) WS conditions. Additionally, in line J8-1, showing the best response in terms of stress tolerance, a proteomic analysis and determination of the relative gene expression of two stress-responsive genes were carried out. Line J8-1 exhibited an enhanced stress tolerance that correlated with better photosynthetic performance and a tighter control of water-use efficiency. Furthermore, this WS tolerance also correlated with a higher enzymatic antioxidant capacity than wild-type (WT) and line C3-1 plum plants. On the other hand, line C3-1 displayed an intermediate phenotype between WT plants and line J8-1 in terms of WS tolerance. Under severe WS, the tolerance displayed by J8-1 plants could be due to an enhanced capacity to cope with drought-induced oxidative stress. Moreover, proteomic analysis revealed differences between WT and J8-1 plants, mainly in terms of the abundance of proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, antioxidant defences and protein fate. The transformation of plum plants with cytapx has a profound effect at the physiological, biochemical, proteomic and genetic levels, enhancing WS tolerance. Although further experiments under field conditions will be required, it is proposed that J8

  17. Anthocyanin biosynthesis for cold and freezing stress tolerance and desirable color in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Park, Jong-In; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-07-01

    Flavonoids are divided into several structural classes, including anthocyanins, which provide flower and leaf colors and other derivatives that play diverse roles in plant development and interactions with the environment. This study characterized four anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) genes of Brassica rapa, a structural gene of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, and investigated their association with pigment formation, cold and freezing tolerance in B. rapa. Sequences of these genes were analyzed and compared with similar gene sequences from other species, and a high degree of homology with their respective functions was found. Organ-specific expression analysis revealed that these genes were only expressed in the colored portion of leaves of different lines of B. rapa. Conversely, B. rapa anthocyanidin synthase (BrANS) genes also showed responses to cold and freezing stress treatment in B. rapa. BrANSs were also shown to be regulated by two transcription factors, BrMYB2-2 and BrTT8, contrasting with anthocyanin accumulation and cold stress. Thus, the above results suggest the association of these genes with anthocyanin biosynthesis and cold and freezing stress tolerance and might be useful resources for development of cold-resistant Brassica crops with desirable colors as well.

  18. Transgenic alfalfa plants expressing the sweetpotato Orange gene exhibit enhanced abiotic stress tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wang

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., a perennial forage crop with high nutritional content, is widely distributed in various environments worldwide. We recently demonstrated that the sweetpotato Orange gene (IbOr is involved in increasing carotenoid accumulation and enhancing resistance to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, in an effort to improve the nutritional quality and environmental stress tolerance of alfalfa, we transferred the IbOr gene into alfalfa (cv. Xinjiang Daye under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2 promoter through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Among the 11 transgenic alfalfa lines (referred to as SOR plants, three lines (SOR2, SOR3, and SOR8 selected based on their IbOr transcript levels were examined for their tolerance to methyl viologen (MV-induced oxidative stress in a leaf disc assay. The SOR plants exhibited less damage in response to MV-mediated oxidative stress and salt stress than non-transgenic plants. The SOR plants also exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought stress, along with higher total carotenoid levels. The results suggest that SOR alfalfa plants would be useful as forage crops with improved nutritional value and increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, which would enhance the development of sustainable agriculture on marginal lands.

  19. Transgenic poplar expressing Arabidopsis NDPK2 enhances growth as well as oxidative stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Myoung Duck; Choi, Young Im; Park, Sung-Chul; Yun, Dae-Jin; Noh, Eun Woon; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2011-04-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (NDPK2) is known to regulate the expression of antioxidant genes in plants. Previously, we reported that overexpression of Arabidopsis NDPK2 (AtNDPK2) under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter in transgenic potato and sweetpotato plants enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In this study, transgenic poplar (Populus alba × Poplus glandulosa) expressing the AtNDPK2 gene under the control of a SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SN) was generated to develop plants with enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress. The level of AtNDPK2 expression and NDPK activity in SN plants following methyl viologen (MV) treatment was positively correlated with the plant's tolerance to MV-mediated oxidative stress. We also observed that antioxidant enzyme activities such as ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and peroxidase were increased in MV-treated leaf discs of SN plants. The growth of SN plants was substantially increased under field conditions including increased branch number and stem diameter. SN plants exhibited higher transcript levels of the auxin-response genes IAA2 and IAA5. These results suggest that enhanced AtNDPK2 expression affects oxidative stress tolerance leading to improved plant growth in transgenic poplar. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Yeast functional screen to identify genes conferring salt stress tolerance in Salicornia europaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki eNakahara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a critical environmental factor that adversely affects crop productivity. Halophytes have evolved various mechanisms to adapt to saline environments. Salicornia europaea L. is one of the most salt-tolerant plant species. It does not have special salt-secreting structures like a salt gland or salt bladder, and is therefore a good model for studying the common mechanisms underlying plant salt tolerance. To identify candidate genes encoding key proteins in the mediation of salt tolerance in S. europaea, we performed a functional screen of a cDNA library in yeast. The library was screened for genes that allowed the yeast to grow in the presence of 1.3 M NaCl. We obtained three full-length S. europaea genes that confer salt tolerance. The genes are predicted to encode (1 a novel protein highly homologous to thaumatin-like proteins, (2 a novel coiled-coil protein of unknown function, and (3 a novel short peptide of 32 residues. Exogenous application of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 32 residues improved salt tolerance of Arabidopsis. The approach described in this report provides a rapid assay system for large-scale screening of S. europaea genes involved in salt stress tolerance and supports the identification of genes responsible for such mechanisms. These genes may be useful candidates for improving crop salt tolerance by genetic transformation.

  1. Yeast functional screen to identify genes conferring salt stress tolerance in Salicornia europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yoshiki; Sawabe, Shogo; Kainuma, Kenta; Katsuhara, Maki; Shibasaka, Mineo; Suzuki, Masanori; Yamamoto, Kosuke; Oguri, Suguru; Sakamoto, Hikaru

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is a critical environmental factor that adversely affects crop productivity. Halophytes have evolved various mechanisms to adapt to saline environments. Salicornia europaea L. is one of the most salt-tolerant plant species. It does not have special salt-secreting structures like a salt gland or salt bladder, and is therefore a good model for studying the common mechanisms underlying plant salt tolerance. To identify candidate genes encoding key proteins in the mediation of salt tolerance in S. europaea, we performed a functional screen of a cDNA library in yeast. The library was screened for genes that allowed the yeast to grow in the presence of 1.3 M NaCl. We obtained three full-length S. europaea genes that confer salt tolerance. The genes are predicted to encode (1) a novel protein highly homologous to thaumatin-like proteins, (2) a novel coiled-coil protein of unknown function, and (3) a novel short peptide of 32 residues. Exogenous application of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 32 residues improved salt tolerance of Arabidopsis. The approach described in this report provides a rapid assay system for large-scale screening of S. europaea genes involved in salt stress tolerance and supports the identification of genes responsible for such mechanisms. These genes may be useful candidates for improving crop salt tolerance by genetic transformation.

  2. Oligouridylate Binding Protein 1b Plays an Integral Role in Plant Heat Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cam Chau; Nakaminami, Kentaro; Matsui, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Shuhei; Kurihara, Yukio; Toyooka, Kiminori; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs), which are formed in the plant cytoplasm under stress conditions, are transient dynamic sites (particles) for mRNA storage. SGs are actively involved in protecting mRNAs from degradation. Oligouridylate binding protein 1b (UBP1b) is a component of SGs. The formation of microscopically visible cytoplasmic foci, referred to as UBP1b SG, was induced by heat treatment in UBP1b-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants (UBP1b-ox). A detailed understanding of the function of UBP1b, however, is still not clear. UBP1b-ox plants displayed increased heat tolerance, relative to control plants, while ubp1b mutants were more sensitive to heat stress than control plants. Microarray analysis identified 117 genes whose expression was heat-inducible and higher in the UBP1b-ox plants. RNA decay analysis was performed using cordycepin, a transcriptional inhibitor. In order to determine if those genes serve as targets of UBP1b, the rate of RNA degradation of a DnaJ heat shock protein and a stress-associated protein (AtSAP3) in UBP1b-ox plants was slower than in control plants; indicating that the mRNAs of these genes were protected within the UBP1b SG granule. Collectively, these data demonstrate that UBP1b plays an integral role in heat stress tolerance in plants.

  3. Response of Microcystis to copper stress - Do phenotypes of Microcystis make a difference in stress tolerance?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zhongxing [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Gan Nanqin [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Huang Qun [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Song Lirong [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China)]. E-mail: lrsong@ihb.ac.cn

    2007-05-15

    To elucidate the role of phenotype in stress-tolerant bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis, two phenotypes of M. aeruginosa - unicellular and colonial strains were selected to investigate how they responded to copper stress. Flow cytometry (FCM) examination indicated that the percents of viable cells in unicellular and colonial Microcystis were 1.92-2.83% and 72.3-97.51%, respectively, under 0.25 mg l{sup -1} copper sulfate treatment for 24 h. Upon exposure to 0.25 mg l{sup -1} copper sulfate, the activities of antioxidative enzyme, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were significantly increased in colonial Microcystis compared to unicellular Microcystis. Meanwhile, the values of the photosynthetic parameters (F {sub v}/F {sub m}, ETR{sub max}, and oxygen evolution rate) decreased more rapidly in unicellular Microcystis than in colonial Microcystis. The results indicate that colonial Microcystis has a higher endurance to copper than unicellular Microcystis. This suggests that the efficient treatment concentration of copper sulfate as algaecides will be dependent on the phenotypes of Microcystis. - Stress-resistance ability in Microcystis is influenced by its phenotypes.

  4. Identification of alcohol stress tolerance genes ofSynechocystissp. PCC 6803 using adaptive laboratory evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsusako, Takuya; Toya, Yoshihiro; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is an attractive organism for the production of alcohols, such as isobutanol and ethanol. However, because stress against the produced alcohol is a major barrier for industrial applications, it is highly desirable to engineer organisms with strong alcohol tolerance. Isobutanol-tolerant strains of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were obtained by long-term passage culture experiments using medium containing 2 g/L isobutanol. These evolved strains grew on medium containing 5 g/L isobutanol on which the parental strain could not grow. Mutation analysis of the evolved strains revealed that they acquired resistance ability due to combinatorial malfunctions of slr1044 ( mcpA ) and slr0369 ( envD ), or slr0322 ( hik43 ) and envD . The tolerant strains demonstrated stress resistance against isobutanol as well as a wide variety of alcohols such as ethanol, n -butanol, and isopentanol. As a result of introducing an ethanol-producing pathway into the evolved strain, its productivity successfully increased to 142% of the control strain. Novel mutations were identified that improved the stress tolerance ability of various alcohols in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

  5. Contribution of ClpP to stress tolerance and virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiang-Hua; Zhang, Jia-Qin; Song, Xiu-Yu; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Shi-Yang

    2014-11-01

    Abilities to tolerate environmental stresses and to form biofilms on teeth surface are key virulence attributes of Streptococcus mutans, the primary causative agent of human dental caries. ClpP, the chief intracellular protease of S. mutans, along with ATPases degrades altered proteins that might be toxic for bacteria, and thus plays important roles in stress response. To further understand the roles of ClpP in stress response of S. mutans, a ClpP deficient strain was constructed and used for general stress tolerance, autolysis, mutacins production, and virulence assays. Here, we demonstrated that inactivation of ClpP in S. mutans resulted in a sensitive phenotype to several environmental stresses, including acid, cold, thermal, and oxidative stresses. The ClpP deficient strain displayed slow growth rates, poor growth yields, formation of long chains, increased clumping in broth, and reduced capacity to form biofilms in presence of glucose. Mutacins production and autolysis of S. mutans were also impaired by mutation of clpP. Animals study showed that clpP mutation increased virulence of S. mutans but not significant. However, enhanced abilities to survive lethal acid and to form biofilm in sucrose were observed in ClpP deficient strain. Our findings revealed a broad impact of ClpP on several virulence properties of S. mutans and highlighted the relevance of ClpP proteolysis with progression of diseases caused by S. mutans. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Modulation of Antioxidant Defense System Is Associated with Combined Drought and Heat Stress Tolerance in Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara I. Zandalinas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought and high temperatures are two major abiotic stress factors that often occur simultaneously in nature, affecting negatively crop performance and yield. Moreover, these environmental challenges induce oxidative stress in plants through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin are two citrus genotypes with contrasting ability to cope with the combination of drought and heat stress. In this work, a direct relationship between an increased antioxidant activity and stress tolerance is reported. According to our results, the ability of Carrizo plants to efficiently coordinate superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, and glutathione reductase (GR activities involved in ROS detoxification along with the maintenance of a favorable GSH/GSSG ratio could be related to their relative tolerance to this stress combination. On the other hand, the increment of SOD activity and the inefficient GR activation along with the lack of CAT and APX activities in Cleopatra plants in response to the combination of drought and heat stress, could contribute to an increased oxidative stress and the higher sensibility of this citrus genotype to this stress combination.

  7. Modulation of Antioxidant Defense System Is Associated with Combined Drought and Heat Stress Tolerance in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandalinas, Sara I; Balfagón, Damián; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2017-01-01

    Drought and high temperatures are two major abiotic stress factors that often occur simultaneously in nature, affecting negatively crop performance and yield. Moreover, these environmental challenges induce oxidative stress in plants through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin are two citrus genotypes with contrasting ability to cope with the combination of drought and heat stress. In this work, a direct relationship between an increased antioxidant activity and stress tolerance is reported. According to our results, the ability of Carrizo plants to efficiently coordinate superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities involved in ROS detoxification along with the maintenance of a favorable GSH/GSSG ratio could be related to their relative tolerance to this stress combination. On the other hand, the increment of SOD activity and the inefficient GR activation along with the lack of CAT and APX activities in Cleopatra plants in response to the combination of drought and heat stress, could contribute to an increased oxidative stress and the higher sensibility of this citrus genotype to this stress combination.

  8. Overexpression of Late Embryogenesis Abundant 14 enhances Arabidopsis salt stress tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Fengjuan; Qi, Shengdong; Li, Hui; Liu, Pu; Li, Pengcheng; Wu, Changai; Zheng, Chengchao; Huang, Jinguang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • It is the first time to investigate the biological function of AtLEA14 in salt stress response. • AtLEA14 enhances the salt stress tolerance both in Arabidopsis and yeast. • AtLEA14 responses to salt stress by stabilizing AtPP2-B11, an E3 ligase, under normal or salt stress conditions. - Abstract: Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are implicated in various abiotic stresses in higher plants. In this study, we identified a LEA protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtLEA14, which was ubiquitously expressed in different tissues and remarkably induced with increased duration of salt treatment. Subcellular distribution analysis demonstrated that AtLEA14 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Transgenic Arabidopsis and yeast overexpressing AtLEA14 all exhibited enhanced tolerance to high salinity. The transcripts of salt stress-responsive marker genes (COR15a, KIN1, RD29B and ERD10) were overactivated in AtLEA14 overexpressing lines compared with those in wild type plants under normal or salt stress conditions. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that AtLEA14 could effectively stabilize AtPP2-B11, an important E3 ligase. These results suggested that AtLEA14 had important protective functions under salt stress conditions in Arabidopsis

  9. Could abiotic stress tolerance in wild relatives of rice be used to improve Oryza sativa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, Brian J; Wang, Han; Scafaro, Andrew P

    2014-02-01

    Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima have been selected to acquire and partition resources efficiently as part of the process of domestication. However, genetic diversity in cultivated rice is limited compared to wild Oryza species, in spite of 120,000 genotypes being held in gene banks. By contrast, there is untapped diversity in the more than 20 wild species of Oryza, some having been collected from just a few coastal locations (e.g. Oryza schlechteri), while others are widely distributed (e.g. Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon). The extent of DNA sequence diversity and phenotypic variation is still being established in wild Oryza, with genetic barriers suggesting a vast range of morphologies and function even within species, such as has been demonstrated for Oryza meridionalis. With increasing climate variability and attempts to make more marginal land arable, abiotic and biotic stresses will be managed over the coming decades by tapping into the genetic diversity of wild relatives of O. sativa. To help create a more targeted approach to sourcing wild rice germplasm for abiotic stress tolerance, we have created a climate distribution map by plotting the natural occurrence of all Oryza species against corresponding temperature and moisture data. We then discuss interspecific variation in phenotype and its significance for rice, followed by a discussion of ways to integrate germplasm from wild relatives into domesticated rice. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nitric Oxide (NO) in Plant Heat Stress Tolerance: Current Knowledge and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parankusam, Santisree; Adimulam, Srivani S; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Sharma, Kiran K

    2017-01-01

    High temperature is one of the biggest abiotic stress challenges for agriculture. While, Nitric oxide (NO) is gaining increasing attention from plant science community due to its involvement in resistance to various plant stress conditions, its implications on heat stress tolerance is still unclear. Several lines of evidence indicate NO as a key signaling molecule in mediating various plant responses such as photosynthesis, oxidative defense, osmolyte accumulation, gene expression, and protein modifications under heat stress. Furthermore, the interactions of NO with other signaling molecules and phytohormones to attain heat tolerance have also been building up in recent years. Nevertheless, deep insights into the functional intermediaries or signal transduction components associated with NO-mediated heat stress signaling are imperative to uncover their involvement in plant hormone induced feed-back regulations, ROS/NO balance, and stress induced gene transcription. Although, progress is underway, much work remains to define the functional relevance of this molecule in plant heat tolerance. This review provides an overview on current status and discuss knowledge gaps in exploiting NO, thereby enhancing our understanding of the role of NO in plant heat tolerance.

  11. Does plant-Microbe interaction confer stress tolerance in plants: A review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhilesh; Verma, Jay Prakash

    2018-03-01

    The biotic and abiotic stresses are major constraints for crop yield, food quality and global food security. A number of parameters such as physiological, biochemical, molecular of plants are affected under stress condition. Since the use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture practices cause degradation of soil fertility and environmental pollutions. Hence it is necessary to develop safer and sustainable means for agriculture production. The application of plant growth promoting microbes (PGPM) and mycorrhizal fungi enhance plant growth, under such conditions. It offers an economically fascinating and ecologically sound ways for protecting plants against stress condition. PGPM may promote plant growth by regulating plant hormones, improve nutrition acquisition, siderophore production and enhance the antioxidant system. While acquired systemic resistance (ASR) and induced systemic resistance (ISR) effectively deal with biotic stress. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhance the supply of nutrients and water during stress condition and increase tolerance to stress. This plant-microbe interaction is vital for sustainable agriculture and industrial purpose, because it depends on biological processes and replaces conventional agriculture practices. Therefore, microbes may play a key role as an ecological engineer to solve environmental stress problems. So, it is a feasible and potential technology in future to feed global population at available resources with reduced impact on environmental quality. In this review, we have attempted to explore about abiotic and biotic stress tolerant beneficial microorganisms and their modes of action to enhance the sustainable agricultural production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. A Novel Non-coding RNA Regulates Drought Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Albesher, Nour H.

    2014-05-01

    Drought (soil water deficit) as a major adverse environmental condition can result in serious reduction in plant growth and crop production. Plants respond and adapt to drought stresses by triggering various signalling pathways leading to physiological, metabolic and developmental changes that may ultimately contribute to enhanced tolerance to the stress. Here, a novel non-coding RNA (ncRNA) involved in plant drought stress tolerance was identified. We showed that increasing the expression of this ncRNA led to enhanced sensitivity during seed germination and seedling growth to the phytohormone abscisic acid. The mutant seedlings are also more sensitive to osmotic stress inhibition of lateral root growth. Consistently, seedlings with enhanced expression of this ncRNA exhibited reduced transiprational water loss and were more drought-tolerant than the wild type. Future analyses of the mechanism for its role in drought tolerance may help us to understand how plant drought tolerance could be further regulated by this novel ncRNA.

  13. Transgenic Alfalfa Plants Expressing the Sweetpotato Orange Gene Exhibit Enhanced Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Ke, Qingbo; Kim, Myoung Duck; Kim, Sun Ha; Ji, Chang Yoon; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Li, Hongbing; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xiping; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a perennial forage crop with high nutritional content, is widely distributed in various environments worldwide. We recently demonstrated that the sweetpotato Orange gene (IbOr) is involved in increasing carotenoid accumulation and enhancing resistance to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, in an effort to improve the nutritional quality and environmental stress tolerance of alfalfa, we transferred the IbOr gene into alfalfa (cv. Xinjiang Daye) under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2) promoter through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Among the 11 transgenic alfalfa lines (referred to as SOR plants), three lines (SOR2, SOR3, and SOR8) selected based on their IbOr transcript levels were examined for their tolerance to methyl viologen (MV)-induced oxidative stress in a leaf disc assay. The SOR plants exhibited less damage in response to MV-mediated oxidative stress and salt stress than non-transgenic plants. The SOR plants also exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought stress, along with higher total carotenoid levels. The results suggest that SOR alfalfa plants would be useful as forage crops with improved nutritional value and increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, which would enhance the development of sustainable agriculture on marginal lands. PMID:25946429

  14. The flavoprotein Tah18-dependent NO synthesis confers high-temperature stress tolerance on yeast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Akira; Kawahara, Nobuhiro [Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Takagi, Hiroshi, E-mail: hiro@bs.naist.jp [Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NO is produced from L-arginine in response to elevated temperature in yeast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tah18 was first identified as the yeast protein involved in NO synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tah18-dependent NO synthesis confers tolerance to high-temperature on yeast cells. -- Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule involved in the regulation of a large number of cellular functions. In the unicellular eukaryote yeast, NO may be involved in stress response pathways, but its role is poorly understood due to the lack of mammalian NO synthase (NOS) orthologues. Previously, we have proposed the oxidative stress-induced L-arginine synthesis and its physiological role under stress conditions in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, our experimental results indicated that increased conversion of L-proline into L-arginine led to NO production in response to elevated temperature. We also showed that the flavoprotein Tah18, which was previously reported to transfer electrons to the Fe-S cluster protein Dre2, was involved in NO synthesis in yeast. Gene knockdown analysis demonstrated that Tah18-dependent NO synthesis confers high-temperature stress tolerance on yeast cells. As it appears that such a unique cell protection mechanism is specific to yeasts and fungi, it represents a promising target for antifungal activity.

  15. Overexpression of Late Embryogenesis Abundant 14 enhances Arabidopsis salt stress tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Fengjuan, E-mail: jfj.5566@163.com; Qi, Shengdong, E-mail: zisexanwu@163.com; Li, Hui, E-mail: 332453593@qq.com; Liu, Pu, E-mail: banbaokezhan@163.com; Li, Pengcheng, E-mail: lpcsdau@163.com; Wu, Changai, E-mail: cawu@sdau.edu.cn; Zheng, Chengchao, E-mail: cczheng@sdau.edu.cn; Huang, Jinguang, E-mail: jghuang@sdau.edu.cn

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • It is the first time to investigate the biological function of AtLEA14 in salt stress response. • AtLEA14 enhances the salt stress tolerance both in Arabidopsis and yeast. • AtLEA14 responses to salt stress by stabilizing AtPP2-B11, an E3 ligase, under normal or salt stress conditions. - Abstract: Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are implicated in various abiotic stresses in higher plants. In this study, we identified a LEA protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtLEA14, which was ubiquitously expressed in different tissues and remarkably induced with increased duration of salt treatment. Subcellular distribution analysis demonstrated that AtLEA14 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Transgenic Arabidopsis and yeast overexpressing AtLEA14 all exhibited enhanced tolerance to high salinity. The transcripts of salt stress-responsive marker genes (COR15a, KIN1, RD29B and ERD10) were overactivated in AtLEA14 overexpressing lines compared with those in wild type plants under normal or salt stress conditions. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that AtLEA14 could effectively stabilize AtPP2-B11, an important E3 ligase. These results suggested that AtLEA14 had important protective functions under salt stress conditions in Arabidopsis.

  16. Overexpression of snapdragon Delila (Del) gene in tobacco enhances anthocyanin accumulation and abiotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Aung Htay; Park, Kyeung Il; Ai, Trinh Ngoc; Chung, Mi Young; Han, Jeung Sul; Kang, Young-Wha; Lim, Ki Byung; Kim, Chang Kil

    2017-03-23

    Rosea1 (Ros1) and Delila (Del) co-expression controls anthocyanin accumulation in snapdragon flowers, while their overexpression in tomato strongly induces anthocyanin accumulation. However, little data exist on how Del expression alone influences anthocyanin accumulation. In tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'Xanthi'), Del expression enhanced leaf and flower anthocyanin production through regulating NtCHS, NtCHI, NtF3H, NtDFR, and NtANS transcript levels. Transgenic lines displayed different anthocyanin colors (e.g., pale red: T 0 -P, red: T 0 -R, and strong red: T 0 -S), resulting from varying levels of biosynthetic gene transcripts. Under salt stress, the T 2 generation had higher total polyphenol content, radical (DPPH, ABTS) scavenging activities, antioxidant-related gene expression, as well as overall greater salt and drought tolerance than wild type (WT). We propose that Del overexpression elevates transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic and antioxidant-related genes, leading to enhanced anthocyanin production and antioxidant activity. The resultant increase of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity improves abiotic stress tolerance.

  17. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Highly Conductive Polymer Electrodes as Anode and Their Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajii, Hirotake; Ohmori, Yutaka; Maki, Hideki; Sekimoto, Yasuhiro; Shigeno, Yasuhiro; Takehara, Naoya; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication and characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with highly conductive polymer electrodes as an anode and the stress tolerance of the devices fabricated on polymeric substrates were studied. By inserting a wet-processed organic layer between a polymer electrode and a dry-processed hole-transport layer, the surface emission pattern from an OLED was markedly improved. For the device with a wet-processed organic layer (methoxy-substituted 1,3,5-tris[4-(diphenylamino)phenyl]benzene), the uniform surface emission resulted from the uniform applied electric field in the emissive layer and the improvement in interface adherence. The OLED with a wet-processed layer as a hole injection layer showed a maximum luminance and a maximum efficiency of 10,000 cd/m2 and 3.5 cd/A, respectively. For the device fabricated on a polymeric substrate, the impact testing of the OLEDs with highly conductive polymer electrodes [poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid)] as an anode revealed that the emission lasted for more than several ten thousand steps. A highly conductive polymer electrode had a sufficient tolerance to mechanical stress, as determined by comparing devices with indium tin oxide and a highly conductive polymer as anodes.

  18. Stress tolerance and biocontrol performance of the yeast antagonist, Candida diversa, change with morphology transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangkun; Chi, Mengshan; Chen, Huizhen; Sui, Yuan; Li, Yan; Liu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Xiaojing; Sun, Zhiqiang; Liu, Guoqing; Wang, Qi; Liu, Jia

    2016-02-01

    As an eco-friendly management method, biological control of postharvest diseases, utilizing antagonistic yeasts, is a research topic receiving considerable attention. Detailed knowledge on the biology of yeast antagonists is crucial when considering their potential application and development as biocontrol products. Changes in the growth form, such as single-cell to pseudohyphae, have been associated with the mode of action in postharvest biocontrol yeasts. In this study, the antagonistic yeast, Candida diversa, reversibly shifted from a single-cell morphology on yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) medium with 2 % agar to a pseudohyphal morphology on YPD with 0.3 % agar. The tolerance of the pseudohyphal form to heat and oxidative stresses, as well as the biocontrol efficacy against Botrytis cinerea on apple and kiwifruit stored at 25 and 4 °C, was significantly higher as compared to the single-cell form. This study provides new information on the ability of C. diversa to change its morphology and the impact of the morphology shift on stress tolerance and biocontrol performance.

  19. Metabolomics as a Tool to Investigate Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolites reflect the integration of gene expression, protein interaction and other different regulatory processes and are therefore closer to the phenotype than mRNA transcripts or proteins alone. Amongst all –omics technologies, metabolomics is the most transversal and can be applied to different organisms with little or no modifications. It has been successfully applied to the study of molecular phenotypes of plants in response to abiotic stress in order to find particular patterns associated to stress tolerance. These studies have highlighted the essential involvement of primary metabolites: sugars, amino acids and Krebs cycle intermediates as direct markers of photosynthetic dysfunction as well as effectors of osmotic readjustment. On the contrary, secondary metabolites are more specific of genera and species and respond to particular stress conditions as antioxidants, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS scavengers, coenzymes, UV and excess radiation screen and also as regulatory molecules. In addition, the induction of secondary metabolites by several abiotic stress conditions could also be an effective mechanism of cross-protection against biotic threats, providing a link between abiotic and biotic stress responses. Moreover, the presence/absence and relative accumulation of certain metabolites along with gene expression data provides accurate markers (mQTL or MWAS for tolerant crop selection in breeding programs.

  20. Identifying potential molecular factors involved in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 5113 mediated abiotic stress tolerance in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Daim, I A; Bejai, S; Fridborg, I; Meijer, J

    2018-03-01

    Abiotic stressors are main limiting factors for agricultural production around the world. Plant growth-promoting bacteria have been successfully used to improve abiotic stress tolerance in several crops including wheat. However, the molecular changes involved in the improvement of stress management are poorly understood. The present investigation addressed some molecular factors involved in bacterially induced plant abiotic stress responses by identifying differentially expressed genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings treated with the beneficial bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCMB5113 prior to challenge with abiotic stress conditions such as heat, cold or drought. cDNA-AFLP analysis revealed differential expression of more than 200 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in wheat leaves. Expression of selected TDFs was confirmed using RT-PCR. DNA sequencing of 31 differentially expressed TDFs revealed significant homology with both known and unknown genes in database searches. Virus-induced gene silencing of two abscisic acid-related TDFs showed different effects upon heat and drought stress. We conclude that treatment with B. amyloliquefaciens 5113 caused molecular modifications in wheat in order to induce tolerance against heat, cold and drought stress. Bacillus treatment provides systemic effects that involve metabolic and regulatory functions supporting both growth and stress management. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Unravelling chemical priming machinery in plants: the role of reactive oxygen-nitrogen-sulfur species in abiotic stress tolerance enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Chrystalla; Savvides, Andreas; Christou, Anastasis; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-10-01

    Abiotic stresses severely limit crop yield and their detrimental effects are aggravated by climate change. Chemical priming is an emerging field in crop stress management. The exogenous application of specific chemical agents before stress events results in tolerance enhancement and reduction of stress impacts on plant physiology and growth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the remarkable effects of chemical priming on plant physiology remain to be elucidated. Reactive oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur species (RONSS) are molecules playing a vital role in the stress acclimation of plants. When applied as priming agents, RONSS improve stress tolerance. This review summarizes the recent knowledge on the role of RONSS in cell signalling and gene regulation contributing to abiotic stress tolerance enhancement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethanol Enhances High-Salinity Stress Tolerance by Detoxifying Reactive Oxygen Species in Arabidopsis thaliana and Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Mai Nguyen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available High-salinity stress considerably affects plant growth and crop yield. Thus, developing techniques to enhance high-salinity stress tolerance in plants is important. In this study, we revealed that ethanol enhances high-salinity stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the ethanol-induced tolerance, we performed microarray analyses using A. thaliana seedlings. Our data indicated that the expression levels of 1,323 and 1,293 genes were upregulated by ethanol in the presence and absence of NaCl, respectively. The expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS signaling-related genes associated with high-salinity tolerance was upregulated by ethanol under salt stress condition. Some of these genes encode ROS scavengers and transcription factors (e.g., AtZAT10 and AtZAT12. A RT-qPCR analysis confirmed that the expression levels of AtZAT10 and AtZAT12 as well as AtAPX1 and AtAPX2, which encode cytosolic ascorbate peroxidases (APX, were higher in ethanol-treated plants than in untreated control plants, when exposure to high-salinity stress. Additionally, A. thaliana cytosolic APX activity increased by ethanol in response to salinity stress. Moreover, histochemical analyses with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB and nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT revealed that ROS accumulation was inhibited by ethanol under salt stress condition in A. thaliana and rice, in which DAB staining data was further confirmed by Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content. These results suggest that ethanol enhances high-salinity stress tolerance by detoxifying ROS. Our findings may have implications for improving salt-stress tolerance of agriculturally important field-grown crops.

  3. Production of low input and stress tolerant wheat germplasm through the use of biodiversity residing in the wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, S; Azam, F

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural biodiversity adds value to crop, induces resistance, contributes enormously to human foodstuff, removes fear of genetic uniformity and ensure food security of the world. For these reasons, NIAB initiated a programme on collection, evaluation, and utilisation of agro-biodiversity related with wheat and wheat wild relatives. The focus of the programme was on the addition of stress tolerance from wild species to cultivated wheat. The objectives were i) to have a permanent source of stress tolerant germplasm, ii) to facilitate availability of such germplasm for environment friendly, profitable and sustainable agriculture on stressed lands and iii) to ensure safety of biodiversity (through gene conservation) for the stability of future agriculture. During 1998-2001, we tested wheat lines developed by using biodiversity residing in the Aegilops species. The material was tested in an area that required stress tolerant germplasm. Planting was done in fields where cotton was already growing up to the stage of second picking. The inputs included only half the amount of recommended dose of fertiliser, approximately half of the normal irrigation, no herbicide and two applications of compost. Two of the lines tested in these trials out-yielded all existing wheat cultivars traditionally grown in this area and convinced the farmers that biodiversity does play a role in adding value to the existing material, making it suitable for specific requirement. This paper describes, in detail, the significance of the plant material for the area, practical achievements, acceptance by the farmers and economic feasibility of the stress tolerant material developed at NIAB.

  4. Genetic regulation of salt stress tolerance revealed by RNA-Seq in cotton diploid wild species, Gossypium davidsonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Guozhong; Du, Lei; Shang, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Chaoze; Yang, Bing; Hu, Yan; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-02-03

    Cotton is an economically important crop throughout the world, and is a pioneer crop in salt stress tolerance research. Investigation of the genetic regulation of salinity tolerance will provide information for salt stress-resistant breeding. Here, we employed next-generation RNA-Seq technology to elucidate the salt-tolerant mechanisms in cotton using the diploid cotton species Gossypium davidsonii which has superior stress tolerance. A total of 4744 and 5337 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be involved in salt stress tolerance in roots and leaves, respectively. Gene function annotation elucidated salt overly sensitive (SOS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling pathways. Furthermore, we found that photosynthesis pathways and metabolism play important roles in ion homeostasis and oxidation balance. Moreover, our studies revealed that alternative splicing also contributes to salt-stress responses at the posttranscriptional level, implying its functional role in response to salinity stress. This study not only provides a valuable resource for understanding the genetic control of salt stress in cotton, but also lays a substantial foundation for the genetic improvement of crop resistance to salt stress.

  5. Methionine restriction activates the retrograde response and confers both stress tolerance and lifespan extension to yeast, mouse and human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay E Johnson

    Full Text Available A methionine-restricted diet robustly improves healthspan in key model organisms. For example, methionine restriction reduces age-related pathologies and extends lifespan up to 45% in rodents. However, the mechanisms underlying these benefits remain largely unknown. We tested whether the yeast chronological aging assay could model the benefits of methionine restriction, and found that this intervention extends lifespan when enforced by either dietary or genetic approaches, and furthermore, that the observed lifespan extension is due primarily to reduced acid accumulation. In addition, methionine restriction-induced lifespan extension requires the activity of the retrograde response, which regulates nuclear gene expression in response to changes in mitochondrial function. Consistent with an involvement of stress-responsive retrograde signaling, we also found that methionine-restricted yeast are more stress tolerant than control cells. Prompted by these findings in yeast, we tested the effects of genetic methionine restriction on the stress tolerance and replicative lifespans of cultured mouse and human fibroblasts. We found that such methionine-restricted mammalian cells are resistant to numerous cytotoxic stresses, and are substantially longer-lived than control cells. In addition, similar to yeast, the extended lifespan of methionine-restricted mammalian cells is associated with NFκB-mediated retrograde signaling. Overall, our data suggest that improved stress tolerance and extension of replicative lifespan may contribute to the improved healthspan observed in methionine-restricted rodents, and also support the possibility that manipulation of the pathways engaged by methionine restriction may improve healthspan in humans.

  6. The Alfin-like homeodomain finger protein AL5 suppresses multiple negative factors to confer abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Tao, Jian-Jun; Chen, Hao-Wei; Li, Qing-Tian; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Lin, Qing; Zhang, Jin-Song; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2015-03-01

    Plant homeodomain (PHD) finger proteins affect processes of growth and development by changing transcription and reading epigenetic histone modifications, but their functions in abiotic stress responses remain largely unclear. Here we characterized seven Arabidopsis thaliana Alfin1-like PHD finger proteins (ALs) in terms of the responses to abiotic stresses. ALs localized to the nucleus and repressed transcription. Except AL6, all the ALs bound to G-rich elements. Mutations of the amino acids at positions 34 and 35 in AL6 caused loss of ability to bind to G-rich elements. Expression of the AL genes responded differentially to osmotic stress, salt, cold and abscisic acid treatments. AL5-over-expressing plants showed higher tolerance to salt, drought and freezing stress than Col-0. Consistently, al5 mutants showed reduced stress tolerance. We used ChIP-Seq assays to identify eight direct targets of AL5, and found that AL5 binds to the promoter regions of these genes. Knockout mutants of five of these target genes exhibited varying tolerances to stresses. These results indicate that AL5 inhibits multiple signaling pathways to confer stress tolerance. Our study sheds light on mechanisms of AL5-mediated signaling in abiotic stress responses, and provides tools for improvement of stress tolerance in crop plants. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. The world of "GM-free".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Vivian; Brookes, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The rapid global development of agricultural production systems using seeds derived from genetic modification (GM) has been paralleled by the growth of attempts to keep at least a part of the world's agriculture and food as free from GM-crops and their products as possible. The ideal for some proponents of such "GM-free" activity would be a total absence, usually styled "zero content"; others, perhaps more realistically, opt for a definition usually not precisely defined that allows for minimal trace levels of GM material. The reasons for wanting "GM-free" agriculture and its products are varied; they include philosophical and religious beliefs, concern for human (and animal) health--and for "the environment"-as well as commercial and political interests. With such a variety of motivations, and in the absence of legal rulings, the definitions of "GM-free" vary according to inclination and circumstances. Whatever the precise meaning, the maintenance of a "GM-free" product stream in a world where GM crop production is widespread requires the establishment of identity preservation and segregation systems in which traceability and testing are cornerstones. Inevitably these have cost implications for the supply chain and/or the ultimate consumer. In a number of countries different forms of "GM-free" labels exist for some products; the style of such labels is variable with schemes and labels typically voluntary or privately organized. In more recent years, some governments have begun to regularize the definition and meaning of "GM-free." We conclude our analysis by exploring consumer reactions both to "GM-free" and to "GM-free" labels, and ask who ultimately benefits from preserving a product stream substantially or entirely devoid of GM-content.

  9. Economic impact of GM crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

  10. Mechanisms of food processing and storage-related stress tolerance in Clostridium botulinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsten, Elias; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2015-05-01

    Vegetative cultures of Clostridium botulinum produce the extremely potent botulinum neurotoxin, and may jeopardize the safety of foods unless sufficient measures to prevent growth are applied. Minimal food processing relies on combinations of mild treatments, primarily to avoid deterioration of the sensory qualities of the food. Tolerance of C. botulinum to minimal food processing is well characterized. However, data on effects of successive treatments on robustness towards further processing is lacking. Developments in genetic manipulation tools and the availability of annotated genomes have allowed identification of genetic mechanisms involved in stress tolerance of C. botulinum. Most studies focused on low temperature, and the importance of various regulatory mechanisms in cold tolerance of C. botulinum has been demonstrated. Furthermore, novel roles in cold tolerance were shown for metabolic pathways under the control of these regulators. A role for secondary oxidative stress in tolerance to extreme temperatures has been proposed. Additionally, genetic mechanisms related to tolerance to heat, low pH, and high salinity have been characterized. Data on genetic stress-related mechanisms of psychrotrophic Group II C. botulinum strains are scarce; these mechanisms are of interest for food safety research and should thus be investigated. This minireview encompasses the importance of C. botulinum as a food safety hazard and its central physiological characteristics related to food-processing and storage-related stress. Special attention is given to recent findings considering genetic mechanisms C. botulinum utilizes in detecting and countering these adverse conditions. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of the safety of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konig, A.; Cockburn, A.; Crewel, R. W. R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides guidance on how to assess the safety of foods derived from genetically modified crops (GM crops); it summarises conclusions and recommendations of Working Group I of the ENTRANSFOOD project. The paper provides an approach for adapting the test strategy to the characteristics...... of the modified crop and the introduced trait, and assessing potential unintended effects from the genetic modification. The proposed approach to safety assessment starts with the comparison of the new GM crop with a traditional counterpart that is generally accepted as safe based on a history of human food use...... (the concept of substantial equivalence). This case-focused approach ensures that foods derived from GM crops that have passed this extensive test-regime are as safe and nutritious as currently consumed plant-derived foods. The approach is suitable for current and future GM crops with more complex...

  12. Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to smallholder farmers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa: extension personnel's awareness of stewardship requirements and dissemination practices.

  13. Energy homeostasis as an integrative tool for assessing limits of environmental stress tolerance in aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Inna M; Frederich, Markus; Bagwe, Rita; Lannig, Gisela; Sukhotin, Alexey A

    2012-08-01

    Energy balance is a fundamental requirement of stress adaptation and tolerance. We explore the links between metabolism, energy balance and stress tolerance using aquatic invertebrates as an example and demonstrate that using key parameters of energy balance (aerobic scope for growth, reproduction and activity; tissue energy status; metabolic rate depression; and compensatory onset of anaerobiosis) can assist in integrating the effects of multiple stressors and their interactions and in predicting the whole-organism and population-level consequences of environmental stress. We argue that limitations of both the amount of available energy and the rates of its acquisition and metabolic conversions result in trade-offs between basal maintenance of a stressed organism and energy costs of fitness-related functions such as reproduction, development and growth and can set limit to the tolerance of a broad range of environmental stressors. The degree of stress-induced disturbance of energy balance delineates transition from moderate stress compatible with population persistence (pejus range) to extreme stress where only time-limited existence is possible (pessimum range). It also determines the predominant adaptive strategy of metabolic responses (energy compensation vs. conservation) that allows an organism to survive the disturbance. We propose that energy-related biomarkers can be used to determine the conditions when these metabolic transitions occur and thus predict ecological consequences of stress exposures. Bioenergetic considerations can also provide common denominator for integrating stress responses and predicting tolerance limits under the environmentally realistic scenarios when multiple and often variable stressors act simultaneously on an organism. Determination of bioenergetic sustainability at the organism's level (or lack thereof) has practical implications. It can help identify the habitats and/or conditions where a population can survive (even if at the

  14. Characterization of Rhizobacteria from field grown Genetically Modified (GM) and non-GM maizes

    OpenAIRE

    Bumunang,Emmanuel Wihkochombom; Babalola,Olubukola Oluranti

    2014-01-01

    This study was done to examine the rhizobacteria from field grown Genetically Modified (GM) maize and its non-GM counterpart. Rhizospheric soil samples were collected at 30 days after sowing (DAS) and at post-harvest from two experimental fields in Gauteng, South Africa. Total rhizobacteria (cfu/g) in GM and non-GM soil samples was not significantly different across the different media 30 DAS and at post-harvest. Rhizobacterial isolates obtained were biochemically characterized using the anal...

  15. Investigating GM Risk Perceptions: A Survey of Anti-GM and Environmental Campaign Group Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Clare; Moran, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates how members of anti-GM campaign groups and environment groups perceive the risks and benefits of genetically modified (GM) technology in food and agriculture. The study targeted these groups as the most risk-averse sector of society when considering GM technology. Survey respondents were asked to rank the current and future…

  16. Exposure of livestock to GM feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadal, Anna; Giacomo, De Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Kleter, Gijs; Kok, Esther; McFarland, Sarah; Onori, Roberta; Paris, Alain; Toldrà, Mònica; Dijk, van Jeroen; Wal, Jean Michel; Pla, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This review explores the possibilities to determine livestock consumption of genetically modified (GM) feeds/ingredients including detection of genetically modified organism (GMO)-related DNA or proteins in animal samples, and the documentary system that is in place for GM feeds under EU

  17. Understanding alfalfa root systems and their rold in abiotic stress tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The root system architecture (RSA) impacts the capacity of the plant for efficient water and nutrient uptake. Root phenes have been associated with productivity under stress conditions and persistence of perennial species. The objectives of this study were to identify root traits that increase produ...

  18. GM as a route for delivery of sustainable crop protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Toby J A

    2012-01-01

    Modern agriculture, with its vast monocultures of lush fertilized crops, provides an ideal environment for adapted pests, weeds, and diseases. This vulnerability has implications for food security: when new pesticide-resistant pest biotypes evolve they can devastate crops. Even with existing crop protection measures, approximately one-third yield losses occur globally. Given the projected increase in demand for food (70% by 2050 according to the UN), sustainable ways of preventing these losses are needed. Development of resistant crop cultivars can make an important contribution. However, traditional crop breeding programmes are limited by the time taken to move resistance traits into elite crop genetic backgrounds and the limited gene pools in which to search for novel resistance. Furthermore, resistance based on single genes does not protect against the full spectrum of pests, weeds, and diseases, and is more likely to break down as pests evolve counter-resistance. Although not necessarily a panacea, GM (genetic modification) techniques greatly facilitate transfer of genes and thus provide a route to overcome these constraints. Effective resistance traits can be precisely and conveniently moved into mainstream crop cultivars. Resistance genes can be stacked to make it harder for pests to evolve counter-resistance and to provide multiple resistances to different attackers. GM-based crop protection could substantially reduce the need for farmers to apply pesticides to their crops and would make agricultural production more efficient in terms of resources used (land, energy, water). These benefits merit consideration by environmentalists willing to keep an open mind on the GM debate.

  19. Characterization of a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A homolog from Tamarix androssowii involved in plant abiotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liuqiang; Xu, Chenxi; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yucheng

    2012-07-26

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) promotes formation of the first peptide bond at the onset of protein synthesis. However, the function of eIF5A in plants is not well understood. In this study, we characterized the function of eIF5A (TaeIF5A1) from Tamarix androssowii. The promoter of TaeIF5A1 with 1,486 bp in length was isolated, and the cis-elements in the promoter were identified. A WRKY (TaWRKY) and RAV (TaRAV) protein can specifically bind to a W-box motif in the promoter of TaeIF5A1 and activate the expression of TaeIF5A1. Furthermore, TaeIF5A1, TaWRKY and TaRAV share very similar expression pattern and are all stress-responsive gene that functions in the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, indicating that they are components of a single regulatory pathway. Transgenic yeast and poplar expressing TaeIF5A1 showed elevated protein levels combined with improved abiotic stresses tolerance. Furthermore, TaeIF5A1-transformed plants exhibited enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, lower electrolyte leakage and higher chlorophyll content under salt stress. These results suggested that TaeIF5A1 is involved in abiotic stress tolerance, and is likely regulated by transcription factors TaWRKY and TaRAV both of which can bind to the W-box motif. In addition, TaeIF5A1 may mediate stress tolerance by increasing protein synthesis, enhancing ROS scavenging by improving SOD and POD activities, and preventing chlorophyll loss and membrane damage. Therefore, eIF5A may play an important role in plant adaptation to changing environmental conditions.

  20. Trk2 Potassium Transport System in Streptococcus mutans and Its Role in Potassium Homeostasis, Biofilm Formation, and Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binepal, Gursonika; Gill, Kamal; Crowley, Paula; Cordova, Martha; Brady, L. Jeannine; Senadheera, Dilani B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Potassium (K+) is the most abundant cation in the fluids of dental biofilm. The biochemical and biophysical functions of K+ and a variety of K+ transport systems have been studied for most pathogenic bacteria but not for oral pathogens. In this study, we establish the modes of K+ acquisition in Streptococcus mutans and the importance of K+ homeostasis for its virulence attributes. The S. mutans genome harbors four putative K+ transport systems that included two Trk-like transporters (designated Trk1 and Trk2), one glutamate/K+ cotransporter (GlnQHMP), and a channel-like K+ transport system (Kch). Mutants lacking Trk2 had significantly impaired growth, acidogenicity, aciduricity, and biofilm formation. [K+] less than 5 mM eliminated biofilm formation in S. mutans. The functionality of the Trk2 system was confirmed by complementing an Escherichia coli TK2420 mutant strain, which resulted in significant K+ accumulation, improved growth, and survival under stress. Taken together, these results suggest that Trk2 is the main facet of the K+-dependent cellular response of S. mutans to environment stresses. IMPORTANCE Biofilm formation and stress tolerance are important virulence properties of caries-causing Streptococcus mutans. To limit these properties of this bacterium, it is imperative to understand its survival mechanisms. Potassium is the most abundant cation in dental plaque, the natural environment of S. mutans. K+ is known to function in stress tolerance, and bacteria have specialized mechanisms for its uptake. However, there are no reports to identify or characterize specific K+ transporters in S. mutans. We identified the most important system for K+ homeostasis and its role in the biofilm formation, stress tolerance, and growth. We also show the requirement of environmental K+ for the activity of biofilm-forming enzymes, which explains why such high levels of K+ would favor biofilm formation. PMID:26811321

  1. Characterization of a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A homolog from Tamarix androssowii involved in plant abiotic stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liuqiang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A promotes formation of the first peptide bond at the onset of protein synthesis. However, the function of eIF5A in plants is not well understood. Results In this study, we characterized the function of eIF5A (TaeIF5A1 from Tamarix androssowii. The promoter of TaeIF5A1 with 1,486 bp in length was isolated, and the cis-elements in the promoter were identified. A WRKY (TaWRKY and RAV (TaRAV protein can specifically bind to a W-box motif in the promoter of TaeIF5A1 and activate the expression of TaeIF5A1. Furthermore, TaeIF5A1, TaWRKY and TaRAV share very similar expression pattern and are all stress-responsive gene that functions in the abscisic acid (ABA signaling pathway, indicating that they are components of a single regulatory pathway. Transgenic yeast and poplar expressing TaeIF5A1 showed elevated protein levels combined with improved abiotic stresses tolerance. Furthermore, TaeIF5A1-transformed plants exhibited enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD activities, lower electrolyte leakage and higher chlorophyll content under salt stress. Conclusions These results suggested that TaeIF5A1 is involved in abiotic stress tolerance, and is likely regulated by transcription factors TaWRKY and TaRAV both of which can bind to the W-box motif. In addition, TaeIF5A1 may mediate stress tolerance by increasing protein synthesis, enhancing ROS scavenging by improving SOD and POD activities, and preventing chlorophyll loss and membrane damage. Therefore, eIF5A may play an important role in plant adaptation to changing environmental conditions.

  2. GM2 ganglioside and pyramidal neuron dendritogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkley, S U; Siegel, D A; Dobrenis, K

    1995-11-01

    GM2 ganglioside, although scarce in normal adult brain, is the predominant ganglioside accumulating in several types of lysosomal disorders, most notably Tay-Sachs disease. Pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex in Tay-Sachs, as well as many other types of neuronal storage disorders, are known to exhibit a phenomenon believed unique to storage disorders: growth of ectopic dendrites. Recent studies have shown that a common metabolic abnormality shared by storage diseases with ectopic dendrite growth is the abnormal accumulation of GM2 ganglioside. The correlation between increased levels of GM2 and the presence of ectopic dendrites has been found in both ganglioside and nonganglioside storage disorders, the latter including sphingomyelin-cholesterol lipidosis, mucopolysaccharidosis, and alpha-mannosidosis. Quantitative HPTLC analysis has shown that increases in GM2 occur in proportion to the incidence of ectopic dendrite growth, whereas other gangliosides, including GM1, lack similar increases. Immunocytochemical studies of all nonganglioside storage diseases which exhibit ectopic dendritogenesis have revealed heightened GM2 ganglioside-immunoreactivity in the cortical pyramidal cell population, whereas nerurons in normal adult brain exhibit little or no staining for this ganglioside. Further, studies examining disease development have consistently shown that accumulation of GM2 ganglioside precedes growth of ectopic dendrites, indicating that it is not simply occurring secondary to new membrane production. These findings have prompted an examination for a similar relationship between GM2 ganglioside and dendritogenesis in cortical neurons of normal developing brain. Results show that GM2 ganglioside-immunoreactivity is consistently elevated in immature neurons during the period when they are undergoing active dendritic initiation, but this staining diminishes dramatically as the dendritic trees of these cells mature. Collectively, these studies on diseased and normal

  3. [Natural nucleotide polymorphism of the Srlk gene that determines salt stress tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskaia, M S; Pavlov, A V; Dziubenko, E A; Dziubenko, N I; Potokina, E K

    2014-04-01

    Based on legume genome syntheny, the nucleotide sequence of Srlk gene, key role of which in response to salt stress was demonstrated for the model species Medicago truncatula, was identified in the major forage and siderate crop alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In twelve alfalfa samples originating from regions with contrasting growing conditions, 19 SNPs were revealed in the Srlk gene. For two nonsynonymous SNPs, molecular markers were designed that could be further used to analyze the association between Srlk gene nucleotide polymorphism and the variability in salt stress tolerance among alfalfa cultivars.

  4. Oil palm EgCBF3 conferred stress tolerance in transgenic tomato plants through modulation of the ethylene signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mortaza; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Abdul Aziz, Maheran; Namasivayam, Parameswari

    2016-09-01

    CBF/DREB1 is a group of transcription factors that are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance in plants. They belong to the AP2/ERF superfamily of plant-specific transcription factors. A gene encoding a new member of this group was isolated from ripening oil palm fruit and designated as EgCBF3. The oil palm fruit demonstrates the characteristics of a climacteric fruit like tomato, in which ethylene has a major impact on the ripening process. A transgenic approach was used for functional characterization of the EgCBF3, using tomato as the model plant. The effects of ectopic expression of EgCBF3 were analyzed based on expression profiling of the ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, anti-freeze proteins (AFPs), abiotic stress tolerance and plant growth and development. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated altered phenotypes compared to the wild type tomatoes. Delayed leaf senescence and flowering, increased chlorophyll content and abnormal flowering were the consequences of overexpression of EgCBF3 in the transgenic tomatoes. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated enhanced abiotic stress tolerance under in vitro conditions. Further, transcript levels of ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, including three SlACSs and two SlACOs, were altered in the transgenic plants' leaves and roots compared to that in the wild type tomato plant. Among the eight AFPs studied in the wounded leaves of the EgCBF3 tomato plants, transcript levels of SlOSM-L, SlNP24, SlPR5L and SlTSRF1 decreased, while expression of the other four, SlCHI3, SlPR1, SlPR-P2 and SlLAP2, were up-regulated. These findings indicate the possible functions of EgCBF3 in plant growth and development as a regulator of ethylene biosynthesis-related and AFP genes, and as a stimulator of abiotic stress tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential subchronic food safety of the stacked trait transgenic maize GH5112E-117C in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shiwen; Zou, Shiying; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Mei, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    The food safety of stacked trait genetically modified (GM) maize GH5112E-117C containing insect-resistance gene Cry1Ah and glyphosate-resistant gene G2-aroA was evaluated in comparison to non-GM Hi-II maize fed to Sprague-Dawley rats during a 90-day subchronic feeding study. Three different dietary concentrations (12.5, 25 and 50 %, w/w) of the GM maize were used or its corresponding non-GM maize. No biologically significant differences in the animals' clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights and histopathology were found between the stacked trait GM maize groups, and the non-GM maize groups. The results of the 90-day subchronic feeding study demonstrated that the stacked trait GM maize GH5112E-117C is as safe as the conventional non-GM maize Hi-II.

  6. Genome sequencing of four Aureobasidium pullulans varieties: biotechnological potential, stress tolerance, and description of new species

    OpenAIRE

    Gostinčar, Cene; Ohm, Robin A; Kogej, Tina; Sonjak, Silva; Turk, Martina; Zajc, Janja; Zalar, Polona; Grube, Martin; Sun, Hui; Han, James; Sharma, Aditi; Chiniquy, Jennifer; Ngan, Chew Yee; Lipzen, Anna; Barry, Kerrie

    2014-01-01

    Background Aureobasidium pullulans is a black-yeast-like fungus used for production of the polysaccharide pullulan and the antimycotic aureobasidin A, and as a biocontrol agent in agriculture. It can cause opportunistic human infections, and it inhabits various extreme environments. To promote the understanding of these traits, we performed de-novo genome sequencing of the four varieties of A. pullulans. Results The 25.43-29.62 Mb genomes of these four varieties of A. pullulans encode between...

  7. A simple, fast and inexpensive method to assess salt stress tolerance of aerial plant part: Investigations in the mandarin group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Yahmed, Jihène; de Oliveira, Tahise M; Novillo, Pedro; Quinones, Anna; Forner, Maria-Angeles; Salvador, Alexandra; Froelicher, Yann; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Talon, Manuel; Ollitrault, Patrick; Morillon, Raphaël

    2016-01-15

    For grafted plants, salt stress tolerance of the aerial plant part is poorly documented. Thus, we developed a simple, fast and inexpensive method to identify tolerant genotypes. Twigs of 14 mandarin accessions that we previously analyzed as seedlings were cut in solution to prevent embolism and were then evaluated in salt stress condition for a week. Physiological parameters such as gas exchanges, leaf Cl(-) and Na(+), as well as the presence of H2O2 and the activity of enzymes involved in ROS synthesis and detoxification processes were analyzed. One accession known to be tolerant as rootstock was shown to be sensitive with limited Cl(-) translocation from the solution to the shoot while sensitive accessions when grown as seedlings presented limited wilting symptoms and accumulated large leaf Cl(-) content. A model is proposed to explain the different strategies of the plant to cope with high toxic ion content. This method allows separation of the root compartment, where ion exclusion mechanisms may exist and have an impact on the salt stress tolerance of the whole plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Abscisic Acid Signaling and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants: A Review on Current Knowledge and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Kanchan; Upadhyay, Neha; Kumar, Nitin; Yadav, Gaurav; Singh, Jaspreet; Mishra, Rohit K; Kumar, Vivek; Verma, Rishi; Upadhyay, R G; Pandey, Mayank; Sharma, Shivesh

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic stress is one of the severe stresses of environment that lowers the growth and yield of any crop even on irrigated land throughout the world. A major phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential part in acting toward varied range of stresses like heavy metal stress, drought, thermal or heat stress, high level of salinity, low temperature, and radiation stress. Its role is also elaborated in various developmental processes including seed germination, seed dormancy, and closure of stomata. ABA acts by modifying the expression level of gene and subsequent analysis of cis - and trans -acting regulatory elements of responsive promoters. It also interacts with the signaling molecules of processes involved in stress response and development of seeds. On the whole, the stress to a plant can be susceptible or tolerant by taking into account the coordinated activities of various stress-responsive genes. Numbers of transcription factor are involved in regulating the expression of ABA responsive genes by acting together with their respective cis -acting elements. Hence, for improvement in stress-tolerance capacity of plants, it is necessary to understand the mechanism behind it. On this ground, this article enlightens the importance and role of ABA signaling with regard to various stresses as well as regulation of ABA biosynthetic pathway along with the transcription factors for stress tolerance.

  9. Cellular mechanisms contributing to multiple stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with potential use in high-temperature ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitichantaropas, Yasin; Boonchird, Chuenchit; Sugiyama, Minetaka; Kaneko, Yoshinobu; Harashima, Satoshi; Auesukaree, Choowong

    2016-12-01

    High-temperature ethanol fermentation has several benefits including a reduction in cooling cost, minimizing risk of bacterial contamination, and enabling simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. To achieve the efficient ethanol fermentation at high temperature, yeast strain that tolerates to not only high temperature but also the other stresses present during fermentation, e.g., ethanol, osmotic, and oxidative stresses, is indispensable. The C3253, C3751, and C4377 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, which have been previously isolated as thermotolerant yeasts, were found to be multiple stress-tolerant. In these strains, continuous expression of heat shock protein genes and intracellular trehalose accumulation were induced in response to stresses causing protein denaturation. Compared to the control strains, these multiple stress-tolerant strains displayed low intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and effective cell wall remodeling upon exposures to almost all stresses tested. In response to simultaneous multi-stress mimicking fermentation stress, cell wall remodeling and redox homeostasis seem to be the primary mechanisms required for protection against cell damage. Moreover, these strains showed better performances of ethanol production than the control strains at both optimal and high temperatures, suggesting their potential use in high-temperature ethanol fermentation.

  10. Long-range dispersal and high-latitude environments influence the population structure of a "stress-tolerant" dinoflagellate endosymbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tye Pettay

    Full Text Available The migration and dispersal of stress-tolerant symbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium may influence the response of symbiotic reef-building corals to a warming climate. We analyzed the genetic structure of the stress-tolerant endosymbiont, Symbiodinium glynni nomen nudum (ITS2 - D1, obtained from Pocillopora colonies that dominate eastern Pacific coral communities. Eleven microsatellite loci identified genotypically diverse populations with minimal genetic subdivision throughout the Eastern Tropical Pacific, encompassing 1000's of square kilometers from mainland Mexico to the Galapagos Islands. The lack of population differentiation over these distances corresponds with extensive regional host connectivity and indicates that Pocillopora larvae, which maternally inherit their symbionts, aid in the dispersal of this symbiont. In contrast to its host, however, subtropical populations of S. glynni in the Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez were strongly differentiated from populations in tropical eastern Pacific. Selection pressures related to large seasonal fluctuations in temperature and irradiance likely explain this abrupt genetic discontinuity. We infer that S. glynni genotypes harbored by host larvae arriving from more southern locations are rapidly replaced by genotypes adapted to more temperate environments. The strong population structure of S. glynni corresponds with fluctuating environmental conditions and suggests that these genetically diverse populations have the potential to evolve rapidly to changing environments and reveals the importance of environmental extremes in driving microbial eukaryote (e.g., plankton speciation in marine ecosystems.

  11. The Opuntia streptacantha OpsHSP18 Gene Confers Salt and Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Muñoz, Silvia; Gómez-Anduro, Gracia; Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stress limits seed germination, plant growth, flowering and fruit quality, causing economic decrease. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are chaperons with roles in stress tolerance. Herein, we report the functional characterization of a cytosolic class CI sHSP (OpsHSP18) from Opuntia streptacantha during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines subjected to different stress and hormone treatments. The over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene in A. thaliana increased the seed germination rate under salt (NaCl) and osmotic (glucose and mannitol) stress, and in ABA treatments, compared with WT. On the other hand, the over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene enhanced tolerance to salt (150 mM NaCl) and osmotic (274 mM mannitol) stress in Arabidopsis seedlings treated during 14 and 21 days, respectively. These plants showed increased survival rates (52.00 and 73.33%, respectively) with respect to the WT (18.75 and 53.75%, respectively). Thus, our results show that OpsHSP18 gene might have an important role in abiotic stress tolerance, in particular in seed germination and survival rate of Arabidopsis plants under unfavorable conditions. PMID:22949853

  12. A nuclear calcium-sensing pathway is critical for gene regulation and salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qingmei; Wu, Jianmin; Yue, Xiule; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhu, Jianhua

    2013-08-01

    Salt stress is an important environmental factor that significantly limits crop productivity worldwide. Studies on responses of plants to salt stress in recent years have identified novel signaling pathways and have been at the forefront of plant stress biology and plant biology in general. Thus far, research on salt stress in plants has been focused on cytoplasmic signaling pathways. In this study, we discovered a nuclear calcium-sensing and signaling pathway that is critical for salt stress tolerance in the reference plant Arabidopsis. Through a forward genetic screen, we found a nuclear-localized calcium-binding protein, RSA1 (SHORT ROOT IN SALT MEDIUM 1), which is required for salt tolerance, and identified its interacting partner, RITF1, a bHLH transcription factor. We show that RSA1 and RITF1 regulate the transcription of several genes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species generated by salt stress and that they also regulate the SOS1 gene that encodes a plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter essential for salt tolerance. Together, our results suggest the existence of a novel nuclear calcium-sensing and -signaling pathway that is important for gene regulation and salt stress tolerance.

  13. A bHLH gene from Tamarix hispida improves abiotic stress tolerance by enhancing osmotic potential and decreasing reactive oxygen species accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Nie, Xianguang; Liu, Yujia; Zheng, Lei; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Bing; Huo, Lin; Wang, Yucheng

    2016-02-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) leucine-zipper transcription factors play important roles in abiotic stress responses. However, their specific roles in abiotic stress tolerance are not fully known. Here, we functionally characterized a bHLH gene, ThbHLH1, from Tamarix hispida in abiotic stress tolerance. ThbHLH1 specifically binds to G-box motif with the sequence of 'CACGTG'. Transiently transfected T. hispida plantlets with transiently overexpressed ThbHLH1 and RNAi-silenced ThbHLH1 were generated for gain- and loss-of-function analysis. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines overexpressing ThbHLH1 were generated to confirm the gain- and loss-of-function analysis. Overexpression of ThbHLH1 significantly elevates glycine betaine and proline levels, increases Ca(2+) concentration and enhances peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities to decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Additionally, ThbHLH1 regulates the expression of the genes including P5CS, BADH, CaM, POD and SOD, to activate the above physiological changes, and also induces the expression of stress tolerance-related genes LEAs and HSPs. These data suggest that ThbHLH1 induces the expression of stress tolerance-related genes to improve abiotic stress tolerance by increasing osmotic potential, improving ROS scavenging capability and enhancing second messenger in stress signaling cascades. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The GM foods debate in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The debate on genetically modified (GM) foods has been led on multiple levels in Europe, including such diverse frames of reference as economic policy and international trade, environmental risk, bioethics, consumer protection and food safety. The shifting frames of reference are traced over...... consumers. Relevant consumer research is reviewed, and a potential way forward for commercial actors is outlined. It is concluded that the conceptualization of GM foods should be turned back on its feet, understanding them as foods and not just as embodiments of technology....... the past three decades, focusing on events leading up to the five year quasi-moratorium on GM foods and its final lifting in 2004. While regulatory problems have been resolved, commercial actors in the food chain have done little to prepare themselves for the actual marketing of GM foods to European...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: GM1 gangliosidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infants eventually lose the skills they had previously acquired (developmentally regress) and may develop an exaggerated startle ... in many tissues and organs, particularly in the brain. Progressive damage caused by the buildup of GM1 ganglioside leads ...

  16. Changes of paramagnetic species in cereal grains upon short-term ozone action as a marker of oxidative stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łabanowska, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Filek, Maria

    2016-01-15

    The increase of the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere, being the direct source of reactive oxygen species, results in the yield loss of agronomic crops. On the other hand, ozone is also used as a protector against microorganisms, living in plants and present in materials obtained from them, dangerous for human and animal health. In this work it has been studied if ozone in doses similar to those used for removal of microorganisms can have significant influence on the generation of stable organic radicals and changes in the character of transition metal ions and in the antioxidative biochemical parameters of cereal grains. The aim of this work was to find if the response of grains of three cereals (wheat, oat and barley) to ozone depended on their oxidative stress tolerance. The influence of direct short-term ozone application on grains of these cereals, each represented by two genotypes with different oxidative stress tolerance, was studied by biochemical analyses and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Whole grains as well as their parts: embryo, endosperm and seed coat were subjected to ozone treatment for 30 min. Biochemical investigation of control samples showed that their antioxidant activity increased in order: wheatmethod revealed that character and the number of paramagnetic species (transition metal ions: Fe(III), Cu(II), Mn(II) and stable organic radicals) changed upon ozone exposure, depending on the kind of cereal, stress tolerance of particular genotype and the part of grain. The control samples of whole grains and their parts originating from sensitive genotypes contained higher amounts of stable organic radicals (semiquinone, phenoxyl and carbohydrate types) than those from tolerant ones. In embryos of grains from sensitive genotypes their amount increased upon ozone treatment stronger than in embryos from grains of tolerant cultivars. In seed coats and endosperms such relation was not found and the changes in the content of

  17. Double overexpression of DREB and PIF transcription factors improves drought stress tolerance and cell elongation in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Madoka; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Yoshida, Takuya; Mizoi, Junya; Todaka, Daisuke; Fernie, Alisdair R; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2017-04-01

    Although a variety of transgenic plants that are tolerant to drought stress have been generated, many of these plants show growth retardation. To improve drought tolerance and plant growth, we applied a gene-stacking approach using two transcription factor genes: DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING 1A (DREB1A) and rice PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR-LIKE 1 (OsPIL1). The overexpression of DREB1A has been reported to improve drought stress tolerance in various crops, although it also causes a severe dwarf phenotype. OsPIL1 is a rice homologue of Arabidopsis PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4), and it enhances cell elongation by activating cell wall-related gene expression. We found that the OsPIL1 protein was more stable than PIF4 under light conditions in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Transactivation analyses revealed that DREB1A and OsPIL1 did not negatively affect each other's transcriptional activities. The transgenic plants overexpressing both OsPIL1 and DREB1A showed the improved drought stress tolerance similar to that of DREB1A overexpressors. Furthermore, double overexpressors showed the enhanced hypocotyl elongation and floral induction compared with the DREB1A overexpressors. Metabolome analyses indicated that compatible solutes, such as sugars and amino acids, accumulated in the double overexpressors, which was similar to the observations of the DREB1A overexpressors. Transcriptome analyses showed an increased expression of abiotic stress-inducible DREB1A downstream genes and cell elongation-related OsPIL1 downstream genes in the double overexpressors, which suggests that these two transcription factors function independently in the transgenic plants despite the trade-offs required to balance plant growth and stress tolerance. Our study provides a basis for plant genetic engineering designed to overcome growth retardation in drought-tolerant transgenic plants. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology

  18. Native-Invasive Plants vs. Halophytes in Mediterranean Salt Marshes: Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Two Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Chaura, Juliana; López-Gresa, María P; Borsai, Orsolya; Daniso, Enrico; Donat-Torres, María P; Mayoral, Olga; Vicente, Oscar; Boscaiu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Dittrichia viscosa is a Mediterranean ruderal species that over the last decades has expanded into new habitats, including coastal salt marshes, ecosystems that are per se fragile and threatened by human activities. To assess the potential risk that this native-invasive species represents for the genuine salt marsh vegetation, we compared its distribution with that of Inula crithmoides, a taxonomically related halophyte, in three salt marshes located in "La Albufera" Natural Park, near the city of Valencia (East Spain). The presence of D. viscosa was restricted to areas of low and moderate salinity, while I. crithmoides was also present in the most saline zones of the salt marshes. Analyses of the responses of the two species to salt and water stress treatments in controlled experiments revealed that both activate the same physiological stress tolerance mechanisms, based essentially on the transport of toxic ions to the leaves-where they are presumably compartmentalized in vacuoles-and the accumulation of specific osmolytes for osmotic adjustment. The two species differ in the efficiency of those mechanisms: salt-induced increases in Na(+) and Cl(-) contents were higher in I. crithmoides than in D. viscosa, and the osmolytes (especially glycine betaine, but also arabinose, fructose and glucose) accumulated at higher levels in the former species. This explains the (slightly) higher stress tolerance of I. crithmoides, as compared to D. viscosa, established from growth inhibition measurements and their distribution in nature. The possible activation of K(+) transport to the leaves under high salinity conditions may also contribute to salt tolerance in I. crithmoides. Oxidative stress level-estimated from malondialdehyde accumulation-was higher in the less tolerant D. viscosa, which consequently activated antioxidant responses as a defense mechanism against stress; these responses were weaker or absent in the more tolerant I. crithmoides. Based on these results, we

  19. Native-invasive plants vs. halophytes in Mediterranean salt marshes: Stress tolerance mechanisms in two related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad eAl Hassan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dittrichia viscosa is a Mediterranean ruderal species that over the last decades has expanded into new habitats, including coastal salt marshes, ecosystems that are per se fragile and threatened by human activities. To assess the potential risk that this native-invasive species represents for the genuine salt marsh vegetation, we compared its distribution with that of Inula crithmoides, a taxonomically related halophyte, in three salt marshes located in ‘La Albufera’ Natural Park, near the city of Valencia (East Spain. The presence of D. viscosa was restricted to areas of low and moderate salinity, while I. crithmoides was also present in the most saline zones of the salt marshes. Analyses of the responses of the two species to salt and water stress treatments in controlled experiments revealed that both activate the same physiological stress tolerance mechanisms, based essentially on the transport of toxic ions to the leaves – where they are presumably compartmentalized in vacuoles – and the accumulation of specific osmolytes for osmotic adjustment. The two species differ in the efficiency of those mechanisms: salt-induced increases in Na+ and Cl- contents were higher in I. crithmoides than in D. viscosa, and the osmolytes (especially glycine betaine, but also arabinose, fructose and glucose accumulated at higher levels in the former species. This explains the (slightly higher stress tolerance of I. crithmoides, as compared to D. viscosa, established from growth inhibition measurements and their distribution in nature. The possible activation of K+ transport to the leaves under high salinity conditions may also contribute to salt tolerance in I. crithmoides. Oxidative stress level – estimated from malondialdehyde accumulation – was higher in the less tolerant D. viscosa, which consequently activated antioxidant responses as a defense mechanism against stress; these responses were weaker or absent in the more tolerant I. crithmoides

  20. Biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic tomatoes by constitutive expression of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Pranjal; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

    2011-04-01

    Recent findings have implicated the role of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) in stress tolerance. Therefore, the present work was carried out with the goal of generating transgenic tomato plants with human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (samdc) gene, a key gene involved in biosynthesis of polyamines, viz. spermidine and spermine and evaluating the transgenic plants for tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Several putative transgenic tomato plants with normal phenotype were obtained, and the transgene integration and expression was validated by PCR, Southern blot analysis and RT-PCR analysis, respectively. The transgenic plants exhibited high levels of polyamines as compared to the untransformed control plants. They also showed increased resistance against two important fungal pathogens of tomato, the wilt causing Fusarium oxysporum and the early blight causing Alternaria solani and tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, cold and high temperature. These results suggest that engineering polyamine accumulation can confer tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  1. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alter the salt stress tolerance of Brassica napus L. by modifying the formation of root apoplastic barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Lorenzo; Zhang, Weilan; Ma, Xingmao

    2017-10-01

    Rapidly growing global population adds significant strains on the fresh water resources. Consequently, saline water is increasingly tapped for crop irrigation. Meanwhile, rapid advancement of nanotechnology is introducing more and more engineered nanoparticles into the environment and in agricultural soils. While some negative effects of ENPs on plant health at very high concentrations have been reported, more beneficial effects of ENPs at relatively low concentrations are increasingly noticed, opening doors for potential applications of nanotechnology in agriculture. In particular, we found that cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs) improved plant photosynthesis in salt stressed plants. Due to the close connections between salt stress tolerance and the root anatomical structures, we postulated that CeO 2 NPs could modify plant root anatomy and improve plant salt stress tolerance. This study aimed at testing the hypothesis with Brassica napus in the presence of CeO 2 NPs (0, 500 mg kg -1 dry sand) and/or NaCl (0, 50 mM) in a growth chamber. Free hand sections of fresh roots were taken every seven days for three weeks and the suberin lamellae development was examined under a fluorescence microscope. The results confirmed the hypothesis that CeO 2 NPs modified the formation of the apoplastic barriers in Brassica roots. In salt stressed plants, CeO 2 NPs shortened the root apoplastic barriers which allowed more Na + transport to shoots and less accumulation of Na + in plant roots. The altered Na + fluxes and transport led to better physiological performance of Brassica and may lead to new applications of nanotechnology in agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. OsPEX11, a peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11, contributes to salt stress tolerance in Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Peng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisomes are single membrane-bound organelles, whose basic enzymatic constituents are catalase and H2O2-producing flavin oxidases. Previous reports showed that peroxisome is involved in numerous processes including primary and secondary metabolism, plant development and abiotic stress responses. However, knowledge on the function of different peroxisome genes from rice and its regulatory roles in salt and other abiotic stresses is limited. Here, a novel prey protein, OsPEX11 (Os03g0302000, was screened and identified by yeast two-hybrid and GST pull down assays. Phenotypic analysis of OsPEX11 overexpression seedlings demonstrated that they had better tolerance to salt stress than wild type and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings. Compared with wild type and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings, overexpression of OsPEX11 had lower level of lipid peroxidation, Na+/K+ ratio, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD and CAT and proline accumulation. Furthermore, qPCR data suggested that OsPEX11 acted as a positive regulator of salt tolerance by reinforcing the expression of several well-known rice transporters (OsHKT2;1, OsHKT1;5, OsLti6a, OsLti6b, OsSOS1, OsNHX1 and OsAKT1 involved in Na+/K+ homeostasis in transgenic plants under salinity. Ultrastructural observations of OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings showed that they were less sensitive to salt stress than wild type and overexpression lines. These results provide experimental evidence that OsPEX11 is an important gene implicated in Na+ and K+ regulation, and plays a critical role in salt stress tolerance by modulating the expression of cation transporters and antioxidant defense. Thus, OsPEX11 could be considered in transgenic breeding for improvement of salt stress tolerance in rice crop.

  3. A salt-inducible chloroplastic monodehydroascorbate reductase from halophyte Avicennia marina confers salt stress tolerance on transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Kumaresan; George, Suja; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2010-10-01

    Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by various abiotic stress factors. In our previous study, we used Avicennia marina, a halophytic mangrove, as a model plant system for isolating genes functioning in salt stress tolerance. A large scale random EST sequencing from a salt stressed leaf tissue cDNA library of one month old A. marina plants resulted in identification of a clone showing maximum homology to Monodehydroascorbate reductase (Am-MDAR). MDAR plays a key role in regeneration of ascorbate from monodehydroascorbate for ROS scavenging. In this paper, we report the cellular localization and the ability to confer salt stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco of this salt inducible Am-MDAR. A transit peptide at the N-terminal region of Am-MDAR suggested that it encodes a chloroplastic isoform. The chloroplastic localization was confirmed by stable transformation and expression of the Am-MDAR-GFP fusion protein in tobacco. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing Am-MDAR survived better under conditions of salt stress compared to untransformed control plants. Assays of enzymes involved in ascorbate-glutathione cycle revealed an enhanced activity of MDAR and ascorbate peroxidase whereas the activity of dehyroascorbate reductase was reduced under salt stressed and unstressed conditions in Am-MDAR transgenic lines. The transgenic lines showed an enhanced redox state of ascorbate and reduced levels of malondialdehyde indicating its enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress. The results of our studies could be used as a starting point for genetic engineering of economically important plants tolerant to salt stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Danish farmer’s perception of GM-crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Janus; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Gylling, Morten

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a study of 185 farmer’s perception of GM-crops in Denmark. The respondent’s attitude to GM-crops mainly reflects a conservative view of the adoption of GM-crops. Among farmers only the exciting crops in rotation is seen as their future potential GM-crops. Findings from...

  5. Assessment of the safety of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, A; Cockburn, A; Crevel, R W R; Debruyne, E; Grafstroem, R; Hammerling, U; Kimber, I; Knudsen, I; Kuiper, H A; Peijnenburg, A A C M; Penninks, A H; Poulsen, M; Schauzu, M; Wal, J M

    2004-07-01

    This paper provides guidance on how to assess the safety of foods derived from genetically modified crops (GM crops); it summarises conclusions and recommendations of Working Group 1 of the ENTRANSFOOD project. The paper provides an approach for adapting the test strategy to the characteristics of the modified crop and the introduced trait, and assessing potential unintended effects from the genetic modification. The proposed approach to safety assessment starts with the comparison of the new GM crop with a traditional counterpart that is generally accepted as safe based on a history of human food use (the concept of substantial equivalence). This case-focused approach ensures that foods derived from GM crops that have passed this extensive test-regime are as safe and nutritious as currently consumed plant-derived foods. The approach is suitable for current and future GM crops with more complex modifications. First, the paper reviews test methods developed for the risk assessment of chemicals, including food additives and pesticides, discussing which of these methods are suitable for the assessment of recombinant proteins and whole foods. Second, the paper presents a systematic approach to combine test methods for the safety assessment of foods derived from a specific GM crop. Third, the paper provides an overview on developments in this area that may prove of use in the safety assessment of GM crops, and recommendations for research priorities. It is concluded that the combination of existing test methods provides a sound test-regime to assess the safety of GM crops. Advances in our understanding of molecular biology, biochemistry, and nutrition may in future allow further improvement of test methods that will over time render the safety assessment of foods even more effective and informative. Copryright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Impact Of Phenylpropanoid Compounds On Heat Stress Tolerance In Carrot Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Commisso

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe phenylpropanoid and flavonoid families include thousands of specialized metabolites that influence a wide range of processes in plants, including seed dispersal, auxin transport, photoprotection, mechanical support and protection against insect herbivory. Such metabolites play a key role in the protection of plants against abiotic stress, in many cases through their well-known ability to inhibit the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. However, the precise role of specific phenylpropanoid and flavonoid molecules is unclear. We therefore investigated the role of specific anthocyanins (ACs and other phenylpropanoids that accumulate in carrot cells cultivated in vitro, focusing on their supposed ability to protect cells from heat stress. First we characterized the effects of heat stress to identify quantifiable morphological traits as markers of heat stress susceptibility. We then fed the cultures with precursors to induce the targeted accumulation of specific compounds, and compared the impact of heat stress in these cultures and unfed controls. Data modeling based on Projection to Latent Structures (PLS regression revealed that metabolites containing coumaric or caffeic acid, including ACs, correlate with less heat damage. Further experiments suggested that one of the cellular targets damaged by heat stress and protected by these metabolites is the actin microfilament cytoskeleton.

  7. Evaluation of drought tolerance in new Bulgarian sweet corn genotypes with using stress tolerance indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtereva Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two inbred lines and their heterotic F1 hybrid of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. rugosa Bonaf. were evaluated to assess their reaction for PEG-mediated water stress at the seedling stage in terms of various physiological and biochemical traits. Water potentials were: zero as control and -0.6, -0.9, -1.2 and -1.5 MPa as treatments. Stress- determining parameters such as proline content, malondiadehyde, and hydrogen peroxide were measured. In water stress, the germination was inversely proportional to the Polyethylene glycol concentrations in all three genotypes; roots and shoots length, fresh and dry weight decreased with an increasing of polyethylene glycol concentration. Malondiadehyde, proline, and hydrogen peroxide were found to be increased at different osmotic gradients in comparison to control. The data observed in the experiments revealed that the line C-6 might be used as a very promising parent to breed and select new drought tolerant sweet corn hybrids. Such a suggestion needs to be further explored by involving a larger set of sweet corn lines and hybrids.

  8. MicroRNA156 improves drought stress tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by silencing SPL13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad; Feyissa, Biruk A; Amyot, Lisa; Aung, Banyar; Hannoufa, Abdelali

    2017-05-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop that is often grown in areas that frequently experience drought and water shortage. MicroRNA156 (miR156) is an emerging tool for improving various traits in plants. We tested the role of miR156d in drought response of alfalfa, and observed a significant improvement in drought tolerance of miR156 overexpression (miR156OE) alfalfa genotypes compared to the wild type control (WT). In addition to higher survival and reduced water loss, miR156OE genotypes also maintained higher stomatal conductance compared to WT during drought stress. Furthermore, we observed an enhanced accumulation of compatible solute (proline) and increased levels of abscisic acid (ABA) and antioxidants in miR156OE genotypes. Similarly, alfalfa plants with reduced expression of miR156-targeted SPL13 showed reduced water loss and enhanced stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic assimilation. Several genes known to be involved in drought tolerance were differentially expressed in leaf and root of miR156 overexpression plants. Taken together, our findings reveal that miR156 improves drought tolerance in alfalfa at least partially by silencing SPL13. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Willingness-to-Accept and Willingness-to-Pay for GM and Non-GM Food: UK Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Wanki; Rimal, Arbindra; Balasubramanian, Siva K.

    2004-01-01

    Our research elicited UK consumers¡¯ willingness-to-accept (WTA) discount in exchange for giving up non-GM food and willingness-to-pay (WTP) premium to purchase non-GM food. Eliciting only WTP does not provide sufficient information for determining substitutability between GM and non-GM food. Results indicate that there is a strong demand for non-GM food in the UK, but a non-negligible segment expressed their willingness to substitute non-GM food with GM version either without discount (12 %)...

  10. Dietary supplementation of essential fatty acids in larval pikeperch (Sander lucioperca); short and long term effects on stress tolerance and metabolic physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of feeding pike perch larvae Artemia, enriched with either docosahexanoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (ARA), oleic acid (OA), olive oil (OO) or a commercial enrichment DHA Selco (DS) on tissue lipid deposition, stress tolerance, growth and development...

  11. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Characterization for the Widespread and Stress-Tolerant Conifer Platycladus orientalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ge Hu

    Full Text Available Platycladus orientalis, of the family Cupressaceae, is a widespread conifer throughout China and is extensively used for ecological reforestation, horticulture, and in medicine. Transcriptome assemblies are required for this ecologically important conifer for understanding genes underpinning adaptation and complex traits for breeding programs. To enrich the species' genomic resources, a de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. In total, 104,073,506 high quality sequence reads (approximately 10.3 Gbp were obtained, which were assembled into 228,948 transcripts and 148,867 unigenes that were longer than 200 nt. Quality assessment using CEGMA showed that the transcriptomes obtained were mostly complete for highly conserved core eukaryotic genes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 62,938 (42.28% of all unigenes, 42,158 (28.32%, and 23,179 (15.57% had homologs in the Nr, GO, and KOG databases, 25,625 (17.21% unigenes were mapped to 322 pathways by BLASTX comparison against the KEGG database and 1,941 unigenes involved in environmental signaling and stress response were identified. We also identified 43 putative terpene synthase (TPS functional genes loci and compared them with TPSs from other species. Additionally, 5,296 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified in 4,715 unigenes, which were assigned to 142 motif types. This is the first report of a complete transcriptome analysis of P. orientalis. These resources provide a foundation for further studies of adaptation mechanisms and molecular-based breeding programs.

  12. GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 are seed-specific activators for isoflavonoid biosynthesis in Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoyan; Yin, Qinggang; Liu, Jinyue; Jiang, Wenbo; Di, Shaokang; Pang, Yongzhen

    2017-12-01

    GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 are key positive regulators that are involved in isoflavonoid biosynthesis in seeds of Glycine max, and they activate the expression of several structural genes in the isoflavonoid pathway. MYB transcription factors (TFs) are major regulators involved in flavonoid/isoflavonoid biosynthesis in many plant species. However, functions of most MYB TFs remain unknown in flavonoid/isoflavonoid pathway in Glycine max. In this study, we identified 321 MYB TFs by genome-wide searching, and further isolated and functionally characterized two MYB TFs, GmMYB58 and GmMYB205. The deduced GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 proteins contain highly conserved R2R3 repeat domain at the N-terminal region that is the signature motif of R2R3-type MYB TFs. GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 were highly expressed in early seed development stages than in the other tested organs. GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 GFP fusion proteins were found to be localized in the nucleus when they were transiently expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplast. Both GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 can activate the promoter activities of GmCHS, GmIFS2, and GmHID in the transient trans-activation assays, and the activation of GmHID by both GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 was further confirmed by yeast one-hybrid assay. In addition, over-expression of GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 resulted in significant increases in expression levels of several pathway genes in soybean hairy roots, in particular, IFS2 by more than fivefolds in GmMYB205-over-expressing lines. Moreover, isoflavonoid contents were remarkably enhanced in the GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 over-expressing hairy roots than in the control. Our results suggest that GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 are seed-specific TFs, and they can enhance isoflavonoid biosynthesis mainly through the regulation of GmIFS2 and GmHID in G. max.

  13. GM2 Activator Deficiency Caused by a Homozygous Exon 2 Deletion in GM2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Patricia L; Laine, Regina; Alexander, John J; Ankala, Arunkanth; Teot, Lisa A; Lidov, Hart G W; Anselm, Irina

    2017-05-25

    GM2 activator (GM2A) deficiency (OMIM 613109) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder, with onset typically in infancy or early childhood. Clinically, it is almost indistinguishable from Tay-Sachs disease (OMIM 272800) or Sandhoff disease (OMIM 268800); however, traditionally available biochemical screening tests will most likely reveal normal results. We report a 2-year-old male with initially normal development until the age of 9 months, when he presented with developmental delay and regression. Workup at that time was unrevealing; at 15 months, he had abnormal brain MRI findings and a cherry red spot on ophthalmological examination. Family history and all laboratory studies were uninformative. The combination of a cherry red spot and developmental regression was strongly suggestive of a lysosomal storage disorder. Sequence analysis of GM2A did not reveal any pathogenic variants; however, exon 2 of GM2A could not be amplified by PCR, raising suspicion for a large, homozygous deletion. Subsequent copy number analysis confirmed a homozygous deletion of exon 2 in GM2A. This is the first reported case of GM2A deficiency being caused by a whole exon deletion. We describe previously unreported electron microscopy findings in this disease, thus expanding the clinical and variant spectrum for GM2 activator deficiency. These findings demonstrate the increased degree of suspicion required for diagnosis of this rare disorder. Brief Summary: This case of GM2 activator deficiency was caused by a homozygous deletion in GM2A, demonstrating the need to include exon level copy number analysis in any workup to fully exclude this disorder.

  14. The copYAZ Operon Functions in Copper Efflux, Biofilm Formation, Genetic Transformation, and Stress Tolerance in Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamna; Senadheera, Dilani B.; Lévesque, Céline M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In bacteria, copper homeostasis is closely monitored to ensure proper cellular functions while avoiding cell damage. Most Gram-positive bacteria utilize the copYABZ operon for copper homeostasis, where copA and copB encode copper-transporting P-type ATPases, whereas copY and copZ regulate the expression of the cop operon. Streptococcus mutans is a biofilm-forming oral pathogen that harbors a putative copper-transporting copYAZ operon. Here, we characterized the role of copYAZ operon in the physiology of S. mutans and delineated the mechanisms of copper-induced toxicity in this bacterium. We observed that copper induced toxicity in S. mutans cells by generating oxidative stress and disrupting their membrane potential. Deletion of the copYAZ operon in S. mutans strain UA159 resulted in reduced cell viability under copper, acid, and oxidative stress relative to the viability of the wild type under these conditions. Furthermore, the ability of S. mutans to form biofilms and develop genetic competence was impaired under copper stress. Briefly, copper stress significantly reduced cell adherence and total biofilm biomass, concomitantly repressing the transcription of the gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, and gbpC genes, whose products have roles in maintaining the structural and/or functional integrity of the S. mutans biofilm. Furthermore, supplementation with copper or loss of copYAZ resulted in significant reductions in transformability and in the transcription of competence-associated genes. Copper transport assays revealed that the ΔcopYAZ strain accrued significantly large amounts of intracellular copper compared with the amount of copper accumulation in the wild-type strain, thereby demonstrating a role for CopYAZ in the copper efflux of S. mutans. The complementation of the CopYAZ system restored copper expulsion, membrane potential, and stress tolerance in the copYAZ-null mutant. Taking these results collectively, we have established the function of the S. mutans

  15. The copYAZ Operon Functions in Copper Efflux, Biofilm Formation, Genetic Transformation, and Stress Tolerance in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamna; Senadheera, Dilani B; Lévesque, Céline M; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G

    2015-08-01

    In bacteria, copper homeostasis is closely monitored to ensure proper cellular functions while avoiding cell damage. Most Gram-positive bacteria utilize the copYABZ operon for copper homeostasis, where copA and copB encode copper-transporting P-type ATPases, whereas copY and copZ regulate the expression of the cop operon. Streptococcus mutans is a biofilm-forming oral pathogen that harbors a putative copper-transporting copYAZ operon. Here, we characterized the role of copYAZ operon in the physiology of S. mutans and delineated the mechanisms of copper-induced toxicity in this bacterium. We observed that copper induced toxicity in S. mutans cells by generating oxidative stress and disrupting their membrane potential. Deletion of the copYAZ operon in S. mutans strain UA159 resulted in reduced cell viability under copper, acid, and oxidative stress relative to the viability of the wild type under these conditions. Furthermore, the ability of S. mutans to form biofilms and develop genetic competence was impaired under copper stress. Briefly, copper stress significantly reduced cell adherence and total biofilm biomass, concomitantly repressing the transcription of the gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, and gbpC genes, whose products have roles in maintaining the structural and/or functional integrity of the S. mutans biofilm. Furthermore, supplementation with copper or loss of copYAZ resulted in significant reductions in transformability and in the transcription of competence-associated genes. Copper transport assays revealed that the ΔcopYAZ strain accrued significantly large amounts of intracellular copper compared with the amount of copper accumulation in the wild-type strain, thereby demonstrating a role for CopYAZ in the copper efflux of S. mutans. The complementation of the CopYAZ system restored copper expulsion, membrane potential, and stress tolerance in the copYAZ-null mutant. Taking these results collectively, we have established the function of the S. mutans Cop

  16. The loss from underutilizing GM technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zilberman, David; Kaplan, Scott; Wesseler, Justus

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces a framework based on a real-option approach to assess the economics of delaying the introduction of genetically modified (GM) technologies in agriculture due to concerns about their unintended effects (unexpected environmental side effects). We applied our framework to

  17. GM plants, farmers and the public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The controversy in Europe over genetically manipulated (GM) foods has been conceived largely as a conflict between a reluctant public and a more enthusiastic agri-food sector. As a result, the political focus has been on the public to the neglect of other actors, such as the farmers, whose willin...

  18. The essential need for GM crops

    OpenAIRE

    Pickett, John

    2016-01-01

    The need for GM crops is growing rapidly as a consequence of the overriding priority for the sustainable generation of vastly increased food production. Although demands for energy and raw materials from the bioeconomy remain, they may become eclipsed by the quest for more food.

  19. Functional Characterization of the Steroid Reductase GenesGmDET2aandGmDET2bformGlycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Weige; Li, Bodi; Kuang, Jiebing; He, Pingan; Xu, Zhihao; Wang, Jinxiang

    2018-03-03

    Brassinosteroids are important phytohormones for plant growth and development. In soybean ( Glycine max ), BR receptors have been identified, but the genes encoding BR biosynthesis-related enzymes remain poorly understood. Here, we found that the soybean genome encodes eight steroid reductases (GmDET2a to GmDET2h). Phylogenetic analysis grouped 105 steroid reductases from moss, fern and higher plants into five subgroups and indicated that the steroid reductase family has experienced purifying selection. GmDET2a and GmDET2b, homologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana steroid 5 α -reductase AtDET2, are proteins of 263 amino acids. Ectopic expression of GmDET2a and GmDET2b rescued the defects of the Atdet2-1 mutant in both darkness and light. Compared to the mutant, the hypocotyl length and plant height of the transgenic lines GmDET2a and GmDET2b increased significantly, in both darkness and light, and the transcript levels of the BR biosynthesis-related genes CPD , DWF4 , BR6ox-1 and BR6ox-2 were downregulated in GmDET2aOX-23 and GmDET2bOX-16 lines compared to that in Atdet2-1 . Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that GmDET2a and GmDET2b are ubiquitously expressed in all tested soybean organs, including roots, leaves and hypocotyls. Moreover, epibrassinosteroid negatively regulated GmDET2a and GmDET2b expression. Sulfate deficiency downregulated GmDET2a in leaves and GmDET2b in leaves and roots; by contrast, phosphate deficiency upregulated GmDET2b in roots and leaves. Taken together, our results revealed that GmDET2a and GmDET2b function as steroid reductases.

  20. Characterization of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins family and their role in drought stress tolerance in upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwanga, Richard Odongo; Lu, Pu; Kirungu, Joy Nyangasi; Lu, Hejun; Wang, Xingxing; Cai, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Zhongli; Zhang, Zhenmei; Salih, Haron; Wang, Kunbo; Liu, Fang

    2018-01-15

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are large groups of hydrophilic proteins with major role in drought and other abiotic stresses tolerance in plants. In-depth study and characterization of LEA protein families have been carried out in other plants, but not in upland cotton. The main aim of this research work was to characterize the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein families and to carry out gene expression analysis to determine their potential role in drought stress tolerance in upland cotton. Increased cotton production in the face of declining precipitation and availability of fresh water for agriculture use is the focus for breeders, cotton being the backbone of textile industries and a cash crop for many countries globally. In this work, a total of 242, 136 and 142 LEA genes were identified in G. hirsutum, G. arboreum and G. raimondii respectively. The identified genes were classified into eight groups based on their conserved domain and phylogenetic tree analysis. LEA 2 were the most abundant, this could be attributed to their hydrophobic character. Upland cotton LEA genes have fewer introns and are distributed in all chromosomes. Majority of the duplicated LEA genes were segmental. Syntenic analysis showed that greater percentages of LEA genes are conserved. Segmental gene duplication played a key role in the expansion of LEA genes. Sixty three miRNAs were found to target 89 genes, such as miR164, ghr-miR394 among others. Gene ontology analysis revealed that LEA genes are involved in desiccation and defense responses. Almost all the LEA genes in their promoters contained ABRE, MBS, W-Box and TAC-elements, functionally known to be involved in drought stress and other stress responses. Majority of the LEA genes were involved in secretory pathways. Expression profile analysis indicated that most of the LEA genes were highly expressed in drought tolerant cultivars Gossypium tomentosum as opposed to drought susceptible, G. hirsutum. The tolerant

  1. Stress Tolerance of Bed Bugs: A Review of Factors That Cause Trauma to Cimex lectularius and C. Hemipterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Benoit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent emergence of bed bugs (Cimex spp. has prompted a significant expansion of research devoted to this pest. The ability to survive and recover from stress has significant implications on the distribution and survival of insects, and bed bugs are no exception. Research on bed bug stress tolerance has shown considerable progress and necessitates a review on this topic. Bed bugs have an extraordinary ability to resist dehydration between bloodmeals, and this represents a critical factor allowing their prolonged survival when no host is available. High relative humidities are detrimental to bed bugs, leading to reduced survival in comparison to those held at lower relative humidities. Continual exposure of bed bugs, eggs and mobile stages, to temperatures below freezing and short term exposure (=1 h to temperatures below −16 to −18 °C results in mortality. The upper thermal limit for short term exposure of eggs, nymphs and adults is between 40–45 °C for the common (Cimex lectularius and tropical (C. hemipterus bed bugs. Long-term exposure to temperatures above 35 °C results in significant reduction in survival of mobile bed bugs. Eggs for C. lectularius and C. hemipterus are no longer viable when held below 10 °C or above 37 °C throughout embryogenesis. Blood feeding, although necessary for survival and reproduction, is discussed as a stress due to thermal and osmotic fluctuations that result from ingesting a warm bloodmeal from a vertebrate host. Cold, heat, water stress and blood feeding prompted the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps. Pesticide application is a common human-induced stress for urban pests, and recent studies have documented pesticide resistance in many bed bug populations. High levels of traumatic insemination (mating of bed bugs has been linked to reduced survival and fecundity along with possibly exposing individuals to microbial infections after cuticular penetration by the paramere (=male reproductive organ

  2. Relationship emotional intelligence and personality traits with organizational commitment among Iranian nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Taherinejad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, organizational commitment has been of interest to researchers as one of the organizational attitudes. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of emotional intelligence and personality traits with organizational commitment among Iranian nurses. A total of 280 nurses were selected by multistage random sampling. Study tools included emotional intelligence inventory, Neo personality inventory and organizational commitment inventory. Results showed the positive and significant relationship of emotional intelligence and its dimensions (self-expression, self-regard, independence, social responsibility, problem solving, stress tolerance, impulse control, and optimism with organizational commitment. Also, organizational commitment showed a positive and significant relationship with extroversion and conscientiousness. Moreover, components of self-expression, problem solving and stress tolerance in emotional intelligence are able to predict organizational commitment. Thus, these results indicate the importance of emotional intelligence and personality traits in organizational commitment.

  3. Conversion of spent mushroom substrate to biofertilizer using a stress-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing Pichia farinose FL7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Ji; Sun, Li-Fan; Zhang, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Qiao, Jian-Jun

    2012-05-01

    To develop high-efficient biofertilizer, an environmental stress-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing microorganism (PSM) was isolated from agricultural wastes compost, and then applied to spent mushroom substrate (SMS). The isolate FL7 was identified as Pichia farinose with resistance against multiple environmental stresses, including 5-45°C temperature, 3-10 pH range, 0-23% (w/v) NaCl and 0-6M ammonium ion. Under the optimized cultivation condition, 852.8 mg/l total organic acids can be produced and pH can be reduced to 3.8 after 60 h, meanwhile, the soluble phosphate content reached 816.16 mg/l. The P. farinose was used to convert SMS to a phosphate biofertilizer through a semi-solid fermentation (SSF) process. After fermentation of 10 days, cell density can be increased to 5.6 × 10(8)CFU/g in biomass and pH in this medium can be decreased to 4.0. SMS biofertilizer produced by P. farinose significantly improved the growth of soybean in pot experiments, demonstrating a tremendous potential in agricultural application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Solanum lycopersicum WRKY3 Transcription Factor SlWRKY3 Is Involved in Salt Stress Tolerance in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imène Hichri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Salinity threatens productivity of economically important crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.. WRKY transcription factors appear, from a growing body of knowledge, as important regulators of abiotic stresses tolerance. Tomato SlWRKY3 is a nuclear protein binding to the consensus CGTTGACC/T W box. SlWRKY3 is preferentially expressed in aged organs, and is rapidly induced by NaCl, KCl, and drought. In addition, SlWRKY3 responds to salicylic acid, and 35S::SlWRKY3 tomatoes showed under salt treatment reduced contents of salicylic acid. In tomato, overexpression of SlWRKY3 impacted multiple aspects of salinity tolerance. Indeed, salinized (125 mM NaCl, 20 days 35S::SlWRKY3 tomato plants displayed reduced oxidative stress and proline contents compared to WT. Physiological parameters related to plant growth (shoot and root biomass and photosynthesis (stomatal conductance and chlorophyll a content were retained in transgenic plants, together with lower Na+ contents in leaves, and higher accumulation of K+ and Ca2+. Microarray analysis confirmed that many stress-related genes were already up-regulated in transgenic tomatoes under optimal conditions of growth, including genes coding for antioxidant enzymes, ion and water transporters, or plant defense proteins. Together, these results indicate that SlWRKY3 is an important regulator of salinity tolerance in tomato.

  5. A Single Protein S-acyl Transferase Acts through Diverse Substrates to Determine Cryptococcal Morphology, Stress Tolerance, and Pathogenic Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe H Santiago-Tirado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic yeast that kills over 625,000 people yearly through lethal meningitis. Host phagocytes serve as the first line of defense against this pathogen, but fungal engulfment and subsequent intracellular proliferation also correlate with poor patient outcome. Defining the interactions of this facultative intracellular pathogen with host phagocytes is key to understanding the latter's opposing roles in infection and how they contribute to fungal latency, dissemination, and virulence. We used high-content imaging and a human monocytic cell line to screen 1,201 fungal mutants for strains with altered host interactions and identified multiple genes that influence fungal adherence and phagocytosis. One of these genes was PFA4, which encodes a protein S-acyl transferase (PAT, one of a family of DHHC domain-containing proteins that catalyzes lipid modification of proteins. Deletion of PFA4 caused dramatic defects in cryptococcal morphology, stress tolerance, and virulence. Bioorthogonal palmitoylome-profiling identified Pfa4-specific protein substrates involved in cell wall synthesis, signal transduction, and membrane trafficking responsible for these phenotypic alterations. We demonstrate that a single PAT is responsible for the modification of a subset of proteins that are critical in cryptococcal pathogenesis. Since several of these palmitoylated substrates are conserved in other pathogenic fungi, protein palmitoylation represents a potential avenue for new antifungal therapeutics.

  6. Stress tolerance, genetic analysis and symbiotic properties of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from Mediterranean leguminous shrubs in Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Fajardo, Susana; Puertas-Mejía, Miguel Angel; de Felipe, María del Rosario; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    Nine root-nodulating bacterial isolates were obtained from the leguminous shrubs Spartium junceum, Adenocarpus hispanicus, Cytisus purgans, Cytisus laburnuum, Retama sphaerocarpa and Colutea arborescens in areas of Central Spain. A poliphasic approach analyzing phenotypic, symbiotic and genetic properties was used to study their diversity and characterize them in relation to Mediterranean conditions. Stress tolerance assays revealed marked variations in salinity, extreme pH and cadmium tolerance compared with reference strains, with the majority showing salinity, alkalinity and Cd tolerance and three of them growing at acid pH. Variation within the 16S rRNA gene was examined by amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and direct sequencing to show genetic diversity. Phylogeny confirmed the close relationship of four isolates with Bradyrhizobium canariense, three with Phylobacterium myrsinacearum, one with Rhizobium rhizogenes and another with Mesorhizobium huakuii. The cross inoculation tests revealed wide spectra of nodulation. This is the first report of P. myrsinacearum being able to nodulate these leguminous shrubs, and also the first time reported the association between B.canariense, R. rhizogenes and M. huakuii and C. laburnuum, C. purgans and C. arborescens, respectively. These results suggested that native rhizobia could be suitable candidates as biofertilizers and/or inoculants of leguminous shrubs with restoration or revegetation purposes in Mediterranean areas.

  7. Effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) pretreatment on UV-B stress tolerance in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esringu, Aslıhan; Aksakal, Ozkan; Tabay, Dilruba; Kara, Ayse Aydan

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is one of the most important abiotic stress factors that could influence plant growth, development, and productivity. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important plant growth regulator involved in a wide variety of physiological processes. In the present study, the possibility of enhancing UV-B stress tolerance of lettuce seedlings by the exogenous application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was investigated. UV-B radiation increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD) and total phenolic concentrations, antioxidant capacity, and expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene in seedlings, but the combination of SNP pretreatment and UV-B enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities, total phenolic concentrations, antioxidant capacity, and PAL gene expression even more. Moreover, UV-B radiation significantly inhibited chlorophylls, carotenoid, gibberellic acid (GA), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents and increased the contents of abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide radical (O2•(-)) in lettuce seedlings. When SNP pretreatment was combined with the UV-B radiation, we observed alleviated chlorophylls, carotenoid, GA, and IAA inhibition and decreased content of ABA, SA, MDA, H2O2, and O2•(-) in comparison to non-pretreated stressed seedlings.

  8. Delaying chloroplast turnover increases water-deficit stress tolerance through the enhancement of nitrogen assimilation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Nir; Umnajkitikorn, Kamolchanok; Rubio Wilhelmi, Maria Del Mar; Wright, Matthew; Wang, Songhu; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2018-02-12

    Abiotic stress-induced senescence in crops is a process particularly affecting the photosynthetic apparatus, decreasing photosynthetic activity and inducing chloroplast degradation. A pathway for stress-induced chloroplast degradation that involves the CHLOROPLAST VESICULATION (CV) gene was characterized in rice (Oryza sativa) plants. OsCV expression was up-regulated with the age of the plants and when plants were exposed to water-deficit conditions. The down-regulation of OsCV expression contributed to the maintenance of the chloroplast integrity under stress. OsCV-silenced plants displayed enhanced source fitness (i.e. carbon and nitrogen assimilation) and photorespiration, leading to water-deficit stress tolerance. Co-immunoprecipitation, intracellular co-localization, and bimolecular fluorescence demonstrated the in vivo interaction between OsCV and chloroplastic glutamine synthetase (OsGS2), affecting source-sink relationships of the plants under stress. Our results would indicate that the OsCV-mediated chloroplast degradation pathway is involved in the regulation of nitrogen assimilation during stress-induced plant senescence. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of Enterobacter sp. SA187, a Plant Multi-Stress Tolerance Promoting Endophytic Bacterium

    KAUST Repository

    Andres-Barrao, Cristina

    2017-10-20

    Enterobacter sp. SA187 is an endophytic bacterium that has been isolated from root nodules of the indigenous desert plant Indigofera argentea. SA187 could survive in the rhizosphere as well as in association with different plant species, and was able to provide abiotic stress tolerance to Arabidopsis thaliana. The genome sequence of SA187 was obtained by using Pacific BioScience (PacBio) single-molecule sequencing technology, with average coverage of 275X. The genome of SA187 consists of one single 4,429,597 bp chromosome, with an average 56% GC content and 4,347 predicted protein coding DNA sequences (CDS), 153 ncRNA, 7 rRNA, and 84 tRNA. Functional analysis of the SA187 genome revealed a large number of genes involved in uptake and exchange of nutrients, chemotaxis, mobilization and plant colonization. A high number of genes were also found to be involved in survival, defense against oxidative stress and production of antimicrobial compounds and toxins. Moreover, different metabolic pathways were identified that potentially contribute to plant growth promotion. The information encoded in the genome of SA187 reveals the characteristics of a dualistic lifestyle of a bacterium that can adapt to different environments and promote the growth of plants. This information provides a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in plant-microbe interaction and could be further exploited to develop SA187 as a biological agent to improve agricultural practices in marginal and arid lands.

  10. Ectopic expression of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum sodium transporter McHKT2 provides salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Taiga; Furuhashi, Megumi; Sakaoka, Satomi; Morikami, Atsushi; Tsukagoshi, Hironaka

    2017-11-01

    Most plants do not tolerate highly saline environments; the development of salt stress tolerance is crucial for improving crop yield. An efficient way of finding genes involved in salt tolerance is to study and use data from halophytes. In this study, we used the Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (ice plant) expression data-set and selected for further study the gene McHKT2, which encodes for the Arabidopsis sodium transporter ortholog AtHKT1. In comparison with the HKT1 amino acid sequences from other plants, McHKT2 has several unique features. It seems to be localized to the plasma membrane, and its overexpression confers strong salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results indicate that McHKT2 is a suitable candidate protein that can induce salt tolerance in non-halophytes. Like McHKT2, using transcriptome data-sets from halophytes such as ice plant give us an efficiency way to obtain new gene resources that might involve in plant salt tolerance.

  11. Role of the mRNA export factor Sus1 in oxidative stress tolerance in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chenpeng; Yu, Qilin; Zhang, Bing; Li, Jianrong; Zhang, Dan; Li, Mingchun

    2018-02-05

    In eukaryotes, the nuclear export of mRNAs is essential for gene expression. However, little is known about the role of mRNA nuclear export in the important fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. In this study, we identified C. albicans Sus1, a nucleus-localized protein that is required for mRNA export. Interestingly, the sus1Δ/Δ displayed hyper-sensitivity to extracellular oxidative stress, enhanced ROS accumulation and severe oxidative stress-related cell death. More strikingly, although the mutant exhibited normal activation of the expression of oxidative stress response (OSR) genes, it had attenuated activity of ROS scavenging system, which may be attributed to the defect in OSR mRNA export in this mutant. In addition, the virulence of the sus1Δ/Δ was seriously attenuated. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that the mRNA export factor Sus1 plays an important role in oxidative stress tolerance and pathogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spliceosomal protein U1A is involved in alternative splicing and salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Jinbao

    2017-12-01

    Soil salinity is a significant threat to sustainable agricultural production worldwide. Plants must adjust their developmental and physiological processes to cope with salt stress. Although the capacity for adaptation ultimately depends on the genome, the exceptional versatility in gene regulation provided by the spliceosome-mediated alternative splicing (AS) is essential in these adaptive processes. However, the functions of the spliceosome in plant stress responses are poorly understood. Here, we report the in-depth characterization of a U1 spliceosomal protein, AtU1A, in controlling AS of pre-mRNAs under salt stress and salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. The atu1a mutant was hypersensitive to salt stress and accumulated more reactive oxygen species (ROS) than the wild-type under salt stress. RNA-seq analysis revealed that AtU1A regulates AS of many genes, presumably through modulating recognition of 5′ splice sites. We showed that AtU1A is associated with the pre-mRNA of the ROS detoxification-related gene ACO1 and is necessary for the regulation of ACO1 AS. ACO1 is important for salt tolerance because ectopic expression of ACO1 in the atu1a mutant can partially rescue its salt hypersensitive phenotype. Our findings highlight the critical role of AtU1A as a regulator of pre-mRNA processing and salt tolerance in plants.

  13. Overexpression of OLE1 enhances stress tolerance and constitutively activates the MAPK HOG pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Olviyani; Lee, Young Mi; Kim, Eunjung; Lee, Yeji; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2017-03-01

    OLE1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the sole and essential Δ-9 desaturase catalyzing the conversion of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. Upon ectopic overexpression of OLE1 in S. cerevisiae, significant increases in the membrane oleic acid content were observed. OLE1-overexpressing strains displayed enhanced tolerance to various stresses, better proton efflux, lower membrane permeability, and lessened internal hydrogen peroxide content. The OLE1-mediated enhanced stress tolerance was considerably diminished upon deletion of HOG1, which encodes the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Hog1 of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway. Furthermore, OLE1 overexpression constitutively activated Hog1, which remained in the cytoplasm. Hog1 activation was accomplished through the MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK) Ssk2, but not Ste11 and Ssk22, the other MAPKKKs of the HOG pathway. Despite its cytoplasmic location, activated Hog1 was able to activate the expression of its canonical targets, including CTT1, HSP12, and STL1, and further, the cAMP and stress response elements present in the promoter. OLE1 overexpression neither caused nor relieved endoplasmic reticulum stress. Individually or in combination, the physiological and molecular changes caused by OLE1 overexpression may contribute to enhanced tolerance to various types of stress. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 620-631. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ancestral genetic diversity associated with the rapid spread of stress-tolerant coral symbionts in response to Holocene climate change

    KAUST Repository

    Hume, Benjamin C. C.

    2016-04-05

    Coral communities in the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) withstand unusually high salinity levels and regular summer temperature maxima of up to ∼35 °C that kill conspecifics elsewhere. Due to the recent formation of the PAG and its subsequent shift to a hot climate, these corals have had only <6, 000 y to adapt to these extreme conditions and can therefore inform on how coral reefs may respond to global warming. One key to coral survival in the world\\'s warmest reefs are symbioses with a newly discovered alga, Symbiodinium thermophilum. Currently, it is unknown whether this symbiont originated elsewhere or emerged from unexpectedly fast evolution catalyzed by the extreme environment. Analyzing genetic diversity of symbiotic algae across >5, 000 km of the PAG, the Gulf of Oman, and the Red Sea coastline, we show that S. thermophilum is a member of a highly diverse, ancient group of symbionts cryptically distributed outside the PAG. We argue that the adjustment to temperature extremes by PAG corals was facilitated by the positive selection of preadapted symbionts. Our findings suggest that maintaining the largest possible pool of potentially stress-tolerant genotypes by protecting existing biodiversity is crucial to promote rapid adaptation to present-day climate change, not only for coral reefs, but for ecosystems in general.

  15. Over-expression of a novel JAZ family gene from Glycine soja, increases salt and alkali stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Cai, Hua; Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi; Deyholos, Michael K; Chen, Qin; Chen, Chao; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-09-21

    Salt and alkali stress are two of the main environmental factors limiting crop production. Recent discoveries show that the JAZ family encodes plant-specific genes involved in jasmonate signaling. However, there is only limited information about this gene family in abiotic stress response, and in wild soybean (Glycine soja), which is a species noted for its tolerance to alkali and salinity. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from G. soja. Transcript abundance of GsJAZ2 increased following exposure to salt, alkali, cold and drought. Over-expression of GsJAZ2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. The expression levels of some alkali stress response and stress-inducible marker genes were significantly higher in the GsJAZ2 overexpression lines as compared to wild-type plants. Subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein showed that GsJAZ2 was localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the newly isolated wild soybean GsJAZ2 is a positive regulator of plant salt and alkali stress tolerance. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Cotton WRKY Gene GhWRKY41 Positively Regulates Salt and Drought Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Chu

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors constitute a very large family of proteins in plants and participate in modulating plant biological processes, such as growth, development and stress responses. However, the exact roles of WRKY proteins are unclear, particularly in non-model plants. In this study, Gossypium hirsutum WRKY41 (GhWRKY41 was isolated and transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana. Our results showed that overexpression of GhWRKY41 enhanced the drought and salt stress tolerance of transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana. The transgenic plants exhibited lower malondialdehyde content and higher antioxidant enzyme activity, and the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated in transgenic plants exposed to osmotic stress. A β-glucuronidase (GUS staining assay showed that GhWRKY41 was highly expressed in the stomata when plants were exposed to osmotic stress, and plants overexpressing GhWRKY41 exhibited enhanced stomatal closure when they were exposed to osmotic stress. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that GhWRKY41 may enhance plant tolerance to stress by functioning as a positive regulator of stoma closure and by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging and the expression of antioxidant genes.

  17. Biomineralization of a calcifying ureolytic bacterium Microbacterium sp. GM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojing Xu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of this research provide evidence that Microbacterium sp. GM-1 can biologically induce calcification and suggest that strain GM-1 may play a potential role in the synthesis of new biominerals and in bioremediation or biorecovery.

  18. Ethical arguments relevant to the use of GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weale, Albert

    2010-11-30

    The Nuffield Council on Bioethics (NCOB) has published two reports (1999 and 2004) on the social and ethical issues involved in the use of genetically modified crops. This presentation summarises their core ethical arguments. Five sets of ethical concerns have been raised about GM crops: potential harm to human health; potential damage to the environment; negative impact on traditional farming practice; excessive corporate dominance; and the 'unnaturalness' of the technology. The NCOB examined these claims in the light of the principle of general human welfare, the maintenance of human rights and the principle of justice. It concluded in relation to the issue of 'unnaturalness' that GM modification did not differ to such an extent from conventional breeding that it is in itself morally objectionable. In making an assessment of possible costs, benefits and risks, it was necessary to proceed on a case-by-case basis. However, the potential to bring about significant benefits in developing countries (improved nutrition, enhanced pest resistance, increased yields and new products) meant that there was an ethical obligation to explore these potential benefits responsibly, to contribute to the reduction of poverty, and improve food security and profitable agriculture in developing countries. NCOB held that these conclusions were consistent with any practical precautionary approach. In particular, in applying a precautionary approach the risks associated with the status quo need to be considered, as well as any risks inherent in the technology. These ethical requirements have implications for the governance of the technology, in particular mechanisms for enabling small-scale farmers to express their preferences for traits selected by plant breeders and mechanisms for the diffusion of risk-based evaluations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Combined replacement effects of human modified β-hexosaminidase B and GM2 activator protein on GM2 gangliosidoses fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitakaze, Keisuke; Tasaki, Chikako; Tajima, Youichi; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Tsuji, Daisuke; Sakuraba, Hitoshi; Itoh, Kohji

    2016-09-01

    GM2 gangliosidoses are autosomal recessive lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) caused by mutations in the HEXA , HEXB and GM2A genes, which encode the human lysosomal β-hexosaminidase (Hex) α- and β-subunits, and GM2 activator protein (GM2A), respectively. These diseases are associated with excessive accumulation of GM2 ganglioside (GM2) in the brains of patients with neurological symptoms. Here we established a CHO cell line overexpressing human GM2A, and purified GM2A from the conditioned medium, which was taken up by fibroblasts derived from a patient with GM2A deficiency, and had the therapeutic effects of reducing the GM2 accumulated in fibroblasts when added to the culture medium. We also demonstrated for the first time that recombinant GM2A could enhance the replacement effect of human modified HexB (modB) with GM2-degrading activity, which is composed of homodimeric altered β-subunits containing a partial amino acid sequence of the α-subunit, including the GSEP loop necessary for binding to GM2A, on reduction of the GM2 accumulated in fibroblasts derived from a patient with Tay-Sachs disease, a HexA (αβ heterodimer) deficiency, caused by HEXA mutations. We predicted the same manner of binding of GM2A to the GSEP loop located in the modified HexB β-subunit to that in the native HexA α-subunit on the basis of the x-ray crystal structures. These findings suggest the effectiveness of combinational replacement therapy involving the human modified HexB and GM2A for GM2 gangliosidoses.

  20. Governing the GM crop revolution: policy choices for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Paarlberg, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Will developing countries adopt policies that promote the planting of genetically modified (GM) crops, or will they select policies that slow the spread of the GM crop revolution? The evidence so far is mixed. In some prominent countries such as China, policies are in place that encourage the independent development and planting of GM crops. Yet in a number of other equally prominent countries the planting of GM crops is not yet officially approved. The inclination of developing countries to ...

  1. An R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, GmMYB29, regulates isoflavone biosynthesis in soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Chu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones comprise a group of secondary metabolites produced almost exclusively by plants in the legume family, including soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.]. They play vital roles in plant defense and have many beneficial effects on human health. Isoflavone content is a complex quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes, and the genetic mechanisms underlying isoflavone biosynthesis remain largely unknown. Via a genome-wide association study (GWAS, we identified 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are significantly associated with isoflavone concentrations in soybean. One of these 28 SNPs was located in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR of an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, GmMYB29, and this gene was thus selected as a candidate gene for further analyses. A subcellular localization study confirmed that GmMYB29 was located in the nucleus. Transient reporter gene assays demonstrated that GmMYB29 activated the IFS2 (isoflavone synthase 2 and CHS8 (chalcone synthase 8 gene promoters. Overexpression and RNAi-mediated silencing of GmMYB29 in soybean hairy roots resulted in increased and decreased isoflavone content, respectively. Moreover, a candidate-gene association analysis revealed that 11 natural GmMYB29 polymorphisms were significantly associated with isoflavone contents, and regulation of GmMYB29 expression could partially contribute to the observed phenotypic variation. Taken together, these results provide important genetic insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying isoflavone biosynthesis in soybean.

  2. CaPUB1, a Hot Pepper U-box E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Confers Enhanced Cold Stress Tolerance and Decreased Drought Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hye Jo; Jung, Ye Jin; Kang, Bin Goo; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-03-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought and low temperature critically restrict plant growth, reproduction, and productivity. Higher plants have developed various defense strategies against these unfavorable conditions. CaPUB1 (Capsicum annuum Putative U-box protein 1) is a hot pepper U-box E3 Ub ligase. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that constitutively expressed CaPUB1 exhibited drought-sensitive phenotypes, suggesting that it functions as a negative regulator of the drought stress response. In this study, CaPUB1 was over-expressed in rice (Oryza sativa L.), and the phenotypic properties of transgenic rice plants were examined in terms of their drought and cold stress tolerance. Ubi:CaPUB1 T3 transgenic rice plants displayed phenotypes hypersensitive to dehydration, suggesting that its role in the negative regulation of drought stress response is conserved in dicot Arabidopsis and monocot rice plants. In contrast, Ubi:CaPUB1 progeny exhibited phenotypes markedly tolerant to prolonged low temperature (4°C) treatment, compared to those of wild-type plants, as determined by survival rates, electrolyte leakage, and total chlorophyll content. Cold stress-induced marker genes, including DREB1A, DREB1B, DREB1C, and Cytochrome P450, were more up-regulated by cold treatment in Ubi:CaPUB1 plants than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that CaPUB1 serves as both a negative regulator of the drought stress response and a positive regulator of the cold stress response in transgenic rice plants. This raises the possibility that CaPUB1 participates in the cross-talk between drought and low-temperature signaling pathways.

  3. 5 CFR 531.243 - Promotion of a GM employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion of a GM employee. 531.243 Section 531.243 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... Promotion of a GM employee. (a) Upon promotion, an employee's status as a GM employee ends, as provided in...

  4. Consumer awareness and attitudes toward GM foods in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-eight percent said they would buy GM maize meal at the same price as their favorite brands, although many had concerns; half of the respondents feared that GM technology could lead to a loss of biodiversity and affect non-target insects; while more than one- third (37%) had concerns about the effects of GM food on ...

  5. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed, as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. In Section 1 the mandate, scope and general principles for risk assessment of GM plant derived food and feed are discussed. Products under consideration are food and feed derived from GM plants, such as maize, soybeans, oilseed rape and cotton, modified through the introduction of one or more genes coding for agronomic input traits like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. Furthermore GM plant derived food and feed, which have been obtained through extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alterations of metabolic pathways leading to improved nutritional and/or health characteristics, such as rice containing beta-carotene, soybeans with enhanced oleic acid content, or tomato with increased concentration of flavonoids, are considered. The safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed follows a comparative approach, i.e. the food and feed are compared with their non-GM counterparts in order to identify intended and unintended (unexpected) differences which subsequently are assessed with respect to their potential impact on the environment, safety for humans and animals, and nutritional quality. Key elements of the assessment procedure are the molecular, compositional, phenotypic and agronomic analysis in order to identify similarities and differences between the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart. The safety assessment is focussed on (i) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible

  6. Effect of the absence of the CcpA gene on growth, metabolic production, and stress tolerance in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Sun, J W; Zhang, G F; Liu, L B

    2016-01-01

    The catabolite control protein A (CcpA) is a kind of multi-effect regulatory protein. In the study, the effect of the inactivation of CcpA and aerobic conditions on the growth, metabolic production, and stress tolerance to heat, oxidative, and cold stresses in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus was investigated. Results showed that inactivation of CcpA distinctly hindered growth. Total lactic acid concentration was significantly lower in aerobiosis for both strains and was lower for the mutant strain than L. bulgaricus. Acetic acid production from the mutant strain was higher than L. bulgaricus in aerobiosis compared with anaerobiosis. Enzyme activities, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), phosphate fructose kinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and pyruvic dehydrogenase (PDH), were significantly lower in the mutant strain than L. bulgaricus. The diameters of inhibition zone were 13.59 ± 0.02 mm and 9.76 ± 0.02 mm for L. bulgaricus in anaerobiosis and aerobiosis, respectively; and 8.12 ± 0.02 mm and 7.38 ± 0.02 mm for the mutant in anaerobiosis and aerobiosis, respectively. For both strains, cells grown under aerobic environment possess more stress tolerance. This is the first study in which the CcpA-negative mutant of L. bulgaricus is constructed and the effect of aerobic growth on stress tolerance of L. bulgaricus is evaluated. Although aerobic cultivation does not significantly improve growth, it does improve stress tolerance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Current and future benefits from the use of GM technology in food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, K-H; Frenzel, Th; Miller, A

    2002-02-28

    For the current generation of genetically modified (GM) crops the improvement of agronomic traits (e.g. herbicide tolerance, insect resistance) has been a major objective. The lack of obvious and direct benefits for the consumer has been a main point of criticism. Future trends will increasingly encompass the modification of quality traits, such as the improvement of sensory and especially nutritional properties. Some of the ongoing developments try to meet the desire of consumers for 'healthy' or 'high-tech' foods in developed countries. Others are intended to assist in adjusting the nutritional status of foods to the needs of consumers in developing countries. Considering the increasing world population and the limited amount of arable land, GM technology may also become a valuable tool to ensure food security. The major prerequisite for the applicability of the technique is the safety of the resulting products. The increasing complexity of modifications intended might require adjustments and improvements of the strategies applied to the safety assessment of GM foods. Present research activities try to meet these new challenges.

  8. More than 400 million years of evolution and some plants still can't make it on their own: Plant stress tolerance via fungal symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R.; Redman, R.

    2008-01-01

    All plants in natural ecosystems are thought to be symbiotic with mycorrhizal and/or endophytic fungi. Collectively, these fungi express different symbiotic lifestyles ranging from parasitism to mutualism. Analysis of Colletotrichum species indicates that individual isolates can express either parasitic or mutualistic lifestyles depending on the host genotype colonized. The endophyte colonization pattern and lifestyle expression indicate that plants can be discerned as either disease, non-disease, or non-hosts. Fitness benefits conferred by fungi expressing mutualistic lifestyles include biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, growth enhancement, and increased reproductive success. Analysis of plant-endophyte associations in high stress habitats revealed that at least some fungal endophytes confer habitat-specific stress tolerance to host plants. Without the habitat-adapted fungal endophytes, the plants are unable to survive in their native habitats. Moreover, the endophytes have a broad host range encompassing both monocots and eudicots, and confer habitat-specific stress tolerance to both plant groups. ?? The Author [2008]. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology]. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of halo-tolerant, auxin producing Pseudomonas and Rhizobium strains to improve osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqshoof; Zahir, Zahir A; Nazli, Farheen; Akram, Fareeha; Arshad, Muhammad; Khalid, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Halo-tolerant, auxin producing bacteria could be used to induce salt tolerance in plants. A number of Rhizobium and auxin producing rhizobacterial strains were assessed for their ability to tolerate salt stress by conducting osmoadaptation assay. The selected strains were further screened for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean seedlings under salt-stressed axenic conditions in growth pouch/jar trials. Three most effective strains of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas containing ACC-deaminase were evaluated in combination, for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean at original, 4, and 6 dS m(-1) under axenic conditions. Results showed that sole inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains improved the total dry matter up to 1.4, and 1.9 fold, respectively, while the increase in salt tolerance index was improved up to 1.3 and 2.0 fold by the Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains, respectively. However, up to 2.2 fold increase in total dry matter and salt tolerance index was observed due to combined inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains. So, combined application of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains could be explored as an effective strategy to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean.

  10. Ethylene induced plant stress tolerance by Enterobacter sp. SA187 is mediated by 2‐keto‐4‐methylthiobutyric acid production

    KAUST Repository

    Zélicourt, Axel de

    2018-03-19

    Several plant species require microbial associations for survival under different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we show that Enterobacter sp. SA187, a desert plant endophytic bacterium, enhances yield of the crop plant alfalfa under field conditions as well as growth of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana in vitro, revealing a high potential of SA187 as a biological solution for improving crop production. Studying the SA187 interaction with Arabidopsis, we uncovered a number of mechanisms related to the beneficial association of SA187 with plants. SA187 colonizes both the surface and inner tissues of Arabidopsis roots and shoots. SA187 induces salt stress tolerance by production of bacterial 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid (KMBA), known to be converted into ethylene. By transcriptomic, genetic and pharmacological analyses, we show that the ethylene signaling pathway, but not plant ethylene production, is required for KMBA-induced plant salt stress tolerance. These results reveal a novel molecular communication process during the beneficial microbe-induced plant stress tolerance.

  11. Effectiveness of halo-tolerant, auxin producing Pseudomonas and Rhizobium strains to improve osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maqshoof Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Halo-tolerant, auxin producing bacteria could be used to induce salt tolerance in plants. A number of Rhizobium and auxin producing rhizobacterial strains were assessed for their ability to tolerate salt stress by conducting osmoadaptation assay. The selected strains were further screened for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean seedlings under salt-stressed axenic conditions in growth pouch/jar trials. Three most effective strains of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas containing ACC-deaminase were evaluated in combination, for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean at original, 4, and 6 dS m-1 under axenic conditions. Results showed that sole inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains improved the total dry matter up to 1.4, and 1.9 fold, respectively, while the increase in salt tolerance index was improved up to 1.3 and 2.0 fold by the Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains, respectively. However, up to 2.2 fold increase in total dry matter and salt tolerance index was observed due to combined inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains. So, combined application of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains could be explored as an effective strategy to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean.

  12. Environmental stress is the major cause of transcriptomic and proteomic changes in GM and non-GM plants

    KAUST Repository

    Batista, Rita

    2017-08-31

    The approval of genetically modified (GM) crops is preceded by years of intensive research to demonstrate safety to humans and environment. We recently showed that in vitro culture stress is the major factor influencing proteomic differences of GM vs. non-GM plants. This made us question the number of generations needed to erase such

  13. Elevated compartmentalization of Na+ into vacuoles improves salt and cold stress tolerance in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weijuan; Deng, Gaifang; Wang, Hongxia; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Peng

    2015-08-01

    Salinity and low temperature are the main limiting factors for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) growth and agricultural productivity. Various studies have shown that plant NHX-type antiporter plays a crucial role in regulating plant tolerance to salt stress by intracellular Na(+) compartmentalization. The Arabidopsis thaliana AtNHX1 gene that encodes a vacuolar Na(+) /H(+) antiporter was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Xushu-22 by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to confer abiotic stress tolerance. Stable insertion of AtNHX1 into the sweet potato genome and its expression was confirmed by Southern blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A remarkably higher Na(+) /H(+) exchange activity of tonoplast membrane from transgenic sweet potato lines (NOE) in comparison with wild-type (WT) plants confirmed the vacuolar antiporter function in mediating Na(+) /H(+) exchange. Under salt stress, NOE plants accumulated higher Na(+) and K(+) levels in their tissues compared with WT plants, maintaining high K(+) /Na(+) ratios. Consequently, NOE plants showed enhanced protection against cell damage due to the increased proline accumulation, preserved cell membrane integrity, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging (e.g. increased superoxide dismutase activity), and reduced H2 O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) production. Moreover, the transgenic plants showed improved cold tolerance through multiple mechanisms of action, revealing the first molecular evidence for NHX1 function in cold response. The transgenic plants showed better biomass production and root yield under stressful conditions. These findings demonstrate that overexpressing AtNHX1 in sweet potato renders the crop tolerant to both salt and cold stresses, providing a greater capacity for the use of AtNHX1 in improving crop performance under combined abiotic stress conditions. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Cloning and characterization of ChiMYB in Chrysanthemum indicum with an emphasis on salinity stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M; Wang, H; Z Liu, Y; Gao, W J; Gao, Y H; Wang, F; Zhou, Y W

    2016-09-23

    v-myb avianmyeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB) transcription factors are key regulators of stress responsive gene expression in plants. In this study, the MYB gene, ChiMYB (GenBank accession No. KT948997), was isolated from Chrysanthemum indicum, and was functionally characterized with an emphasis on salinity stress tolerance. The full ChiMYB cDNA sequence (948 bp) encoded a typical R2R3 MYB transcription factor that contained 315 amino acid residues and two MYB domains. The temporal expression pattern of ChiMYB was noted in C. indicum, and the highest level was detected in the roots, followed by leaves and stems. ChiMYB expression was induced by NaCl treatments, and transient expression of the fusion of ChiMYB and green fluorescent protein (GFP) indicated that the protein was targeted to the nuclei of onion epidermal cells. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ChiMYB displayed improved tolerance to drought and salt stress. When under salt stress conditions, transgenic Arabidopsis plants had higher survival rates than non-transgenic wild-type plants. Chlorophyll content, intercellular CO 2 concentration, photosynthetic rate, and stomatal conductance were higher in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants than in non-transgenic control plants. Further investigation revealed that ChiMYB was able to regulate the expression of RD29A, RAB18, COR15, ABI1, and ABA genes, which are involved in salt stress signaling pathways. Our findings demonstrated that ChiMYB is essential for plant responses to salt stress, and it may have great potential for the improvement of salt tolerance in crops.

  15. Overexpression of a heat shock protein (ThHSP18.3) from Tamarix hispida confers stress tolerance to yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Caiqiu; Jiang, Bo; Wang, Yucheng; Liu, Guifeng; Yang, Chuanping

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that plant heat shock proteins (HSPs) play important roles both in response to adverse environmental conditions and in various developmental processes. However, among plant HSPs, the functions of tree plant HSPs are poorly characterized. To improve our understanding of tree HSPs, we cloned and characterized an HSP gene (ThHSP18.3) from Tamarix hispida. Sequence alignment reveals that ThHSP18.3 belongs to the class I small heat shock protein family. A transient expression assay showed that ThHSP18.3 protein was targeted to the cell nucleus. Treatment of Tamarix hispida with cold and heat shock highly induced ThHSP18.3 expression in all studied leaves, roots and stems, whereas, treatment of T. hispida with NaCl, NaHCO(3), and PEG induced ThHSP18.3 expression in leaves and decreased its expression in roots and stems. Further, to study the role of ThHSP18.3 in stress tolerance under different stress conditions, we cloned ThHSP18.3 into the pYES2 vector, transformed and expressed the vector in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells transformed with an empty pYES2 vector were employed as a control. Compared to the control, yeast cells expressing ThHSP18.3 showed greater tolerance to salt, drought, heavy metals, and both low and high temperatures, indicating that ThHSP18.3 confers tolerance to these stress conditions. These results suggested that ThHSP18.3 is involved in tolerance to a variety of stress conditions in T. hispida.

  16. Heterologous expression of three Camellia sinensis small heat shock protein genes confers temperature stress tolerance in yeast and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingle; Zou, Zhongwei; Li, Qinghui; Xin, Huahong; Zhu, Xujun; Chen, Xuan; Li, Xinghui

    2017-07-01

    CsHSP17.7, CsHSP18.1, and CsHSP21.8 expressions are induced by heat and cold stresses, and CsHSP overexpression confers tolerance to heat and cold stresses in transgenic Pichia pastoris and Arabidopsis thaliana. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are crucial for protecting plants against biotic and abiotic stresses, especially heat stress. However, knowledge concerning the functions of Camellia sinensis sHSP in heat and cold stresses remains poorly understood. In this study, three C. sinensis sHSP genes (i.e., CsHSP17.7, CsHSP18.1, and CsHSP21.8) were isolated and characterized using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology. The CsHSPs expression levels in C. sinensis leaves were significantly up-regulated by heat and cold stresses. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsHSP17.7, CsHSP18.1, and CsHSP21.8 belong to sHSP Classes I, II, and IV, respectively. Heterologous expression of the three CsHSP genes in Pichia pastoris cells enhanced heat and cold stress tolerance. When exposed to heat and cold treatments, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing CsHSP17.7, CsHSP18.1, and CsHSP21.8 had lower malondialdehyde contents, ion leakage, higher proline contents, and transcript levels of stress-related genes (e.g., AtPOD, AtAPX1, AtP5CS2, and AtProT1) compared with the control line. In addition, improved seed germination vigor was also observed in the CsHSP-overexpressing seeds under heat stress. Taken together, our results suggest that the three identified CsHSP genes play key roles in heat and cold tolerance.

  17. The SbMT-2 gene from a halophyte confers abiotic stress tolerance and modulates ROS scavenging in transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are common pollutants of the coastal saline area and Salicornia brachiata an extreme halophyte is frequently exposed to various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. The SbMT-2 gene was cloned and transformed to tobacco for the functional validation. Transgenic tobacco lines (L2, L4, L6 and L13 showed significantly enhanced salt (NaCl, osmotic (PEG and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++ tolerance compared to WT plants. Transgenic lines did not show any morphological variation and had enhanced growth parameters viz. shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight. High seed germination percentage, chlorophyll content, relative water content, electrolytic leakage and membrane stability index confirmed that transgenic lines performed better under salt (NaCl, osmotic (PEG and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++ stress conditions compared to WT plants. Proline, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA analyses suggested the role of SbMT-2 in cellular homeostasis and H2O2 detoxification. Furthermore in vivo localization of H2O2 and O2-; and elevated expression of key antioxidant enzyme encoding genes, SOD, POD and APX evident the possible role of SbMT-2 in ROS scavenging/detoxification mechanism. Transgenic lines showed accumulation of Cu++ and Cd++ in root while Zn++ in stem under stress condition. Under control (unstressed condition, Zn++ was accumulated more in root but accumulation of Zn++ in stem under stress condition suggested that SbMT-2 may involve in the selective translocation of Zn++ from root to stem. This observation was further supported by the up-regulation of zinc transporter encoding genes NtZIP1 and NtHMA-A under metal ion stress condition. The study suggested that SbMT-2 modulates ROS scavenging and is a potential candidate to be used for phytoremediation and imparting stress tolerance.

  18. The SbMT-2 gene from a halophyte confers abiotic stress tolerance and modulates ROS scavenging in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Patel, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Tiwari, Vivekanand; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are common pollutants of the coastal saline area and Salicornia brachiata an extreme halophyte is frequently exposed to various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. The SbMT-2 gene was cloned and transformed to tobacco for the functional validation. Transgenic tobacco lines (L2, L4, L6 and L13) showed significantly enhanced salt (NaCl), osmotic (PEG) and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++) tolerance compared to WT plants. Transgenic lines did not show any morphological variation and had enhanced growth parameters viz. shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight. High seed germination percentage, chlorophyll content, relative water content, electrolytic leakage and membrane stability index confirmed that transgenic lines performed better under salt (NaCl), osmotic (PEG) and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++) stress conditions compared to WT plants. Proline, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) analyses suggested the role of SbMT-2 in cellular homeostasis and H2O2 detoxification. Furthermore in vivo localization of H2O2 and O2-; and elevated expression of key antioxidant enzyme encoding genes, SOD, POD and APX evident the possible role of SbMT-2 in ROS scavenging/detoxification mechanism. Transgenic lines showed accumulation of Cu++ and Cd++ in root while Zn++ in stem under stress condition. Under control (unstressed) condition, Zn++ was accumulated more in root but accumulation of Zn++ in stem under stress condition suggested that SbMT-2 may involve in the selective translocation of Zn++ from root to stem. This observation was further supported by the up-regulation of zinc transporter encoding genes NtZIP1 and NtHMA-A under metal ion stress condition. The study suggested that SbMT-2 modulates ROS scavenging and is a potential candidate to be used for phytoremediation and imparting stress tolerance.

  19. Over-expression of a novel JAZ family gene from Glycine soja, increases salt and alkali stress tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Dan; Cai, Hua; Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Deyholos, Michael K. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Chen, Qin [Lethbridge Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 5403-1 Ave., South P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, AB, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Chen, Chao; Ji, Wei [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Zhu, Yanming, E-mail: ymzhu@neau.edu.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from Glycine soja. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of GsJAZ2 enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transcriptions of stress marker genes were higher in GsJAZ2 overexpression lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GsJAZ2 was localized to nucleus. -- Abstract: Salt and alkali stress are two of the main environmental factors limiting crop production. Recent discoveries show that the JAZ family encodes plant-specific genes involved in jasmonate signaling. However, there is only limited information about this gene family in abiotic stress response, and in wild soybean (Glycine soja), which is a species noted for its tolerance to alkali and salinity. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from G. soja. Transcript abundance of GsJAZ2 increased following exposure to salt, alkali, cold and drought. Over-expression of GsJAZ2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. The expression levels of some alkali stress response and stress-inducible marker genes were significantly higher in the GsJAZ2 overexpression lines as compared to wild-type plants. Subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein showed that GsJAZ2 was localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the newly isolated wild soybean GsJAZ2 is a positive regulator of plant salt and alkali stress tolerance.

  20. The cAMP-PKA Signaling Pathway Regulates Pathogenicity, Hyphal Growth, Appressorial Formation, Conidiation, and Stress Tolerance in Colletotrichum higginsianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjun; Zhou, Man; Xiong, Zeyang; Peng, Fang; Wei, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Colletotrichum higginsianum is an economically important pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in a wide range of cruciferous crops. Understanding the mechanisms of the cruciferous plant- C. higginsianum interactions will be important in facilitating efficient control of anthracnose diseases. The cAMP-PKA signaling pathway plays important roles in diverse physiological processes of multiple pathogens. C. higginsianum contains two genes, ChPKA1 and ChPKA2 , that encode the catalytic subunits of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). To analyze the role of cAMP signaling pathway in pathogenicity and development in C. higginsianum , we characterized ChPKA1 and ChPKA2 genes, and adenylate cyclase ( ChAC ) gene. The ChPKA1 and ChAC deletion mutants were unable to cause disease and significantly reduced in hyphal growth, tolerance to cell wall inhibitors, conidiation, and appressorial formation with abnormal germ tubes, but they had an increased tolerance to elevated temperatures and exogenous H 2 O 2 . In contrast, the ChPKA2 mutant had no detectable alteration of phenotypes, suggesting that ChPKA1 contributes mainly to PKA activities in C. higginsianum . Moreover, we failed to generate Δ ChPKA1ChPKA2 double mutant, indicating that deletion of both PKA catalytic subunits is lethal in C. higginsianum and the two catalytic subunits possibly have overlapping functions. These results indicated that ChPKA1 is the major PKA catalytic subunit in cAMP-PKA signaling pathway and plays significant roles in hyphal growth, pathogenicity, appressorial formation, conidiation, and stress tolerance in C. higginsianum .

  1. The cAMP-PKA Signaling Pathway Regulates Pathogenicity, Hyphal Growth, Appressorial Formation, Conidiation, and Stress Tolerance in Colletotrichum higginsianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum higginsianum is an economically important pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in a wide range of cruciferous crops. Understanding the mechanisms of the cruciferous plant–C. higginsianum interactions will be important in facilitating efficient control of anthracnose diseases. The cAMP-PKA signaling pathway plays important roles in diverse physiological processes of multiple pathogens. C. higginsianum contains two genes, ChPKA1 and ChPKA2, that encode the catalytic subunits of cyclic AMP (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA. To analyze the role of cAMP signaling pathway in pathogenicity and development in C. higginsianum, we characterized ChPKA1 and ChPKA2 genes, and adenylate cyclase (ChAC gene. The ChPKA1 and ChAC deletion mutants were unable to cause disease and significantly reduced in hyphal growth, tolerance to cell wall inhibitors, conidiation, and appressorial formation with abnormal germ tubes, but they had an increased tolerance to elevated temperatures and exogenous H2O2. In contrast, the ChPKA2 mutant had no detectable alteration of phenotypes, suggesting that ChPKA1 contributes mainly to PKA activities in C. higginsianum. Moreover, we failed to generate ΔChPKA1ChPKA2 double mutant, indicating that deletion of both PKA catalytic subunits is lethal in C. higginsianum and the two catalytic subunits possibly have overlapping functions. These results indicated that ChPKA1 is the major PKA catalytic subunit in cAMP-PKA signaling pathway and plays significant roles in hyphal growth, pathogenicity, appressorial formation, conidiation, and stress tolerance in C. higginsianum.

  2. Comparative transcriptome analysis of Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) reveals novel insights into heat stress tolerance in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuncai; Su, Hang; Li, Rongqiao; Li, Xiaotong; Xu, Yusong; Dai, Xiangping; Zhou, Yanyan; Wang, Huabing

    2017-12-19

    Heat tolerance is a key parameter that affects insect distribution and abundance. Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a devastating pest of mulberry in the main mulberry-growing regions and can cause tremendous losses to sericulture by directly feeding on mulberry leaves and transmitting viruses to Bombyx mori. Moreover, G. pyloalis shows a prominent capacity for adaptation to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations and can survive several hours under high temperature. To date, the molecular mechanism underlying the outstanding adaptability of this pest to high temperature remains unclear. In this study, we performed comparative transcriptome analyses on G. pyloalis exposed to 25 and 40 °C for 4 h. We obtained 34,034 unigenes and identified 1275 and 1222 genes significantly upregulated or downregulated, respectively, by heat stress. Data from the transcriptome analyses indicated that some processes involved in heat tolerance are conserved, such as high expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes and partial repression of metabolism progress. In addition, vitamin digestion and absorption pathways and detoxification pathways identified here provided new insights for the investigation of the molecular mechanisms of heat stress tolerance. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis indicated that immune and phosphatidylinositol signaling system have a close relationship with heat tolerance. In addition, the expression patterns of ten randomly selected genes, such as HSP and cytochrome P450, were consistent with the transcriptome results obtained through quantitative real-time PCR. Comparisons among transcriptome results revealed the upregulation of HSPs and genes involved in redox homeostasis, detoxication, and immune progress. However, many metabolism progresses, such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and fatty acid biosynthesis, were partially repressed. The results reflected that the heat tolerance of G. pyloalis is a fairly complicated process and

  3. Over-expression of a novel JAZ family gene from Glycine soja, increases salt and alkali stress tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Dan; Cai, Hua; Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi; Deyholos, Michael K.; Chen, Qin; Chen, Chao; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from Glycine soja. ► Overexpression of GsJAZ2 enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. ► The transcriptions of stress marker genes were higher in GsJAZ2 overexpression lines. ► GsJAZ2 was localized to nucleus. -- Abstract: Salt and alkali stress are two of the main environmental factors limiting crop production. Recent discoveries show that the JAZ family encodes plant-specific genes involved in jasmonate signaling. However, there is only limited information about this gene family in abiotic stress response, and in wild soybean (Glycine soja), which is a species noted for its tolerance to alkali and salinity. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from G. soja. Transcript abundance of GsJAZ2 increased following exposure to salt, alkali, cold and drought. Over-expression of GsJAZ2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. The expression levels of some alkali stress response and stress-inducible marker genes were significantly higher in the GsJAZ2 overexpression lines as compared to wild-type plants. Subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein showed that GsJAZ2 was localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the newly isolated wild soybean GsJAZ2 is a positive regulator of plant salt and alkali stress tolerance.

  4. Ectopic Expression of Pumpkin NAC Transcription Factor CmNAC1 Improves Multiple Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishun Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought, cold and salinity are the major environmental stresses that limit agricultural productivity. NAC transcription factors regulate the stress response in plants. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is an important cucurbit vegetable crop and it has strong resistance to abiotic stress; however, the biological functions of stress-related NAC genes in this crop are largely unknown. This study reports the function of CmNAC1, a stress-responsive pumpkin NAC domain protein. The CmNAC1-GFP fusion protein was transiently expressed in tobacco leaves for subcellular localization analysis, and we found that CmNAC1 is localized in the nucleus. Transactivation assay in yeast cells revealed that CmNAC1 functions as a transcription activator, and its transactivation domain is located in the C-terminus. CmNAC1 was ubiquitously expressed in different organs, and its transcript was induced by salinity, cold, dehydration, H2O2, and abscisic acid (ABA treatment. Furthermore, the ectopic expression (EE of CmNAC1 in Arabidopsis led to ABA hypersensitivity and enhanced tolerance to salinity, drought and cold stress. In addition, five ABA-responsive elements were enriched in CmNAC1 promoter. The CmNAC1-EE plants exhibited different root architecture, leaf morphology, and significantly high concentration of ABA compared with WT Arabidopsis under normal conditions. Our results indicated that CmNAC1 is a critical factor in ABA signaling pathways and it can be utilized in transgenic breeding to improve the abiotic stress tolerance of crops.

  5. Stress tolerant plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Vicente; Iniesto Sánchez, Elisa; Irigoyen Miguel, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.

  6. Trait analysis, diversity, and genotype x environment interaction in some wheat landraces evaluated under drought and heat stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Sareen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Both drought and heat stress are responsible for decline in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in many regions of the world. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC has predicted increase in these areas. Development of heat and drought tolerant genotypes is on priority. Landraces are unexploited genetic resources for various agronomic traits contributing tolerance to abiotic stress. Twenty-five wheat genotypes were evaluated in irrigated timely, rainfed timely and irrigated late sown conditions for 2 yr using 10 agronomic traits for their response to drought and heat stress and four stress indices (stress susceptibility index, stress tolerance index, mean productivity, and stress tolerance were calculated. Variability averaged over traits was highest under rainfed conditions. Grain yield, plant height, and productive tillers were more sensitive and test grain weight as tolerant under drought. Under heat stress grain yield, grain weight, test grain weight and phenological traits were more sensitive. Productive tillers and grain number per spike were identified as important selection parameters for drought and grain weight (per spike and test grain weight as for heat tolerance. Genotypes IC 321987, IC 322005, IC 138852, IC 138870 adapted to stressed environments or genotypes CPAN 4079 and NEPAL 38 stable over all environments can be used for introgression of the stress tolerance in elite cultivars.

  7. Gm crops: between biological risk and environmental and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparro Giraldo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The transgenic crops were the result of the application of recombinant DNA technology in agriculture. These crops were developed by transfer of foreign genes (transgenes) from any biological origin (animal, plant, microbial, viral) to the genome of cultivated species of plants. The crops genetically modified (GM) have been used in the world since 1996; up to December 2010 they counted to a billion hectares planted throughout the period. In just the past year 2010 148 million hectares were planted, grown by 15.4 million farmers in 29 countries. GM crops that are used in global agriculture are mainly soybean, cotton, corn and canola, which express transgenes derived from bacteria, and confer resistance to lepidopteron insects (ILR) or herbicide tolerance (HT; glyphosate and glufosinate ammonium). the first transgenic varieties containing only a single transgene, or simple event, while the current varieties express several transgenes, or stacked, conferring resistance to different species of Lepidoptera and coleopteran insects and tolerance to two different herbicides. In 2010 were planted in Colombia, 18.874 hectares of GM cotton, 16.793 hectares of GM corn, and 4 hectares of GM carnations and GM roses. GM corn and GM cotton were planted in Sucre, Cesar, Cordoba, Huila and Tolima. GM corn was planted in Antioquia, Valle del Cauca, Meta, Cundinamarca and Santander. Carnations and roses were planted in Cundinamarca. GM maize and GM cotton expressing ILR and HT features, as simple events or stacked. In the case of GM carnation and GM roses, these genotypes that express the color blue. Academia has tried to organize the debate on the adoption of GM crops around the analysis of biological risks and environmental vs environmental and economic benefits. Biological hazards are defined by the possible negative effects on human consumers or negative effects on the environment. The environmental benefits are related to reduce use of agrochemicals (insecticides and herbicides

  8. Contesting Corporate Transgenic Crops in a Semi Peripheral Context: The Case of the Anti-GM movement in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devparna Roy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Market penetration by the hegemonic core state's agricultural biotechnology firms has been preceded and accompanied by a vigorous anti-genetically modified seeds (anti-GM movement in semi-peripheral India. To understand the extent of anti-imperialism and anti-capitalism exhibited by the Indian state, it is useful to investigate the character of democratizing forces-such as the anti-GM movement-which interact with and shape the state. I use primary and secondary data sources to analyze the anti-GM movement in India and argue that the movement is anti-corporate without being anti-capitalist. Further, it is counter-hegemonic but not anti-systemic. These four traits reflect the strengths and weaknesses of exemplary coalition-building between right-wing nationalists, centrists, and left activists. The Indian anti-GM movement suffered an early failure when the Indian state commercialized Bt cotton seeds in 2002, following the entry of unauthorized Bt cotton seeds and lobbying by farmers' groups for legalization of Bt cotton seeds. However, an effective coalition between the right-wing, centrist, and left elements was built by about 2006. This was followed by a most significant victory for the anti-GM movement in February 2010, when the Indian state placed an indefinite moratorium on the commercialization of Bt brinjal seeds. A second, more qualified, victory was achieved by the anti-GM movement when the Indian state placed a hold on field trials of GM crops in July 2014. The anti-GM coalition has been successful in pressing ideologically different political parties to take steps against the multinational seed firms based in core states. Further, it has enabled the Indian state to move from a sub-imperialist to an anti-imperialist role regarding GM seeds. But until the anti-GM coalition in India resolves its inner contradictions and becomes resolutely anti-capitalist and anti-systemic, it will not be able to effectively challenge the anti

  9. The reciprocal relationship between competition and intraspecific trait variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Bennett, Jonathan; Riibak, Kersti; Tamme, Riin

    2016-01-01

    with larger leaves and lower specific leaf area than their neighbours. Switching to more stress tolerant strategies by increasing root diameter and leaf tissue density also reduced competition. However, dissimilarity in root tissue density also minimized competition, consistent with limiting similarity...... outcomes, we grew 15 species alone, in monoculture, and in mixture. We measured traits relating to leaf and root tissue morphology as well as biomass allocation and related competition induced changes in these traits to intra- and interspecific competition using multi-model inference. Additionally, we...... to both intra- and interspecific competition, frequently affecting competitive hierarchies. Intraspecific competition was lower for species that limited competition-induced increases in root allocation and had less variability in this trait overall. Interspecific competition was lower for species...

  10. Inhibition coefficient and molecular diversity of multi stress tolerant Trichoderma as potential biocontrol agent against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirpara, Darshna G; Gajera, H P; Hirapara, Jaydeep G; Golakiya, B A

    2017-11-01

    SSR markers T1F/T1R (311) , TvCTT56f/TvCTT56r (387) , TvGAT18f/TvGAT18r (364) , TvCA39f/TvCA39r (196) and TvAG29f/TvAG29r (418) found to be unique to distinguish best antagonist strain Tvs12. However, MTCC 796 was examined most stress tolerant strain with better inhibition coefficient which might be useful to control the disease under adverse conditions or as a part of integrated pest management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Genome edited animals: Learning from GM crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Ann

    2017-06-01

    Genome editing of livestock is poised to become commercial reality, yet questions remain as to appropriate regulation, potential impact on the industry sector and public acceptability of products. This paper looks at how genome editing of livestock has attempted to learn some of the lessons from commercialisation of GM crops, and takes a systemic approach to explore some of the complexity and ambiguity in incorporating genome edited animals in a food production system. Current applications of genome editing are considered, viewed from the perspective of past technological applications. The question of what is genome editing, and can it be considered natural is examined. The implications of regulation on development of different sectors of livestock production systems are studied, with a particular focus on the veterinary sector. From an EU perspective, regulation of genome edited animals, although not necessarily the same as for GM crops, is advocated from a number of different perspectives. This paper aims to open up new avenues of research on genome edited animals, extending from the current primary focus on science and regulation, to engage with a wider-range of food system actors.

  12. Global powertrains - the GM case; Globale Antriebssysteme - Die Strategie von GM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, R.J. [General Motors Powertrain Europe, Turin (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In today's environment the development of vehicles is confronted with very high customer expectations and legislative restrictions, which can only be fulfilled with a high technological effort and profound know how. These challenges are further increased due to the diversity of markets with regional preferences and increased cost and demand for energy. At the same time it is a principle for General Motors to offer our customers a sustainable and economical individual mobility. The worldwide development strategy of GM powertrain is following exactly this philosophy: efficient and and cost-effective technologies are being developed for gasoline and diesel engines in order to fulfill all of todays and all prognosed future requirements. Based on this GM has defined it's longterm strategy, the march to zero, which includes alternative propulsion systems with the ultimate goal of the neutral emission vehicle with ensured energy supply. With a unique worldwide development network GM is in an optimal position to take on this challenge. Already today GM is successfully using the synergies of competence centers all over the world for the global development strategy. Modern powertrains are based on a common structure but allow regional adaptation to all markets by using a modular system. This development philosophy is one of the cornerstones for General Motors position as the world's largest carmaker. (orig.)

  13. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Traits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The traits database was compiled for a project on climate change effects on river and stream ecosystems. The traits data, gathered from multiple sources, focused on information published or otherwise well-documented by trustworthy sources.

  14. Molecular analysis of a GM2-activator deficiency in two patients with GM2-gangliosidosis AB variant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schepers, U.; Glombitza, G.; Lemm, T. [Institut fuer Organische Chemie und Biochemie der Universitaet, Bonn (Germany)] [and others

    1996-11-01

    Lysosomal degradation of ganglioside GM2 by {beta}-hexosaminidase A (hex A) requires the presence of the GM2 activator protein (GM2AP) as an essential cofactor. A deficiency of the GM2 activator causes the AB variant of GM2 gangliosidosis, a recessively inherited disorder characterized by excessive neuronal accumulation of GM2 and related glycolipids. Two novel mutations in the GM2 activator gene (GM2A) have been identified by the reverse-transcriptase-PCR method - a three-base deletion, AAG{sup 262-264}, resulting in a deletion of Lys{sup 88}, and a single-base deletion, A{sup 410}, that causes a frameshift. The latter results in substitution of 33 amino acids and the loss of another 24 amino acid residues. Both patients are homoallelic for their respective mutations inherited from their parents, who are heteroallelic at the GM2A locus. Although the cultured fibroblasts of both patients produce normal levels of activator mRNA, they lack a lysosomal form of GM2AP. Pulse/chase labeling of cultured fibroblasts of the patients, in presence and absence of brefeldin A, indicates a premature degradation of both-mutant and truncated-GM2APs in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi. These results were supported by in vitro translation experiments and expression of the mutated proteins. When the mutated GM2APs were expressed in Escherichia coli, both mature GM2AP forms turned proved to exhibit only residual activities in an in vitro assay. 26 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Danish farmer’s perception of GM-crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Janus; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Gylling, Morten

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a study of 185 farmer’s perception of GM-crops in Denmark. The respondent’s attitude to GM-crops mainly reflects a conservative view of the adoption of GM-crops. Among farmers only the exciting crops in rotation is seen as their future potential GM-crops. Findings from...... this study show that more the 60 pct do not expect any or less than 13 EUR increase in gross margins on their farms from adopting GM-crops. This assessment illustrates that the farmers regard the GM-crops more as a way of ‘staying in business” than a technology to increase their profits....

  16. Seeds of Doubt: North American farmers' experiences of GM crops

    OpenAIRE

    Warwick, Hugh; Meziani, Gundula

    2002-01-01

    The picture the biotechnology industry has painted of GM crops in North America is one of unqualified success, after six years of commercial growing. The objective of this report was to assess whether this image is accurate and if not what problems have occurred. We present interviews with North American farmers about their experiences of GM soya, maize and oilseed rape, and review of some of the independent research. The evidence we have gathered demonstrates that GM food crops are far f...

  17. GM Crops, Organic Agriculture and Breeding for Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing debate about the use of genetically-modified (GM) crops in agriculture has largely focused on food safety and genetic contamination issues. Given that the majority of GM crops have been produced to respond to the problem of crop yield reductions caused by diseases, insects and weeds, the paper argues that in those cases, the currently used GM crops are an unstable solution to the problem, because they represent such a strong selection pressure, that pests rapidly evolve resistance...

  18. Arabidopsis AtbHLH112 regulates the expression of genes involved in abiotic stress tolerance by binding to their E-box and GCG-box motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujia; Ji, Xiaoyu; Nie, Xianguang; Qu, Min; Zheng, Lei; Tan, Zilong; Zhao, Huimin; Huo, Lin; Liu, Shengnan; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Yucheng

    2015-08-01

    Plant basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play essential roles in abiotic stress tolerance. However, most bHLHs have not been functionally characterized. Here, we characterized the functional role of a bHLH transcription factor from Arabidopsis, AtbHLH112, in response to abiotic stress. AtbHLH112 is a nuclear-localized protein, and its nuclear localization is induced by salt, drought and abscisic acid (ABA). In addition, AtbHLH112 serves as a transcriptional activator, with the activation domain located at its N-terminus. In addition to binding to the E-box motifs of stress-responsive genes, AtbHLH112 binds to a novel motif with the sequence 'GG[GT]CC[GT][GA][TA]C' (GCG-box). Gain- and loss-of-function analyses showed that the transcript level of AtbHLH112 is positively correlated with salt and drought tolerance. AtbHLH112 mediates stress tolerance by increasing the expression of P5CS genes and reducing the expression of P5CDH and ProDH genes to increase proline levels. AtbHLH112 also increases the expression of POD and SOD genes to improve reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability. We present a model suggesting that AtbHLH112 is a transcriptional activator that regulates the expression of genes via binding to their GCG- or E-boxes to mediate physiological responses, including proline biosynthesis and ROS scavenging pathways, to enhance stress tolerance. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Pea p68, a DEAD-box helicase, provides salinity stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by reducing oxidative stress and improving photosynthesis machinery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Tuteja

    Full Text Available The DEAD-box helicases are required mostly in all aspects of RNA and DNA metabolism and they play a significant role in various abiotic stresses, including salinity. The p68 is an important member of the DEAD-box proteins family and, in animal system, it is involved in RNA metabolism including pre-RNA processing and splicing. In plant system, it has not been well characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of p68 from pea (Pisum sativum and its novel function in salinity stress tolerance in plant.The pea p68 protein self-interacts and is localized in the cytosol as well as the surrounding of cell nucleus. The transcript of pea p68 is upregulated in response to high salinity stress in pea. Overexpression of p68 driven by constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco transgenic plants confers enhanced tolerances to salinity stress by improving the growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery. Under stress treatment, pea p68 overexpressing tobacco accumulated higher K+ and lower Na+ level than the wild-type plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation was remarkably regulated by the overexpression of pea p68 under salinity stress conditions, as shown from TBARS content, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and 8-OHdG content and antioxidant enzyme activities.To the best of our knowledge this is the first direct report, which provides the novel function of pea p68 helicase in salinity stress tolerance. The results suggest that p68 can also be exploited for engineering abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants of economic importance.

  20. TALE nucleases and next generation GM crops.

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2011-04-01

    Site-specific and adaptable DNA binding domains are essential modules to develop genome engineering technologies for crop improvement. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) proteins are used to provide a highly specific and adaptable DNA binding modules. TALE chimeric nucleases (TALENs) were used to generate site-specific double strand breaks (DSBs) in vitro and in yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, mammalian and plant cells. The genomic DSBs can be generated at predefined and user-selected loci and repaired by either the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology dependent repair (HDR). Thus, TALENs can be used to achieve site-specific gene addition, stacking, deletion or inactivation. TALE-based genome engineering tools should be powerful to develop new agricultural biotechnology approaches for crop improvement. Here, we discuss the recent research and the potential applications of TALENs to accelerate the generation of genomic variants through targeted mutagenesis and to produce a non-transgenic GM crops with the desired phenotype.

  1. A stress inducible SUMO conjugating enzyme gene (SaSce9 from a grass halophyte Spartina alterniflora enhances salinity and drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Ratna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SUMO (Small Ubiquitin related Modifier conjugation is a post translational regulatory process found in all eukaryotes, mediated by SUMO activating enzyme, SUMO conjugating enzyme, and SUMO ligase for the attachment of SUMO to its target protein. Although the mechanism for regulation of SUMO conjugation pathway genes under abiotic stress has been studied to certain extent, the role of SUMO conjugating enzyme in improving abiotic stress tolerance to plant is largely unexplored. Here, we have characterized a SUMO conjugating enzyme gene ‘SaSce9’ from a halophytic grass Spartina alterniflora and investigated its role in imparting abiotic stress tolerance. Results SaSce9 gene encodes for a polypeptide of 162 amino acids with a molecular weight of ~18 kD and isoelectric point 8.43. Amino acid sequence comparisons of SaSce9 with its orthologs from other plant species showed high degree (~85-93% of structural conservation among each other. Complementation analysis using yeast SCE mutant, Ubc9, revealed functional conservation of SaSce9 between yeast and S. alterniflora. SaSce9 transcript was inducible by salinity, drought, cold, and exogenously supplied ABA both in leaves and roots of S. alterniflora. Constitutive overexpression of SaSce9 in Arabidopsis through Agrobacterium mediated transformation improved salinity and drought tolerance of Arabidopsis. SaSce9 overexpressing Arabidopsis plants retained more chlorophyll and proline both under salinity and drought stress. SaSce9 transgenic plants accumulated lower levels of reactive oxygen under salinity stress. Expression analysis of stress responsive genes in SaSce9 Arabidopsis plants revealed the increased expression of antioxidant genes, AtSOD and AtCAT, ion antiporter genes, AtNHX1 and AtSOS1, a gene involved in proline biosynthesis, AtP5CS, and a gene involved in ABA dependent signaling pathway, AtRD22. Conclusions These results highlight the prospect of improving abiotic

  2. OsACA6, a P-type 2B Ca(2+) ATPase functions in cadmium stress tolerance in tobacco by reducing the oxidative stress load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Devesh; Huda, Kazi Md Kamrul; Banu, Mst Sufara Akhter; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Gill, Sarvjeet Singh; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-10-01

    The present study demonstrates the first direct evidence of the novel role of OsACA6 in providing Cd (2+) stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by maintaining cellular ion homeostasis and modulating ROS-scavenging pathway. Cadmium, a non-essential toxic heavy metal, interferes with the plant growth and development. It reaches the leaves through xylem and may become part of the food chain, thus causing detrimental effects to human health. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop strategies for engineering plants for Cd(2+) tolerance and less accumulation. The members of P-type ATPases family transport metal ions including Cd(2+), and thus play important role an ion homeostasis. The present study elucidates the role of P-type 2B Ca(2+) ATPase (OsACA6) in Cd(2+) stress tolerance. The transcript levels of OsACA6 were up-regulated upon Cd(2+), Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) exposure. Transgenic tobacco expressing OsACA6 showed tolerance towards Cd(2+) stress as demonstrated by several physiological indices including root length, biomass, chlorophyll, malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide content. The roots of the transgenic lines accumulated more Cd(2+) as compared to shoot. Further, confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that Cd(2+) exposure altered Ca(2+) uptake in OsACA6 transgenic plants. OsACA6 expression in tobacco also protected the transgenic plants from oxidative stress by enhancing the activity of enzymatic (SOD, CAT, APX, GR) and non-enzymatic (GSH and AsA) antioxidant machinery. Transgenic lines also tolerated Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) stress; however, tolerance for these ions was not as significant as observed for Cd(2+) exposure. Thus, overexpression of OsACA6 confers Cd(2+) stress tolerance in transgenic lines by maintaining cellular ion homeostasis and modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging pathway. The results of the present study will help to develop strategies for engineering Cd(2+) stress tolerance in economically important crop plants.

  3. Stable symbiotic nitrogen fixation under water-deficit field conditions by a stress-tolerant alfalfa microsymbiont and its complete genome sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Brambilla, Silvina; Frare, Romina; Stritzler, Margarita; Piccinetti, Carlos; Puente, Mariana; Berini, Carolina Andrea; Pérez, Pedro Reyes; Soto, Gabriela; Ayub, Nicolás

    2017-12-10

    We here characterized the stress-tolerant alfalfa microsymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti B401. B401-treated plants showed high nitrogen fixation rates under humid and semiarid environments. The production of glycine betaine in isolated bacteroids positively correlated with low precipitation levels, suggesting that this compound acts as a critical osmoprotectant under field conditions. Genome analysis revealed that strain B401 contains alternative pathways for the biosynthesis and uptake of glycine betaine and its precursors. Such genomic information will offer substantial insight into the environmental physiology of this biotechnologically valuable nitrogen-fixing bacterium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutritional antioxidants and the heme oxygenase pathway of stress tolerance: novel targets for neuroprotection in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Vittorio; Butterfield, D Allan; Stella, Anna M Giuffrida

    2003-12-01

    associated with both brain injury and beta-amyloid associated pathology. Spice and herbs contain phenolic substances with potent antioxidative and chemopreventive properties, and it is generally assumed that the phenol moiety is responsible for the antioxidant activity. In particular, curcumin, a powerful antioxidant derived from the curry spice turmeric, has emerged as a strong inducer of the heat shock response. In light of this finding, curcumin supplementation has been recently considered as an alternative, nutritional approach to reduce oxidative damage and amyloid pathology associated with AD. Here we review the importance of the heme oxygenase pathway in brain stress tolerance and its significance as antidegenerative mechanism operating in AD pathogenesis. We also discuss the role that exogenous antioxidant supplementation, conceivably, could play in AD in combating oxidative damage and compensating for the decreased level of endogenous antioxidants. Conceivably, dietary supplementation with vitamin E or with polyphenolic agents, such as curcumin and its derivatives, can forestall the development of AD, consistent with a major "metabolic" component to this disorder. Such an outcome would provide optimism that the signs and symptoms of this devastating brain disorder of aging may be largely delayed and/or modulated.

  5. GM2-ganglioside metabolism in hexosaminidase A deficiency states: determination in situ using labeled GM2 added to fibroblast cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, S.S.; Krusell, A.; Krusell, J.; Lyerla, T.A.; Kolodny, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between hexosaminidase A (HEX A) activity and GM2-ganglioside hydrolysis in atypical clinical situations of HEX A deficiency, we have developed a simple method to assess GM2-ganglioside metabolism in cultured fibroblasts utilizing GM2 labeled with tritium in the sphingosine portion of the molecule. The radioactive lipid is added to the media of cultured skin fibroblasts, and after 10 days the cells are thoroughly washed, then harvested, and their lipid composition analyzed by HPLC. The degree of hydrolysis of the ingested GM2 is determined by comparing the amount of radioactive counts recovered in undegraded substrate with total cellular radioactivity. A deficiency in GM2-ganglioside hydrolysis was demonstrated in seven HEX A-deficient adults with neurological signs and in two healthy-appearing adolescents with older affected siblings. In each case, an analysis of endogenous monosialoganglioside composition revealed an increase in GM2-ganglioside, confirming the presence of a block in the metabolism of GM2. No defect in GM2-catabolism was found in four other healthy individuals with HEX A deficiency. This method of assay is especially helpful in the evaluation of atypical cases of HEX A deficiency for the definitive diagnosis of GM2-gangliosidosis

  6. GM2-ganglioside metabolism in hexosaminidase A deficiency states: determination in situ using labeled GM2 added to fibroblast cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, S.S.; Krusell, A.; Krusell, J.; Lyerla, T.A.; Kolodny, E.H.

    1985-11-01

    To clarify the relationship between hexosaminidase A (HEX A) activity and GM2-ganglioside hydrolysis in atypical clinical situations of HEX A deficiency, we have developed a simple method to assess GM2-ganglioside metabolism in cultured fibroblasts utilizing GM2 labeled with tritium in the sphingosine portion of the molecule. The radioactive lipid is added to the media of cultured skin fibroblasts, and after 10 days the cells are thoroughly washed, then harvested, and their lipid composition analyzed by HPLC. The degree of hydrolysis of the ingested GM2 is determined by comparing the amount of radioactive counts recovered in undegraded substrate with total cellular radioactivity. A deficiency in GM2-ganglioside hydrolysis was demonstrated in seven HEX A-deficient adults with neurological signs and in two healthy-appearing adolescents with older affected siblings. In each case, an analysis of endogenous monosialoganglioside composition revealed an increase in GM2-ganglioside, confirming the presence of a block in the metabolism of GM2. No defect in GM2-catabolism was found in four other healthy individuals with HEX A deficiency. This method of assay is especially helpful in the evaluation of atypical cases of HEX A deficiency for the definitive diagnosis of GM2-gangliosidosis.

  7. GM2-ganglioside metabolism in hexosaminidase A deficiency states: determination in situ using labeled GM2 added to fibroblast cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, S S; Krusell, A; Krusell, J; Lyerla, T A; Kolodny, E H

    1985-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between hexosaminidase A (HEX A) activity and GM2-ganglioside hydrolysis in atypical clinical situations of HEX A deficiency, we have developed a simple method to assess GM2-ganglioside metabolism in cultured fibroblasts utilizing GM2 labeled with tritium in the sphingosine portion of the molecule. The radioactive lipid is added to the media of cultured skin fibroblasts, and after 10 days the cells are thoroughly washed, then harvested, and their lipid composition analyzed by HPLC. The degree of hydrolysis of the ingested GM2 is determined by comparing the amount of radioactive counts recovered in undegraded substrate with total cellular radioactivity. A deficiency in GM2-ganglioside hydrolysis was demonstrated in seven HEX A-deficient adults with neurological signs and in two healthy-appearing adolescents with older affected siblings. In each case, an analysis of endogenous monosialoganglioside composition revealed an increase in GM2-ganglioside, confirming the presence of a block in the metabolism of GM2. No defect in GM2-catabolism was found in four other healthy individuals with HEX A deficiency. This method of assay is especially helpful in the evaluation of atypical cases of HEX A deficiency for the definitive diagnosis of GM2-gangliosidosis. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2934978

  8. Melatonin Attenuates Potato Late Blight by Disrupting Cell Growth, Stress Tolerance, Fungicide Susceptibility and Homeostasis of Gene Expression in Phytophthora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora infestans (P. infestans is the causal agent of potato late blight, which caused the devastating Irish Potato Famine during 1845-1852. Until now, potato late blight is still the most serious threat to potato growth and has caused significant economic losses worldwide. Melatonin can induce plant innate immunity against pathogen infection, but the direct effects of melatonin on plant pathogens are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of melatonin on P. infestans. Exogenous melatonin significantly attenuated the potato late blight by inhibiting mycelial growth, changing cell ultrastructure, and reducing stress tolerance of P. infestans. Notably, synergistic anti-fungal effects of melatonin with fungicides on P. infestans suggest that melatonin could reduce the dose levels and enhance the efficacy of fungicide against potato late blight. A transcriptome analysis was carried out to mine downstream genes whose expression levels were affected by melatonin. The analysis of the transcriptome suggests that 66 differentially expressed genes involved in amino acid metabolic processes were significantly affected by melatonin. Moreover, the differentially expressed genes associated with stress tolerance, fungicide resistance, and virulence were also affected. These findings contribute to a new understanding of the direct functions of the melatonin on P. infestans and provide a potential ecofriendly biocontrol approach using a melatonin-based paradigm and application to prevent potato late blight.

  9. A Zinc Finger Protein Regulates Flowering Time and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Chrysanthemum by Modulating Gibberellin Biosynthesis[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingjie; Ma, Chao; Xu, Yanjie; Wei, Qian; Imtiaz, Muhammad; Lan, Haibo; Gao, Shan; Cheng, Lina; Wang, Meiyan; Fei, Zhangjun; Hong, Bo; Gao, Junping

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time and an ability to tolerate abiotic stresses are important for plant growth and development. We characterized BBX24, a zinc finger transcription factor gene, from Chrysanthemum morifolium and found it to be associated with both flowering time and stress tolerance. Transgenic lines with suppressed expression of Cm-BBX24 (Cm-BBX24-RNAi) flowered earlier than wild-type plants and showed decreased tolerance to freezing and drought stresses. Global expression analysis revealed that genes associated with both photoperiod and gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathways were upregulated in Cm-BBX24-RNAi lines, relative to the wild type. By contrast, genes that were upregulated in overexpressing lines (Cm-BBX24-OX), but downregulated in Cm-BBX24-RNAi lines (both relative to the wild type), included genes related to compatible solutes and carbohydrate metabolism, both of which are associated with abiotic stress. Cm-BBX24 expression was also influenced by daylength and GA4/7 application. Under long days, changes in endogenous GA1, GA4, GA19, and GA20 levels occurred in young leaves of transgenic lines, relative to the wild type. Regulation of flowering involves the FLOWERING TIME gene, which integrates photoperiod and GA biosynthesis pathways. We postulate that Cm-BBX24 plays a dual role, modulating both flowering time and abiotic stress tolerance in chrysanthemum, at least in part by influencing GA biosynthesis. PMID:24858937

  10. BcCFEM1, a CFEM Domain-Containing Protein with Putative GPI-Anchored Site, Is Involved in Pathogenicity, Conidial Production, and Stress Tolerance in Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally isolated and characterized a CFEM protein with putative GPI-anchored site BcCFEM1 in Botrytis cinerea. BcCFEM1 contains a CFEM (common in several fungal extracellular membrane proteins domain with the characteristic eight cysteine residues at N terminus, and a predicted GPI modification site at C terminus. BcCFEM1 was significantly up-regulated during early stage of infection on bean leaves and induced chlorosis in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves using Agrobacterium infiltration method. Targeted deletion of BcCFEM1 in B. cinerea affected virulence, conidial production and stress tolerance, but not growth rate, conidial germination, colony morphology, and sclerotial formation. However, over expression of BcCFEM1 did not make any observable phenotype change. Therefore, our data suggested that BcCFEM1 contributes to virulence, conidial production, and stress tolerance. These findings further enhance our understanding on the sophisticated pathogenicity of B. cinerea beyond necrotrophic stage, highlighting the importance of CFEM protein to B. cinerea and other broad-host-range necrotrophic pathogens.

  11. Examining consumer behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Alexa; Townsend, Ellen

    2006-06-01

    This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioral influences in this domain. Here, the TPB was extended to include additional components to measure self-identity, moral norms, and emotional involvement. Results indicated that the monetary amounts participants accepted in preference to GM food were significantly lower than those accepted in preference to non-GM food. However, the vast majority of participants were indifferent between GM and non-GM food options. All TPB components significantly predicted behavioral intentions to try GM food, with attitudes toward GM being the strongest predictor. Self-identity and emotional involvement were also found to be significant predictors of behavioral intentions but moral norms were not. In addition, behavioral intentions significantly predicted behavior; however, PBC did not. An additional measure of participants' propensity to respond in a socially desirable manner indicated that our results were not influenced by self-presentation issues, giving confidence to our findings. Overall, it appears that the majority of participants (74.5%) would purchase GM food at some price.

  12. Putting GM technologies to work: public research pipelines in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reaching farmers has been achieved in several countries only for GM cotton for insect resistant while approvals for food and feed crops lag behind. To address this question, we identified and examined public research pipelines for GM crops in Egypt, Kenya, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Genetic transformation events are ...

  13. Societal aspects of foods derived from GM crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekmann, V.; Frewer, L.F.; Lassen, J.

    2004-01-01

    from soy plants genetically modified to resist the herbicide Round-Up, represented the first large scale marketing of GM foods in Europe. Other applications of biotechnology soon followed: events, such as the attempted commercialisation of GM maize and other commodities, focused public attention...

  14. Exploitation of molecular profiling techniques for GM food safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H.A.; Kok, E.J.; Engel, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Several strategies have been developed to identify unintended alterations in the composition of genetically modified (GM) food crops that may occur as a result of the genetic modification process. These include comparative chemical analysis of single compounds in GM food crops and their conventional

  15. Media attention to GM food cases: An innovation perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, Steven M; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2013-02-01

    Media attention to genetically modified (GM) foods has been described as negative, especially in Europe. At the turn of the century appreciation of GM foods was at an all-time low in Europe. Food manufacturers are still careful in the use, development and communication of GM based food products, and their caution influences innovation processes. In this study we explore the link between media attention and innovation practice. Media attention to three specific high-profile GM food cases is described and linked to innovation practice. We elucidate the order of events in these cases and show that publics could only to a limited extent have formed an opinion on GM based food products based on scientifically valid data through written English media. Innovators in food biotechnology may benefit from this knowledge for future product development and marketing, and we suggest that innovation may benefit from early stakeholder involvement and communication activities.

  16. Requirement of GM2 ganglioside activator for phospholipase D activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, S; Akisue, T; Jinnai, H; Hitomi, T; Sarkar, S; Miwa, N; Okada, T; Yoshida, K; Kuroda, S; Kikkawa, U; Nishizuka, Y

    1998-10-13

    Sequence analysis of a heat-stable protein necessary for the activation of ADP ribosylation factor-dependent phospholipase D (PLD) reveals that this protein has a structure highly homologous to the previously known GM2 ganglioside activator whose deficiency results in the AB-variant of GM2 gangliosidosis. The heat-stable activator protein indeed has the capacity to enhance enzymatic conversion of GM2 to GM3 ganglioside that is catalyzed by beta-hexosaminidase A. Inversely, GM2 ganglioside activator purified separately from tissues as described earlier [Conzelmann, E. & Sandhoff, K. (1987) Methods Enzymol. 138, 792-815] stimulates ADP ribosylation factor-dependent PLD in a dose-dependent manner. At higher concentrations of ammonium sulfate, the PLD activator protein apparently substitutes for protein kinase C and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, both of which are known as effective stimulators of the PLD reaction. The mechanism of action of the heat-stable PLD activator protein remains unknown.

  17. Root Traits and Phenotyping Strategies for Plant Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paez-Garcia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Roots are crucial for nutrient and water acquisition and can be targeted to enhance plant productivity under a broad range of growing conditions. A current challenge for plant breeding is the limited ability to phenotype and select for desirable root characteristics due to their underground location. Plant breeding efforts aimed at modifying root traits can result in novel, more stress-tolerant crops and increased yield by enhancing the capacity of the plant for soil exploration and, thus, water and nutrient acquisition. Available approaches for root phenotyping in laboratory, greenhouse and field encompass simple agar plates to labor-intensive root digging (i.e., shovelomics and soil boring methods, the construction of underground root observation stations and sophisticated computer-assisted root imaging. Here, we summarize root architectural traits relevant to crop productivity, survey root phenotyping strategies and describe their advantages, limitations and practical value for crop and forage breeding programs.

  18. Expression of the GM2 activator protein in mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Teh; Li, Su-Chen; Chen, I-Li

    2017-12-01

    The GM2-activator protein (GM2-AP), revealed by Li et al. in 1973 in human liver, was initially identified as a protein cofactor that stimulated β-hexosaminidase A to hydrolyze N-acetylgalactosamine from GM2 ganglioside. This cofactor was found to be missing in human variant AB Tay-Sachs disease. Over the years, the GM2-AP has also been shown to be involved in kidney vesicular transport, lipid presentation by CD1 molecule to T-cells, and interaction of human sperm with zona pellucida. Since the expression of the GM2-AP via mRNA detection in mouse tissues was found to be the highest in testis, we became interested in the localization of the GM2-AP at cellular level in mouse testis during spermatogenesis. Using immunohistochemical analysis and electron microscopy, we found that the GM2-AP was predominantly localized in the basal cytoplasm and the attenuated processes of Sertoli cells. The stained structure appeared to be lysosomes. The most interesting finding was the association of the GM2-AP with the acrosomal apparatus in early spermatids. A modest to intense staining was observed in some acrosomal granules and acrosomal caps. The GM2-AP seemed to disappear from acrosomal caps in the later stage of spermatids, in which the nucleus became elongated and condensed. These results suggest that the GM2-AP may be involved in the normal functions of Sertoli cells and play important roles during the development of acrosomal caps in the early spermatids. Copyright © 2017 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genome-Wide Identification of Chalcone Reductase Gene Family in Soybean: Insight into Root-Specific GmCHRs and Phytophthora sojae Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline J. Sepiol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr is one of the main grain legumes worldwide. Soybean farmers lose billions of dollars’ worth of yield annually due to root and stem rot disease caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae. Many strategies have been developed to combat the disease, however, these methods have proven ineffective in the long term. A more cost effective and durable approach is to select a trait naturally found in soybean that can increase resistance. One such trait is the increased production of phytoalexin glyceollins in soybean. Glyceollins are isoflavonoids, synthesized via the legume-specific branch of general phenylpropanoid pathway. The first key enzyme exclusively involved in glyceollin synthesis is chalcone reductase (CHR which coacts with chalcone synthase for the production of isoliquiritigenin, the precursor for glyceollin biosynthesis. Here we report the identification of 14 putative CHR genes in soybean where 11 of them are predicted to be functional. Our results show that GmCHRs display tissue-specific gene expression, and that only root-specific GmCHRs are induced upon P. sojae infection. Among 4 root-specific GmCHRs, GmCHR2A is located near a QTL that is linked to P. sojae resistance suggesting GmCHR2A as a novel locus for partial resistance that can be utilized for resistance breeding.

  1. Genetic behavior of morpho-physiological traits and their role for breeding drought tolerant wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, S.; Kashif, M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of drought tolerant and high yielding varieties/germplasm is the major objective of any wheat breeding program. In the present study genetic architecture of physiological traits, yield and yield related parameters were studied using the generation mean analysis to improve grain yield under drought stress. A drought tolerant line, 9877 and a drought susceptible line, NR371 were crossed to develop six generations (P/sub 1/, P/sub 2/, F/sub 1/, BC/sub 1/, BC/sub 2/, and F/sub 2/). Results revealed additive, dominant and epistatic effects involved in the inheritance of characters which varied with trait and stress. Additive gene action was observed for canopy temperature, Chlorophyll a and turgor potential. Although narrow sense heritability estimates for some traits were low but canopy temperature, chlorophyll a and turgor potential expressed reasonably high heritability that supports the results of gene action providing an opportunity for early generation selection to use in a breeding program. The estimation of heritability for leaf carotenoids and turgor potential along with gene action for leaf carotenoids is a new work in wheat. The findings of present study suggested that physiological and bio-chemical traits are the indicators of stress tolerance and their utilization in developing high yielding drought tolerant wheat germplasm can expedite the breeding for stress tolerance. (author)

  2. The research on the failure regularity of GM counter tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiyuan; Huai Guangli; Xie Bo; Zhang Hao

    2002-01-01

    The reliability of GM counter tubes should be described by useful time before failure-life and failure rate during life. A new method to study the failure regularity of GM counter tubes is advanced and adopted. The essential point of the method is that after the GM counter tubes of the instruments in use is tested, both the performance parameters and other information of the GM counter tubes and the instruments collected are recorded. Then database is created. Failure criterion is ascertained. The GM counter tubes are inspected to determine whether they are failure. Failure mode should be decided if the GM counter tubes failure. The GM counter tubes with the same useful year come together to make up a subsample. According to the relevant information, the number of the subsample is restored to the number of the sample that initially put into use. Then the number of failure sample is counted and at the same time the distribution of failure mode is got. The parameter m, γ, t 0 of Weibull distribution function are calculated with method of linear fit. Thus mean life, failure rate and other character values are obtained. Using this method, useful life and failure rate are determined. The conclusion is that the useful life is 18-20 years and the failure rate is 5 x 10 -6 and 4 x 10 -6 /h respectively during the course

  3. Interspecies and Intraspecies Analysis of Trehalose Contents and the Biosynthesis Pathway Gene Family Reveals Crucial Roles of Trehalose in Osmotic-Stress Tolerance in Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bingying; Fu, Lili; Zhang, Dan; He, Xiuquan; Chen, Qiang; Peng, Ming; Zhang, Jiaming

    2016-01-01

    Trehalose is a nonreducing α,α-1,1-disaccharide in a wide range of organisms, and has diverse biological functions that range from serving as an energy source to acting as a protective/signal sugar. However, significant amounts of trehalose have rarely been detected in higher plants, and the function of trehalose in the drought-tolerant crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is unclear. We measured soluble sugar concentrations of nine plant species with differing levels of drought tolerance and 41 cassava varieties using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD). Significantly high amounts of trehalose were identified in drought-tolerant crops cassava, Jatropha curcas, and castor bean (Ricinus communis). All cassava varieties tested contained high amounts of trehalose, although their concentrations varied from 0.23 to 1.29 mg·g−1 fresh weight (FW), and the trehalose level was highly correlated with dehydration stress tolerance of detached leaves of the varieties. Moreover, the trehalose concentrations in cassava leaves increased 2.3–5.5 folds in response to osmotic stress simulated by 20% PEG 6000. Through database mining, 24 trehalose pathway genes, including 12 trehalose-6-phosphate synthases (TPS), 10 trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatases (TPP), and two trehalases were identified in cassava. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that there were four cassava TPS genes (MeTPS1–4) that were orthologous to the solely active TPS gene (AtTPS1 and OsTPS1) in Arabidopsis and rice, and a new TPP subfamily was identified in cassava, suggesting that the trehalose biosynthesis activities in cassava had potentially been enhanced in evolutionary history. RNA-seq analysis indicated that MeTPS1 was expressed at constitutionally high level before and after osmotic stress, while other trehalose pathway genes were either up-regulated or down-regulated, which may explain why cassava accumulated high level of trehalose under

  4. Interspecies and Intraspecies Analysis of Trehalose Contents and the Biosynthesis Pathway Gene Family Reveals Crucial Roles of Trehalose in Osmotic-Stress Tolerance in Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingying Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose is a nonreducing α,α-1,1-disaccharide in a wide range of organisms, and has diverse biological functions that range from serving as an energy source to acting as a protective/signal sugar. However, significant amounts of trehalose have rarely been detected in higher plants, and the function of trehalose in the drought-tolerant crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is unclear. We measured soluble sugar concentrations of nine plant species with differing levels of drought tolerance and 41 cassava varieties using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD. Significantly high amounts of trehalose were identified in drought-tolerant crops cassava, Jatropha curcas, and castor bean (Ricinus communis. All cassava varieties tested contained high amounts of trehalose, although their concentrations varied from 0.23 to 1.29 mg·g−1 fresh weight (FW, and the trehalose level was highly correlated with dehydration stress tolerance of detached leaves of the varieties. Moreover, the trehalose concentrations in cassava leaves increased 2.3–5.5 folds in response to osmotic stress simulated by 20% PEG 6000. Through database mining, 24 trehalose pathway genes, including 12 trehalose-6-phosphate synthases (TPS, 10 trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatases (TPP, and two trehalases were identified in cassava. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that there were four cassava TPS genes (MeTPS1–4 that were orthologous to the solely active TPS gene (AtTPS1 and OsTPS1 in Arabidopsis and rice, and a new TPP subfamily was identified in cassava, suggesting that the trehalose biosynthesis activities in cassava had potentially been enhanced in evolutionary history. RNA-seq analysis indicated that MeTPS1 was expressed at constitutionally high level before and after osmotic stress, while other trehalose pathway genes were either up-regulated or down-regulated, which may explain why cassava accumulated high level of trehalose

  5. Dose response behaviour of water scarcity towards genetical and morphological traits in spring wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorkha, I.R.; Tabasum, S.

    2015-01-01

    Combining ability was studied in a Line * Tester mating fashion in wheat (Tricticum aestivum L.). Significant differences were observed for all the yield and yield contributing traits. GCA and SCA components of variation were found significant for most of the traits. Under water stressed conditions among lines the genotype Kohistan-97 revealed significant GCA effects for all the traits except spike length. Among testers, the genotype V08172 showed significant effects for the traits spike length, 1000-grain weight and flag leaf area. Based on desirable SCA effects and mean performance the cross combinations Kohistan-97 * V08172, Chakwal-86 * Punjab-81, Fsd-2008 * Punjab-81, Sehar-2006 * V08172 and Chakwal-86 * V08172 behaved best combiner to tolerate the water stress. Results of genetic analysis offered over dominance type of gene action that remained unchanged with the change in water provision for the traits like 1000 grain weight and economic yield. Similarly additive gene action was observed for the trait plant height under both normal irrigation and water stress conditions. However the cumulative genetic effects to control the expression of yield and yield components was shifted due to the changed environments. The study was concluded that due to presence of additive variance, selection could be practiced in early generation whereas in the presence of recessiveness the selection may be delayed up to the later generations. Plant traits associated with water stress tolerance having high heritability and with additive gene action may be used as indirect selection criteria for early selection of water stress tolerant genotypes. The information generated as a result of this study on genetic analysis of important economic traits of wheat under contrasting water availability positions will be of great value to the wheat breeders to design future breeding programmes. (author)

  6. Parenteral administration of GM1 ganglioside to presenile Alzheimer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svennerholm, L.; Gottfries, C.G.; Blennow, K.; Fredman, P.; Karlsson, I.; Maansson, J.-E. (Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Gothenburg University (Sweden)); Toffano, G.; Wallin, A. (Fidia Research Laboratories, Abano Terme (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic parameters of GM1 ganglioside were examined in 16 patients (mean age 64 {plus minus} 5 years) with Alzheimer's disease. The ganglioside was given intramuscularly and subcutaneously. The maximum GM1 blood level was reached after 48-72 h, the subcutaneous route leading to the highest blood levels, but the individual variability was relatively large. When 100 mg GM1 ganglioside was given daily for a week, maximum serum values of 15 to 20 {sup m}u{sup m}ol/l were found in 3 patients. The elimination half-life from serum was 60-75 h. (author).

  7. How to model and simulate the effects of cropping systems on population dynamics and gene flow at the landscape level: example of oilseed rape volunteers and their role for co-existence of GM and non-GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbach, Nathalie

    2009-05-01

    Agricultural landscapes comprise cultivated fields and semi-natural areas. Biological components of these compartments such as weeds, insect pests and pathogenic fungi can disperse sometimes over very large distances, colonise new habitats via insect flight, spores, pollen or seeds and are responsible for losses in crop yield (e.g. weeds, pathogens) and biodiversity (e.g. invasive weeds). The spatiotemporal dynamics of these biological components interact with crop locations, successions and management as well as the location and management of semi-natural areas such as roadverges. The objective of this investigation was to establish a modelling and simulation methodology for describing, analysing and predicting spatiotemporal dynamics and genetics of biological components of agricultural landscapes. The ultimate aim of the models was to evaluate and propose innovative cropping systems adapted to particular agricultural concerns. The method was applied to oilseed rape (OSR) volunteers playing a key role for the coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM oilseed rape crops, where the adventitious presence of GM seeds in non-GM harvests (AGMP) could result in financial losses for farmers and cooperatives. A multi-year, spatially explicit model was built, using field patterns, climate, cropping systems and OSR varieties as input variables, focusing on processes and cultivation techniques crucial for plant densities and pollen flow. The sensitivity of the model to input variables was analysed to identify the major cropping factors. These should be modified first when searching for solutions limiting gene flow. The sensitivity to model processes and species life-traits were analysed to facilitate the future adaptation of the model to other species. The model was evaluated by comparing its simulations to independent field observations to determine its domain of validity and prediction error. The cropping system study determined contrasted farm types, simulated

  8. Effects of carotenoid sources on growth performance, blood parameters, disease resistance and stress tolerance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Two feeding trial were conducted to determine the effects of various sources of carotenoid on growth performance, disease resistance, blood parameters, stress tolerance and pigmentation in juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. Trial I was performed in small shrimp (1 g average body weight. The shrimp were fed with control diet without carotenoid (diet 1 while diets 2 to 6 contained 50 mg/kg astaxanthin (Lucanthin Pink®, 125 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 200 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 125 mg/kg Betatene® extracted from Dunaliella and 3% dried Spirulina respectively. There was an improvement in color in all groups of shrimp fed caroteniod supplemented diets, but no significant differences in weight gain or survival among the shrimps fed each test diet (p>0.05. Resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection and stress tolerance (salinity stress, were not significantly different among treatments. Trial II was performed in juvenile shrimp (10 g average body weight fed test diets containing 100 ppm astaxanthin (Lucanthin pink®, 125 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 250 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 250 mg/kg Betatene® and 3% dried Spirulina compared with those fed control diet without carotenoid. At the end of 6 weeks feeding period, shrimp fed control diet as well as astaxanthin and dried Spirulina supplemented diets had higher levels of total hemocyte counts than those of all β-carotene supplemented diets feeding group. However, phenoloxidase activity and clearance of pathogenic vibrio from the hemolymphwere not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05. Astaxanthin levels were highest in the shrimp fed all carotenoid-supplemented diets. In conclusion, a natural carotenoid i.e. dried Spirulina and carotenoid extracted from Dunaliella which have a lower production cost than analytical carotenoid showed beneficial effects on shrimp feed supplement.

  9. Dynamic regulation of genome-wide pre-mRNA splicing and stress tolerance by the Sm-like protein LSm5 in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Peng

    2014-01-07

    Background: Sm-like proteins are highly conserved proteins that form the core of the U6 ribonucleoprotein and function in several mRNA metabolism processes, including pre-mRNA splicing. Despite their wide occurrence in all eukaryotes, little is known about the roles of Sm-like proteins in the regulation of splicing.Results: Here, through comprehensive transcriptome analyses, we demonstrate that depletion of the Arabidopsis supersensitive to abscisic acid and drought 1 gene (SAD1), which encodes Sm-like protein 5 (LSm5), promotes an inaccurate selection of splice sites that leads to a genome-wide increase in alternative splicing. In contrast, overexpression of SAD1 strengthens the precision of splice-site recognition and globally inhibits alternative splicing. Further, SAD1 modulates the splicing of stress-responsive genes, particularly under salt-stress conditions. Finally, we find that overexpression of SAD1 in Arabidopsis improves salt tolerance in transgenic plants, which correlates with an increase in splicing accuracy and efficiency for stress-responsive genes.Conclusions: We conclude that SAD1 dynamically controls splicing efficiency and splice-site recognition in Arabidopsis, and propose that this may contribute to SAD1-mediated stress tolerance through the metabolism of transcripts expressed from stress-responsive genes. Our study not only provides novel insights into the function of Sm-like proteins in splicing, but also uncovers new means to improve splicing efficiency and to enhance stress tolerance in a higher eukaryote. 2014 Cui et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  10. Seed priming with BABA (β-amino butyric acid): a cost-effective method of abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jisha, K C; Puthur, Jos T

    2016-03-01

    The effects of β-amino butyric acid (BABA) on abiotic stress tolerance potential of three Vigna radiata varieties were studied. The reduction in the growth of seedlings subjected to NaCl/polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress is alleviated by BABA seed priming, which also enhanced photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic and mitochondrial activities, and also modified the chlorophyll a fluorescence-related parameters. Moreover, BABA seed priming reduced malondialdehyde content in the seedlings and enhanced the accumulation of proline, total protein, total carbohydrate, nitrate reductase activity, and activities of antioxidant enzymes like guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Most of these positive features of BABA priming were predominantly exhibited when the plants were encountered with stress (NaCl/PEG). The BABA content in the BABA-treated green gram seeds and seedlings was also detected and quantified with high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and it revealed that the priming effect of BABA initiated in seeds and further gets carried over to the seedlings. It was concluded that BABA seed priming improved the drought and salinity stress tolerance potential of all the three green gram varieties, and it was evident in the NaCl-tolerant variety Pusa Vishal as compared to Pusa Ratna (abiotic stress sensitive) and Pusa 9531(drought tolerant). Dual mode in cost effectiveness of BABA priming is evident from: (1) the positive features of priming are being exhibited more during the exposure of plants to stress, and (2) priming of seedlings can be carried out by BABA application to seeds at very low concentration and volume.

  11. Ectopic Expression of an Atypical Hydrophobic Group 5 LEA Protein from Wild Peanut, Arachis diogoi Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Sharma

    Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins are a group of hydrophilic proteins, which accumulate in plants under varied stress conditions like drought, salinity, extreme temperatures and oxidative stress suggesting their role in the protection of plants against these stresses. A transcript derived fragment (TDF corresponding to LEA gene, which got differentially expressed in wild peanut, Arachis diogoi against the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata was used in this study. We have cloned its full length cDNA by RACE-PCR, which was designated as AdLEA. AdLEA belongs to the atypical Group 5C of LEA protein family as confirmed by sequence analysis. Group 5C LEA protein subfamily contains Pfam LEA_2 domain and is highly hydrophobic. In native conditions, expression of AdLEA was upregulated considerably upon hormonal and abiotic stress treatments emphasizing its role in abiotic stress tolerance. Subcellular localization studies showed that AdLEA protein is distributed in both nucleus and cytosol. Ectopic expression of AdLEA in tobacco resulted in enhanced tolerance of plants to dehydration, salinity and oxidative stress with the transgenic plants showing higher chlorophyll content and reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to wild type plants. Overexpressed AdLEA tobacco plants maintained better photosynthetic efficiency under drought conditions as demonstrated by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. These plants showed enhanced transcript accumulation of some stress-responsive genes. Our study also elucidates that ROS levels were significantly reduced in leaves and stomatal guard cells of transgenic plants upon stress treatments. These results suggest that AdLEA confers multiple stress tolerance to plants, which make it a potential gene for genetic modification in plants.

  12. Ectopic expression of TaOEP16-2-5B, a wheat plastid outer envelope protein gene, enhances heat and drought stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xinshan; Geng, Xiaoli; Liu, Kelu; Wang, Fei; Liu, Zhenshan; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhao, Yue; Tian, Xuejun; Hu, Zhaorong; Yao, Yingyin; Ni, Zhongfu; Xin, Mingming; Sun, Qixin; Peng, Huiru

    2017-05-01

    Abiotic stresses, such as heat and drought, are major environmental factors restricting crop productivity and quality worldwide. A plastid outer envelope protein gene, TaOEP16-2, was identified from our previous transcriptome analysis [1,2]. In this study, the isolation and functional characterization of the TaOEP16-2 gene was reported. Three homoeologous sequences of TaOEP16-2 were isolated from hexaploid wheat, which were localized on the chromosomes 5A, 5B and 5D, respectively. These three homoeologues exhibited different expression patterns under heat stress conditions, TaOEP16-2-5B was the dominant one, and TaOEP16-2-5B was selected for further analysis. Compared with wild type (WT) plants, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the TaOEP16-2-5B gene exhibited enhanced tolerance to heat stress, which was supported by improved survival rate, strengthened cell membrane stability and increased sucrose content. It was also found that TaOEP16-2 was induced by drought stress and involved in drought stress tolerance. TaOEP16-2-5B has the same function in ABA-controlled seed germination as AtOEP16-2. Our results suggest that TaOEP16-2-5B plays an important role in heat and drought stress tolerance, and could be utilized in transgenic breeding of wheat and other crop plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Over expression of cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase from a mangrove plant Avicennia marina in indica rice var Pusa Basmati-1 confers abiotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, S R; Sadhasivam, V; Parida, Ajay

    2008-04-01

    Antioxidant enzymes play an important role in conferring abiotic stress tolerance. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the first enzyme in the enzymatic antioxidative pathway. Halophytic plants like mangroves have been reported to have a high level of SOD activity, which plays a major role in defending the mangrove species against severe abiotic stresses. We had previously reported the isolation of Sod1, a cDNA encoding a cytosolic copper zinc superoxide dismutase from the mangrove plant Avicennia marina and its mRNA expression pattern during various oxidative and abiotic stresses. The present study is an extension of the previous study in further characterizing the Sod1 cDNA by transforming it into rice and analysing the transgenic plants for abiotic stress tolerance. Southern hybridization of A. marina genomic DNA using Sod1, revealed that this gene in A. marina genome is present as a single copy. The cDNA was cloned into a binary vector (pCAMBIA 1300) and transformed into indica rice var Pusa Basmati-1. Southern hybridization analysis of transgenic rice plants revealed stable integration of the Sod1 transgene in the rice genome. The mRNA transcript of Sod1 was detected by Northern hybridisation in the transgenic rice plants. SOD isozyme assay of the transgenic rice plants revealed the stable expression of the transgenic Sod1 protein. The transgenic plants were more tolerant to methyl viologen mediated oxidative stress in comparison to the untransformed control plants. The transgenic plants also withstood salinity stress of 150 mM of NaCl for a period of eight days while the untransformed control plants wilted at the end of the stress treatment in hydroponics. Pot grown transgenic plants could also tolerate salinity stress better than the untransformed control plants, when irrigated with saline water. The transgenic plants also revealed better tolerance to drought stress in comparison to untransformed control plants.

  14. Risk, regulation and biotechnology: the case of GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B

    2014-07-03

    The global regulation of products of biotechnology is increasingly divided. Regulatory decisions for genetically modified (GM) crops in North America are predictable and efficient, with numerous countries in Latin and South America, Australia and Asia following this lead. While it might have been possible to argue that Europe's regulations were at one time based on real concerns about minimizing risks and ensuring health and safety, it is increasingly apparent that the entire European Union (EU) regulatory system for GM crops and foods is now driven by political agendas. Countries within the EU are at odds with each other as some have commercial production of GM crops, while others refuse to even develop regulations that could provide for the commercial release of GM crops. This divide in regulatory decision-making is affecting international grain trade, creating challenges for feeding an increasing global population.

  15. Enhancing smallholder farmers' awareness of gm maize technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing smallholder farmers' awareness of gm maize technology, management practices and compliance to stewardship requirements in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa: the role of public extension and advisory services.

  16. A new G-M counter dead time model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Gardner, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid G-M counter dead time model was derived by combining the idealized paralyzable and non-paralyzable models. The new model involves two parameters, which are the paralyzable and non-paralyzable dead times. The dead times used in the model are very closely related to the physical dead time of the G-M tube and its resolving time. To check the validity of the model, the decaying source method with 56 Mn was used. The corrected counting rates by the new G-M dead time model were compared with the observed counting rates obtained from the measurement and gave very good agreement within 5% up to 7x10 4 counts/s for a G-M tube with a dead time of about 300 μs

  17. GmWRKY31 and GmHDL56 Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae by Regulating Defense-Related Gene Expression in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujie Fan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae, is a destructive disease worldwide. The molecular mechanism of the soybean response to P. sojae is largely unclear. We report a novel WRKY transcription factor (TF in soybean, GmWRKY31, in the host response to P. sojae. Overexpression and RNA interference analysis demonstrated that GmWRKY31 enhanced resistance to P. sojae in transgenic soybean plants. GmWRKY31 was targeted to the nucleus, where it bound to the W-box and acted as an activator of gene transcription. Moreover, we determined that GmWRKY31 physically interacted with GmHDL56, which improved resistance to P. sojae in transgenic soybean roots. GmWRKY31 and GmHDL56 shared a common target GmNPR1 which was induced by P. sojae. Overexpression and RNA interference analysis demonstrated that GmNPR1 enhanced resistance to P. sojae in transgenic soybean plants. Several pathogenesis-related (PR genes were constitutively activated, including GmPR1a, GmPR2, GmPR3, GmPR4, GmPR5a, and GmPR10, in soybean plants overexpressing GmNPR1 transcripts. By contrast, the induction of PR genes was compromised in transgenic GmNPR1-RNAi lines. Taken together, these findings suggested that the interaction between GmWRKY31 and GmHDL56 enhances resistance to P. sojae by regulating defense-related gene expression in soybean.

  18. Delivery of GM-CSF to Protect against Influenza Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Subramaniam

    Full Text Available Since adaptive immunity is thought to be central to immunity against influenza A virus (IAV pneumonias, preventive strategies have focused primarily on vaccines. However, vaccine efficacy has been variable, in part because of antigenic shift and drift in circulating influenza viruses. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of innate immunity in protecting against influenza.Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF contributes to maturation of mononuclear phagocytes, enhancing their capacity for phagocytosis and cytokine production.Overexpression of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF in the lung of transgenic mice provides remarkable protection against IAV, which depends on alveolar macrophages (AM. In this study, we report that pulmonary delivery of GM-CSF to wild type young and aged mice abrogated mortality from IAV.We also demonstrate that protection is species specific and human GM-CSF do not protect the mice nor stimulates mouse immunity. We also show that IAV-induced lung injury is the culprit for side-effects of GM-CSF in treating mice after IAV infection, and introduce a novel strategy to deliver the GM-CSF to and retain it in the alveolar space even after IAV infection.

  19. A novel ethylene-responsive factor from Tamarix hispida, ThERF1, is a GCC-box- and DRE-motif binding protein that negatively modulates abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liuqiang; Qin, Liping; Liu, Wenjin; Zhang, Daoyuan; Wang, Yucheng

    2014-09-01

    Ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) family is one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factor that can positively or negatively regulate abiotic stress tolerance. However, their functions in regulating abiotic stress tolerance are still not fully understood. In this study, we characterized the functions of an ERF gene from Tamarix hispida, ThERF1, which can negatively regulate abiotic stress tolerance. The expression of ThERF1 was induced by salinity, PEG-simulated drought and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. ThERF1 can specifically bind to GCC-box and DRE motifs. Overexpression of ThERF1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed inhibited seed germination, and decreased fresh weight gain and root growth compared with wild-type (WT) plants. In addition, the transcript levels of several superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) genes in transgenic plants were significantly inhibited compared with in WT plants, resulting in decreased SOD and POD activities in transgenic plants under salt and drought stress conditions. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and cell membrane damage in ThERF1-transformed plants were all highly increased relative to WT plants. Our results suggest that ThERF1 negatively regulates abiotic stress tolerance by strongly inhibiting the expression of SOD and POD genes, leading to decreased ROS-scavenging ability. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  20. The microbe-secreted isopeptide poly-γ-glutamic acid induces stress tolerance in Brassica napus L. seedlings by activating crosstalk between H2O2 and Ca2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Peng; Pang, Xiao; Feng, Xiaohai; Li, Sha; Chi, Bo; Wang, Rui; Xu, Zongqi; Xu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a microbe-secreted isopeptide that has been shown to promote growth and enhance stress tolerance in crops. However, its site of action and downstream signaling pathways are still unknown. In this study, we investigated γ-PGA-induced tolerance to salt and cold stresses in Brassica napus L. seedlings. Fluorescent labeling of γ-PGA was used to locate the site of its activity in root protoplasts. The relationship between γ-PGA-induced stress tolerance and two signal molecules, H2O2 and Ca2+, as well as the γ-PGA-elicited signaling pathway at the whole plant level, were explored. Fluorescent labeling showed that γ-PGA did not enter the cytoplasm but instead attached to the surface of root protoplasm. Here, it triggered a burst of H2O2 in roots by enhancing the transcription of RbohD and RbohF, and the elicited H2O2 further activated an influx of Ca2+ into root cells. Ca2+ signaling was transmitted via the stem from roots to leaves, where it elicited a fresh burst of H2O2, thus promoting plant growth and enhancing stress tolerance. On the basis of these observation, we propose that γ-PGA mediates stress tolerance in Brassica napus seedlings by activating an H2O2 burst and subsequent crosstalk between H2O2 and Ca2+ signaling. PMID:28198821

  1. Metabolic features involved in drought stress tolerance mechanisms in peanut nodules and their contribution to biological nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Ana Laura; Bianucci, Eliana; Castro, Stella; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2017-10-01

    Legumes belong to the most important crops worldwide. They increase soil fertility due their ability to establish symbiotic associations with soil microorganisms, known as rhizobia, capable of fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere. However, they are frequently exposed to abiotic stress conditions in particular drought. Such adverse conditions impair the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and depend largely on the legume. Therefore, two peanut cultivars with contrasting tolerance to drought, namely the more tolerant EC-98 and the sensitive Granoleico, were investigated to elucidate the relative contribution of BNF to the tolerance to drought. The tolerant cultivar EC-98 sustained growth and BNF similar to the control condition despite the reduced water potential and photosynthesis, suggesting the functioning of distinct metabolic pathways that contributed to enhance the tolerance. The biochemical and metabolomics approaches revealed that nodules from the tolerant cultivar accumulated trehalose, proline and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), metabolites with known function in protecting against drought stress. The amide metabolism was severely affected in nodules from the sensitive cultivar Granoleico as revealed by the low content of asparagine and glutamine in the drought stressed plants. The sensitive cultivar upon rehydration was unable to re-establish a metabolism similar to well-watered plants. This was evidenced by the low level of metabolites and, transcripts and specific activities of enzymes from the carbon (sucrose synthase) and nitrogen (glutamine synthetase) metabolism which decreased below the values of control plants. Therefore, the increased content of metabolites with protective functions under drought stress likely is crucial for the full restoration upon rehydration. Smaller changes of drought stress-related metabolites in nodule are another trait that contributes to the effective control of BNF in the tolerant peanut cultivar (EC-98). Copyright © 2017

  2. Evaluating relative contribution of osmotolerance and tissue tolerance mechanisms toward salinity stress tolerance in three Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Eyles, Alieta; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-10-01

    Three different species of Brassica, with differential salt sensitivity were used to understand physiological mechanisms of salt tolerance operating in these species and to evaluate the relative contribution of different strategies to cope with salt load. Brassica napus was the most tolerant species in terms of the overall performance, with Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea being much more sensitive to salt stress with no obvious difference between them. While prominent reduction in net CO2 assimilation was observed in both sensitive species, physiological mechanisms beyond this reduction differed strongly. Brassica juncea plants possessed high osmotolerance and were able to maintain high transpiration rate but showed a significant reduction in leaf chlorophyll content and efficiency of leaf photochemistry. On the contrary, B. oleracea plants possessed the highest (among the three species) tissue tolerance but showed a very significant stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that the high tissue tolerance in B. oleracea was related to the ability of leaf mesophyll cells to maintain highly negative membrane potential in the presence of high apoplastic Na(+) . In addition to high osmotolerance, the most tolerant B. napus showed also lesser accumulation of toxic Na(+) and Cl(-) in the leaf, possessed moderate tissue tolerance and had a superior K(+) retention ability. Taken together, the results from this study indicate that the three Brassica species employ very different mechanisms to cope with salinity and, despite its overall sensitivity to salinity, B. oleracea could be recommended as a valuable 'donor' of tissue tolerance genes to confer this trait for marker-assisted breeding programs. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. Isoflavone Malonyltransferases GmIMaT1 and GmIMaT3 Differently Modify Isoflavone Glucosides in Soybean (Glycine max under Various Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Z. Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Malonylated isoflavones are the major forms of isoflavonoids in soybean plants, the genes responsible for their biosyntheses are not well understood, nor their physiological functions. Here we report a new benzylalcohol O-acetyltransferase, anthocyanin O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase, anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase, deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase (BAHD family isoflavone glucoside malonyltransferase GmIMaT1, and GmIMaT3, which is allelic to the previously characterized GmMT7 and GmIF7MaT. Biochemical studies showed that recombinant GmIMaT1 and GmIMaT3 enzymes used malonyl-CoA and several isoflavone 7-O-glucosides as substrates. The Km values of GmIMaT1 for glycitin, genistin, and daidzin were 13.11, 23.04, and 36.28 μM, respectively, while these of GmIMaT3 were 12.94, 26.67, and 30.12 μM, respectively. Transgenic hairy roots overexpressing both GmIMaTs had increased levels of malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin, and contents of daidzin and glycitin increased only in GmIMaT1-overexpression lines. The increased daidzein and genistein contents were detected only in GmIMaT3-overexpression lines. Knockdown of GmIMaT1 and GmIMaT3 reduced malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin contents, and affected other isoflavonoids differently. GmIMaT1 is primarily localized to the endoplasmic reticulum while GmIMaT3 is primarily in the cytosol. By examining their transcript changes corresponding to the altered isoflavone metabolic profiles under various environmental and hormonal stresses, we probed the possible functions of GmIMaTs. Two GmIMaTs displayed distinct tissue expression patterns and respond differently to various factors in modifying isoflavone 7-O-glucosides under various stresses.

  4. [Recent advances in molecular genetics of GM2 gangliosidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, N

    1995-12-01

    Recent advances in molecular genetics of GM2 gangliosidosis are reviewed. GM2 gangliosidosis is an autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative disease caused by a deficiency of beta-hexosaminidase (Hex, EC 3.2.1.52) A activity, resulting in accumulation of GM2 ganglioside in the lysosomes of neuronal cells. There are two catalytically active forms of this enzyme: Hex A, composed of one alpha and one beta subunits. Three forms of this disease, Tay-Sachs disease, Sandhoff disease, and GM2 activator deficiency, have been recognized according to whether the defect involves the alpha subunit, beta subunit, or GM2 activator protein, respectively. A number of gene abnormalities responsible for the disease have been identified and mutations specific for phenotypes and racial backgrounds are summarized. Recently, the murine models of human Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease have been produced. With the finding of dramatically clinical phenotypes in these mice, these models could be useful for research on the pathogenesis or therapy of these diseases.

  5. Genome-Wide Association Analyses Identify QTL Hotspots for Yield and Component Traits in Durum Wheat Grown under Yield Potential, Drought, and Heat Stress Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sivakumar; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Sansaloni, Carolina

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the genetic bases of economically important traits is fundamentally important in enhancing genetic gains in durum wheat. In this study, a durum panel of 208 lines (comprised of elite materials and exotics from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center gene bank) were subjected to genome wide association study (GWAS) using 6,211 DArTseq single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The panel was phenotyped under yield potential (YP), drought stress (DT), and heat stress (HT) conditions for 2 years. Mean yield of the panel was reduced by 72% (to 1.64 t/ha) under HT and by 60% (to 2.33 t/ha) under DT, compared to YP (5.79 t/ha). Whereas, the mean yield of the panel under HT was 30% less than under DT. GWAS identified the largest number of significant marker-trait associations on chromosomes 2A and 2B with p-values 10−06 to 10−03 and the markers from the whole study explained 7–25% variation in the traits. Common markers were identified for stress tolerance indices: stress susceptibility index, stress tolerance, and stress tolerance index estimated for the traits under DT (82 cM on 2B) and HT (68 and 83 cM on 3B; 25 cM on 7A). GWAS of irrigated (YP and HT combined), stressed (DT and HT combined), combined analysis of three environments (YP + DT + HT), and its comparison with trait per se and stress indices identified QTL hotspots on chromosomes 2A (54–70 cM) and 2B (75–82 cM). This study enhances our knowledge about the molecular markers associated with grain yield and its components under different stress conditions. It identifies several marker-trait associations for further exploration and validation for marker-assisted breeding. PMID:29467776

  6. Function of heterotrimeric G-protein γ subunit RGG1 in providing salinity stress tolerance in rice by elevating detoxification of ROS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Durga Madhab; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Srivastava, Vineet Kumar; Tripathy, Baishnab Charan; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2017-02-01

    The present study provides evidence of a unique function of RGG1 in providing salinity stress tolerance in transgenic rice without affecting yield. It also provides a good example for signal transduction from the external environment to inside for enhanced agricultural production that withstands the extreme climatic conditions and ensures food security. The role of heterotrimeric G-proteins functioning as signalling molecules has not been studied as extensively in plants as in animals. Recently, their importance in plant stress signalling has been emerging. In this study, the function of rice G-protein γ subunit (RGG1) in the promotion of salinity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64) was investigated. The overexpression of RGG1 driven by the CaMV35S promoter in transgenic rice conferred high salinity tolerance even in the presence of 200 mM NaCl. Transcript levels of antioxidative genes, i.e., CAT, APX, and GR, and their enzyme activities increased in salinity-stressed transgenic rice plants suggesting a better antioxidant system to cope the oxidative-damages caused by salinity stress. The RGG1-induced signalling events that conferred tolerance to salinity was mediated by increased gene expression of the enzymes that scavenged reactive oxygen species. In salinity-stressed RGG1 transgenic lines, the transcript levels of RGG2, RGB, RGA, DEP1, and GS3 also increased in addition to RGG1. These observations suggest that most likely the stoichiometry of the G-protein complex was not disturbed under stress. Agronomic parameters, endogenous sugar content (glucose and fructose) and hormones (GA3, zeatin and IAA) were also higher in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants. A BiFC assay confirmed the interaction of RGG1 with different stress-responsive proteins which play active roles in signalling and prevention of aggregation of proteins under stress-induced perturbation. The present study will help in understanding the G-protein-mediated stress

  7. GM organisms threaten organic systems: towards sustainability, coexistence and organic seed

    OpenAIRE

    Boelt, B.; Deleuran, L.C.; Phelps, B.

    2005-01-01

    Until now commercial genetically modified (GM) crops – soy, corn, canola and cotton - and their products have not been successfully segregated from organic or conventional non-GM production systems. Where GM crops are grown, GM contamination may be inevitable. However, physical and legal control measures imposed before the introduction of GM crops may help protect organic standards, supply chain integrity, certification and client confidence, but this is not yet fully tested. IFOAM’s approach...

  8. NMR-Metabolic Methodology in the Study of GM Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene D’Amico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1H-NMR methodology used in the study of genetically modified (GM foods is discussed. Transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv "Luxor" over-expressing the Arabidopsis KNAT1 gene is presented as a case study. Twenty-two water-soluble metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, sugars present in leaves of conventional and GM lettuce were monitored by NMR and quantified at two developmental stages. The NMR spectra did not reveal any difference in metabolite composition between the GM lettuce and the wild type counterpart. Statistical analyses of metabolite variables highlighted metabolism variation as a function of leaf development as well as the transgene. A main effect of the transgene was in altering sugar metabolism.

  9. [beta-galactosidosis--GM1 gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Yanagisawa, N

    1995-12-01

    beta-galactosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of acid beta-galactosidase, including to autosomal recessive diseases; GM1-gangliosidosis (neurovisceral form) and Morquio B disease (skeletal form). To date, 26 different mutations in the beta-galactosidase gene have been identified in patients with beta-galactosidosis from various ethnic groups. Transient expression of the mutant genes has confirmed that mutant enzymes responsible for infantile GM1-gangliosidosis have almost no detectable beta-galactosidase activity. But the other three forms (late infantile/juvenile, adult/chronic GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease) are characterized by specific mutant enzymes with significant residual enzyme activity. Heterogeneous patterns of post-translational processing and maturation in these mutant enzymes are closely related to the phenotypic variations in beta-galactosidosis.

  10. [Molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic approach of GM2 gangliosidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases (GM2 gangliosidoses) are autosomal recessive lysosomal storage diseases caused by gene mutations in HEXA and HEXB, each encoding human lysosomal β-hexosaminidase α-subunits and β-subunits, respectively. In Tay-Sachs disease, excessive accumulation of GM2 ganglioside (GM2), mainly in the central nervous system, is caused by a deficiency of the HexA isozyme (αβ heterodimer), resulting in progressive neurologic disorders. In Sandhoff disease, combined deficiencies of HexA and HexB (ββ homodimer) cause not only the accumulation of GM2 but also of oligosaccharides carrying terminal N-acetylhexosamine residues (GlcNAc-oligosaccharides), resulting in systemic manifestations including hepatosplenomegaly as well as neurologic symptoms. Hence there is little clinically effective treatment for these GM2 gangliosidoses. Recent studies on the molecular pathogenesis in Sandhoff disease patients and disease model mice have shown the involvement of microglial activation and chemokine induction in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in this disease. Experimental and therapeutic approaches, including recombinant enzyme replacement, have been performed using Sandhoff disease model mice, suggesting the future application of novel techniques to treat GM2 gangliosidoses (Hex deficiencies), including Sandhoff disease as well as Tay-Sachs disease. In this study, we isolated astrocytes and microglia from the neonatal brain of Sandhoff disease model mice and demonstrated abnormalities of glial cells. Moreover, we demonstrated the therapeutic effect of an intracerebroventricular administration of novel recombinant human HexA carrying a high content of M6P residue in Sandhoff disease model mice.

  11. Recent development status of compact 2 K GM cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Q.; Xu, M. Y.; Tsuchiya, A.; Li, R.

    2015-12-01

    To meet the growing demand for a compact cooling solution for superconducting electronic devices, we developed a two-stage 2 K GM cryocooler and a cryostat system, which can reach 46.3 K / 2.2 K on the first and second stages under no-load conditions. Nevertheless, with several innovative technologies applied, the total length of the expander cylinder is reduced to under 70% of the smallest conventional 4 K GM cryocooler. In this paper we will present the design method, including material selection and structure design with detailed explanation, which has been confirmed by both simulation and experiment.

  12. A structural model of age, grey matter volumes, education, and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Soichiro; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Akihide; Kazui, Hiroaki; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Kiuchi, Kuniaki; Kosaka, Jun; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Iida, Hidehiro; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    When the relationship between ageing and changes in personality traits is considered, it is important to know how they are influenced by biological and environmental factors. The present study examined the relationships between various factors associated with the effect of ageing on personality traits, including structural changes of the brain and environmental factors such as education. We recruited 41 healthy subjects. We administered the NEO Five-Factor Inventory to assess personality factors. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed, and regional grey matter (GM) volumes were obtained. We identified associations in the correlation analysis of age, cerebral GM volume, years of education, and the personality trait of openness. Path analysis was used to estimate the relationships among these factors. The path analysis model of age, GM volume, years of education, and the personality trait of openness revealed that age has an indirect negative association with openness through GM volume and years of education. Ageing was related to a decrease in GM volume, which was in turn related to a decrease in the openness score. Older subjects generally had fewer years of education, which was related to a lower openness score. Maintaining openness against the effects of ageing is desirable, and our results imply that interventions against age-related cerebral atrophy and the promotion of opportunities for higher education may contribute to the development and stability of a healthy personality during the adult life course. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  13. A late embryogenesis abundant protein HVA1 regulated by an inducible promoter enhances root growth and abiotic stress tolerance in rice without yield penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Shih; Lo, Shuen-Fang; Sun, Peng-Kai; Lu, Chung-An; Ho, Tuan-Hua D; Yu, Su-May

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of root architecture is essential for maintaining plant growth under adverse environment. A synthetic abscisic acid (ABA)/stress-inducible promoter was designed to control the expression of a late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1) in transgenic rice. The background of HVA1 is low but highly inducible by ABA, salt, dehydration and cold. HVA1 was highly accumulated in root apical meristem (RAM) and lateral root primordia (LRP) after ABA/stress treatments, leading to enhanced root system expansion. Water-use efficiency (WUE) and biomass also increased in transgenic rice, likely due to the maintenance of normal cell functions and metabolic activities conferred by HVA1 which is capable of stabilizing proteins, under osmotic stress. HVA1 promotes lateral root (LR) initiation, elongation and emergence and primary root (PR) elongation via an auxin-dependent process, particularly by intensifying asymmetrical accumulation of auxin in LRP founder cells and RAM, even under ABA/stress-suppressive conditions. We demonstrate a successful application of an inducible promoter in regulating the spatial and temporal expression of HVA1 for improving root architecture and multiple stress tolerance without yield penalty. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A WRKY transcription factor from Withania somnifera regulates triterpenoid withanolide accumulation and biotic stress tolerance through modulation of phytosterol and defense pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anup Kumar; Kumar, Sarma Rajeev; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Pal, Shaifali; Shasany, Ajit K; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2017-08-01

    Withania somnifera produces pharmacologically important triterpenoid withanolides that are derived via phytosterol pathway; however, their biosynthesis and regulation remain to be elucidated. A jasmonate- and salicin-inducible WRKY transcription factor from W. somnifera (WsWRKY1) exhibiting correlation with withaferin A accumulation was functionally characterized employing virus-induced gene silencing and overexpression studies combined with transcript and metabolite analyses, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. WsWRKY1 silencing resulted in stunted plant growth, reduced transcripts of phytosterol pathway genes with corresponding reduction in phytosterols and withanolides in W. somnifera. Its overexpression elevated the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in W. somnifera (phytosterols and withanolides), as well as tobacco and tomato (phytosterols). Moreover, WsWRKY1 binds to W-box sequences in promoters of W. somnifera genes encoding squalene synthase and squalene epoxidase, indicating its direct regulation of triterpenoid pathway. Furthermore, while WsWRKY1 silencing in W. somnifera compromised the tolerance to bacterial growth, fungal infection, and insect feeding, its overexpression in tobacco led to improved biotic stress tolerance. Together these findings demonstrate that WsWRKY1 has a positive regulatory role on phytosterol and withanolides biosynthesis, and defense against biotic stress, highlighting its importance as a metabolic engineering tool for simultaneous improvement of triterpenoid biosynthesis and plant defense. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Ectopic over-expression of peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (SbpAPX) gene confers salt stress tolerance in transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Natwar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-08-15

    Peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase gene (SbpAPX) of an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata imparts abiotic stress endurance and plays a key role in the protection against oxidative stress. The cloned SbpAPX gene was transformed to local variety of peanut and about 100 transgenic plants were developed using optimized in vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation method. The T0 transgenic plants were confirmed for the gene integration; grown under controlled condition in containment green house facility; seeds were harvested and T1 plants were raised. Transgenic plants (T1) were further confirmed by PCR using gene specific primers and histochemical GUS assay. About 40 transgenic plants (T1) were selected randomly and subjected for salt stress tolerance study. Transgenic plants remained green however non-transgenic plants showed bleaching and yellowish leaves under salt stress conditions. Under stress condition, transgenic plants continued normal growth and completed their life cycle. Transgenic peanut plants exhibited adequate tolerance under salt stress condition and thus could be explored for the cultivation in salt affected areas for the sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of heat, cold, acid and bile salt adaptations on the stress tolerance and protein expression of kefir-isolated probiotic Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Ju; Tang, Hsin-Yu; Chiang, Ming-Lun

    2017-09-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a probiotic strain isolated from Taiwanese kefir grains. The present study evaluated the effects of heat, cold, acid and bile salt adaptations on the stress tolerance of L. kefiranofaciens M1. The regulation of protein expression of L. kefiranofaciens M1 under these adaptation conditions was also investigated. The results showed that adaptation of L. kefiranofaciens M1 to heat, cold, acid and bile salts induced homologous tolerance and cross-protection against heterologous challenge. The extent of induced tolerance varied depending on the type and condition of stress. Proteomic analysis revealed that 27 proteins exhibited differences in expression between non-adapted and stress-adapted L. kefiranofaciens M1 cells. Among these proteins, three proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism (triosephosphate isomerase, enolase and NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), two proteins involved in pH homeostasis (ATP synthase subunits AtpA and AtpB), two stress response proteins (chaperones DnaK and GroEL) and one translation-related protein (30S ribosomal protein S2) were up-regulated by three of the four adaptation treatments examined. The increased synthesis of these stress proteins might play a critical protective role in the cellular defense against heat, cold, acid and bile salt stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The garlic NF-YC gene, AsNF-YC8, positively regulates non-ionic hyperosmotic stress tolerance in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiudong; Lian, Haifeng; Liu, Xingchen; Zhou, Shumei; Liu, Shiqi

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) and stress tolerance in garlic, we cloned a NF-Y family gene AsNF-YC8 from garlic, which was largely upregulated at dehydrate stage. Expression pattern analyses in garlic revealed that AsNF-YC8 is induced through abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stresses, such as NaCl and PEG. Compared with wild-type plants, the overexpressing-AsNF-YC8 transgenic tobacco plants showed higher seed germination rates, longer root length and better plant growth under salt and drought stresses. Under drought stress, the transgenic plants maintained higher relative water content (RWC), net photosynthesis, lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and less ion leakage (IL) than wild-type control plants. These results indicate the high tolerance of the transgenic plants to drought stress compared to the WT. The transgenic tobacco lines accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exhibited higher antioxidative enzyme activities compared with wild-type (WT) plants under drought stress, which suggested that the overexpression of AsNF-YC8 improves the antioxidant defense system by regulating the activities of these antioxidant enzymes, which in turn protect transgenic lines against drought stress. These results suggest that AsNF-YC8 plays an important role in tolerance to drought and salt stresses.

  18. A phenomics approach to the analysis of the influence of glutathione on leaf area and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eSchnaubelt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reduced glutathione (GSH is an abundant low molecular weight plant thiol. It fulfils multiple functions in plant biology, many of which remain poorly characterised. A phenomics approach was therefore used to investigate the effects of glutathione homeostasis on growth and stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Rosette leaf area was compared in mutants that are either defective in GSH synthesis (cad2, pad2 and rax1 or the export of γ-glutamyl cysteine and GSH from the chloroplast (clt and in wild type plants under standard growth conditions and following exposure to a range of abiotic stress treatments, including oxidative stress, water stress and high salt. In the absence of stress, the GSH synthesis mutants had a significantly lower leaf area than the wild type. Conversely, the clt mutant has a greater leaf area and a significantly reduced lateral root density than the wild type. These findings demonstrate that cellular glutathione homeostasis exerts an influence on root architecture and on rosette area. An impaired capacity to synthesise GSH or a specific depletion of the cytosolic GSH pool did not adversely affect leaf area in plants exposed to short term abiotic stress. However, the negative effects of long term exposure to oxidative stress and high salt on leaf area were less marked in the GSH synthesis mutants than the wild type. These findings demonstrate the importance of cellular glutathione homeostasis in the regulation of plant growth under optimal and stress conditions.

  19. A phenomics approach to the analysis of the influence of glutathione on leaf area and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaubelt, Daniel; Schulz, Philipp; Hannah, Matthew A; Yocgo, Rosita E; Foyer, Christine H

    2013-01-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) is an abundant low molecular weight plant thiol. It fulfills multiple functions in plant biology, many of which remain poorly characterized. A phenomics approach was therefore used to investigate the effects of glutathione homeostasis on growth and stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Rosette leaf area was compared in mutants that are either defective in GSH synthesis (cad2, pad2, and rax1) or the export of γ-glutamylcysteine and GSH from the chloroplast (clt) and in wild-type plants under standard growth conditions and following exposure to a range of abiotic stress treatments, including oxidative stress, water stress, and high salt. In the absence of stress, the GSH synthesis mutants had a significantly lower leaf area than the wild type. Conversely, the clt mutant has a greater leaf area and a significantly reduced lateral root density than the wild type. These findings demonstrate that cellular glutathione homeostasis exerts an influence on root architecture and on rosette area. An impaired capacity to synthesize GSH or a specific depletion of the cytosolic GSH pool did not adversely affect leaf area in plants exposed to short-term abiotic stress. However, the negative effects of long-term exposure to oxidative stress and high salt on leaf area were less marked in the GSH synthesis mutants than the wild type. These findings demonstrate the importance of cellular glutathione homeostasis in the regulation of plant growth under optimal and stress conditions.

  20. Expression of acyl-lipid Delta12-desaturase gene in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and its effect on cold stress tolerance of potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Reza Maali; Yur'eva, Natalia O; Shimshilashvili, Khristina R; Goldenkova-Pavlova, Irina V; Pchelkin, Vasiliy P; Kuznitsova, Elmira I; Tsydendambaev, Vladimir D; Trunova, Tamara I; Los, Dmitry A; Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Nosov, Alexander M

    2010-03-01

    We report the expression profile of acyl-lipid Delta12-desaturase (desA) gene from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and its effect on cell membrane lipid composition and cold tolerance in prokaryotic (Escherichia coli) and eukaryotic (Solanum tuberosum) cells. For this purpose, a hybrid of desA and reporter gene encoding thermostable lichenase (licBM3) was constructed and used to transform these cells. The expression of this hybrid gene was measured using qualitative (Petri dish test, electrophoregram and zymogram) and quantitative methods (spectrometry and gas liquid chromatography assays). The maximum level of linoleic acid in the bacterial cells containing hybrid gene was 1.9% of total fatty acids. Cold stress tolerance assays using plant damage index and growth parameters showed that cold tolerance was enhanced in primary transgenic lines because of increased unsaturated fatty acid concentration in their lipids. The greatest content of 18:2 and 18:3 fatty acids in primary transgenic plants was observed for lines 2 (73%) and 3 (41%). Finally, our results showed that desaturase could enhance tolerance to cold stress in potato, and desaturase and lichenase retain their functionality in the structure of the hybrid protein where the enzymatic activity of target gene product was higher than in the case of reporter lichenase gene absence in the construction.

  1. The RNA binding protein Tudor-SN is essential for stress tolerance and stabilizes levels of stress-responsive mRNAs encoding secreted proteins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei dit Frey, Nicolas; Muller, Philippe; Jammes, Fabien; Kizis, Dimosthenis; Leung, Jeffrey; Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine; Bianchi, Michele Wolfe

    2010-05-01

    Tudor-SN (TSN) copurifies with the RNA-induced silencing complex in animal cells where, among other functions, it is thought to act on mRNA stability via the degradation of specific dsRNA templates. In plants, TSN has been identified biochemically as a cytoskeleton-associated RNA binding activity. In eukaryotes, it has recently been identified as a conserved primary target of programmed cell death-associated proteolysis. We have investigated the physiological role of TSN by isolating null mutations for two homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. The double mutant tsn1 tsn2 displays only mild growth phenotypes under nonstress conditions, but germination, growth, and survival are severely affected under high salinity stress. Either TSN1 or TSN2 alone can complement the double mutant, indicating their functional redundancy. TSN accumulates heterogeneously in the cytosol and relocates transiently to a diffuse pattern in response to salt stress. Unexpectedly, stress-regulated mRNAs encoding secreted proteins are significantly enriched among the transcripts that are underrepresented in tsn1 tsn2. Our data also reveal that TSN is important for RNA stability of its targets. These findings show that TSN is essential for stress tolerance in plants and implicate TSN in new, potentially conserved mechanisms acting on mRNAs entering the secretory pathway.

  2. PacMYBA, a sweet cherry R2R3-MYB transcription factor, is a positive regulator of salt stress tolerance and pathogen resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinjie; Guo, Xinwei; Guo, Xiao; Zhao, Di; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jingsheng; Li, Tianhong

    2017-03-01

    Plant R2R3-MYB transcription factors play crucial roles in stress responses. We previously isolated a R2R3-MYB homolog from sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng, designated PacMYBA (GenBank accession No. KF974774). To explore the role of PacMYBA in the plant stress response, we heterologously expressed PacMYBA in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. In a previous study, we demonstrated that PacMYBA is mainly localized to the nucleus and could be induced by abscisic acid (ABA). Analysis of the promoter sequence of PacMYBA revealed that it contains several stress-related cis-elements. QPCR results showed that PacMYBA is induced by salt, salicylic (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) in sweet cherry leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants heterologously expressing PacMYBA exhibited enhanced salt-tolerance and increased resistance to Pseudomonas syringe pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection. Overexpression of PacMYBA decreased the osmotic potential (OP), increased the free proline content, and increased the peroxidase content in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Furthermore, overexpression of PacMYBA also affected the expression levels of salt stress- and pathogen defense-related genes in the transgenic plants. These results indicate that PacMYBA is a positive regulator of salt stress tolerance and pathogen resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. An analysis of the development of cauliflower seed as a model to improve the molecular mechanism of abiotic stress tolerance in cauliflower artificial seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihan, Hail Z; Al-Issawi, Mohammed; Fuller, Michael P

    2017-07-01

    The development stages of conventional cauliflower seeds were studied and the accumulation of dehydrin proteins through the maturation stages was investigated with the aim of identifying methods to improve the viability of artificial seeds of cauliflower. While carbohydrate, ash and lipids increased throughout the development of cauliflower traditional seeds, proteins increased with the development of seed and reached the maximum level after 75 days of pollination, however, the level of protein started to decrease after that. A significant increase in the accumulation of small size dehydrin proteins (12, 17, 26 KDa) was observed during the development of cauliflower seeds. Several experiments were conducted in order to increase the accumulation of important dehydrin proteins in cauliflower microshoots (artificial seeds). Mannitol and ABA (Absisic acid) increased the accumulation of dehydrins in cauliflower microshoots while cold acclimation did not have a significant impact on the accumulation of these proteins. Molybdenum treatments had a negative impact on dehydrin accumulation. Dehydrins have an important role in the drought tolerance of seeds and, therefore, the current research helps to improve the accumulation of these proteins in cauliflower artificial seeds. This in turns improves the quality of these artificial seeds. The current results suggest that dehydrins do not play an important role in cold tolerance of cauliflower artificial seeds. This study could have an important role in improving the understanding of the molecular mechanism of abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Heterologous expression of the wheat aquaporin gene TaTIP2;2 compromises the abiotic stress tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Xu

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are channel proteins which transport water across cell membranes. We show that the bread wheat aquaporin gene TaTIP2;2 maps to the long arm of chromosome 7b and that its product localizes to the endomembrane system. The gene is expressed constitutively in both the root and the leaf, and is down-regulated by salinity and drought stress. Salinity stress induced an increased level of C-methylation within the CNG trinucleotides in the TaTIP2;2 promoter region. The heterologous expression of TaTIP2;2 in Arabidopsis thaliana compromised its drought and salinity tolerance, suggesting that TaTIP2;2 may be a negative regulator of abiotic stress. The proline content of transgenic A. thaliana plants fell, consistent with the down-regulation of P5CS1, while the expression of SOS1, SOS2, SOS3, CBF3 and DREB2A, which are all stress tolerance-related genes acting in an ABA-independent fashion, was also down-regulated. The supply of exogenous ABA had little effect either on TaTIP2;2 expression in wheat or on the phenotype of transgenic A. thaliana. The expression level of the ABA signalling genes ABI1, ABI2 and ABF3 remained unaltered in the transgenic A. thaliana plants. Thus TaTIP2;2 probably regulates the response to stress via an ABA-independent pathway(s.

  5. New evidence for the cerebellar involvement in personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora ePicerni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the recognition of its role in sensory-motor coordination and learning, the cerebellum has been involved in cognitive, emotional and even personality domains. This study investigated the relationships between cerebellar macro- and micro-structural variations and temperamental traits measured by Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI. High resolution T1-weighted and Diffusion Tensor Images of 100 healthy subjects aged 18-59 years were acquired by 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance scanner. In multiple regression analyses, cerebellar Gray Matter (GM or White Matter (WM volumes, GM Mean Diffusivity (MD, and WM Fractional Anisotropy (FA were used as dependent variables, TCI scores as regressors, gender, age, and education years as covariates. Novelty Seeking scores were associated positively with the cerebellar GM volumes and FA, and negatively with MD. No significant association between Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence or Persistence scores and cerebellar structural measures was found. The present data put toward a cerebellar involvement in the management of novelty.

  6. Gm1 gangliosidosis and galactosialidosis : pathogenesis and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. del Pilar Martin

    2003-01-01

    textabstractGM1 gangliosidosis and galactosialidosis belong to the large group of metabolic disorders collectively known as Iysosomal storage diseaSE!S (lSDs). lSDs are caused by a single or combined deficiency of specific hydr,olytic enzymes resulting in progressive accumulation of undigested

  7. Public Acceptance of Plant Biotechnology and GM Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Lucht

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A wide gap exists between the rapid acceptance of genetically modified (GM crops for cultivation by farmers in many countries and in the global markets for food and feed, and the often-limited acceptance by consumers. This review contrasts the advances of practical applications of agricultural biotechnology with the divergent paths—also affecting the development of virus resistant transgenic crops—of political and regulatory frameworks for GM crops and food in different parts of the world. These have also shaped the different opinions of consumers. Important factors influencing consumer’s attitudes are the perception of risks and benefits, knowledge and trust, and personal values. Recent political and societal developments show a hardening of the negative environment for agricultural biotechnology in Europe, a growing discussion—including calls for labeling of GM food—in the USA, and a careful development in China towards a possible authorization of GM rice that takes the societal discussions into account. New breeding techniques address some consumers’ concerns with transgenic crops, but it is not clear yet how consumers’ attitudes towards them will develop. Discussions about agriculture would be more productive, if they would focus less on technologies, but on common aims and underlying values.

  8. The Environmental Benefits and Costs of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Scatasta, S.; Fall, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    The widespread introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops may change the effect of agriculture on the environment. The magnitude and direction of expected effects are still being hotly debated, and the interests served in this discussion arena are often far from those of science and social

  9. Public Acceptance of Plant Biotechnology and GM Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucht, Jan M

    2015-07-30

    A wide gap exists between the rapid acceptance of genetically modified (GM) crops for cultivation by farmers in many countries and in the global markets for food and feed, and the often-limited acceptance by consumers. This review contrasts the advances of practical applications of agricultural biotechnology with the divergent paths-also affecting the development of virus resistant transgenic crops-of political and regulatory frameworks for GM crops and food in different parts of the world. These have also shaped the different opinions of consumers. Important factors influencing consumer's attitudes are the perception of risks and benefits, knowledge and trust, and personal values. Recent political and societal developments show a hardening of the negative environment for agricultural biotechnology in Europe, a growing discussion-including calls for labeling of GM food-in the USA, and a careful development in China towards a possible authorization of GM rice that takes the societal discussions into account. New breeding techniques address some consumers' concerns with transgenic crops, but it is not clear yet how consumers' attitudes towards them will develop. Discussions about agriculture would be more productive, if they would focus less on technologies, but on common aims and underlying values.

  10. 5 CFR 531.241 - Retaining and losing GM status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retaining and losing GM status. 531.241 Section 531.241 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... promotion), transferred, demoted, reassigned to a position in which the employee will no longer be a...

  11. Public Debate on GM Maize in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    The South African government gave its approval for commercial activities on GM maize cropping in 1998. A year later, in 1999, parliament passed the GMO Act.6 The South. African National Biosafety Strategy was published in 2001. Futhi, a much- improved South African dairy cow, was the first higher mammal to be cloned.

  12. Highly phosphomannosylated enzyme replacement therapy for GM2 gangliosidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Daisuke; Akeboshi, Hiromi; Matsuoka, Kazuhiko; Yasuoka, Hiroko; Miyasaki, Eri; Kasahara, Yoshiko; Kawashima, Ikuo; Chiba, Yasunori; Jigami, Yoshifumi; Taki, Takao; Sakuraba, Hitoshi; Itoh, Kohji

    2011-04-01

    Novel recombinant human lysosomal β-hexosaminidase A (HexA) was developed for enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases, ie, autosomal recessive GM2 gangliosidoses, caused by HexA deficiency. A recombinant human HexA (Om4HexA) with a high mannose 6-phosphate (M6P)-type-N-glycan content, which was produced by a methylotrophic yeast strain, Ogataea minuta, overexpressing the OmMNN4 gene, was intracerebroventricularly (ICV) administered to Sandhoff disease model mice (Hexb⁻/⁻ mice) at different doses (0.5-2.5 mg/kg), and then the replacement and therapeutic effects were examined. The Om4HexA was widely distributed across the ependymal cell layer, dose-dependently restored the enzyme activity due to uptake via cell surface cation-independent M6P receptor (CI-M6PR) on neural cells, and reduced substrates, including GM2 ganglioside (GM2), asialo GM2 (GA2), and oligosaccharides with terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues (GlcNAc-oligosaccharides), accumulated in brain parenchyma. A significant inhibition of chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1 α (MIP-1α) induction was also revealed, especially in the hindbrain (diseases (LSDs) patients with neurological manifestations. We emphasize the importance of neural cell surface M6P receptor as a delivery target of neural cell-directed enzyme replacement therapy (NCDERT) for neurodegenerative metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2010 American Neurological Association.

  13. GM1 ganglioside-independent intoxication by Cholera toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervin, Jakob; Wands, Amberlyn M; Casselbrant, Anna; Wu, Han; Krishnamurthy, Soumya; Cvjetkovic, Aleksander; Estelius, Johanna; Dedic, Benjamin; Sethi, Anirudh; Wallom, Kerri-Lee; Riise, Rebecca; Bäckström, Malin; Wallenius, Ville; Platt, Frances M; Lebens, Michael; Teneberg, Susann; Fändriks, Lars; Kohler, Jennifer J; Yrlid, Ulf

    2018-02-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) enters and intoxicates host cells after binding cell surface receptors via its B subunit (CTB). We have recently shown that in addition to the previously described binding partner ganglioside GM1, CTB binds to fucosylated proteins. Using flow cytometric analysis of primary human jejunal epithelial cells and granulocytes, we now show that CTB binding correlates with expression of the fucosylated Lewis X (LeX) glycan. This binding is competitively blocked by fucosylated oligosaccharides and fucose-binding lectins. CTB binds the LeX glycan in vitro when this moiety is linked to proteins but not to ceramides, and this binding can be blocked by mAb to LeX. Inhibition of glycosphingolipid synthesis or sialylation in GM1-deficient C6 rat glioma cells results in sensitization to CT-mediated intoxication. Finally, CT gavage produces an intact diarrheal response in knockout mice lacking GM1 even after additional reduction of glycosphingolipids. Hence our results show that CT can induce toxicity in the absence of GM1 and support a role for host glycoproteins in CT intoxication. These findings open up new avenues for therapies to block CT action and for design of detoxified enterotoxin-based adjuvants.

  14. Public Acceptance of Plant Biotechnology and GM Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucht, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    A wide gap exists between the rapid acceptance of genetically modified (GM) crops for cultivation by farmers in many countries and in the global markets for food and feed, and the often-limited acceptance by consumers. This review contrasts the advances of practical applications of agricultural biotechnology with the divergent paths—also affecting the development of virus resistant transgenic crops—of political and regulatory frameworks for GM crops and food in different parts of the world. These have also shaped the different opinions of consumers. Important factors influencing consumer’s attitudes are the perception of risks and benefits, knowledge and trust, and personal values. Recent political and societal developments show a hardening of the negative environment for agricultural biotechnology in Europe, a growing discussion—including calls for labeling of GM food—in the USA, and a careful development in China towards a possible authorization of GM rice that takes the societal discussions into account. New breeding techniques address some consumers’ concerns with transgenic crops, but it is not clear yet how consumers’ attitudes towards them will develop. Discussions about agriculture would be more productive, if they would focus less on technologies, but on common aims and underlying values. PMID:26264020

  15. Assessing response of soil microorganisms to GM plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.; Bruinsma, M.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Risk assessment concerns and recent advances in microbial ecology have spurred a wave of research on the impact of genetically modified (GM) crops on soil-borne microbial community structure and function. Effects have often been observed, but these usually pale in comparison with `normal' sources of

  16. Potential benefits of genetic modification (GM) technology for food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the perception of farmers towards potential adoption of genetic modification (GM) technology for improving health, food security and agricultural productivity using a semi-structured interview. A total sample of 54 small-scale farmers participated in 6 focus group meetings (FGMs) and 23 in-depth interviews at ...

  17. GM2 ganglioside as a regulator of pyramidal neuron dendritogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkley, S U; Siegel, D A; Dobrenis, K; Zervas, M

    1998-06-19

    One of the most profound events in the life of a neuron in the mammalian CNS is the development of a characteristic dendritic tree, yet little is understood about events controlling this process. Pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex are known to undergo a single explosive burst of dendritic sprouting immediately after completing migration to the cortical mantle, and following maturation there is no evidence that new, primary dendrites are initiated. Yet in one group of rare genetic diseases--Tay-Sachs disease and related neuronal storage disorders--cortical pyramidal neurons undergo a second period of dendritogenesis. New dendritic membrane is generated principally at the axon hillock and in time is covered with normal-appearing spines and synapses. In our studies of normal brain development and storage diseases we consistently find one feature in common in cortical pyramidal neurons undergoing active dendritogenesis: They exhibit dramatically increased expression of GM2 ganglioside localized to cytoplasmic vacuoles within neuronal perikarya and proximal dendrites. There is also evidence that the increase in GM2 precedes dendritic spouting, and that after dendritic maturation is complete (in normal brain) the GM2 levels in neurons become substantially reduced. These findings are consistent with GM2 ganglioside playing a pivotal role in the regulation of dendritogenesis in cortical pyramidal neurons.

  18. Characterization of human lymphoid cell lines GM9947 and GM9948 as intra- and interlaboratory reference standards for DNA typing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fregeau, C.J.; Elliott, J.C.; Fourney, R.M. [RCMP Central Forensic Laboratory, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-07-20

    The incorporation of reference DNA is crucial to the validation of any DNA typing protocol. Currently, reference DNA standards are restricted to molecular size DNA ladders and/or tumor cell line DNA. Either of these, however, presents some limitations. We have rigorously characterized two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-immortalized human lymphoid cell lines-GM9947 (female) and GM9948 (male)-to determine their suitability as alternative in-line standards for three widely employed allele profiling strategies. Twenty-one highly polymorphic VNTR-based allelic systems (7 RFLPs, 2 AmpFLPs, and 12 STRs) distributed over 12 chromosomes were scrutinized along with 3 gender-based discriminatory systems. The genetic stability of each locus was confirmed over a period of 225 in vitro population doublings. Allele size estimates and degree of informativeness for each of the 21 VNTR systems were compiled. The reproducibility of allele scoring by traditional RFLP analyses, using both cell lines as reference standards, was also verified by an interlaboratory validation study involving 13 analysts from two geographically distinct forensic laboratories. Taken together, our data indicate that GM9947 and GM9948 genomic DNAs could be adopted as reliable reference standards for DNA typing. 82 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Training load, stress tolerance and upper respiratory tract infection in basketball players. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n1p49

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gobo Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effect of external training load manipulation on internal training load (ITL, stress tolerance (ST and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI severity in basketball players during a 19-week macrocycle. The macrocycle was divided into three distinct phases: preparatory phase (P1 and two competitive phases (P2 and P3. The Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes questionnaire (DALDA, for assessment of sources and symptoms of stress, and the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21, for evaluation of URTI severity, were used on a weekly basis. The ITL was assessed by Rating of Perceived Exertion (session RPE. There was a decrease in ITL at P3 when compared to P1 and P2 (p < 0.05. A decrease in “better than normal” responses in DALDA for both sources and symptoms of stress was observed at P2 and P3 when compared to P1 (p < 0.05. There was also a significant increase in URTI severity. In addition, significant relationships between ST and URTI were shown at P3, suggesting that stress tolerance may modulate URTI severity. In summary, ETL manipulation induced changes in ITL. However, unlike the initial hypothesis, a decrease in ITL during the competitive period was followed by a decrease in stress tolerance and an increase in URTI severity. Furthermore, the magnitude of stress seems to provoke an increase in URTI severity.

  20. Expression Profiling of Abiotic Stress-Inducible Genes in response to Multiple Stresses in Rice (Oryza sativa L. Varieties with Contrasting Level of Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supratim Basu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study considered transcriptional profiles and protein expression analyses from shoot and/or root tissues under three abiotic stress conditions, namely, salinity, dehydration, and cold, as well as following exogenous abscisic acid treatment, at different time points of stress exposure in three indica rice varieties, IR-29 (salt sensitive, Pokkali, and Nonabokra (both salt tolerant. The candidate genes chosen for expression studies were HKT-1, SOS-3, NHX-1, SAPK5, SAPK7, NAC-1, Rab16A, OSBZ8, DREBP2, CRT/DREBP, WRKY24, and WRKY71, along with the candidate proteins OSBZ8, SAMDC, and GST. Gene expression profile revealed considerable differences between the salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant rice varieties, as the expression in the latter was higher even at the constitutive level, whereas it was inducible only by corresponding stress signals in IR-29. Whether in roots or shoots, the transcriptional responses to different stressors peaked following 24 h of stress/ABA exposure, and the transcript levels enhanced gradually with the period of exposure. The generality of stress responses at the transcriptional level was therefore time dependent. Heat map data also showed differential transcript abundance in the three varieties, correlating the observation with transcript profiling. In silico analysis of the upstream regions of all the genes represented the existence of conserved sequence motifs in single or multiple copies that are indispensable to abiotic stress response. Overall, the transcriptome and proteome analysis undertaken in the present study indicated that genes/proteins conferring tolerance, belonging to different functional classes, were overrepresented, thus providing novel insight into the functional basis of multiple stress tolerance in indica rice varieties. The present work will pave the way in future to select gene(s for overexpression, so as to generate broad spectrum resistance to multiple stresses simultaneously.

  1. Salinity-induced accumulation of organic osmolytes in barley and wheat leaves correlates with increased oxidative stress tolerance: in planta evidence for cross-tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puniran-Hartley, Norhawa; Hartley, Joseph; Shabala, Lana; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-10-01

    Salinity tolerance in plants is dependent on their abilities to adjust osmotically to reduced soil water potential and to keep intracellular ROS levels under control. Both these processes are believed to rely on de novo synthesis of organic osmolytes (traditionally defined as compatible solutes). However direct in planta evidence for anti-oxidant roles of compatible solutes are scarce. In this work, we induced changes in the level of endogenous organic osmolytes by exposing plants to various levels of NaCl (salinity stress; 50-300 mM range) and then studying sensitivity of leaves to oxidative (UV-B) stress. Increase in the external NaCl concentrations was accompanied by the progressive accumulation in leaf Na(+). This accumulation was much higher in old leaves compared with young ones. In old leaves, three major inorganic ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) have made 67.7% and 70.4% of leaf osmotic potential (in wheat and barley, respectively) when exposed to 200 mM NaCl treatment, while in young leaves their contribution was only 43.9% and 46.8%, respectively. Here, organic osmolytes played a substantial role in leaf osmotic adjustment. Increased accumulation of organic osmolytes correlated strongly with activity of PSII in leaves exposed to oxidation inducing UV-B treatment in both species (R(2) = 0.50 for wheat and 0.71 for barley). We conclude that salinity-induced accumulation of organic osmolytes in barley and wheat leaves correlates with increased oxidative stress tolerance and provides the evidence for a mechanism of cross-tolerance between these two stresses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel AP2/ERF family transcription factor from Glycine soja, GsERF71, is a DNA binding protein that positively regulates alkaline stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Duan, Xiangbo; Ding, Xiaodong; Chen, Chao; Zhu, Dan; Yin, Kuide; Cao, Lei; Song, Xuewei; Zhu, Pinghui; Li, Qiang; Nisa, Zaib Un; Yu, Jiyang; Du, Jianying; Song, Yu; Li, Huiqing; Liu, Beidong; Zhu, Yanming

    2017-07-01

    Here we first found that GsERF71, an ERF factor from wild soybean could increase plant alkaline stress tolerance by up-regulating H+-ATPase and by modifing the accumulation of Auxin. Alkaline soils are widely distributed all over the world and greatly limit plant growth and development. In our previous transcriptome analyses, we have identified several ERF (ethylene-responsive factor) genes that responded strongly to bicarbonate stress in the roots of wild soybean G07256 (Glycine soja). In this study, we cloned and functionally characterized one of the genes, GsERF71. When expressed in epidermal cells of onion, GsERF71 localized to the nucleus. It can activate the reporters in yeast cells, and the C-terminus of 170 amino acids is essential for its transactivation activity. Yeast one-hybrid and EMSA assays indicated that GsERF71 specifically binds to the cis-acting elements of the GCC-box, suggesting that GsERF71 may participate in the regulation of transcription of the relevant biotic and abiotic stress-related genes. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GsERF71 showed significantly higher tolerance to bicarbonate stress generated by NaHCO 3 or KHCO 3 than the wild type (WT) plants, i.e., the transgenic plants had greener leaves, longer roots, higher total chlorophyll contents and lower MDA contents. qRT-PCR and rhizosphere acidification assays indicated that the expression level and activity of H + -ATPase (AHA2) were enhanced in the transgenic plants under alkaline stress. Further analysis indicated that the expression of auxin biosynthetic genes and IAA contents were altered to a lower extent in the roots of transgenic plants than WT plants under alkaline stress in a short-term. Together, our data suggest that GsERF71 enhances the tolerance to alkaline stress by up-regulating the expression levels of H + -ATPase and by modifying auxin accumulation in transgenic plants.

  3. Lack of Physiological Depth Patterns in Conspecifics of Endemic Antarctic Brown Algae: A Trade-Off between UV Stress Tolerance and Shade Adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Iván; Huovinen, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    A striking characteristic of endemic Antarctic brown algae is their broad vertical distribution. This feature is largely determined by the shade adaptation in order to cope with the seasonal variation in light availability. However, during spring-summer months, when light penetrates deep in the water column these organisms have to withstand high levels of solar radiation, including UV. In the present study we examine the light use characteristics in parallel to a potential for UV tolerance (measured as content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and maximum quantum yield of fluorescence) in conspecific populations of four Antarctic brown algae (Ascoseira mirabilis, Desmarestia menziesii, D. anceps and Himantothallus grandifolius) distributed over a depth gradient between 5 and 30 m. The main results indicated that a) photosynthetic efficiency was uniform along the depth gradient in all the studied species, and b) short-term (6 h) exposure to UV radiation revealed a high tolerance measured as chlorophyll fluorescence, phlorotannin content and antioxidant capacity. Multivariate analysis of similarity indicated that light requirements for photosynthesis, soluble phlorotannins and antioxidant capacity are the variables determining the responses along the depth gradient in all the studied species. The suite of physiological responses of algae with a shallower distribution (A. mirabilis and D. menziesii) differed from those with deeper vertical range (D. anceps and H. grandifolius). These patterns are consistent with the underwater light penetration that defines two zones: 0-15 m, with influence of UV radiation (1% of UV-B and UV-A at 9 m and 15 m respectively) and a zone below 15 m marked by PAR incidence (1% up to 30 m). These results support the prediction that algae show a UV stress tolerance capacity along a broad depth range according to their marked shade adaptation. The high contents of phlorotannins and antioxidant potential appear to be strongly

  4. Lack of Physiological Depth Patterns in Conspecifics of Endemic Antarctic Brown Algae: A Trade-Off between UV Stress Tolerance and Shade Adaptation?

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    Iván Gómez

    Full Text Available A striking characteristic of endemic Antarctic brown algae is their broad vertical distribution. This feature is largely determined by the shade adaptation in order to cope with the seasonal variation in light availability. However, during spring-summer months, when light penetrates deep in the water column these organisms have to withstand high levels of solar radiation, including UV. In the present study we examine the light use characteristics in parallel to a potential for UV tolerance (measured as content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and maximum quantum yield of fluorescence in conspecific populations of four Antarctic brown algae (Ascoseira mirabilis, Desmarestia menziesii, D. anceps and Himantothallus grandifolius distributed over a depth gradient between 5 and 30 m. The main results indicated that a photosynthetic efficiency was uniform along the depth gradient in all the studied species, and b short-term (6 h exposure to UV radiation revealed a high tolerance measured as chlorophyll fluorescence, phlorotannin content and antioxidant capacity. Multivariate analysis of similarity indicated that light requirements for photosynthesis, soluble phlorotannins and antioxidant capacity are the variables determining the responses along the depth gradient in all the studied species. The suite of physiological responses of algae with a shallower distribution (A. mirabilis and D. menziesii differed from those with deeper vertical range (D. anceps and H. grandifolius. These patterns are consistent with the underwater light penetration that defines two zones: 0-15 m, with influence of UV radiation (1% of UV-B and UV-A at 9 m and 15 m respectively and a zone below 15 m marked by PAR incidence (1% up to 30 m. These results support the prediction that algae show a UV stress tolerance capacity along a broad depth range according to their marked shade adaptation. The high contents of phlorotannins and antioxidant potential appear to be

  5. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization, and Expression Profiling of Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Family in Pumpkin Reveals Likely Role in Cold-Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Kayum, Md.; Nath, Ujjal Kumar; Park, Jong-In; Choi, Eung Kyoo; Song, Jae-Young; Kim, Hoy-Taek; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2018-01-01

    Plant growth and development can be adversely affected by cold stress, limiting productivity. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) family comprises important detoxifying enzymes, which play major roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses by reducing the oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Pumpkins (Cucurbita maxima) are widely grown, economically important, and nutritious; however, their yield can be severely affected by cold stress. The identification of putative candidate genes responsible for cold-stress tolerance, including the GST family genes, is therefore vital. For the first time, we identified 32 C. maxima GST (CmaGST) genes using a combination of bioinformatics approaches and characterized them by expression profiling. These CmaGST genes represent seven of the 14 known classes of plant GSTs, with 18 CmaGSTs categorized into the tau class. The CmaGSTs were distributed across 13 of pumpkin’s 20 chromosomes, with the highest numbers found on chromosomes 4 and 6. The large number of CmaGST genes resulted from gene duplication; 11 and 5 pairs of CmaGST genes were segmental- and tandem-duplicated, respectively. In addition, all CmaGST genes showed organ-specific expression. The expression of the putative GST genes in pumpkin was examined under cold stress in two lines with contrasting cold tolerance: cold-tolerant CP-1 (C. maxima) and cold-susceptible EP-1 (Cucurbita moschata). Seven genes (CmaGSTU3, CmaGSTU7, CmaGSTU8, CmaGSTU9, CmaGSTU11, CmaGSTU12, and CmaGSTU14) were highly expressed in the cold-tolerant line and are putative candidates for use in breeding cold-tolerant crop varieties. These results increase our understanding of the cold-stress-related functions of the GST family, as well as potentially enhancing pumpkin breeding programs. PMID:29439434

  6. Arabidopsis thaliana Contains Both Ni2+ and Zn2+ Dependent Glyoxalase I Enzymes and Ectopic Expression of the Latter Contributes More towards Abiotic Stress Tolerance in E. coli.

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    Muskan Jain

    Full Text Available The glyoxalase pathway is ubiquitously found in all the organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. It acts as a major pathway for detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG, which deleteriously affects the biological system in stress conditions. The first important enzyme of this system is Glyoxalase I (GLYI. It is a metalloenzyme which requires divalent metal ions for its activity. This divalent metal ion can be either Zn2+ as found in most of eukaryotes or Ni2+ as seen in prokaryotes. In the present study, we have found three active GLYI enzymes (AtGLYI2, AtGLYI3 and AtGLYI6 belonging to different metal activation classes coexisting in Arabidopsis thaliana. These enzymes have been found to efficiently complement the GLYI yeast mutants. These three enzymes have been characterized in terms of their activity, metal dependency, kinetic parameters and their role in conferring tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in E. coli and yeast. AtGLYI2 was found to be Zn2+ dependent whereas AtGLYI3 and AtGLYI6 were Ni2+ dependent. Enzyme activity of Zn2+ dependent enzyme, AtGLYI2, was observed to be exceptionally high (~250-670 fold as compared to Ni2+ dependent enzymes, AtGLYI3 and AtGLYI6. The activity of these GLYI enzymes correlated well to their role in stress tolerance. Heterologous expression of these enzymes in E. coli led to better tolerance against various stress conditions. This is the first report of a higher eukaryotic species having multiple active GLYI enzymes belonging to different metal activation classes.

  7. From model to crop: functional characterization of SPL8 in M. truncatula led to genetic improvement of biomass yield and abiotic stress tolerance in alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jiqing; Debnath, Smriti; Sun, Liang; Flanagan, Amy; Tang, Yuhong; Jiang, Qingzhen; Wen, Jiangqi; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2018-04-01

    Biomass yield, salt tolerance and drought tolerance are important targets for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) improvement. Medicago truncatula has been developed into a model plant for alfalfa and other legumes. By screening a Tnt1 retrotransposon-tagged M. truncatula mutant population, we identified three mutants with enhanced branching. Branch development determines shoot architecture which affects important plant functions such as light acquisition, resource use and ultimately impacts biomass production. Molecular analyses revealed that the mutations were caused by Tnt1 insertions in the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 8 (SPL8) gene. The M. truncatula spl8 mutants had increased biomass yield, while overexpression of SPL8 in M. truncatula suppressed branching and reduced biomass yield. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that SPL8 inhibited branching by directly suppressing axillary bud formation. Based on the M. truncatula SPL8 sequence, alfalfa SPL8 (MsSPL8) was cloned and transgenic alfalfa plants were produced. MsSPL8 down-regulated or up-regulated alfalfa plants exhibited similar phenotypes to the M. truncatula mutants or overexpression lines, respectively. Specifically, the MsSPL8 down-regulated alfalfa plants showed up to 43% increase in biomass yield in the first harvest. The impact was even more prominent in the second harvest, with up to 86% increase in biomass production compared to the control. Furthermore, down-regulation of MsSPL8 led to enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic alfalfa. Results from this research offer a valuable approach to simultaneously improve biomass production and abiotic stress tolerance in legumes. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Drought stress tolerance in grapevine involves activation of polyamine oxidation contributing to improved immune response and low susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatmi, Saloua; Gruau, Charlotte; Trotel-Aziz, Patricia; Villaume, Sandra; Rabenoelina, Fanja; Baillieul, Fabienne; Eullaffroy, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Ferchichi, Ali; Aziz, Aziz

    2015-02-01

    Environmental factors including drought stress may modulate plant immune responses and resistance to pathogens. However, the relationship between mechanisms of drought tolerance and resistance to pathogens remained unknown. In this study, the effects of drought stress on polyamine (PA) homeostasis and immune responses were investigated in two grapevine genotypes differing in their drought tolerance; Chardonnay (CHR), as sensitive and Meski (MSK), as tolerant. Under drought conditions, MSK plants showed the lowest leaf water loss and reduction of photosynthetic efficiency, and expressed a lower level of NCED2, a gene involved in abscisic acid biosynthesis, compared with CHR plants. The improved drought tolerance in MSK was also coincident with the highest change in free PAs and up-regulation of the genes encoding arginine decarboxylase (ADC), copper amine-oxidase (CuAO), and PA-oxidases (PAO) and their corresponding enzyme activities. MSK plants also accumulated the highest level of amino acids, including Arg, Glu, Gln, Pro, and GABA, emphasizing the participation of PA-related amino acid homeostasis in drought tolerance. Importantly, drought-tolerant plants also exhibited enhanced phytoalexin accumulation and up-regulation of PR genes, especially PR-2 and Chit4c, compared with the sensitive plants. This is consistent with a lower susceptibility of MSK than CHR to Botrytis cinerea. Data suggest a possible connection between water stress tolerance and immune response in grapevine. Pharmacological experiments revealed that under drought conditions CuAO and PAO pathways were involved in the regulation of photosynthetic efficiency, and also of immune response and resistance of grapevine to a subsequent pathogen attack. These results open new views to improve our understanding of crosstalk between drought tolerance mechanisms and immune response. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights

  9. Overexpression of AtOGG1, a DNA glycosylase/AP lyase, enhances seed longevity and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huhui; Chu, Pu; Zhou, Yuliang; Li, Yin; Liu, Jun; Ding, Yu; Tsang, Edward W T; Jiang, Liwen; Wu, Keqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2012-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are toxic by-products generated continuously during seed desiccation, storage, and germination, resulting in seed deterioration and therefore decreased seed longevity. The toxicity of ROS is due to their indiscriminate reactivity with almost any constituent of the cell, such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. The damage to the genome induced by ROS has been recognized as an important cause of seed deterioration. A prominent DNA lesion induced by ROS is 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G), which can form base pairs with adenine instead of cytosine during DNA replication and leads to GC→TA transversions. In Arabidopsis, AtOGG1 is a DNA glycosylase/apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) lyase that is involved in base excision repair for eliminating 8-oxo-G from DNA. In this study, the functions of AtOGG1 were elaborated. The transcript of AtOGG1 was detected in seeds, and it was strongly up-regulated during seed desiccation and imbibition. Analysis of transformed Arabidopsis protoplasts demonstrated that AtOGG1-yellow fluorescent protein fusion protein localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of AtOGG1 in Arabidopsis enhanced seed resistance to controlled deterioration treatment. In addition, the content of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) in transgenic seeds was reduced compared to wild-type seeds, indicating a DNA damage-repair function of AtOGG1 in vivo. Furthermore, transgenic seeds exhibited increased germination ability under abiotic stresses such as methyl viologen, NaCl, mannitol, and high temperatures. Taken together, our results demonstrated that overexpression of AtOGG1 in Arabidopsis enhances seed longevity and abiotic stress tolerance.

  10. Arabidopsis ANAC069 binds to C[A/G]CG[T/G] sequences to negatively regulate salt and osmotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin; Shi, Xinxin; Wang, Yanmin; Guo, Yong; Yang, Kejun; Wang, Yucheng

    2017-03-01

    ANAC069 binds to the DNA sequence of C[A/G]CG[T/G] to regulate the expression of genes, resulting in decreased ROS scavenging capability and proline biosynthesis, which contribute to increased sensitivity to salt and osmotic stress. NAM-ATAF1/2 and CUC2 (NAC) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors that play important roles in abiotic stress responses. In the present study, we characterized the physiological and regulatory roles of Arabidopsis thaliana ANAC069 in response to abiotic stresses. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ANAC069 displayed increased sensitivity to abscisic acid, salt, and osmotic stress. Conversely, ANAC069 knockdown plants showed enhanced tolerance to salt and osmotic stress, but no change in ABA sensitivity. Further studies showed that ANAC069 inhibits the expression of SOD, POD, GST, and P5CS genes. Consequently, the transcript level of ANAC069 correlated negatively with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability and the proline level. The genes regulated by ANAC069 were further studied using a gene chip on a genome-wide scale, and 339 and 226 genes up- and downregulated by ANAC069 were identified. Analysis of the promoters of the genes affected by ANAC069 suggested that ANAC069 regulates the expression of genes mainly through interacting with the DNA sequence C[A/G]CG[T/G] in response to abiotic stresses. Collectively, our data suggest that ANAC069 could recognize C[A/G]CG[T/G] sequences to regulate the expression of genes that negatively regulates salt and osmotic stress tolerance by decreasing ROS scavenging capability and proline biosynthesis.

  11. Brassinosteroids-Induced Systemic Stress Tolerance was Associated with Increased Transcripts of Several Defence-Related Genes in the Phloem in Cucumis sativus.

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    Pingfang Li

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs, a group of naturally occurring plant steroidal compounds, are essential for plant growth, development and stress tolerance. Recent studies showed that BRs could induce systemic tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses; however, the molecular mechanisms by which BRs signals lead to responses in the whole plant are largely unknown. In this study, 24-epibrassinosteroid (EBR-induced systemic tolerance in Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyan No. 4 was analyzed through the assessment of symptoms of photooxidative stress by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging pulse amplitude modulation. Expression of defense/stress related genes were induced in both treated local leaves and untreated systemic leaves by local EBR application. With the suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH library using cDNA from the phloem sap of EBR-treated plants as the tester and distilled water (DW-treated plants as the driver, 14 transcripts out of 260 clones were identified. Quantitative Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR validated the specific up-regulation of these transcripts. Of the differentially expressed transcripts with known functions, transcripts for the selected four cDNAs, which encode an auxin-responsive protein (IAA14, a putative ankyrin-repeat protein, an F-box protein (PP2, and a major latex, pathogenesis-related (MLP-like protein, were induced in local leaves, systemic leaves and roots after foliar application of EBR onto mature leaves. Our results demonstrated that EBR-induced systemic tolerance is accompanied with increased transcript of genes in the defense response in other organs. The potential role of phloem mRNAs as signaling components in mediating BR-regulated systemic resistance is discussed.

  12. The Arabidopsis UDP-glycosyltransferases UGT79B2 and UGT79B3, contribute to cold, salt and drought stress tolerance via modulating anthocyanin accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Li, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Feng-Ju; Zhang, Gui-Zhi; Jiang, Xiao-Yi; Yu, Hui-Min; Hou, Bing-Kai

    2017-01-01

    The plant family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are the biggest GT family in plants, which are responsible for transferring sugar moieties onto a variety of small molecules, and control many metabolic processes; however, their physiological significance in planta is largely unknown. Here, we revealed that two Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase genes, UGT79B2 and UGT79B3, could be strongly induced by various abiotic stresses, including cold, salt and drought stresses. Overexpression of UGT79B2/B3 significantly enhanced plant tolerance to low temperatures as well as drought and salt stresses, whereas the ugt79b2/b3 double mutants generated by RNAi (RNA interference) and CRISPR-Cas9 strategies were more susceptible to adverse conditions. Interestingly, the expression of UGT79B2 and UGT79B3 is directly controlled by CBF1 (CRT/DRE-binding factor 1, also named DREB1B) in response to low temperatures. Furthermore, we identified the enzyme activities of UGT79B2/B3 in adding UDP-rhamnose to cyanidin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside. Ectopic expression of UGT79B2/B3 significantly increased the anthocyanin accumulation, and enhanced the antioxidant activity in coping with abiotic stresses, whereas the ugt79b2/b3 double mutants showed reduced anthocyanin levels. When overexpressing UGT79B2/B3 in tt18 (transparent testa 18), a mutant that cannot synthesize anthocyanins, both genes fail to improve plant adaptation to stress. Taken together, we demonstrate that UGT79B2 and UGT79B3, identified as anthocyanin rhamnosyltransferases, are regulated by CBF1 and confer abiotic stress tolerance via modulating anthocyanin accumulation. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Overexpression of an AP2/ERF Type Transcription Factor OsEREBP1 Confers Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Jisha

    Full Text Available AP2/ERF-type transcription factors regulate important functions of plant growth and development as well as responses to environmental stimuli. A rice AP2/ERF transcription factor, OsEREBP1 is a downstream component of a signal transduction pathway in a specific interaction between rice (Oryza sativa and its bacterial pathogen, Xoo (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Constitutive expression of OsEREBP1 in rice driven by maize ubiquitin promoter did not affect normal plant growth. Microarray analysis revealed that over expression of OsEREBP1 caused increased expression of lipid metabolism related genes such as lipase and chloroplastic lipoxygenase as well as several genes related to jasmonate and abscisic acid biosynthesis. PR genes, transcription regulators and Aldhs (alcohol dehydrogenases implicated in abiotic stress and submergence tolerance were also upregulated in transgenic plants. Transgenic plants showed increase in endogenous levels of α-linolenate, several jasmonate derivatives and abscisic acid but not salicylic acid. Soluble modified GFP (SmGFP-tagged OsEREBP1 was localized to plastid nucleoids. Comparative analysis of non-transgenic and OsEREBP1 overexpressing genotypes revealed that OsEREBP1 attenuates disease caused by Xoo and confers drought and submergence tolerance in transgenic rice. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of OsEREBP1 activates the jasmonate and abscisic acid signalling pathways thereby priming the rice plants for enhanced survival under abiotic or biotic stress conditions. OsEREBP1 is thus, a good candidate gene for engineering plants for multiple stress tolerance.

  14. Virus-induced gene silencing of Withania somnifera squalene synthase negatively regulates sterol and defence-related genes resulting in reduced withanolides and biotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anup Kumar; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Pal, Shaifali; Reddy, Sajjalavarahalli Gangireddy Eswara; Rao, Dodaghatta Krishnarao Venkata; Shasany, Ajit Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2015-12-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is an important Indian medicinal plant that produces withanolides, which are triterpenoid steroidal lactones having diverse biological activities. To enable fast and efficient functional characterization of genes in this slow-growing and difficult-to-transform plant, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was established by silencing phytoene desaturase (PDS) and squalene synthase (SQS). VIGS of the gene encoding SQS, which provides precursors for triterpenoids, resulted in significant reduction of squalene and withanolides, demonstrating its application in studying withanolides biosynthesis in W. somnifera leaves. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression and sterol pathway intermediates in WsSQS-vigs plants revealed transcriptional modulation with positive feedback regulation of mevalonate pathway genes, and negative feed-forward regulation of downstream sterol pathway genes including DWF1 (delta-24-sterol reductase) and CYP710A1 (C-22-sterol desaturase), resulting in significant reduction of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. However, there was little effect of SQS silencing on cholesterol, indicating the contribution of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, but not of cholesterol, towards withanolides formation. Branch-point oxidosqualene synthases in WsSQS-vigs plants exhibited differential regulation with reduced CAS (cycloartenol synthase) and cycloartenol, and induced BAS (β-amyrin synthase) and β-amyrin. Moreover, SQS silencing also led to the down-regulation of brassinosteroid-6-oxidase-2 (BR6OX2), pathogenesis-related (PR) and nonexpressor of PR (NPR) genes, resulting in reduced tolerance to bacterial and fungal infection as well as to insect feeding. Taken together, SQS silencing negatively regulated sterol and defence-related genes leading to reduced phytosterols, withanolides and biotic stress tolerance, thus implicating the application of VIGS for functional analysis of genes related to withanolides

  15. SCR96, a small cysteine-rich secretory protein of Phytophthora cactorum, can trigger cell death in the Solanaceae and is important for pathogenicity and oxidative stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Ren; Li, Yan-Peng; Li, Qi-Yuan; Xing, Yu-Ping; Liu, Bei-Bei; Tong, Yun-Hui; Xu, Jing-You

    2016-05-01

    Peptides and small molecules produced by both the plant pathogen Phytophthora and host plants in the apoplastic space mediate the relationship between the interplaying organisms. Various Phytophthora apoplastic effectors, including small cysteine-rich (SCR) secretory proteins, have been identified, but their roles during interaction remain to be determined. Here, we identified an SCR effector encoded by scr96, one of three novel genes encoding SCR proteins in P. cactorum with similarity to the P. cactorum phytotoxic protein PcF. Together with the other two genes, scr96 was transcriptionally induced throughout the developmental and infection stages of the pathogen. These genes triggered plant cell death (PCD) in the Solanaceae, including Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato. The scr96 gene did not show single nucleotide polymorphisms in a collection of P. cactorum isolates from different countries and host plants, suggesting that its role is essential and non-redundant during infection. Homologues of SCR96 were identified only in oomycetes, but not in fungi and other organisms. A stable protoplast transformation protocol was adapted for P. cactorum using green fluorescent protein as a marker. The silencing of scr96 in P. cactorum caused gene-silenced transformants to lose their pathogenicity on host plants and these transformants were significantly more sensitive to oxidative stress. Transient expression of scr96 partially recovered the virulence of gene-silenced transformants on plants. Overall, our results indicate that the P. cactorum scr96 gene encodes an important virulence factor that not only causes PCD in host plants, but is also important for pathogenicity and oxidative stress tolerance. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  16. The economic and environmental cost of delayed GM crop adoption: The case of australia's GM canola moratorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biden, Scott; Smyth, Stuart J; Hudson, David

    2018-01-23

    Incorporating socio-economic considerations (SECs) into national biosafety regulations regarding genetically modified (GM) crops have opportunity costs. Australia approved the cultivation of GM canola through a science-based risk assessment in 2003, but allowed state moratoria to be instituted based on potential trade impacts over the period 2004 to 2008 and 2010 in the main canola growing states. This analysis constructs a counterfactual assessment using Canadian GM canola adoption data to create an S-Curve of adoption in Australia to measure the environmental and economic opportunity costs of Australia's SEC-based moratoria between 2004 and 2014. The environmental impacts are measured through the amount of chemical active ingredients applied during pest management, the Environmental Impact Quotient indicator, and greenhouse gas emissions. The economic impacts are measured through the variable costs of the weed control programs, yield and the contribution margin. The environmental opportunity costs from delaying the adoption of GM canola in Australia include an additional 6.5 million kilograms of active ingredients applied to canola land; a 14.3% increase in environmental impact to farmers, consumers and the ecology; 8.7 million litres of diesel fuel burned; and an additional 24.2 million kilograms of greenhouse gas (GHG) and compound emissions released. The economic opportunity costs of the SEC-based moratoria resulted in foregone output of 1.1 million metric tonnes of canola and a net economic loss to canola farmers' of AU$485.6 million. The paper provides some of the first quantified, post-adoption evidence on the opportunity cost and environmental impacts of incorporating SECs into GM crop regulation.

  17. A comparative study of human IgE binding to proteins of a genetically modified (GM) soybean and six non-GM soybeans grown in multiple locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mei; Jin, Yuan; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; Goodman, Richard E

    2018-02-01

    Prior to commercialization, genetically modified (GM) crops are evaluated to determine the allergenicity of the newly expressed protein. Some regulators require an evaluation of endogenous allergens in commonly allergenic crops including soybean to determine if genetic transformation increased endogenous allergen concentrations, even asking for IgE testing using sera from individual sensitized subjects. Little is known about the variability of the expression of endogenous allergens among non-GM varieties or under different environmental conditions. We tested IgE binding to endogenous allergenic proteins in an experimental non-commercial GM line, a non-GM near-isoline control, and five non-GM commercial soybean lines replicated at three geographically separated locations. One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) immunoblotting and ELISA were performed using serum or plasma from eleven soybean allergic patients. The results of immunoblots and ELISA showed no significant differences in IgE binding between the GM line and its non-GM near-isoline control. However, some distinct differences in IgE binding patterns were observed among the non-GM commercial soybean lines and between different locations, highlighting the inherent variability in endogenous allergenic proteins. Understanding the potential variability in the levels of endogenous allergens is necessary to establish a standard of acceptance for GM soybeans compared to non-GM soybean events and lines. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Weak whole-plant trait coordination in a seasonally dry South American stressful environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, José L A; Souza, Alexandre F; Caliman, Adriano; Voigt, Eduardo L; Lichston, Juliana E

    2018-01-01

    A core question involving both plant physiology and community ecology is whether traits from different organs are coordinated across species, beyond pairwise trait correlations. The strength of within-community trait coordination has been hypothesized to increase along gradients of environmental harshness, due to the cost of adopting ecological strategies out of the viable niche space supported by the abiotic conditions. We evaluated the strength of trait relationship and coordination in a stressful environment using 21 leaf and stem traits of 21 deciduous and evergreen woody species from a heath vegetation growing on coastal sandy plain in northeastern South America. The study region faces marked dry season, high soil salinity and acidity, and poor nutritional conditions. Results from multiple factor analyses supported two weak and independent axes of trait coordination, which accounted for 25%-29% of the trait variance using phylogenetically independent contrasts. Trait correlations on the multiple factor analyses main axis fit well with the global plant economic spectrum, with species investing in small leaves and dense stems as opposed to species with softer stems and large leaves. The species' positions on the main functional axis corresponded to the competitor-stress-tolerant side of Grime's CSR triangle of plant strategies. The weak degree of trait coordination displayed by the heath vegetation species contradicted our expectation of high trait coordination in stressful environmental habitats. The distinct biogeographic origins of the species occurring in the study region and the prevalence of a regional environmental filter coupled with local homogeneous conditions could account for prevalence of trait independence we observed.

  19. Evaluation of five years of GM funding for public information and education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    On March 7, 1995, an agreement was reached between General Motors (GM) and NHTSA to settle an investigation into alleged fires in GM pickup trucks. The agreement avoided litigation and offered an opportunity for meaningful cooperation between governm...

  20. Juvenile progressive dystonia: a new phenotype of GM2 gangliosidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, D; Wolfe, L S; Andermann, E; Andermann, F

    1984-04-01

    A 10-year-old boy developed progressive dystonia and dementia. His symptoms had begun at age 2 1/2 years, and he had been unable to walk by 8 years. At age 10 he was severely dystonic, unable to use his hands to feed himself, and almost anarthric . He had dysphagia and urinary incontinence, and functioned at a 4-year-old level of mental development. The mean percentages of beta-hexosaminidase A measured in serum, leukocytes, and fibroblasts by the heat denaturation method, each on three separate assays, were 5.9, 9.8, and 13.0%, respectively. These values are higher than in Tay-Sachs disease but are similar to levels seen in late-onset or adult cases of GM2 gangliosidosis. This patient appears to represent a new phenotype of juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis having dystonia as the dominant symptom.

  1. Precautionary Expertise for GM Crops: National Report – United Kingdom: Precaution as Process

    OpenAIRE

    Oreszczyn, Sue

    2004-01-01

    This report considers the recent ‘precautionary approach’ to commercialisation of GM crops adopted by the UK. Accounts of precaution and precautionary practices for GM crops in the UK are set against the backdrop of current debate concerning potential commercialisation of GM herbicide-tolerant crops. In October 1998 the Government announced its intention for a ‘managed development’ of GM crops. A major obstacle to commercialisation was the controversy over the possibility that broad-spectrum ...

  2. Mouse model of GM2 activator deficiency manifests cerebellar pathology and motor impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Hoffmann, A; Grinberg, A; Westphal, H; McDonald, M P; Miller, K M; Crawley, J N; Sandhoff, K; Suzuki, K; Proia, R L

    1997-07-22

    The GM2 activator deficiency (also known as the AB variant), Tay-Sachs disease, and Sandhoff disease are the major forms of the GM2 gangliosidoses, disorders caused by defective degradation of GM2 ganglioside. Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases are caused by mutations in the genes (HEXA and HEXB) encoding the subunits of beta-hexosaminidase A. The GM2 activator deficiency is caused by mutations in the GM2A gene encoding the GM2 activator protein. For degradation of GM2 ganglioside by beta-hexosamindase A, the GM2 activator protein must participate by forming a soluble complex with the ganglioside. In each of the disorders, GM2 ganglioside and related lipids accumulate to pathologic levels in neuronal lysosomes, resulting in clinically similar disorders with an onset in the first year of life, progressive neurodegeneration, and death by early childhood. We previously have described mouse models of Tay-Sachs (Hexa -/-) and Sandhoff (Hexb -/-) diseases with vastly different clinical phenotypes. The Hexa -/- mice were asymptomatic whereas the Hexb -/- mice were severely affected. Through gene disruption in embryonic stem cells we now have established a mouse model of the GM2 activator deficiency that manifests an intermediate phenotype. The Gm2a -/- mice demonstrated neuronal storage but only in restricted regions of the brain (piriform, entorhinal cortex, amygdala, and hypothalamic nuclei) reminiscent of the asymptomatic Tay-Sachs model mice. However, unlike the Tay-Sachs mice, the Gm2a -/- mice displayed significant storage in the cerebellum and defects in balance and coordination. The abnormal ganglioside storage in the Gm2a -/- mice consisted of GM2 with a low amount of GA2. The results demonstrate that the activator protein is required for GM2 degradation and also may indicate a role for the GM2 activator in GA2 degradation.

  3. Mouse model of GM2 activator deficiency manifests cerebellar pathology and motor impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujing; Hoffmann, Alexander; Grinberg, Alexander; Westphal, Heiner; McDonald, Michael P.; Miller, Katherine M.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Sandhoff, Konrad; Suzuki, Kinuko; Proia, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    The GM2 activator deficiency (also known as the AB variant), Tay–Sachs disease, and Sandhoff disease are the major forms of the GM2 gangliosidoses, disorders caused by defective degradation of GM2 ganglioside. Tay–Sachs and Sandhoff diseases are caused by mutations in the genes (HEXA and HEXB) encoding the subunits of β-hexosaminidase A. The GM2 activator deficiency is caused by mutations in the GM2A gene encoding the GM2 activator protein. For degradation of GM2 ganglioside by β-hexosamindase A, the GM2 activator protein must participate by forming a soluble complex with the ganglioside. In each of the disorders, GM2 ganglioside and related lipids accumulate to pathologic levels in neuronal lysosomes, resulting in clinically similar disorders with an onset in the first year of life, progressive neurodegeneration, and death by early childhood. We previously have described mouse models of Tay–Sachs (Hexa −/−) and Sandhoff (Hexb −/−) diseases with vastly different clinical phenotypes. The Hexa −/− mice were asymptomatic whereas the Hexb −/− mice were severely affected. Through gene disruption in embryonic stem cells we now have established a mouse model of the GM2 activator deficiency that manifests an intermediate phenotype. The Gm2a −/− mice demonstrated neuronal storage but only in restricted regions of the brain (piriform, entorhinal cortex, amygdala, and hypothalamic nuclei) reminiscent of the asymptomatic Tay–Sachs model mice. However, unlike the Tay–Sachs mice, the Gm2a −/− mice displayed significant storage in the cerebellum and defects in balance and coordination. The abnormal ganglioside storage in the Gm2a −/− mice consisted of GM2 with a low amount of GA2. The results demonstrate that the activator protein is required for GM2 degradation and also may indicate a role for the GM2 activator in GA2 degradation. PMID:9223328

  4. Gm1 gangliosidosis and galactosialidosis : pathogenesis and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, M.

    2003-01-01

    textabstractGM1 gangliosidosis and galactosialidosis belong to the large group of metabolic disorders collectively known as Iysosomal storage diseaSE!S (lSDs). lSDs are caused by a single or combined deficiency of specific hydr,olytic enzymes resulting in progressive accumulation of undigested substrates in Iysosomes of many cells, and ultimately in cellular and organ dysfunction. In general, the patients exhibit multi-systemic symptoms mostly involving severe neurological manifestations. Tll...

  5. Animal models of GM2 gangliosidosis: utility and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Cheryl; Martin,Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Cheryl A Lawson,1,2 Douglas R Martin2,3 1Department of Pathobiology, 2Scott-Ritchey Research Center, 3Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn, AL, USA Abstract: GM2 gangliosidosis, a subset of lysosomal storage disorders, is caused by a deficiency of the glycohydrolase, β-N-acetylhexosaminidase, and includes the closely related Tay–Sachs and Sandhoff diseases. The enzyme deficiency prevents the normal, ste...

  6. G.M. counter and pre-determined dead time; Compteur G.M. et temps mort impose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamotte, R.; Le Baud, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    This paper is divided into two main parts. - The first section recalls the principle on which a G.M. counter works, and examines the factors which lead to inaccuracies in counting. The concept of dead time, although simple risen associated with the counter alone, becomes complicated as soon as an electronic dead time is introduced to meet the demands of a measurement or an experiment. The resulting dead time, due to the coexistence of these dead times created by a single motivating factor, shows up as a function of certain laws of probability. From the analysis of the various cases of possible combinations, the conditions which must be fulfilled by a system with pre-determined dead time may be determined. This leads to a method for measuring the dead time of a G.M. counter, and the possibility of studying the latter under the utilisation conditions foreseen. - In the second part the principle, construction and characteristics of two systems with pre-determined dead time are discussed. To conclude, a comparison of several experimental results justifies an extension of the possibilities of a G.M. counter used in conjunction with such a system. (author) [French] Deux parties essentielles scindent cet expose. - La premiere partie rappelle le principe de fonctionnement d'un compteur G.M. et examine les facteurs d'imprecisions affectant les comptages. La notion de temps mort, simple quand elle est associee au compteur seul, se complique des qu'intervient un temps mort electronique introduit pour les besoins d'une mesure ou d'une experience. Le temps mort resultant, du a la coexistence de ces temps morts engendres par une meme cause, se manifeste en fonction de certaines lois de probabilites. L'analyse des differents cas de combinaisons possibles permet de preciser les imperatifs auxquels doit repondre un systeme a temps mort impose. Il en decoule une methode de mesure du temps mort d'un compteur G.M. et la possibilite d

  7. Calibration of ionization chamber and GM counter survey meters, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingo, Kazuyoshi; Kajimoto, Yoichi; Suga, Shin-ichi

    1978-01-01

    Three types of ionization chamber survey meters and a type of GM counter survey meter were calibrated for measuring the β-ray absorbed dose rate in a working area. To estimate the β-ray absorbed dose rate, a survey meter was used without and with a filter. A reading of survey meter's indicator measured with the filter was subtracted from a reading measured without the filter, and then the absorbed dose rate was obtained by multiplying this remainder by a conversion coefficient. The conversion coefficients were roughly constant with distance more than 8 cm (ionization chamber survey meters) and with distance more than 5 cm (GM counter survey meter). The conversion coefficient was dependent on β-ray energies. In order to measure the absorbed dose rate of tissue whose epidermal thickness is 40 mg/cm 2 , the constant value, 4 (mrad/h)/(mR/h), was chosen independently of β-ray energies as the conversion coefficient of three types of ionization chamber survey meters. The conversion coefficient of the GM counter survey meter was more energy dependent than that of every type of ionization chamber survey meter. (author)

  8. GM Crops, Organic Agriculture and Breeding for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing debate about the use of genetically-modified (GM crops in agriculture has largely focused on food safety and genetic contamination issues. Given that the majority of GM crops have been produced to respond to the problem of crop yield reductions caused by diseases, insects and weeds, the paper argues that in those cases, the currently used GM crops are an unstable solution to the problem, because they represent such a strong selection pressure, that pests rapidly evolve resistance. Organic agriculture practices provide a more sustainable way of producing healthy food; however, the lower yields often associated with those practices, making the resultant healthy food more expensive, open the criticism that such practices will not be able to feed human populations. Evolutionary plant breeding offers the possibility of using the evolutionary potential of crops to our advantage by producing a continuous flow of varieties better adapted to organic systems, to climate change and to the ever changing spectrum of pests, without depending on chemical control.

  9. Animal models of GM2 gangliosidosis: utility and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson CA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cheryl A Lawson,1,2 Douglas R Martin2,3 1Department of Pathobiology, 2Scott-Ritchey Research Center, 3Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn, AL, USA Abstract: GM2 gangliosidosis, a subset of lysosomal storage disorders, is caused by a deficiency of the glycohydrolase, β-N-acetylhexosaminidase, and includes the closely related Tay–Sachs and Sandhoff diseases. The enzyme deficiency prevents the normal, stepwise degradation of ganglioside, which accumulates unchecked within the cellular lysosome, particularly in neurons. As a result, individuals with GM2 gangliosidosis experience progressive neurological diseases including motor deficits, progressive weakness and hypotonia, decreased responsiveness, vision deterioration, and seizures. Mice and cats are well-established animal models for Sandhoff disease, whereas Jacob sheep are the only known laboratory animal model of Tay–Sachs disease to exhibit clinical symptoms. Since the human diseases are relatively rare, animal models are indispensable tools for further study of pathogenesis and for development of potential treatments. Though no effective treatments for gangliosidoses currently exist, animal models have been used to test promising experimental therapies. Herein, the utility and limitations of gangliosidosis animal models and how they have contributed to the development of potential new treatments are described. Keywords: GM2 gangliosidosis, Tay–Sachs disease, Sandhoff disease, lysosomal storage disorder, sphingolipidosis, brain disease

  10. Application of G-M counter in environmental γ radiation continuous monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Qingyu; Wang Wei; Sheng Peiru

    2005-01-01

    The G-M counter has been widely used as continuous monitoring detector for environmental radiation. This paper focuses on some issues arising from the application of G-M counter in environmental continuous monitoring and discusses the improvement and development in the application of the G-M counter. (authors)

  11. 5 CFR 531.245 - Computing locality rates and special rates for GM employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing locality rates and special... Gm Employees § 531.245 Computing locality rates and special rates for GM employees. Locality rates and special rates are computed for GM employees in the same manner as locality rates and special rates...

  12. Incorporation and degradation of GM1 ganglioside and asialoGM1 ganglioside in cultured fibroblasts from normal individuals and patients with beta-galactosidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Shinnoh, N; Kuroiwa, Y

    1986-01-03

    The uptake and degradation of GM1 ganglioside (GM1) and asialoGM1 ganglioside (GA1) were studied in cultured fibroblasts from normal individuals and patients with beta-galactosidase deficiency, using the lipid-loading test. The glycolipids were incorporated from the media into the fibroblasts and the terminal galactose was hydrolyzed in normal cells. The hydrolysis rates of GA1 were 80-86% of normal on the 3rd day after loading, while GM1 was hydrolyzed slowly; 35-54% on the 14th day. In infantile GM1 gangliosidosis and I-cell disease, little GM1 and GA1 was hydrolyzed on any day of culture, while fibroblasts from patients with adult GM1 gangliosidosis, Morquio disease type B and galactosialidosis hydrolyzed the lipids at nearly normal rates. The intracellular accumulation of the glycolipids, on the basis of protein content, was abnormally high in the case of infantile GM1 gangliosidosis and I-cell disease, but normal in the other disorders examined. These observations indicate that the in situ metabolism of GM1 and GA1 is probably normal in fibroblasts from patients with adult GM1 gangliosidosis, Morquio disease type B and galactosialidosis, although in vitro beta-galactosidase activities in these disorders are very low. The results are compatible with findings that GM1 and GA1 do not accumulate in the somatic organs of patients with adult GM1 gangliosidosis and galactosialidosis. In I-cell disease, however, the results of the loading test did not agree with the finding that there is little accumulation of glycolipids in postmortem tissues.

  13. Genetic parameters for thermoregulation and production traits in lactating sows reared in tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdine, J-L; Mandonnet, N; Giorgi, M; Renaudeau, D

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters for thermoregulation traits and the relationships with performance of Large White lactating sows reared in a tropical humid climate. The thermoregulation traits were rectal temperature (RT), cutaneous temperature (CT) and respiratory rate (RR) during lactation measured in the afternoon (1200 h) and in the morning (0700 h). The production traits were sow's average daily feed intake (ADFI), litter BW gain (LBWg) and sow's proportion of BW change between farrowing and weaning (BWc). Complete data included 931 lactating performance on 329 Large White sows from the INRA experimental unit in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). Random regression models using linear spline functions were used for longitudinal data (RT, CT, RR and daily feed intake). Results showed that when ignoring values at the beginning and the end of lactation, the traits studied can be treated as the same trait throughout days of lactation, with fairly constant heritability and variance. However, largest heritabilities and genetic variances were estimated in mid-lactation. Heritability estimates on average performance during lactation were low to moderate for thermoregulation traits (0.35±0.09 for RT, 0.34±0.12 for CT and 0.39±0.13 for RR). Heritability estimates for production traits were 0.26±0.08 for ADFI, 0.20±0.07 for BWc and 0.31±0.09 for LBWg. Significant genetic correlations between thermoregulation traits and production traits were only obtained for ADFI and RR (0.35±0.12). From this study it can be concluded that thermoregulation traits are heritable, indicating that there are genetic differences in heat stress tolerance in lactating Large White sows.

  14. UNTANGLING THE FUNGAL NICHE: A TRAIT-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Crowther

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are prominent components of most terrestrial ecosystems, both in terms of biomass and ecosystem functioning, but the hyper-diverse nature of most communities has obscured the search for unifying principles governing community organization. In particular, unlike plants and animals, observational studies provide little evidence for the existence of niche processes in structuring fungal communities at broad spatial scales. This limits our capacity to predict how communities, and their functioning, vary across landscapes. We outline how a shift in focus, from taxonomy towards functional traits, might prove to be valuable in the search for general patterns in fungal ecology. We build on theoretical advances in plant and animal ecology to provide an empirical framework for a trait-based approach in fungal community ecology. Drawing upon specific characteristics of the fungal system, we highlight the significance of drought stress and combat in structuring free-living fungal communities. We propose a conceptual model to formalize how trade-offs between stress-tolerance and combative dominance are likely to organize communities across environmental gradients. Given that the survival of a fungus in a given environment is contingent on its ability to tolerate antagonistic competitors, measuring variation in combat trait expression along environmental gradients provides a means of elucidating realized, from fundamental niche spaces. We conclude that, using a trait-based understanding of how niche processes structure fungal communities across time and space, we can ultimately link communities with ecosystem functioning. Our trait-based framework highlights fundamental uncertainties that require testing in the fungal system, given their potential to uncover general mechanisms in fungal ecology.

  15. Effects of the probiotic, Bacillus subtilis E20, on the survival, development, stress tolerance, and immune status of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chiu, Chiu-Hsia; Shiu, Ya-Li; Cheng, Winton; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the probiotic, Bacillus subtilis E20, isolated from the human health food, natto, was used for white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, larvae breeding to improve the larval survival rate and development by adding probiotic to the rearing water at (control), 10(8), and 10(9) cfu L(-1) salt water once every 3 days during the 14 days of breeding experiment. Thereafter, stress tolerance and immune status of postlarvae were evaluated. Shrimp larval development was significantly accelerated after adding the probiotic to the larval rearing water at a level of 10(9) cfu L(-1). The survival rate of larvae was significantly higher in the treatment with 10(9) cfu L(-1) compared to the control and the treatment with 10(8) cfu L(-1) after all larvae had metamorphosed to postlarvae. Adding the probiotic to the shrimp larvae rearing water produced a weak inhibition of bacterial growth by an analysis of the total bacterial count and presumptive Vibrio count. For stress tests, no postlarvae died when they were reared in water in which the temperature was decreased from 30 to 2 degrees C at a rate of 0.1 degrees C min(-1). Postlarvae had significantly lower cumulate mortality in the treatments with 10(8) and 10(9) cfu L(-1) compared to the control when they were suddenly exposed to fresh water and 60 per thousand salt water. A significant decrease in the cumulative mortality of postlarvae treated with the probiotic at a level of 10(9) cfu L(-1) was recorded after the sudden transfer to 300 mg L(-1) nitrite-N compared to the control and treatment with 10(8) cfu L(-1). The analysis of immune-related gene expressions showed that the gene expression of prophenoloxidase I, prophenoloxidase II, and lysozyme of larvae were significantly increased after being reared in probiotic-containing water at the levels of 10(8) and 10(9) cfu L(-1). However, no significant difference in serine proteinase or glutathione peroxidase gene expressions was recorded in this study. It is therefore

  16. Phytohormones and induction of plant-stress tolerance and defense genes by seed and foliar inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense cells and metabolites promote maize growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Josiane; Ollero, Francisco Javier; Megías, Manuel; Hungria, Mariangela

    2017-12-01

    seeds or by leaf spray, as well as of leaf spraying of Azospirillum metabolites, are strongly correlated with the synthesis of phytohormones and by eliciting genes related to plant-stress tolerance and defense against pathogens.

  17. Dietary supplementation of curcumin augments heat stress tolerance through upregulation of nrf-2-mediated antioxidative enzymes and hsps in Puntius sophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Mohanty, Sasmita; Mohanty, Bimal P

    2017-08-01

    Heat stress is one of the major environmental concerns in global warming regime and rising temperature has resulted in mass mortalities of animals including fishes. Therefore, strategies for high temperature stress tolerance and ameliorating the effects of heat stress are being looked for. In an earlier study, we reported that Nrf-2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2) mediated upregulation of antioxidative enzymes and heat shock proteins (Hsps) provide survivability to fish under heat stress. In this study, we have evaluated the ameliorative potential of dietary curcumin, a potential Nrf-2 inducer in heat stressed cyprinid Puntius sophore. Fishes were fed with diet supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% curcumin at the rate 2% of body weight daily in three separate groups (n = 40 in each group) for 60 days. Fishes fed with basal diet (without curcumin) served as the control (n = 40). Critical thermal maxima (CTmax) was determined for all the groups (n = 10, in duplicates) after the feeding trial. Significant increase in the CTmax was observed in the group fed with 1.5% curcumin- supplemented fishes whereas it remained similar in groups fed with 0.5%, and 1% curcumin-supplemented diet, as compared to control. To understand the molecular mechanism of elevated thermotolerance in the 1.5% curcumin supplemented group, fishes were given a sub-lethal heat shock treatment (36 °C) for 6 h and expression analysis of nrf-2, keap-1, sod, catalase, gpx, and hsp27, hsp60, hsp70, hsp90, and hsp110 was carried out using RT-PCR. In the gill, expression of nrf-2, sod, catalase, gpx, and hsp60, hsp70, hsp90, and hsp110 was found to be elevated in the 1.5% curcumin-fed heat-shocked group compared to control and the basal diet-fed, heat-shocked fishes. Similarly, in the liver, upregulation in expression of nrf-2, sod, catalase, and hsp70 and hsp110 was observed in 1.5% curcumin supplemented and heat shocked group. Thus, this study showed that supplementation of curcumin

  18. An Essential Role for (p)ppGpp in the Integration of Stress Tolerance, Peptide Signaling, and Competence Development in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Justin; Kim, Jeong N; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The microbes that inhabit the human oral cavity are subjected to constant fluctuations in their environment. To overcome these challenges and gain a competitive advantage, oral streptococci employ numerous adaptive strategies, many of which appear to be intertwined with the development of genetic competence. Here, we demonstrate that the regulatory circuits that control development of competence in Streptococcus mutans, a primary etiological agent of human dental caries, are integrated with key stress tolerance pathways by the molecular alarmone (p)ppGpp. We first observed that the growth of a strain that does not produce (p)ppGpp (ΔrelAPQ, (p)ppGpp(0)) is not sensitive to growth inhibition by comX inducing peptide (XIP), unlike the wild-type strain UA159, even though XIP-dependent activation of the alternative sigma factor comX by the ComRS pathway is not impaired in the (p)ppGpp(0) strain. Overexpression of a (p)ppGpp synthase gene (relP) in the (p)ppGpp(0) mutant restored growth inhibition by XIP. We also demonstrate that exposure to micromolar concentrations of XIP elicited changes in (p)ppGpp accumulation in UA159. Loss of the RelA/SpoT homolog (RSH) enzyme, RelA, lead to higher basal levels of (p)ppGpp accumulation, but to decreased sensitivity to XIP and to decreases in comR promoter activity and ComX protein levels. By introducing single amino acid substitutions into the RelA enzyme, the hydrolase activity of the enzyme was shown to be crucial for full com gene induction and transformation by XIP. Finally, loss of relA resulted in phenotypic changes to ΔrcrR mutants, highlighted by restoration of transformation and ComX protein production in the otherwise non-transformable ΔrcrR-NP mutant. Thus, RelA activity and its influence on (p)ppGpp pools appears to modulate competence signaling and development through RcrRPQ and the peptide effectors encoded within rcrQ. Collectively, this study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that integrate

  19. An essential role for (pppGpp in the integration of stress tolerance, peptide signaling and competence development in Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Kaspar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The microbes that inhabit the human oral cavity are subjected to constant fluctuations in their environment. To overcome these challenges and gain a competitive advantage, oral streptococci employ numerous adaptive strategies, many of which appear to be intertwined with the development of genetic competence. Here, we demonstrate that the regulatory circuits that control development of competence in Streptococcus mutans, a primary etiological agent of human dental caries, are integrated with key stress tolerance pathways by the molecular alarmone (pppGpp. We first observed that the growth of a strain that does not produce (pppGpp (ΔrelAPQ, (pppGpp0 is not sensitive to growth inhibition by comX inducing peptide (XIP, unlike the wild-type strain UA159, even though XIP-dependent activation of the alternative sigma factor comX by the ComRS pathway is not impaired in the (pppGpp0 strain. Overexpression of a (pppGpp synthase gene (relP in the (pppGpp0 mutant restored growth inhibition by XIP. We also demonstrate that exposure to micromolar concentrations of XIP elicited changes in (pppGpp accumulation in UA159. Loss of the RelA/SpoT homolog (RSH enzyme, RelA, lead to higher basal levels of (pppGpp accumulation, but to decreased sensitivity to XIP and to decreases in comR promoter activity and ComX protein levels. By introducing single amino acid substitutions into the RelA enzyme, the hydrolase activity of the enzyme was shown to be crucial for full com gene induction and transformation by XIP. Finally, loss of relA resulted in phenotypic changes to ΔrcrR mutants, highlighted by restoration of transformation and ComX protein production in the otherwise non-transformable ΔrcrR-NP mutant. Thus, RelA activity and its influence on (ppGpp pools appears to modulate competence signaling and development through RcrRPQ and the peptide effectors encoded within rcrQ. Collectively, this study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that integrate

  20. Association of improved oxidative stress tolerance and alleviation of glucose repression with superior xylose-utilization capability by a natural isolate ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Tang, Rui-Qi; Xiong, Liang; Hector, Ronald E; Bai, Feng-Wu; Zhao, Xin-Qing

    2018-01-01

    . cerevisiae YB-2625 increased cell growth when xylose was used as the sole carbon source, leading to 13.5 and 18.1%, respectively, more xylose consumption. Enhanced oxidative stress tolerance and relief of glucose repression are proposed to be two major mechanisms for superior xylose utilization by S. cerevisiae YB-2625. The present study provides insights into the innate regulatory mechanisms underlying xylose utilization in wild-type S. cerevisiae , which benefits the rapid development of robust yeast strains for lignocellulosic biorefineries.

  1. The Translation Initiation Factor 1A (TheIF1A) fromTamarix hispidaIs Regulated by a Dof Transcription Factor and Increased Abiotic Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guiyan; Yu, Lili; Wang, Yucheng; Wang, Chao; Gao, Caiqiu

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1A ( eIF1A ) functions as an mRNA scanner and AUG initiation codon locator. However, few studies have clarified the role of eIF1A in abiotic stress. In this study, we cloned eIF1A ( TheIF1A ) from Tamarix hispida and found its expression to be induced by NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) in roots, stems, and leaves. Compared to control, TheIF1A root expression was increased 187.63-fold when exposed to NaCl for 6 h, suggesting a potential abiotic stress response for this gene. Furthermore, transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing TheIF1A exhibited enhanced seed germination and a higher total chlorophyll content under salt and mannitol stresses. Increased superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione transferase and glutathione peroxidase activities, as well as decreased electrolyte leakage rates and malondialdehyde contents, were observed in TheIF1A -transgenic tobacco and T. hispida seedlings under salt and mannitol stresses. Histochemical staining suggested that TheIF1A improves reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging in plants. Moreover, TheIF1A may regulate expression of stress-related genes, including TOBLTP , GST , MnSOD , NtMPK9 , poxN1 , and CDPK15 . Moreover, a 1352-bp promoter fragment of TheIF1A was isolated, and cis -elements were identified. Yeast one-hybrid assays showed that ThDof can specifically bind to the Dof motif present in the promoter. In addition, ThDof showed expression patterns similar to those of TheIF1A under NaCl and PEG stresses. These findings suggest the potential mechanism and physiological roles of TheIF1A . ThDof may be an upstream regulator of TheIF1A , and TheIF1A may function as a stress response regulator to improve plant salt and osmotic stress tolerance via regulation of associated enzymes and ROS scavenging, thereby reducing cell damage under stress conditions.

  2. A new Em-like protein from Lactuca sativa, LsEm1, enhances drought and salt stress tolerance in Escherichia coli and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dian-Jun; Man, Li-Li; Zhang, Chun-Lan; Peng-Liu; Li, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Gen-Chang

    2018-02-07

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are closely related to abiotic stress tolerance of plants. In the present study, we identified a novel Em-like gene from lettuce, termed LsEm1, which could be classified into group 1 LEA proteins, and shared high homology with Cynara cardunculus Em protein. The LsEm1 protein contained three different 20-mer conserved elements (C-element, N-element, and M-element) in the C-termini, N-termini, and middle-region, respectively. The LsEm1 mRNAs were accumulated in all examined tissues during the flowering and mature stages, with a little accumulation in the roots and leaves during the seedling stage. Furthermore, the LsEm1 gene was also expressed in response to salt, dehydration, abscisic acid (ABA), and cold stresses in young seedlings. The LsEm1 protein could effectively reduce damage to the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and protect LDH activity under desiccation and salt treatments. The Escherichia coli cells overexpressing the LsEm1 gene showed a growth advantage over the control under drought and salt stresses. Moreover, LsEm1-overexpressing rice seeds were relatively sensitive to exogenously applied ABA, suggesting that the LsEm1 gene might depend on an ABA signaling pathway in response to environmental stresses. The transgenic rice plants overexpressing the LsEm1 gene showed higher tolerance to drought and salt stresses than did wild-type (WT) plants on the basis of the germination performances, higher survival rates, higher chlorophyll content, more accumulation of soluble sugar, lower relative electrolyte leakage, and higher superoxide dismutase activity under stress conditions. The LsEm1-overexpressing rice lines also showed less yield loss compared with WT rice under stress conditions. Furthermore, the LsEm1 gene had a positive effect on the expression of the OsCDPK9, OsCDPK13, OsCDPK15, OsCDPK25, and rab21 (rab16a) genes in transgenic rice under drought and salt stress conditions, implying that overexpression of these

  3. Impact of Combined Abiotic and Biotic Stresses on Plant Growth and Avenues for Crop Improvement by Exploiting Physio-morphological Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prachi; Irulappan, Vadivelmurugan; Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2017-01-01

    Global warming leads to the concurrence of a number of abiotic and biotic stresses, thus affecting agricultural productivity. Occurrence of abiotic stresses can alter plant-pest interactions by enhancing host plant susceptibility to pathogenic organisms, insects, and by reducing competitive ability with weeds. On the contrary, some pests may alter plant response to abiotic stress factors. Therefore, systematic studies are pivotal to understand the effect of concurrent abiotic and biotic stress conditions on crop productivity. However, to date, a collective database on the occurrence of various stress combinations in agriculturally prominent areas is not available. This review attempts to assemble published information on this topic, with a particular focus on the impact of combined drought and pathogen stresses on crop productivity. In doing so, this review highlights some agriculturally important morpho-physiological traits that can be utilized to identify genotypes with combined stress tolerance. In addition, this review outlines potential role of recent genomic tools in deciphering combined stress tolerance in plants. This review will, therefore, be helpful for agronomists and field pathologists in assessing the impact of the interactions between drought and plant-pathogens on crop performance. Further, the review will be helpful for physiologists and molecular biologists to design agronomically relevant strategies for the development of broad spectrum stress tolerant crops.

  4. Impact of Combined Abiotic and Biotic Stresses on Plant Growth and Avenues for Crop Improvement by Exploiting Physio-morphological Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prachi; Irulappan, Vadivelmurugan; Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V.; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2017-01-01

    Global warming leads to the concurrence of a number of abiotic and biotic stresses, thus affecting agricultural productivity. Occurrence of abiotic stresses can alter plant–pest interactions by enhancing host plant susceptibility to pathogenic organisms, insects, and by reducing competitive ability with weeds. On the contrary, some pests may alter plant response to abiotic stress factors. Therefore, systematic studies are pivotal to understand the effect of concurrent abiotic and biotic stress conditions on crop productivity. However, to date, a collective database on the occurrence of various stress combinations in agriculturally prominent areas is not available. This review attempts to assemble published information on this topic, with a particular focus on the impact of combined drought and pathogen stresses on crop productivity. In doing so, this review highlights some agriculturally important morpho-physiological traits that can be utilized to identify genotypes with combined stress tolerance. In addition, this review outlines potential role of recent genomic tools in deciphering combined stress tolerance in plants. This review will, therefore, be helpful for agronomists and field pathologists in assessing the impact of the interactions between drought and plant-pathogens on crop performance. Further, the review will be helpful for physiologists and molecular biologists to design agronomically relevant strategies for the development of broad spectrum stress tolerant crops. PMID:28458674

  5. The Economic Impacts of GM Contamination Incidents on the Organic Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hewlett, Ms Kathleen; Azeez, Ms Gundula

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the economic impact of GM co-existence on the global organic sector to date through GM contamination of organic food and crops. A total of 15 GM contamination incidents in the organic sector are identified, occurring either from cross-pollination from GM crops being grown in the area or due to contamination in the post-harvest supply chain. The financial losses incurred by organic farmers and food companies due to GM contamination are considerable, through lost markets, lo...

  6. Developing GM super cassava for improved health and food security: future challenges in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenle Ademola A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to solve the problem of micronutrient malnutrition that is prevalent among young children and women in Africa. Genetically modified (GM biofortified cassava has great potential to solve part of this problem, but controversy surrounding GM technology and lack of awareness, limited facilities, biased news and other factors may hinder the adoption of GM cassava in the future. Method Using semi-structured interviews in Ghana and Nigeria, this paper examines the perspectives of scientists, including the BioCassava Plus (BC+ team, on the potential adoption of GM cassava for improving health and food security in Africa. The article also examines issues around the regulatory system and transfer and acceptance of GM cassava among scientists. Results and discussion The result suggests that an overwhelming majority of scientists agree that GM biofortified cassava will benefit the health of millions in Africa, and that GM cassava conferred with disease and pest resistance will increase cassava production as it is currently plagued by cassava mosaic diseases (CMD. However, respondents are wary of long-term effects of GM cassava on the environment and lack of a regulatory framework to facilitate the adoption of GM cassava. Even though scientists expressed little or no concern about health risks of GM cassava, they were concerned that consumers may express such concerns given limited understanding of GM technology. Conclusion The article concludes with a summary of priorities for policy development with regard to adopting biofortified food products.

  7. Structural organization and expression of the gene for the mouse GM2 activator protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, C; Appolloni, M G; Stirling, J L; Li, S C; Li, Y T; Orlacchio, A; Beccari, T

    1997-02-01

    The GM2 activator protein is an essential component for the degradation of GM2 ganglioside by hexosaminidase A in vivo. Mutations in the human gene coding for the GM2 activator protein cause the AB variant of GM2-gangliosidosis, a condition that is clinically indistinguishable from Tay-Sachs disease. To understand better factors affecting the expression of the GM2 activator protein gene (Gm2a) in mouse tissues, we have determined its exon-intron organization and analyzed its promoter region.Gm2a is about 14 kb, has four exons, and the 5' flanking region contains a CAAT box, Spl binding sites, AP-1, AP-2 sites, and a pair of IRE sites. A 1.2-kb fragment upstream from the initiation codon was shown to have promoter activity in NIH 3T3 cells. Similarities between the elements present in Gm2a and Hexa promoters might in part explain their similar expression patterns in mouse tissues. The different levels of GM2 activator protein mRNA in liver, kidney, brain, and testis are not owing to the use of different transcription start sites, because a single start site was found 50 bp upstream from the initiation codon in each these tissues. Northern blot analysis demonstrated variation in the GM2 activator protein mRNA expression during mouse development. Gm2a was mapped to Chromosome (Chr) 11, where it co-segregated with Csfgm.

  8. GM-CSF: a role in immune and inflammatory reactions in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Laia; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Kagnoff, Martin F

    2010-12-01

    Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine that promotes myeloid cell development and maturation, and dendritic cell differentiation and survival in vitro. Growing evidence supports the notion that GM-CSF has a major role in some inflammatory and autoimmune reactions and in the host's response to pulmonary infection, but few studies have addressed its functions and importance in the GI tract. Recent studies demonstrated that administration of GM-CSF can result in clinical improvement in patients with Crohn's disease. Mice deficient in GM-CSF (GM-CSF(-/-) ) developed more severe intestinal and systemic infection after an enteric infection, and more severe colitis in response to enteric exposure to dextran sodium sulfate. Both the severity of infection and colitis were largely prevented by GM-CSF administration. Such studies indicate that GM-CSF has an important role in the regulation of intestinal immune and inflammatory responses.

  9. Sustainability of current GM crop cultivation : Review of people, planet, profit effects of agricultural production of GM crops, based on the cases of soybean, maize, and cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, A.C.; Breukers, M.L.H.; Broer, W.; Bunte, F.H.J.; Dolstra, O.; Engelbronner-Kolff, d' F.M.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Montfort, J.; Nikoloyuk, J.; Rutten, M.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Zijl, M.

    2011-01-01

    This report adresses the question whether the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops abroad for import in the Netherlands, as compared to the cultivation of their conventional (non-GM) counterparts, is in line with Dutch policy and societal aims striving after more sustainable forms of

  10. GM crops and foods: what do consumers want to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHughen, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology--GMOs--has a huge positive impact on farming and farmers but remains controversial among the skeptical public. Curious but anxious consumers, driven by scare stories and pseudo-science provided by anti-GMO activists, seek accurate and authoritative answers to their questions. Here, I address a sample of such queries directed to me from the public, including the ubiquitous "Is it safe?" and also discuss some of the shameful tactics used by anti-GM activists in the public debate to garner support at the cost of inciting unnecessary anxiety among the public.

  11. Increased Expression of Simple Ganglioside Species GM2 and GM3 Detected by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry in a Combined Rat Model of Aβ Toxicity and Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Caughlin

    Full Text Available The aging brain is often characterized by the presence of multiple comorbidities resulting in synergistic damaging effects in the brain as demonstrated through the interaction of Alzheimer's disease (AD and stroke. Gangliosides, a family of membrane lipids enriched in the central nervous system, may have a mechanistic role in mediating the brain's response to injury as their expression is altered in a number of disease and injury states. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS was used to study the expression of A-series ganglioside species GD1a, GM1, GM2, and GM3 to determine alteration of their expression profiles in the presence of beta-amyloid (Aβ toxicity in addition to ischemic injury. To model a stroke, rats received a unilateral striatal injection of endothelin-1 (ET-1 (stroke alone group. To model Aβ toxicity, rats received intracerebralventricular (i.c.v. injections of the toxic 25-35 fragment of the Aβ peptide (Aβ alone group. To model the combination of Aβ toxicity with stroke, rats received both the unilateral ET-1 injection and the bilateral icv injections of Aβ25-35 (combined Aβ/ET-1 group. By 3 d, a significant increase in the simple ganglioside species GM2 was observed in the ischemic brain region of rats who received a stroke (ET-1, with or without Aβ. By 21 d, GM2 levels only remained elevated in the combined Aβ/ET-1 group. GM3 levels however demonstrated a different pattern of expression. By 3 d GM3 was elevated in the ischemic brain region only in the combined Aβ/ET-1 group. By 21 d, GM3 was elevated in the ischemic brain region in both stroke alone and Aβ/ET-1 groups. Overall, results indicate that the accumulation of simple ganglioside species GM2 and GM3 may be indicative of a mechanism of interaction between AD and stroke.

  12. Animal models of GM2 gangliosidosis: utility and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Cheryl A; Martin, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis, a subset of lysosomal storage disorders, is caused by a deficiency of the glycohydrolase, β-N-acetylhexosaminidase, and includes the closely related Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases. The enzyme deficiency prevents the normal, stepwise degradation of ganglioside, which accumulates unchecked within the cellular lysosome, particularly in neurons. As a result, individuals with GM2 gangliosidosis experience progressive neurological diseases including motor deficits, progressive weakness and hypotonia, decreased responsiveness, vision deterioration, and seizures. Mice and cats are well-established animal models for Sandhoff disease, whereas Jacob sheep are the only known laboratory animal model of Tay-Sachs disease to exhibit clinical symptoms. Since the human diseases are relatively rare, animal models are indispensable tools for further study of pathogenesis and for development of potential treatments. Though no effective treatments for gangliosidoses currently exist, animal models have been used to test promising experimental therapies. Herein, the utility and limitations of gangliosidosis animal models and how they have contributed to the development of potential new treatments are described.

  13. Ganglioside GM1 influences the proliferation rate of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Kug Choo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Gangliosides play important roles in the control of severalbiological processes, including proliferation and transmembranesignaling. In this study, we demonstrate the effect ofganglioside GM1 on the proliferation of mouse inducedpluripotent stem cells (miPSCs. The proliferation rate ofmiPSCs was lower than in mouse embryonic stem cells(mESCs. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis showedthat the percentage of cells in the G2/M phase in miPSCs waslower than that in mESCs. GM1 was expressed in mESCs, butnot miPSCs. To confirm the role of GM1 in miPSC proliferation,miPSCs were treated with GM1. GM1-treated miPSCsexhibited increased cell proliferation and a larger number ofcells in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, phosphorylation ofmitogen-activated protein kinases was increased in GM1-treated miPSCs.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Two Industries for Validating Green Manufacturing (GM) Framework: An Indian Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Minhaj Ahemad Abdul; Shrivastava, Rakesh Lakshmikumar; Shrivastava, Rashmi Rakesh

    2017-04-01

    Green Manufacturing (GM) deals with manufacturing practices that reduces or eliminates the adverse environmental impact during any of its phases. It emphasizes the use of processes that do not contaminate the environment or hurt consumers, employees, or other stakeholders. This paper presents the comparative analysis of two Indian industries representing different sectors for validating GM framework. It also highlights the road map of the companies for achieving performance improvement through GM implementation and its impact on organisational performance. The case studies helps in evaluating the companies GM implementation and overall business performance. For this, a developed diagnostic instrument in the form of questionnaire was administered amongst employees in the companies respectively and their responses were analysed. In order to have a better understanding of the impact of GM implementation, the information about overall business performance was obtained over the last 3 years. The diagnostic instrument developed here may be used by manufacturing organisations to prioritise their management efforts to assess and implement GM.

  15. Use of isotopically radiolabelled GM3 ganglioside to study metabolic alterations in Salla disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigorno, Vanna; Valsecchi, Manuela; Nicolini, Marco; Sonnino, Sandro

    1997-01-01

    We report the preparation of radioactive GM3 ganglioside and its use in the study of sialic acid storage disorders. For the first time GM3 was isotopically radiolabelled in three positions of the molecule: at the sialic acid acetyl group, [ 3 H-Neu5Ac]GM3, at the Cl of the fatty acid moiety, [ 1 4C-Stearoyl]GM3, and at C3 of sphingosine, [ 3 H-Sph]GM3. The radioactive GM3 administered to cultured human fibroblasts from a patient suffering from Salla disease was taken up by the cells and metabolized. An analysis of the distribution of radioactivity within the ganglioside metabolic derivatives showed an accumulation of free sialic acid and ceramide in the pathological cells. (author). 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Tanzanian farmers' knowledge and attitudes to GM biotechnology and the potential use of GM crops to provide improved levels of food security. A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Christopher P; Newell, James N; Herron, Caroline M; Nawabu, Haidari

    2010-07-12

    Genetically Modified (GM) crops have been championed as one possible method to improve food security and individual nutritional status in sub Saharan Africa. Understanding and acceptability of GM crop technology to farmers and consumers have not been assessed. We developed a qualitative research study involving farmers as both producers and consumers to gauge the understanding of GM crop technology, its acceptability, and identifying issues of concern. Nineteen individual interviews (10 male and 9 female) and five mixed gender focus group discussions with local farmers were conducted in 3 regions in Tanzania. Analysis took place concurrently with data collection. Following initial interviews, subsequent questions were adjusted based on emerging themes. Understanding, awareness and knowledge of GM crop technology and terminology and its potential risks and benefits was very poor in all regions. Receptivity to the potential use of GM crops was, however, high. Respondents focused on the potential benefits of GM crops rather than any potential longer term health risks. A number of factors, most significantly field trial data, would influence farmers' decisions regarding the introduction of GM crop varieties into their farming practice. Understanding of the potential improved health provision possible by changes in agricultural practice and food-related decision making, and the health benefits of a diet containing essential vitamins, minerals and micronutrients is also poor in these communities. This study forms a basis from which further research work can be undertaken. It is important to continue to assess opinions and attitudes of farmers and consumers in sub Saharan Africa towards potential use of GM technologies whilst highlighting the importance of the relationship between agriculture, health and development. This will allow people in the region to make accurate, informed decisions about whether they believe use of GM biotechnology is an appropriate way in which

  17. Tanzanian farmers' knowledge and attitudes to GM biotechnology and the potential use of GM crops to provide improved levels of food security. A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herron Caroline M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically Modified (GM crops have been championed as one possible method to improve food security and individual nutritional status in sub Saharan Africa. Understanding and acceptability of GM crop technology to farmers and consumers have not been assessed. We developed a qualitative research study involving farmers as both producers and consumers to gauge the understanding of GM crop technology, its acceptability, and identifying issues of concern. Methods Nineteen individual interviews (10 male and 9 female and five mixed gender focus group discussions with local farmers were conducted in 3 regions in Tanzania. Analysis took place concurrently with data collection. Following initial interviews, subsequent questions were adjusted based on emerging themes. Results Understanding, awareness and knowledge of GM crop technology and terminology and its potential risks and benefits was very poor in all regions. Receptivity to the potential use of GM crops was, however, high. Respondents focused on the potential benefits of GM crops rather than any potential longer term health risks. A number of factors, most significantly field trial data, would influence farmers' decisions regarding the introduction of GM crop varieties into their farming practice. Understanding of the potential improved health provision possible by changes in agricultural practice and food-related decision making, and the health benefits of a diet containing essential vitamins, minerals and micronutrients is also poor in these communities. Conclusion This study forms a basis from which further research work can be undertaken. It is important to continue to assess opinions and attitudes of farmers and consumers in sub Saharan Africa towards potential use of GM technologies whilst highlighting the importance of the relationship between agriculture, health and development. This will allow people in the region to make accurate, informed decisions about whether they

  18. Producer Surplus Distributions in GM Crops: The Ignored Impacts of Roundup Ready Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, William W.; Huso, Scott R.

    2006-01-01

    Release of a genetically modified (GM) crop variety would lower prices of competing pesticides used on conventional varieties. This causes an increase in surplus for those farmers who adopt the GM variety, as well as for those who plant the conventional variety. A Cournot model was developed to determine the equilibrium quantities of conventional pesticides. A market with conventional wheat was compared to a market with both conventional and GM wheat varieties to identify price decreases of t...

  19. Sickle Cell Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell trait toolkit » Sickle cell trait fact sheet » SCT and Athletes Some people with SCT have been ... ill. Recommendations on Screening of Student Athletes for SCT Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders ...

  20. Ganglioside GM1 mimicry in Campylobacter strains from sporadic infections in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachamkin, I; Ung, H; Moran, A P; Yoo, D; Prendergast, M M; Nicholson, M A; Sheikh, K; Ho, T; Asbury, A K; McKhann, G M; Griffin, J W

    1999-05-01

    To determine whether GM1-like epitopes in Campylobacter species are specific to O serotypes associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or whether they are frequent among random Campylobacter isolates causing enteritis, 275 random enteritis-associated isolates of Campylobacter jejuni were analyzed. To determine whether GM1-like epitopes in Campylobacter species are specific to O serotypes associated with Guillan-Barre syndrome (GBS) or whether they are frequent among random Campylobacter isolates causing enteritis, 275 enteritis-associated isolates, randomly collected in the United States, were analyzed using a cholera-toxin binding assay [corrected]. Overall, 26.2% of the isolates were positive for the GM1-like epitope. Of the 36 different O serotypes in the sample, 21 (58.3%) contained no strains positive for GM1, whereas in 6 serotypes (16.7%), >50% of isolates were positive for GM1. GBS-associated serotypes were more likely to contain strains positive for GM1 than were non-GBS-associated serotypes (37.8% vs. 15.1%, P=.0116). The results suggest that humans are frequently exposed to strains exhibiting GM1-like mimicry and, while certain serotypes may be more likely to possess GM1-like epitopes, the presence of GM1-like epitopes on Campylobacter strains does not itself trigger GBS.

  1. Clinical uses of GM-CSF, a critical appraisal and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Arellano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Martha Arellano, Sagar LonialEmory University, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, GA, USAAbstract: The role of granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF in the supportive care of cancer patients has been evaluated with promising results. More recently, GM-CSF has been added to regimens for the mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. An expanding role for GM-CSF in regulating immune responses has been recognized based upon its activity on the development and maturation of antigen presenting cells and its capability for skewing the immune system toward Th1-type responses. GM-CSF has been shown to preferentially enhance both the numbers and activity of type 1 dendritic cells (DC1, the subsets of dendritic cells responsible for initiating cytotoxic immune responses. The increase in DC1 content and activity following local and systemic GM-CSF administration support a role for GM-CSF as an immune stimulant and vaccine adjuvant in cancer patients. GM-CSF has shown clinical activity as an immune stimulant in tumor cell and dendritic cell vaccines, and may increase antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The successful use of myeloid acting cytokines to enhance anti-tumor responses will likely require the utilization of GM-CSF in combination with cytotoxic or other targeted therapies.Keywords: GM-CSF, G-CSF, cancer, hematopoietic cytokines

  2. The effects of three types of macrophages culture supernatant on CFU-GM in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Hongxun; Fu Li; Zhao Fengchen; Han Fen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of peritional macrophyge(PM), alveolar macrophage (AM), and Kupffer cell (KC) on colony forming unite granulacyte/macrophage (CFU -GM) in irradiated mice. Methods: Using techniques of hemopoietic progenitors in vitro, the authors studied the effects of three types of macrophages culture supernatant on CFU - GM. Results: It is shown that three types of macrophages culture supernatant may stimulate proliferation and differentiation of CFU-GM in irradiated mice, and KC is the best one in comparison to others. Conclusion: three types of macrophages culture supernatant may protect CFU-GM irradiated mice with KC being the best method. (authors)

  3. The major-effect quantitative trait locus CsARN6.1 encodes an AAA ATPase domain-containing protein that is associated with waterlogging stress tolerance by promoting adventitious root formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In plants, the formation of hypocotyl-derived adventitious roots (AR) is an important morphological acclimation to waterlogging stress, but its genetic basis is largely unknown. In the present study, with combined use of bulked segregant analysis-based high throughput next-gen whole genome sequencin...

  4. Geiger Muller (GM) detector as online monitor: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayan, M.P.; Pawar, V.J.; Krishnakumar, P.; Sureshkumar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the inadvertent release of radioactivity into otherwise inactive liquid streams is a common requirement in nuclear industry. In addition to conventional off-line sampling and measurement methods, nuclear facilities usually uses online methods to get real-time detection of activity contents in process cooling water lines and steam condensate lines. Due to its simplicity, ruggedness and cost effectiveness, Geiger Muller counter is obviously the first choice for online application. Though GM based monitors for such online application were in industrial use for a long time, practical data on the response of the detector with respect low level activities in the effluents is scarce in literature. This work was carried out to fill this information gap. The data generated in these experiments may be useful in giving a realistic interpretation of the response of the existing monitors and setting up their alarm limits

  5. Biochemical characterization of the GM2 gangliosidosis B1 variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutor J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The deficiency of the A isoenzyme of ß-hexosaminidase (Hex produced by different mutations of the gene that codes for the alpha subunit (Tay-Sachs disease has two variants with enzymological differences: the B variant consists of the absence of Hex A isoenzyme and the B1 variant produces an inactive Hex A isoenzyme for the hydrolysis of the GM2 ganglioside and synthetic substrates with negative charge. In contrast to the early childhood form of the B variant, the B1 variant appears at a later clinical stage (3 to 7 years of age with neurodegenerative symptoms leading to the death of the patient in the second decade of life. The most frequent mutation responsible for the GM2 gangliosidosis B1 variant is R178H, which has a widespread geographic and ethnic distribution. The highest incidence has been described in Portugal, which has been suggested as the point of origin of this mutation. Biochemical characterization of this lysosomal disease is carried out using negatively charged synthetic alpha subunit-specific sulfated substrates, since Hex A isoenzyme heat-inactivation assays are not applicable. However, the determination of the apparent activation energy of Hex using the neutral substrate 3,3'-dichlorophenolsulfonphthaleinyl N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminide, may offer a valid alternative. The presence of an alpha subunit in the alphaß heterodimer Hex A means that its activation energy (41.8 kJ/mol is significantly lower than that of the ßß homodimer Hex B (75.1 kJ/mol; however, as mutation inactivates the alpha subunit, the Hex A of the B1 variant presents an activation energy that is similar to that of the Hex B isoenzyme.

  6. How weeds emerge: a taxonomic and trait-based examination using United States data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuester, Adam; Conner, Jeffrey K; Culley, Theresa; Baucom, Regina S

    2014-05-01

    Weeds can cause great economic and ecological harm to ecosystems. Despite their importance, comparisons of the taxonomy and traits of successful weeds often focus on a few specific comparisons - for example, introduced versus native weeds. We used publicly available inventories of US plant species to make comprehensive comparisons of the factors that underlie weediness. We quantitatively examined taxonomy to determine if certain genera are overrepresented by introduced, weedy or herbicide-resistant species, and we compared phenotypic traits of weeds to those of nonweeds, whether introduced or native. We uncovered genera that have more weeds and introduced species than expected by chance and plant families that have more herbicide-resistant species than expected by chance. Certain traits, generally related to fast reproduction, were more likely to be associated with weedy plants regardless of species' origins. We also found stress tolerance traits associated with either native or introduced weeds compared with native or introduced nonweeds. Weeds and introduced species have significantly smaller genomes than nonweeds and native species. These results support trends for weedy plants reported from other floras, suggest that native and introduced weeds have different stress adaptations, and provide a comprehensive survey of trends across weeds within the USA. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Varieties of Genetically Modified (GM) Embrapa 5.1 Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Non-GM Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Geisi M; Valentim-Neto, Pedro A; Mello, Carla S; Arisi, Ana C M

    2015-12-09

    The genetically modified (GM) common bean event Embrapa 5.1 was commercially approved in Brazil in 2011; it is resistant to golden mosaic virus infection. In the present work grain proteome profiles of two Embrapa 5.1 common bean varieties, Pérola and Pontal, and their non-GM counterparts were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by mass spectrometry (MS). Analyses detected 23 spots differentially accumulated between GM Pérola and non-GM Pérola and 21 spots between GM Pontal and non-GM Pontal, although they were not the same proteins in Pérola and Pontal varieties, indicating that the variability observed may not be due to the genetic transformation. Among them, eight proteins were identified in Pérola varieties, and four proteins were identified in Pontal. Moreover, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) on 2-DE data, and variation between varieties was explained in the first two principal components. This work provides a first 2-DE-MS/MS-based analysis of Embrapa 5.1 common bean grains.

  8. QTLs and Potential Candidate Genes for Heat Stress Tolerance Identified from the Mapping Populations Specifically Segregating for Fv/Fm in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dew Kumari Sharma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that Fv/Fm (maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II is the most widely used parameter for a rapid non-destructive measure of stress detection in plants, there are barely any studies on the genetic understanding of this trait under heat stress. Our aim was to identify quantitative trait locus (QTL and the potential candidate genes linked to Fv/Fm for improved photosynthesis under heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Three bi-parental F2 mapping populations were generated by crossing three heat tolerant male parents (origin: Afghanistan and Pakistan selected for high Fv/Fm with a common heat susceptible female parent (origin: Germany selected for lowest Fv/Fm out of a pool of 1274 wheat cultivars of diverse geographic origin. Parents together with 140 F2 individuals in each population were phenotyped by Fv/Fm under heat stress (40°C for 3 days around anthesis. The Fv/Fm decreased by 6.3% in the susceptible parent, 1–2.5% in the tolerant parents and intermediately 4–6% in the mapping populations indicating a clear segregation for the trait. The three populations were genotyped with 34,955 DArTseq and 27 simple sequence repeat markers, out of which ca. 1800 polymorphic markers mapped to 27 linkage groups covering all the 21 chromosomes with a total genome length of about 5000 cM. Inclusive composite interval mapping resulted in the identification of one significant and heat-stress driven QTL in each population on day 3 of the heat treatment, two of which were located on chromosome 3B and one on chromosome 1D. These QTLs explained about 13–35% of the phenotypic variation for Fv/Fm with an additive effect of 0.002–0.003 with the positive allele for Fv/Fm originating from the heat tolerant parents. Approximate physical localization of these three QTLs revealed the presence of 12 potential candidate genes having a direct role in photosynthesis and/or heat tolerance. Besides providing an insight into the genetic

  9. Spectroscopic Characterization of Intermolecular Interaction of Amyloid β Promoted on GM1 Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maho Yagi-Utsumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clusters of GM1 gangliosides act as platforms for conformational transition of monomeric, unstructured amyloid β (Aβ to its toxic β-structured aggregates. We have previously shown that Aβ(1–40 accommodated on the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of lyso-GM1 or GM1 micelles assumes α-helical structures under ganglioside-excess conditions. For better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the α-to-β conformational transition of Aβ on GM1 clusters, we performed spectroscopic characterization of Aβ(1–40 titrated with GM1. It was revealed that the thioflavin T- (ThT- reactive β-structure is more populated in Aβ(1–40 under conditions where the Aβ(1–40 density on GM1 micelles is high. Under this circumstance, the C-terminal hydrophobic anchor Val39-Val40 shows two distinct conformational states that are reactive with ThT, while such Aβ species were not generated by smaller lyso-GM1 micelles. These findings suggest that GM1 clusters promote specific Aβ-Aβ interactions through their C-termini coupled with formation of the ThT-reactive β-structure depending on sizes and curvatures of the clusters.

  10. New serum markers for small-cell lung cancer. I. The ganglioside fucosyl-GM1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, A; Drivsholm, L; Andersen, E

    1994-01-01

    of FucGM1 was related to age, sex, blood group of the patient, and to the stage of disease and organ site involvement of metastases. The sera of 50% of the patients with SCLC were positive for FucGM1, and 12 of 21 sera from non-SCLC patients were markedly elevated. In SCLC sera, the concentration of Fuc...

  11. Consumer choice: Linking consumer intentions to actual purchase of GM labeled food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleenhoff, Susanne; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    With a mandatory labeling scheme for GM food in Europe since 2004 measuring actual consumer choice in practice has become possible. Anticipating Europeans negative attitude toward GM food, the labeling was enforced to allow consumers to make an informed choice. We studied consumers actual purchase behavior of GM food products and compared this with their attitude and behavioral intention for buying GM food. We found that despite a majority of consumers voicing a negative attitude toward GM food over 50% of our European respondents stated that they did not actively avoid the purchase of GM food and 6% actually purchased one of the few available GM labeled food products in the period between September 2006 and October 2007. Our results imply that a voiced negative attitude of consumers in responses to questionnaires about their intentions is not a reliable guide for what they actually do in supermarkets. We conclude that the assumption of a negative attitude with regard to GM food is at least in part construed.

  12. Consumer choice : Linking consumer intentions to actual purchase of GM labeled food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleenhoff, S.; Osseweijer, P.

    2013-01-01

    With a mandatory labeling scheme for GM food in Europe since 2004 measuring actual consumer choice in practice has become possible. Anticipating Europeans negative attitude toward GM food, the labeling was enforced to allow consumers to make an informed choice. We studied consumers actual purchase

  13. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de Clazien J.; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-01-01

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation

  14. Functional interaction analysis of GM1-related carbohydrates and Vibrio cholerae toxins using carbohydrate microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Sup; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2012-08-07

    The development of analytical tools is important for understanding the infection mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria or viruses. In the present work, a functional carbohydrate microarray combined with a fluorescence immunoassay was developed to analyze the interactions of Vibrio cholerae toxin (ctx) proteins and GM1-related carbohydrates. Ctx proteins were loaded onto the surface-immobilized GM1 pentasaccharide and six related carbohydrates, and their binding affinities were detected immunologically. The analysis of the ctx-carbohydrate interactions revealed that the intrinsic selectivity of ctx was GM1 pentasaccharide ≫ GM2 tetrasaccharide > asialo GM1 tetrasaccharide ≥ GM3trisaccharide, indicating that a two-finger grip formation and the terminal monosaccharides play important roles in the ctx-GM1 interaction. In addition, whole cholera toxin (ctxAB(5)) had a stricter substrate specificity and a stronger binding affinity than only the cholera toxin B subunit (ctxB). On the basis of the quantitative analysis, the carbohydrate microarray showed the sensitivity of detection of the ctxAB(5)-GM1 interaction with a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 2 ng mL(-1) (23 pM), which is comparable to other reported high sensitivity assay tools. In addition, the carbohydrate microarray successfully detected the actual toxin directly secreted from V. cholerae, without showing cross-reactivity to other bacteria. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the functional carbohydrate microarray is suitable for analyzing toxin protein-carbohydrate interactions and can be applied as a biosensor for toxin detection.

  15. The ganglioside GM3 is associated with cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Wook Chung

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, CDDP is a well-known chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of several cancers. However, the precise mechanism underlying apoptosis of cancer cells induced by CDDP remains unclear. In this study, we show mechanistically that CDDP induces GM3-mediated apoptosis of HCT116 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation, and increasing DNA fragmentation and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis signals. CDDP induced apoptosis within cells through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, regulated the ROS-mediated expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and p53, and induced the degradation of the poly (ADP-ribosyl polymerase (PARP. We also checked expression levels of different gangliosides in HCT116 cells in the presence or absence of CDDP. Interestingly, among the gangliosides, CDDP augmented the expression of only GM3 synthase and its product GM3. Reduction of the GM3 synthase level through ectopic expression of GM3 small interfering RNA (siRNA rescued HCT116 cells from CDDP-induced apoptosis. This was evidenced by inhibition of apoptotic signals by reducing ROS production through the regulation of 12-lipoxigenase activity. Furthermore, the apoptotic sensitivity to CDDP was remarkably increased in GM3 synthase-transfected HCT116 cells compared to that in controls. In addition, GM3 synthase-transfected cells treated with CDDP exhibited an increased accumulation of intracellular ROS. These results suggest the CDDP-induced oxidative apoptosis of HCT116 cells is mediated by GM3.

  16. Labelling GM-free Products. A Case Study of Dairy Companies in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Food suppliers in the EU must comply with labelling regulations for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, excluded from mandatory labelling are food products derived from animals fed with GM feed (mainly GM soybean in the EU). Because of this labelling exemption, consumers are unable to

  17. Who benefits from gm crops? Feeding the biotech giants, not the world's poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Villar, J.; Freese, B.; Holder, H.; Chandrasekaran, K.; Rodriguez, L.

    2009-02-01

    The biotechnology industry has aggressively touted GM as a solution to hunger and the global food crisis. Their arguments have been accepted by many politicians. This Friends of the Earth International (FoEI) report looks behind the spin and exposes the reasons why GM crops cannot, and are unlikely to ever, contribute to poverty reduction, global food security or sustainable farming (authors' abstract)

  18. GM crops in Ethiopia : a realistic way to increase agricultural performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azadi, Hossein; Taisma, Nanda; Ho, Peter; Zarafshani, Kiumars

    Much has been published on the application of genetically modified (GM) crops in Africa, but agricultural performance has hardly been addressed. This paper discusses the main consequences of GM crops on agricultural performance in Ethiopia. Three main criteria of performance productivity,

  19. Evolution of European GM-free standards: Reasoning of consumers and strategic adoption by companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venus, T.J.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss reasoning of consumers and strategic adoption behavior of producers and retailers with respect to genetically modified-free (GM-free) quality standards in Europe. We argue that there are three major reasons why a mandatory GM labeling scheme differs from a voluntary

  20. Biotech/GM crops in horticulture: plum cv. HoneySweet resistant to plum pox virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercialization of Biotech crops started in 1995. By 2011, genetically modified (GM) crops were grown world-wide on 160 million ha. Only 114.507 ha of GM crops were grown in Europe, of that, 114.490 ha were Bt maize and 17 ha were potato for industrial starch production. Currently, developing c...

  1. The corporate shaping of GM crops as a technology for the poor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glover, D.

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM, transgenic) crops are often invoked in debates about poverty, hunger, and agricultural development. The framing of GM crops as a 'pro-poor' and environmentally sustainable technology was partly a creation of the biotechnology industry, but cannot be explained as merely a

  2. Non-target effects of GM potato : an eco-metabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plischke, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, patterns of variation in plant metabolomes and insect communities were described in GM and non-GM potato plants in both laboratory and field experiments. Differences between plant genotypes in insect abundances were small when compared to year-to-year differences, location effects

  3. Atypical juvenile presentation of GM2 gangliosidosis AB in a patient compound-heterozygote for c.259G>T and c.164C>T mutations in the GM2A gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Martins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available GM2-gangliosidosis, AB variant is an extremely rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by mutations in the GM2A gene that encodes GM2 ganglioside activator protein (GM2AP. GM2AP is necessary for solubilisation of GM2 ganglioside in endolysosomes and its presentation to β-hexosaminidase A. Conversely GM2AP deficiency impairs lysosomal catabolism of GM2 ganglioside, leading to its storage in cells and tissues. We describe a 9-year-old child with an unusual juvenile clinical onset of GM2-gangliosidosis AB. At the age of 3 years he presented with global developmental delay, progressive epilepsy, intellectual disability, axial hypertonia, spasticity, seizures and ataxia, but without the macular cherry-red spots typical for GM2 gangliosidosis. Brain MRI detected a rapid onset of diffuse atrophy, whereas whole exome sequencing showed that the patient is a compound heterozygote for two mutations in GM2A: a novel nonsense mutation, c.259G>T (p.E87X and a missense mutation c.164C>T (p.P55L that was recently identified in homozygosity in patients of a Saudi family with a progressive chorea-dementia syndrome. Western blot analysis showed an absence of GM2AP in cultured fibroblasts from the patient, suggesting that both mutations interfere with the synthesis and/or folding of the protein. Finally, impaired catabolism of GM2 ganglioside in the patient's fibroblasts was demonstrated by metabolic labeling with fluorescently labeled GM1 ganglioside and by immunohistochemistry with anti-GM2 and anti-GM3 antibodies. Our observation expands the molecular and clinical spectrum of molecular defects linked to GM2-gangliosidosis and suggests novel diagnostic approach by whole exome sequencing and perhaps ganglioside analysis in cultured patient's cells.

  4. Determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields using extrapolation chamber and GM counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Christensen, P.

    1995-01-01

    The extrapolation chamber measurement method is the basic method for the determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields and the method has been used for the establishment of beta calibration fields. The paper describes important details of the method and presents results from the measurement...... of depth-dose profiles from different beta radiation fields with E(max) values down to 156 keV. Results are also presented from studies of GM counters for use as survey instruments for monitoring beta dose rates at the workplace. Advantages of GM counters are a simple measurement technique and high...... sensitivity. GM responses were measured from exposures in different beta radiation fields using different filters in front of the GM detector and the paper discusses the possibility of using the results from GM measurements with two different filters in an unknown beta radiation field to obtain a value...

  5. "It just goes against the grain." Public understandings of genetically modified (GM) food in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alison

    2002-07-01

    This paper reports on one aspect of qualitative research on public understandings of food risks, focusing on lay understandings of genetically modified (GM) food in the UK context. A range of theoretical, conceptual, and empirical literature on food, risk, and the public understanding of science are reviewed. The fieldwork methods are outlined and empirical data from a range of lay groups are presented. Major themes include: varying "technical" knowledge of science, the relationship between knowledge and acceptance of genetic modification, the uncertainty of scientific knowledge, genetic modification as inappropriate scientific intervention in "nature", the acceptability of animal and human applications of genetic modification, the appropriate boundaries of scientific innovation, the necessity for GM foods, the uncertainty of risks in GM food, fatalism about avoiding risks, and trust in "experts" to manage potential risks in GM food. Key discussion points relating to a sociological understanding of public attitudes to GM food are raised and some policy implications are highlighted.

  6. Determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields using extrapolation chamber and GM counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Christensen, P.

    1995-01-01

    of depth-dose profiles from different beta radiation fields with E(max) values down to 156 keV. Results are also presented from studies of GM counters for use as survey instruments for monitoring beta dose rates at the workplace. Advantages of GM counters are a simple measurement technique and high......The extrapolation chamber measurement method is the basic method for the determination of dose rates in beta radiation fields and the method has been used for the establishment of beta calibration fields. The paper describes important details of the method and presents results from the measurement...... sensitivity. GM responses were measured from exposures in different beta radiation fields using different filters in front of the GM detector and the paper discusses the possibility of using the results from GM measurements with two different filters in an unknown beta radiation field to obtain a value...

  7. Study of gene flow from GM cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) varieties in El Espinal (Tolima, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rache Cardenal, Leidy Yanira; Mora Oberlaender, Julian; Chaparro Giraldo, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, 4088 hectares of genetically modified (GM) cotton were planted in Tolima (Colombia), however there is some uncertainty about containment measures needed to prevent the flow of pollen and seed from regulated GM fields into adjacent fields. In this study, the gene flow from GM cotton varieties to conventional or feral cotton plants via seed and pollen was evaluated. ImmunostripTM, PCR and ELISA assays were used to detect gene flow. Fifty six refuges, 27 fields with conventional cotton and four feral individuals of the enterprise Remolinos Inc. located in El Espinal (Tolima) were analyzed in the first half of 2010. The results indicated seed mediated gene flow in 45 refuges (80.4 %) and 26 fields with conventional cotton (96 %), besides pollen mediated gene flow in one field with conventional cotton and nine refuges. All fields cultivated with conventional cotton showed gene flow from GM cotton. Two refuges and two feral individuals did not reveal gene flow from GM cotton.

  8. A Meta Analysis on Farm-Level Costs and Benefits of GM Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Stupak

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the evidence on the socio-economic impacts of GM crops and analyzes whether there are patterns across space and time. To this end, we investigate the effect of GM crops on farm-level costs and benefits using global data from more than one decade of field trials and surveys. More specifically, we analyze the effects of GM-crops on crop yields, seed costs, pesticide costs, and management and labor costs and finally gross margins. Based on collected data from studies on Bt cotton and Bt maize, statistical analyses are conducted to estimate the effect of GM crop adoption on these parameters. Our results show that, compared to conventional crops, GM crops can lead to yield increases and can lead to reductions in the costs of pesticide application, whereas seed costs are usually substantially higher. Thus, the results presented here do support the contention that the adoption of GM crops leads on average to a higher economic performance, which is also underlined by the high adoption rates for GM crops in a number of countries. However, the kind and magnitude of benefits from GM crops are very heterogeneous between countries and regions, particularly due to differences in pest pressure and pest management practices. Countries with poor pest management practices benefited most from a reduction in yield losses, whereas other countries benefited from cost reductions. However, our study also reveals limitations for meta-analyses on farm-level costs and benefits of GM crops. In particular, published data are skewed towards some countries and the employed individual studies rely on different assumptions, purposes and methodologies (e.g., surveys and field trials. Furthermore, a summary of several (often short-term individual studies may not necessarily capture long-term effects of GM crop adoption.

  9. GM-CSF augments the immunosuppressive capacity of neonatal spleen cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, P.J.; Ireland, R.

    1991-01-01

    Addition of exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to cultures of adult murine spleen cells with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) results in an augmented plaque forming cell (PFC) response. The influence of GM-CSF on the ability of neonatal spleen cells to suppress the anti-SRBC plaque forming response of adult spleen cells was tested by adding GM-CSF to cultures of neonatal and adult spleen cells. The suppressive capacity of the neonatal spleen cells was augmented by exogenous GM-CSF. The augmented suppression of the neonatal spleen cells was dependent on a G-10 adherent population since the addition of GM-CSF to cultures containing G-10 passed neonatal spleen cells resulted in an augmented PFC response and not suppression. Neonatal splenic glass adherent cells were also capable of suppressing the response. Neonatal spleen cells or purified neonatal glass adherent spleen cells cultured in the presence of GM-CSF had markedly increased levels of PGE2 in the culture supernatant. Neonatal spleen cells cultured with GM-CSF had increased numbers of morphologically identifiable macrophages after 48 hr of culture. Both irradiation and G-10 passage of the neonatal spleen diminished the numbers of macrophages formed in response to GM-CSF, and both of these manipulations resulted in reversal of suppression in response to GM-CSF. Thus, the augmented suppressive capacity of neonatal spleen cells in response to GM-CSF is probably mediated by its ability to drive monocyte to macrophage differentiation as well as increase the suppressive capacity of the existing neonatal splenic macrophages by increasing their production of PGE2

  10. EVOLUTION OF EUROPEAN GM-FREE STANDARDS: REASONING OF CONSUMERS AND STRATEGIC ADOPTION BY COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. VENUS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss reasoning of consumers and strategic adoption behavior of producers and retailers with respect to genetically modified-free (GM-free quality standards in Europe. We argue that there are three major reasons why a mandatory GM labeling scheme differs from a voluntary process-based GM-free labeling scheme regarding the effect on consumer demand: (1 while both mandatory and voluntary labels signal that products containing, or produced with genetically modified organisms (GMOs are of lower quality, experiments show that the signaling effect is stronger in the case of mandatory labels; (2 some consumers care more about the effects of consuming GMOs directly (i.e., labeled GMO compared to consuming only products derived from GMOs (i.e., non-labeled GM-free; and (3 mandatory labeling shifts some of the labeling burden to the GM producer making the GM product relatively more expensive compared to the case of voluntary GM-free labeling. We discuss reasons why producers or retailers set or implement a voluntary GM-free production standard. To illustrate how the firm adoption theory can be extended, we use a real option game framework in a duopolistic setting and show that it can be beneficial to offer a GM-free product without labeling it. We show that this can be the case if investing without labeling works as a pre-investment or option to extend to reduce the investment cost of implementing a label in the case of an increase in demand. Finally, we provide a list of important events that have affected the evolution of the GM-free market in Europe.

  11. Tomato SR/CAMTA transcription factors SlSR1 and SlSR3L negatively regulate disease resistance response and SlSR1L positively modulates drought stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Yafen; Ouyang, Zhigang; Hong, Yongbo; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2014-10-28

    The SR/CAMTA proteins represent a small family of transcription activators that play important roles in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Seven SlSR/CAMTA genes were identified in tomato as tomato counterparts of SR/CAMTA; however, the involvement of SlSRs/CAMTAs in biotic and abiotic stress responses is not clear. In this study, we performed functional analysis of the SlSR/CAMTA family for their possible functions in defense response against pathogens and tolerance to drought stress. Expression of SlSRs was induced with distinct patterns by Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-based knockdown of either SlSR1 or SlSR3L in tomato resulted in enhanced resistance to B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 and led to constitutive accumulation of H2O2, elevated expression of defense genes, marker genes for pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity, and regulatory genes involved in the salicylic acid- and ethylene-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, the expression of SlSR1L and SlSR2L in detached leaves and whole plants was significantly induced by drought stress. Silencing of SlSR1L led to decreased drought stress tolerance, accelerated water loss in leaves, reduced root biomass and attenuated expression of drought stress responsive genes in tomato. The SlSR1 and SlSR3L proteins were localized in the nucleus of plant cells when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and had transcriptional activation activity in yeast. VIGS-based functional analyses demonstrate that both SlSR1 and SlSR3L in the tomato SlSR/CAMTA family are negative regulators of defense response against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 while SlSR1L is a positive regulator of drought stress tolerance in tomato.

  12. Establishment of self-renewable GM-CSF-dependent immature macrophages in vitro from murine bone marrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Ito

    Full Text Available Macrophages play a key role in the innate immune system. Macrophages are thought to originate from hematopoietic precursors or the yolk sac. Here, we describe the in vitro establishment of self-renewable GM-CSF-dependent immature macrophages (GM-IMs from murine bone marrow (BM. GM-IMs grow continuously in vitro in conditioned medium containing GM-CSF. The immunophenotype of GM-IMs is F4/80(high CD11b(high CD11c(low Ly6C(low. By comparing gene expression in GM-IMs and BM dendritic cells, we found that GM-IMs expressed lower levels of chemokines, cytokines and their receptors. GM-IMs are round in shape, attach loosely to non-coated culture dishes and have a marked phagocytic capacity. These results indicate that GM-IMs are macrophage precursor cells. Following stimulation with LPS, monocyte-like GM-IMs converted to flat macrophage-like cells that tightly adhered to non-coated culture dishes and produced pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β. These results indicated that GM-IMs differentiated to M1 pro-inflammatory macrophages. This was confirmed by stimulation of GM-IMs with IFNγ, an inducer of M1 markers. GM-IMs showed enhanced expression of M2 macrophage markers such as Arg1 and Retnla following stimulation by Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. When GM-IMs were injected into mice at sites of wounding, wound repair was enhanced. These results indicate that GM-IMs can differentiate to M2 macrophages. When GM-IMs were injected into clodronate-treated mice, they induced resident macrophage proliferation by producing M-CSF. In conclusion we have established self-renewable GM-CSF-dependent immature macrophages in vitro from murine BM, which differentiate to M1 or M2 macrophages.

  13. GM crops, the environment and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Today, over 7.1 billion people rely on the earth's resources for sustenance, and nearly a billion people are malnourished, their minds and bodies unable to develop properly. Globally, population is expected to rise to more than 9 billion by 2050. Given the combined pressures of human population growth, the rapidly growing desire for increased levels of consumption, and the continued use of inappropriate technologies, it is not surprising that humans are driving organisms to extinction at an unprecedented rate. Many aspects of the sustainable functioning of the natural world are breaking down in the face of human-induced pressures including our individual and collective levels of consumption and our widespread and stubborn use of destructive technologies. Clearly, agriculture must undergo a redesign and be better and more effectively managed so as to contribute as well as possible to feeding people, while at the same time we strive to lessen the tragic loss of biodiversity and damage to all of its productive systems that the world is experiencing. For GM crops to be part of the solution, biosafety assessments should not be overly politically-driven or a burdensome impedance to delivering this technology broadly. Biosafety scientists and policy makers need to recognize the undeniable truth that inappropriate actions resulting in indecision also have negative consequences. It is no longer acceptable to delay the use of any strategy that is safe and will help us achieve the ability to feed the world's people.

  14. Structural bases of GM1 gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Mizuki; Saito, Seiji; Ikeda, Kazuyoshi; Ohno, Kazuki; Sugawara, Kanako; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Togawa, Tadayasu; Sakuraba, Hitoshi

    2009-09-01

    Allelic mutations of the lysosomal beta-galactosidase gene cause heterogeneous clinical phenotypes, such as GM1 gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease, the former being further classified into three variants, namely infantile, juvenile and adult forms; and heterogeneous biochemical phenotypes were shown in these forms. We tried to elucidate the bases of these diseases from a structural viewpoint. We first constructed a three-dimensional structural model of human beta-galactosidase by means of homology modeling. The human beta-galactosidase consists of three domains, such as, a TIM barrel fold domain, which functions as a catalytic domain, and two galactose-binding domain-like fold domains. We then constructed structural models of representative mutant beta-galactosidase proteins (G123R, R201C, I51T and Y83H) and predicted the structural change associated with each phenotype by calculating the number of affected atoms, determining the root-mean-square deviation and the solvent-accessible surface area, and by color imaging. The results show that there is a good correlation between the structural changes caused by amino-acid substitutions in the beta-galactosidase molecule, as well as biochemical and clinical phenotypes in these representative cases. Protein structural study is useful for elucidating the bases of these diseases.

  15. A novel human model of the neurodegenerative disease GM1 gangliosidosis using induced pluripotent stem cells demonstrates inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mi-Young; Kwak, Jae Eun; Seol, Binna; Lee, Da Yong; Jeon, Hyejin; Cho, Yee Sook

    2015-09-01

    GM1 gangliosidosis (GM1) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the lysosomal β-galactosidase (β-gal) gene. Insufficient β-gal activity leads to abnormal accumulation of GM1 gangliosides in tissues, particularly in the central nervous system, resulting in progressive neurodegeneration. Here, we report an in vitro human GM1 model, based on induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology. Neural progenitor cells differentiated from GM1 patient-derived iPSCs (GM1-NPCs) recapitulated the biochemical and molecular phenotypes of GM1, including defective β-gal activity and increased lysosomes. Importantly, the characterization of GM1-NPCs established that GM1 is significantly associated with the activation of inflammasomes, which play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Specific inflammasome inhibitors potently alleviated the disease-related phenotypes of GM1-NPCs in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrate that GM1-NPCs are a valuable in vitro human GM1 model and suggest that inflammasome activation is a novel target pathway for GM1 drug development. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Trait-based model development to support breeding programs. A case study for salt tolerance and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, Livia; Movedi, Ermes; Confalonieri, Roberto

    2017-06-28

    Eco-physiological models are increasingly used to analyze G × E × M interactions to support breeding programs via the design of ideotypes for specific contexts. However, available crop models are only partly suitable for this purpose, since they often lack clear relationships between parameters and traits breeders are working on. Taking salt stress tolerance and rice as a case study, we propose a paradigm shift towards the building of ideotyping-specific models explicitly around traits involved in breeding programs. Salt tolerance is a complex trait relying on different physiological processes that can be alternatively selected to improve the overall crop tolerance. We developed a new model explicitly accounting for these traits and we evaluated its performance using data from growth chamber experiments (e.g., R 2 ranged from 0.74 to 0.94 for the biomass of different plant organs). Using the model, we were able to show how an increase in the overall tolerance can derive from completely different physiological mechanisms according to soil/water salinity dynamics. The study demonstrated that a trait-based approach can increase the usefulness of mathematical models for supporting breeding programs.

  17. Metabolomic analysis of the selection response of Drosophila melanogaster to environmental stress: are there links to gene expression and phenotypic traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmendal, Anders; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Overgaard, Johannes; Holmstrup, Martin; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the global metabolite response to artificial selection for tolerance to stressful conditions such as cold, heat, starvation, and desiccation, and for longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. Our findings were compared to data from other levels of biological organization, including gene expression, physiological traits, and organismal stress tolerance phenotype. Overall, we found that selection for environmental stress tolerance changes the metabolomic 1H NMR fingerprint largely in a similar manner independent of the trait selected for, indicating that experimental evolution led to a general stress selection response at the metabolomic level. Integrative analyses across data sets showed little similarity when general correlations between selection effects at the level of the metabolome and gene expression were compared. This is likely due to the fact that the changes caused by these selection regimes were rather mild and/or that the dominating determinants for gene expression and metabolite levels were different. However, expression of a number of genes was correlated with the metabolite data. Many of the identified genes were general stress response genes that are down-regulated in response to selection for some of the stresses in this study. Overall, the results illustrate that selection markedly alters the metabolite profile and that the coupling between different levels of biological organization indeed is present though not very strong for stress selection at this level. The results highlight the extreme complexity of environmental stress adaptation and the difficulty of extrapolating and interpreting responses across levels of biological organization.

  18. Effect of urbanization on the structure and functional traits of remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liujing; Chen, Hongfeng; Ren, Hai; Wang, Jun; Guo, Qinfeng

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the effects of major environmental drivers associated with urbanization on species diversity and plant functional traits (PFTs) in the remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in Metropolitan Guangzhou (Guangdong, China). Twenty environmental factors including topography, light, and soil properties were used to quantify the effects of urbanization. Vegetation data and soil properties were collected from 30 400-m(2) plots at 6 study sites in urban and rural areas. The difference of plant species diversity and PFTs of remnant forests between urban and rural areas were analyzed. To discern the complex relationships, multivariate statistical analyses (e.g., canonical correspondence analysis and regression analysis) were employed. Pioneer species and stress-tolerant species can survive and vigorously establish their population dominance in the urban environment. The native herb diversity was lower in urban forests than in rural forests. Urban forests tend to prefer the species with Mesophanerophyte life form. In contrast, species in rural forests possessed Chamaephyte and Nanophanerophyte life forms and gravity/clonal growth dispersal mode. Soil pH and soil nutrients (K, Na, and TN) were positively related to herb diversity, while soil heavy metal concentrations (Cu) were negatively correlated with herb diversity. The herb plant species diversity declines and the species in the remnant forests usually have stress-tolerant functional traits in response to urbanization. The factors related to urbanization such as soil acidification, nutrient leaching, and heavy metal pollution were important in controlling the plant diversity in the forests along the urban-rural gradients. Urbanization affects the structure and functional traits of remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests.

  19. Titration of serum anti-ganglioside antibodies in patients with chronic medular injury previous to treatment with GM1 ganglioside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Filho Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-ganglioside serum titers were evaluated by ELISA in 150 patients with complete spinal cord lesion for 6 to 12 months (IgG monosialo GM1, IgM monosialo GM1, IgG asialo GM1, IgM asialo GM1, IgG disialo GD1b e IgM disialo GD1b prior to treatment with GM1 100 mg/day i.m. Only 4 patients showed positive titers for anti-asialo-GM1 (IgM antibodies . All patients were clinically examined during and after treatment. No important side effects were observed with GM1 therapy. These results suggest that GM1-ganglioside administration in patients with chronic spinal cord injury is safe.

  20. Leaf and life history traits predict plant growth in a green roof ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Lundholm

    Full Text Available Green roof ecosystems are constructed to provide services such as stormwater retention and urban temperature reductions. Green roofs with shallow growing media represent stressful conditions for plant survival, thus plants that survive and grow are important for maximizing economic and ecological benefits. While field trials are essential for selecting appropriate green roof plants, we wanted to determine whether plant leaf traits could predict changes in abundance (growth to provide a more general framework for plant selection. We quantified leaf traits and derived life-history traits (Grime's C-S-R strategies for 13 species used in a four-year green roof experiment involving five plant life forms. Changes in canopy density in monocultures and mixtures containing one to five life forms were determined and related to plant traits using multiple regression. We expected traits related to stress-tolerance would characterize the species that best grew in this relatively harsh setting. While all species survived to the end of the experiment, canopy species diversity in mixture treatments was usually much lower than originally planted. Most species grew slower in mixture compared to monoculture, suggesting that interspecific competition reduced canopy diversity. Species dominant in mixture treatments tended to be fast-growing ruderals and included both native and non-native species. Specific leaf area was a consistently strong predictor of final biomass and the change in abundance in both monoculture and mixture treatments. Some species in contrasting life-form groups showed compensatory dynamics, suggesting that life-form mixtures can maximize resilience of cover and biomass in the face of environmental fluctuations. This study confirms that plant traits can be used to predict growth performance in green roof ecosystems. While rapid canopy growth is desirable for green roofs, maintenance of species diversity may require engineering of conditions that

  1. Leaf and life history traits predict plant growth in a green roof ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Heim, Amy; Tran, Stephanie; Smith, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Green roof ecosystems are constructed to provide services such as stormwater retention and urban temperature reductions. Green roofs with shallow growing media represent stressful conditions for plant survival, thus plants that survive and grow are important for maximizing economic and ecological benefits. While field trials are essential for selecting appropriate green roof plants, we wanted to determine whether plant leaf traits could predict changes in abundance (growth) to provide a more general framework for plant selection. We quantified leaf traits and derived life-history traits (Grime's C-S-R strategies) for 13 species used in a four-year green roof experiment involving five plant life forms. Changes in canopy density in monocultures and mixtures containing one to five life forms were determined and related to plant traits using multiple regression. We expected traits related to stress-tolerance would characterize the species that best grew in this relatively harsh setting. While all species survived to the end of the experiment, canopy species diversity in mixture treatments was usually much lower than originally planted. Most species grew slower in mixture compared to monoculture, suggesting that interspecific competition reduced canopy diversity. Species dominant in mixture treatments tended to be fast-growing ruderals and included both native and non-native species. Specific leaf area was a consistently strong predictor of final biomass and the change in abundance in both monoculture and mixture treatments. Some species in contrasting life-form groups showed compensatory dynamics, suggesting that life-form mixtures can maximize resilience of cover and biomass in the face of environmental fluctuations. This study confirms that plant traits can be used to predict growth performance in green roof ecosystems. While rapid canopy growth is desirable for green roofs, maintenance of species diversity may require engineering of conditions that favor less

  2. AB variant of infantile GM2 gangliosidosis: deficiency of a factor necessary for stimulation of hexosaminidase A-catalyzed degradation of ganglioside GM2 and glycolipid GA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzelmann, E; Sandhoff, K

    1978-08-01

    Human kidney extracts heated to 60 degrees and devoid of hexosaminidase activity (2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucoside acetamidodeoxyglucohydrolase EC 3.2.1.30) stimulate more than 20-fold the hexosaminidase A-catalyzed degradation of ganglioside GM2 and of glycolipid GA2, the neuronal storage compounds of GM2 gangliosidosis. The stimulating factor of this extract, which is labile at temperatures above 60 degrees, is also present in kidney extracts from patients with infantile GM2 gangliosidosis having a deficiency of hexosaminidase A (Tay-Sachs disease, variant B) and a deficiency of hexosaminidases A and B (variant 0). Evidence is presented that this factor is defective in the AB-variant of infantile GM2 gangliosidosis which is characterized by an accumulation of glycolipids GM2 and GA2 despite the fact that the degrading enzymes, hexosaminidases A and B, retain normal activity levels. Thus, variant AB is an example of a fatal lipid storage disease that is caused not by a defect of a degrading enzyme but rather by a defective factor necessary for the interaction of lipid substrates and the water-soluble hydrolase.

  3. RISK MANAGEMENT AND EXPERTISE: UK: Strategies for Precautionary Commercialization of GM Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levidow Les

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available As genetically modified (GM products approach the market stage, the UK government and agro-food industry have faced a suspicious or hostile public. Since 1998 many retail chains have undertaken to exclude any GM-derived ingredients from their own-brand lines. This commercial blockage has intensified pressures for greater precaution, even for a moratorium on cultivating GM crops. Political protest has led to strategies for precautionary commercialization. Government and industry have cooperated to plan a “managed development” of GM crops. Across the agricultural supply chain, industry has devised voluntary guidelines to ensure segregation of GM crops and to limit the spread of GM herbicide-tolerance. In particular UK regulators seek to test the risk that broad-spectrum herbicide sprays could damage wildlife habitats; they have broadened the advisory expertise accordingly. These measures open up the precautionary content to further debate, at both national and EU levels. Market-stage precautions establish a means to test claims that GM crops are environmentally-friendly products. By translating public concerns into broader risk-assessment criteria, the UK procedure involves critics in potentially influencing standards of scientific evidence and environmental harm. This social process has become a prerequisite for legitimizing commercial use.

  4. Genetically modified food in the news: media representations of the GM debate in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augoustinos, Martha; Crabb, Shona; Shepherd, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses a corpus of articles on GM crops and food which appeared in six UK newspapers in the first three months of 2004, the year following the GM Nation? debate (2003). Using the methods of critical discourse analysis we focus on how specific and pervasive representations of the major stakeholders in the national debate on GM--the British public, the British government, the science of GM, and biotechnology companies--served significant rhetorical functions in the controversy. Of particular significance was the pervasive representation of the British public as uniformly opposed to GM crops and food which served rhetorically to position the British government as undemocratic and as being beholden to powerful political and economic interests. Of significance also in our analysis, is how the science of GM farming itself became a highly contested arena. In short, our analysis demonstrates how the GM debate was represented in the newsprint media as a "battleground" of competing interests. We conclude by considering the possible implications of this representation given the increasing emphasis placed on the importance of deliberative and inclusive forms of science policy decision-making.

  5. Radioimmune assay of ganglioside GM/sub 1/ synthase using cholera toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honke, K.; Taniguchi, N.; Makita, A.

    1986-01-01

    A radioimmune assay for uridine 5'-diphosphate-galactose (UDP-Gal):GM/sub 2/ galactosyltransferase, which synthesizes GM/sub 1/, has been developed utilizing cholera toxin. This assay is more sensitive and simpler than previously used assays. Radioactive nucleotide substrate and GM/sub 2/ were incubated with an enzyme sample, and a radiolabeled product, GM/sub 1/, was reacted with cholera toxin. The GM/sub 1/-cholera toxin complex was further reacted with anti-cholera toxin and Staphylococcus aureus cell suspension. The resulting complex was transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane and quantitated by liquid scintillation counting. This assay was found to be sensitive for the detection of 100 pmol of the reaction product, GM/sub 1/. With this assay method, some properties of the crude enzyme extracts from rat liver were studied. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 6.5-7.0 and required Mn/sup 2 +/. The K/sub m/ values for UDP-Gal and GM/sub 2/ were 0.12 mM and 6 ..mu..M, respectively.

  6. Ganglioside GM1 metabolism in living human fibroblasts with beta-galactosidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, G M; Hoogeveen, A T; Galjaard, H; Mansson, J E; Svennerholm, L

    1986-05-01

    The uptake and catabolism of [3H-ceramide]-GM1 was followed in living fibroblasts from patient with different forms of beta-galactosidase deficiency. Gangliosides are identified according to the nomenclature of Svennerholm (1963). A total inability to metabolize the ingested substrate was found in infantile GM1-gangliosidosis whereas cells from an adult GM1-gangliosidosis variant showed a slower rate of degradation, compared with controls. Morquio B fibroblasts had a comparable catabolism of GM1 as controls. Fibroblasts from different types of galactosialidosis, a recessive disease associated with a coexistent beta-galactosidase/neuraminidase deficiency all showed degradation of ingested GM1. In view of the molecular defect in this disease, this catabolism must be due to the 10-20% of monomeric beta-galactosidase molecules present in the lysosomes. Unexpectedly, in these cells an impaired metabolism of GM3 was found. The same finding was observed when cells with an isolated neuraminidase deficiency (mucolipidosis I) were loaded with GM1. A hypothesis is presented to explain these results.

  7. Would Consumers Value New Functional Properties of GM Food? A Choice-Modeling Approach for Rapeseed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Hartl, Jochen; Herrmann, Roland

    2009-01-01

    European consumers and, in particular, German consumers are known to be very critical towards the introduction of genetically modified (GM) foods. It is analyzed here whether German consumers do reject second-generation GMO foods, too. Whereas first-generation GM crops induced producer-related benefits, second-generation GM crops are associated with consumer-oriented benefits like an improvement of nutritional quality. The determinants of demand for second-generation GM rapeseed oil are inves...

  8. Response to issues on GM agriculture in Africa: Are transgenic crops safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenle Ademola A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The controversies surrounding transgenic crops, often called Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs, call for a need to raise the level of public awareness of Genetic Modification (GM technology in Africa. This should be accomplished by educating the public about the potential benefits and risks that may be associated with this new technology. In the last 15 years, GM crop producing countries have benefited from adoption of this new technology in the form of improved crop productivity, food security, and quality of life. The increased income to resource-poor farmers is a key benefit at the individual level especially as most countries using this technology are in the developing world, including three African countries (South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt. Despite clear benefits to countries and farmers who grow GMOs, many people are concerned about suspected potential risks associated with GMOs. This sparks debate as to whether GM technology should be adopted or not. Given the concerns regarding the safety of GMO products, thorough scientific investigation of safe application of GMOs is required. The objective of this paper is to respond to the issues of GM agriculture in Africa and some of the issues surrounding the adoption of GM crops between developed and developing countries. In this article, I analyse relevant papers relating to the adoption of GM technology particularly in developing countries including the few African countries that have adopted GM crops. The issues discussed span a wide range including: safety; potential benefits and risks; disputes between the United States of America (USA and the European Union (EU over adoption of GM crops with a focus on Africa continent. This article is concluded by summarising the issues raised and how GM technology can be adopted for agricultural development in Africa.

  9. Response to issues on GM agriculture in Africa: Are transgenic crops safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenle, Ademola A

    2011-10-08

    The controversies surrounding transgenic crops, often called Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), call for a need to raise the level of public awareness of Genetic Modification (GM) technology in Africa. This should be accomplished by educating the public about the potential benefits and risks that may be associated with this new technology. In the last 15 years, GM crop producing countries have benefited from adoption of this new technology in the form of improved crop productivity, food security, and quality of life. The increased income to resource-poor farmers is a key benefit at the individual level especially as most countries using this technology are in the developing world, including three African countries (South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt). Despite clear benefits to countries and farmers who grow GMOs, many people are concerned about suspected potential risks associated with GMOs. This sparks debate as to whether GM technology should be adopted or not. Given the concerns regarding the safety of GMO products, thorough scientific investigation of safe application of GMOs is required. The objective of this paper is to respond to the issues of GM agriculture in Africa and some of the issues surrounding the adoption of GM crops between developed and developing countries. In this article, I analyse relevant papers relating to the adoption of GM technology particularly in developing countries including the few African countries that have adopted GM crops. The issues discussed span a wide range including: safety; potential benefits and risks; disputes between the United States of America (USA) and the European Union (EU) over adoption of GM crops with a focus on Africa continent. This article is concluded by summarising the issues raised and how GM technology can be adopted for agricultural development in Africa.

  10. MafB antagonizes phenotypic alteration induced by GM-CSF in microglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshida, Ryusuke, E-mail: rkoshida-myz@umin.ac.jp; Oishi, Hisashi, E-mail: hoishi@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Hamada, Michito; Takahashi, Satoru

    2015-07-17

    Microglia are tissue-resident macrophages which are distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies suggest that microglia are a unique myeloid population distinct from peripheral macrophages in terms of origin and gene expression signature. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a pleiotropic cytokine regulating myeloid development, has been shown to stimulate proliferation and alter phenotype of microglia in vitro. However, how its signaling is modulated in microglia is poorly characterized. MafB, a bZip transcriptional factor, is highly expressed in monocyte-macrophage lineage cells including microglia, although its role in microglia is largely unknown. We investigated the crosstalk between GM-CSF signaling and MafB by analyzing primary microglia. We found that Mafb-deficient microglia grew more rapidly than wild-type microglia in response to GM-CSF. Moreover, the expression of genes associated with microglial differentiation was more downregulated in Mafb-deficient microglia cultured with GM-CSF. Notably, such differences between the genotypes were not observed in the presence of M-CSF. In addition, we found that Mafb-deficient microglia cultured with GM-CSF barely extended their membrane protrusions, probably due to abnormal activation of RhoA, a key regulator of cytoskeletal remodeling. Altogether, our study reveals that MafB is a negative regulator of GM-CSF signaling in microglia. These findings could provide new insight into the modulation of cytokine signaling by transcription factors in microglia. - Highlights: • GM-CSF alters the phenotype of microglia in vitro more potently than M-CSF. • Transcription factor MafB antagonizes the effect of GM-CSF on microglia in vitro. • MafB deficiency leads to RhoA activation in microglia in response to GM-CSF. • We show for the first time the function of MafB in microglia.

  11. Response to issues on GM agriculture in Africa: Are transgenic crops safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The controversies surrounding transgenic crops, often called Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), call for a need to raise the level of public awareness of Genetic Modification (GM) technology in Africa. This should be accomplished by educating the public about the potential benefits and risks that may be associated with this new technology. In the last 15 years, GM crop producing countries have benefited from adoption of this new technology in the form of improved crop productivity, food security, and quality of life. The increased income to resource-poor farmers is a key benefit at the individual level especially as most countries using this technology are in the developing world, including three African countries (South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt). Despite clear benefits to countries and farmers who grow GMOs, many people are concerned about suspected potential risks associated with GMOs. This sparks debate as to whether GM technology should be adopted or not. Given the concerns regarding the safety of GMO products, thorough scientific investigation of safe application of GMOs is required. The objective of this paper is to respond to the issues of GM agriculture in Africa and some of the issues surrounding the adoption of GM crops between developed and developing countries. In this article, I analyse relevant papers relating to the adoption of GM technology particularly in developing countries including the few African countries that have adopted GM crops. The issues discussed span a wide range including: safety; potential benefits and risks; disputes between the United States of America (USA) and the European Union (EU) over adoption of GM crops with a focus on Africa continent. This article is concluded by summarising the issues raised and how GM technology can be adopted for agricultural development in Africa. PMID:21981823

  12. Genetic Diversity of Aegilops cylindrica Species from West of Iran Using Morphological and Phenological Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arabbeigi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aegilops cylindrica species (CCDD, 2n = 4x = 28 is one of the wild relatives of wheat and hence known as a valuable source of genes related to biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. In this study genetic variation of 66 Aegilops cylindrica genotypes collected from west and northwestern of Iran was evaluated using quantitative and qualitative morphological traits. The results indicated that glumelle (lemma length and glume color traits had the highest variation as the quantitative and qualitative traits, respectively. The principal components analysis (PCA indicated 6 components that first component justified %30.3 total variation. Flag leaf color and fluffiness had the highest contribution in this component and thus the first component named as the flag leaf component. The cluster analysis divided the studied genotypes into three groups.  Genotypes originating from west of Iran were included in the first group and genotypes from northwestern Iran were clustered into the second and third groups. It could be concluded that the high genetic variation among genotypes of Ae. cylindrica revealed in this study can be utilized to improve wheat particularly for tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  13. Long-chain GM1 gangliosides alter transmembrane domain registration through interdigitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manna, Moutusi; Javanainen, Matti; Monne, Hector Martinez Seara

    2017-01-01

    together. Based on atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we find that long-chain GM1 in the extracellular leaflet exhibits a strong tendency to protrude into the opposing bilayer leaflet. This interdigitation modulates the order in the cytosolic monolayer and thereby strengthens the interaction...... and coupling across a membrane. Coarse-grained simulations probing longer time scales in large membrane systems indicate that GM1 in the extracellular leaflet modulates the phase behavior in the cytosolic monolayer. While short-chain GM1 maintains phase-symmetric bilayers with a strong membrane registration...

  14. An empirical test of competing theories of hazard-related trust: the case of GM food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allum, Nick

    2007-08-01

    Few scholars doubt the importance of trust in explaining variation in public perception of technological risk. Relatively little, however, is known about the particular types of judgments that people use in granting or withholding trust. This article presents findings from an empirical study that explores several dimensions of trust relevant for citizens' judgments of scientists involved in the development of GM food. The relationship between particular dimensions of trust and perceptions of GM food risk is also explored, using structural equation modeling. Results suggest that trust judgments based on the perception of shared values are most important in relation to GM food risk, but that judgments about scientists' technical competence are also important.

  15. Atypical adult GM1 gangliosidosis: biochemical comparison with other forms of primary beta-galactosidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, T; Naoi, M; Takahashi, A; Hoshino, M; Nagai, Y; Nagatsu, T

    1986-09-01

    We studied beta-galactosidase in skin fibroblasts from patients with different forms of beta-galactosidase deficiency: adult GM1 gangliosidosis, type 1 GM1 gangliosidosis, and Morquio B syndrome. Enzyme properties in the adult cases differed from the other disorders and also from normal controls. Genetic hybridization studies indicated that all three forms belong to the same complementation group. Therefore, the adult disorder must be due to a mutation of the structural gene for beta-galactosidase, which is allelic to the mutations in type 1 GM1 gangliosidosis and Morquio B syndrome.

  16. Ontogeny of the granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cell (GM-CFC) pools in the beagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothdurft, W; Braasch, E; Calvo, W; Prümmer, O; Carbonell, F; Grilli, G; Fliedner, T M

    1984-04-01

    The pattern of development of the granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cell (GM-CFC) pools in the course of canine ontogeny was studied by means of the agar culture technique. Colony formation was stimulated by colony stimulating activity (CSA) in serum from lethally irradiated dogs in combination with erythrocyte-depleted peripheral blood leukocytes from normal adult dogs. The colonies thus obtained in cultures from the different organs were in general large (estimated maximum 50 000 cells) and consisted predominantly of mononucleated macrophages, suggesting that, in these studies, a progenitor cell with high proliferative potential (HPP-CFC) has been monitored. In the yolk sac, a transitory GM-CFC pool became established between day 23 and day 48 of gestation, reaching maximum numbers of approximately 41 X 10(3) per organ on days 36/37. At the same time the GM-CFC concentration in blood collected from the heart also reached a maximum of about 31 X 10(3)/ml, indicating its carrier function for the migration of GM-CFC. In the liver a quasi-exponential increase in the GM-CFC numbers took place between days 36/37 and days 57 to 59 when a total of about 15.2 X 10(6) was found but thereafter and up to day 4 post partum the GM-CFC numbers decreased by almost two orders of magnitude. A continuous increase in the GM-CFC numbers was found in the spleen between day 42 of gestation and day 4 post partum when a maximum of 5.1 X 10(6) to 8.7 X 10(6) was reached. In contrast to the GM-CFC numbers in the liver, the splenic GM-CFC dropped only by 50% of peak values when the dogs reached adulthood. The bone marrow always had the highest incidence of GM-CFC, the concentration per 10(6) cells being 18.7 X 10(3)/10(6) cells on days 45/46, the earliest time point at which cultures could be set up.