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Sample records for stress wss existed

  1. Electric foot shock stress adaptation: Does it exist or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2015-06-01

    Stress adaptation is a protective phenomenon against repeated stress exposure and is characterized by a decreased responsiveness to a repeated stress stimulus. The adaptation is associated with a complex cascade of events, including the changes in behavior, neurotransmitter and gene expression levels. The non-adaptation or maladaptation to stress may underlie the affective disorders, such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Electric foot shock is a complex stressor, which includes both physical and emotional components. Unlike immobilization, restraint and cold immersion stress, the phenomenon of stress adaptation is not very well defined in response to electric foot shock. A number of preclinical studies have reported the development of adaptation to electric foot shock stress. However, evidence also reveals the non-adaptive behavior in response to foot shocks. The distinct adaptive/non-adaptive responses may be possibly influenced by the type, intensity, and duration of the stress. The present review discusses the existence or non-existence of adaptation to electric foot shock stress along with possible mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Contrast-enhanced micro-CT imaging in murine carotid arteries: A new protocol for computing wall shear stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xing, R. (Ruoyu); Wilde, D. (David); McCann, G. (Gayle); Y. Ridwan (Yanto); J.T.C. Schrauwen (Jelle); A.F.W. Steen (Antonius F.W.); F.J.H. Gijsen (Frank); Heiden, K. (Kim)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Wall shear stress (WSS) is involved in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. The correlation between WSS and atherosclerosis can be investigated over time using a WSS-manipulated atherosclerotic mouse model. To determine WSS in vivo, detailed 3D geometry of the vessel

  3. Upper Bounds for the Rate Distortion Function of Finite-Length Data Blocks of Gaussian WSS Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present upper bounds for the rate distortion function (RDF of finite-length data blocks of Gaussian wide sense stationary (WSS sources and we propose coding strategies to achieve such bounds. In order to obtain those bounds, we previously derive new results on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT of WSS processes.

  4. Accounting aspects of contracts for the operation of public water supply assets in WSS operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedyalka Alexandrova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates and analyses the nature of the Contracts for exploitation of WSS assets concluded between the Water Supply and Sewerage Associations and operators under the Water Act in order to outline the opportunities for accounting of the assets and liabilities resulting from these contracts. The contracts, as well as the WSS Associations, are new and unique for Bulgarian practice phenomena, affecting the entire water supply sector and their reporting poses considerable difficulties in practice. The article is based on an analysis of the normative requirements of the Water Act, a study of the clauses of the contracts, as well as their comparison with the concession contracts. Based on the analysis of their economic nature and under the requirements of the International Accounting Standards, a model of accounting for the assets and liabilities arising from these contracts is proposed, including their presentation and valuation in the financial statements of the operators.

  5. Real World SharePoint 2007 Indispensable Experiences From 16 MOSS and WSS MVPs

    CERN Document Server

    Hillier, Scot; Buenz, Adam; Connell, Andrew; Draper, Stacy; Solier Grinda, Luis Du; Klindt, Todd; Medero, Jason; Miller, Dustin; Perran, Shane; Poelmans, Joris; Solomon, Heather; Swan, Nick; Tielens, Jan; Walsh, Mike; Young, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft recognizes key individuals who contribute significantly to the community of technologists through the Microsoft Most Valuable Professional (MVP) award. These individuals are active authors, speakers, bloggers, and innovators. They are also skilled network engineers, developers, trainers, designers, and architects. In the SharePoint community, these MVPs are recognized for their expertise in either Windows SharePoint Services (WSS) or Microsoft Office SharePoint Server (MOSS). This book represents the efforts of 16 MVPs in the SharePoint community to present core areas of SharePoint 2

  6. Volumetric Arterial Wall Shear Stress Calculation Based on Cine Phase Contrast MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, Wouter V.; van Ooij, Pim; Marquering, Henk; VanBavel, Ed; Nederveen, Aart J.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo assess the accuracy and precision of a volumetric wall shear stress (WSS) calculation method applied to cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) data. Materials and MethodsVolumetric WSS vectors were calculated in software phantoms. WSS algorithm parameters were optimized

  7. Augmentation of wall shear stress inhibits neointimal hyperplasia after stent implantation - Inhibition through reduction of inflammation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlier, SG; van Damme, LCA; Blommerde, CP; Wentzel, JJ; van Langehove, G; Verheye, S; Kockx, MM; Knaapen, MWM; Cheng, C; Gijsen, F; Duncker, DJ; Stergiopulos, N; Slager, CJ; Serruys, PW; Krams, R

    2003-01-01

    Background - Low wall shear stress (WSS) increases neointimal hyperplasia (NH) in vein grafts and stents. We studied the causal relationship between WSS and NH formation in stents by locally increasing WSS with a flow divider (Anti-Restenotic Diffuser, Endoart SA) placed in the center of the stent.

  8. Existence of longitudinal waves in pre-stressed anisotropic elastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    waves is truly longitudinal. Longitudinal wave in an anisotropic elastic medium is defined as the wave motion in which the particle motion (i.e., the. Keywords. General anisotropy; elastic stiffness; pre-stress; group velocity; ray direction; longitudinal waves; polarization. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 118, No. 6, December 2009, pp. 677– ...

  9. Wall shear stress fixed points in cardiovascular fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn C

    2018-05-17

    Complex blood flow in large arteries creates rich wall shear stress (WSS) vectorial features. WSS acts as a link between blood flow dynamics and the biology of various cardiovascular diseases. WSS has been of great interest in a wide range of studies and has been the most popular measure to correlate blood flow to cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have emphasized different vectorial features of WSS. However, fixed points in the WSS vector field have not received much attention. A WSS fixed point is a point on the vessel wall where the WSS vector vanishes. In this article, WSS fixed points are classified and the aspects by which they could influence cardiovascular disease are reviewed. First, the connection between WSS fixed points and the flow topology away from the vessel wall is discussed. Second, the potential role of time-averaged WSS fixed points in biochemical mass transport is demonstrated using the recent concept of Lagrangian WSS structures. Finally, simple measures are proposed to quantify the exposure of the endothelial cells to WSS fixed points. Examples from various arterial flow applications are demonstrated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Motional Effect on Wall Shear Stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Samuel Alberg; Torben Fründ, Ernst; Yong Kim, Won

    Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and severe disability. Wall Shear Stress (WSS), the stress exerted on vessel walls by the flowing blood is a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used for WSS estimations. Most CFD simulations...... are based on static models to ease computational burden leading to inaccurate estimations. The aim of this work was to estimate the effect of vessel wall deformations (expansion and bending) on WSS levels....

  11. Understanding the fluid mechanics behind transverse wall shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamied, Yumnah; Sherwin, Spencer J; Weinberg, Peter D

    2017-01-04

    The patchy distribution of atherosclerosis within arteries is widely attributed to local variation in haemodynamic wall shear stress (WSS). A recently-introduced metric, the transverse wall shear stress (transWSS), which is the average over the cardiac cycle of WSS components perpendicular to the temporal mean WSS vector, correlates particularly well with the pattern of lesions around aortic branch ostia. Here we use numerical methods to investigate the nature of the arterial flows captured by transWSS and the sensitivity of transWSS to inflow waveform and aortic geometry. TransWSS developed chiefly in the acceleration, peak systolic and deceleration phases of the cardiac cycle; the reverse flow phase was too short, and WSS in diastole was too low, for these periods to have a significant influence. Most of the spatial variation in transWSS arose from variation in the angle by which instantaneous WSS vectors deviated from the mean WSS vector rather than from variation in the magnitude of the vectors. The pattern of transWSS was insensitive to inflow waveform; only unphysiologically high Womersley numbers produced substantial changes. However, transWSS was sensitive to changes in geometry. The curvature of the arch and proximal descending aorta were responsible for the principal features, the non-planar nature of the aorta produced asymmetries in the location and position of streaks of high transWSS, and taper determined the persistence of the streaks down the aorta. These results reflect the importance of the fluctuating strength of Dean vortices in generating transWSS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wall shear stress fixed points in blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn

    2017-11-01

    Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics produces large datasets, and wall shear stress (WSS) is one of the most important parameters due to its close connection with the biological processes at the wall. While some studies have investigated WSS vectorial features, the WSS fixed points have not received much attention. In this talk, we will discuss the importance of WSS fixed points from three viewpoints. First, we will review how WSS fixed points relate to the flow physics away from the wall. Second, we will discuss how certain types of WSS fixed points lead to high biochemical surface concentration in cardiovascular mass transport problems. Finally, we will introduce a new measure to track the exposure of endothelial cells to WSS fixed points.

  13. BOF4WSS : a business-oriented framework for enhancing web services security for e-business

    OpenAIRE

    Nurse, Jason R. C.; Sinclair, Jane

    2009-01-01

    When considering Web services' (WS) use for online business-to-business (B2B) collaboration between companies, security is a complicated and very topical issue. This is especially true with regard to reaching a level of security beyond the technological layer, that is supported and trusted by all businesses involved. With appreciation of this fact, our research draws from established development methodologies to develop a new, business-oriented framework (BOF4WSS) to guide e-businesses in def...

  14. Osteomalacia and coxa vara. An unusual co-existence for femoral neck stress fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim Sariyilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Joint and bone pain without any trauma should be investigated and bone metabolism disorders should be kept in mind. There might be co-existing factors related with stress fractures, and they must be treated simultaneously.

  15. The mutual influence of krypton implantation and pre-existing stress states in polycrystalline alpha titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsengiyumva, S. [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Kigali Institute of Education, P.O. Box 5039 Kigali (Rwanda)], E-mail: schadrack.nsengiyumva@uct.ac.za; Ntsoane, T.P. [Nuclear Energy Corporation of South Africa (NECSA), P.O. Box 582 (South Africa); Raji, A.T. [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Topic, M. [iThemba LABS, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Kellermann, G. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas (Brazil); Riviere, J.P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux UMR6630-CNRS, 86960 (France); Britton, D.T.; Haerting, M. [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2009-08-15

    The stress profile in polycrystalline titanium implanted with krypton ions at different fluences has been determined using synchrotron radiation diffraction. For each fluence, the krypton profile has been measured using Rutherford backscattering geometry. The results were compared to model calculations obtained from the SRIM 2008 computer code. A strong stress relaxation was found for high fluence implantation, whereas for low fluence implantation an additional source of tensile stress was introduced in the near surface region. The projected range of the implanted krypton was significantly reduced compared to the expected range. A possible cause of this discrepancy is the drift of implanted ions under the influence of the pre-existing stress gradient.

  16. The mutual influence of krypton implantation and pre-existing stress states in polycrystalline alpha titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nsengiyumva, S.; Ntsoane, T.P.; Raji, A.T.; Topic, M.; Kellermann, G.; Riviere, J.P.; Britton, D.T.; Haerting, M.

    2009-01-01

    The stress profile in polycrystalline titanium implanted with krypton ions at different fluences has been determined using synchrotron radiation diffraction. For each fluence, the krypton profile has been measured using Rutherford backscattering geometry. The results were compared to model calculations obtained from the SRIM 2008 computer code. A strong stress relaxation was found for high fluence implantation, whereas for low fluence implantation an additional source of tensile stress was introduced in the near surface region. The projected range of the implanted krypton was significantly reduced compared to the expected range. A possible cause of this discrepancy is the drift of implanted ions under the influence of the pre-existing stress gradient.

  17. Heat induced fracturing of rock in an existing uniaxial stress field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, J.; Stephansson, O.; Bjarnason, B.; Hakami, H.; Herdocia, A.; Mattila, U.; Singh, U.

    1986-01-01

    This study was initiated under the premise that it may be possible to determine the state of stress in the earth's crust by heat induced fracturing of the rock surrounding a borehole. The theory involved is superficially simple, involving the superposition of the stress field around a borehole due to the existing virgin stresses and the uniform stress field of thermally loaded rock as induced by a heater. Since the heat stress field is uniform, varying only in magnitude and gradient as a function of heater input, fracturing should be controlled by the non-uniform virgin stress field. To determine if the method was, in fact, feasible, a series of laboratory test were conducted. These tests consisted of physically loading center drilled cubes of rock, 0.3 m on a side, uniaxially from 0 to 25 MPa. The blocks were then thermally loaded with a nominally rated 3.7 kW heater until failure occurred. Results from these laboratory tests were then compared to analytical studies of the problem, i.e., finite element and discrete theoretical analysis. Overall, results were such that the method is likely eliminated as a stress measurement technique. The immediate development of a thermal compressive zone on the borehole wall overlaps the tensile zone created by the uniaxial stress field, forcing the failure is thus controlled largely by the power input of the heater, being retarded by the small compressive stresses genrated by the uniaxial stress field. This small retardation effect is of such low magnitude that the retardation effect is of such low magnitude that the fracture time is relatively insensitive to the local virgin stress field. (authors)

  18. Wall Shear Stress Estimation of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Febina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to evaluate the effects of wall shear stress (WSS on thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Aneurysm is an excessive localized swelling of the arterial wall due to many physiological factors and it may rupture causing shock or sudden death. The existing imaging modalities such as MRI and CT assist in the visualization of anomalies in internal organs. However, the expected dynamic behaviour of arterial bulge under stressed condition can only be effectively evaluated through mathematical modelling. In this work, a 3D aneurysm model is reconstructed from the CT scan slices and eventually the model is imported to Star CCM+ (Siemens, USA for intensive CFD analysis. The domain is discretized using polyhedral mesh with prism layers to capture the weakening boundary more accurately. When there is flow reversal in TAA as seen in the velocity vector plot, there is a chance of cell damage causing clots. This is because of the shear created in the system due to the flow pattern. It is observed from the proposed mathematical modelling that the deteriorating WSS is an indicator for possible rupture and its value oscillates over a cardiac cycle as well as over different stress conditions. In this model, the vortex formation pattern and flow reversals are also captured. The non-Newtonian model, including a pulsatile flow instead of a steady average flow, does not overpredict the WSS (15.29 Pa compared to 16 Pa for the Newtonian model. Although in a cycle the flow behaviour is laminar-turbulent-laminar (LTL, utilizing the non-Newtonian model along with LTL model also overpredicted the WSS with a value of 20.1 Pa. The numerical study presented here provides good insight of TAA using a systematic approach to numerical modelling and analysis.

  19. Flow and wall shear stress in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomosis of venous coronary artery bypass grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulikakos Dimos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery represents the standard treatment of advanced coronary artery disease. Two major types of anastomosis exist to connect the graft to the coronary artery, i.e., by using an end-to-side or a side-to-side anastomosis. There is still controversy because of the differences in the patency rates of the two types of anastomosis. The purpose of this paper is to non-invasively quantify hemodynamic parameters, such as mass flow and wall shear stress (WSS, in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomoses of patients with CABG using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. Methods One patient with saphenous CABG and end-to-side anastomosis and one patient with saphenous CABG and side-to-side anastomosis underwent 16-detector row computed tomography (CT. Geometric models of coronary arteries and bypasses were reconstructed for CFD analysis. Blood flow was considered pulsatile, laminar, incompressible and Newtonian. Peri-anastomotic mass flow and WSS were quantified and flow patterns visualized. Results CFD analysis based on in-vivo CT coronary angiography data was feasible in both patients. For both types of CABG, flow patterns were characterized by a retrograde flow into the native coronary artery. WSS variations were found in both anastomoses types, with highest WSS values at the heel and lowest WSS values at the floor of the end-to-side anastomosis. In contrast, the highest WSS values of the side-to-side anastomosis configuration were found in stenotic vessel segments and not in the close vicinity of the anastomosis. Flow stagnation zones were found in end-to-side but not in side-to-side anastomosis, the latter also demonstrating a smoother stream division throughout the cardiac cycle. Conclusion CFD analysis of venous CABG based on in-vivo CT datasets in patients was feasible producing qualitative and quantitative information on mass flow and WSS. Differences were found between the two types of anastomosis

  20. High wall shear stress and spatial gradients in vascular pathology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Jennifer M; Kolega, John; Meng, Hui

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular pathologies such as intracranial aneurysms (IAs) and atherosclerosis preferentially localize to bifurcations and curvatures where hemodynamics are complex. While extensive knowledge about low wall shear stress (WSS) has been generated in the past, due to its strong relevance to atherogenesis, high WSS (typically >3 Pa) has emerged as a key regulator of vascular biology and pathology as well, receiving renewed interests. As reviewed here, chronic high WSS not only stimulates adaptive outward remodeling, but also contributes to saccular IA formation (at bifurcation apices or outer curves) and atherosclerotic plaque destabilization (in stenosed vessels). Recent advances in understanding IA pathogenesis have shed new light on the role of high WSS in pathological vascular remodeling. In complex geometries, high WSS can couple with significant spatial WSS gradient (WSSG). A combination of high WSS and positive WSSG has been shown to trigger aneurysm initiation. Since endothelial cells (ECs) are sensors of WSS, we have begun to elucidate EC responses to high WSS alone and in combination with WSSG. Understanding such responses will provide insight into not only aneurysm formation, but also plaque destabilization and other vascular pathologies and potentially lead to improved strategies for disease management and novel targets for pharmacological intervention.

  1. Relationship Between Endothelial Wall Shear Stress and High-Risk Atherosclerotic Plaque Characteristics for Identification of Coronary Lesions That Cause Ischemia: A Direct Comparison With Fractional Flow Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Donghee; Starikov, Anna; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Gransar, Heidi; Kolli, Kranthi K; Lee, Ji Hyun; Rizvi, Asim; Baskaran, Lohendran; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Lin, Fay Y; Min, James K

    2016-12-19

    Wall shear stress (WSS) is an established predictor of coronary atherosclerosis progression. Prior studies have reported that high WSS has been associated with high-risk atherosclerotic plaque characteristics (APCs). WSS and APCs are quantifiable by coronary computed tomography angiography, but the relationship of coronary lesion ischemia-evaluated by fractional flow reserve-to WSS and APCs has not been examined. WSS measures were obtained from 100 evaluable patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography and invasive coronary angiography with fractional flow reserve. Patients were categorized according to tertiles of mean WSS values defined as low, intermediate, and high. Coronary ischemia was defined as fractional flow reserve ≤0.80. Stenosis severity was determined by minimal luminal diameter. APCs were defined as positive remodeling, low attenuation plaque, and spotty calcification. The likelihood of having positive remodeling and low-attenuation plaque was greater in the high WSS group compared with the low WSS group after adjusting for minimal luminal diameter (odds ratio for positive remodeling: 2.54, 95% CI 1.12-5.77; odds ratio for low-attenuation plaque: 2.68, 95% CI 1.02-7.06; both Prelationship was observed between WSS and fractional flow reserve when adjusting for either minimal luminal diameter or APCs. WSS displayed no incremental benefit above stenosis severity and APCs for detecting lesions that caused ischemia (area under the curve for stenosis and APCs: 0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.93; area under the curve for stenosis, APCs, and WSS: 0.88, 95% CI 0.82-0.93; P=0.30 for difference). High WSS is associated with APCs independent of stenosis severity. WSS provided no added value beyond stenosis severity and APCs for detecting lesions with significant ischemia. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  2. Wall shear stress in portal vein of cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Pu, Yan-Song; Wang, Xin-Kai; Jiang, An; Zhou, Rui; Li, Yu; Zhang, Qiu-Juan; Wei, Ya-Juan; Chen, Bin; Li, Zong-Fang

    2017-05-14

    To investigate wall shear stress (WSS) magnitude and distribution in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension using computational fluid dynamics. Idealized portal vein (PV) system models were reconstructed with different angles of the PV-splenic vein (SV) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV)-SV. Patient-specific models were created according to enhanced computed tomography images. WSS was simulated by using a finite-element analyzer, regarding the blood as a Newtonian fluid and the vessel as a rigid wall. Analysis was carried out to compare the WSS in the portal hypertension group with that in healthy controls. For the idealized models, WSS in the portal hypertension group (0-10 dyn/cm 2 ) was significantly lower than that in the healthy controls (10-20 dyn/cm 2 ), and low WSS area (0-1 dyn/cm 2 ) only occurred in the left wall of the PV in the portal hypertension group. Different angles of PV-SV and SMV-SV had different effects on the magnitude and distribution of WSS, and low WSS area often occurred in smaller PV-SV angle and larger SMV-SV angle. In the patient-specific models, WSS in the cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension (10.13 ± 1.34 dyn/cm 2 ) was also significantly lower than that in the healthy controls ( P portal hypertension, the low WSS area extended to wider levels and the magnitude of WSS reached lower levels, thereby being more prone to disturbed flow occurrence. Cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension show dramatic hemodynamic changes with lower WSS and greater potential for disturbed flow, representing a possible causative factor of PV thrombosis.

  3. Influence of the Accuracy of Angiography-Based Reconstructions on Velocity and Wall Shear Stress Computations in Coronary Bifurcations: A Phantom Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauwen, Jelle T. C.; Karanasos, Antonios; van Ditzhuijzen, Nienke S.; Aben, Jean-Paul; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Wall shear stress (WSS) plays a key role in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries. Especially sites with low and oscillating WSS near bifurcations have a higher propensity to develop atherosclerosis. WSS computations in coronary bifurcations can be performed in angiography-based 3D reconstructions. It is essential to evaluate how reconstruction errors influence WSS computations in mildly-diseased coronary bifurcations. In mildly-diseased lesions WSS could potentially provide more insight in plaque progression. Materials Methods Four Plexiglas phantom models of coronary bifurcations were imaged with bi-plane angiography. The lumens were segmented by two clinically experienced readers. Based on the segmentations 3D models were generated. This resulted in three models per phantom: one gold-standard from the phantom model itself, and one from each reader. Steady-state and transient simulations were performed with computational fluid dynamics to compute the WSS. A similarity index and a noninferiority test were used to compare the WSS in the phantoms and their reconstructions. The margin for this test was based on the resolution constraints of angiography. Results The reconstruction errors were similar to previously reported data; in seven out of eight reconstructions less than 0.10 mm. WSS in the regions proximal and far distal of the stenosis showed a good agreement. However, the low WSS areas directly distal of the stenosis showed some disagreement between the phantoms and the readers. This was due to small deviations in the reconstruction of the stenosis that caused differences in the resulting jet, and consequently the size and location of the low WSS area. Discussion This study showed that WSS can accurately be computed within angiography-based 3D reconstructions of coronary arteries with early stage atherosclerosis. Qualitatively, there was a good agreement between the phantoms and the readers. Quantitatively, the

  4. Influence of the Accuracy of Angiography-Based Reconstructions on Velocity and Wall Shear Stress Computations in Coronary Bifurcations: A Phantom Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle T C Schrauwen

    Full Text Available Wall shear stress (WSS plays a key role in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries. Especially sites with low and oscillating WSS near bifurcations have a higher propensity to develop atherosclerosis. WSS computations in coronary bifurcations can be performed in angiography-based 3D reconstructions. It is essential to evaluate how reconstruction errors influence WSS computations in mildly-diseased coronary bifurcations. In mildly-diseased lesions WSS could potentially provide more insight in plaque progression.Four Plexiglas phantom models of coronary bifurcations were imaged with bi-plane angiography. The lumens were segmented by two clinically experienced readers. Based on the segmentations 3D models were generated. This resulted in three models per phantom: one gold-standard from the phantom model itself, and one from each reader. Steady-state and transient simulations were performed with computational fluid dynamics to compute the WSS. A similarity index and a noninferiority test were used to compare the WSS in the phantoms and their reconstructions. The margin for this test was based on the resolution constraints of angiography.The reconstruction errors were similar to previously reported data; in seven out of eight reconstructions less than 0.10 mm. WSS in the regions proximal and far distal of the stenosis showed a good agreement. However, the low WSS areas directly distal of the stenosis showed some disagreement between the phantoms and the readers. This was due to small deviations in the reconstruction of the stenosis that caused differences in the resulting jet, and consequently the size and location of the low WSS area.This study showed that WSS can accurately be computed within angiography-based 3D reconstructions of coronary arteries with early stage atherosclerosis. Qualitatively, there was a good agreement between the phantoms and the readers. Quantitatively, the low WSS regions directly distal to

  5. Design and implementation of flexible TWDM-PON with PtP WDM overlay based on WSS for next-generation optical access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Yin, Hongxi; Qin, Jie; Liu, Chang; Liu, Anliang; Shao, Qi; Xu, Xiaoguang

    2016-09-01

    Aiming at the increasing demand of the diversification services and flexible bandwidth allocation of the future access networks, a flexible passive optical network (PON) scheme combining time and wavelength division multiplexing (TWDM) with point-to-point wavelength division multiplexing (PtP WDM) overlay is proposed for the next-generation optical access networks in this paper. A novel software-defined optical distribution network (ODN) structure is designed based on wavelength selective switches (WSS), which can implement wavelength and bandwidth dynamical allocations and suits for the bursty traffic. The experimental results reveal that the TWDM-PON can provide 40 Gb/s downstream and 10 Gb/s upstream data transmission, while the PtP WDM-PON can support 10 GHz point-to-point dedicated bandwidth as the overlay complement system. The wavelengths of the TWDM-PON and PtP WDM-PON are allocated dynamically based on WSS, which verifies the feasibility of the proposed structure.

  6. Pre-existing high glucocorticoid receptor number predicting development of posttraumatic stress symptoms after military deployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuiden, Mirjam; Geuze, Elbert; Willemen, Hanneke L. D. M.; Vermetten, Eric; Maas, Mirjam; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Kavelaars, Annemieke

    2011-01-01

    The development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is influenced by preexisting vulnerability factors. The authors aimed at identifying a preexisting biomarker representing a vulnerability factor for the development of PTSD. To that end, they determined whether the dexamethasone binding

  7. Stress Prediction for Distributed Structural Health Monitoring Using Existing Measurements and Pattern Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Teng, Jun; Zhou, Qiushi; Peng, Qiexin

    2018-02-01

    The stress in structural steel members is the most useful and directly measurable physical quantity to evaluate the structural safety in structural health monitoring, which is also an important index to evaluate the stress distribution and force condition of structures during structural construction and service phases. Thus, it is common to set stress as a measure in steel structural monitoring. Considering the economy and the importance of the structural members, there are only a limited number of sensors that can be placed, which means that it is impossible to obtain the stresses of all members directly using sensors. This study aims to develop a stress response prediction method for locations where there are insufficent sensors, using measurements from a limited number of sensors and pattern recognition. The detailed improved aspects are: (1) a distributed computing process is proposed, where the same pattern is recognized by several subsets of measurements; and (2) the pattern recognition using the subset of measurements is carried out by considering the optimal number of sensors and number of fusion patterns. The validity and feasibility of the proposed method are verified using two examples: the finite-element simulation of a single-layer shell-like steel structure, and the structural health monitoring of the space steel roof of Shenzhen Bay Stadium; for the latter, the anti-noise performance of this method is verified by the stress measurements from a real-world project.

  8. Pulsatility Index as a Diagnostic Parameter of Reciprocating Wall Shear Stress Parameters in Physiological Pulsating Waveforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idit Avrahami

    Full Text Available Arterial wall shear stress (WSS parameters are widely used for prediction of the initiation and development of atherosclerosis and arterial pathologies. Traditional clinical evaluation of arterial condition relies on correlations of WSS parameters with average flow rate (Q and heart rate (HR measurements. We show that for pulsating flow waveforms in a straight tube with flow reversals that lead to significant reciprocating WSS, the measurements of HR and Q are not sufficient for prediction of WSS parameters. Therefore, we suggest adding a third quantity-known as the pulsatility index (PI-which is defined as the peak-to-peak flow rate amplitude normalized by Q. We examine several pulsating flow waveforms with and without flow reversals using a simulation of a Womersley model in a straight rigid tube and validate the simulations through experimental study using particle image velocimetry (PIV. The results indicate that clinically relevant WSS parameters such as the percentage of negative WSS (P[%], oscillating shear index (OSI and the ratio of minimum to maximum shear stress rates (min/max, are better predicted when the PI is used in conjunction with HR and Q. Therefore, we propose to use PI as an additional and essential diagnostic quantity for improved predictability of the reciprocating WSS.

  9. The use of high altitude remote sensing in determining existing vegetation and monitoring ecological stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, K.; Garcia, A.

    1972-01-01

    High altitude color and multispectral black and white photography was used to survey existing vegetation and soil conditions on the Empire Ranch where large scale development will soon begin. Utilizing stereo pairs of the high altitude color photography, four vegetation classifications were discernable as a function of topography and foliage characteristics. In contrast to the undeveloped Ranch, the same photography was used to detect environmental changes in the Tucson metropolitan area as a result of rapid urbanization. The most prevalent change related to development is the removal of vegetation in high density areas to allow for housing starts. Erosion then occurs where vegetation has been removed.

  10. Effect of co-existing plant specie on soil microbial activity under heavy metal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwuche, C. O.; Ugoji, E. O.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of plant primary compounds on the activity of soil microbial communities under heavy metal stress was studied in a pot-culture field experiment conducted in a green house. Amaranthus spinosus was cultivated in an agricultural soil previously amended in the laboratory with solutions of different trace elements in two separate treatment modes: singly and in combination. Culture-independent metabolism based indices such as the rate of carbon and nitrogen mineralization, microbial biomass carbon and soil basal respiration were monitored fortnightly over a period of six weeks. Result shows that plant detritus have significant modifying effect on soil microbe-metal interactions. Data on microbial and biochemical processes in the respective mesocosms did not vary from control; not even in mesocosms containing very high concentrations of copper, zinc and nickel. The soil microbial biomass carbon and the rate of carbon and nitrogen cycling were not impeded by the respective metal treatment while the respiration responses increased as a result of increase in metabolic activity of the soil microbes. The plant based substrates enabled the soil microflora to resist high metal contamination because of its tendency to absorb large amounts of inorganic cations.

  11. Existence of solutions for the anti-plane stress for a new class of “strain-limiting” elastic bodies

    KAUST Repository

    Bulí ček, Miroslav; Má lek, Josef; Rajagopal, K. R.; Walton, Jay R.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. The main purpose of this study is to establish the existence of a weak solution to the anti-plane stress problem on V-notch domains for a class of recently proposed new models that could describe elastic materials in which the stress can increase unboundedly while the strain yet remains small. We shall also investigate the qualitative properties of the solution that is established. Although the equations governing the deformation that are being considered share certain similarities with the minimal surface problem, the boundary conditions and the presence of an additional model parameter that appears in the equation and its specific range makes the problem, as well as the result, different from those associated with the minimal surface problem.

  12. Existence of solutions for the anti-plane stress for a new class of “strain-limiting” elastic bodies

    KAUST Repository

    Bulíček, Miroslav

    2015-04-21

    © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. The main purpose of this study is to establish the existence of a weak solution to the anti-plane stress problem on V-notch domains for a class of recently proposed new models that could describe elastic materials in which the stress can increase unboundedly while the strain yet remains small. We shall also investigate the qualitative properties of the solution that is established. Although the equations governing the deformation that are being considered share certain similarities with the minimal surface problem, the boundary conditions and the presence of an additional model parameter that appears in the equation and its specific range makes the problem, as well as the result, different from those associated with the minimal surface problem.

  13. Impact of competitive flow on wall shear stress in coronary surgery: computational fluid dynamics of a LIMA-LAD model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgaard, Håvard; Swillens, Abigail; Nordhaug, Dag; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar; Van Loo, Denis; Vitale, Nicola; Segers, Patrick; Haaverstad, Rune; Lovstakken, Lasse

    2010-12-01

    Competitive flow from native coronary vessels is considered a major factor in the failure of coronary bypass grafts. However, the pathophysiological effects are not fully understood. Low and oscillatory wall shear stress (WSS) is known to induce endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease, like atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. The aim was to investigate the impact of competitive flow on WSS in mammary artery bypass grafts. Using computational fluid dynamics, WSS was calculated in a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft to the left anterior descending artery in a three-dimensional in vivo porcine coronary artery bypass graft model. The following conditions were investigated: high competitive flow (non-significant coronary lesion), partial competitive flow (significant coronary lesion), and no competitive flow (totally occluded coronary vessel). Time-averaged WSS of LIMA at high, partial, and no competitive flow were 0.3-0.6, 0.6-3.0, and 0.9-3.0 Pa, respectively. Further, oscillatory WSS quantified as the oscillatory shear index (OSI) ranged from (maximum OSI = 0.5 equals zero net WSS) 0.15 to 0.35, OSI similar to the no competitive flow condition. Graft flow is highly dependent on the degree of competitive flow. High competitive flow was found to produce unfavourable WSS consistent with endothelial dysfunction and subsequent graft narrowing and failure. Partial competitive flow, however, may be better tolerated as it was found to be similar to the ideal condition of no competitive flow.

  14. The co-existence of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms in the perinatal period: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Andee; Xuereb, Rita Borg; Carrick-Sen, Debbie; Sultana, Roberta; Rankin, Judith

    2016-05-01

    to identify and appraise the current international evidence regarding the presence and prevalence of the co-existence of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms in the antenatal and post partum period. using a list of keywords, Medline, CINHAL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Web of Science and the Index of Theses and Conference Proceedings (Jan 1960 - Jan 2015) were systematically searched. Experts in the field were contacted to locate papers that were in progress or in press. Reference lists from relevant review articles were searched. Inclusion criteria included full papers published in English reporting concurrent depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms in pregnant and post partum women. A validated data extraction review tool was used. 3424 citations were identified. Three studies met the full inclusion criteria. All reported findings in the postnatal period. No antenatal studies were identified. The prevalence of triple co-morbidity was relatively low ranging from 2% to 3%. triple co-morbidity does occur, although the prevalence appears to be low. Due to the presentation of complex symptoms, women with triple co-morbidity are likely to be difficult to identify, diagnose and treat. Clinical staff should be aware of the potential of complex symptomatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relation between wall shear stress and carotid artery wall thickening MRI versus CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibis, Merih; Potters, Wouter V.; Selwaness, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Wall shear stress (WSS), a parameter associated with endothelial function, is calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or phase-contrast (PC) MRI measurements. Although CFD is common in WSS (WSSCFD) calculations, PC-MRI-based WSS (WSSMRI) is more favorable in population studies; since...... it is straightforward and less time consuming. However, it is not clear if WSSMRI and WSSCFD show similar associations with vascular pathology. Our aim was to test the associations between wall thickness (WT) of the carotid arteries and WSSMRI and WSSCFD. The subjects (n=14) with an asymptomatic carotid plaque who...... underwent MRI scans two times within 4 years of time were selected from the Rotterdam Study. We compared WSSCFD and WSSMRI at baseline and follow-up. Baseline WSSMRI and WSSCFD values were divided into 3 categories representing low, medium and high WSS tertiles. WT of each tertile was compared by a one...

  16. No evidence for local adaptation to salt stress in the existing populations of invasive Solidago canadensis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junmin; Liu, Haiyan; Yan, Ming; Du, Leshan

    2017-01-01

    Local adaptation is an important mechanism underlying the adaptation of plants to environmental heterogeneity, and the toxicity of salt results in strong selection pressure on salt tolerance in plants and different ecotypes. Solidago canadensis, which is invasive in China, has spread widely and has recently colonized alkali sandy loams with a significant salt content. A common greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the role of local adaptation in the successful invasion of S. canadensis into salty habitats. Salt treatment significantly decreased the growth of S. canadensis, including rates of increase in the number of leaves and plant height; the root, shoot, and total biomass. Furthermore, salt stress significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and relative chlorophyll content but significantly increased peroxidase activity and the proline content of S. canadensis and the root/shoot ratio. Two-way analysis of variance showed that salt treatment had a significant effect on the physiological traits of S. canadensis, except for the intercellular CO2 concentration, whereas the population and the salt × population interaction had no significant effect on any physiological traits. Most of the variation in plasticity existed within and not among populations, excep for the root/shoot ratio. S. canadensis populations from soil with moderate/high salt levels grew similarly to S. canadensis populations from soils with low salt levels. No significant correlation between salt tolerance indices and soil salinity levels was observed. The plasticity of the proline content, intercellular CO2 concentration and chlorophyll content had significant correlations with the salt tolerance index. These findings indicate a lack of evidence for local adaption in the existing populations of invasive S. canadensis in China; instead, plasticity might be more important than local adaptation in influencing the physiological traits and salt

  17. No evidence for local adaptation to salt stress in the existing populations of invasive Solidago canadensis in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmin Li

    Full Text Available Local adaptation is an important mechanism underlying the adaptation of plants to environmental heterogeneity, and the toxicity of salt results in strong selection pressure on salt tolerance in plants and different ecotypes. Solidago canadensis, which is invasive in China, has spread widely and has recently colonized alkali sandy loams with a significant salt content. A common greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the role of local adaptation in the successful invasion of S. canadensis into salty habitats. Salt treatment significantly decreased the growth of S. canadensis, including rates of increase in the number of leaves and plant height; the root, shoot, and total biomass. Furthermore, salt stress significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and relative chlorophyll content but significantly increased peroxidase activity and the proline content of S. canadensis and the root/shoot ratio. Two-way analysis of variance showed that salt treatment had a significant effect on the physiological traits of S. canadensis, except for the intercellular CO2 concentration, whereas the population and the salt × population interaction had no significant effect on any physiological traits. Most of the variation in plasticity existed within and not among populations, excep for the root/shoot ratio. S. canadensis populations from soil with moderate/high salt levels grew similarly to S. canadensis populations from soils with low salt levels. No significant correlation between salt tolerance indices and soil salinity levels was observed. The plasticity of the proline content, intercellular CO2 concentration and chlorophyll content had significant correlations with the salt tolerance index. These findings indicate a lack of evidence for local adaption in the existing populations of invasive S. canadensis in China; instead, plasticity might be more important than local adaptation in influencing the physiological

  18. Bicuspid aortic valves are associated with increased wall and turbulence shear stress levels compared to trileaflet aortic valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Mirabella, Lucia; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2015-06-01

    Congenital bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs) are associated with accelerated disease progression, such as leaflet calcification and ascending aorta dilatation. Although common underlying genetic factors have been implicated in accelerated disease in BAV patients, several studies have suggested that altered hemodynamics also play a role in this disease process. The present study compares turbulence and wall shear stress (WSS) measurements between various BAV and trileaflet aortic valve (TAV) models to provide information for mechanobiological models of BAV disease. BAV and TAV models were constructed from excised porcine aortic valves to simulate parametric variations in BAV stenosis, hemodynamics and geometry. Particle image velocimetry experiments were conducted at physiological pressure conditions to characterize velocity fields in the ascending aorta. The velocity fields were post-processed to calculate turbulence, viscous and wall shear stresses in the ascending aorta. Stenosed BAV models showed the presence of eccentric systolic jets, causing increased WSS. Lower cardiac output resulted in a narrower jet, lower turbulence and lower viscous shear stress (VSS). The specific severe stenosis BAV model studied here showed reduced WSS due to reduction in non-fused leaflet mobility. Dilation of the aorta did not affect any turbulence or VSS, but reduced the WSS. In comparison with BAVs, TAVs have similar VSS values, but much smaller WSS and turbulence levels. These increased turbulence  and WSS levels in BAVs may play a key role in amplifying the biological responses of the ascending aorta wall and valvular leaflets, and support the hemodynamic underpinnings of BAV disease processes.

  19. Augmentative effect of pulsatility on the wall shear stress in tube flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, M; Tatsumi, E; Tsukiya, T; Taenaka, Y; Nishimura, T; Nishinaka, T; Takano, H; Masuzawa, T; Ohba, K

    1999-08-01

    Wall shear stress (WSS) has been considered to play an important role in the physiological and metabolic functions of the vascular endothelial cells. We investigated the effects of the pulse rate and the maximum flow rate on the WSS to clarify the influence of pulsatility. Water was perfused in a 1/2 inch transparent straight cylinder with a nonpulsatile centrifugal pump and a pulsatile pneumatic ventricular assist device (VAD). In nonpulsatile flow (NF), the flow rate was changed 1 to 6 L/min by 1 L/min increments to obtain standard values of WSS at each flow rate. In pulsatile flow (PF), the pulse rate was controlled at 40, 60, and 80 bpm, and the maximum flow rate was varied from 3.3 to 12.0 L/min while the mean flow rate was kept at 3 L/min. The WSS was estimated from the velocity profile at measuring points using the laser illuminated fluorescence method. In NF, the WSS was 12.0 dyne/cm2 at 3 L/min and 33.0 dyne/cm2 at 6 L/min. In PF, the pulse rate change with the same mean, and the maximum flow rate did not affect WSS. On the other hand, the increase in the maximum flow rate at the constant mean flow rate of 3 L/min augmented the mean WSS from 13.1 to 32.9 dyne/cm2. We concluded that the maximum flow rate exerted a substantial augmentative effect on WSS, and the maximum flow rate was a dominant factor of pulsatility in this effect.

  20. In vivo 3-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Wall Shear Stress Estimation in Ascending Aortic Dilatation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieging, Erik T.; Frydrychowicz, Alex; Wentland, Andrew; Landgraf, Benjamin R.; Johnson, Kevin M.; Wieben, Oliver; François, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To estimate surface-based wall shear stress (WSS) and evaluate flow patterns in ascending aortic dilatation (AscAD) using a high-resolution, time-resolved, three-dimensional (3D), three-directional velocity encoded, radially undersampled phase contrast magnetic resonance sequence (4D PC-MRI). Materials and Methods 4D PC-MRI was performed in 11 patients with AscAD (46.3±22.0 years) and 10 healthy volunteers (32.9±13.4 years) after written informed consent and IRB-approval. Following manual vessel wall segmentation of the ascending aorta (MATLAB, The Mathworks, Natick, MA), a 3D surface was created using spline interpolation. Spatial WSS variation based on surface division in 12 segments and temporal variation were evaluated in AscAD and normal aortas. Visual analysis of flow patterns was performed based on streamlines and particle traces using EnSight (v9.0, CEI, Apex, NC). Results AscAD was associated with significantly increased diastolic WSS, decreased systolic to diastolic WSS ratio, and delayed onset of peak WSS (all P wall of the ascending aorta. Vortical flow with highest velocities along the anterior wall and increased helical flow during diastole were observed in AscAD compared to controls. Conclusion Changes in WSS in the ascending aorta of AscAD correspond to observed alterations in flow patterns compared to controls. PMID:21563242

  1. 南中国斑节对虾养殖中控制白斑综合症病的理论和策略%Theory and Strategies for Controlling White Spot Syndrome (WSS) of Cultured Penaeus monodon in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the causative agent of white spot syndrome (WSS) of cultured penaeid shrimps. WSS breaks out and prevails in cultured penaeid shrimps in many countries and regions of the world, especially in southeast Asia. WSSV is the virus most severe damaging to the cultured penaeid shrimps in the world. At the present time, the control of the outbreaks of WSSV will recover and develop the penaeid shrimp cultures in China and even in the world.

  2. Surgical Stress Abrogates Pre-Existing Protective T Cell Mediated Anti-Tumor Immunity Leading to Postoperative Cancer Recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhirami A Ananth

    Full Text Available Anti-tumor CD8+ T cells are a key determinant for overall survival in patients following surgical resection for solid malignancies. Using a mouse model of cancer vaccination (adenovirus expressing melanoma tumor-associated antigen (TAA-dopachrome tautomerase (AdDCT and resection resulting in major surgical stress (abdominal nephrectomy, we demonstrate that surgical stress results in a reduction in the number of CD8+ T cell that produce cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα, Granzyme B in response to TAA. This effect is secondary to both reduced proliferation and impaired T cell function following antigen binding. In a prophylactic model, surgical stress completely abrogates tumor protection conferred by vaccination in the immediate postoperative period. In a clinically relevant surgical resection model, vaccinated mice undergoing a positive margin resection with surgical stress had decreased survival compared to mice with positive margin resection alone. Preoperative immunotherapy with IFNα significantly extends survival in surgically stressed mice. Importantly, myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC population numbers and functional impairment of TAA-specific CD8+ T cell were altered in surgically stressed mice. Our observations suggest that cancer progression may result from surgery-induced suppression of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells. Preoperative immunotherapies aimed at targeting the prometastatic effects of cancer surgery will reduce recurrence and improve survival in cancer surgery patients.

  3. Level of physical activity, well-being, stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøll, Lotte Skytte; Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda

    2017-01-01

    where questionnaires on physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health were completed by 148 persons with migraine and 100 healthy controls matched by sex and average age. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess characteristics of migraine, tension......-existing tension-type headache and neck pain in a clinic-based sample, b) the level of physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain compared to healthy controls, c) the perceived ability of persons...... well-being, higher level of perceived stress and poorer self-rated health compared to healthy controls. They reported reduced ability to perform physical activity owing to migraine (high degree), tension-type headache (moderate degree) and neck pain (low degree). The most burdensome condition...

  4. Notch1 and 4 Signaling Responds to an Increasing Vascular Wall Shear Stress in a Rat Model of Arteriovenous Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Notch signaling is suggested to promote the development and maintenance of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs, and an increasing wall shear stress (WSS contributes to AVM rupture. Little is known about whether WSS impacts Notch signaling, which is important for understanding the angiogenesis of AVMs. WSS was measured in arteriovenous fistulas (AVF surgically created in 96 rats at different time points over a period of 84 days. The expression of Notch receptors 1 and 4 and their ligands, Delta1 and 4, Jagged1, and Notch downstream gene target Hes1 was quantified in “nidus” vessels. The interaction events between Notch receptors and their ligands were quantified using proximity ligation assay. There was a positive correlation between WSS and time (r=0.97; P<0.001. The expression of Notch receptors and their ligands was upregulated following AVF formation. There was a positive correlation between time and the number of interactions between Notch receptors and their ligands aftre AVF formation (r=0.62, P<0.05 and a positive correlation between WSS and the number of interactions between Notch receptors and their ligands (r=0.87, P<0.005. In conclusion, an increasing WSS may contribute to the angiogenesis of AVMs by activation of Notch signaling.

  5. Level of physical activity, well-being, stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøll, Lotte Skytte; Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Nielsen, Trine; Sloth, Louise Bönsdorff; Jensen, Rigmor Højland; Gard, Gunvor

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence of migraine with co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain is high in the general population. However, there is very little literature on the characteristics of these combined conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate a) the prevalence of migraine with co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain in a clinic-based sample, b) the level of physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain compared to healthy controls, c) the perceived ability of persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain to perform physical activity, and d) which among the three conditions (migraine, tension-type headache or neck pain) is rated as the most burdensome condition. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral specialised headache centre where questionnaires on physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health were completed by 148 persons with migraine and 100 healthy controls matched by sex and average age. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess characteristics of migraine, tension-type headache and neck pain. Out of 148 persons with migraine, 100 (67%) suffered from co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain. Only 11% suffered from migraine only. Persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain had lower level of physical activity and psychological well-being, higher level of perceived stress and poorer self-rated health compared to healthy controls. They reported reduced ability to perform physical activity owing to migraine (high degree), tension-type headache (moderate degree) and neck pain (low degree). The most burdensome condition was migraine, followed by tension-type headache and neck pain. Migraine with co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain was highly prevalent in a clinic-based sample. Persons with migraine and co-existing

  6. No Time to Waste: Transcriptome Study Reveals that Drought Tolerance in Barley May Be Attributed to Stressed-Like Expression Patterns that Exist before the Occurrence of Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiak, Agnieszka; Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Sowa, Marta; Gajek, Katarzyna; Żmuda, Katarzyna; Kościelniak, Janusz; Szarejko, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Plant survival in adverse environmental conditions requires a substantial change in the metabolism, which is reflected by the extensive transcriptome rebuilding upon the occurrence of the stress. Therefore, transcriptomic studies offer an insight into the mechanisms of plant stress responses. Here, we present the results of global gene expression profiling of roots and leaves of two barley genotypes with contrasting ability to cope with drought stress. Our analysis suggests that drought tolerance results from a certain level of transcription of stress-influenced genes that is present even before the onset of drought. Genes that predispose the plant to better drought survival play a role in the regulatory network of gene expression, including several transcription factors, translation regulators and structural components of ribosomes. An important group of genes is involved in signaling mechanisms, with significant contribution of hormone signaling pathways and an interplay between ABA, auxin, ethylene and brassinosteroid homeostasis. Signal transduction in a drought tolerant genotype may be more efficient through the expression of genes required for environmental sensing that are active already during normal water availability and are related to actin filaments and LIM domain proteins, which may function as osmotic biosensors. Better survival of drought may also be attributed to more effective processes of energy generation and more efficient chloroplasts biogenesis. Interestingly, our data suggest that several genes involved in a photosynthesis process are required for the establishment of effective drought response not only in leaves, but also in roots of barley. Thus, we propose a hypothesis that root plastids may turn into the anti-oxidative centers protecting root macromolecules from oxidative damage during drought stress. Specific genes and their potential role in building up a drought-tolerant barley phenotype is extensively discussed with special emphasis

  7. No Time to Waste: Transcriptome Study Reveals that Drought Tolerance in Barley May Be Attributed to Stressed-Like Expression Patterns that Exist before the Occurrence of Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Janiak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant survival in adverse environmental conditions requires a substantial change in the metabolism, which is reflected by the extensive transcriptome rebuilding upon the occurrence of the stress. Therefore, transcriptomic studies offer an insight into the mechanisms of plant stress responses. Here, we present the results of global gene expression profiling of roots and leaves of two barley genotypes with contrasting ability to cope with drought stress. Our analysis suggests that drought tolerance results from a certain level of transcription of stress-influenced genes that is present even before the onset of drought. Genes that predispose the plant to better drought survival play a role in the regulatory network of gene expression, including several transcription factors, translation regulators and structural components of ribosomes. An important group of genes is involved in signaling mechanisms, with significant contribution of hormone signaling pathways and an interplay between ABA, auxin, ethylene and brassinosteroid homeostasis. Signal transduction in a drought tolerant genotype may be more efficient through the expression of genes required for environmental sensing that are active already during normal water availability and are related to actin filaments and LIM domain proteins, which may function as osmotic biosensors. Better survival of drought may also be attributed to more effective processes of energy generation and more efficient chloroplasts biogenesis. Interestingly, our data suggest that several genes involved in a photosynthesis process are required for the establishment of effective drought response not only in leaves, but also in roots of barley. Thus, we propose a hypothesis that root plastids may turn into the anti-oxidative centers protecting root macromolecules from oxidative damage during drought stress. Specific genes and their potential role in building up a drought-tolerant barley phenotype is extensively discussed

  8. Echo Particle Image Velocimetry for Estimation of Carotid Artery Wall Shear Stress: Repeatability, Reproducibility and Comparison with Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Arati; Gates, Phillip E; Mazzaro, Luciano; Fulford, Jonathan; Zhang, Fuxing; Barker, Alex J; Hertzberg, Jean; Aizawa, Kunihiko; Strain, William D; Elyas, Salim; Shore, Angela C; Shandas, Robin

    2017-08-01

    Measurement of hemodynamic wall shear stress (WSS) is important in investigating the role of WSS in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Echo particle image velocimetry (echo PIV) is a novel ultrasound-based technique for measuring WSS in vivo that has previously been validated in vitro using the standard optical PIV technique. We evaluated the repeatability and reproducibility of echo PIV for measuring WSS in the human common carotid artery. We measured WSS in 28 healthy participants (18 males and 10 females, mean age: 56 ± 12 y). Echo PIV was highly repeatable, with an intra-observer variability of 1.0 ± 0.1 dyn/cm 2 for peak systolic (maximum), 0.9 dyn/cm 2 for mean and 0.5 dyn/cm 2 for end-diastolic (minimum) WSS measurements. Likewise, echo PIV was reproducible, with a low inter-observer variability (max: 2.0 ± 0.2 dyn/cm 2 , mean: 1.3 ± 0.1 dyn/cm 2 , end-diastolic: 0.7 dyn/cm 2 ) and more variable inter-scan (test-retest) variability (max: 7.1 ± 2.3 dyn/cm 2 , mean: 2.9 ± 0.4 dyn/cm 2 , min: 1.5 ± 0.1 dyn/cm 2 ). We compared echo PIV with the reference method, phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI); echo PIV-based WSS measurements agreed qualitatively with PC-MRI measurements (r = 0.89, p PIV vs. PC-MRI): WSS at peak systole: 21 ± 7.0 dyn/cm 2 vs. 15 ± 5.0 dyn/cm 2 ; time-averaged WSS: 8.9 ± 3.0 dyn/cm 2 vs. 7.1 ± 3.0 dyn/cm 2 (p  0.05). For the first time, we report that echo PIV can measure WSS with good repeatability and reproducibility in adult humans with a broad age range. Echo PIV is feasible in humans and offers an easy-to-use, ultrasound-based, quantitative technique for measuring WSS in vivo in humans with good repeatability and reproducibility. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Effects of biaxial oscillatory shear stress on endothelial cell proliferation and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Amlan; Chakraborty, Sutirtha; Jala, Venkatakrishna R; Haribabu, Bodduluri; Sharp, M Keith; Berson, R Eric

    2012-03-01

    Wall shear stress (WSS) on anchored cells affects their responses, including cell proliferation and morphology. In this study, the effects of the directionality of pulsatile WSS on endothelial cell proliferation and morphology were investigated for cells grown in a Petri dish orbiting on a shaker platform. Time and location dependent WSS was determined by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). At low orbital speed (50 rpm), WSS was shown to be uniform (0-1 dyne/cm(2)) across the bottom of the dish, while at higher orbital speed (100 and 150 rpm), WSS remained fairly uniform near the center and fluctuated significantly (0-9 dyne/cm(2)) near the side walls of the dish. Since WSS on the bottom of the dish is two-dimensional, a new directional oscillatory shear index (DOSI) was developed to quantify the directionality of oscillating shear. DOSI approached zero for biaxial oscillatory shear of equal magnitudes near the center and approached one for uniaxial pulsatile shear near the wall, where large tangential WSS dominated a much smaller radial component. Near the center (low DOSI), more, smaller and less elongated cells grew, whereas larger cells with greater elongation were observed in the more uniaxial oscillatory shear (high DOSI) near the periphery of the dish. Further, cells aligned with the direction of the largest component of shear but were randomly oriented in low magnitude biaxial shear. Statistical analyses of the individual and interacting effects of multiple factors (DOSI, shear magnitudes and orbital speeds) showed that DOSI significantly affected all the responses, indicating that directionality is an important determinant of cellular responses. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Comparison of job stress and obesity in nurses with favorable and unfavorable work schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kihye; Trinkoff, Alison M; Storr, Carla L; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Johnson, Karen L; Park, Sungae

    2012-08-01

    To compare obesity-related factors between female nurses with favorable work schedules (WSs) and unfavorable WSs. In a cross-sectional study, 1724 female nurses were stratified by WS (favorable vs unfavorable). For each schedule type, the odds of obesity were related to health behaviors, home demands, and job stress using logistic regression models. Among nurses with unfavorable WSs, healthy behaviors (exercise, sleep) were inversely associated with obesity, whereas for those with favorable WSs, obese nurses reported significantly more unhealthy behaviors (smoking, alcohol use; odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.38), more physical lifting of children/dependents (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.06-1.93), having more nurse input into their jobs (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02-1.44), yet less boss support at work (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99). Considering impacts of WSs on obesity and potential obesity-related health outcomes, healthful scheduling should be provided to nurses.

  11. 3D finite element analysis of stress distributions and strain energy release rates for adhesive bonded flat composite lap shear joints having pre-existing delaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parida, S. K.; Pradhan, A. K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2014-02-15

    The rate of propagation of embedded delamination in the strap adherend of lap shear joint (LSJ) made of carbon/epoxy composites has been evaluated employing three-dimensional non-linear finite elements. The delamination has been presumed to pre-exist in the thin resin layer between the first and second plies of the strap adherend. The inter-laminar peel and shear stress distributions have been studied in details and are seen to be predominantly three-dimensional in nature. The components of strain energy release rate (SERR) corresponding to the opening, sliding and cross sliding modes of delamination are significantly different at the two fronts of the embedded delamination. The sequential release of multi-point constraint (MPC) finite elements in the vicinity of the delamination fronts enables to simulate the growth of the delamination at either ends. This simulation procedure can be utilized effectively for evaluation of the status of the structural integrity of the bonded joints.

  12. The values of wall shear stress, turbulence kinetic energy and blood pressure gradient are associated with atherosclerotic plaque erosion in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameshima, Naoki; Yamashita, Atsushi; Sato, Shinya; Matsuda, Shuntaro; Matsuura, Yunosuke; Asada, Yujiro

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the contribution of hemodynamic factors to the onset of plaque erosion in smooth muscle cell (SMC)-rich atherosclerotic plaque. We developed a rabbit model of SMC-rich atherosclerotic plaque with various degree of stenosis induced by incomplete ligation and generated three-dimensional models of five rabbit femoral arteries based on 130-162 serial histological cross-sections at 100-μm intervals per artery. We performed a computational blood flow simulation using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model and calculated the wall shear stress (WSS), turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), blood pressure (BP) and blood pressure gradients (BPG) in eight sections (the inlet, the stenotic portion and areas 1, 2 and 5mm from the stenotic portion) in each rabbit. We also investigated whether the magnitude of WSS or TKE was related to the presence or absence of erosive injury by evaluating six points (the locally highest, median and lowest of WSS or TKE) in each section. The magnitudes of WSS, TKE and BPG, but not BP, correlated significantly with the extent of histologically-defined plaque erosion (WSS, r=0.55, p<0.001; TKE, r=0.53, p<0.001; BPG, r=0.61, p<0.0001, n=40). The values for WSS and TKE were significantly larger at sites with, compared to without, erosive injury (n=107 and n=119 points, respectively; both p<0.0001). These results suggest that increased values of WSS, TKE and BPG considerably contribute to the onset of plaque erosion.

  13. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  14. Development of a system for measuring wall shear stress in blood vessels using magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Keita; Nagao, Taisuke; Okada, Kouji; Miyazaki, Shohei; Yang, Xiaomei; Yamazaki, Youichi; Murase, Kenya

    2008-01-01

    We developed a system for measuring the wall shear stress (WSS) in blood vessels using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The time-dependent velocity at the center of the blood vessel was measured by phase-contrast MRI and was approximated by finite Fourier series, which was used for generating the velocity profile at the inlet for the boundary condition to the CFD method. To validate the CFD method, we compared the WSS obtained by the CFD method with the theoretical value in a straight cylinder with various radii for both steady and pulsatile flows. We also investigated the dependence of the WSS on the inlet velocity profile incorporated into the CFD method. For steady flow, there was a good agreement between the WSS obtained by the CFD method and the theoretical value. For pulsatile flow, there was a relatively good agreement between them when the radius of the cylinder was 2.5 mm and the inlet velocity profile was given by the Womersley solution for fully developed pulsatile flow in a straight circular cylinder. When the radius of the cylinder was 5 mm and/or the inlet velocity profile was assumed to be parabolic, large differences were observed between them, suggesting that the assumption of fully developed flow does not hold true in these cases. In human studies, the vortex due to the secondary blood flow in the carotid arterial sinus was clearly observed. The WSS in the bifurcation was the highest, while that in the carotid arterial sinus was the smallest. In conclusion, the system presented here appears to be useful for measuring the WSS in blood vessels and for analyzing the cause and/or extent of atherosclerosis, and our results suggest that the inlet velocity profile should be carefully considered. (author)

  15. Age-related changes in aortic 3D blood flow velocities and wall shear stress: Implications for the identification of altered hemodynamics in patients with aortic valve disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooij, Pim; Garcia, Julio; Potters, Wouter V.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Collins, Jeremy D.; Carr, James C.; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate age-related changes in peak systolic aortic 3D velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) in healthy controls and to investigate the importance of age-matching for 3D mapping of abnormal aortic hemodynamics in bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV). 4D flow MRI (fields strengths = 1.5-3T;

  16. Impact of new traumatic or stressful life events on pre-existing PTSD in traumatized refugees: results of a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Schock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A significant proportion of trauma survivors experience an additional critical life event in the aftermath. These renewed experiences of traumatic and stressful life events may lead to an increase in trauma-related mental health symptoms.Method: In a longitudinal study, the effects of renewed experiences of a trauma or stressful life event were examined. For this purpose, refugees seeking asylum in Germany were assessed for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS, anxiety, and depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist [HSCL-25] before treatment start as well as after 6 and 12 months during treatment (N=46. Stressful life events and traumatic events were recorded monthly. If a new event happened, PDS and HSCL were additionally assessed directly afterwards. Mann–Whitney U-tests were performed to calculate the differences between the group that experienced an additional critical event (stressful vs. trauma during treatment (n=23 and the group that did not (n=23, as well as differences within the critical event group between the stressful life event group (n=13 and the trauma group (n=10.Results: Refugees improved significantly during the 12-month period of our study, but remained severely distressed. In a comparison of refugees with a new stressful life event or trauma, significant increases in PTS, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were found directly after the experience, compared to the group without a renewed event during the 12 months of treatment. With regard to the different critical life events (stressful vs. trauma, no significant differences were found regarding overall PTS, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Only avoidance symptoms increased significantly in the group experiencing a stressful life event.Conclusion: Although all clinicians should be aware of possible PTS symptom reactivation, especially those working with refugees and asylum seekers, who often experience new critical life

  17. Impact of new traumatic or stressful life events on pre-existing PTSD in traumatized refugees: results of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Katrin; Böttche, Maria; Rosner, Rita; Wenk-Ansohn, Mechthild; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2016-01-01

    A significant proportion of trauma survivors experience an additional critical life event in the aftermath. These renewed experiences of traumatic and stressful life events may lead to an increase in trauma-related mental health symptoms. In a longitudinal study, the effects of renewed experiences of a trauma or stressful life event were examined. For this purpose, refugees seeking asylum in Germany were assessed for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS), Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), anxiety, and depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist [HSCL-25]) before treatment start as well as after 6 and 12 months during treatment ( N =46). Stressful life events and traumatic events were recorded monthly. If a new event happened, PDS and HSCL were additionally assessed directly afterwards. Mann-Whitney U -tests were performed to calculate the differences between the group that experienced an additional critical event (stressful vs. trauma) during treatment ( n =23) and the group that did not ( n =23), as well as differences within the critical event group between the stressful life event group ( n =13) and the trauma group ( n =10). Refugees improved significantly during the 12-month period of our study, but remained severely distressed. In a comparison of refugees with a new stressful life event or trauma, significant increases in PTS, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were found directly after the experience, compared to the group without a renewed event during the 12 months of treatment. With regard to the different critical life events (stressful vs. trauma), no significant differences were found regarding overall PTS, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Only avoidance symptoms increased significantly in the group experiencing a stressful life event. Although all clinicians should be aware of possible PTS symptom reactivation, especially those working with refugees and asylum seekers, who often experience new critical life events, should understand symptom

  18. Flow and wall shear stress characterization after endovascular aneurysm repair and endovascular aneurysm sealing in an infrarenal aneurysm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersen, Johannes T; Groot Jebbink, Erik; Versluis, Michel; Slump, Cornelis H; Ku, David N; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M; Reijnen, Michel M P J

    2017-12-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with a modular endograft has become the preferred treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysms. A novel concept is endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS), consisting of dual endoframes surrounded by polymer-filled endobags. This dual-lumen configuration is different from a bifurcation with a tapered trajectory of the flow lumen into the two limbs and may induce unfavorable flow conditions. These include low and oscillatory wall shear stress (WSS), linked to atherosclerosis, and high shear rates that may result in thrombosis. An in vitro study was performed to assess the impact of EVAR and EVAS on flow patterns and WSS. Four abdominal aortic aneurysm phantoms were constructed, including three stented models, to study the influence of the flow divider on flow (Endurant [Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minn], AFX [Endologix, Irvine, Calif], and Nellix [Endologix]). Experimental models were tested under physiologic resting conditions, and flow was visualized with laser particle imaging velocimetry, quantified by shear rate, WSS, and oscillatory shear index (OSI) in the suprarenal aorta, renal artery (RA), and common iliac artery. WSS and OSI were comparable for all models in the suprarenal aorta. The RA flow profile in the EVAR models was comparable to the control, but a region of lower WSS was observed on the caudal wall compared with the control. The EVAS model showed a stronger jet flow with a higher shear rate in some regions compared with the other models. Small regions of low WSS and high OSI were found near the distal end of all stents in the common iliac artery compared with the control. Maximum shear rates in each region of interest were well below the pathologic threshold for acute thrombosis. The different stent designs do not influence suprarenal flow. Lower WSS is observed in the caudal wall of the RA after EVAR and a higher shear rate after EVAS. All stented models have a small region of low WSS and high OSI near the distal outflow

  19. HPA axis response to social stress is attenuated in schizophrenia but normal in depression: evidence from a meta-analysis of existing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufolini, Simone; Dazzan, Paola; Kempton, Matthew J; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the HPA axis response to social stress in studies that used the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), or comparable distressing paradigms, in individuals with either depression or schizophrenia. Sample size-adjusted effect sizes (Hedge's g statistic) were calculated to estimate the HPA axis stress response to social stress. We used a meta-regression model to take into account the moderating effect of the baseline cortisol level. Participants with depression show an activation pattern to social stress similar to that of healthy controls. Despite a normal cortisol production rate, individuals with schizophrenia have lower cortisol levels than controls both in anticipation and after exposure to social stress. Participants with depression and higher cortisol levels before the task have an increased cortisol production and reached higher cortisol levels during the task. This may be explained by the presence of an impaired negative feedback. The activation pattern present in schizophrenia may explain the reduced ability to appropriately contextualize past experiences shown by individuals with psychosis in social stressful situation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vitamin D deficiency, oxidative stress and antioxidant status: only weak association seen in the absence of advanced age, obesity or pre-existing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erica W; Siu, Parco M; Pang, Marco Y; Woo, Jean; Collins, Andrew R; Benzie, Iris F F

    2017-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency (plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D)70 % of participants were vitamin D deficient. No significant correlations and no biomarker differences across 25(OH)D quartiles or groups were seen except for total antioxidant status. A weak direct association (r 0·252, Pstress biomarkers in the absence of advanced age, obesity and disease, though some evidence of depleted antioxidant status in those with vitamin D deficiency was seen. Poor antioxidant status may pre-date increased oxidative stress. Study of effects of correction of deficiency on antioxidant status and oxidative stress in vitamin D-deficient but otherwise healthy subjects is needed.

  1. PEG-albumin plasma expansion increases expression of MCP-1 evidencing increased circulatory wall shear stress: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Makena Hightower

    Full Text Available Treatment of blood loss with plasma expanders lowers blood viscosity, increasing cardiac output. However, increased flow velocity by conventional plasma expanders does not compensate for decreased viscosity in maintaining vessel wall shear stress (WSS, decreasing endothelial nitric oxide (NO production. A new type of plasma expander using polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb causes supra-perfusion when used in extreme hemodilution and is effective in treating hemorrhagic shock, although it is minimally viscogenic. An acute 40% hemodilution/exchange-transfusion protocol was used to compare 4% PEG-Alb to Ringer's lactate, Dextran 70 kDa and 6% Hetastarch (670 kDa in unanesthetized CD-1 mice. Serum cytokine analysis showed that PEG-Alb elevates monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, a member of a small inducible gene family, as well as expression of MIP-1α, and MIP-2. MCP-1 is specific to increased WSS. Given the direct link between increased WSS and production of NO, the beneficial resuscitation effects due to PEG-Alb plasma expansion appear to be due to increased WSS through increased perfusion and blood flow rather than blood viscosity.

  2. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  3. Strong Associations Exist among Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Biomarkers in the Circulating, Cellular and Urinary Anatomical Compartments in Guatemalan Children from the Western Highlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J Soto-Méndez

    Full Text Available A series of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic compounds act to protect cells from uncontrolled propagation of free radicals. It is poorly understood, though, to what extent and how their interaction is harmonized.To explore associative interactions among a battery of urinary and blood biomarkers of oxidative stress and enzymatic and non-enzymatic markers of the antioxidant defense system in children from low income households.For this cross-sectional descriptive study, urine, red cells, and plasma were sampled in 82 preschool children attending three daycare centers in Quetzaltenango Guatemala. The urinary oxidative stress biomarkers studied were F2-isoprostanes and 8-hydroxy-deoxy-guanosine. Red cell enzyme activities measured were: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Circulating non-enzymatic antioxidants selected were: retinol, tocopherols, β-carotene and coenzymes Q9 and Q10.In a Spearman rank-order correlation hemi-matrix, of 55 paired combinations of the 11 biomarkers, 28 (51% were significantly correlated among each other (p ≤ 0.05, with the strongest association being retinol and tocopherols (r = 0.697, p 0.5 to ≤ 0.10. F2-isoprostanes showed the greatest number of cross-associations, having significant interactions with 8 of the 10 remaining biomarkers. Goodness-of-fit modeling improved or maintained the r value for 24 of the significant interactions and for one of the 5 borderline associations. Multiple regression backward stepwise analysis indicated that plasma retinol, β-carotene and coenzyme Q10 were independent predictors of urinary F2-isoprostanes.Numerous significant associations resulted among biomarkers of oxidation and responders to oxidation. Interesting findings were the apparent patterns of harmonious interactions among the elements of the oxidation-antioxidation systems in this population.

  4. Burrow characteristics of the co-existing sibling species Mus booduga and Mus terricolor and the genetic basis of adaptation to hypoxic/hypercapnic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Gopeshwar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The co-existing, sibling species Mus booduga and Mus terricolor show a difference in site-preference for burrows. The former build them in flat portion of the fields while the latter make burrows in earthen mounds raised for holding water in cultivated fields. In northern India which experiences great variation in climatic condition between summer and winter, M. booduga burrows have an average depth of 41 cm, as against 30 cm in southern India with less climatic fluctuation. M. terricolor burrows are about 20 cm deep everywhere. The three chromosomal species M. terricolor I, II and III have identical burrows, including location of the nest which is situated at the highest position. In contrast, in M. booduga burrows, the nest is at the lowest position. Results The nest chamber of M. booduga is located at greater depth than the nest chamber of M. terricolor. Also, in the burrows of M. booduga the exchange of air takes place only from one side (top surface in contrast to the burrows of M. terricolor where air exchange is through three sides. Hence, M. booduga lives in relatively more hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions than M. terricolor. We observed the fixation of alternative alleles in M. booduga and M. terricolor at Superoxide dismutase-1 (Sod-1, Transferrin (Trf and Hemoglobin beta chain (Hbb loci. All the three are directly or indirectly dependent on oxygen concentration for function. In addition to these, there are differences in burrow patterns and site-preference for burrows suggesting difference in probable adaptive strategy in these co-existing sibling species. Conclusion The burrow structure and depth of nest of the chromosomal species M. terricolor I, II and III are same everywhere probably due to the recency of their evolutionary divergence. Moreover, there is lack of competition for the well-adapted 'microhabitats' since they are non-overlapping in distribution. However, the co-existing sibling species M. booduga

  5. Estimating the Reactivation Potential of Pre-Existing Fractures in Subsurface Granitoids from Outcrop Analogues and in-Situ Stress Modeling: Implications for EGS Reservoir Stimulation with an Example from Thuringia (Central Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasch, N.; Ustaszewski, K. M.; Siegburg, M.; Navabpour, P.; Hesse, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Mid-German Crystalline Rise (MGCR) in Thuringia (central Germany) is part of the European Variscan orogen and hosts large extents of Visean granites (c. 350 Ma), locally overlain by up to 3 km of Early Permian to Mid-Triassic volcanic and sedimentary rocks. A geothermal gradient of 36°C km-1 suggests that such subsurface granites form an economically viable hot dry rock reservoir at > 4 km depth. In order to assess the likelihood of reactivating any pre-existing fractures during hydraulic reservoir stimulation, slip and dilation tendency analyses (Morris et al. 1996) were carried out. For this purpose, we determined orientations of pre-existing fractures in 14 granite exposures along the southern border fault of an MGCR basement high. Additionally, the strike of 192 Permian magmatic dikes affecting the granite was considered. This analysis revealed a prevalence of NW-SE-striking fractures (mainly joints, extension veins, dikes and subordinately brittle faults) with a maximum at 030/70 (dip azimuth/dip). Borehole data and earthquake focal mechanisms reveal a maximum horizontal stress SHmax trending N150°E and a strike-slip regime. Effective in-situ stress magnitudes at 4.5 km depth, assuming hydrostatic conditions and frictional equilibrium along pre-existing fractures with a friction coefficient of 0.85 yielded 230 and 110 MPa for SHmax and Shmin, respectively. In this stress field, fractures with the prevailing orientations show a high tendency of becoming reactivated as dextral strike-slip faults if stimulated hydraulically. To ensure that a stimulation well creates fluid connectivity on a reservoir volume as large as possible rather than dissipating fluids along existing fractures, it should follow a trajectory at the highest possible angle to the orientation of prevailing fractures, i.e. subhorizontal and NE-SW-oriented. References: Morris, A., D. A. Ferrill, and D. B. Henderson (1996), Slip-tendency analysis and fault reactivation, Geology, 24, 275-278.

  6. Effects of Starvation and Thermal Stress on the Thermal Tolerance of Silkworm, Bombyx mori: Existence of Trade-offs and Cross-Tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, A H; Qamar, A

    2017-09-27

    Organisms, in nature, are often subjected to multiple stressors, both biotic and abiotic. Temperature and starvation are among the main stressors experienced by organisms in their developmental cycle and the responses to these stressors may share signaling pathways, which affects the way these responses are manifested. Temperature is a major factor governing the performance of ectothermic organisms in ecosystems worldwide and, therefore, the thermal tolerance is a central issue in the thermobiology of these organisms. Here, we investigated the effects of starvation as well as mild heat and cold shocks on the thermal tolerance of the larvae of silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linnaeus). Starvation acted as a meaningful or positive stressor as it improved cold tolerance, measured as chill coma recovery time (CCRT), but, at the same time, it acted as a negative stressor and impaired the heat tolerance, measured as heat knockdown time (HKT). In the case of heat tolerance, starvation negated the positive effects of both mild cold as well as mild heat shocks and thus indicated the existence of trade-off between these stressors. Both mild heat and cold shocks improved the thermal tolerance, but the effects were more prominent when the indices were measured in response to a stressor of same type, i.e., a mild cold shock improved the cold tolerance more than the heat tolerance and vice versa. This improvement in thermal tolerance by both mild heat as well as cold shocks indicated the possibility of cross-tolerance between these stressors.

  7. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  8. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  9. Wall morphology, blood flow and wall shear stress: MR findings in patients with peripheral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galizia, Mauricio S.; Barker, Alex; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Liao, Yihua [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); McDermott, Mary M. [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-04-15

    To investigate the influence of atherosclerotic plaques on femoral haemodynamics assessed by two-dimensional (2D) phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-directional velocity encoding. During 1 year, patients with peripheral artery disease and an ankle brachial index <1.00 were enrolled. After institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 44 patients (age, 70 ± 12 years) underwent common femoral artery MRI. Patients with contra-indications for MRI were excluded. Sequences included 2D time-of-flight, proton-density, T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated 2D PC-MRI with 3D velocity encoding was acquired. A radiologist classified images in five categories. Blood flow, velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) along the vessel circumference were quantified from the PC-MRI data. The acquired images were of good quality for interpretation. There were no image quality problems related to poor ECG-gating or slice positioning. Velocities, oscillatory shear stress and total flow were similar between patients with normal arteries and wall thickening/plaque. Patients with plaques demonstrated regionally increased peak systolic WSS and enhanced WSS eccentricity. Combined multi-contrast morphological imaging of the peripheral arterial wall with PC-MRI with three-directional velocity encoding is a feasible technique. Further study is needed to determine whether flow is an appropriate marker for altered endothelial cell function, vascular remodelling and plaque progression. (orig.)

  10. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  11. Validação da escala de estresse no trabalho Validation of the work stress scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Paschoal

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo construir e validar um instrumento de estresse ocupacional geral, de fácil aplicação e que pudesse ser utilizado em diversos ambientes de trabalho e para ocupações variadas. A Escala de Estresse no Trabalho (EET, inicialmente composta por 31 itens, foi aplicada a 437 trabalhadores de diferentes organizações, públicas e privadas, sendo 249 homens e 188 mulheres. A análise fatorial revelou a existência de um único fator que, após eliminação de itens com carga fatorial abaixo de 0,45, ficou composto por 23 itens e obteve um coeficiente alfa de Cronbach equivalente a 0,91. Uma versão reduzida da escala, com 13 itens e alfa de 0,85 foi proposta. Com base nos parâmetros psicométricos satisfatórios da EET, conclui-se que esta é uma alternativa para investigações empíricas e trabalhos aplicados em organizações, podendo orientar medidas que visem à qualidade de vida dos trabalhadores.The objective of this study was to develop and to validate a general instrument to evaluate occupational stress, easily administered, used in different work environments and for a variety of occupations. The Work Stress Scale (WSS initially composed of 31 items was applied to 437 workers, 249 men and 188 women, of public and private organizations. The factor analysis detected only one factor. After the elimination of the items with a factor loading below .45, the final version of the scale was composed of 23 items and had a Cronbach's coefficient of .91. A reduced version of the scale with 13 items and a Cronbach's coefficient of .85 has been proposed. Based on the satisfactory psychometric parameters of the scale, it is concluded that the WSS is useful as an alternative in empirical investigations and organizational diagnostics. The results obtained can be useful indicators for organizational decisions in relation to the life quality of the workers.

  12. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  13. Wall Shear Stress Restoration in Dialysis Patient's Venous Stenosis: Elucidation via 3D CFD and Shape Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh Akherat, S. M. Javid; Cassel, Kevin; Hammes, Mary; Boghosian, Michael; Illinois Institute of Technology Team; University of Chicago Team

    2016-11-01

    Venous stenosis developed after the growth of excessive neointimal hyperplasia (NH) in chronic dialysis treatment is a major cause of mortality in renal failure patients. It has been hypothesized that the low wall shear stress (WSS) triggers an adaptive response in patients' venous system that through the growth of neointimal hyperplastic lesions restores WSS and transmural pressure, which also regulates the blood flow rate back to physiologically acceptable values which is violated by dialysis treatment. A strong coupling of three-dimensional CFD and shape optimization analyses were exploited to elucidate and forecast this adaptive response which correlates very well topographically with patient-specific clinical data. Based on the framework developed, a medical protocol is suggested to predict and prevent dialysis treatment failure in clinical practice. Supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (R01 DK90769).

  14. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  15. Greening Existing Tribal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance about improving sustainability in existing tribal casinos and manufactured homes. Many steps can be taken to make existing buildings greener and healthier. They may also reduce utility and medical costs.

  16. 4D Flow Analysis of BAV-Related Fluid-Dynamic Alterations: Evidences of Wall Shear Stress Alterations in Absence of Clinically-Relevant Aortic Anatomical Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Piatti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is the most common congenital cardiac disease and is a foremost risk factor for aortopathies. Despite the genetic basis of BAV and of the associated aortopathies, BAV-related alterations in aortic fluid-dynamics, and particularly in wall shear stresses (WSSs, likely play a role in the progression of aortopathy, and may contribute to its pathogenesis. To test whether WSS may trigger aortopathy, in this study we used 4D Flow sequences of phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR to quantitatively compare the in vivo fluid dynamics in the thoracic aorta of two groups of subjects: (i five prospectively enrolled young patients with normo-functional BAV and with no aortic dilation and (ii ten age-matched healthy volunteers. Through the semi-automated processing of 4D Flow data, the aortic bulk flow at peak systole was quantified, and WSSs acting on the endothelium of the ascending aorta were characterized throughout the systolic phase in terms of magnitude and time-dependency through a method recently developed by our group. Variables computed for each BAV patient were compared vs. the corresponding distribution of values obtained for healthy controls. In BAV patients, ascending aorta diameter was measured on cine-CMR images at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. As compared to controls, normo-functional BAV patients were characterized by minor bulk flow disturbances at peak systole. However, they were characterized by evident alterations of WSS distribution and peak values in the ascending aorta. In particular, in four BAV patients, who were characterized by right-left leaflet fusion, WSS peak values exceeded by 27–46% the 90th percentile of the distribution obtained for healthy volunteers. Only in the BAV patient with right-non-coronary leaflet fusion the same threshold was exceeded by 132%. Also, evident alterations in the time-dependency of WSS magnitude and direction were observed. Despite, these fluid

  17. Scan-rescan reproducibility of segmental aortic wall shear stress as assessed by phase-specific segmentation with 4D flow MRI in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Palen, Roel L F; Roest, Arno A W; van den Boogaard, Pieter J; de Roos, Albert; Blom, Nico A; Westenberg, Jos J M

    2018-05-26

    The aim was to investigate scan-rescan reproducibility and observer variability of segmental aortic 3D systolic wall shear stress (WSS) by phase-specific segmentation with 4D flow MRI in healthy volunteers. Ten healthy volunteers (age 26.5 ± 2.6 years) underwent aortic 4D flow MRI twice. Maximum 3D systolic WSS (WSSmax) and mean 3D systolic WSS (WSSmean) for five thoracic aortic segments over five systolic cardiac phases by phase-specific segmentations were calculated. Scan-rescan analysis and observer reproducibility analysis were performed. Scan-rescan data showed overall good reproducibility for WSSmean (coefficient of variation, COV 10-15%) with moderate-to-strong intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 0.63-0.89). The variability in WSSmax was high (COV 16-31%) with moderate-to-good ICC (0.55-0.79) for different aortic segments. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility was good-to-excellent for regional aortic WSSmax (ICC ≥ 0.78; COV ≤ 17%) and strong-to-excellent for WSSmean (ICC ≥ 0.86; COV ≤ 11%). In general, ascending aortic segments showed more WSSmax/WSSmean variability compared to aortic arch or descending aortic segments for scan-rescan, intraobserver and interobserver comparison. Scan-rescan reproducibility was good for WSSmean and moderate for WSSmax for all thoracic aortic segments over multiple systolic phases in healthy volunteers. Intra/interobserver reproducibility for segmental WSS assessment was good-to-excellent. Variability of WSSmax is higher and should be taken into account in case of individual follow-up or in comparative rest-stress studies to avoid misinterpretation.

  18. In vitro shear stress measurements using particle image velocimetry in a family of carotid artery models: effect of stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity, and ulceration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kefayati

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic disease, and the subsequent complications of thrombosis and plaque rupture, has been associated with local shear stress. In the diseased carotid artery, local variations in shear stress are induced by various geometrical features of the stenotic plaque. Greater stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity (symmetry and plaque ulceration have been associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular events based on clinical trial studies. Using particle image velocimetry, the levels and patterns of shear stress (derived from both laminar and turbulent phases were studied for a family of eight matched-geometry models incorporating independently varied plaque features - i.e. stenosis severity up to 70%, one of two forms of plaque eccentricity, and the presence of plaque ulceration. The level of laminar (ensemble-averaged shear stress increased with increasing stenosis severity resulting in 2-16 Pa for free shear stress (FSS and approximately double (4-36 Pa for wall shear stress (WSS. Independent of stenosis severity, marked differences were found in the distribution and extent of shear stress between the concentric and eccentric plaque formations. The maximum WSS, found at the apex of the stenosis, decayed significantly steeper along the outer wall of an eccentric model compared to the concentric counterpart, with a 70% eccentric stenosis having 249% steeper decay coinciding with the large outer-wall recirculation zone. The presence of ulceration (in a 50% eccentric plaque resulted in both elevated FSS and WSS levels that were sustained longer (∼20 ms through the systolic phase compared to the non-ulcerated counterpart model, among other notable differences. Reynolds (turbulent shear stress, elevated around the point of distal jet detachment, became prominent during the systolic deceleration phase and was widely distributed over the large recirculation zone in the eccentric stenoses.

  19. Why preeclampsia still exists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelbi, Sonia T; Veitia, Reiner A; Vaiman, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a deadly gestational disease affecting up to 10% of women and specific of the human species. Preeclampsia is clearly multifactorial, but the existence of a genetic basis for this disease is now clearly established by the existence of familial cases, epidemiological studies and known predisposing gene polymorphisms. PE is very common despite the fact that Darwinian pressure should have rapidly eliminated or strongly minimized the frequency of predisposing alleles. Consecutive pregnancies with the same partner decrease the risk and severity of PE. Here, we show that, due to this peculiar feature, preeclampsia predisposing-alleles can be differentially maintained according to the familial structure. Thus, we suggest that an optimal frequency of PE-predisposing alleles in human populations can be achieved as a result of a trade-off between benefits of exogamy, importance for maintaining genetic diversity and increase of the fitness owing to a stable paternal investment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Existence of Projective Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Perrott, Xander

    2016-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the history of finite projective planes and their properties before going on to outline the proof that no projective plane of order 10 exists. The report also investigates the search carried out by MacWilliams, Sloane and Thompson in 1970 [12] and confirms their result by providing independent verification that there is no vector of weight 15 in the code generated by the projective plane of order 10.

  1. Does bioethics exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L

    2009-12-01

    Bioethicists disagree over methods, theories, decision-making guides, case analyses and public policies. Thirty years ago, the thinking of many scholars coalesced around a principlist approach to bioethics. That mid-level mode of moral reasoning is now one of many approaches to moral deliberation. Significant variation in contemporary approaches to the study of ethical issues related to medicine, biotechnology and health care raises the question of whether bioethics exists as widely shared method, theory, normative framework or mode of moral reasoning.

  2. Effect of tip clearance on wall shear stress of an axial LVAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarath, S.; Vikas, R.

    2017-09-01

    Wall shear stress is a crucial parameter used for blood damage analysis, and typically a value of 400 Pa is set as a limit. Tip clearance is a major factor contributing to hemolysis and pump efficiency. In this study, different tip gap configurations are used to analyse the wall shear stress developed on the blade surface of a constant thickness blade design, and a varying thickness blade design using CFD analysis. It was found that, for a particular geometry, as the clearance gap reduces, flow rate over the high wall shear stress area decreases even though the high wall shear stress span is found to extend. For each design, the optimum clearance gap is iteratively attained, keeping the maximum WSS as a limiting factor. Thus a better pump designs is obtained, whose leakage flow patterns are lower than that of the initial design, hence also leading to higher pump efficiency.

  3. O Ponto G Existe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Molina Noccioli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca analisar o tratamento linguístico-discursivo das informações acerca de um tópicotemático tradicionalmente visto como tabu, relacionado a questões sexuais, na notícia O ponto G existe?, publicada em 2008, na revista brasileira Superinteressante, destacando-se como o conhecimento em questão é representado socialmente ao se considerar a linha editorial da revista. A notícia caracteriza-se como um campo fértil para a análise das estratégias divulgativas, já que atrai, inclusive pelas escolhas temáticas, a curiosidade dos leitores. Imbuído de um tema excêntrico, o texto consegue angariar um público jovem interessado em discussões polêmicas relacionadas ao seu universo.

  4. Lebesgue Sets Immeasurable Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marginean Petrovai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the notion of measure and integral were released early enough in close connection with practical problems of measuring of geometric figures. Notion of measure was outlined in the early 20th century through H. Lebesgue’s research, founder of the modern theory of measure and integral. It was developed concurrently a technique of integration of functions. Gradually it was formed a specific area todaycalled the measure and integral theory. Essential contributions to building this theory was made by a large number of mathematicians: C. Carathodory, J. Radon, O. Nikodym, S. Bochner, J. Pettis, P. Halmos and many others. In the following we present several abstract sets, classes of sets. There exists the sets which are not Lebesgue measurable and the sets which are Lebesgue measurable but are not Borel measurable. Hence B ⊂ L ⊂ P(X.

  5. EXIST Perspective for SFXTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Sidoli, L.; Sguera, V.; Bazzano, A.

    2009-12-01

    Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are one of the most interesting (and unexpected) results of the INTEGRAL mission. They are a new class of HMXBs displaying short hard X-ray outbursts (duration less tha a day) characterized by fast flares (few hours timescale) and large dinamic range (10E3-10E4). The physical mechanism driving their peculiar behaviour is still unclear and highly debated: some models involve the structure of the supergiant companion donor wind (likely clumpy, in a spherical or non spherical geometry) and the orbital properties (wide separation with eccentric or circular orbit), while others involve the properties of the neutron star compact object and invoke very low magnetic field values (B 1E14 G, magnetars). The picture is still highly unclear from the observational point of view as well: no cyclotron lines have been detected in the spectra, thus the strength of the neutron star magnetic field is unknown. Orbital periods have been measured in only 4 systems, spanning from 3.3 days to 165 days. Even the duty cycle seems to be quite different from source to source. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST), with its hard X-ray all-sky survey and large improved limiting sensitivity, will allow us to get a clearer picture of SFXTs. A complete census of their number is essential to enlarge the sample. A long term and continuous as possible X-ray monitoring is crucial to -(1) obtain the duty cycle, -(2 )investigate their unknown orbital properties (separation, orbital period, eccentricity),- (3) to completely cover the whole outburst activity, (4)-to search for cyclotron lines in the high energy spectra. EXIST observations will provide crucial informations to test the different models and shed light on the peculiar behaviour of SFXTs.

  6. Computational and experimental assessment of influences of hemodynamic shear stress on carotid plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Meng, Long; Zhou, Wei; Xin, Lin; Xia, Xiangxiang; Li, Shuai; Zheng, Hairong; Niu, Lili

    2017-07-29

    Studies have identified hemodynamic shear stress as an important determinant of endothelial function and atherosclerosis. In this study, we assess the influences of hemodynamic shear stress on carotid plaques. Carotid stenosis phantoms with three severity (30, 50, 70%) were made from 10% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel. The phantoms were placed in a pulsatile flow loop with the same systolic/diastolic phase (35/65) and inlet flow rate (16 L/h). Ultrasonic particle imaging velocimetry (Echo PIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were used to calculate the velocity profile and shear stress distribution in the carotid stenosis phantoms. Inlet/outlet boundary conditions used in CFD were extracted from Echo PIV experiments to make sure that the results were comparable. Echo PIV and CFD results showed that velocity was largest in 70% than those in 30 and 50% at peak systole. Echo PIV results indicated that shear stress was larger in the upper wall and the surface of plaque than in the center of vessel. CFD results demonstrated that wall shear stress in the upstream was larger than in downstream of plaque. There was no significant difference in average velocity obtained by CFD and Echo PIV in 30% (p = 0.25). Velocities measured by CFD in 50% (93.01 cm/s) and in 70% (115.07 cm/s) were larger than those by Echo PIV in 50% (60.26 ± 5.36 cm/s) and in 70% (89.11 ± 7.21 cm/s). The results suggested that Echo PIV and CFD could obtain hemodynamic shear stress on carotid plaques. Higher WSS occurred in narrower arteries, and the shoulder of plaque bore higher WSS than in bottom part.

  7. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  8. Metabolic syndrome biomarkers and early breast cancer in Saudi women: evidence for the presence of a systemic stress response and/or a pre-existing metabolic syndrome-related neoplasia risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alokail, Majed S; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Abdulkareem, Amal; Draz, Hossam M; Yakout, Sobhy M; Alnaami, Abdullah M; Sabico, Shaun; Alenad, Amal M; Chrousos, George P

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has been linked to many adverse health consequences, including breast cancer. This study aims to determine adipocytokine and other biological changes in recently diagnosed breast cancer patients before therapy is started. A total of 109 female Saudi subjects [56 newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve, histologically-confirmed breast cancer cases and 53 age- and BMI-matched controls] were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric data were collected. Serum insulin, adipocytokines and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentrations were measured using a customized multiplex Luminex assay. Hypersensitive C-Reactive Protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and angiotensin II (ANG II) were measured using ELISA. A few days in the diagnosis, breast cancer subjects had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (p = 0.03), glucose (p = 0.01), triglycerides (p = 0.001), leptin (p = 0.044), resistin (p = 0.04), ANG II (p = 0.02), TNF-α (p = 0.045), and CRP (p = 0.04) than the controls. On the other hand, HDL (p = 0.01) and adiponectin (p = 0.02) were significantly lower in cancer subjects than controls. A significant association was found between elevated triglycerides (TG) and breast cancer [OR (95% CI), 6.1(1.8, 15.6), p = 0.004], as well as elevated ANG II [OR (95% CI), 5.2(1.2, 14.3), p = 0.03]. On the other hand, aPAI and HDL correlated negatively with breast cancer [OR (95% CI), 0.076(0.01, 0.34), p = 0.001; 0.30(0.09, 0.95), p 0.04, respectively]. Circulating ANGII and triglycerides were positively associated with early breast cancer. In contrast, HDL-cholesterol correlated negatively with ANG II and aPAI in these patients. This suggests that patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer have biochemical changes consistent with an activated stress response and/or that patients with metabolic syndrome manifestations have a higher risk of developing this disease

  9. Ontological Proofs of Existence and Non-Existence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2008), s. 257-262 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : ontological proofs * existence * non-existence * Gödel * Caramuel Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  10. Existence theory in optimal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olech, C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper treats the existence problem in two main cases. One case is that of linear systems when existence is based on closedness or compactness of the reachable set and the other, non-linear case refers to a situation where for the existence of optimal solutions closedness of the set of admissible solutions is needed. Some results from convex analysis are included in the paper. (author)

  11. Interaction between the Stress Phase Angle (SPA and the Oscillatory Shear Index (OSI Affects Endothelial Cell Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Amaya

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic forces play an important role in the non-uniform distribution of atherosclerotic lesions. Endothelial cells are exposed simultaneously to fluid wall shear stress (WSS and solid circumferential stress (CS. Due to variations in impedance (global factors and geometric complexities (local factors in the arterial circulation a time lag arises between these two forces that can be characterized by the temporal phase angle between CS and WSS (stress phase angle-SPA. Asynchronous flows (SPA close to -180° that are most prominent in coronary arteries have been associated with localization of atherosclerosis. Reversing oscillatory flows characterized by an oscillatory shear index (OSI that is great than zero are also associated with atherosclerosis localization. In this study we examined the relationship between asynchronous flows and reversing flows in altering the expression of 37 genes relevant to atherosclerosis development. In the case of reversing oscillatory flow, we observed that the asynchronous condition upregulated 8 genes compared to synchronous hemodynamics, most of them proatherogenic. Upregulation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NFκB p65 was confirmed by western blot, and nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining. A comparative study between non-reversing flow and reversing flow found that in the case of synchronous hemodynamics, reversing flow altered the expression of 11 genes, while in the case of asynchronous hemodynamics, reversing flow altered the expression of 17 genes. Reversing flow significantly upregulated protein expression of NFκB p65 for both synchronous and asynchronous conditions. Nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 was confirmed for synchronous and asynchronous conditions in the presence of flow reversal. These data suggest that asynchronous hemodynamics and reversing flow can elicit proatherogenic responses in endothelial cells compared to synchronous

  12. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  13. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  14. Characterizing saccular aortic arch aneurysms from the geometry-flow dynamics relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Kayoko; Shiiya, Norihiko; Takehara, Yasuo; Sugiyama, Masataka; Satoh, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Katsushi; Washiyama, Naoki

    2017-06-01

    Low wall shear stress (WSS) has been reported to be associated with accelerated atherosclerosis, aneurysm growth, or rupture. We evaluated the geometry of aortic arch aneurysms and their relationship with WSS by using the 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging to better characterize the saccular aneurysms. We analyzed the geometry in 100 patients using multiplanar reconstruction of computed tomography. We evaluated WSS and vortex flow using 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging in 16 of them, which were compared with 8 age-matched control subjects and eight healthy young volunteers. Eighty-two patients had a saccular aneurysm, and 18 had a fusiform aneurysm. External diameter/aneurysm length ratio and sac depth/neck width ratio of the fusiform aneurysms were constant at 0.76 ± 0.18 and 0.23 ± 0.09, whereas those of saccular aneurysms, especially those involving the outer curvature, were higher and more variable. Vortex flow was always present in the aneurysms, resulting in low WSS. When the sac depth/neck width ratio was less than 0.8, peak WSS correlated inversely with luminal diameter even in the saccular aneurysms. When this ratio exceeded 0.8, which was the case only with the saccular aneurysms, such correlation no longer existed and WSS was invariably low. Fusiform aneurysms elongate as they dilate, and WSS is lower as the diameter is larger. Saccular aneurysms dilate without proportionate elongation, and they, especially those occupying the inner curvature, have higher and variable sac depth/neck width ratio. When this ratio exceeds 0.8, WSS is low regardless of diameter, which may explain their malignant clinical behavior. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Limitations of existing web services

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Limitations of existing web services. Uploading or downloading large data. Serving too many user from single source. Difficult to provide computer intensive job. Depend on internet and its bandwidth. Security of data in transition. Maintain confidentiality of data ...

  16. Performance of Existing Hydrogen Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented aggregated analysis results on the performance of existing hydrogen stations, including performance, operation, utilization, maintenance, safety, hydrogen quality, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy funds technology validation work at NREL through its National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC).

  17. The EXIST Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.

    2008-01-01

    EXIST is a mission designed to find and study black holes (BHs) over a wide range of environments and masses, including: 1) BHs accreting from binary companions or dense molecular clouds throughout our Galaxy and the Local Group, 2) supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lying dormant in galaxies that reveal their existence by disrupting passing stars, and 3) SMBHs that are hidden from our view at lower energies due to obscuration by the gas that they accrete. 4) the birth of stellar mass BHs which is accompanied by long cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which are seen several times a day and may be associated with the earliest stars to form in the Universe. EXIST will provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity and angular resolution as well as greater spectral resolution and bandwidth compared with earlier hard X-ray survey telescopes. With an onboard optical-infra red (IR) telescope, EXIST will measure the spectra and redshifts of GRBs and their utility as cosmological probes of the highest z universe and epoch of reionization. The mission would retain its primary goal of being the Black Hole Finder Probe in the Beyond Einstein Program. However, the new design for EXIST proposed to be studied here represents a significant advance from its previous incarnation as presented to BEPAC. The mission is now less than half the total mass, would be launched on the smallest EELV available (Atlas V-401) for a Medium Class mission, and most importantly includes a two-telescope complement that is ideally suited for the study of both obscured and very distant BHs. EXIST retains its very wide field hard X-ray imaging High Energy Telescope (HET) as the primary instrument, now with improved angular and spectral resolution, and in a more compact payload that allows occasional rapid slews for immediate optical/IR imaging and spectra of GRBs and AGN as well as enhanced hard X-ray spectra and timing with pointed observations. The mission would conduct a 2 year full sky survey in

  18. The Greenhouse Effect Does Exist!

    OpenAIRE

    Ebel, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    In particular, without the greenhouse effect, essential features of the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of height cannot be described, i.e., the existence of the tropopause above which we see an almost isothermal temperature curve, whereas beneath it the temperature curve is nearly adiabatic. The relationship between the greenhouse effect and observed temperature curve is explained and the paper by Gerlich and Tscheuschner [arXiv:0707.1161] critically analyzed. Gerlich and Tsche...

  19. Europe - space for transcultural existence?

    OpenAIRE

    Tamcke, Martin; Janny, de Jong; Klein, Lars; Waal, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    Europe - Space for Transcultural Existence? is the first volume of the new series, Studies in Euroculture, published by Göttingen University Press. The series derives its name from the Erasmus Mundus Master of Excellence Euroculture: Europe in the Wider World, a two year programme offered by a consortium of eight European universities in collaboration with four partner universities outside Europe. This master highlights regional, national and supranational dimensions of the European democrati...

  20. Existence of undiscovered Uranian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    Structure in the Uranian ring system as observed in recent occultations may contain indirect evidence for the existence of undiscovered satellites. Using the Alfven and Arrhenius (1975, 1976) scenario for the formation of planetary systems, the orbital radii of up to nine hypothetical satellites interior to Miranda are computed. These calculations should provide interesting comparisons when the results from the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus are made public. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. UNCITRAL: Changes to existing law

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Joakim

    2008-01-01

    The UNCITRAL Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods [wholly or partly] by Sea has an ambition of replacing current maritime regimes and expands the application of the Convention to include also multimodal transport. This thesis questions what changes to existing law, in certain areas, the new Convention will bring compared to the current regimes. In the initial part, the thesis provides for a brief background and history of international maritime regulations and focus...

  2. Existence Results for Incompressible Magnetoelasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kružík, Martin; Stefanelli, U.; Zeman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 6 (2015), s. 2615-2623 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18652S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : magnetoelasticity * magnetostrictive solids * incompressibility * existence of minimizers * quasistatic evolution * energetic solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.127, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/kruzik-0443017.pdf

  3. Quantum logics with existence property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, C.

    1991-01-01

    A quantum logic (σ-orthocomplete orthomodular poset L with a convex, unital, and separating set Δ of states) is said to have the existence property if the expectation functionals on lin(Δ) associated with the bounded observables of L form a vector space. Classical quantum logics as well as the Hilbert space logics of traditional quantum mechanics have this property. The author shows that, if a quantum logic satisfies certain conditions in addition to having property E, then the number of its blocks (maximal classical subsystems) must either be one (classical logics) or uncountable (as in Hilbert space logics)

  4. Does cold nuclear fusion exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudanin, V.B.; Bystritskij, V.M.; Egorov, V.G.; Shamsutdinov, S.G.; Shyshkin, A.L.; Stolupin, V.A.; Yutlandov, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    The results of investigation of cold nuclear fusion on palladium are given both for electrolysis of heavy water D 2 O and mixture D 2 O + H 2 O) (1:1) and for palladium saturation with gaseous deuterium. The possibility of existance of this phenomenon was examined by detection of neutrons and gamma quanta from reactions: d + d → 3 He + n + 3.27 MeV, p + d → 3 He + γ + 5.5 MeV. Besides these reactions were identified by measuring the characteristic X radiation of palladium due to effect of charged products 3 He, p, t. The upper limits of the intensities of hypothetical sources of neutrons and gamma quanta at the 95% confidence level were obtained to be Q n ≤ 2x10 -2 n/sxcm 3 Pd, Q γ ≤ 2x10 -3 γ/sxcm 3 Pd. 2 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrade, M.; Ogden, R. W.; Sgura, I.; Vergori, L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise. PMID:24711723

  6. Why do interstellar grains exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Hollenbach, D.J.; Mckee, C.F.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    1986-01-01

    There exists a discrepancy between calculated destruction rates of grains in the interstellar medium and postulated sources of new grains. This problem was examined by modelling the global life cycle of grains in the galaxy. The model includes: grain destruction due to supernovae shock waves; grain injection from cool stars, planetary nebulae, star formation, novae, and supernovae; grain growth by accretion in dark clouds; and a mixing scheme between phases of the interstellar medium. Grain growth in molecular clouds is considered as a mechanism or increasing the formation rate. To decrease the shock destruction rate, several new physical processes, such as partial vaporization effects in grain-grain collisions, breakdown of the small Larmor radius approximation for betatron acceleration, and relaxation of the steady-state shock assumption are included

  7. Stress Management: Job Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and ... stress triggers, it's often helpful to improve time management skills — especially if you tend to feel overwhelmed ...

  8. Existe sujeito em Michel Maffesoli?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Appel da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio discute a concepção de sujeito na abordagem teórica de Michel Maffesoli. As ideias desse autor estão em voga em alguns meios acadêmicos no Brasil e são difundidas por algumas mídias de grande circulação nacional. Entretanto, ao longo de suas obras, os pressupostos que definem quem é o sujeito maffesoliano se encontram pouco clarificados. Portanto, para alcançar o objetivo a que se propõe, este ensaio desenvolve uma análise da epistemologia e da ontologia maffesoliana com a finalidade de compreender as origens dos pressupostos desse autor, ou seja, as teorias e os autores em que Maffesoli se baseou para desenvolver uma visão de sujeito. Com essa compreensão, pretende-se responder à questão: existe sujeito na abordagem teórica de Maffesoli.

  9. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Childhood Stress KidsHealth / For Parents / Childhood Stress What's in this ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  10. Summary of existing uncertainty methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, Horst

    2013-01-01

    A summary of existing and most used uncertainty methods is presented, and the main features are compared. One of these methods is the order statistics method based on Wilks' formula. It is applied in safety research as well as in licensing. This method has been first proposed by GRS for use in deterministic safety analysis, and is now used by many organisations world-wide. Its advantage is that the number of potential uncertain input and output parameters is not limited to a small number. Such a limitation was necessary for the first demonstration of the Code Scaling Applicability Uncertainty Method (CSAU) by the United States Regulatory Commission (USNRC). They did not apply Wilks' formula in their statistical method propagating input uncertainties to obtain the uncertainty of a single output variable, like peak cladding temperature. A Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) was set up in order to limit the number of uncertain input parameters, and consequently, the number of calculations to be performed. Another purpose of such a PIRT process is to identify the most important physical phenomena which a computer code should be suitable to calculate. The validation of the code should be focused on the identified phenomena. Response surfaces are used in some applications replacing the computer code for performing a high number of calculations. The second well known uncertainty method is the Uncertainty Methodology Based on Accuracy Extrapolation (UMAE) and the follow-up method 'Code with the Capability of Internal Assessment of Uncertainty (CIAU)' developed by the University Pisa. Unlike the statistical approaches, the CIAU does compare experimental data with calculation results. It does not consider uncertain input parameters. Therefore, the CIAU is highly dependent on the experimental database. The accuracy gained from the comparison between experimental data and calculated results are extrapolated to obtain the uncertainty of the system code predictions

  11. Stress and Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffer, Johansen,; Sørensen, Ivalu; Lim Høeg, Beverly

    2017-01-01

    The role of stress in relation to cancer remains controversial. Stress is assumed to be an emerging public health problem in modern society. Still, we argue that it is relevant to view the role of stress in cancer from a scientific point of view. A critical overview of existing evidence...... is presented through previous review studies, and the importance of methodological challenges is highlighted. We summarize the evidence on the role of stress as a cause of cancer, on the impact of stress on cancer prognosis, and on how coping mechanisms may influence stress levels in cancer patients. Finally......, we describe the evidence on interventions to relieve stress in cancer patients for the purpose of improving both well-being and cancer prognosis. Against public opinion, we critically dismiss the evidence on psychotherapy as a tool to prolong life after cancer as inconsistent and unresolved....

  12. Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management By Mayo Clinic Staff Stress basics Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to the demands of life. ... some people's alarm systems rarely shut off. Stress management gives you a range of tools to reset ...

  13. Manage Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... and Health Effects What are the signs of stress? When people are under stress, they may feel: ...

  14. Stress Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress incontinence Overview Urinary incontinence is the unintentional loss of urine. Stress incontinence happens when physical movement or activity — such ... coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting — puts pressure (stress) on your bladder. Stress incontinence is not related ...

  15. 10 CFR 4.127 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 4.127 Section 4.127 Energy NUCLEAR... 1973, as Amended Discriminatory Practices § 4.127 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient... make each of its existing facilities or every part of an existing facility accessible to and usable by...

  16. Positive Effects of a Stress Reduction Program Based on Mindfulness Meditation in Brazilian Nursing Professionals: Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Teresa Maria; Kozasa, Elisa Harumi; Carmagnani, Isabel Sampaio; Tanaka, Luiza Hiromi; Lacerda, Shirley Silva; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation has been shown to effectively mitigate the negative effects of stress among nursing professionals, but in countries like Brazil, these practices are relatively unexplored. To evaluate the effects of a Stress Reduction Program (SRP) including mindfulness and loving kindness meditation among nursing professionals working in a Brazilian hospital setting. Pilot study with a mixed model using quantitative and qualitative methods was used to evaluate a group of participants. The quantitative data were analyzed at three different time points: pre-intervention, post-intervention, and follow-up. The qualitative data were analyzed at post-intervention. Hospital São Paulo (Brazil). Sample 13 nursing professionals, including nurses, technicians, and nursing assistants working in a hospital. Participants underwent mindfulness and loving kindness meditation during a period of six weeks. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment, and Work Stress Scale (WSS). Qualitative data were collected via a group interview following six weeks participation in the SRP. The quantitative analyses revealed a significant reduction (P stress, burnout, depression, and anxiety (trait). These variables showed no significant differences between post-intervention and follow-up scores. The WHOQOL-BREF revealed significant increase (P nursing activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Learning During Stressful Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shors, Tracey J.

    2012-01-01

    Stressful life events can have profound effects on our cognitive and motor abilities, from those that could be construed as adaptive to those not so. In this review, I discuss the general notion that acute stressful experience necessarily impairs our abilities to learn and remember. The effects of stress on operant conditioning, that is, learned helplessness, as well as those on classical conditioning procedures are discussed in the context of performance and adaptation. Studies indicating sex differences in learning during stressful times are discussed, as are those attributing different responses to the existence of multiple memory systems and nonlinear relationships. The intent of this review is to highlight the apparent plasticity of the stress response, how it might have evolved to affect both performance and learning processes, and the potential problems with interpreting stress effects on learning as either good or bad. An appreciation for its plasticity may provide new avenues for investigating its underlying neuronal mechanisms. PMID:15054128

  18. Stress Managment and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Dadkhah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Health promotion approach is utilized to address the prevention, management and early intervention for stress management and also to promote positive mental and psychological health. Stress affects everyone and must be managed effectively to reduce its chronic and deleterious effects this study consists of two sections: in first section the principals of health promotion in different human existence levels, prevention of disease related to stress, the effect of stress on human well-being, and stress management were discussed. In second section the role of rehabilitation specialists (Medical technologist, nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, respiratory therapists, and social workers in stress management were counted.

  19. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  20. Do Elementary Particles Have an Objective Existence?

    OpenAIRE

    Nissenson, Bilha

    2007-01-01

    The formulation of quantum theory does not comply with the notion of objective existence of elementary particles. Objective existence independent of observation implies the distinguishability of elementary particles. In other words: If elementary particles have an objective existence independent of observations, then they are distinguishable. Or if elementary particles are indistinguishable then matter cannot have existence independent of our observation. This paper presents a simple deductio...

  1. 34 CFR 104.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing facilities. 104.22 Section 104.22 Education... Accessibility § 104.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate its program or activity.... This paragraph does not require a recipient to make each of its existing facilities or every part of a...

  2. 45 CFR 1170.32 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 1170.32 Section 1170.32... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Accessibility § 1170.32 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient... require a recipient to make each of its existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and...

  3. 45 CFR 605.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 605.22 Section 605.22 Public... Accessibility § 605.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each program or... existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable by qualified handicapped persons...

  4. 14 CFR 1251.301 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 1251.301 Section 1251... HANDICAP Accessibility § 1251.301 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each... existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable by handicapped persons. (b...

  5. 45 CFR 1151.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing facilities. 1151.22 Section 1151.22... Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.22 Existing facilities. (a) A recipient shall operate each program or... make each of its existing facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and usable by...

  6. 10 CFR 611.206 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 611.206 Section 611.206 Energy... PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.206 Existing facilities. The Secretary shall, in making awards to those manufacturers that have existing facilities, give priority to those facilities that are oldest or...

  7. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  8. Conceptual model for concessioning in the Water Supply and Sanitation sector in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Todor Raychev

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to create a new conceptual model for sustainable development of the water sector in Bulgaria on the basis of concessions by statistical regions according to the NUTS-2 classification of the European Union. The essence of the proposed model includes an approach for consolidating the existing 66 WSS operators in three WSS operators – concessionaires. The approach is applied to provide WSS services for drinking and household needs of the population. WSS services fo...

  9. Perceived stress and anxiety among Ghanaian pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived stress and anxiety among Ghanaian pregnant women. ... Abstract. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of stress and anxiety, as well as the association that exists between stress/anxiety and ... from 32 Countries:.

  10. Wind/seismic comparison for upgrading existing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giller, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper depicts the analysis procedures and methods used to evaluate three existing building structures for extreme wind loads. The three structures involved in this evaluation are located at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This site is characterized by open flat grassland with few surrounding obstructions and has extreme winds in lieu of tornados as a design basis accident condition. This group of buildings represents a variety of construction types, including a concrete stack, a concrete load-bearing wall structure, and a rigid steel-frame building. The three structures included in this group have recently been evaluated for response to the design basis earthquake that included non-linear time history effects. The resulting loads and stresses from the wind analyses were compared to the loads and stresses resulting from seismic analyses. This approach eliminated the need to prepare additional capacity calculations that were already contained in the seismic evaluations

  11. Existence of equilibria in articulated bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, G.; Ciuperca, I.; Hafidi, I.; Jai, M.

    2007-04-01

    The existence of equilibrium solutions for a lubricated system consisting of an articulated body sliding over a flat plate is considered. Though this configuration is very common (it corresponds to the popular tilting-pad thrust bearings), the existence problem has only been addressed in extremely simplified cases, such as planar sliders of infinite width. Our results show the existence of at least one equilibrium for a quite general class of (nonplanar) slider shapes. We also extend previous results concerning planar sliders.

  12. 47 CFR 17.17 - Existing structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing structures. 17.17 Section 17.17... STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.17 Existing structures. (a) The requirements found in § 17.23 relating to painting and lighting of antenna structures shall not apply to those...

  13. 10 CFR 1040.72 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing facilities. 1040.72 Section 1040.72 Energy... § 1040.72 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate any program or activity to... facilities or every part of a facility accessible to and useable by handicapped persons. (b) Methods. A...

  14. 45 CFR 84.22 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 84.22 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate its program or activity so that when each part is..., welfare, or other social services at alternate accessible sites, alteration of existing facilities and...

  15. Financial gap calculations for existing cogeneration 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hers, S.J.; Wetzels, W.; Seebregts, A.J.; Van der Welle, A.J.

    2008-05-01

    The Dutch SDE (abbreviation for the renewable energy incentive) subsidy scheme promotes the reduction of CO2 emissions which results from the use of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants. This report calculates the profitability of operation of existing CHP plants. This information can be used for decision making on the SDE subsidy for existing CHP plants in 2008 [nl

  16. On the existence of consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Sayit, Hasanjan

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a sufficient condition for the existence of a consistent price system (CPS), which is weaker than the conditional full support condition (CFS). We use the new condition to show the existence of CPSs for certain processes that fail to have the CFS property. In particular this condition...

  17. Occupational Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Löblová, Klára

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with load, stress and related questions of the working life. Work-related stress brings numerous difficulties not only to affected individuals, but as a result also to organizations. The thesis follows symptoms, impacts, somatic and mental aspects of stress, its types and also types of stressors, which cause this problem. It is concentrated on workload as a specific area of work-related stress, individual resistance to the load, factors of workload and work-related stress and...

  18. Application of geometric probability to the existence of faults in anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranwell, R.M.; Donath, F.A.

    1980-01-01

    Three primary aspects of faults which relate to their potential for degradation of a repository site are: the possibility of an existing but undetected fault intersecting the repository site; the potential for a new fault occurring and propagating through the repository site; the ability of any such fault to transmit groundwater. Given that a fault might be present in the region surrounding the site, the probability that it intersects the site depends primarily on its orientation and on the density of faulting in the area. Once these parameters are known, a model can be developed to determine the probability that an existing but undetected fault will intersect the repository site. Similar techniques can be used to estimate the potential for new faults occurring and intersecting site, or intersection from propagation along existing faults. However, additional data includng in situ stress measurements and records of seismic activity would be needed. One can estimate the stress level at which the strength in the surrounding media will be exceeded, and thus determine a time-dependent probability of movement along a pre-existing fault or of a new fault occurring, from a predicted rate of change in local stresses. In situ stress measurements taken at intervals of time could aid in determining the rate of stress change in the surrounding media, although measurable changes might not occur over the available period of observation. In situ stress measurements might also aid in assessing the ability of existing faults to transmit fluids

  19. Metallurgy of stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, J.A.

    1973-01-01

    The susceptibility of metals and alloys to stress corrosion is discussed in terms of the relationship between structural characteristics (crystal structure, grains, and second phases) and defects (vacancies, dislocations, and cracks) that exist in metals and alloys. (U.S.)

  20. STRESS IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Elena, GHEORDUNESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the changes that are currently taking place in our country, it is clear that these changes, which occur in almost all companies, lead to new stress factors for both employees and the organization. Occupational stress is a major problem for employees and managers, but also for the whole society. The issue of stress in organizations has given birth to many debates and studies. It is a common theme that is addressed by managers, employees and consultants from different perspectives. According to a study by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, in the European Union, work-related stress is the second work-related health issue after dorsal disorders. It affects 28% of EU employees. The European Parliament is fully involved in addressing issues related to the psychological support of the staff. Preventing work-related stress is one of the objectives set out in the Communique of the European Commission for Employment and Social Affairs regarding their new health and safety at work strategy. Manifestations of stress in organizations are easily observable, being manifested by behaviors such as: difficulties in adapting to the changes required to work or the dramatic drop in labor productivity. Also a double action is met: both the person who passes through the stressful situation and at the organization level on which it is reflected the existence of a stressful environment. This paper aims to address the implications of workplace stress, symptoms of stress in the workplace and strategies to eliminate and prevent stress at work This paper represents an exploratory research based on qualitative methods, being consulted various sources of information: the literature, case studies, media articles, reports of relevant organizations, etc.

  1. Development of an early warning system for strong environmental pollution by measuring the activation of defined universally existing stress genes. Final report; Das Auftreten spezifischer Stressproteine bei Umweltbelastung in Chironomiden: Entwicklung eines neuen Fruehwarnsystems fuer starke Umweltbelastung durch Messung der Aktivierung definierter, universell vorkommender Stressgene bei ausgewaehlten Indikatororganismen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloetzel, P.M.; Mueller, W.

    1991-12-31

    In the present pilot study we established an ELISA based detection system which allows sensitive monitoring of stress induction as a result of heavy metal pollution. The system is based on the immunological detection of the stress induced hsp70 in larvae of Chironomidae. Using this system it is possible to detect environmental pollution by heavy metals far beyond lethal toxicity values. Since only very few animals are needed the system can also be used in field tests. For poluted isopodes as Oniscus asellus for example a single animal turned out be sufficient to monitor stress induction by Pb{sup +}. The established system ought to serve as basis for a more extended study in which different animals are collected from various polluted environments and tested with respect to already induced hsp synthesis. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Pilotstudie konnte ein sensitives Nachweissystem fuer die Induktion des ubiquitaeren Stresssystem durch Schwermetalle auf der Basis der immunologischen Detektion von HSP70 etabliert werden. Dieses, auf ELISA Basis arbeitende Testverfahren ermoeglicht es Schwermetallbelastungen weit unterhalb der Toxizitaetsgrenze ueber die Induktion der HSP70 Synthese in Chironomidenlarven nachzuweisen. Die Tatsache, dass nur wenige Tiere fuer eine statistische Aussage benoetigt werden laesst eine Anwendungsmoeglichkeit auch auf Freilandtiere erwarten. So reicht fuer bleibelastete Freiland-Asseln ein einziges Tier zum immunologischen Belastungsnachweis aus. Damit sind die Grundlagen fuer die zweite Phase, die Freilandphase, in welcher sowohl Freilandtiere als auch Gewaesser- und Sedimentproben von verschiedenen Standorten in die Untersuchungen miteinbezogen werden sollen; geschaffen. Es koennen jetzt Tiere aus belasteten Gewaessern bezueglich bereits erfolgter Stressproteinproduktion aber auch auf eine Neuinduzierbarkeit nach zusaetzlicher Laborbelastung untersucht werden. Ebenso koennen Labortiere auf ihre Reaktion gegenueber belasteten

  2. The existence of trajectories joining critical points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shuxiang.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, using the notion of an isolating block and the concept of canonical regions, three existence criteria of trajectories connecting a pair of critical points of planar differential equations are given. (author)

  3. Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act created the new Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan (PCIP) program to make health insurance available to Americans denied coverage by...

  4. Seismic assessment of existing nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriman, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper outlines the generic approach to the seismic assessment of existing structures. It describes the role of the safety case in determining the studies carried out by the functional departments on individual projects. There is an emphasis on the role of existing information and material tests to provide realistic properties for analysis to account for possible degradation effects. Finally, a case study of a concrete containment cell is shown to illustrate the approach. (author)

  5. Solar Panel Installations on Existing Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Tim D. Sass; Pe; Leed

    2013-01-01

    The rising price of fossil fuels, government incentives and growing public aware-ness for the need to implement sustainable energy supplies has resulted in a large in-crease in solar panel installations across the country. For many sites the most eco-nomical solar panel installation uses existing, southerly facing rooftops. Adding solar panels to an existing roof typically means increased loads that must be borne by the building-s structural elements. The structural desig...

  6. The global existence problem in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, L

    2000-01-01

    We survey some known facts and open questions concerning the global properties of 3+1 dimensional space--times containing a compact Cauchy surface. We consider space--times with an $\\ell$--dimensional Lie algebra of space--like Killing fields. For each $\\ell \\leq 3$, we give some basic results and conjectures on global existence and cosmic censorship. For the case of the 3+1 dimensional Einstein equations without symmetries, a new small data global existence result is announced.

  7. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  8. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir OSHA-NIOSH ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  9. Neuromuscular Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Timothy P.; Kern, Marialice

    1994-01-01

    Discusses exercise-induced stress that results from motor unit recruitment, the impact of recruitment on selected systemic support systems, and some of the environmental overlays that affect the degree of physiological stress. Adaptations to sustained changes in physical activity and muscle and myotendinous injury induced by stress are examined.…

  10. Stress Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...

  11. Existence test for asynchronous interval iterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Caprani, O.; Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    In the search for regions that contain fixed points ofa real function of several variables, tests based on interval calculationscan be used to establish existence ornon-existence of fixed points in regions that are examined in the course ofthe search. The search can e.g. be performed...... as a synchronous (sequential) interval iteration:In each iteration step all components of the iterate are calculatedbased on the previous iterate. In this case it is straight forward to base simple interval existence and non-existencetests on the calculations done in each step of the iteration. The search can also...... on thecomponentwise calculations done in the course of the iteration. These componentwisetests are useful for parallel implementation of the search, sincethe tests can then be performed local to each processor and only when a test issuccessful do a processor communicate this result to other processors....

  12. Seismic reevaluation of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennart, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The codes and regulations governing Nuclear Power Plant seismic analysis are continuously becoming more stringent. In addition, design ground accelerations of existing plants must sometimes be increased as a result of discovery of faulting zones or recording of recent earthquakes near the plant location after plant design. These new factors can result in augmented seismic design criteria. Seismic reanalysius of the existing Nuclear Power Plant structures and equipments is necessary to prevent the consequences of newly postulated accidents that could cause undue risk to the health or safety of the public. This paper reviews the developments of seismic analysis as applied to Nuclear Power Plants and the methods used by Westinghouse to requalify existing plants to the most recent safety requirements. (author)

  13. The Existence of Public Protection Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Ilham A. Hamudy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the Public Protection Unit (Satlinmas formerly known as civil defence (Hansip. This article is a summary of the results of the desk study and fieldwork conducted in October-November 2013 in the town of Magelang and Surabaya. This study used descriptive qualitative approach to explore the combined role and existence Satlinmas. The results of the study showed, the existence of the problem Satlinmas still leave many, including, first, the legal basis for the establishment of Satlinmas. Until now, there has been no new regulations governing Satlinmas. Existing regulations are too weak and cannot capture the times. Second, the formulation of concepts and basic tasks and functions Satlinmas overlap with other institutions. Third, Satlinmas image in society tend to fade and abused. Fourth, Satlinmas incorporation into the Municipal Police deemed not appropriate, because different philosophy.

  14. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, Marloes J. A. G.; Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C.; van Wingen, Guido A.; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-01-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both

  15. Radiation protection programme for existing exposure situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadhani, Hilali Hussein

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to develop the Radiation protection Programme (RPP) to ensure that measures are in place for protection of individuals from the existing source of exposure. The study established a number of protective and remedial actions to be considered by the responsible regulatory Authority, licensee for existing exposure in workplace and dwellings. Tanzania is endowed with a number NORMs processing industries with an experience of uncontrolled exploration and extraction of minerals and the use of unsafe mining methods leading to severe environmental damage and appalling living conditions in the mining communities. Some of NORMs industries have been abandoned due to lack of an effect management infrastructure. The residual radioactive materials have been found to be the most import source of existing exposure resulted from NORMs industries. The Radon gas and its progeny have also been found to be a source of existing exposure from natural source as well as the major source of risk and health effects associated with existing exposure situation. The following measures have been discovered to play a pivotal role in avoiding or reducing the source of exposure to individuals such as restriction of the use of the construction materials, restriction on the consumption of foodstuffs and restriction on the access to the land and buildings, the removal of the magnitude of the source in terms of activity concentration as well as improvement of ventilation in dwellings. Therefore, the regulatory body (Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission) should examine the major areas outlined in the established RRP for existing exposure situation resulted from the NORMs industries and natural sources so as to develop strategies that will ensure the adequate protection of members of the public and the environment as well as guiding operating organizations to develop radiation protection and safety measures for workers. (au)

  16. [Complex posttraumatic stress disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tamar; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-11-01

    The characteristic symptoms resulting from exposure to an extreme trauma include three clusters of symptoms: persistent experience of the traumatic event, persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and persistent symptoms of increased arousal. Beyond the accepted clusters of symptoms for posttraumatic stress disorder exists a formation of symptoms related to exposure to extreme or prolonged stress e.g. childhood abuse, physical violence, rape, and confinement within a concentration camp. With accumulated evidence of the existence of these symptoms began a trail to classify a more complex syndrome, which included, but was not confined to the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This review addresses several subjects for study in complex posttraumatic stress disorder, which is a complicated and controversial topic. Firstly, the concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder is presented. Secondly, the professional literature relevant to this disturbance is reviewed and finally, the authors present the polemic being conducted between the researchers of posttraumatic disturbances regarding validity, reliability and the need for separate diagnosis for these symptoms.

  17. Foucault, Counselling and the Aesthetics of Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Michel Foucault was drawn late in life to study the "arts of the self" in Greco-Roman culture as a basis, following Nietzsche, for what he called an "aesthetics of existence." By this, he meant a set of creative and experimental processes and techniques by which an individual turns him- or herself into a work of art. For Nietzsche, it was above…

  18. How to prove the existence of metabolons?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassard, Jean-Étienne André; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2017-01-01

    Sequential enzymes in biosynthetic pathways are organized in metabolons. It is challenging to provide experimental evidence for the existence of metabolons as biosynthetic pathways are composed of highly dynamic protein–protein interactions. Many different methods are being applied, each with str...

  19. Conditions for the Existence of Market Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, William D. A.

    1997-01-01

    Maintains that most graduate-level economics textbooks rarely mention the need for consumers to be above their minimum wealth position as a condition for market equilibrium. Argues that this omission leaves students with a mistaken sense about the range of circumstances under which market equilibria can exist. (MJP)

  20. 22 CFR 142.16 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.16 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each program or activity to which this part applies so that when each...., telecommunication device for the deaf) redesign of equipment, reassignment of classes or other services to...

  1. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Wankerl, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 46 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the Department of Energy (DOE) consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Conservation and Development Options existing on Uluguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective management of projects on Uluguru Mountains requires that both development and conservation options are weighed and that opportunities and challenges are considered. This study identified various conservation and development options existing on Uluguru Mountains and assessed the perceptions of the local ...

  3. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Wankerl, M.W.; Joy, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 465 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the DOE consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated

  4. Does the Kuleshov Effect really Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel; Cabak Rédei, Anna

    2013-01-01

    with a doll, a dead woman in a coffin, and a bowl of soup; the viewers of the three sequences were reported to have perceived Mozhukin’s face as expressing happiness, sadness, and hunger/thoughtfulness respectively. It is not clear, however, whether or not the socalled “Kuleshov effect” really exists...

  5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOME EXISTING KINETIC MODELS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption of three heavy metal ions namely; Zn2+, Cu2+ and Mn2+ using five microorganisms namely; Bacillus circulans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus xylosus, Streptomyces rimosus and Yeast (Saccharomyces sp.) were studied. In this paper, the effectiveness of six existing and two proposed kinetic ...

  6. Do ‘African’ universities exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stig; Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a background for understanding the book. We outline some of the debates in which the individual chapters are situated and thereby show how the book contributes to and fills gaps in existing research. After providing a short history of African universities, the chapter subseq...

  7. Do Biopositive Effects of Ionizing Radiations Exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1983-01-01

    The claim that radiations, e.g, in spas, can have biopositive actions on humans is unproven and unplausible. It also conflicts with the contents of the standard handbooks and with national legislation everywhere. Further, stimulation of plants by radiation is badly reproducible. But even if existing it need not be beneficial to the plant itself ("selfpositive"). (author)

  8. Repurposing Existing Material for Performance Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Francis A.; Nelson, Adam

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of performance support systems (PSS), describes their role in promoting productivity in agile organizations, and discusses issues related to developing effective performance support using existing orientation, training, or procedural manuals. Topics include strategic principles of agility, and adding value when incorporating…

  9. Global existence proof for relativistic Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudynski, M.; Ekiel-Jezewska, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The existence and causality of solutions to the relativistic Boltzmann equation in L 1 and in L loc 1 are proved. The solutions are shown to satisfy physically natural a priori bounds, time-independent in L 1 . The results rely upon new techniques developed for the nonrelativistic Boltzmann equation by DiPerna and Lions

  10. 38 CFR 18.422 - Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap Accessibility § 18.422 Existing facilities. (a) Accessibility. A recipient shall operate each program or activity to which this... visits, delivery of health, or other social services at alternate accessible sites, alteration of...

  11. Developing an Actuarial Track Utilizing Existing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kathy V.; Sarol, Yalçin

    2014-01-01

    Students earning a degree in mathematics often seek information on how to apply their mathematical knowledge. One option is to follow a curriculum with an actuarial emphasis designed to prepare students as an applied mathematician in the actuarial field. By developing only two new courses and utilizing existing courses for Validation by…

  12. 7 CFR 1718.52 - Existing mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing mortgages. 1718.52 Section 1718.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN SECURITY DOCUMENTS FOR ELECTRIC BORROWERS Mortgage for Distribution Borrowers § 1718.52...

  13. Transforming existing content into reusable Learning Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorten, Monique; Giesbers, Bas; Janssen, José; Daniels, Jan; Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Please cite as: Doorten, M., Giesbers, B., Janssen, J., Daniëls, J, & Koper, E.J.R., (2004). Transforming existing content into reusable learning objects. In R. McGreal, Online Education using Learning Objects (pp. 116-127). London: RoutledgeFalmer.

  14. Psychology's struggle for existence: Second edition, 1913.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wundt, Wilhelm; Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents an English translation of Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's struggle for existence: Second edition, 1913, by James T. Lamiell in August, 2012. In his essay, Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Altering existing buildings in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The profiles of both existing housing and existing public and commercial buildings show that many have very poor thermal efficiency. The UK housing stock is replaced at a low rate of about 1% a year, so to cut energy use it is essential to address the challenges of existing buildings. This will involve reducing energy demand through passive measures such as retrofitted insulation, replacement of windows and proper airtightness, while ensuring adequate ventilation. Active measures include upgrading improved boilers and adding locally produced energy from wind, biomass, solar power and other sources. The introduction of Display Energy Certificates will increase energy awareness but there will also need to be a programme of increased demolition for the worst-performing homes. In addition, buildings will need to be adapted to cope with worse weather, higher temperatures and increased flood risk as climate change takes effect. Overheating, rather than excessive cold, is set to become a growing problem for householders and employees in existing UK buildings

  16. Adding Semantic Support to Existing UDDI Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luo, Jim; Montrose, Bruce; Kang, Myong

    2005-01-01

    .... The advantage is that it is completely backward compatible. The add-on modules only need to be installed on the clients of users who wish to take advantage of semantic markups. They can be integrated seamlessly into existing systems and operations without any modification of the infrastructure.

  17. Thyro-stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the biopsychosocial model of health, and its influence on chronic endocrine conditions, has improved over the past few decades. We can distinguish, for example, between diabetes distress and major depressive disorders in diabetes. Similar to diabetes distress, we suggest the existence of “thyrostress” in chronic thyroid disorders. Thyro-stress is defined as an emotional state, characterized by extreme apprehension, discomfort or dejection, caused by the challenges and demand of living with thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism. This communication describes the etiology, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and management of thyro-stress.

  18. Thyro-stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Verma, Komal; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of the biopsychosocial model of health, and its influence on chronic endocrine conditions, has improved over the past few decades. We can distinguish, for example, between diabetes distress and major depressive disorders in diabetes. Similar to diabetes distress, we suggest the existence of "thyrostress" in chronic thyroid disorders. Thyro-stress is defined as an emotional state, characterized by extreme apprehension, discomfort or dejection, caused by the challenges and demand of living with thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism. This communication describes the etiology, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and management of thyro-stress.

  19. Essence and Existence in Avicenna and Averroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belo, Catarina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the views on existence of medieval Muslim philosophers Avicenna (d. 1037 and Averroes (d. 1198, whose works followed closely the philosophy of Aristotle. In addition to the Aristotelian influence, which permeated all medieval Islamic philosophy, Avicenna and Averroes were also inspired by Islamic theology, known in Arabic as kalām. The distinction between essence and existence is one of the most central and controversial aspects of Avicenna’s philosophy, together with his claim that existence is an accident. Averroes in turn has a radically different conception of existence, identifying it with existing beings rather than considering it as something in itself. With the Latin translation of Avicenna’s metaphysical works in the 12th century, the Avicennian distinction went on to shape much of the debate on existence in medieval Scholastic philosophy and beyond. This article assesses the meaning of the distinction in Avicenna as well as Averroes’ criticism. In explicating their radically different views on existence, it also touches on later discussions concerning existence, for example the issue whether existence is a predicate, in the Modern Age.

    El presente artículo explora las percepciones sobre la existencia de los filósofos medievales musulmanes Avicena (m. 1037 y Averroes (m. 1198, cuyas obras se encuentran muy próximas a la filosofía de Aristóteles. Además de la influencia aristotélica, que caló en toda la filosofía islámica medieval, Avicena y Averroes estuvieron inspirados por la teología islámica, conocida en árabe como Kalām. La distinción entre esencia y existencia es uno de los más fundamentales y controvertidos aspectos de la filosofía de Avicena junto a su aseveración de que la existencia es un accidente. Averroes, en cambio, concibe de forma radicalmente diferente la existencia, identificándola con los seres existentes más que considerarla como algo en

  20. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  1. Hemodynamic comparison of stent configurations used for aortoiliac occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot Jebbink, Erik; Mathai, Varghese; Boersen, Johannes T; Sun, Chao; Slump, Cornelis H; Goverde, Peter C J M; Versluis, Michel; Reijnen, Michel M P J

    2017-07-01

    Endovascular treatment of aortoiliac occlusive disease entails the use of multiple stents to reconstruct the aortic bifurcation. Different configurations have been applied and geometric variations exist, as quantified in previous work. Other studies concluded that specific stent geometry seems to affect patency. These variations may affect local flow patterns, resulting in different wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillating shear index (OSI). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different stent configurations on flow perturbations (recirculation and fluid stasis), WSS, and OSI in an in vitro setup. Three different stent configurations were deployed in transparent silicone models: bare-metal kissing (BMK) stents, covered kissing (CK) stents, and the covered endovascular reconstruction of the aortic bifurcation (CERAB) configuration. Transparent covered stents were created with polyurethane to enable visualization. Models were placed in a circulation setup under physiologic flow conditions. Time-resolved laser particle image velocimetry techniques were used to quantify the flow, and WSS and OSI were calculated. The BMK configuration did not show flow disturbances at the inflow section, and WSS values were similar to the control. An area of persistent low flow was observed throughout the cardiac cycle in the area between the anatomic bifurcation and neobifurcation. The CK model showed recirculation zones near the inflow area of the stents with a resulting low average WSS value and high OSI. The proximal inflow of the CERAB configuration did not show flow disturbances, and WSS values were comparable to control. Near the inflow of the limbs, a minor zone of recirculation was observed without changes in WSS values. Flow, WSS, and OSI on the lateral wall of the proximal iliac artery were undisturbed in all models. The studied aortoiliac stent configurations have distinct locations where flow disturbances occur, and these are related to the radial mismatch

  2. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckens, Marloes J A G; Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C; van Wingen, Guido A; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-04-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both basal cortisol levels and stress-induced cortisol responses predicts differences in neural vigilance processing during stress exposure. Implementing a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, 120 healthy male participants were exposed to a stress-induction and control procedure, followed by an emotional perception task (viewing fearful and happy faces) during fMRI scanning. Stress sensitivity was assessed using physiological (salivary cortisol levels) and psychological measures (trait questionnaires). High stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with increased stress sensitivity as assessed by psychological questionnaires, a stronger stress-induced increase in medial temporal activity and greater differential amygdala responses to fearful as opposed to happy faces under control conditions. In contrast, high basal cortisol levels were related to relative stress resilience as reflected by higher extraversion scores, a lower stress-induced increase in amygdala activity and enhanced differential processing of fearful compared with happy faces under stress. These findings seem to reflect a critical role for HPA-axis signaling in stress coping; higher basal levels indicate stress resilience, whereas higher cortisol responsivity to stress might facilitate recovery in those individuals prone to react sensitively to stress. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteri, F.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increased energy demand in the United States, rural communities with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to ensure that ordinances will be established to aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. The purpose of this report is to educate and engage state and local governments, as well as policymakers, about existing large wind energy ordinances. These groups will have a collection of examples to utilize when they attempt to draft a new large wind energy ordinance in a town or county without existing ordinances.

  4. Co-existence in multispecies biofilm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng

    of these emergent properties which are relevant to as diverse areas as clinical settings and natural systems. In this thesis, I have attempted to contribute to our knowledge on the multispecies interactions with a special focus on biofilm communities. I was especially interested in how co-existing species affect...... each other and in understanding the key mechanisms and interactions involved. In the introduction of this thesis the most important concepts of multi-species interactions and biofilm development are explained. After this the topic changes to the various ways of examining community interactions...... and production. The analysis was further extended in manuscript 3, in which the effect of social interac-tions on biofilm formation in multispecies co-cultures isolated from a diverse range of environments was examined. The question raised was whether the interspecific interactions of co-existing bacteria...

  5. Partial Cooperative Equilibria: Existence and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Ghintran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the solution concepts of partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria. The partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibrium is axiomatically characterized by using notions of rationality, consistency and converse consistency with regard to reduced games. We also establish sufficient conditions for which partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria exist in supermodular games. Finally, we provide an application to strategic network formation where such solution concepts may be useful.

  6. Does evaporation paradox exist in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Cong

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One expected consequence of global warming is the increase in evaporation. However, lots of observations show that the rate of evaporation from open pans of water has been steadily decreasing all over the world in the past 50 years. The contrast between expectation and observation is called "evaporation paradox". Based on data from 317 weather stations in China from 1956 to 2005, the trends of pan evaporation and air temperature were obtained and evaporation paradox was analyzed. The conclusions include: (1 From 1956 to 2005, pan evaporation paradox existed in China as a whole while pan evaporation kept decreasing and air temperature became warmer and warmer, but it does not apply to Northeast and Southeast China; (2 From 1956 to 1985, pan evaporation paradox existed narrowly as a whole with unobvious climate warming trend, but it does not apply to Northeast China; (3 From 1986 to 2005, in the past 20 years, pan evaporation paradox did not exist for the whole period while pan evaporation kept increasing, although it existed in South China. Furthermore, the trend of other weather factors including sunshine duration, windspeed, humidity and vapor pressure deficit, and their relations with pan evaporation are discussed. As a result, it can be concluded that pan evaporation decreasing is caused by the decreasing in radiation and wind speed before 1985 and pan evaporation increasing is caused by the decreasing in vapor pressure deficit due to strong warming after 1986. With the Budyko curve, it can be concluded that the actual evaporation decreased in the former 30 years and increased in the latter 20 year for the whole China.

  7. Existence and Comparability of data sources

    OpenAIRE

    KUHNIMHOF, T; ARMOOGUM, J

    2007-01-01

    The deliverable at hand comprises a comprehensive overview over existing data sources which can be used for analysis of long distance travel demand. This encompasses both national and international data sources with a focus on household travel surveys. Three types of relevant surveys were identified: - National travel surveys with focus on daily mobility - Travel survey elements dedicated to long distance mobility - Long distance travel surveys. RAPPORT DE CONTRAT

  8. Transgender Parenting: A Review of Existing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Stotzer, Rebecca L; Herman, Jody L; Hasenbush, Amira

    2014-01-01

    The authors of this report reviewed 51 studies that analyze data about transgender parents. This report reviews the existing research on the prevalence and characteristics of transgender people who are parents, the quality of relationships between transgender parents and their children, outcomes for children with a transgender parent, and the reported needs of transgender parents. Overall, the authors found that substantial numbers of transgender people are parents, though at rates below the ...

  9. Streamlining Research by Using Existing Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Sarah M.; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Dolor, Rowena J.; Thompson, Ella; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the health research enterprise has matured rapidly, and many recognize an urgent need to translate pertinent research results into practice, to help improve the quality, accessibility, and affordability of U.S. health care. Streamlining research operations would speed translation, particularly for multi-site collaborations. However, the culture of research discourages reusing or adapting existing resources or study materials. Too often, researchers start studies and...

  10. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osredkar Joško

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The human organism is exposed to the influence of various forms of stress, either physical, psychological or chemical, which all have in common that they may adversely affect our body. A certain amount of stress is always present and somehow directs, promotes or inhibits the functioning of the human body. Unfortunately, we are now too many and too often exposed to excessive stress, which certainly has adverse consequences. This is especially true for a particular type of stress, called oxidative stress. All aerobic organisms are exposed to this type of stress because they produce energy by using oxygen. For this type of stress you could say that it is rather imperceptibly involved in our lives, as it becomes apparent only at the outbreak of certain diseases. Today we are well aware of the adverse impact of radicals, whose surplus is the main cause of oxidative stress. However, the key problem remains the detection of oxidative stress, which would allow us to undertake timely action and prevent outbreak of many diseases of our time. There are many factors that promote oxidative stress, among them are certainly a fast lifestyle and environmental pollution. The increase in oxidative stress can also trigger intense physical activity that is directly associated with an increased oxygen consumption and the resulting formation of free radicals. Considering generally positive attitude to physical activity, this fact may seem at first glance contradictory, but the finding has been confimed by several studies in active athletes. Training of a top athlete daily demands great physical effort, which is also reflected in the oxidative state of the organism. However, it should be noted that the top athletes in comparison with normal individuals have a different defense system, which can counteract the negative effects of oxidative stress. Quite the opposite is true for irregular or excessive physical activity to which the body is not adapted.

  11. Seismic evaluation of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA nuclear safety standards publications address the site evaluation and the design of new nuclear power plants (NPPs), including seismic hazard assessment and safe seismic design, at the level of the Safety Requirements as well as at the level of dedicated Safety Guides. It rapidly became apparent that the existing nuclear safety standards documents were not adequate for handling specific issues in the seismic evaluation of existing NPPs, and that a dedicated document was necessary. This is the purpose of this Safety Report, which is written in the spirit of the nuclear safety standards and can be regarded as guidance for the interpretation of their intent. Worldwide experience shows that an assessment of the seismic capacity of an existing operating facility can be prompted for the following: (a) Evidence of a greater seismic hazard at the site than expected before, owing to new or additional data and/or to new methods; (b) Regulatory requirements, such as periodic safety reviews, to ensure that the plant has adequate margins for seismic loads; (c) Lack of anti-seismic design or poor anti-seismic design; (d) New technical finding such as vulnerability of some structures (masonry walls) or equipment (relays), other feedback and new experience from real earthquakes. Post-construction evaluation programmes evaluate the current capability of the plant to withstand the seismic concern and identify any necessary upgrades or changes in operating procedures. Seismic qualification is distinguished from seismic evaluation primarily in that seismic qualification is intended to be performed at the design stage of a plant, whereas seismic evaluation is intended to be applied after a plant has been constructed. Although some guidelines do exist for the evaluation of existing NPPs, these are not established at the level of a regulatory guide or its equivalent. Nevertheless, a number of existing NPPs throughout the world have been and are being subjected to review of their

  12. Work Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Roeters, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Most of us agree that stress is a growing problem within organizations. We hear about the postal workers who had killed fellow employees and supervisors, and then hear that a major cause of tension is at work. Friends tell us that they are stressed due to increased workload and he has to work overtime because the company is restructured. We read the polls that employees complain about the stress in trying to balance family life with the work. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individu...

  13. Existing and new techniques in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowie, S.H.U.; Cameron, J.

    1976-01-01

    The demands on uranium exploration over the next 25 years will be very great indeed and will call for every possible means of improvement in exploration capability. The first essential is to increase geological knowledge of the mode of occurrence of uranium ore deposits. The second is to improve existing exploration techniques and instrumentation while, at the same time, promoting research and development on new methods to discover uranium ore bodies on the earth's surface and at depth. The present symposium is an effort to increase co-operation and the exchange of information in the critical field of uranium exploration techniques and instrumentation. As an introduction to the symposium a brief review is presented, firstly of what can be considered as existing techniques and, secondly, of techniques which have not yet been used on an appreciable scale. Some fourteen techniques used over the last 30 years are identified and their appropriate application, advantages and limitations are briefly summarized and the possibilities of their further development considered. The aim of future research on new techniques, in addition to finding new ways and means of identifying surface deposits, should be mainly directed to devising methods and instrumentation capable of detecting buried ore bodies that do not give a gamma signal at the surface. To achieve this aim, two contributory factors are essential: adequate financial support for research and development and increased specialized training in uranium exploration and instrumentation design. The papers in this symposium describe developments in the existing techniques, proposals for future research and development and case histories of exploration programmes

  14. Does the Kuleshov Effect Really Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel; Rédei, Anna Cabak; Innes-Ker, Åse

    2016-01-01

    to replicate Kuleshov’s original experiment using an improved experimental design. In a behavioral and eye tracking study, 36 participants were each presented with 24 film sequences of neutral faces across six emotional conditions. For each film sequence, the participants were asked to evaluate the emotion...... of the target person in terms of valence, arousal, and category. The participants’ eye movements were recorded throughout. The results suggest that some sort of Kuleshov effect does in fact exist. For each emotional condition, the participants tended to choose the appropriate category more frequently than...... between the emotional conditions....

  15. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  16. Analysis of field errors in existing undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) and other third generation synchrotron light sources have been designed for optimum performance with undulator insertion devices. The performance requirements for these new undulators are explored, with emphasis on the effects of errors on source spectral brightness. Analysis of magnetic field data for several existing hybrid undulators is presented, decomposing errors into systematic and random components. An attempts is made to identify the sources of these errors, and recommendations are made for designing future insertion devices. 12 refs., 16 figs

  17. Thyro-stress

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Verma, Komal; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of the biopsychosocial model of health, and its influence on chronic endocrine conditions, has improved over the past few decades. We can distinguish, for example, between diabetes distress and major depressive disorders in diabetes. Similar to diabetes distress, we suggest the existence of “thyrostress” in chronic thyroid disorders. Thyro-stress is defined as an emotional state, characterized by extreme apprehension, discomfort or dejection, caused by the challenges and dem...

  18. Existence families, functional calculi and evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    deLaubenfels, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This book presents an operator-theoretic approach to ill-posed evolution equations. It presents the basic theory, and the more surprising examples, of generalizations of strongly continuous semigroups known as 'existent families' and 'regularized semigroups'. These families of operators may be used either to produce all initial data for which a solution in the original space exists, or to construct a maximal subspace on which the problem is well-posed. Regularized semigroups are also used to construct functional, or operational, calculi for unbounded operators. The book takes an intuitive and constructive approach by emphasizing the interaction between functional calculus constructions and evolution equations. One thinks of a semigroup generated by A as etA and thinks of a regularized semigroup generated by A as etA g(A), producing solutions of the abstract Cauchy problem for initial data in the image of g(A). Material that is scattered throughout numerous papers is brought together and presented in a fresh, ...

  19. LDEF data: Comparisons with existing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Watts, Alan J.; Wagner, John D.; Atkinson, Dale R.

    1993-04-01

    The relationship between the observed cratering impact damage on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) versus the existing models for both the natural environment of micrometeoroids and the man-made debris was investigated. Experimental data was provided by several LDEF Principal Investigators, Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) members, and by the Kennedy Space Center Analysis Team (KSC A-Team) members. These data were collected from various aluminum materials around the LDEF satellite. A PC (personal computer) computer program, SPENV, was written which incorporates the existing models of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. This program calculates the expected number of impacts per unit area as functions of altitude, orbital inclination, time in orbit, and direction of the spacecraft surface relative to the velocity vector, for both micrometeoroids and man-made debris. Since both particle models are couched in terms of impact fluxes versus impactor particle size, and much of the LDEF data is in the form of crater production rates, scaling laws have been used to relate the two. Also many hydrodynamic impact computer simulations were conducted, using CTH, of various impact events, that identified certain modes of response, including simple metallic target cratering, perforations and delamination effects of coatings.

  20. Eternally existing self-reproducing inflationary universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.D.

    1986-05-01

    It is shown that the large-scale quantum fluctuations of the scalar field φ generated in the chaotic inflation scenario lead to an infinite process of self-reproduction of inflationary mini-universes. A model of eternally existing chaotic inflationary universe is suggested. It is pointed out that whereas the universe locally is very homogeneous as a result of inflation, which occurs at the classical level, the global structure of the universe is determined by quantum effects and is highly non-trivial. The universe consists of exponentially large number of different mini-universes, inside which all possible (metastable) vacuum states and all possible types of compactification are realized. The picture differs crucially from the standard picture of a one-domain universe in a ''true'' vacuum state. Our results may serve as a justification of the anthropic principle in the inflationary cosmology. These results may have important implications for the elementary particle theory as well. Namely, since all possible types of mini-universes, in which inflation may occur, should exist in our universe, there is no need to insist (as it is usually done) that in realistic theories the vacuum state of our type should be the only possible one or the best one. (author)

  1. Geopotential Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.

    Density heterogeneity in the Earth’s lithosphere causes lateral pressure variations. Horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated lithostatic pressure, the Geopotential Energy (GPE), are a source of stresses (Geopotential Stress) that contribute to the Earth’s Stress Field. In theory the GPE...... is linearly related to the lithospheric part of the Geoid. The Geopotential Stress can be calculated if either the density structure and as a consequence the GPE or the lithospheric contribution to the Geoid is known. The lithospheric Geoid is usually obtained by short pass filtering of satellite Geoid...... are not entirely suitable for the stress calculations but can be compiled and adjusted. We present an approach in which a global lithospheric density model based on CRUST2.0 is obtained by simultaneously fitting topography and surface heat flow in the presence of isostatic compensation and long-wavelength lateral...

  2. Stress shadows - a controversial topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasocki, Stanislaw; Karakostas, Vassilis G.; Papadimitriou, Eletheria E.; Orlecka-Sikora, Beata

    2010-05-01

    The spatial correlation between the positive Coulomb stress changes and the subsequent seismic activity has been firmly confirmed in many recent studies. If, however, the static stress transfer is a consistent expression of interaction between earthquakes one should also observe a decrease of the activity in the zones of negative stress changes. Instead, the existence of stress shadows is poorly evidenced and may be questioned. We tested the influence of the static stress changes associated with the coseismic slip of the 1995 Mw6.5 Kozani-Grevena (Greece) earthquake on locations of its aftershocks. The study was based on a detailed slip model for the main shock and accurate locations and reliable fault plane solutions of an adequate number of the aftershocks. We developed a statistical testing method, which tested whether the proportions of aftershocks located inside areas determined by a selected criterion on the static stress change could be attained if there were no effect of the stress change due to the main shock on aftershock locations. The areas of stress change were determined at the focus of every aftershock. The distribution of test statistic was constructed with the use of a two-dimensional nonparametric, kernel density estimator of the reference epicenter distribution. The tests highly confidently indicated a rise in probability to locate aftershocks inside areas of positive static stress change, which supported the hypothesis on the triggering effect in these areas. Furthermore, it was evidenced that a larger stress increase caused a stronger triggering effect. The analysis, however, did not evidence the existence of stress shadows inside areas of negative stress change. Contrary to expectations, the tests indicated a significant increase of the probability of event location in the areas of a stress decrease of more than or equal to 5.0 and 10.0 bar. It turned out that for areas of larger absolute stress change this probability increased regardless of

  3. Learn to manage stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress - managing; Stress - recognizing; Stress - relaxation techniques ... LEARN TO RECOGNIZE STRESS The first step in managing stress is recognizing it in your life. Everyone feels stress in a different way. ...

  4. Existing ingestion guidance: Problems and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooney, Robert R; Ziegler, Gordon L; Peterson, Donald S [Environmental Radiation Section, Division of Radiation Protection, WA (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Washington State has been developing plans and procedures for responding to nuclear accidents since the early 1970s. A key part of this process has been formulating a method for calculating ingestion pathway concentration guides (CGs). Such a method must be both technically sound and easy to use. This process has been slow and frustrating. However, much technical headway has been made in recent years, and hopefully the experience of the State of Washington will provide useful insight to problems with the existing guidance. Several recommendations are offered on ways to deal with these problems. In January 1986, the state held an ingestion pathway exercise which required the determination of allowed concentrations of isotopes for various foods, based upon reactor source term and field data. Objectives of the exercise were not met because of the complexity of the necessary calculations. A major problem was that the allowed concentrations had to be computed for each isotope and each food group, given assumptions on the average diet. To solve problems identified during that exercise, Washington developed, by March 1986, partitioned CGs. These CGs apportioned doses from each food group for an assumed mix of radionuclides expected to result from a reactor accident. This effort was therefore in place just in time for actual use during the Chernobyl fallout episode in May 1986. This technique was refined and described in a later report and presented at the 1987 annual meeting of the Health Physics Society. Realizing the technical weaknesses which still existed and a need to simplify the numbers for decision makers, Washington State has been developing computer methods to quickly calculate, from an accident specific relative mix of isotopes, CGs which allow a single radionuclide concentration for all food groups. This latest approach allows constant CGs for different periods of time following the accident, instead of peak CGs, which are good only for a short time after the

  5. Existing ingestion guidance: Problems and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooney, Robert R.; Ziegler, Gordon L.; Peterson, Donald S.

    1989-01-01

    Washington State has been developing plans and procedures for responding to nuclear accidents since the early 1970s. A key part of this process has been formulating a method for calculating ingestion pathway concentration guides (CGs). Such a method must be both technically sound and easy to use. This process has been slow and frustrating. However, much technical headway has been made in recent years, and hopefully the experience of the State of Washington will provide useful insight to problems with the existing guidance. Several recommendations are offered on ways to deal with these problems. In January 1986, the state held an ingestion pathway exercise which required the determination of allowed concentrations of isotopes for various foods, based upon reactor source term and field data. Objectives of the exercise were not met because of the complexity of the necessary calculations. A major problem was that the allowed concentrations had to be computed for each isotope and each food group, given assumptions on the average diet. To solve problems identified during that exercise, Washington developed, by March 1986, partitioned CGs. These CGs apportioned doses from each food group for an assumed mix of radionuclides expected to result from a reactor accident. This effort was therefore in place just in time for actual use during the Chernobyl fallout episode in May 1986. This technique was refined and described in a later report and presented at the 1987 annual meeting of the Health Physics Society. Realizing the technical weaknesses which still existed and a need to simplify the numbers for decision makers, Washington State has been developing computer methods to quickly calculate, from an accident specific relative mix of isotopes, CGs which allow a single radionuclide concentration for all food groups. This latest approach allows constant CGs for different periods of time following the accident, instead of peak CGs, which are good only for a short time after the

  6. Do Bare Rocks Exist on the Moon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Bandfield, Joshua; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Hayne, Paul; Leader, Frank; Paige, David

    2017-01-01

    Astronaut surface observations and close-up images at the Apollo and Chang'e 1 landing sites confirm that at least some lunar rocks have no discernable dust cover. However, ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package) measurements as well as astronaut and LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) orbital observations and laboratory experiments possibly suggest that a fine fraction of dust is levitated and moves across and above the lunar surface. Over millions of years such dust might be expected to coat all exposed rock surfaces. This study uses thermal modeling, combined with Diviner (a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter experiment) orbital lunar eclipse temperature data, to further document the existence of bare rocks on the lunar surface.

  7. Integrating existing software toolkits into VO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chenzhou; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Wang, Xiaoqian; Sang, Jian; Luo, Ze

    2004-09-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is a collection of interoperating data archives and software tools. Taking advantages of the latest information technologies, it aims to provide a data-intensively online research environment for astronomers all around the world. A large number of high-qualified astronomical software packages and libraries are powerful and easy of use, and have been widely used by astronomers for many years. Integrating those toolkits into the VO system is a necessary and important task for the VO developers. VO architecture greatly depends on Grid and Web services, consequently the general VO integration route is "Java Ready - Grid Ready - VO Ready". In the paper, we discuss the importance of VO integration for existing toolkits and discuss the possible solutions. We introduce two efforts in the field from China-VO project, "gImageMagick" and "Galactic abundance gradients statistical research under grid environment". We also discuss what additional work should be done to convert Grid service to VO service.

  8. Seismic review of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, P.I.; Mayes, R.L.; Jones, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    Because of developments in the fields of earthquake and structural engineering over the last two decades, the codes, standards and design criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and other critical structures have changed substantially. As a result, plants designed only a few years ago do not satisfy the requirements for new plants. Accordingly, the Regulatory Agencies are requiring owners of older Nuclear Power Plants to re-qualify the plants seismically, using codes, standards, analytical techniques and knowledge developed in recent years. Seismic review consists of three major phases: establishing the design and performance criteria, re-qualifying the structures, and re-qualifying the equipment. The authors of the paper have been recently involved in the seismic review of existing nuclear power plants in the United States. This paper is a brief summary of their experiences

  9. Welfare Economics: A Story of Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore that, despite severe challenges, welfare economics still exists. This descriptive study is conducted through some specific time line developments in this field. Economists are divided over the veracity and survival of the welfare economics. Welfare economics emphasizes on the optimum resource and goods allocation with the objective of better living standard, materialistic gains, social welfare and ethical decisions. It origins back to the political economics and utilitarianism. Adam Smith, Irving Fisher and Pareto contributed significantly towards it. During 1930 to 1940, American and British approaches were developed. Many economists tried to explore the relationship between level of income and happiness. Amartya Sen gave the comparative approach and Tinbergen pioneered the theory of equity. Contemporarily the futuristic restoration of welfare economics is on trial and hopes are alive. This study may be useful to understand the transitional and survival process of welfare economics.

  10. Testing Metadata Existence of Web Map Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Růžička

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For a general user is quite common to use data sources available on WWW. Almost all GIS software allow to use data sources available via Web Map Service (ISO/OGC standard interface. The opportunity to use different sources and combine them brings a lot of problems that were discussed many times on conferences or journal papers. One of the problem is based on non existence of metadata for published sources. The question was: were the discussions effective? The article is partly based on comparison of situation for metadata between years 2007 and 2010. Second part of the article is focused only on 2010 year situation. The paper is created in a context of research of intelligent map systems, that can be used for an automatic or a semi-automatic map creation or a map evaluation.

  11. On the existence of hot positronium reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzarini, E.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of hot Ps reactions is nowadays questioned; the controversy arises from the two models (the Ore gap and the spur theories) advanced in order to explain the mechanism of the positronium formation and of its inhibition in liquids by dissolution of certain compounds. The hypothesis of the hot Ps reactions was initially advanced as an additional statement for explaining the inhibition phenomenon within the framework of the Ore gap theory, but it is not considered necessary for the spur theory. The present paper is chiefly intended as a presentation of this particular aspect of Ps chemistry to hot atom chemists unspecialized in the field. The reader is assumed to be familiar with the basic physics and experimental methods used in positronium chemistry. Contents: positrons and positronium formation; inhibition and enhancement of Ps formation in solutions; positronium reactions in gases. (Auth.)

  12. Sustainability in the existing building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    , QRWfacilities management’s most important contribution to sustainable development in the built environment. Space management is an essential tool in facilities management – and it could be considered a powerful tool in sustainable development; remembering that the building not being built is perhaps the most......This paper explores the role of Facilities Management in the relation to sustainable development in the existing building stock. Facilities management is a concept still developing as the management of buildings are becoming more and more professional. Many recognize today that facilities...... management is a concept relevant to others than large companies. Managing the flows of energy and other resources is a part of facilities management, and an increased professionalism could lead to the reduction of the use of energy and water and the generation of waste and wastewater. This is, however...

  13. Compilation of Existing Neutron Screen Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chrysanthopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of fast neutron spectra in new reactors is expected to induce a strong impact on the contained materials, including structural materials, nuclear fuels, neutron reflecting materials, and tritium breeding materials. Therefore, introduction of these reactors into operation will require extensive testing of their components, which must be performed under neutronic conditions representative of those expected to prevail inside the reactor cores when in operation. Due to limited availability of fast reactors, testing of future reactor materials will mostly take place in water cooled material test reactors (MTRs by tailoring the neutron spectrum via neutron screens. The latter rely on the utilization of materials capable of absorbing neutrons at specific energy. A large but fragmented experience is available on that topic. In this work a comprehensive compilation of the existing neutron screen technology is attempted, focusing on neutron screens developed in order to locally enhance the fast over thermal neutron flux ratio in a reactor core.

  14. [The depression epidemic does not exist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2009-01-01

    There has been much discussion in the media about the question of the existence of a depression epidemic. This leads on to the questions of whether the social and economic approaches are adequate, and what the alternatives are. The concept of the disease 'depression' can be defined using a medical model, or from a patient's or a societal perspective. From a medical perspective, indeed a depression epidemic has ensued from the increased prosperity and the associated decompression of the mortality rate. Society responded with preventative measures and policies aimed at improving functioning in the workplace. However, patients with a major depressive disorder (MDD) who are eligible for treatment are often not motivated to take it up, or are undertreated. Research is necessary in order to explore what patients think about the identification and treatment of depression. The confusion regarding the concept of depression found in the media, needs to be cleared.

  15. On the existence of Levi Foliations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATA N. OSTWALD

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Let L be a real 3 dimensional analytic variety. For each regular point p L there exists a unique complex line l p on the space tangent to L at p. When the field of complex line p l p is completely integrable, we say that L is Levi variety. More generally; let L M be a real subvariety in an holomorphic complex variety M. If there exists a real 2 dimensional integrable distribution on L which is invariant by the holomorphic structure J induced by M, we say that L is a Levi variety. We shall prove: Theorem. Let be a Levi foliation and let be the induced holomorphic foliation. Then, admits a Liouvillian first integral. In other words, if is a 3 dimensional analytic foliation such that the induced complex distribution defines an holomorphic foliation ; that is, if is a Levi foliation; then admits a Liouvillian first integral--a function which can be constructed by the composition of rational functions, exponentiation, integration, and algebraic functions (Singer 1992. For example, if f is an holomorphic function and if theta is real a 1-form on ; then the pull-back of theta by f defines a Levi foliation : f*theta = 0 which is tangent to the holomorphic foliation : df = 0. This problem was proposed by D. Cerveau in a meeting (see Fernandez 1997.Seja L Ì uma variedade real de dimensão 3. Para todo ponto regular p Î L existe uma única reta complexa l p no espaço tangente à L em p. Quando o campo de linhas complexas p l p é completamente integrável, dizemos que L é uma variedade de Levi. Mais geralmente, seja L Ì M uma subvariedade real em uma variedade analítica complexa. Se existe uma distribuição real integrável de dimensão 2 em L que é invariante pela estrutura holomorfa J induzida pela variedade complexa M, dizemos que L é uma variedade de Levi. Vamos provar: Teorema. Seja uma folheação de Levi e seja a folheação holomorfa induzida. Então tem integral primeira Liouvilliana. Em outras palavras, se é uma folheação real de

  16. How many N = 4 strings exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketov, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    Possible ways of constructing extended fermionic strings with N=4 world-sheet supersymmetry are reviewed. String theory constraints form, in general, a non-linear quasi(super)conformal algebra, and can have conformal dimensions ≥1. When N=4, the most general N=4 quasi-superconformal algebra to consider for string theory building is D(1, 2; α), whose linearisation is the so-called ''large'' N=4 superconformal algebra. The D(1, 2; α) algebra has su(2)sub(κ + )+su(2)sub(κ - )+u(1) Kac-Moody component, and α=κ - /κ + . We check the Jacobi identities and construct a BRST charge for the D(1, 2; α) algebra. The quantum BRST operator can be made nilpotent only when κ + =κ - =-2. The D(1, 2; 1) algebra is actually isomorphic to the SO(4)-based Bershadsky-Knizhnik non-linear quasi-superconformal algebra. We argue about the existence of a string theory associated with the latter, and propose the (non-covariant) hamiltonian action for this new N=4 string theory. Our results imply the existence of two different N=4 fermionic string theories: the old one based on the ''small'' linear N=4 superconformal algebra and having the total ghost central charge c gh =+12, and the new one with non-linearly realised N=4 supersymmetry, based on the SO(4) quasi-superconformal algebra and having c gh =+6. Both critical string theories have negative ''critical dimensions'' and do not admit unitary matter representations. (orig.)

  17. Job-Related Stress among Mass Communication Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Fred F.; Wearden, Stanley T.

    1996-01-01

    Questions 600 full-time faculty members teaching journalism and/or mass communication about job-related stress. Finds faculty members suffer from job-related stress; differences exist in the way men and women view, experience, and cope with stress; anxiety and stress are shared by teachers at all grade levels; and times when faculty and students…

  18. Water-use strategies of six co-existing Mediterranean woody species during a summer drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quero, J.L.; Sterck, F.J.; Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Villar, R.

    2011-01-01

    Drought stress is known to limit plant performance in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. We have investigated the dynamics of the hydraulics, gas exchange and morphology of six co-existing Mediterranean woody species growing under natural field conditions during a drought that continued during the

  19. A Molecular Web: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata eChaudhari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Execution of fundamental cellular functions demands regulated protein folding homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER is an active organelle existing to implement this function by folding and modifying secretory and membrane proteins. Loss of protein folding homeostasis is central to various diseases and budding evidences suggest ER stress as being a major contributor in the development or pathology of a diseased state besides other cellular stresses. The trigger for diseases may be diverse but, inflammation and/or ER stress may be basic mechanisms increasing the severity or complicating the condition of the disease. Chronic ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR through endogenous or exogenous insults may result in impaired calcium and redox homeostasis, oxidative stress via protein overload thereby also influencing vital mitochondrial functions. Calcium released from the ER augments the production of mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. Toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria disturb fundamental organelle functions. Sustained ER stress is known to potentially elicit inflammatory responses via UPR pathways. Additionally, ROS generated through inflammation or mitochondrial dysfunction could accelerate ER malfunction. Dysfunctional UPR pathways has been associated with a wide range of diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, metabolic disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and others. In this review we have discussed the UPR signaling pathways, and networking between ER stress induced inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress and mitochondrial signaling events which further induce or exacerbate ER stress.

  20. Energy consumptions in existing buildings; Les consommations d'energie des batiments existants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, St. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries de Strasbourg, 78 - Saint-Remy-Les-Chevreuse (France)]|[Costic, 78 - Sainte Remy les Chevreuses (France)

    2002-05-01

    This document presents a sectoral analysis of the energy consumptions in existing French buildings: 1) - residential sector: social buildings, private dwellings; 2) - tertiary sector: office buildings, hotels, commercial buildings, school buildings, hospitals; 3) - industry; 4) - general status. (J.S.)

  1. Effectiveness of Existing International Nuclear Liability Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd

    2015-01-01

    The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to

  2. Existing facilities and past practices: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, D.; Tonkay, D.W.; Owens, K.

    2000-01-01

    Article 12 of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention) requires parties to the Joint Convention to review the safety of existing radioactive waste management facilities 'to ensure that, if necessary, all reasonably practicable improvements are made to upgrade the safety of such a facility'. Also required is a review of the results of past practices to determine 'whether any intervention is needed for reasons of radiation protection' and to consider whether the benefits of the intervention or remediation are sufficient, with regard to the costs and the impact on workers, the public and the environment. This paper discusses the experience of the United States Department of Energy in terms of the lessons learned from operating radioactive waste management facilities and from undertaking intervention or remedial action, and from decision making in an international context. Overarching safety principles are discussed, including integrating safety into all work practices and minimizing the generation of waste. Safety review lessons learned with existing facilities are discussed with respect to: applying new requirements to old facilities, taking a life-cycle perspective of waste management, improving high level waste facility management, and blending current and past practices with respect to the process used to arrive at decisions for intervention. Special emphasis is placed on the need to provide for early and substantive input from the involved regulatory agencies, Native American tribes, and those citizens and groups with an interest in the decisions. Examples of intervention decisions are discussed, including examples taken from uranium mill tailings operations, from cleanup of a former uranium processing plant site, from evaluation of pre-1970 buried 'transuranic waste' sites, and from decommissioning or closure of high level waste storage tanks. The paper concludes that on the

  3. Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and

  4. Effectiveness of Existing International Nuclear Liability Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to

  5. Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with regions of your brain that control mood, motivation and fear. The body's stress-response system is ... problems Headaches Heart disease Sleep problems Weight gain Memory and concentration impairment That's why it's so important ...

  6. Stressing academia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Niels; Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    Incongruences between the individual and the organizational work context are potential stressors. The present study focuses on the relationship between a complementary need-supply fit and Danish researchers’ self-perceived job stress. Strain is expected to increase as organizational supplies fall...... hand, the fit on “hard” dimensions as salary, financial rewards and career opportunities is found to be unrelated to the researchers’ self-perceived stress-level. The fit with regard to job security is an important exception, however....... to “soft” dimensions as freedom and independence in the job, personal and professional development at work, and receiving peer recognition is highly significant for the researchers’ self-perceived stress-level. The better the fit is the lower stress-levels the researchers’ on average report. On the other...

  7. Existing reflection seismic data re-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinaka, Motonori; Sano, Yukiko; Kozawa, Takeshi

    2005-08-01

    This document is to report the results of existing seismic data re-processing around Horonobe town, Hokkaido, Japan, which is a part of the Horonobe Underground Research Project. The main purpose of this re-processing is to recognize the subsurface structure of Omagari Fault and fold system around Omagari Fault. The seismic lines for re-processing are TYHR-A3 line and SHRB-2 line, which JAPEX surveyed in 1975. Applying weathering static correction using refraction analysis and noise suppression procedure, we have much enhanced seismic profile. Following information was obtained from seismic re-processing results. TYHR-A3 line: There are strong reflections, dipping to the west. These reflections are corresponding western limb of anticline to the west side of Omagari Fault. SHRB-2 line: There are strong reflections, dipping to the west, at CDP 60-140, while there are reflections, dipping to the east, to the east side of CDP 140. These reflections correspond to the western limb and the eastern limb of the anticline, which is parallel to Omagari FAULT. This seismic re-processing provides some useful information to know the geological structure around Omagari Fault. (author)

  8. On the Existence of Evolutionary Learning Equilibriums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masudul Alam Choudhury

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The usual kinds of Fixed-Point Theorems formalized on the existence of competitive equilibrium that explain much of economic theory at the core of economics can operate only on bounded and closed sets with convex mappings. But these conditions are hardly true of the real world of economic and financial complexities and perturbations. The category of learning sets explained by continuous fields of interactive, integrative and evolutionary behaviour caused by dynamic preferences at the individual and institutional and social levels cannot maintain the assumption of closed, bounded and convex sets. Thus learning sets and multi-system inter-temporal relations explained by pervasive complementarities and  participation between variables and entities, and evolution by learning, have evolutionary equilibriums. Such a study requires a new methodological approach. This paper formalizes such a methodology for evolutionary equilibriums in learning spaces. It briefly points out the universality of learning equilibriums in all mathematical structures. For a particular case though, the inter-systemic interdependence between sustainable development and ethics and economics in the specific understanding of learning domain is pointed out.

  9. Does the chromatic Mach bands effect exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsofe, Avital; Spitzer, Hedva; Einav, Shmuel

    2009-06-30

    The achromatic Mach bands effect is a well-known visual illusion, discovered over a hundred years ago. This effect has been investigated thoroughly, mainly for its brightness aspect. The existence of Chromatic Mach bands, however, has been disputed. In recent years it has been reported that Chromatic Mach bands are not perceived under controlled iso-luminance conditions. However, here we show that a variety of Chromatic Mach bands, consisting of chromatic and achromatic regions, separated by a saturation ramp, can be clearly perceived under iso-luminance and iso-brightness conditions. In this study, observers' eye movements were recorded under iso-brightness conditions. Several observers were tested for their ability to perceive the Chromatic Mach bands effect and its magnitude, across different cardinal and non-cardinal Chromatic Mach bands stimuli. A computational model of color adaptation, which predicted color induction and color constancy, successfully predicts this variation of Chromatic Mach bands. This has been tested by measuring the distance of the data points from the "achromatic point" and by calculating the shift of the data points from predicted complementary lines. The results suggest that the Chromatic Mach bands effect is a specific chromatic induction effect.

  10. Evaluation and modification of existing CETP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhavisha; Shah, A R

    2013-07-01

    For the development of small and medium scale industries in various Gujarat industrial development corporation (GIDC) areas and in clusters of industrial areas, the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) has always been found advantageous in view of cost of treatment, operation and maintenance and disposal of residues being produced. In small scale industrial units due to market requirement, product changes and quantity enhancement are taking place. Due to such changes, the effluent characteristics are continuously changing which affects performance of CETP. Hence it has been found necessary to study continuously the performance, evaluation and modification in the working of the CETP. This paper contains a case study of one of the existing CETP near Baroda which is facing the problem of disposal of treated effluent in which the important parameters like COD, BOD, Suspended Solid, NH3-N and oil and grease were analyzed. Based on the characterization of wastewater, the various treatability studies were carried out on CETP wastewater. To comply with disposal standard prescribed by Effluent Channel Project Ltd.(ECPL)* and Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) for discharge of industrial effluent into channel, various treatments in form of ammonia stripping, coagulation and flocculation, biological treatment, filtration and chlorination are suggested.

  11. On the existence of tropical anvil clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, J.; Jeevanjee, N.; Langhans, W.; Romps, D.

    2017-12-01

    In the deep tropics, extensive anvil clouds produce a peak in cloud cover below the tropopause. The dominant paradigm for cloud cover attributes this anvil peak to a layer of enhanced mass convergence in the clear-sky upper-troposphere, which is presumed to force frequent detrainment of convective anvils. However, cloud cover also depends on the lifetime of cloudy air after it detrains, which raises the possibility that anvil clouds may be the signature of slow cloud decay rather than enhanced detrainment. Here we measure the cloud decay timescale in cloud-resolving simulations, and find that cloudy updrafts that detrain in the upper troposphere take much longer to dissipate than their shallower counterparts. We show that cloud lifetimes are long in the upper troposphere because the saturation specific humidity becomes orders of magnitude smaller than the typical condensed water loading of cloudy updrafts. This causes evaporative cloud decay to act extremely slowly, thereby prolonging cloud lifetimes in the upper troposphere. As a consequence, extensive anvil clouds still occur in a convecting atmosphere that is forced to have no preferential clear-sky convergence layer. On the other hand, when cloud lifetimes are fixed at a characteristic lower-tropospheric value, extensive anvil clouds do not form. Our results support a revised understanding of tropical anvil clouds, which attributes their existence to the microphysics of slow cloud decay rather than a peak in clear-sky convergence.

  12. Bibliography - Existing Guidance for External Hazard Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    The bibliography of deliverable D21.1 includes existing international and national guidance documents and standards on external hazard assessment together with a selection of recent scientific papers, which are regarded to provide useful information on the state of the art of external event modelling. The literature database is subdivided into International Standards, National Standards, and Science Papers. The deliverable is treated as a 'living document' which is regularly updated as necessary during the lifetime of ASAMPSA-E. The current content of the database is about 140 papers. Most of the articles are available as full-text versions in PDF format. The deliverable is available as an EndNote X4 database and as text files. The database includes the following information: Reference, Key words, Abstract (if available), PDF file of the original paper (if available), Notes (comments by the ASAMPSA-E consortium if available) The database is stored at the ASAMPSA-E FTP server hosted by IRSN. PDF files of original papers are accessible through the EndNote software

  13. Stress Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.Univ. Dr. Paul Marinescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the post-modern management organizational leaders have the obligation of protecting their employees against factors that could cause damages to their potentially wealthy lives. Stress is such a factor. We shall attempt by means of the present article to draw attention on certain general aspects that should be taken into account in drafting plans for fighting against and diminishing the stress faced by the employees

  14. Stress fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Cooper, K.L.; Pritchard, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of a stress fracture should be considered in patients presented with pain after a change in activity, especially if the activity is strenuous and the pain is in the lower extremities. Since evidence of the stress fracture may not be apparent for weeks on routine radiographs, proper use of other imaging techniques will allow an earlier diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis is especially important in the femur, where displacement may occur

  15. Thinner regions of intracranial aneurysm wall correlate with regions of higher wall shear stress: a 7.0 tesla MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankena, Roos; Kleinloog, Rachel; Verweij, Bon H.; van Ooij, Pim; ten Haken, Bennie; Luijten, Peter R.; Rinkel, Gabriel J.E.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a method for semi-quantitative wall thickness assessment on in vivo 7.0 tesla (7T) MRI images of intracranial aneurysms for studying the relation between apparent aneurysm wall thickness and wall shear stress. Materials and Methods Wall thickness was analyzed in 11 unruptured aneurysms in 9 patients, who underwent 7T MRI with a TSE based vessel wall sequence (0.8 mm isotropic resolution). A custom analysis program determined the in vivo aneurysm wall intensities, which were normalized to signal of nearby brain tissue and were used as measure for apparent wall thickness (AWT). Spatial wall thickness variation was determined as the interquartile range in AWT (the middle 50% of the AWT range). Wall shear stress was determined using phase contrast MRI (0.5 mm isotropic resolution). We performed visual and statistical comparisons (Pearson’s correlation) to study the relation between wall thickness and wall shear stress. Results 3D colored AWT maps of the aneurysms showed spatial AWT variation, which ranged from 0.07 to 0.53, with a mean variation of 0.22 (a variation of 1.0 roughly means a wall thickness variation of one voxel (0.8mm)). In all aneurysms, AWT was inversely related to WSS (mean correlation coefficient −0.35, P<0.05). Conclusions A method was developed to measure the wall thickness semi-quantitatively, using 7T MRI. An inverse correlation between wall shear stress and AWT was determined. In future studies, this non-invasive method can be used to assess spatial wall thickness variation in relation to pathophysiologic processes such as aneurysm growth and –rupture. PMID:26892986

  16. Interim Storage of Plutonium in Existing Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodsmall, T.D.

    1999-01-01

    'In this era of nuclear weapons disarmament and nonproliferation treaties, among many problems being faced by the Department of Energy is the safe disposal of plutonium. There is a large stockpile of plutonium at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Center and it remains politically and environmentally strategic to relocate the inventory closer to a processing facility. Savannah River Site has been chosen as the final storage location, and the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility (APSF) is currently under construction for this purpose. With the ability of APSF to receive Rocky Flats material an estimated ten years away, DOE has decided to use the existing reactor building in K-Area of SRS as temporary storage to accelerate the removal of plutonium from Rocky Flats. There are enormous cost savings to the government that serve as incentive to start this removal as soon as possible, and the KAMS project is scheduled to receive the first shipment of plutonium in January 2000. The reactor building in K-Area was chosen for its hardened structure and upgraded seismic qualification, both resulting from an effort to restart the reactor in 1991. The KAMS project has faced unique challenges from Authorization Basis and Safety Analysis perspectives. Although modifying a reactor building from a production facility to a storage shelter is not technically difficult, the nature of plutonium has caused design and safety analysis engineers to make certain that the design of systems, structures and components included will protect the public, SRS workers, and the environment. A basic overview of the KAMS project follows. Plutonium will be measured and loaded into DOT Type-B shipping packages at Rocky Flats. The packages are 35-gallon stainless steel drums with multiple internal containment boundaries. DOE transportation vehicles will be used to ship the drums to the KAMS facility at SRS. They will then be unloaded, stacked and stored in specific locations throughout the

  17. Sharing information among existing data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, W. R., III

    1999-01-01

    The sharing of information between law enforcement agencies is a premise for the success of all jurisdictions. A wealth of information resides in both the databases and infrastructures of local, state, and regional agencies. However, this information is often not available to the law enforcement professionals who require it. When the information is, available, individual investigators must not only know that it exists, but where it resides, and how to retrieve it. In many cases, these types of cross-jurisdictional communications are limited to personal relationships that result from telephone calls, faxes, and in some cases, e-mail. As criminal elements become more sophisticated and distributed, law enforcement agencies must begin to develop infrastructures and common sharing mechanisms that address a constantly evolving criminal threat. Historically, criminals have taken advantage of the lack of communication between law enforcement agencies. Examples of this are evident in the search for stolen property and monetary dealings. Pawned property, cash transactions, and failure to supply child support are three common cross- jurisdictional crimes that could be better enforced by strengthening the lines of communication. Criminal behavior demonstrates that it is easier to profit from their actions by dealing in separate jurisdictions. For example, stolen property is sold outside of the jurisdiction of its origin. In most cases, simply traveling a short distance to the adjoining county or municipality is sufficient to ensure that apprehension of the criminal or seizure of the stolen property is highly unlikely. In addition to the traditional burglar, fugitives often sell or pawn property to finance their continued evasion from the law. Sharing of information in a rapid manner would increase the ability of law enforcement personnel to track and capture fugitives, as well as criminals. In an example to combat this threat, the State of Florida recently acted on the need to

  18. Seismic evaluation of existing nuclear facilities. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Programmes for re-evaluation and upgrading of safety of existing nuclear facilities are presently under way in a number of countries around the world. An important component of these programmes is the re-evaluation of the seismic safety through definition of new seismic parameters at the site and evaluation of seismic capacity of structures, equipment and distribution systems following updated information and criteria. The Seminar is intended to provide a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of the state-of-the-art on seismic safety of nuclear facilities in operation or under construction. Both analytical and experimental techniques for the evaluation of seismic capacity of structures, equipment and distribution systems are discussed. Full scale and field tests of structures and components using shaking tables, mechanical exciters, explosive and shock tests, and ambient vibrations are included in the seminar programme with emphasis on recent case histories. Presentations at the Seminar also include analytical techniques for the determination of dynamic properties of soil-structure systems from experiments as well as calibration of numerical models. Methods and criteria for seismic margin assessment based on experience data obtained from the behaviour of structures and components in real earthquakes are discussed. Guidelines for defining technical requirements for capacity re-evaluation (i.e. acceptable behaviour limits and design and implementation of structure and components upgrades are also presented and discussed. The following topics were covered during 7 sessions: earthquake experience and seismic re-evaluation; country experience in seismic re-evaluation programme; generic WWER studies; analytical methods for seismic capacity re-evaluation; experimental methods for seismic capacity re-evaluation; case studies.

  19. Does Glocal Political Power Already Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Ornaghi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Large periods of history are usually characterized by equally important moments of change in scientific knowledge and, in particular, in the understanding of political power. We still need to study in depth whether the former provokes (almost of out necessity the latter, or whether they are “great” because they are favored by the innovation of the paradigms of knowledge. The passage from medieval universalism to the particularism of the modern age represents an extremely interesting analogy when compared to the transformations that are now underway. The example of John of Salisbury’s Policratus, the starting point of this article, is illuminating in our comprehension of the relevance of the interweaving between the persistence of the ancient forms of recognition of power and the search for new forms. The existence of glocal realities is already a fact. Even if it is relatively easy to recognize these realities (a business, a university, a humanitarian association, not a few of the same “parts” which constitute the traditional organization of the State, it is more difficult to define the specific characteristics of the power at their disposal. Moving from the widening gap between “actual” power and “potential” power, the article examines the motives for which the classical definitions of power are always becoming more insufficient in understanding the role now emerging from glocal realities. And, in particular, by looking at how the “command-obedience” relationship is changing also as a consequence of communication networks and information technology, the article analyzes that specific “contamination” within global elements and local elements, which seems to be the main base of glocal political power.

  20. David Barker: the revolution that anticipates existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Farnetani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available David Barker is the man who “anticipated" the existence of babies by focusing attention on the importance of the fetus and what takes place during intrauterine life. Barker was one of the physicians who in the last decades brought about the greatest changes in medicine, changes so important as to represent a veritable revolution in medical thought. According to Barker's studies, the embryo obviously has a genetic complement coming from the mother and father, but from the very first stages of development it begins to undergo the influence of the outside environment, just as occurs for adults whose biological, psychological and pathological aspects are influenced by the environment to a not well-established percentage between genetic complement and epigenetics. Much of our future lives as adults is decided in our mothers' wombs. If Barker's discovery was revolutionary from the cultural standpoint, it was even more so from the strictly medical one. Barker's research method was rigid from the methodological standpoint, but innovative and speculative in its working hypotheses, with a humanistic slant. Barker's idea has another practical corollary: it is evident that the role of obstetricians, perinatologists and neonatologists is more and more relevant in medicine and future prevention. Unquestionably, besides the enormous merits of his clinical research, among the benefits that Barker has contributed there is that of having helped us to see things from new points of view. Not only is the neonate (and even more so the fetus not an adult of reduced proportions, but perhaps the neonate is the "father" of the adult person.

  1. Virtual existence in contemporary Serbian novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordić-Petković Vladislava S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper sets out to explore the perspectives and strategies of virtual existence in contemporary Serbian novel in order to illustrate radical changes in the concept of reality and writers' concern with the fidelity to experience. A new surge of the so-called digital realism emerges simultaneously with the increase of awareness that the line between our digital selves and our real-world selves has become blurred and difficult to explain, while new technologies are required to go beyond what our human senses can encompass and deliver. The fictional realism of the digital age will also commit itself to young or middle-aged individuals that passionately attempt to define their aims and objectives so that they could fit into a newly constructed and acquired concept of reality. This is the case with the protagonists in the novels by Ivančica Đerić, Tamara Jecić and Aleksandar Ilić, all of them questioning both their offline and online identities. Their everyday life in a postmillennial world includes many intersecting empirical and virtual realities: love, career and sex take place in a dimension which ignores geography and physical distance and ultimately alters the concepts of time and space, as well the concepts of privacy and intimacy. The paper intends to examine the ways new digital technologies contribute to representations of reality in the novels of both accomplished and aspiring authors whose novels deal with ways of life amid social networks. The novels we analyzed show that the distinction between the virtual and the real world narrows, as the narratives range from intimate confession in letters and journals to tweets, notes and statuses, introducing verbal and structural experimental practices which involve shifting points of view.

  2. Thallium exists in opioid poisoned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Amir; Vahdati-Mashhadian, Naser; Oghabian, Zohreh; Moradi, Valiallah; Afshari, Reza; Mehrpour, Omid

    2015-08-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a toxic heavy metal that exists in nature. Tl poisoning (thallotoxicosis) may occur in opioid addicts. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency and level of urinary Tl in opioid abusers. In addition, clinical findings were evaluated. A total of 150 subjects were examined. Cases with a history of at least 3 years of abuse were admitted in the Imam Reza Hospital as the case group; 50 non-opioid abusers from the target population were included as the control group. Twenty-four hour urinary qualitative and quantitative Tl analyses were performed on both groups. Out of the 150 subjects, 128 (85 %) were negative for qualitative urinary Tl, followed by 5 % (trace), 7 % (1+), 2 % (2+), and 1 % (3+). Mean (standard error (SE), Min-Max) quantitative urinary Tl level was 14 μg/L (3.5 μg/L, 0-346 μg/L). Mean urinary Tl level in the case group was 21 μg/L (5 μg/L, 0-346 μg/L) and that in the controls was 1 μg/L (0.14 μg/L, 0-26 μg/L), which were significantly different (P = 0.001). The most frequent clinical findings were ataxia (86 %), sweating (81 %), and constipation (54 %). In all cases (n = 150), the mean (SE) value for cases with positive qualitative urinary Tl was 26.8 μg/L (0.9 μg/L) and that in the negative cases was 2.3 μg/L (0.2 μg/L), which were significantly different (P = 0.002). This study showed that long-term opioid abuse may lead to Tl exposure. In opioid abusers with the clinical manifestation of thallotoxicosis, urinary Tl should be determined.

  3. Seismic evaluation of existing nuclear facilities. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Programmes for re-evaluation and upgrading of safety of existing nuclear facilities are presently under way in a number of countries around the world. An important component of these programmes is the re-evaluation of the seismic safety through definition of new seismic parameters at the site and evaluation of seismic capacity of structures, equipment and distribution systems following updated information and criteria. The Seminar is intended to provide a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of the state-of-the-art on seismic safety of nuclear facilities in operation or under construction. Both analytical and experimental techniques for the evaluation of seismic capacity of structures, equipment and distribution systems are discussed. Full scale and field tests of structures and components using shaking tables, mechanical exciters, explosive and shock tests, and ambient vibrations are included in the seminar programme with emphasis on recent case histories. Presentations at the Seminar also include analytical techniques for the determination of dynamic properties of soil-structure systems from experiments as well as calibration of numerical models. Methods and criteria for seismic margin assessment based on experience data obtained from the behaviour of structures and components in real earthquakes are discussed. Guidelines for defining technical requirements for capacity re-evaluation (i.e. acceptable behaviour limits and design and implementation of structure and components upgrades are also presented and discussed. The following topics were covered during 7 sessions: earthquake experience and seismic re-evaluation; country experience in seismic re-evaluation programme; generic WWER studies; analytical methods for seismic capacity re-evaluation; experimental methods for seismic capacity re-evaluation; case studies

  4. Reality and Fiction in the Perspective of Linguistic Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kačerauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with relation between reality and fiction. The project of phenomenology of creation is presented in this context. According to the author, reality is an environment of our becoming. We fill this environment with our objects, desires, and expectations. Reality and fiction make two poles of creative tension. Human creation, i.e. culture is developed between these two poles. The author links culture with existential creation, i.e. with creation of life story. It is stressed that life story is analogous not to a diary but to a novel where every event takes part in the existential whole. An existential novel is born in a particular spiritual environment which is renewed by its inscription into this environment. The author refers to existential events as phenomena which being inscribed into our living whole direct the stream of events. The author uses the metaphors of the theatre as a public space and the river as a reative stream. It is stated that our existence is developed as polyphonic interrelation between a part and the whole. Different modi of existential creation like realization, working, embodiment, spiritualization and their links are analysed. Working is connected with a private domestic environment the created works in which should be prooved in a public space of the city. It is discussed on an opinion that the national language is the main modus of nationality. It is stated that a multinational environment of a capitol is the best school of national existence. It is showed that a theoretical model of phenomenology of creation is useful in the interpretation of historical and cultural phenomena. 

  5. Does GaH5 exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, Lucas D.; Turney, Justin M.; Schaefer, Henry F.

    2005-11-01

    The existence or nonexistence of GaH5 has been widely discussed [N. M. Mitzel, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42, 3856 (2003)]. Seven possible structures for gallium pentahydride have been systematically investigated using ab initio electronic structure theory. Structures and vibrational frequencies have been determined employing self-consistent field, coupled cluster including all single and double excitations (CCSD), and CCSD with perturbative triples levels of theory, with at least three correlation-consistent polarized-valence-(cc-pVXZ and aug-cc-pVXZ) type basis sets. The X˜A'1 state for GaH5 is predicted to be weakly bound complex 1 between gallane and molecular hydrogen, with Cs symmetry. The dissociation energy corresponding to GaH5→GaH3+H2 is predicted to be De=2.05kcalmol-1. The H-H stretching fundamental is predicted to be v =4060cm-1, compared to the tentatively assigned experimental feature of Wang and Andrews [J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 11371 (2003)] at 4087cm-1. A second Cs structure 2 with nearly equal energy is predicted to be a transition state, corresponding to a 90° rotation of the H2 bond. Thus the rotation of the hydrogen molecule is essentially free. However, hydrogen scrambling through the C2v structure 3 seems unlikely, as the activation barrier for scrambling is at least 30kcalmol-1 higher in energy than that for the dissociation of GaH5 to GaH3 and H2. Two additional structures consisting of GaH3 with a dihydrogen bond perpendicular to gallane (C3v structure 4) and an in-plane dihydrogen bond [Cs(III) structure 5] were also examined. A C3v symmetry second-order saddle point has nearly the same energy as the GaH3+H2 dissociation limit, while the Cs(III) structure 5 is a transition structure to the C3v structure. The C4v structure 6 and the D3h structure 7 are much higher in energy than GaH3+H2 by 88 and 103kcalmol-1, respectively.

  6. PASSCLAIM - Synthesis and review of existing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David P; Affertsholt, Tage; Asp, Nils-Georg; Bruce, Ake; Grossklaus, Rolf; Howlett, John; Pannemans, Daphne; Ross, Richard; Verhagen, Hans; Viechtbauer, Volker

    2003-03-01

    Several approaches to the use of health claims on foods have been made around the world, and the common theme is that any health claim will require scientific validation and substantiation. There is also broad consensus that any regulatory framework should protect the consumer, promote fair trade and encourage innovation in the food industry.This paper is based on a critical evaluation of existing international approaches to the scientific substantiation of health claims, with a view to identifying common new ideas, definitions, best practice and a methodology to underpin current and future developments. There is a clear need to have uniform understanding, terminology and description of types of nutrition and health claims. Two broad categories were defined: Nutrition Claims, i. e. what the product contains, and Health Claims, i. e. relating to health, well-being and/or performance, including well-established nutrient function claims, enhanced function claims and disease risk reduction claims. Such health claims relate to what the food or food components does or do. The categories of health claims are closely and progressively related and are, in practice, part of a continuum. Provision is also made for "generic" or well-established, generally accepted claims and for "innovative" or "product-specific" claims. Special attention was paid to reflect the health-promoting properties of a food or food component in such a way as to facilitate the making of risk reduction claims outside the medical scope of the term prevention. The paper sets out basic principles and guidelines for communication of health claims and principles of nutritional safety. The main body of the work examines the process for the assessment of scientific support for health claims on food and emphasises an evidence-based approach consisting of: Identification of all relevant studies exploring the collection of evidence, data searches, the nature of the scientific evidence, sources of scientific data

  7. International symposium on seismic evaluation of existing nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbovic, N.; Bouchon, M.; Vendel, J.; Gelain, T.

    2003-10-01

    Below are summarized the works of Mrs N. Orbovic and M. Bouchon; B. Stojadinovic, N. Orbovic, M.Bouchon and J.T. Wiley; M. Bouchon, N. Orbovic and B. Foure; T. Gelain, F. Gensdarmes, R. Sestier-Carlin, J. Vendel and M. Bouchon dealing respectively with: 1) seismic assessment of existing nuclear facility: a case study position of the IRSN 2) static and dynamic evaluation of an existing nuclear facility reinforced concrete frame structure 3) experimental study of cracking of low-rise reinforced concrete shear walls 4) aeraulics study of crack networks on low-rise reinforced concrete walls subject to static cycling loading. The summaries are followed: 1) The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has the task of evaluating the seismic safety of existing building inventory in French nuclear facilities. Some of the existing structures are reinforced concrete frame buildings with masonry or reinforced concrete in-fill walls built during the 1960's, 70's and 80's following different building codes and seismic input data applicable at the time of construction. The studied building is a laboratory that was built in 1962. The building is composed of three different and independent blocks. The structure is a reinforced concrete frame with masonry in-fills and few stiff concrete elements. Moreover, the building contains an independent massive concrete cell. Structurally, the building has a number of irregularities. From the detailing standpoint, well known deficiencies of low-ductile reinforced concrete structures are evident especially, a lack of transverse reinforcement in the structural joints of the frame. A number of sensitivity studies were conducted using 2D and 3D linear models to evaluate seismic demand. Ambient vibration and regional earthquake records were used to check the soil nature and the existence or not of a possible site effect around the installation as well as to characterize the dynamic behavior of the building. 3D models revealed a

  8. Professional stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Job stress is a line, for the person at work hired adverse physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions to situations in which job requirements are not in accordance with its capabilities, abilities and needs. Sources of stress at work are numerous. Personal factors: personality types have been most studied so far, environmental changes and demographic characteristics as well. Interpersonal stress inducing factors act and influence to the occurrence of many psychosomatic diseases. Psychosocial climate and relationships which are prevented or encouraged such as: cooperation and competition, trust and suspicion certainly affect to the appearance of professional stress. The way of leadership is very important. Organizational factors are the type of work, work time, noncompliance of the job, the introduction of new ethnologies, the conflict of personal roles, fear of job loss, bad physical conditions of working environment. The consequences of stress at work are numerous: at the cognitive level, the emotional level, the production plan, the health, plan reduces the immune system that cause a variety of psychosomatic illnesses and accidents at work.

  9. A precariedade humana e a existência estilizada Human precariousness and stylized existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Paiva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tematiza o desamparo vivenciado pela consciência ante a ausência de bases sólidas para seus anseios de felicidade e para suas representações simbólicas. Com esse propósito, toma como objeto de reflexão um dos ensaios filosóficos de Albert Camus, O mito de Sísifo, equacionando a possibilidade de uma ética que estilize a vida, sem que se minimize a dolorosa precariedade da existência humana. Posteriormente, em diálogo com alguns textos de M. Foucault, a reflexão procura estabelecer os vínculos possíveis entre a ética camusiana e a ética como uma estética da existência, tal como pensada entre os gregos antigos.This article discusses the helplessness experienced by the consciousness vis-à-vis the absence of solid bases for its longings for happiness and for its symbolic representations. For this purpose, the object of reflection of the article is one of Albert Camus' philosophical essays, The Myth of Sisyphus, and we inquire into the possibility of an ethics that stylizes life without minimizing the painful precariousness of human existence. Making reference to certain texts by Foucault, we attempt to establish possible connections between Camus' ethics and an ethics of the aesthetics of existence as found in the thinkers of ancient Greece.

  10. Existence and non-existence of solutions for a singular problem with variable potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Saoudi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to prove some existence and nonexistence theorems for the inhomogeneous singular Dirichlet problem $$ - \\Delta_p u = \\frac{\\lambda k(x}{u^\\delta}\\pm h(x u^q. $$ For proving our results we use the sub and super solution method, and monotonicity arguments.

  11. Memory dynamics under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-03-01

    Stressful events have a major impact on memory. They modulate memory formation in a time-dependent manner, closely linked to the temporal profile of action of major stress mediators, in particular catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Shortly after stressor onset, rapidly acting catecholamines and fast, non-genomic glucocorticoid actions direct cognitive resources to the processing and consolidation of the ongoing threat. In parallel, control of memory is biased towards rather rigid systems, promoting habitual forms of memory allowing efficient processing under stress, at the expense of "cognitive" systems supporting memory flexibility and specificity. In this review, we discuss the implications of this shift in the balance of multiple memory systems for the dynamics of the memory trace. Specifically, stress appears to hinder the incorporation of contextual details into the memory trace, to impede the integration of new information into existing knowledge structures, to impair the flexible generalisation across past experiences, and to hamper the modification of memories in light of new information. Delayed, genomic glucocorticoid actions might reverse the control of memory, thus restoring homeostasis and "cognitive" control of memory again.

  12. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  13. Stress Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    The following types of forces contribute to the stresses in a Dolos in a pack exposed to waves: 1)Gravity forces Compaction forces (mainly due to settlements, gravity and flow forces) 2) Flow forces 3) Impact forces (impacts between moving concrete blocks)......The following types of forces contribute to the stresses in a Dolos in a pack exposed to waves: 1)Gravity forces Compaction forces (mainly due to settlements, gravity and flow forces) 2) Flow forces 3) Impact forces (impacts between moving concrete blocks)...

  14. Welding stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.; Barbe, B.; Jolly, N.

    1976-01-01

    The aim is to show how internal stresses are generated and to fix the orders of magnitude. A realistic case, the vertical welding of thick plates free to move one against the other, is described and the deformations and stresses are analyzed. The mathematical model UEDA, which accounts for the elastic modulus, the yield strength and the expansion coefficient of the metal with temperature, is presented. The hypotheses and results given apply only to the instantaneous welding of a welded plate and to a plate welded by a moving electrode [fr

  15. Black Hole Caught Zapping Galaxy into Existence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    , construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  16. Fracture patterns and stresses in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, N.J.

    1979-01-01

    If granite bodies are to be used as receptacles for toxic waste materials, the presence or absence of barren fractures and the virgin stresses in the granite are of fundamental importance. Unfortunately, very little is known regarding the incidence of fractures, or stresses, which exist at depths (of about 1 km) in granite bodies. A simple analysis is presented of a hypothetical intrusion which indicates the magnitudes of stresses and the possible fracture development which may be expected in such bodies. (auth)

  17. Existence and non-existence of solutions for a p(x-biharmonic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem A. Afrouzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the following problem with Navier boundary conditions $$\\displaylines{ \\Delta (|\\Delta u|^{p(x-2}\\Delta u+|u|^{p(x-2}u =\\lambda |u|^{q(x-2}u +\\mu|u|^{\\gamma(x-2}u\\quad \\text{in } \\Omega,\\cr u=\\Delta u=0 \\quad \\text{on } \\partial\\Omega. }$$ where $\\Omega$ is a bounded domain in $\\mathbb{R}^{N}$ with smooth boundary $\\partial \\Omega$, $N\\geq1$. $p(x,q(x$ and $\\gamma(x$ are continuous functions on $\\overline{\\Omega}$, $\\lambda$ and $\\mu$ are parameters. Using variational methods, we establish some existence and non-existence results of solutions for this problem.

  18. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  19. (stress) testing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, maximal HR was significantly higher in all groups during their sporting activities than during stress testing in the laboratory (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Maximal HR in veteran athletes during specific sporting activities was significantly higher than that attained during a routine sECG. This finding was not sport-specific, ...

  20. Combinatorial stresses kill pathogenic Candida species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloriti, Despoina; Tillmann, Anna; Cook, Emily; Jacobsen, Mette; You, Tao; Lenardon, Megan; Ames, Lauren; Barahona, Mauricio; Chandrasekaran, Komelapriya; Coghill, George; Goodman, Daniel; Gow, Neil A. R.; Grebogi, Celso; Ho, Hsueh-Lui; Ingram, Piers; McDonagh, Andrew; De Moura, Alessandro P. S.; Pang, Wei; Puttnam, Melanie; Radmaneshfar, Elahe; Romano, Maria Carmen; Silk, Daniel; Stark, Jaroslav; Stumpf, Michael; Thiel, Marco; Thorne, Thomas; Usher, Jane; Yin, Zhikang; Haynes, Ken; Brown, Alistair J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic microbes exist in dynamic niches and have evolved robust adaptive responses to promote survival in their hosts. The major fungal pathogens of humans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, are exposed to a range of environmental stresses in their hosts including osmotic, oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Significant efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the adaptive responses to each of these stresses. In the wild, cells are frequently exposed simultaneously to combinations of these stresses and yet the effects of such combinatorial stresses have not been explored. We have developed a common experimental platform to facilitate the comparison of combinatorial stress responses in C. glabrata and C. albicans. This platform is based on the growth of cells in buffered rich medium at 30°C, and was used to define relatively low, medium and high doses of osmotic (NaCl), oxidative (H 2O2) and nitrosative stresses (e.g., dipropylenetriamine (DPTA)-NONOate). The effects of combinatorial stresses were compared with the corresponding individual stresses under these growth conditions. We show for the first time that certain combinations of combinatorial stress are especially potent in terms of their ability to kill C. albicans and C. glabrata and/or inhibit their growth. This was the case for combinations of osmotic plus oxidative stress and for oxidative plus nitrosative stress. We predict that combinatorial stresses may be highly signif cant in host defences against these pathogenic yeasts. PMID:22463109

  1. Managing common marital stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A C; Starling, B P

    1989-10-01

    Marital conflict and divorce are problems of great magnitude in our society, and nurse practitioners are frequently asked by patients to address marital problems in clinical practice. "Family life cycle theory" provides a framework for understanding the common stresses of marital life and for developing nursing strategies to improve marital satisfaction. If unaddressed, marital difficulties have serious adverse consequences for a couple's health, leading to greater dysfunction and a decline in overall wellness. This article focuses on identifying couples in crisis, assisting them to achieve pre-crisis equilibrium or an even higher level of functioning, and providing appropriate referral if complex relationship problems exist.

  2. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 427.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 417.84 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.84 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source...

  5. International symposium on seismic evaluation of existing nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orbovic, N.; Bouchon, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Vendel, J.; Gelain, T. [IRSN/DPEA/SERAC, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2003-10-01

    Below are summarized the works of Mrs N. Orbovic and M. Bouchon; B. Stojadinovic, N. Orbovic, M.Bouchon and J.T. Wiley; M. Bouchon, N. Orbovic and B. Foure; T. Gelain, F. Gensdarmes, R. Sestier-Carlin, J. Vendel and M. Bouchon dealing respectively with: 1) seismic assessment of existing nuclear facility: a case study position of the IRSN 2) static and dynamic evaluation of an existing nuclear facility reinforced concrete frame structure 3) experimental study of cracking of low-rise reinforced concrete shear walls 4) aeraulics study of crack networks on low-rise reinforced concrete walls subject to static cycling loading. The summaries are followed: 1) The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has the task of evaluating the seismic safety of existing building inventory in French nuclear facilities. Some of the existing structures are reinforced concrete frame buildings with masonry or reinforced concrete in-fill walls built during the 1960's, 70's and 80's following different building codes and seismic input data applicable at the time of construction. The studied building is a laboratory that was built in 1962. The building is composed of three different and independent blocks. The structure is a reinforced concrete frame with masonry in-fills and few stiff concrete elements. Moreover, the building contains an independent massive concrete cell. Structurally, the building has a number of irregularities. From the detailing standpoint, well known deficiencies of low-ductile reinforced concrete structures are evident especially, a lack of transverse reinforcement in the structural joints of the frame. A number of sensitivity studies were conducted using 2D and 3D linear models to evaluate seismic demand. Ambient vibration and regional earthquake records were used to check the soil nature and the existence or not of a possible site effect around the installation as well as to characterize the dynamic behavior of the building. 3D models

  6. Interaction between diffusion and chemical stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Fuqian

    2005-01-01

    The present work studies the interaction between chemical stresses and diffusion. A new relation between hydrostatic stress and concentration of solute atoms is established. For a solid free of action of body force, the Laplacian of the hydrostatic stress is proportional to the Laplacian of the concentration of solute atoms, that is, deviation of the hydrostatic stress from its local average is proportional to deviation of the local concentration of solute atoms. A general relationship among surface concentration of solute atoms, normal stress and surface deformation of a solid is then derived, in which the normal stress is dependent on the mean curvature of the undeformed surface and tangential components of the surface displacement. A closed-form solution of the steady state concentration of solute atoms in a thin plate is obtained. It turns out that linear distribution of solute atoms in the plate is non-existent due to the interaction between chemical stresses and diffusion

  7. Testing the stress shadow hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzer, Karen R.; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2005-05-01

    A fundamental question in earthquake physics is whether aftershocks are predominantly triggered by static stress changes (permanent stress changes associated with fault displacement) or dynamic stresses (temporary stress changes associated with earthquake shaking). Both classes of models provide plausible explanations for earthquake triggering of aftershocks, but only the static stress model predicts stress shadows, or regions in which activity is decreased by a nearby earthquake. To test for whether a main shock has produced a stress shadow, we calculate time ratios, defined as the ratio of the time between the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it and the time between the last earthquake to precede the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it. A single value of the time ratio is calculated for each 10 × 10 km bin within 1.5 fault lengths of the main shock epicenter. Large values of the time ratio indicate a long wait for the first earthquake to follow the main shock and thus a potential stress shadow, whereas small values indicate the presence of aftershocks. Simulations indicate that the time ratio test should have sufficient sensitivity to detect stress shadows if they are produced in accordance with the rate and state friction model. We evaluate the 1989 MW 7.0 Loma Prieta, 1992 MW 7.3 Landers, 1994 MW 6.7 Northridge, and 1999 MW 7.1 Hector Mine main shocks. For each main shock, there is a pronounced concentration of small time ratios, indicating the presence of aftershocks, but the number of large time ratios is less than at other times in the catalog. This suggests that stress shadows are not present. By comparing our results to simulations we estimate that we can be at least 98% confident that the Loma Prieta and Landers main shocks did not produce stress shadows and 91% and 84% confident that stress shadows were not generated by the Hector Mine and Northridge main shocks, respectively. We also investigate the long hypothesized existence

  8. The maximum possible stress intensity factor for a crack in an unknown residual stress field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coules, H.E.; Smith, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Residual and thermal stress fields in engineering components can act on cracks and structural flaws, promoting or inhibiting fracture. However, these stresses are limited in magnitude by the ability of materials to sustain them elastically. As a consequence, the stress intensity factor which can be applied to a given defect by a self-equilibrating stress field is also limited. We propose a simple weight function method for determining the maximum stress intensity factor which can occur for a given crack or defect in a one-dimensional self-equilibrating stress field, i.e. an upper bound for the residual stress contribution to K I . This can be used for analysing structures containing defects and subject to residual stress without any information about the actual stress field which exists in the structure being analysed. A number of examples are given, including long radial cracks and fully-circumferential cracks in thick-walled hollow cylinders containing self-equilibrating stresses. - Highlights: • An upper limit to the contribution of residual stress to stress intensity factor. • The maximum K I for self-equilibrating stresses in several geometries is calculated. • A weight function method can determine this maximum for 1-dimensional stress fields. • Simple MATLAB scripts for calculating maximum K I provided as supplementary material.

  9. Stress and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relaxation Emotions & Relationships HealthyYouTXT Tools Home » Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Many people who go back to smoking ... story: Time Out Times 10 >> share What Causes Stress? Read full story: What Causes Stress? >> share The ...

  10. Stress Management: Positive Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Positive thinking helps with stress management and can even improve your health. Practice overcoming negative self-talk ... with optimism is a key part of effective stress management. And effective stress management is associated with ...

  11. Stress and your heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary heart disease - stress; Coronary artery disease - stress ... Your body responds to stress on many levels. First, it releases stress hormones that make you breathe faster. Your blood pressure goes up. Your muscles ...

  12. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  13. Academic Stress and Coping Strategies among Students with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the level of academic stress among university students with disabilities and the nature of coping strategies they used to deal with stress. It also examined if there existed significant differences in stress and coping strategies among students with different disabilities and between students with and without ...

  14. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The unceasing need for oxygen is in contradiction to the fact that it is in fact toxic to mammals. Namely, its monovalent reduction can have as a consequence the production of short-living, chemically very active free radicals and certain non-radical agents (nitrogen-oxide, superoxide-anion-radicals, hydroxyl radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and others. There is no doubt that they have numerous positive roles, but when their production is stepped up to such an extent that the organism cannot eliminate them with its antioxidants (superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase, catalase, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, reduced glutathion, and others, a series of disorders is developed that are jointly called „oxidative stress.“ The reactive oxygen species which characterize oxidative stress are capable of attacking all main classes of biological macromolecules, actually proteins, DNA and RNA molecules, and in particular lipids. The free radicals influence lipid peroxidation in cellular membranes, oxidative damage to DNA and RNA molecules, the development of genetic mutations, fragmentation, and the altered function of various protein molecules. All of this results in the following consequences: disrupted permeability of cellular membranes, disrupted cellular signalization and ion homeostasis, reduced or loss of function of damaged proteins, and similar. That is why the free radicals that are released during oxidative stress are considered pathogenic agents of numerous diseases and ageing. The type of damage that will occur, and when it will take place, depends on the nature of the free radicals, their site of action and their source. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173034, br. 175061 i br. 31085

  15. Mapping Tectonic Stress Using Earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Richard; Townend, John; Vignaux, Tony

    2005-01-01

    An earthquakes occurs when the forces acting on a fault overcome its intrinsic strength and cause it to slip abruptly. Understanding more specifically why earthquakes occur at particular locations and times is complicated because in many cases we do not know what these forces actually are, or indeed what processes ultimately trigger slip. The goal of this study is to develop, test, and implement a Bayesian method of reliably determining tectonic stresses using the most abundant stress gauges available - earthquakes themselves.Existing algorithms produce reasonable estimates of the principal stress directions, but yield unreliable error bounds as a consequence of the generally weak constraint on stress imposed by any single earthquake, observational errors, and an unavoidable ambiguity between the fault normal and the slip vector.A statistical treatment of the problem can take into account observational errors, combine data from multiple earthquakes in a consistent manner, and provide realistic error bounds on the estimated principal stress directions.We have developed a realistic physical framework for modelling multiple earthquakes and show how the strong physical and geometrical constraints present in this problem allow inference to be made about the orientation of the principal axes of stress in the earth's crust

  16. 75 FR 45013 - Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Department of Homeland Security's U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) Systematic Alien... pre-existing condition based on evidence of the existence or history of certain medical or health...

  17. EXISTENCE OF POSITIVE SOLUTIONS FOR AN ELASTIC CURVED BEAM EQUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Kovacs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the existence of positive solutions for a sixth-order differential equations. By using the Leggett-Williams fixed point theorem we give some new existence results.

  18. 40 CFR 406.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.34 Section 406.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 406.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that...

  19. 40 CFR 406.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.44 Section 406.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 406.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that...

  20. Existence of pareto equilibria for multiobjective games without compactness

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraishi, Yuya; Kuroiwa, Daishi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the existence of Pareto and weak Pareto equilibria for multiobjective games without compactness. By employing an existence theorem of Pareto equilibria due to Yu and Yuan([10]), several existence theorems of Pareto and weak Pareto equilibria for the multiobjective games are established in a similar way to Flores-B´azan.

  1. On the solid stress in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qassim, R.Y.; Souza, R. de.

    1980-09-01

    The existence of solid stress in an incipiently gas-fluidized bed is shown by experimental measurement. This stress is shown to have two components: an isotropic pressure and an extra stress which depends on the relative velocity between fluid and solid. Both the solid pressure and the solid extra stress component are found to be of the same order of magnitude as the fluid pressure. (Author) [pt

  2. 3D Centrifuge Modeling of the Effect of Twin Tunneling to an Existing Pile Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Soomr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In densely built urban areas, it is inevitable that tunnels will be constructed near existing pile groups. The bearing capacity of a pile group depends on shear stress along the soil-pile interface and normal stress underneath the pile toe while the two would be adversely affected by the unloading process of tunneling. Although extensive studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of tunnel construction on existing single piles, the influence of twin tunnel advancement on an existing pile group is merely reported in the literature. In this study, a series of three-dimensional centrifuge tests were carried out to investigate the response of an existing pile group under working load subjected to twin tunneling at various locations in dry Toyoura sand. In each twin tunneling test, the first tunnel is constructed near the mid-depth of the pile shaft, while the second tunnel is subsequently constructed either next to, below or right underneath the pile toe (Tests G_ST, G_SB and G_SU, respectively. Among the three tests, the 2nd tunnel excavated near the pile toe (Test G_ST results in the smallest settlement but the largest transverse tilting (0.2% of pile group. Significant bending moment was induced at the pile head (1.4 times of its bending moment capacity due to the 2nd tunnel T. On the contrary, tunneling right underneath the toe of pile (i.e., Test G_SU results in the smallest tilting but largest settlement of the pile group (4.6% of pile diameter and incremental mobilisation of shaft resistance (13%. Due to stress release by the twin tunneling, the axial force taken by the front piles close to tunnels was reduced and partially transferred to the rear piles. This load transfer can increase the axial force in rear piles by 24%.

  3. Stressed podocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per

    2015-01-01

    and in response to injury induced by endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress (Golubinskaya et al., 2015). Their report shed light on the complex regulation of Best3 in podocytes and will help pave the way for future studies on the pathogenesis of kidneys diseases with podocyte injury. This article is protected...... structure appears to be a common finding in acquired proteinuric conditions (Pavenstadt et al., 2003). Identification of genes that are involved in physiological and pathophysiological functions of the podocytes is a major task. Recent studies indicate that Bestrophin (Best) 3 has cell protective functions...... in a number of cell types (Lee et al., 2012, Jiang et al., 2013, Song et al., 2014). In the present issue of Acta Physiologica, Golubinskaya et al. use cultured podocytes, kidneys and isolated glomeruli of the mouse kidney to provide a thorough characterisation of Best3 expression under normal conditions...

  4. Evaluation of stress intensity factors due to welding residual stresses for circumferential cracked pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Kim, Yun-Jae; Oh, Young-Jin; Kim, Jong-Sung; Song, Tae-Kwang; Kim, Yong-Beum

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the applicability of existing methods to estimate stress intensity factors due to welding residual stresses, comparisons with finite element (FE) solutions are made for two types of generic welding residual stress profiles, generated by simulating repair welds. It is found that fitting residual stresses over the crack depth using third-order polynomials gives good estimates of stress intensity factors but fitting over the entire thickness can result in inaccurate estimates even with fourth-order polynomials. Noting that welding residual stresses are often determined from FE analyses, linearization of residual stresses to estimate stress intensity factors is proposed. Comparison with FE solutions shows good agreements. -- Highlights: ► Applicability of K estimation methods is investigated for welding residual stresses. ► Two types of generic residual stress profiles with repair welds are considered. ► Fitting residual stresses over the crack depth gives good estimates of K. ► A method to estimate K by linearising residual stress profiles is proposed

  5. Managing Leadership Stress

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, Vidula; McDowell-Larsen, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Everyone experiences stress, and leaders face the additional stress brought about by the unique demands of leadership: having to make decisions with limited information, to manage conflict, to do more with less . . . and faster! The consequences of stress can include health problems and deteriorating relationships. Knowing what signs of stress to look for and having a strategy for increasing your resources will help you manage leadership stress and be more effective over a long career.Table of ContentsThe Stress of Leadership 7Why Is Leadership Stressful? 8Stress Assessment 13When Stress Is Wh

  6. Method and refrigerants for replacing existing refrigerants in centrifugal compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopko, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for replacing an existing refrigerant in a centrifugal compressor. It comprises selecting a desired impeller Mach number for the centrifugal compressor; selecting a base refrigerant constituent; combining at least one additive refrigerant constituent with the base refrigerant constituent to form a replacement refrigerant having at least one physical or chemical property different from the existing refrigerant and substantially providing the desired impeller Mach number in the centrifugal compressor; and replacing the existing refrigerant with the replacement refrigerant

  7. Magnetic nesting and co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elesin, V.F.; Kapaev, V.V.; Kopaev, Yu.V.

    2004-01-01

    In the case of providing for the magnetic nesting conditions of the electron spin dispersion law the co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity is possible by any high magnetization. The co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in the layered cuprate compounds of the RuSr 2 GdCu 2 O 8 -type is explained on this basis, wherein due to the nonstrict provision of the magnetic nesting condition there exists the finite but sufficiently high critical magnetization [ru

  8. The global existence problem and cosmic censorship in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncrief, V.; Eardley, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Two global existence conjectures for the Einstein equations are formulated and their relevance to the cosmic censorship conjecture discussed. It is argued that the reformulation of the cosmic censorship conjecture as a global existence problem renders it more amenable to direct analytical attack. To demonstrate the facility of this approach the cosmological version of the global existence conjecture is proved for the Gowdy spacetimes on T 3 X R. (author)

  9. A Quantitative Examination Whether Education Mitigates Stress Levels among Law Enforcement Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metts, Gary A.

    2012-01-01

    Stress is damaging if it is continual, overwhelming. and prolonged. Law enforcement officers face stressful events daily. A relationship exists between stress levels and the physical and psychological effects to the human body. Although there is a general understanding of the damage stress can do physically and psychologically, many elements that…

  10. 40 CFR 407.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Vegetables Subcategory § 407.74 Pretreatment standards for existing sources...

  11. INFORMATION SECURITY RISK ASSESSMENT USING EXISTING LEGAL AND METHODOLOGICAL BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Trubei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a survey of the existing regulatory framework for information security riskmanagement. Practical methods for information security risk and vulnerability assessment are proposed.

  12. Expandable External Payload Carrier for Existing Launch Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerous existing launch vehicles have excess performance that is not being optimized. By taking advantage of excess, unused, performance, additional NASA...

  13. Stress Management: Yoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Is yoga right for you? It is if you want to fight stress, get fit and stay healthy. By ... particular, may be a good choice for stress management. Hatha is one of the most common styles ...

  14. Stress and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Stress and Heart Health Updated:Jan 8,2018 When ... therapist in your community. Last reviewed 6/2014 Stress Management • Home • How Does Stress Affect You? Introduction ...

  15. Overcoming job stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000884.htm Overcoming job stress To use the sharing features on this page, ... stay healthy and feel better. Causes of Job Stress Although the cause of job stress is different ...

  16. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) KidsHealth / For Parents / Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( ... My Child? Looking Ahead Print What Is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? Someone who is the victim of ( ...

  17. Stress Management: Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Taking the path less traveled by exploring your spirituality can lead to a clearer life purpose, better personal relationships and enhanced stress management skills. By Mayo Clinic Staff Some stress relief ...

  18. Risk factors for stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, K; Matheson, G; Meeuwisse, W; Brukner, P

    1999-08-01

    Preventing stress fractures requires knowledge of the risk factors that predispose to this injury. The aetiology of stress fractures is multifactorial, but methodological limitations and expediency often lead to research study designs that evaluate individual risk factors. Intrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as bone density, skeletal alignment and body size and composition, physiological factors such as bone turnover rate, flexibility, and muscular strength and endurance, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors. Extrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as surface, footwear and external loading as well as physical training parameters. Psychological traits may also play a role in increasing stress fracture risk. Equally important to these types of analyses of individual risk factors is the integration of information to produce a composite picture of risk. The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise the existing literature by evaluating study design and quality, in order to provide a current synopsis of the known scientific information related to stress fracture risk factors. The literature is not fully complete with well conducted studies on this topic, but a great deal of information has accumulated over the past 20 years. Although stress fractures result from repeated loading, the exact contribution of training factors (volume, intensity, surface) has not been clearly established. From what we do know, menstrual disturbances, caloric restriction, lower bone density, muscle weakness and leg length differences are risk factors for stress fracture. Other time-honoured risk factors such as lower extremity alignment have not been shown to be causative even though anecdotal evidence indicates they are likely to play an important role in stress fracture pathogenesis.

  19. Surface Wave Velocity-Stress Relationship in Uniaxially Loaded Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shokouhi, Parisa; Zoëga, Andreas; Wiggenhauser, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    The sonic surface wave (or Rayleigh wave) velocity measured on prismatic concrete specimens under uniaxial compression was found to be highly stress-dependent. At low stress levels, the acoustoelastic effect and the closure of existing microcracks results in a gradual increase in surface wave...... velocities. At higher stress levels, concrete suffers irrecoverable damage: the existing microcracks widen and coalesce and new microcracks form. This progressive damage process leads first to the flattening and eventually the drop in the velocity-stress curves. Measurements on specimens undergoing several...... loading cycles revealed that the velocities show a stress-memory effect in good agreement with the Kaiser effect. Comparing the velocities measured during loading and unloading, the effects of stress and damage on the measured velocities could be differentiated. Moreover, the stress dependency of surface...

  20. Teacher Wellness: Too Stressed for Stress Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipps-Vaughan, Debi; Ponsart, Tyler; Gilligan, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    Healthier, happier teachers promote healthier, happier, and more effective learning environments. Yet, many teachers experience considerable stress. Studies have found that between one fifth and one fourth of teachers frequently experience a great deal of stress (Kyriacou, 1998). Stress in teaching appears to be universal across nations and…

  1. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  2. Tachyons imply the existence of a privileged frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoedin, T.; Heylighen, F.

    1985-12-16

    It is shown that the existence of faster-than-light signals (tachyons) would imply the existence (and detectability) of a privileged inertial frame and that one can avoid all problems with reversed-time order only by using absolute synchronization instead of the standard one. The connection between these results and the EPR-paradox is discussed.

  3. Safety assessment of existing highway bridges and viaducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Steenbergen, R.; Abspoel, L.; Kolstein, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the structural safety of existing br idges and viaducts becomes increasingly important in many countries owing to an increase in traffic loads. Most existing standards, however, are developed for the design of new structures. For this reason, an assessment method for determining

  4. Neural Network for Optimization of Existing Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems.......The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems....

  5. The Relationship among Localization Skill, Existence Constancy and Object Permanence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes-Rosenwein, Linda

    Two component skills of object permanence were studied: existence constancy -- the infants' ability to expect that an object continues to exist after it is hidden, and localization skill -- infants' ability to search in the correct place for a hidden object. Contradictions within the literature may occur because of task lability caused by failure…

  6. 40 CFR 63.312 - Existing regulations and requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing regulations and requirements. 63.312 Section 63.312 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.312 Existing regulations and requirements. (a) The...

  7. Existence of solutions of nonlinear integrodifferential equations of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results are obtained by using semigroup theory and the Schauder fixed point ... The problem of existence of solutions of evolution equations with nonlocal ... we assume that there exists an operator E on DЕEЖИX given by the formula.

  8. The solution of location problems with certain existing facility structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1983-01-01

    It is known that in the Euclidean distance case, the optimal minisum location of a new facility in relation to four existing facilities is at the intersection of the two lines joining two pairs of the facilities. The authors extend this concept to minisum problems having any even number of existing...... facilities and characterized by generalized distance norms...

  9. Existence of the Stark-Wannier quantum resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacchetti, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.sacchetti@unimore.it [Department of Physics, Computer Sciences and Mathematics, University of Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, we prove the existence of the Stark-Wannier quantum resonances for one-dimensional Schrödinger operators with smooth periodic potential and small external homogeneous electric field. Such a result extends the existence result previously obtained in the case of periodic potentials with a finite number of open gaps.

  10. Does Absolute Synonymy exist in Owere-Igbo? | Omego | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among Igbo linguistic researchers, determining whether absolute synonymy exists in Owere–Igbo, a dialect of the Igbo language predominantly spoken by the people of Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria, has become a thorny issue. While some linguistic scholars strive to establish that absolute synonymy exists in the lexical ...

  11. Existence and attractors of solutions for nonlinear parabolic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid El Ouardi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove existence and asymptotic behaviour results for weak solutions of a mixed problem (S. We also obtain the existence of the global attractor and the regularity for this attractor in $\\left[H^{2}(\\Omega \\right] ^{2}$ and we derive estimates of its Haussdorf and fractal dimensions.

  12. Remarks on the existence of non equilibrium dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchioro, C.; Pellegrinotti, A.; Pulvirenti, M.

    1981-01-01

    The authors give an existence theorem for the dynamics of an infinite system of anharmonic oscillators. They obtain another proof of the existence of the dynamics in the case of one-dimensional system of infinitely many particles interacting via a bounded potential. The case of very singular potential is also solved. (Auth.)

  13. Global existence of small solutions to semilinear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chihara, Hiroyuki

    1996-01-01

    We present global existence theorem for semilinear Schrodinger equations. In general, Schrodinger-type equations do not admit the classical energy estimates. To avoid this difficulty, we use S. Doi's method for linear Schrodinger-type equations. Combining his method and L p -L q estimates, we prove the global existence of solutions with small initial data

  14. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built or...

  15. Existing knowledge related to mainstreaming IKS into Educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at determining existing knowledge related to mainstreaming of IKS into education system. The qualitative research methodology was appropriate for this study to explore and describe the mainstreaming of IKS into the existing education system. The study included 10 school teachers (5male and 5 females) ...

  16. An existence result of energy minimizer maps between Riemannian polyhedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouziane, T.

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence of energy minimizers in each free homotopy class of maps between polyhedra with target space without focal points. Our proof involves a careful study of some geometric properties of Riemannian polyhedra without focal points. Among other things, we show that on the relevant polyhedra, there exists a convex supporting function. (author)

  17. 30 CFR 784.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Existing structures. 784.12... PLAN § 784.12 Operation plan: Existing structures. (a) Each application shall contain a description of... and reclamation operation. The description shall include: (1) Location; (2) Plans of the structure...

  18. 30 CFR 780.12 - Operation plan: Existing structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Existing structures. 780.12... PLAN § 780.12 Operation plan: Existing structures. (a) Each application shall contain a description of... and reclamation operation. The description shall include— (1) Location; (2) Plans of the structure...

  19. Kierkegaard e a existência possível

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto S. Kahlmeyer-Mertens

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A relação entre a existência e a possibilidade, objeto deste artigo, merece especial atenção quando se trata de Kierkegaard. Isso porque, estes dois conceitos ocupam papéis primordiais na filosofia do autor, constituindo, justamente, o ponto a partir do qual o pensador se distancia criticamente da tradição filosófica. Caracterizar sumariamente os conceitos de existência e possibilidade na filosofia de Kierkegaard, bem como ambientar o filósofo em sua época como um pensador da existência, para além do rótulo de “existencialista”, são nossos presentes objetivos.   Palavras-chave: Kierkegaard, filosofia da existência, existência, possibilidade

  20. Temperature and stress calculation for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarandi, T.

    1979-02-01

    Temperature and stress distribution in and around the final storage facility has been calculated for three different arrangements of the tunnels: - 2 planes with 60 m vertical distance between them - 2 planes with 100 m distance and - 1 plane. The highest temperatures and stresses occur for the 2 plane alternative with distance 60 m between planes. The maximum compressive stress is in this case 24.0 MPa 140 years after the time of deposition, compared with 12.6 MPa in the 1 plane case. The maximum tensile stress exists at the surface and is in the 2 plane case 6.0 MPa 800 - 1,500 years after deposition, compared with 4.2 MPa for the 1 plane variant. An estimation of maximum tensile stresses between the tunnel planes yields a value of 1.5 MPa. The above-mentioned stresses are due to temperature distribution induced by the radioactive waste. To obtain the total stresses, initial stresses in the undisturbed rock, which vary according to location, are to be added to these stresses. (author)

  1. Perceived stress and bruxism in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Carpinelli, Luna; Savarese, Giulia

    2016-12-21

    Many studies have shown the correlation between bruxism and stress that affects the quality of life of university students. The present study highlights this correlation-for the first time-in a group of university students in Italy. We have investigated the prevalence of awake and asleep bruxism and its correlation with perceived stress in a group of 278 Italian undergraduate students (117 M). A self report questionnaire was constructed using a socio-demographic test, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the item n. 8 of the Fonseca Questionnaire for presence of bruxism. The perceived stress score using PSS-10 scale was 32.2 (SD 4.6, 95% CL 31.6-32.7) for all the subjects, with significant gender difference: M = 31.2 and F = 32.9 (P = 0.0019). The prevalence for awake bruxism was 37.9% (F = 40.8%; M = 34.2%,), while for sleep bruxism was 31.8% (F = 33.3%; M = 29.1%), both without significant gender difference. A positive correlation, with significant concordance and dependence, between stress score and awake bruxism was present for male students only. University students showed higher bruxism and stress levels compared to the general population, with higher stress for females, but, even if female students show higher stress, a correlation between stress and bruxism exists only for male gender. Further studies should be performed.

  2. Stress corrosion crack growth in unirradiated zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, K.

    1978-10-01

    Experimental techniques suitable for the determination of stress corrosion crack growth rates in irradiated Zircaloy tube have been developed. The techniques have been tested on unirradiated. Zircaloy and it was found that the results were in good agreement with the results of other investigations. Some of the results were obtained at very low stress intensities and the crack growth rates observed, gave no indication of the existance of a K sub(ISCC) for iodine induced stress corrosion cracking in Zircaloy. This is of importance both for fuel rod behavior after a power ramp and for long term storage of spent Zircaloy-clad fuel. (author)

  3. Defining the Field of Existence of Shrouded Blades in High-Speed Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, Anatoliy I.; Nazdrachev, Sergeiy V.

    2018-01-01

    This work provides a method for determining the region of existence of banded blades of gas turbines for aircraft engines based on the analytical evaluation of tensile stresses in specific characteristic sections of the blade. This region is determined by the set of values of the parameter, which forms the law of distribution of the cross-sectional area of the cross-sections along the height of the airfoil. When seven independent parameters (gas-dynamic, structural and strength) are changed, the choice of the best option is proposed at the early design stage. As an example, the influence of the dimension of a turbine on the domain of the existence of banded blades is shown.

  4. Strengthening of Existing Bridge Structures for Shear and Bending with Carbon Textile-Reinforced Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Herbrand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing traffic loads and changes in code provisions lead to deficits in shear and flexural capacity of many existing highway bridges. Therefore, a large number of structures are expected to require refurbishment and strengthening in the future. This projection is based on the current condition of many older road bridges. Different strengthening methods for bridges exist to extend their service life, all having specific advantages and disadvantages. By applying a thin layer of carbon textile-reinforced mortar (CTRM to bridge deck slabs and the webs of pre-stressed concrete bridges, the fatigue and ultimate strength of these members can be increased significantly. The CTRM layer is a combination of a corrosion resistant carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP fabric and an efficient mortar. In this paper, the strengthening method and the experimental results obtained at RWTH Aachen University are presented.

  5. Strengthening of Existing Bridge Structures for Shear and Bending with Carbon Textile-Reinforced Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrand, Martin; Adam, Viviane; Classen, Martin; Kueres, Dominik; Hegger, Josef

    2017-09-19

    Increasing traffic loads and changes in code provisions lead to deficits in shear and flexural capacity of many existing highway bridges. Therefore, a large number of structures are expected to require refurbishment and strengthening in the future. This projection is based on the current condition of many older road bridges. Different strengthening methods for bridges exist to extend their service life, all having specific advantages and disadvantages. By applying a thin layer of carbon textile-reinforced mortar (CTRM) to bridge deck slabs and the webs of pre-stressed concrete bridges, the fatigue and ultimate strength of these members can be increased significantly. The CTRM layer is a combination of a corrosion resistant carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) fabric and an efficient mortar. In this paper, the strengthening method and the experimental results obtained at RWTH Aachen University are presented.

  6. Stress and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress is an important public health issue. One in ten Danish adults experience high levels of stress in their daily lives and stress is one of the main occupational health problems in Europe. The link between stress and health is still debated in the scientific literature...... and the pathways underlying these potential health effects are far from elucidated. The dissertation contributions to the literature on stress and health by empirically testing the relationship between stress and major chronic disorders and by providing new evidence on the underlying physiological, psychological...... and behavioral mechanisms. Stress is a complex concept and in order to better understand the relation between stress and health, the dissertation works with a clear distinction between the health consequences of different types of stress including external stressors, perceived stress, and measures of the stress...

  7. The effect of academic stress and attachment stress on stress-eaters and stress-undereaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Michael; Ten Eycke, Kayla; Kosmerly, Stacey; Robinson, Adele Lafrance; Stillar, Amanda; Van Blyderveen, Sherry

    2016-05-01

    It is well established that stress is related to changes in eating patterns. Some individuals are more likely to increase their overall food intake under conditions of stress, whereas others are more likely to consume less food when stressed. Attachment style has been linked to disordered eating and eating disorders; however, comparisons of eating behaviors under attachment versus other types of stress have yet to be explored. The present laboratory study examined the eating patterns in self-identified stress-undereaters and stress-eaters under various types of stress. More specifically, the study examined the effects of academic and attachment stress on calorie, carbohydrate and sugar consumption within these two groups. Under the guise of critiquing student films, university students viewed either one of two stress-inducing videos (academic stress or attachment stress, both designed to be emotionally arousing) or a control video (designed to be emotionally neutral), and their food intake was recorded. Results demonstrated that the video manipulations were effective in inducing stress. Differential patterns of eating were noted based on group and stress condition. Specifically, stress-undereaters ate fewer calories, carbohydrates and sugars than stress-eaters in the academic stress condition, but not in the attachment stress or control condition. Findings suggest that specific types of stressors may influence eating behaviors differently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Propagation of edge waves in a thinly layered laminated medium with stress couples under initial stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijush Pal Roy

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of edge waves in a thinly layered laminated medium with stress couples under initial stresses is examined. Based upon an approximate representation of a laminated medium by an equivalent anisotropic continuum with average initial and couple stresses, an explicit form of frequency equation is obtained to derive the phase velocity of edge waves. Edge waves exist under certain conditions. The inclusion of couple stresses increases the velocity of wave propagation. For a specific compression, the presence of couple stresses increases the velocity of wave propagation with the increase of wave number, whereas the reverse is the case when there is no couple stress. Numerical computation is performed with graphical representations. Several special cases are also examined.

  9. Stress proteins, autoimmunity, and autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, J B; Jarjour, W N

    1991-01-01

    At birth, the immune system is biased toward recognition of microbial antigens in order to protect the host from infection. Recent data suggest that an important initial line of defense in this regard involves autologous stress proteins, especially conserved peptides of hsp60, which are presented to T cells bearing gamma delta receptors by relatively nonpolymorphic class lb molecules. Natural antibodies may represent a parallel B cell mechanism. Through an evolving process of "physiological" autoreactivity and selection by immunodominant stress proteins common to all prokaryotes, B and T cell repertoires expand during life to meet the continuing challenge of infection. Because stress proteins of bacteria are homologous with stress proteins of the host, there exists in genetically susceptible individuals a constant risk of autoimmune disease due to failure of mechanisms for self-nonself discrimination. That stress proteins actually play a role in autoimmune processes is supported by a growing body of evidence which, collectively, suggests that autoreactivity in chronic inflammatory arthritis involves, at least initially, gamma delta cells which recognize epitopes of the stress protein hsp60. Alternate mechanisms for T cell stimulation by stress proteins undoubtedly also exist, e.g., molecular mimicry of the DR beta third hypervariable region susceptibility locus for rheumatoid arthritis by a DnaJ stress protein epitope in gram-negative bacteria. While there still is confusion with respect to the most relevant stress protein epitopes, a central role for stress proteins in the etiology of arthritis appears likely. Furthermore, insight derived from the work thus far in adjuvant-induced arthritis already is stimulating analyses of related phenomena in autoimmune diseases other than those involving joints. Only limited data are available in the area of humoral autoimmunity to stress proteins. Autoantibodies to a number of stress proteins have been identified in SLE and

  10. A coupled chemotaxis-fluid model: Global existence

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lorz, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We consider a model arising from biology, consisting of chemotaxis equations coupled to viscous incompressible fluid equations through transport and external forcing. Global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem is investigated under certain conditions. Precisely, for the chemotaxis-Navier- Stokes system in two space dimensions, we obtain global existence for large data. In three space dimensions, we prove global existence of weak solutions for the chemotaxis-Stokes system with nonlinear diffusion for the cell density.© 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. A coupled chemotaxis-fluid model: Global existence

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jian-Guo

    2011-09-01

    We consider a model arising from biology, consisting of chemotaxis equations coupled to viscous incompressible fluid equations through transport and external forcing. Global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem is investigated under certain conditions. Precisely, for the chemotaxis-Navier- Stokes system in two space dimensions, we obtain global existence for large data. In three space dimensions, we prove global existence of weak solutions for the chemotaxis-Stokes system with nonlinear diffusion for the cell density.© 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Stress og insomni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Zachariae, Bobby

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia and stress are two conditions, which are strongly associated and appear to be pathophysiologically integrated: the occurrence of stress increases the risk of insomnia, insomnia exacerbates stress, and coexistence of both factors has a negative influence on their prognosis. Stress...

  13. Management of journalists professional stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rvović Jelena J.

    2014-01-01

    is therefore greater, also for reasons of its practical application. We can surely claim, as emphasised by Weldon (2011, that the most efficient activity that a HR manager can apply in work-related stress management will be prevention. It must follow immediately upon recognition that such a problem exists.

  14. design analysis of an existing acha (digitaria exilis) dehulling machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    consuming task because of the extremely small size of the grain. .... o = initial shear stress of the sample (g/cm2). Фi = angle of internal ... The slope angle of the side wall of the hopper should be ..... Stenocarpa). Unpublished PhD Thesis, Uni-.

  15. Residual stress measurement in 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, H.J.; Lin, M.C.C.; Chen, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Welding overlay repair (WOR) is commonly employed to rebuild piping systems suffering from intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). To understand the effects of this repair, it is necessary to investigate the distribution of residual stresses in the welding pipe. The overlay welding technique must induce compressive residual stress at the inner surface of the welded pipe to prevent IGSCC. To understand the bulk residual stress distribution, the stress profile as a function of location within wall is examined. In this study the full destructive residual stress measurement technique -- a cutting and sectioning method -- is used to determine the residual stress distribution. The sample is type 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipe with an outside diameter of 267 mm. A pipe segment is cut from the circular pipe; then a thin layer is removed axially from the inner to the outer surfaces until further sectioning is impractical. The total residual stress is calculated by adding the stress relieved by cutting the section away to the stress relieved by axially sectioning. The axial and hoop residual stresses are compressive at the inner surface of the weld overlay pipe. Compressive stress exists not only at the surface but is also distributed over most of the pipe's cross section. On the one hand, the maximum compressive hoop residual stress appears at the pipe's inner surface. The thermal-mechanical induced crack closure from significant compressive residual stress is discussed. This crack closure can thus prevent IGSCC very effectively

  16. 40 CFR 407.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Fruits Subcategory § 407.64 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  17. Branding in children: a barbaric practice still exists in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Pratap Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Branding is an inhuman traditional practice most commonly employed to treat various disorders in neonates and children in certain community in India. Though stringent law exists to prevent such harmful practices, cases of branding is not uncommon in current era.

  18. Non-existence of limit cycles for planar vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Gine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents sufficient conditions for the non-existence of limit cycles for planar vector fields. Classical methods for the nonexistence of limit cycles are connected with the theory developed here.

  19. 31 CFR 370.26 - What limitations exist on liability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSFERS RELATING TO UNITED STATES SECURITIES Debit Entries § 370.26 What limitations exist on liability? If we sustain a loss because a financial institution fails to handle an entry in accordance with this...

  20. Protection of continued economic existence and major changes. 1. paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backherms, J.

    1980-01-01

    On the issue of protecting continued economic existence according to Sect. 18 of the Atomic Energy Law, a difference is made between changes occurring in the environment of the plant, in the existing knowledge in science and technology, and changes occurring in the safety philosophy held by the authorities. In case of conditions being subsequently imposed because of a change in the existing knowledge in science and technology, the liability of the authorities to pay compensation is ruled out according to Sect. 18, para. 2 No. 3 of the Atomic Energy Law. The difference made between a change in the safety philosophy held by the authorities and a change in the existing knowledge in science and technology seems to be obvious. In the first case it is a matter of changing the legal evaluation of unchanged technological findings, in the legal evaluation, however, the licence granted has to have a lasting effect on principle. (HP) [de

  1. Existence results for anisotropic discrete boundary value problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avci Avci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of nontrivial weak solutions for a class of discrete boundary value problems. The main tools used here are the variational principle and critical point theory.

  2. Possible existence of wormholes in the central regions of halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook, E-mail: rahaman@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Salucci, P., E-mail: salucci@sissa.it [SISSA, International School for Advanced Studies, Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127, Trieste (Italy); Kuhfittig, P.K.F., E-mail: kuhfitti@msoe.edu [Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, WI 53202-3109 (United States); Ray, Saibal, E-mail: saibal@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Kolkata 700010, West Bengal (India); Rahaman, Mosiur, E-mail: mosiurju@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology, Kolkata 700150 (India)

    2014-11-15

    An earlier study (Rahaman, et al., 2014 and Kuhfittig, 2014) has demonstrated the possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of the galactic halo, based on the Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) density profile. This paper uses the Universal Rotation Curve (URC) dark matter model to obtain analogous results for the central parts of the halo. This result is an important compliment to the earlier result, thereby confirming the possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies. - Highlights: • Earlier we showed possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of halo. • We obtain here analogous results for the central parts of the galactic halo. • Our result is an important compliment to the earlier result. • This confirms possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies.

  3. DOES ABSOLUTE SYNONYMY EXIST IN OWERE-IGBO?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The researcher also interviewed native speakers of the dialect. The study ... The word 'synonymy' means sameness of meaning, i.e., a relationship in which more ... whether absolute synonymy exists in Owere–Igbo or not. ..... 'close this book'.

  4. Existence of Solutions of Nonlinear Integrodifferential Equations of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we prove the existence of mild and strong solutions of a nonlinear integrodifferential equation of Sobolev type with nonlocal condition. The results are obtained by using semigroup theory and the Schauder fixed point theorem.

  5. Problem of mathematical deduction of the existence of black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Shun Chin

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical proof of existence of Black Hole is based on the assumption of mass being independent of speed. Considering the effect of special relativity of the dependence of mass with speed there is no Black hole.

  6. On the existence and dynamics of braneworld black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, Andrew Liam; Randall, Lisa; Wiseman, Toby

    2006-01-01

    Based on holographic arguments Tanaka and Emparan et al have claimed that large localized static black holes do not exist in the one-brane Randall-Sundrum model. If such black holes are time-dependent as they propose, there are potentially significant phenomenological and theoretical consequences. We revisit the issue, arguing that their reasoning does not take into account the strongly coupled nature of the holographic theory. We claim that static black holes with smooth metrics should indeed exist in these theories, and give a simple example. However, although the existence of such solutions is relevant to exact and numerical solution searches, such static solutions might be dynamically unstable, again leading to time dependence with phenomenological consequences. We explore a plausible instability, suggested by Tanaka, analogous to that of Gregory and Laflamme, but argue that there is no reliable reason at this point to assume it must exist

  7. A corrosion monitoring system for existing reinforced concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated a multi-parameter corrosion monitoring system for existing reinforced concrete structures in chloride-laden service environments. The system was fabricated based on a prototype concrete corrosion measurement system that : had bee...

  8. Report on the Pre-existing Condition Insurance Plan Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Before the Affordable Care Act, Americans with pre-existing conditions who did not receive health coverage through their employers had few affordable options to get...

  9. Existence for a class of discrete hyperbolic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rodica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions to a class of discrete hyperbolic systems with some nonlinear extreme conditions and initial data, in a real Hilbert space.

  10. Existence of Weak Solutions for a Nonlinear Elliptic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert RobertP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence of weak solutions to the following Dirichlet boundary value problem, which occurs when modeling an injection molding process with a partial slip condition on the boundary. We have in ; in ; , and on .

  11. Existence of Positive Solutions for Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Fu-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a fixed point theorem in a cone to obtain the existence of positive solutions of the differential equation, , , with some suitable boundary conditions, where is a parameter.

  12. comparative performance evaluation of an existing and modified

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    and fan speeds of 2800 rpm as against the existing cylinder and fan speeds of 934 rpm. The performance evaluation for ... KEYWORDS: Acha, fonio, dehuller, performance evaluation, ... centrifugal force as a result of the rotation of the cylinder.

  13. The consequences of nursing stress and need for integrated solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rashaun K; Grubb, Paula L

    2014-01-01

    In a 2011 survey sponsored by the American Nurses Association (ANA), nurses identified the acute and chronic effects of stress and overwork as one of their two top safety and health concerns. A review of the literature was conducted to investigate the impact that job stress has on the health and safety of nursing professionals and the role that working conditions and job characteristics play in fostering job stress. Strong evidence supporting links between job stress, safety and health in general and within different types of nursing populations exists. Working conditions also contribute to the development of job stress. Combining and integrating "person-focused" strategies designed to build nurses' ability to manage stress at the individual level with "organization-focused" strategies that eliminate stressful working conditions is critical to the reduction and prevention of job stress among nursing professionals. © 2013 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  14. Teacher stress and health; examination of a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrank, R S; Stroup, C A

    1989-01-01

    Stress in teaching derives from a variety of sources, and evidence exists linking such stress to physical and mental health concerns. Detailed examination of the linkages among personal factors, job stress, job satisfaction and symptomatology have not been done in this occupation, however, and the present study examines a model interrelating these variables. A survey of 245 predominantly female elementary school teachers in southeast Texas suggested that demographic factors and teaching background do not influence stress, satisfaction or health concerns. However, while job stress was the strongest predictor of job satisfaction, this stress had no direct relationship with health problems, an unexpected finding. Write-in responses by teachers indicated additional sources of stress, many of which were environmental or policy-based in nature. The implications of these findings for future research and stress management interventions for teachers are discussed.

  15. Newspaper and internet display advertising: Co-existence or substitution?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstädt, Nadine; Budzinski, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Newspapers have been experiencing declining circulation figures and diminishing advertising revenues for several years – both effects might pose a threat to the continuing existence of (print) newspapers. In an earlier paper, Lindstädt & Budzinski (2011) argued from a theoretical viewpoint that industry-specific patterns exist that determine substitution or complementation effects between internet and newspaper advertising. It was argued that retail advertising, in particular, may offer a nic...

  16. Evaluation of the integrity of existing NFS waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    Various means of investigating the integrity of the existing NFS waste tanks are presented, including: visual inspection, ultrasonic testing, acoustic-emission monitoring, radiography, and forced-vibration testing. The experience that exists in performing such investigations of high-level radioactive waste tanks is documented, including: visual inspections, photography, wall-thickness measurements, and forced-vibration testing. An evaluation is made on the relative merits of the presented inspection and testing alternatives

  17. Non-existence criteria for Laurent polynomial first integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoyun Shi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we derived some simple criteria for non-existence and partial non-existence Laurent polynomial first integrals for a general nonlinear systems of ordinary differential equations $\\dot x = f(x$, $x \\in \\mathbb{R}^n$ with $f(0 = 0$. We show that if the eigenvalues of the Jacobi matrix of the vector field $f(x$ are $\\mathbb{Z}$-independent, then the system has no nontrivial Laurent polynomial integrals.

  18. Existence of solitary waves in dipolar quantum gases

    KAUST Repository

    Antonelli, Paolo; Sparber, Christof

    2011-01-01

    We study a nonlinear Schrdinger equation arising in the mean field description of dipolar quantum gases. Under the assumption of sufficiently strong dipolar interactions, the existence of standing waves, and hence solitons, is proved together with some of their properties. This gives a rigorous argument for the possible existence of solitary waves in BoseEinstein condensates, which originate solely due to the dipolar interaction between the particles. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The existence and persistence of household financial hardship

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S.; Ghosh, P.; Taylor, K.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the existence and persistence of financial hardship at the household level using data from the British Household Panel Survey. Our modelling strategy makes three important contributions to the existing literature on household finances. Firstly, we model nine different types of household financial problems within a joint framework, allowing for correlation in the random effects across the nine equations. Secondly, we develop a dynamic framework in order to model the persistence ...

  20. Existence of solutions to quasilinear Schrodinger equations with indefinite potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupei Shen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the existence and multiplicity of solutions of the quasilinear Schrodinger equation $$ -u''+V(xu-(|u| ^2''u=f(u $$ on $\\mathbb{R}$, where the potential $V$ allows sign changing and the nonlinearity satisfies conditions weaker than the classical Ambrosetti-Rabinowitz condition. By a local linking theorem and the fountain theorem, we obtain the existence and multiplicity of solutions for the equation.

  1. How Do We Know Protons, Electrons, and Quarks Really Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Scientific explanations often make use of things that cannot be seen or felt, such as protons, electrons, and quarks. Do these things really exist? If so, how do is it known that they exist? Imagine being enclosed in a completely dark room with no light at all and not being able to see a thing. Being chained to a chair somewhere in the room, and…

  2. Existence of solitary waves in dipolar quantum gases

    KAUST Repository

    Antonelli, Paolo

    2011-02-01

    We study a nonlinear Schrdinger equation arising in the mean field description of dipolar quantum gases. Under the assumption of sufficiently strong dipolar interactions, the existence of standing waves, and hence solitons, is proved together with some of their properties. This gives a rigorous argument for the possible existence of solitary waves in BoseEinstein condensates, which originate solely due to the dipolar interaction between the particles. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigations of some rock stress measuring techniques and the stress field in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Tor Harald

    1997-12-31

    Rock stresses are important to the safe construction and operation of all man-made structures in rock, whether In mining, civil or petroleum engineering. The crucial issue is their relative magnitude and orientation. This thesis develops equipment and methods for further rock stress assessment and reevaluates existing overcoring rock stress measurements, and relates this information to the present geological setting. Both laboratory work and field work are involved. In the field, rock stresses are measured by the overcoring and the hydraulic fracturing technique. An observation technique for assessing likely high stresses is developed. The field data refer to several hydropower projects and to some offshore hydrocarbon fields. The principal sections are: (1) Tectonic setting in the western Fennoscandia, (2) Triaxial rock stress measurements by overcoring using the NTH cell (a strain gauge cell developed at the Norwegian technical university in Trondheim and based on the CSIR cell of the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), (3) Laboratory testing of the NTH cell, (4) Quality ranking of stresses measured by the NTH cell, (4) Recalculated rock stresses and implications to the regional stress field, (5) Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements. 113 refs., 98 figs., 62 tabs.

  4. Investigations of some rock stress measuring techniques and the stress field in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Tor Harald

    1998-12-31

    Rock stresses are important to the safe construction and operation of all man-made structures in rock, whether In mining, civil or petroleum engineering. The crucial issue is their relative magnitude and orientation. This thesis develops equipment and methods for further rock stress assessment and reevaluates existing overcoring rock stress measurements, and relates this information to the present geological setting. Both laboratory work and field work are involved. In the field, rock stresses are measured by the overcoring and the hydraulic fracturing technique. An observation technique for assessing likely high stresses is developed. The field data refer to several hydropower projects and to some offshore hydrocarbon fields. The principal sections are: (1) Tectonic setting in the western Fennoscandia, (2) Triaxial rock stress measurements by overcoring using the NTH cell (a strain gauge cell developed at the Norwegian technical university in Trondheim and based on the CSIR cell of the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), (3) Laboratory testing of the NTH cell, (4) Quality ranking of stresses measured by the NTH cell, (4) Recalculated rock stresses and implications to the regional stress field, (5) Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements. 113 refs., 98 figs., 62 tabs.

  5. Interfacing the existing cask fleet with the MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doman, J.W.; Hahn, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possibility of using the existing fleet of casks to achieve spent fuel receipt at the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The existing cask fleet includes the NLI-1/2, the NAC-LWT, the TN-8 (and TN-8L), the TN-9, and the IF-300 casks. Other casks may be available, but their status is not certain. Use of the existing cask fleet at the MRS places additional design requirements on the system, and specifically affects the cask-to-MRS interface. The decision to use the existing cask fleet also places additional demands on training needs and operator certification, and the configuration management system. Some existing cask designs may not be able to mate with a bottom opening hot cell MRS. Use of the existing cask fleet also greatly increases the number of shipments that must be received, to the point that a facility larger than originally envisioned may be required

  6. Study of structural reliability of existing concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druķis, P.; Gaile, L.; Valtere, K.; Pakrastiņš, L.; Goremikins, V.

    2017-10-01

    Structural reliability of buildings has become an important issue after the collapse of a shopping center in Riga 21.11.2013, caused the death of 54 people. The reliability of a building is the practice of designing, constructing, operating, maintaining and removing buildings in ways that ensure maintained health, ward suffered injuries or death due to use of the building. Evaluation and improvement of existing buildings is becoming more and more important. For a large part of existing buildings, the design life has been reached or will be reached in the near future. The structures of these buildings need to be reassessed in order to find out whether the safety requirements are met. The safety requirements provided by the Eurocodes are a starting point for the assessment of safety. However, it would be uneconomical to require all existing buildings and structures to comply fully with these new codes and corresponding safety levels, therefore the assessment of existing buildings differs with each design situation. This case study describes the simple and practical procedure of determination of minimal reliability index β of existing concrete structures designed by different codes than Eurocodes and allows to reassess the actual reliability level of different structural elements of existing buildings under design load.

  7. Stress og aldring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports the popular notion that psychological stress states may accelerate aging. Stress has been shown to influence cellular systems known to be involved in the aging process. Furthermore, stress is associated with an increased risk of various age-related medical disorders....... These effects are likely mediated by the secretion of stress hormones. In this short review we focus on biochemical and epidemiological evidence for a link between stress and aging....

  8. Bruxism affects stress responses in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Chikatoshi; Sato, Sadao; Takashina, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hidenori; Onozuka, Minoru; Sasaguri, Kenichi

    2010-04-01

    It has been proposed that suppression of stress-related emotional responses leads to the simultaneous activation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and that the expression of these emotional states has a protective effect against ulcerogenesis. In the present study, we investigated whether stress-induced bruxism activity (SBA) has a physiological effect of on the stress-induced changes of the stomach, thymus, and spleen as well as blood leukocytes, cortisol, and adrenaline. This study demonstrated that SBA attenuated the stress-induced ulcer genesis as well as degenerative changes of thymus and spleen. SBA also attenuated increases of adrenaline, cortisol, and neutrophils in the blood. In conclusion, expression of aggression through SBA during stress exposure attenuates both stress-induced ANS response, including gastric ulcer formation.

  9. Post-traumatic stress disorder and exposure to violence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms was investigated in the second place, as well as the question whether a difference existed between the two ethnic groups in respect of this relationship. The participants were comprised of 186 Venda and ...

  10. Anxiety and Stress--How They Affect Teachers, Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, Bettie Burres

    1978-01-01

    Principals can play an important role in the interpersonal relationships within a school building by exploring and assessing issues regarding cause and effect of the anxiety, stress, and tension that exist among personnel. (Author/MLF)

  11. Residual Stress Testing of Outer 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.

    2004-01-01

    A Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) outer 3013 container and a laser welded outer 3013 container have been tested for residual stresses according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard G-36-94 [1]. This ASTM standard describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in boiling magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution. Container sections in both the as-fabricated condition as well as the closure welded condition were evaluated. Significantly large residual stresses were observed in the bottom half of the as-fabricated container, a result of the base to can fabrication weld because through wall cracks were observed perpendicular to the weld. This observation indicates that regardless of the closure weld technique, sufficient residual stresses exist in the as-fabricated container to provide the stress necessary for stress corrosion cracking of the container, at the base fabrication weld. Additionally, sufficiently high residual stresses were observed in both the lid and the body of the GTAW as well as the laser closure welded containers. The stresses are oriented perpendicular to the closure weld in both the container lid and the container body. Although the boiling MgCl2 test is not a quantitative test, a comparison of the test results from the closure welds shows that there are noticeably more through wall cracks in the laser closure welded container than in the GTAW closure welded container

  12. Stress and Coping with Stress in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dolenc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the many developmental changes in adolescence, young people are exposed to greater likelihood of experiencing stress. On the other hand, this period is critical for developing effective and constructive coping strategies. In the contribution, we summarize part of what is known about stress, stress responses and coping. Throughout, we focus on common stressful events among adolescents and emphasize the importance of dealing successfully with stressors in their daily lives. Finally, we highlight the most frequently used instruments to measure coping behaviour in youth and present an overview of the research findings on differences in coping among adolescents according to age and gender.

  13. Existence conditions of optimal trajectories in dynamic control processes; Conditions d'existence de trajectoires optimales des processus dynamiques commandes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnemay-Juricek, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The existence of solutions in the optimal control problems with free endpoints is studied in this report and existence conditions are established without the usual assumption that the control region is convex. Furthermore the results, in order to be of some utility in physical applications, are expressed only by means of conditions on the parameters defining the system. (author) [French] Ce rapport etudie l'existence de solutions optimales dans les problemes de commande ou le point terminal est libre et ou la duree de l'evolution du systeme a optimiser est connue. Des conditions d'existence y sont formulees sans recourir a l'hypothese usuelle de convexite du domaine des valeurs des commandes. De plus on a cherche a rendre utilisables les resultats en ne faisant porter les conditions que sur les parametres directement accessibles du systeme. (auteur)

  14. Design and Lab Experiment of a Stress Detection Service based on Mouse Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Kowatsch, Tobias; Wahle, Fabian; Filler, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Workplace stress can negatively affect the health condition of employees and with it, the performance of organizations. Although there exist approaches to measure work-related stress, two major limitations are the low resolution of stress data and its obtrusive measurement. The current work applies design science research with the goal to design, implement and evaluate a Stress Detection Service (SDS) that senses the degree of work-related stress solely based on mouse movements of knowledge w...

  15. Stress Physiology of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Alegría, Ángel; Bron, Peter A.; de Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Lemos, José A.; Linares, Daniel M.; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Varmanen, Pekka; Ventura, Marco; Zúñiga, Manuel; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important starter, commensal, or pathogenic microorganisms. The stress physiology of LAB has been studied in depth for over 2 decades, fueled mostly by the technological implications of LAB robustness in the food industry. Survival of probiotic LAB in the host and the potential relatedness of LAB virulence to their stress resilience have intensified interest in the field. Thus, a wealth of information concerning stress responses exists today for strains as diverse as starter (e.g., Lactococcus lactis), probiotic (e.g., several Lactobacillus spp.), and pathogenic (e.g., Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp.) LAB. Here we present the state of the art for LAB stress behavior. We describe the multitude of stresses that LAB are confronted with, and we present the experimental context used to study the stress responses of LAB, focusing on adaptation, habituation, and cross-protection as well as on self-induced multistress resistance in stationary phase, biofilms, and dormancy. We also consider stress responses at the population and single-cell levels. Subsequently, we concentrate on the stress defense mechanisms that have been reported to date, grouping them according to their direct participation in preserving cell energy, defending macromolecules, and protecting the cell envelope. Stress-induced responses of probiotic LAB and commensal/pathogenic LAB are highlighted separately due to the complexity of the peculiar multistress conditions to which these bacteria are subjected in their hosts. Induction of prophages under environmental stresses is then discussed. Finally, we present systems-based strategies to characterize the “stressome” of LAB and to engineer new food-related and probiotic LAB with improved stress tolerance. PMID:27466284

  16. Genes, stress, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J

    2005-05-01

    A relationship between genetic makeup and susceptibility to major depressive disorder (MDD) has long been suspected on the basis of family and twin studies. A metaanalysis of reports on the basis of twin studies has estimated MDD's degree of heritability to be 0.33 (confidence interval, 0.26-0.39). Among families exhibiting an increased prevalence of MDD, risk of developing the illness was enhanced in members exposed to a highly stressful environment. Aberrant genes can predispose to depression in a number of ways, for example, by diminishing production of growth factors that act during brain development. An aberrant gene could also increase or decrease a neurotransmitter's release into synapses, its actions, or its duration of activity. The gene products of greatest interest at present are those involved in the synthesis and actions of serotonin; among them, the serotonin-uptake protein localized within the terminals and dendrites of serotonin-releasing neurons. It has been found that the Vmax of platelet serotonin uptake is low in some patients with MDD; also, Vmax is highly correlated in twins. Antidepressant drugs such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors act on this uptake protein. The specific genetic locus causing serotonin uptake to be lower in some patients with major depression involves a polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter region of the gene for the uptake protein. The gene itself exists as several alleles, the short "S" allele and the long "L" allele. The S variant is associated with less, and the L variant with more, of the uptake protein. The effect of stressful life events on depressive symptoms in young adults was found to be significantly stronger among SS or SL subjects than among LL subjects. Neuroimaging studies showed that people with the SS or SL alleles exhibited a greater activation of the amygdala in response to fearful stimuli than those with LL. It has been reported recently that mutations in the gene that controls

  17. Emotional Diathesis, Emotional Stress, and Childhood Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.; Jones, Robin M.; Kim, Hanjoe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine (a) whether emotional reactivity and emotional stress of children who stutter (CWS) are associated with their stuttering frequency, (b) when the relationship between emotional reactivity and stuttering frequency is more likely to exist, and (c) how these associations are mediated by a 3rd…

  18. Overall bolt stress optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with International Organization for Standardization metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue, so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength....... Maximum stress in the bolt is found at the fillet under the head, at the thread start, or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration, shape optimization is applied. Nut shape optimization also has a positive effect on the maximum stress. The optimization results show that designing a nut......, which results in a more evenly distribution of load along the engaged thread, has a limited influence on the maximum stress due to the stress concentration at the first thread root. To further reduce the maximum stress, the transition from bolt shank to the thread must be optimized. Stress reduction...

  19. Greening Existing Buildings in Contemporary Iraqi Urban Reality/ Virtual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Jabar Neama Al-Khafaji

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The approach of greening existing buildings, is an urgent necessity, because the greening operation provides the speed and optimal efficiency in the environmental performance, as well as keeping up with the global green architecture revolution. Therefore, greening existing buildings in Iraq is important for trends towards renewable energies, because of what the country went through economic conditions and crises and wars which kept the country away from what took place globally in this issue. The research problem is: insufficient knowledge about the importance and the mechanism of the greening of existing buildings, including its environmental and economic dimensions, by rationalization of energy consumption and preserving the environment. The research objective is: clarifying the importance of greening existing buildings environmentally and economically, providing a virtual experience for greening the presidency building of Baghdad University, through advanced computer program. The main conclusions is: there is difference representing by reducing the disbursed thermal loads amount for cooling in summer and heating in winter through the use of computerized program (DesignBuilder and that after the implementation of greening operations on the building envelope, which confirms its effectiveness in raising the energy performance efficiency inside the building. Hence, the importance of the application of greening existing buildings approach in Iraq, to bring back Iraqi architecture to environmental and local track proper.

  20. Seismic performance of existing R.C. framed buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh A. El-Betar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The earthquakes disasters basically occur due to buildings damage not because of the earth shaking. Therefore, the countries have being updated the seismic codes. The seismic loads for buildings design in Egyptian Code have been changed from (EC-1994 to (ECP-201, 2012. On the other hand, the need is raised to study the vulnerability of existing buildings, which can be divided into the buildings designed to resist the gravity loads only (GLD and the buildings designed according to Egyptian code (EC-1994. Comparison between forces due to Egyptian code for loads (EC-1994 and (ECP-201, 2012 is carried out on the multi-stories R.C. framed buildings which are the most common type of existing buildings in Egypt. To investigate the vulnerability of existing buildings, nonlinear static pushover analysis is conducted to evaluate the real strength of the existing buildings. Moreover, it is considered a useful and effective tool for the performance of three framed buildings: 3, 6 and 10 stories due to expected future earthquakes. Finally, it is found that the vulnerability of existing GLD buildings occurs at expected ground accelerations (ag greater than 0.125 g in Egyptian seismic map, while the EC-94 designed buildings behave elastically up to (ag equals to 0.2 g and above that a slight damage may occur.

  1. Energy and architecture: improvement of energy performance in existing buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Matthias; Wycmans, Annemie; Solbraa, Anne; Grytli, Eir

    2011-07-01

    This book aims to give an overview of different aspects of retrofitting existing buildings. The target group is students of architecture and building engineering as well as building professionals. Eight out of ten buildings which we will inhabit in 2050 already exist. This means that a great potential for reducing our carbon footprint lies in the existing building stock. Students from NTNU have used the renovation of a 1950s school building at Linesoeya in Soer-Trondelag as a case to increase their awareness and knowledge about the challenges building professionals need to overcome to unite technical details and high user quality into good environmental performance. The students were invited by the building owners and initiators of LIPA Eco Project to contribute to its development: By retrofitting an existing building to passive house standards and combining this with energy generated on site, LIPA Eco Project aims to provide a hands-on example with regard to energy efficiency, architectural design and craftsmanship for a low carbon society. The overall goal for this project is to raise awareness regarding resource efficiency measures in architecture and particularly in existing building mass.(au)

  2. Drivers and barriers to heat stress resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatvani-Kovacs, Gertrud; Belusko, Martin; Skinner, Natalie; Pockett, John; Boland, John

    2016-11-15

    Heatwaves are the most dangerous natural hazard to health in Australia. The frequency and intensity of heatwaves will increase due to climate change and urban heat island effects in cities, aggravating the negative impacts of heatwaves. Two approaches exist to develop population heat stress resilience. Firstly, the most vulnerable social groups can be identified and public health services can prepare for the increased morbidity. Secondly, the population level of adaptation and the heat stress resistance of the built environment can be increased. The evaluation of these measures and their efficiencies has been fragmented across research disciplines. This study explored the relationships between the elements of heat stress resilience and their potential demographic and housing drivers and barriers. The responses of a representative online survey (N=393) about heat stress resilience at home and work from Adelaide, South Australia were analysed. The empirical findings demonstrate that heat stress resistant buildings increased adaptation capacity and decreased the number of health problems. Air-conditioning increased dependence upon it, limited passive adaptation and only people living in homes with whole-house air-conditioning had less health problems during heatwaves. Tenants and respondents with pre-existing health conditions were the most vulnerable, particularly as those with health conditions were not aware of their vulnerability. The introduction of an Energy Performance Certificate is proposed and discussed as an effective incentive to increase the heat stress resistance of and the general knowledge about the built environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Promoting Optimal Native Outcomes (PONO) by Understanding Women's Stress Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Okihiro, May; Duke, Lisa; Goebert, Deborah; Ampolos, Lauren; Camacho, Casandra; Shanahan, Natasha; Hishinuma, Earl; Kaholokula, J. Keawe

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence links stress with mental illness and chronic disease. Existing scales of women's stress fail to capture the daily stressors of low-income, rural women. We explored the psychosocial stressors of local women residing in a rural Hawaii community with a large Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander population. We recruited women, aged 18?35 years, at a community health center. We convened four focus groups to elicit information about women's stress. We identified key...

  4. Stress-affected microstructural development and creep-swelling interrelationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brager, H.R.; Garner, F.A.; Gilbert, E.R.; Flinn, J.E.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1977-05-01

    Macroscopic measurement of the deformations arising from swelling and creep during neutron irradiation indicate that both processes are dependent on the magnitude and possibly the sign of the applied stress state. Current modeling efforts also indicate that a strong interaction exists between swelling and creep through the stress state. Because the macroscopic distortions arise from the integrated microscopic strains associated with specific microstructural elements, the effect of applied stress on microstructural development has been studied

  5. Stress, Coping, and Internet Use of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatherage, Scott; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Aksoz, Idil

    2014-01-01

    College students experience stressful life events and little research exists on the role the Internet may play in students' coping. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine associations among perceived stress, time spent on the Internet, underlying motives for utilizing the Internet, problematic Internet use, and traditional…

  6. occupational stress and job performance of female bankers in bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DGS-FUTO

    2018-06-01

    Jun 1, 2018 ... Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki ... exists between occupational stress (role boundary, distorted ... For instance, while employees in a hotel may be stressed up ..... the job performance of the female staff of UBAPlc, Abakaliki. ... as the extent of role boundary increases, there would be an inverse decrease in.

  7. Gender Specific Differences in the Perceived Antecedents of Academic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russell W.

    This document consists of the report of a study undertaken to establish the existence of any gender specific differences in the perceived antecedents of academic stress. The definition of stress as a negative emotion strongly associated with doubt about coping is suggested to be particularly relevant to the academic arena where students…

  8. Residual stress in silicon wafer using IR polariscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhijia; Wang, Pin; Asundi, Anand

    2008-09-01

    The infrared phase shift polariscope (IR-PSP) is a full-field optical technique for stress analysis in Silicon wafers. Phase shift polariscope is preferred to a conventional polariscope, as it can provide quantitative information of the normal stress difference and the shear stress in the specimen. The method is based on the principles of photoelasticity, in which stresses induces temporary birefringence in materials which can be quantitatively analyzed using a phase shift polariscope. Compared to other stress analysis techniques such as x-ray diffraction or laser scanning, infrared photoelastic stress analysis provides full-field information with high resolution and in near real time. As the semiconductor fabrication is advancing, larger wafers, thinner films and more compact packages are being manufactured. This results in a growing demand of process control. Residual stress exist in silicon during semiconductor fabrication and these stresses may make cell processing difficult or even cause the failure of the silicon. Reducing these stresses would improve manufacturability and reliability. Therefore stress analysis is essential to trace the root cause of the stresses. The polariscope images are processed using MATLAB and four-step phase shifting method to provide quantitative as well as qualitative information regarding the residual stress of the sample. The system is calibrated using four-point bend specimen and then the residual stress distribution in a MEMS sample is shown.

  9. Existence domains of dust-acoustic solitons and supersolitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharaj, S. K.; Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    Using the Sagdeev potential method, the existence of large amplitude dust-acoustic solitons and supersolitons is investigated in a plasma comprising cold negative dust, adiabatic positive dust, Boltzmann electrons, and non-thermal ions. This model supports the existence of positive potential supersolitons in a certain region in parameter space in addition to regular solitons having negative and positive potentials. The lower Mach number limit for supersolitons coincides with the occurrence of double layers whereas the upper limit is imposed by the constraint that the adiabatic positive dust number density must remain real valued. The upper Mach number limits for negative potential (positive potential) solitons coincide with limiting values of the negative (positive) potential for which the negative (positive) dust number density is real valued. Alternatively, the existence of positive potential solitons can terminate when positive potential double layers occur

  10. The Existence of a Sticking Region in Free Weight Squats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillaar Roland van den

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of the sticking region in two legged free weight squats. Fifteen resistance-training males (age 24 ± 4 years, body mass 82 ± 11 kg, body height 179 ± 6 cm with 6 ± 3 years of resistance-training experience performed 6-RM in free weight squats. The last repetition was analyzed for the existence of a sticking region. Only in 10 out of 15 participants a sticking region was observed. The observed sticking region was much shorter than in the bench press. Furthermore, rectus femoris decreased the EMG activity in contrast to increased EMG activity in biceps femoris around the sticking and surrounding region. No significant change in EMG activity was found for the lateral and medial vastus muscles. It is suggested that a combination of these muscle activity changes could be one of the causes of the existence of the sticking region in free weight squats

  11. The existence of a sticking region in free weight squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Andersen, Vidar; Saeterbakken, Atle Hole

    2014-09-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of the sticking region in two legged free weight squats. Fifteen resistance-training males (age 24 ± 4 years, body mass 82 ± 11 kg, body height 179 ± 6 cm) with 6 ± 3 years of resistance-training experience performed 6-RM in free weight squats. The last repetition was analyzed for the existence of a sticking region. Only in 10 out of 15 participants a sticking region was observed. The observed sticking region was much shorter than in the bench press. Furthermore, rectus femoris decreased the EMG activity in contrast to increased EMG activity in biceps femoris around the sticking and surrounding region. No significant change in EMG activity was found for the lateral and medial vastus muscles. It is suggested that a combination of these muscle activity changes could be one of the causes of the existence of the sticking region in free weight squats.

  12. Islamic Banking Existence and Domestic Credit: Study at Seven Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Yuafi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the determinants of domestic credit across a wide range of 7 countries; these are United Kingdom, Malaysia, Egypt, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain and Indonesia. We use dynamic panel estimation to examine effects of exchange rate, inflation, lending interest rate, banking crisis and existence of wholesale Islamic banking on domestic credit. We obtain several notable empirical results. First, the lending interest rate, banking crisis negatively and insignificantly contribute to domestic credit. The existence of Islamic bank has positive and insignificant contribution to domestic credit, while exchange rate positively and significantly contributes to domestic credit.  Inflation negatively and significantly contributes to domestic credit. Second, banking crisis and existence of wholesale Islamic banking show insignificant effect on domestic credit. Third, we find that today’s domestic credit is depended on domestic credit in the previous year.DOI: 10.15408/aiq9i2.4906

  13. Existing sustainable renovation concepts for single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    In the Nordic Innovation Centre Project, SuccessFamilies, the main objective is to change the business environment in order to speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses – proposing new service concepts that will combine both the technical solutions, financing...... with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses there is a great need for full-service packages. Existing technical renovation concepts, typically focusing...... services as well as other promoting issues to overcome the behavioural, organizational, legal and social barriers that exist in sustainable renovation. A starting point for such a change has been to get an overview of the existing sustainable renovation concepts, i.e. full-service concepts and technical...

  14. Intersubjective Dimension of Existence in the Philosophy of Gabriel Marcel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Grassi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work intends to introduce the reader to the essential dimension of intersubjectivity in personal existence in Gabriel Marcel’s philosophy. We will first attend to the characterization of persona; secondly, how we should understand the terms I and the other in concrete interpersonal relationships; in the third place, we will analize the way in which the other is given as an other, through the notion of presence. The main objective of this article is to show that personal existence is uncomprehensible without its reference to the other, that is to say, that identity has no sense without alterity. Moreover, the essential intencionality of identity to alterity does not imply only a practical or accidental character, but a metaphysical one, as communion constitutes the very being of personal existence.

  15. Stress at Work Place

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad A. Shahrour

    2010-01-01

    One of hardest forms of stresses to avoid is that work place or job stress Job stress refers to stress experienced by an individual at or because of issues at their work place The term work related stress has many meanings and it causes different levels of anxiety. Not all challenges at work can be called stress as some of these challenges drive employees upward, and empower them to learn new skills or push them to work harder to achieve a certain goal. So, this type of challenges cannot be c...

  16. Stress: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnite, Patricia M

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the concept of stress and provide an operational definition of stress. Literature review revealed that stress is a commonly used, but often ambiguous, term. Findings supported a definition of stress entailing an individual's perception of a stimulus as overwhelming, which in turn elicits a measurable response resulting in a transformed state. This analysis adopts a dynamic definition of stress that may serve to encourage communication, promote reflection, and enhance concept understanding. This definition may provide direction for future work, as well as enhance efforts to serve patients affected by stress. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Existing PON Infrastructure Supported Hybrid Fiber-Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    We propose a hybrid fiber wireless sensor network based on the existing PON infrastructure. The feasibility of remote sensing and PON convergence is experimentally proven by transmitting direct-sequence spread-spectrum wireless sensing and 2.5Gbps GPON signals.......We propose a hybrid fiber wireless sensor network based on the existing PON infrastructure. The feasibility of remote sensing and PON convergence is experimentally proven by transmitting direct-sequence spread-spectrum wireless sensing and 2.5Gbps GPON signals....

  18. Existing and Expected Service Quality of Grameenphone Users in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Ullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Grameenphone (GP is a market leader in the telecommunication industry in Bangladesh. This study investigates the existing and expected service quality of Grameenphone users in Bangladesh. The Study reveals that there are significant gap between existing and expected perceived service network, 3G, customer care, physical facilities, billing cost, information service, mobile banking and GP offers. The study concludes that customer satisfaction is a dynamic phenomenon. Maintaining desired level of customer satisfaction requires corporate proactive responsiveness in accessing, building & retaining satisfied customers for sustainable competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  19. Principle of space existence and De Sitter metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, V.K.

    1990-01-01

    The selection principle for the solutions of the Einstein equations suggested in a series of papers implies the existence of space (g ik ≠ 0) only in the presence of matter (T ik ≠0). This selection principle (principle of space existence, in the Markov terminology) implies, in the general case, the absence of the cosmological solution with the De Sitter metric. On the other hand, the De Sitter metric is necessary for describing both inflation and deflation periods of the Universe. It is shown that the De Sitter metric is also allowed by the selection principle under discussion if the metric experiences the evolution into the Friedmann metric

  20. [Does the right to die with dignity exist?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Flores, Rafael

    2008-12-01

    Death is one of the few certainties in human beings. This reality generates uneasiness regarding how death will occur especially in circumstances of loneliness or suffering which can become agony. In this report, the author first analyzes the existence of the right to die with dignity as a human right which takes on the nature of being a subjective right. In continuation, the author describes the existing problematic in the application of this right to die in relationship to the so-called double effect mechanism and euthanasia. The author concludes this article by proposing previous instructions or anticipated desires as ideal measures to make the right to die with dignity valid.

  1. On the existence of n-dimensional indecomposable vector bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Xiaojiang.

    1991-09-01

    Let X be an arbitrary smooth irreducible complex projective curve of genus g with g ≥ 4. In this paper we extend the existence theorem of special divisors to high dimensional indecomposable vector bundles. We give a necessary and sufficient condition on the existence of n-dimensional indecomposable vector bundles E with deg(E) = d, dimH 0 (X,E) ≥ h. We also determine under what condition the set of all such vector bundles will be finite and how many elements it contains. (author). 9 refs

  2. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-01-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives

  3. Existence of core localized toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, G.Y.

    1995-02-01

    The core-localized toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmode (TAE) is shown to exist at finite plasma pressure due to finite aspect ratio effects in tokamak plasma. The new critical beta for the existence of the TAE mode is given by α∼ 3ε + 2s 2 , where ε = r/R is the inverse aspect ratio, s is the magnetic shear and α = -Rq 2 dβ/dr is the normalized pressure gradient. In contrast, previous critical α is given by α ∼ s 2 . In the limit of s << √r/R, the new critical α is greatly enhanced by the finite aspect ratio effects

  4. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

    1996-10-07

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

  5. Comfort food is comforting to those most stressed: evidence of the chronic stress response network in high stress women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Dallman, Mary F; Epel, Elissa S

    2011-11-01

    Chronically stressed rodents who are allowed to eat calorie-dense "comfort" food develop greater mesenteric fat, which in turn dampens hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We tested whether similar relations exist in humans, at least cross-sectionally. Fifty-nine healthy premenopausal women were exposed to a standard laboratory stressor to examine HPA response to acute stress and underwent diurnal saliva sampling for basal cortisol and response to dexamethasone administration. Based on perceived stress scores, women were divided into extreme quartiles of low versus high stress categories. We found as hypothesized that the high stress group had significantly greater BMI and sagittal diameter, and reported greater emotional eating. In response to acute lab stressor, the high stress group showed a blunted cortisol response, lower diurnal cortisol levels, and greater suppression in response to dexamethasone. These cross-sectional findings support the animal model, which suggests that long-term adaptation to chronic stress in the face of dense calories result in greater visceral fat accumulation (via ingestion of calorie-dense food), which in turn modulates HPA axis response, resulting in lower cortisol levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupational stress in the multicultural workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasca, Romana; Wagner, Shannon L

    2011-08-01

    Occupational stress is a well researched topic leading to the development of strong, viable models of workplace stress. However, there is a gap in the literature with respect to the applicability of this research to specific cultural groups, in particular those of immigrant status. The present paper reviews the extant literature regarding occupational stress from a multicultural perspective, evaluates the usefulness for existing models in the multicultural context, and discusses current issues with respect to increasing multiculturalism in the work environment. The authors conclude that workforce diversity is emerging as a pressing issue of organizational life and consequently, that future research needs to continue investigating whether current knowledge regarding workplace stress is fitting with the multicultural diversity of the present-day working population.

  7. Designing the Database of Speech Under Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabo Róbert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the methodology used for designing a database of speech under real stress. Based on limits of existing stress databases, we used a communication task via a computer game to collect speech data. To validate the presence of stress, known psychophysiological indicators such as heart rate and electrodermal activity, as well as subjective self-assessment were used. This paper presents the data from first 5 speakers (3 men, 2 women who participated in initial tests of the proposed design. In 4 out of 5 speakers increases in fundamental frequency and intensity of speech were registered. Similarly, in 4 out of 5 speakers heart rate was significantly increased during the task, when compared with reference measurement from before the task. These first results show that proposed design might be appropriate for building a speech under stress database. However, there are still considerations that need to be addressed.

  8. Psychological stress and multimorbidity in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Anders

    2017-01-01

    . Additionally, stress is a common reason for contacting the general practitioner (GP), and yet no guidelines for management and treatment exist. Aims The aim of this thesis was to investigate the consequences of psychological stress on the health while taking into account mental‐physical multimorbidity, i...... found to be associated with adverse health outcomes and potentially suboptimal healthcare. The link between stress and multimorbidity could substantiate the efforts to develop management guidelines for primary care, stress‐targeted interventions, and to accommodate the healthcare system to better...... and poor prognosis of physical diseases, including increased mortality. However, little is known on the physical consequences of sub‐threshold psychological stress, which is more common than psychiatric disorders in the background population and is highly prevalent in persons with multimorbidity...

  9. Knowledge work and work-related stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Work-related stress is an increasing problem in Europe. Earlier studies have stated that knowledge-work comprises working conditions which reflect a good psychosocial environment. Recent Danish studies, however, point at stress being an increasing problem in knowledge-intensive companies...... with informally, individu-ally and incidentally. It is only when problems exist that enhanced support is offered in order to help an employee to cope or recover. As most workplace initiatives work at this tertiary level, the sources of work-related and organiza-tional stress are not reduced or eliminated...... as good and stimulating, but has on the other hand sides to it which can cause frustration and stress. The implication of organisational characteristics of the knowledge-intensive companies studied is a transfer of the responsibility for ones own working-life. Consequently, issues are dealt...

  10. Probabilistic risk assessment for new and existing chemicals: Example calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager T; Hollander HA den; Janssen GB; Poel P van der; Rikken MGJ; Vermeire TG; ECO; CSR; LAE; CSR

    2000-01-01

    In the risk assessment methods for new and existing chemicals in the EU, "risk" is characterised by means of the deterministic quotient of exposure and effects (PEC/PNEC or Margin of Safety). From a scientific viewpoint, the uncertainty in the risk quotient should be accounted for explicitly in the

  11. 40 CFR 407.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 407.14 Section 407.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  12. 40 CFR 407.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 407.34 Section 407.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  13. 40 CFR 407.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 407.24 Section 407.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  14. 40 CFR 406.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.14 Section 406.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.14...

  15. 40 CFR 406.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 406.24 Section 406.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.24...

  16. Building OOC layers on top of existing courses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian; Kjær, Arne

    2016-01-01

    prefer the term "Open Online Courses", MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) without the M. This paper will present our approach to building OOCs on top of existing campusbased courses at Aarhus University, Denmark. Consequently, participants of an 'OOC track' will engage in collaboration and discussions...

  17. 40 CFR 421.275 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Nickel 0.000 0.000 (e) Sodium hypochlorite filter backwash. PSES for the Primary Rare Earth Metals...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.275 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR...

  18. A unifying approach to existence of Nash equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    An approach initiated in [4] is shown to unify results about the existence of (i) Nash equilibria in games with at most countably many players, (ii) Cournot-Nash equilibrium distributions for large, anonymous games, and (iii) Nash equilibria (both mixed and pure) for continuum games. A new, central

  19. Priority setting for existing chemicals : automated data selection routine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haelst, A.G. van; Hansen, B.G.

    2000-01-01

    One of the four steps within Council Regulation 793/93/EEC on the evaluation and control of existing chemicals is the priority setting step. The priority setting step is concerned with selecting high-priority substances from a large number of substances, initially starting with 2,474

  20. Existence of Green's functions in perturbative Q.E.D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seneor, R.

    1976-01-01

    A report is made on some work done in collaboration with P. Blanchard which shows how, in the framework developped by H.Epstein and V.Glaser, one can prove the existence of Green's functions in quantum electrodynamics (Q.E.D.). The proof can be extended, in principle, to any theory involving massive and non massive particles. (Auth.)

  1. Existence of solutions of abstract fractional impulsive semilinear evolution equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Balachandran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we prove the existence of solutions of fractional impulsive semilinear evolution equations in Banach spaces. A nonlocal Cauchy problem is discussed for the evolution equations. The results are obtained using fractional calculus and fixed point theorems. An example is provided to illustrate the theory.

  2. Priors & prejudice : using existing knowledge in social science research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wesel, F.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers in the social sciences usually start their research with the formulation of research goals and questions, which, together with studying the existing literature, lead to the formulation of hypotheses. Next, data is collected using experiments or questionnaires and is subsequently

  3. Low energy house in existing buildings; Niedrigenergiehaus im Bestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahner, G. [BDA, Stuttgart/Augsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Presented is an energetic sanitation of residential units in the frame of a German pilot program (''low energy houses in the existing building sector'') initiated by the ministry of traffic, civil engineering and city development. (GL)

  4. On existence and stability of solutions for higher order semilinear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To be precise, we consider a primal action functional for which the Dirichlet problem is an Euler–Lagrange equation, later we define a suitable dual action functional and by introducing a duality theory we investigate relations between both action function- als. Our method is based on investigating the existence of a minimum ...

  5. Preretirement Programs within Service Firms: Existing and Planned Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Sidney R.; Rives, Janet M.

    1980-01-01

    A study of 300 nonmanufacturing firms' current and projected preretirement programs indicated that (1) personnel departments have primary responsibility for existing programs, (2) focus is changing from financial planning to psychological counseling, and (3) such programs benefit the company as well as the employee. (SK)

  6. 76 FR 9376 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Refuse Piles and Impoundment Structures, Recordkeeping and... surface installations. More specifically, these sections address refuse piles (30 CFR 77.215), and... combination of materials; and refuse piles are deposits of coal mine waste (other than overburden or spoil...

  7. Existence and multiplicity results for homoclinic orbits of Hamiltonian systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Nien Chen

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Homoclinic orbits play an important role in the study of qualitative behavior of dynamical systems. Such kinds of orbits have been studied since the time of Poincare. In this paper, we discuss how to use variational methods to study the existence of homoclinic orbits of Hamiltonian systems.

  8. On the existence of weak solutions of quantum stochastic differential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We establish further results concerning the existence, uniqueness and stability of weak solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs). Our results are achieved by considering a more general Lipschit condition on the coefficients than our previous considerations in [1]. We exhibit a class of Lipschitzian ...

  9. Existence and Policy Effectiveness in Feedback Nash LQ-Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Acocella

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates how the classical theory of economic policy can profitably be used to verify some properties of the Linear Nash Feedback Equilibrium in difference LQ-games. In particular, we find that both a necessary condition for the equilibrium existence and a sufficient condition for policy ineffectiveness can be defined in the terms of the simple Tinbergen counting rule.

  10. Existence of global attractor for the Trojan Y Chromosome model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Zhao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the long time behavior of solution for the equation derived by the Trojan Y Chromosome (TYC model with spatial spread. Based on the regularity estimates for the semigroups and the classical existence theorem of global attractors, we prove that this equations possesses a global attractor in $H^k(\\Omega^4$ $(k\\geq 0$ space.

  11. Why Choose Online Learning: Relationship of Existing Factors and Chronobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Pan, Rui; Choi, Jea H.; Mellish, Linda; Strobel, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Existing research on choice of online learning utilized factors such as perceived level of control, independence, and satisfaction, yet the relationship among these factors is under-researched. Due to the value of "learning anytime," biological factors underlying "choice of time" might provide additional insights. This article…

  12. 49 CFR 1300.2 - Disclosure requirement for existing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., PUBLICATION, AND NOTICE OF CHANGE OF RATES AND OTHER SERVICE TERMS FOR RAIL COMMON CARRIAGE § 1300.2 Disclosure requirement for existing rates. (a) A rail carrier must disclose to any person, upon formal... rail carrier under this section must be provided immediately. (It is expected that the response will be...

  13. The existence of solutions of q-difference-differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Li; Wang, Hua; Xu, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    By using the Nevanlinna theory of value distribution, we investigate the existence of solutions of some types of non-linear q-difference differential equations. In particular, we generalize the Rellich-Wittich-type theorem and Malmquist-type theorem about differential equations to the case of q-difference differential equations (system).

  14. Man-machine enhancements to existing FFTF control panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    FFTF Project enhanced existing control panels with tape and labels to mitigate operator problems and to incorporate the guidance of NUREG-0700. The enhancements grouped displays and controls into meaningful units and labelled controls and displays to facilitate their identification and efficient use. The enhancements were inexpensive and well received by the facility's operations staff

  15. On the Existence of Hydrogen Salts of Monoprotic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovska, Marina I.; Petrusevski, Vladimir M.; Soptrajanov, Bojan T.

    2012-01-01

    The notion that acid salts exist only for diprotic and polyprotic acids is found in many high school and university textbooks, although the "only" condition is not always stated explicitly. A fairly simple experiment shows that there is a pronounced exothermic effect when pure acetic acid is added to potassium acetate. Experiments with similar…

  16. How to inject consumerism into your existing health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, Linda J; McAllister, Michael F; Slavney, David H

    2003-09-01

    Consumerism seeks to create a behavior change on the part of consumers so that they become accountable, knowledgeable and actively engaged in managing their health. It can be used in any existing health plan through targeted plan design changes and consumer education efforts. Employers have many options in addition to consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs).

  17. Branding in children: a barbaric practice still exists in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Pratap Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Branding is an inhuman traditional practice most commonly employed to treat various disorders in neonates and children in certain community in India. Though stringent law exists to prevent such harmful practices, cases of branding is not uncommon in current era. PMID:27217887

  18. Traditional Rational Arguments for the Existence of God (Chukwu) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    wonder also man has turned his attention to all sorts of problems revolving around God, ranging from ... Consequently they are divided. Likewise, the God- ... memories of one's pilgrimage to God: ONUCHUKWU (God's voice or shrine of the ... also certain Igbo names which explicitly assert that God exists. Such names are ...

  19. Does neuroscience prove that free will does not exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, H.W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Dutch criminal and civil law agree that one cannot be convicted of a crime unless one is responsible for it. And it's natural to think that one cannot be responsible for an act unless one freely decided to do it. So if free will does not exist, this might have drastic consequences for our legal

  20. Inhibition of existing denitrification enzyme activity by chloramphenicol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, M.H.; Smith, R.L.; Macalady, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Chloramphenicol completely inhibited the activity of existing denitrification enzymes in acetylene-block incubations with (i) sediments from a nitrate-contaminated aquifer and (ii) a continuous culture of denitrifying groundwater bacteria. Control flasks with no antibiotic produced significant amounts of nitrous oxide in the same time period. Amendment with chloramphenicol after nitrous oxide production had begun resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of nitrous oxide production. Chloramphenicol also decreased (>50%) the activity of existing denitrification enzymes in pure cultures of Pseudomonas denitrificans that were harvested during log- phase growth and maintained for 2 weeks in a starvation medium lacking electron donor. Short-term time courses of nitrate consumption and nitrous oxide production in the presence of acetylene with P. denitrificans undergoing carbon starvation were performed under optimal conditions designed to mimic denitrification enzyme activity assays used with soils. Time courses were linear for both chloramphenicol and control flasks, and rate estimates for the two treatments were significantly different at the 95% confidence level. Complete or partial inhibition of existing enzyme activity is not consistent with the current understanding of the mode of action of chloramphenicol or current practice, in which the compound is frequently employed to inhibit de novo protein synthesis during the course of microbial activity assays. The results of this study demonstrate that chloramphenicol amendment can inhibit the activity of existing denitrification enzymes and suggest that caution is needed in the design and interpretation of denitrification activity assays in which chloramphenicol is used to prevent new protein synthesis.

  1. Existence of solutions for second-order evolution inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine second-order nonlinear evolution inclusions and prove two existence theorems; one with a convex-valued orientor field and the other with a nonconvex-valued field. An example of a hyperbolic partial differential inclusion is also presented.

  2. DOES A LATIN-AMERICAN SECURITY COMMUNITY EXIST?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO S. BARROSO CORTÉS

    2017-09-01

    Similarly, the article points out the main characteristics that the Latin American security community would present, and the challenges and handicaps to overcome. To conclude, the article demonstrates how the integration process in this special field continues on, even though the existing context characterized by austerity and a low level of insecurity.

  3. Existence results for impulsive semilinear damped differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouffak Benchohra

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence of mild solutions for first and second order impulsive semilinear evolution inclusions in separable Banach spaces. By using suitable fixed point theorems, we study the case when the multivalued map has convex and nonconvex values.

  4. Improvement Design of an Existing Atomized Kerosene Stove for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existing atomized kerosene stove being used in some households in Nigeria does not give room for primary air fuel mixture but secondary one before combustion. This in turn leads to higher specific fuel consumption and ultimately lower thermal efficiency (resulting from low combustion efficiency) of the stove. In order ...

  5. "Rabbit Proof Fence": A Struggle for Cultural Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Momani, Hassan Ali Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to depict the struggle for cultural existence in "Rabbit Proof Fence." It also reflects the cultural conflict represented in the three aboriginal girls' characters which is due to their rejection and resistance for the colonialists' culture. Besides, the paper presents the cognitive analysis of the cultural…

  6. 12 CFR 410.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program accessibility: Existing facilities. 410.150 Section 410.150 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED...

  7. 45 CFR 2490.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program accessibility: Existing facilities. 2490.150 Section 2490.150 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION § 2490.150 Program accessibility...

  8. Existence of extremal periodic solutions for quasilinear parabolic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Carl

    1997-01-01

    bounded domain under periodic Dirichlet boundary conditions. Our main goal is to prove the existence of extremal solutions among all solutions lying in a sector formed by appropriately defined upper and lower solutions. The main tools used in the proof of our result are recently obtained abstract results on nonlinear evolution equations, comparison and truncation techniques and suitably constructed special testfunction.

  9. DNA to DNA transcription might exist in eukaryotic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Gao-De

    2016-01-01

    Till now, in biological sciences, the term, transcription, mainly refers to DNA to RNA transcription. But our recently published experimental findings obtained from Plasmodium falciparum strongly suggest the existence of DNA to DNA transcription in the genome of eukaryotic cells, which could shed some light on the functions of certain noncoding DNA in the human and other eukaryotic genomes.

  10. Personnel shift assignment: Existence conditions and network models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Jeroen P.; van den Berg, J.P.; Panton, David M.

    1994-01-01

    The personnel scheduling problem is known to be a five-stage process in which the final stage involves the assignment of shifts to the days worked in the schedule. This paper discusses the existence conditions for both continuous and forward rotating shift assignments and heuristic network

  11. Existence of Three Solutions for $p$-biharmonic Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the existence of at least three solutions to a Navier boundary problem involving the $p$-biharmonic equation, will be established. The technical approach is mainly based on the three critical points theorem of B. Ricceri.

  12. The existence of policies, practices and perceptions regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interviews were conducted with 7 nursing managers regarding the existence and content of a hospital visitors' policy, 12 operational managers (OMs) to describe ward practices regarding child visitors, and 12 professional nurses and 11 doctors to determine their attitudes towards children as visitors in all four general state ...

  13. Facilities improvement for sustainability of existing public office ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the building design features of a cosmopolitan public office building in Abuja. The features were classified into Spatial Plan, Structure and Facilities, to determine which of the 3 variables requires urgent sustainable improvement from end-users' perspective in existing public office buildings in developing ...

  14. Existence of Positive Solutions for Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Kai Kung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a fixed point theorem in a cone to obtain the existence of positive solutions of the differential equation, u″+λf(t,u=0, 0

  15. The application, benefits and challenges of retrofitting the existing buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairi, Muhammad; Jaapar, Aini; Yahya, Zaharah

    2017-11-01

    Sustainable development has been the main topic of debate for years in some countries such as United Kingdom, United State of America and Malaysia. Depletion of natural resources, global warming, economics uncertainty and health issues are some of the reasons behind sustainable development movements, it is not just a political debate in the parliament but more towards collective works among sectors in order to minimizing the negative impact of development to the environment and other living organism. Retrofit an existing building is one of the solutions to reduce the dependency on constructing new buildings. There are huge numbers of existing building stocks that suitable to be retrofitted such as historical buildings, offices, residential, warehouse, factories, vacant buildings and other historical buildings. Therefore, the aim of this research is to provide information on the application, benefits and challenges of retrofitting an existing building. Two buildings were chosen as case studies following by site visits and observation to the buildings. The data were then compared in a table form. Primary and secondary sources were also used for this research. The application of retrofit should be promoted across the construction and conservation industries since it has significant tangible and intangible benefits. It is one of the most environmentally friendly and efficient solutions to optimize the energy performance and could also helps to extend the life of the existing building or historical buildings while ensuring optimum thermal comfort for the occupants which leads to higher productivity.

  16. The amazing vitality of things that don’t exist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This contribution moves in the grey zone between lexicographical reality and fiction. It starts three hundred years ago and presents some dictionaries that do not exist. It then follows the historical development and shows how these dictionaries recently have got company by lexicographical theories...

  17. Modelling the feasibility of retrofitting hydropower to existing South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out with the primary objective of ascertaining whether it is possible to develop a model for determining the feasibility of retrofitting hydropower to existing dams in South Africa. The need for such a model is primarily due to the growing importance of small-scale hydropower projects resulting from ...

  18. Using existing case-mix methods to fund trauma cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakova, Julia; Blais, Irene; Botz, Charles; Chechulin, Yuriy; Picciano, Gino; Basinski, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Policymakers frequently face the need to increase funding in isolated and frequently heterogeneous (clinically and in terms of resource consumption) patient subpopulations. This article presents a methodologic solution for testing the appropriateness of using existing grouping and weighting methodologies for funding subsets of patients in the scenario where a case-mix approach is preferable to a flat-rate based payment system. Using as an example the subpopulation of trauma cases of Ontario lead trauma hospitals, the statistical techniques of linear and nonlinear regression models, regression trees, and spline models were applied to examine the fit of the existing case-mix groups and reference weights for the trauma cases. The analyses demonstrated that for funding Ontario trauma cases, the existing case-mix systems can form the basis for rational and equitable hospital funding, decreasing the need to develop a different grouper for this subset of patients. This study confirmed that Injury Severity Score is a poor predictor of costs for trauma patients. Although our analysis used the Canadian case-mix classification system and cost weights, the demonstrated concept of using existing case-mix systems to develop funding rates for specific subsets of patient populations may be applicable internationally.

  19. 49 CFR 28.150 - Program accessibility: Existing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program accessibility: Existing facilities. 28.150 Section 28.150 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION § 28...

  20. The stress of life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selye, H

    1978-01-01

    .... This is also a dependable personal guide that tells you how to combat both physical and mental stress, how to handle yourself during the stress of everyday life, and how your bodily changes can help...

  1. Stress and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spotlight On News Content Capsule Contact Understanding Migraine Stress and Migraine Doctor Q&A Managing Migraine Migraine ... of Headache Disorders Cluster Headache Post-Traumatic Headache Stress and Migraine March 16, 2017 How to cope ...

  2. Institutional Preventive Stress Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, James C.

    1987-01-01

    Stress is an inevitable characteristic of academic life, but colleges and universities can introduce stress management activities at the organizational level to avert excessive tension. Preventive actions are described, including flexible work schedules and social supports. (Author/MSE)

  3. Stress og aldring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports the popular notion that psychological stress states may accelerate aging. Stress has been shown to influence cellular systems known to be involved in the aging process. Furthermore, stress is associated with an increased risk of various age-related medical disorders....... These effects are likely mediated by the secretion of stress hormones. In this short review we focus on biochemical and epidemiological evidence for a link between stress and aging.......Accumulating evidence supports the popular notion that psychological stress states may accelerate aging. Stress has been shown to influence cellular systems known to be involved in the aging process. Furthermore, stress is associated with an increased risk of various age-related medical disorders...

  4. Neuroepigenetics of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, B B; Hunter, R G

    2014-09-05

    Stress, a common if unpredictable life event, can have pronounced effects on physiology and behavior. Individuals show wide variation in stress susceptibility and resilience, which are only partially explained by variations in coding genes. Developmental programing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis provides part of the explanation for this variance. Epigenetic approaches have successfully helped fill the explanatory gaps between the influences of gene and environment on stress responsiveness, and differences in the sequelae of stress across individuals and generations. Stress and the stress axis interacts bi-directionally with epigenetic marks within the brain. It is now clear that exposure to stress, particularly in early life, has both acute and lasting effects on these marks. They in turn influence cognitive function and behavior, as well as the risk for suicide and psychiatric disorders across the lifespan and, in some cases, unto future generations. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-01-01

    and behavioral mechanisms. Stress is a complex concept and in order to better understand the relation between stress and health, the dissertation works with a clear distinction between the health consequences of different types of stress including external stressors, perceived stress, and measures of the stress......’s disease patients. Results The combined evidence of this dissertation shows a moderately higher risk of some common chronic disorders including cardiovascular disease and atopic disorders among individuals exposed to work-related stressors and perceived stress. Most empirical studies also report higher...... of pathways. The physiological stress response has the ability to directly affect vital body systems including the cardiovascular, immune, and metabolic systems. Further, stress can lead to unfavorable changes in health-related behavior, impaired sleep and poor mental health. An increasing number of well...

  6. Justification, optimization and decision-aiding in existing exposure situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann-Jensen, Per

    2004-01-01

    The existing ICRP system of radiological protection from 1990 (ICRP Publication 60) can be seen as a binary or dual-line system dealing with protection in exposure situations categorized as either practices or interventions. The distinction between practices and interventions is summarized in the paper with focus on some of the problems experienced in making such a distinction. The protection principles within the existing system of protection are presented with emphasis on the application to de facto or existing exposure situations. Decision on countermeasures to mitigate the consequences of existing exposure situations such as nuclear or radiological accidents and naturally occurring exposure situations include factors or attributes describing benefits from the countermeasure and those describing harm. Some of these attributes are discussed and the general process of justification of intervention and optimization of protection arriving at generic reference levels for implementing protective measures is presented. In addition, the role of radiological protection professionals and other stakeholders in the decision-making process is discussed. Special attention is given to the question whether radiological protection should form only one of many decision-aiding inputs to a broader societal decision-making process or whether societal aspects should be fully integrated into the radiological protection framework. The concepts of practices and interventions, however logical they are, have created some confusion when applied to protection of the public following a nuclear or radiological accident. These problems may be solved in a new set of general ICRP recommendations on radiological protection, which are anticipated to supersede Publication 60 in 2005. The evolution of the basic ICRP principles for radiological protection in existing exposure situations into a new set of ICRP recommendations is briefly discussed based upon the various material that has been presented

  7. Optimization of Bolt Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with ISO metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength. Maximum stress in the bolt is found at, the fillet...... under the head, at the thread start or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration shape optimization is applied....

  8. Stress og insomni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Zachariae, Bobby

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia and stress are two conditions, which are strongly associated and appear to be pathophysiologically integrated: the occurrence of stress increases the risk of insomnia, insomnia exacerbates stress, and coexistence of both factors has a negative influence on their prognosis. Stress...... and insomnia thus share complex interactions and the mechanisms involved are insufficiently understood but involve both psychological and physiological processes. First choice interventions involve behavioural and cognitive strategies and, to a lesser extent, pharmacological treatment....

  9. Correlates of housing affordability stress among older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeromey B

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of housing affordability stress among community-dwelling older Australians. The 2002 ABS General Social Survey was used to measure the prevalence of housing affordability stress. Rare event logistic regression was used to measure the potential correlates of housing affordability stress. Almost 5% of Australians aged 55 years and older, and 20% of those younger than 55 years, are estimated to experience housing affordability stress. Men and women living alone are more likely to experience affordability stress when compared to couples. Low-income earners, those with a consumer debt or who do not hold assets, are at a heightened risk of such stress. Home ownership, regardless of income, is the strongest buffer against housing affordability problems in old age. Although the prevalence of housing affordability stress is low among older Australians when compared to the younger population, a definite social gradient exists in those at risk.

  10. Stress and Protists: No life without stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaveykova, Vera; Sonntag, Bettina; Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    We report a summary of the symposium "Stress and Protists: No life without stress", which was held in September 2015 on the VII European Congress of Protistology in partnership with the International Society of Protistologists (Seville, Spain). We present an overview on general comments and concepts on cellular stress which can be also applied to any protist. Generally, various environmental stressors may induce similar cell responses in very different protists. Two main topics are reported in this manuscript: (i) metallic nanoparticles as environmental pollutants and stressors for aquatic protists, and (ii) ultraviolet radiation - induced stress and photoprotective strategies in ciliates. Model protists such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Tetrahymena thermophila were used to assess stress caused by nanoparticles while stress caused by ultraviolet radiation was tested with free living planktonic ciliates as well as with the symbiont-bearing model ciliate Paramecium bursaria. For future studies, we suggest more intensive analyses on protist stress responses to specific environmental abiotic and/or biotic stressors at molecular and genetic levels up to ecological consequences and food web dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Managing Stress. Project Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Donna; Wilk, Jan

    One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes a stress management project undertaken with high school sophomores. Managing Stress is described as an interactive workshop that offers young people an opportunity to examine specific areas of stress in their lives and to learn effective ways to deal with them. The program described…

  12. Stress i gymnasiet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj; Lagermann, Laila Colding

    Denne undersøgelse af stress hos gymnasieelever i Aalborg viser, hvordan stress giver sig udslag i gymnasiet, hvad der stresser eleverne, hvad der adskiller de stressramte elever fra andre elever, hvordan et stressreduktionskurset Åben og Rolig for Unge virker for de unge i gymnasiet, og hvad der...... kan modvirke stress i gymnasiet....

  13. Oxidative Stress in BPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Savas

    2009-01-01

    The present study has shown that there were not relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH. Further well designed studies should be planned to find out whether the oxidative stress-related parameters play role in BPH as an interesting pathology in regard of the etiopathogenesis. Keywords: benign prostatic hyperplasia, oxidative stress, prostate

  14. The price of stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; Maassen, van den H.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper an economic approach is taken to the analysis of work-related stress. This economic approach not only allows us to infer the monetary equivalent of stress, it also enables us to test some of the psychological theories on stress, such as the demand/control theory. Evidence is found that

  15. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  16. Occupational Stress among Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Larry M.; Kagan, Dona M.

    1987-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the degree to which occupational stress among teachers could be attributed to personal characteristics of the individuals themselves. The first study developed dispositional stress scales. The second examined correlations between these scales, occupational stress scales, and teachers' attitudes toward…

  17. Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind; Relieve Stress; best ways to relieve stress; best way to relieve stress; different ways to relieve stress; does smoking relieve stress; does tobacco relieve stress; how can I relieve stress; how can you relieve stress; how do I relieve stress; reduce stress; does smoking reduce stress; how can I reduce stress; how to reduce stress; reduce stress; reduce stress levels; reducing stress; smoking reduce stress; smoking reduces stress; stress reducing techniques; techniques to reduce stress; stress relief; best stress relief; natural stress relief; need stress relief; relief for stress; relief from stress; relief of stress; smoking and stress relief; smoking for stress relief; smoking stress relief; deal with stress; dealing with stress; dealing with anger; dealing with stress; different ways of dealing with stress; help dealing with stress; how to deal with anger; how to deal with stress; how to deal with stress when quitting smoking; stress management; free stress management; how can you manage stress; how do you manage stress; how to manage stress; manage stress; management of stress; management stress; managing stress; strategies for managing stress; coping with stress; cope with stress; copeing with stress; coping and stress; coping skills for stress; coping strategies for stress; coping strategies with stress; coping strategy for stress; coping with stress; coping with stress and anxiety; emotional health; emotional health; emotional health article; emotional health articles; deep relaxation; deep breathing relaxation techniques; deep muscle relaxation; deep relaxation; deep relaxation meditation; deep relaxation technique; deep relaxation techniques; meditation exercises; mindful exercises; mindful meditation exercises; online relaxation exercises; relaxation breathing exercises; relaxation exercise; relaxation exercises; stress relaxation; methods of relaxation for stress; relax stress; relax techniques stress

  18. Solar potential in existing urban layouts—Critical overview of the existing building stock in Slovenian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Košir, Mitja; Capeluto, Isaac Guedi; Krainer, Aleš; Kristl, Živa

    2014-01-01

    In recent years implementation of sustainable building design in the EU has become one of the key issues in reducing energy dependence. In this context efficient use of solar potential incident on building envelope is essential. The goal of the study is to evaluate the influence of interventions required by the new Slovenian legislation and to propose general site planning guidelines. Special emphasis is devoted to the existing building stock, which is due for refurbishment. The study is carried out on the basis of seven typical urban layouts, which are assessed according to the shape of layout, density, building orientation and design. The calculations are carried out with the program SHADING. The study showed that the existing layouts are not as problematic as had been expected and that form and orientation of buildings present a major challenge. Nevertheless, the quality and the duration of insolation are highly dependent on the specifics of each case. The study showed that by respecting the basic rules of good practice in conjunction with the existing requirements no major changes in the existing design principles are needed. - Highlights: • New Slovenian legislation regarding minimum insolation of building envelope. • Seven typical urban layouts were analysed. • Requirements and rules of good practice result in adequate insolation. • Duration of insolation is highly dependent on the specifics of each case

  19. Energy Efficiency in the North American Existing Building Stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a new assessment of the techno-economic and policy-related efficiency improvement potential in the North American building stock conducted as part of a wider appraisal of existing buildings in member states of the International Energy Agency. It summarizes results and provides insights into the lessons learned through a broader global review of best practice to improve the energy efficiency of existing buildings. At this time, the report is limited to the USA because of the large size of its buildings market. At a later date, a more complete review may include some details about policies and programs in Canada. If resources are available an additional comprehensive review of Canada and Mexico may be performed in the future.

  20. On the problem of existence of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaichian, M.; Hayashi, M.; Nelipa, N.F.; Pukhov, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Existence of quantum field theory is considered for the four-dimensional phi 3 -model. The mathematical tool of contraction mapping principle is used to investigate the question of existence of solution for the infinite system of coupled equations for the Green functions of the theory in the Euclidean region. Formulation of the problem for this model with one divergent part is interesting in itself and provides the first attempt towards the study of other renormalizable quantum field theory models with infinite number of divergent graphs. For sufficiently small values of coupling constant, the theory has a unique solution for the truncated system of equations for the Green functions. However, for the complete, infinite set of equations, the Banach fixed point theorem admits a solution only when the coupling constant tends to zero. Possible reasons for such a result are discussed. (author)

  1. Analyzing the security of an existing computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, M.

    1986-01-01

    Most work concerning secure computer systems has dealt with the design, verification, and implementation of provably secure computer systems, or has explored ways of making existing computer systems more secure. The problem of locating security holes in existing systems has received considerably less attention; methods generally rely on thought experiments as a critical step in the procedure. The difficulty is that such experiments require that a large amount of information be available in a format that makes correlating the details of various programs straightforward. This paper describes a method of providing such a basis for the thought experiment by writing a special manual for parts of the operating system, system programs, and library subroutines.

  2. Existence and equivalence of twisted products on a symplectic manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichnerowicz, A.

    1979-01-01

    The twisted products play an important role in Quantum Mechanics. A distinction is introduced between Vey *sub(γ) products and strong Vey *sub(γ) products and it is proved that each *sub(γ) product is equivalent to a Vey *sub(γ) product. If b 3 (W) = 0, the symplectic manifold (W,F) admits strong Vey *sub(Gn) products. If b 2 (W) = 0, all *sub(γ) products are equivalent as well as the Vey Lie algebras. In the general case the formal Lie algebras are characterized which are generated by a *sub(γ) product and it proved that the existance of a *sub(γ)-product is equivalent to the existance of a formal Lie algebra infinitesimally equivalent to a Vey Lie algebra at the first order. (Auth.)

  3. Existence of evolutionary variational solutions via the calculus of variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögelein, Verena; Duzaar, Frank; Marcellini, Paolo

    In this paper we introduce a purely variational approach to time dependent problems, yielding the existence of global parabolic minimizers, that is ∫0T ∫Ω [uṡ∂tφ+f(x,Du)] dx dt⩽∫0T ∫Ω f(x,Du+Dφ) dx dt, whenever T>0 and φ∈C0∞(Ω×(0,T),RN). For the integrand f:Ω×R→[0,∞] we merely assume convexity with respect to the gradient variable and coercivity. These evolutionary variational solutions are obtained as limits of maps depending on space and time minimizing certain convex variational functionals. In the simplest situation, with some growth conditions on f, the method provides the existence of global weak solutions to Cauchy-Dirichlet problems of parabolic systems of the type ∂tu-divDξf(x,Du)=0 in Ω×(0,∞).

  4. Existence of traveling waves for diffusive-dispersive conservation laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar I. Kondo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we show the existence existence and uniqueness of traveling waves for diffusive-dispersive conservation laws with flux function in $C^{1}(mathbb{R}$, by using phase plane analysis. Also we estimate the domain of attraction of the equilibrium point attractor corresponding to the right-hand state. The equilibrium point corresponding to the left-hand state is a saddle point. According to the phase portrait close to the saddle point, there are exactly two semi-orbits of the system. We establish that only one semi-orbit come in the domain of attraction and converges to $(u_{-},0$ as $yo -infty$. This provides the desired saddle-attractor connection.

  5. Existing Noise Level at Railway Stations in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidan Shahiron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway transportation known as one of the most environmental friendly transportation mode. However, the significance problems of railway transportation are noise pollution and negatively impact the wellbeing of the whole community. Unfortunately, there has been lack of public awareness about the noise level produce by the railway transportation in Malaysia. This study investigates the noise level produced by railway transportation in Malaysia specifically by Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB. Methods of collecting existing noise level at railway stations in Malaysia are briefly discussed in this study. The finding indicates that the noise level produced by the railway transportation in Malaysia which is by KTMB is considered as dangerous to human being and also exceed the noise limit that has been assigned by Department of Environment Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of Malaysia. A better noise barrier and improved material should be developed to mitigate the existing noise level produced by railway transportations in Malaysia.

  6. Regulatory Approaches for Adding Capacity to Existing Hydropower Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Curtis, Taylor L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kazerooni, Borna [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-24

    In 2015, hydroelectric generation accounted for more than 6 percent of total net electricity generation in the United States and 46 percent of electricity generation from all renewables. The United States has considerable hydroelectric potential beyond what is already being developed. Nearly 7 GW of this potential is found by adding capacity to existing hydropower facilities. To optimize the value of hydroelectric generation, the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydropower Vision Study highlights the importance of adding capacity to existing facilities. This report provides strategic approaches and considerations for Federal Energy Regulatory Commission licensed and exempt hydropower facilities seeking to increase generation capacity, which may include increases from efficiency upgrades. The regulatory approaches reviewed for this report include capacity and non-capacity amendments, adding capacity during relicensing, and adding capacity when converting a license to a 10-MW exemption.

  7. Guidance for closure of existing DOE LLW disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchfield, L.

    1987-01-01

    During FY 1986, a closure guidance document was developed. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance in support of DOE Order 5820.2 to site operating contractors for the stabilization and closure of existing low-level waste (LLW) shallow land disposal sites at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Guidance is provided to aid operators in placing existing LLW sites in a closed conditions, i.e., a condition in which a nonoperational site meets postclosure performance requirements and can be shown, within a high degree of confidence, to perform as anticipated in the future, under the most cost-effective maintenance approach. Guidance is based on the philosophy that closure should be planned and performed using a systems approach. Plans for FY 1987 call for revision of the document to incorporate more information on closure of LLW sites also containing radioactive mixed waste and/or transuranic waste. 4 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  8. Gamma Ray Bursts as Cosmological Probes with EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dieter; EXIST Team

    2006-12-01

    The EXIST mission, studied as a Black Hole Finder Probe within NASA's Beyond Einstein Program, would, in its current design, trigger on 1000 Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) per year (Grindlay et al, this meeting). The redshift distribution of these GRBs, using results from Swift as a guide, would probe the z > 7 epoch at an event rate of > 50 per year. These bursts trace early cosmic star formation history, point to a first generation of stellar objects that reionize the universe, and provide bright beacons for absorption line studies with groundand space-based observatories. We discuss how EXIST, in conjunction with other space missions and future large survey programs such as LSST, can be utilized to advance our understanding of cosmic chemical evolution, the structure and evolution of the baryonic cosmic web, and the formation of stars in low metallicity environments.

  9. On channel selection and shape co-existence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.

    1993-08-01

    Ambivalence with respect to a favoured shape is emerging as a ubiquitous phenomenon in nuclei. Multiple minima in the nuclear potential well occur because of the delicate balance in nuclei between the long and short-range properties of the nuclear force and the contribution specific particle orbitals make in forcing the nucleus to a decision. Exploration of the dependence of the resulting shape co-existence on particle number and orbital is a prominent area of research. Experimental aspects of spectroscopy studies using heavy ion fusion, evaporation reactions and channel selection are discussed, with focus on shape co-existence in the light Os-Pt-Hg-Pb region. 42 refs., 8 figs

  10. Introduction of the EISA-PC into existing fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenten, W.; Bertschinger, G.; Mueller, K.D.; Reinhart, P.; Rongen, F.

    1995-01-01

    A general problem in the data acquisition field in fusion research is the lack of sufficient local memory for the storage of information acquired during a single discharge. While it is absolutely necessary to keep these data locally before transferring them to a central node, there has been a steadily increasing demand for more capacity. The introduction of an EISA-Personal-Computer with its vast and cheap memory resources is presenting a very interesting solution for the upgrade of existing installations and the design of new experiments. An innovative PC interface using Programmable Logic techniques was developed that allows easy and fast integration of a PC into an existing experimental setup. Several typical applications of this method are presented, that are of special interest for fusion experiments. (orig.)

  11. Planning Annuaulised hours when spike in demand exists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Sureshkumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Manpower planning using annualised hours is an effective tool where seasonal demand for staff in industry exists. In annualised hours (AH workers are contracted to work for a certain number of hours per year. The workers are associated with relative efficiency for different types of tasks. This paper proposes a Mixed Integer linear Programming (MILP model to solve an annualised working hours planning problem when spike in demand exists. The holiday weeks for the workers are considered as partially individualised. If a worker has been assigned with more than one type of working week in a week, this will be compensated with one or more holiday week. The performance of the model is demonstrated with an example. It can be seen that this type of modelling helps to meet the spikes in demand with less capacity shortage compared with one working week in a week.

  12. Percolation Model for the Existence of a Mitochondrial Eve

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, A G M

    2005-01-01

    We look at the process of inheritance of mitochondrial DNA as a percolation model on trees equivalent to the Galton-Watson process. The model is exactly solvable for its percolation threshold $p_c$ and percolation probability critical exponent. In the approximation of small percolation probability, and assuming limited progeny number, we are also able to find the maximum and minimum percolation probabilities over all probability distributions for the progeny number constrained to a given $p_c$. As a consequence, we can relate existence of a mitochondrial Eve to quantitative knowledge about demographic evolution of early mankind. In particular, we show that a mitochondrial Eve may exist even in an exponentially growing population, provided that the average number of children per individual is constrained to a small range depending on the probability $p$ that a newborn child is a female.

  13. Existence of conformal metrics on spheres with prescribed Paneitz curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ayed, Mohamed; El Mehdi, Khalil

    2003-07-01

    In this paper we study the problem of prescribing a fourth order conformal invariant (the Paneitz curvature) on the n-spheres, with n ≥ 5. Using tools from the theory of critical points at infinity, we provide some topological conditions on the level sets of a given function defined on the sphere, under which we prove the existence of conformal metric with prescribed Paneitz curvature. (author)

  14. Condition of the existence of cooling flow in galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, E.V.

    1986-01-01

    A criterion for the existence of subsonic spherical symmetrical flow of cooling gas in galaxies has been found. Some equations are given describing the behaviour of gas in the gravitational field of a galaxy in the framework of a stationary accretion model. The results of numerical calculations of a nonstationary accretion of gas on a cD galaxy are presented. The gas is initially in a hydrostatic equilibrium

  15. Methodology for safety evaluation of existing timber elements

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Hélder S.

    2013-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Civil The past decades have seen a renewed interest in timber research related topics. As instance, timber engineering is not only confined to the design of new construction with innovative wood based products, but also an increasing awareness for the preservation of existing timber structures is visible in nowadays society. Therefore, arises the need for a better understanding of timber performance as a construction material aiming at a bette...

  16. Existence of black holes due to concentration of angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khuri, Marcus A. [Department of Mathematics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2015-06-29

    We present a general sufficient condition for the formation of black holes due to concentration of angular momentum. This is expressed in the form of a universal inequality, relating the size and angular momentum of bodies, and is proven in the context of axisymmetric initial data sets for the Einstein equations which satisfy an appropriate energy condition. A brief comparison is also made with more traditional black hole existence criteria based on concentration of mass.

  17. Runaway pacemaker: a still existing complication and therapeutic guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Andersen, C; Nielsen, L H

    1989-01-01

    Runaway pacemaker is a rare, but still existing potential lethal complication in permanent pacemakers. Within 4 1/2 years, we saw two cases of runaway pacemaker in patients with multiprogrammable, VVI pacemakers (Siemens-Elema, Model 668). In both cases a pacemaker-induced ventricular tachycardia...... pacemaker may be connected to the permanent pacing lead. Thereafter, the lead can be safely cut. As an alternative, a temporary transvenous pacing lead may be established prior to disconnecting the permanent pacing lead....

  18. Identifying the Onset of Congestion Rapidly with Existing Traffic Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Coifman, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    From an operations standpoint, the most important task of a traffic surveillance system is determining reliably whether the facility is free flowing or congested. The second most important task is responding rapidly when the facility becomes congested. Other tasks, such as quantifying the magnitude of congestion, are desirable, but tertiary. To address the first two tasks, this paper presents a new approach for traffic surveillance using existing detectors. Rather than expending a considerabl...

  19. Existence and multiplicity of solutions for nonlinear discrete inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu Marcu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A non-smooth abstract result is used for proving the existence of at least one nontrivial solution of an algebraic discrete inclusion. Successively, a multiplicity theorem for the same class of discrete problems is also established by using a locally Lipschitz continuous version of the famous Brezis-Nirenberg theoretical result in presence of splitting. Some applications to tridiagonal, fourth-order and partial difference inclusions are pointed out.

  20. Does the {sigma}(1580)((3)/(2)){sup -} resonance exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmsted, J.; Prakhov, S.; Manley, D.M.; Allgower, C.E.; Bekrenev, V.S.; Briscoe, W.J.; Clajus, M.; Comfort, J.R.; Craig, K.; Grosnick, D.; Isenhower, D.; Knecht, N.; Koetke, D.D.; Kozlenko, N.G.; Kruglov, S.; Kulbardis, A.A.; Lolos, G.; Lopatin, I.V.; Manweiler, R.; Marusic, A.; McDonald, S.; Nefkens, B.M.K.; Papandreou, Z.; Peaslee, D.C.; Phaisangittisakul, N.; Price, J.W.; Ramirez, A.F.; Sadler, M.; Shafi, A.; Spinka, H.; Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Starostin, A.; Staudenmaier, H.M.; Strakovsky, I.I.; Supek, I.; Tippens, W.B

    2004-05-20

    Precise new data for the reaction K{sup -}p{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{lambda} are presented in the c.m. energy range 1565 to 1600 MeV. Our analysis of these data sheds new light on claims for the {sigma}(1580)((3)/(2)){sup -} resonance, which (if it exists with the specified quantum numbers) must be an exotic baryon because of its very low mass. Our results show no evidence for this state.