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Sample records for stress work-to-family conflict

  1. Consequences of boundary-spanning demands and resources for work-to-family conflict and perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voydanoff, Patricia

    2005-10-01

    Using work-family border theory, this article examines relationships between boundary-spanning demands and resources and work-to-family conflict and perceived stress. The analysis uses data from 2,109 respondents from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce. The demands that were positively related to work-to-family conflict and perceived stress were commuting time, bringing work home, job contacts at home, and work-family multitasking. Work-family multitasking partially explained the effects of bringing work home and job contacts at home on conflict and stress. For resources, time off for family responsibilities and a supportive work-family culture showed negative associations with conflict and stress. Work-to-family conflict partially mediated relationships between several demands and resources and perceived stress. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. A study of the determinants of work-to-family conflict among hospital nurses in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembrechts, Lieve; Dekocker, Vickie; Zanoni, Patrizia; Pulignano, Valeria

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the relative impact of three sources of work-to-family conflict among hospital nurses: work-family policy use (childcare assistance, schedule flexibility, part-time work), job dimensions (work overload, job autonomy, overtime hours, night shifts, regularity in type of shift, weekend work, hierarchical position, variation in tasks) and organisational support (physician/co-worker support). Many studies claim that organisational support and job dimensions are more important sources of work-to-family conflict than work-family policy use, a relation that has not been fully investigated. This study attempts to fill this gap by empirically assessing the relative impact of these sources on nurses' work-to-family conflict. Four hundred and fifty three Belgian nurses completed a web survey. The sources of work-to-family conflict were analysed using a hierarchical linear regression. Organisational support influences work-to-family conflict, above and beyond work-family policy use and job dimensions, while policy use has no influence. Physician and co-worker support have a unique decreasing effect, while work overload and overtime hours increase work-to-family conflict. Organisational support, lack of work overload and absence of overtime hours reduce work-to-family conflict, whereas work-family policy use does not. To retain and attract nurses by reducing work-to-family conflict, hospitals should not (only) rely on work-family policies but should also invest in organisational support and adapted job dimensions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Supervisor Support Buffers Daily Psychological and Physiological Reactivity to Work-to-Family Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, David M; Davis, Kelly D; Lee, Soomi; Lawson, Katie M; Walter, Kim; Moen, Phyllis

    2016-02-01

    Using a daily diary design, the current study assessed within-person associations of work-to-family conflict with negative affect and salivary cortisol. Furthermore, we investigated whether supervisor support moderated these associations. Over eight consecutive days, 131 working parents employed by an information technology company answered telephone interviews about stressors and mood that occurred in the previous 24 hours. On Days 2-4 of the study protocol, they also provided five saliva samples throughout the day that were assayed for cortisol. Results indicated a high degree of day-to-day fluctuation in work-to-family conflict, with employed parents having greater negative affect and poorer cortisol regulation on days with higher work-to-family conflict compared to days when they experience lower work-to-family conflict. These associations were buffered, however, when individuals had supervisors who offered support. Discussion centers on the use of dynamic assessments of work-to-family conflict and employee well-being.

  4. Workplace characteristics and work-to-family conflict: does caregiving frequency matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melissa; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie

    2013-01-01

    Many workers can expect to provide care to an elder relative at some point during their tenure in the workforce. This study extends previous research by exploring whether caregiving frequency (providing care on a regular, weekly basis vs. intermittently) moderates the relationship between certain workplace characteristics and work-to-family conflict. Utilizing a sample of 465 respondents from the National Study of the Changing Workforce (Families and Work Institute, 2008), results indicate that access to workplace flexibility has a stronger effect on reducing work-to-family conflict among intermittent caregivers than among those who provide care regularly.

  5. Work-to-Family Conflict, Positive Spillover, and Boundary Management: A Person-Environment Fit Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    This study adopted a person-environment fit approach to examine whether greater congruence between employees' preferences for segmenting their work domain from their family domain (i.e., keeping work matters at work) and what their employers' work environment allowed would be associated with lower work-to-family conflict and higher work-to-family…

  6. Supervisor Support Buffers Daily Psychological and Physiological Reactivity to Work-to-Family Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, David M.; Davis, Kelly D.; Lee, Soomi; Lawson, Katie M.; Walter, Kim; Moen, Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    Using a daily diary design, the current study assessed within-person associations of work-to-family conflict with negative affect and salivary cortisol. Furthermore, we investigated whether supervisor support moderated these associations. Over eight consecutive days, 131 working parents employed by an information technology company answered telephone interviews about stressors and mood that occurred in the previous 24 hours. On Days 2–4 of the study protocol, they also provided five saliva sa...

  7. Work-to-family conflict and its relationship with satisfaction and well-being: A one-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinnunen, U.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Mauno, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present study produced new knowledge about gender differences with respect to work-to-family conflict and its longitudinal relations with indicators of satisfaction and well-being. The study examined the longitudinal relations between work-to-family conflict and self-reported satisfaction and

  8. Does trait affectivity predict work-to-family conflict and enrichment beyond job characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tement, Sara; Korunka, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines whether negative and positive affectivity (NA and PA, respectively) predict different forms of work-to-family conflict (WFC-time, WFC-strain, WFC-behavior) and enrichment (WFE-development, WFE-affect, WFE-capital) beyond job characteristics (workload, autonomy, variety, workplace support). Furthermore, interactions between job characteristics and trait affectivity while predicting WFC and WFE were examined. Using a large sample of Slovenian employees (N = 738), NA and PA were found to explain variance in WFC as well as in WFE above and beyond job characteristics. More precisely, NA significantly predicted WFC, whereas PA significantly predicted WFE. In addition, several interactive effects were found to predict forms of WFC and WFE. These results highlight the importance of trait affectivity in work-family research. They provide further support for the crucial impact of job characteristics as well.

  9. Work-to-family conflict as a mediator of the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Hui; Brown, Roger; Bowers, Barbara J; Chang, Wen-Yin

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the mediating effect of work-to-family conflict on the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention among licensed nurses in long-term care settings. The considerable research on turnover in long-term care has primarily focused on the impact of job satisfaction on turnover intention. Given the well-documented high turnover rate in nursing home staffing, dissatisfaction is expected to continue. Alternatives (e.g. reduction in work-to-family conflict) for reducing turnover under the circumstance of job dissatisfaction have not been investigated extensively. A cross-sectional mailed survey. A convenience sample comprising 200 nurses from 25 private nursing homes in Central Taiwan was created. Data were collected from nurses about their level of turnover intention, job satisfaction and work-to-family conflict in 2012. A composite indicator structural equation model was used to examine the mediation model of this study. Overall, 186 nurses (93%) returned the completed questionnaires. Consistent with published research from other countries, turnover intention in our study was significantly and negatively associated with job satisfaction and significantly and positively associated with work-to-family conflict. In addition, job dissatisfaction indirectly influenced turnover intention through high work-to-family conflict. Findings from this study indicate the importance of work-to-family conflict to nurse turnover. While work setting has a strong, well-documented influence on job satisfaction, limiting job satisfaction efforts to work setting improvements may not yield the hoped-for results unless work-to-family conflict is also considered and addressed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Work-to-Family Enrichment and Conflict Profiles: Job Characteristics and Employees' Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Vânia Sofia; Chambel, Maria José

    2016-10-03

    This article aims to analyze work-to-family conflict (WFC) and enrichment (WFE) profiles related to job characteristics and well-being at work and general well-being. A cross-sectional survey data of 1885 employees was analyzed. The Latent Profile Analysis revealed that the five-profile solution exhibited strong statistical significance (p > .001). ANCOVAs were performed to analyze the relationship of the identified profiles with job characteristics and well-being. Employees in the Beneficial profile had the best perception of job characteristics (lowest demands and the highest control and support) and the highest well-being, and those in the Harmful profile had the lowest job characteristics perceptions and the lowest well-being. Through a comparison of the Moderate Active profile and the Moderate Harmful profile, WFE was found to buffer the effects of the WFC on well-being at work (burnout; engagement) and on general well-being (i.e., health perceptions). The promotion of WFE through higher job autonomy, job support, and fewer demands is a crucial aspect to consider. This study helps to consolidate the work-family balance typology and its effects on employees' well-being, and broadens this framework to consider job characteristics.

  11. Sex differences in factors contributing to family-to-work and work-to-family conflict in Japanese civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Yuko; Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    As the number of dual-earner couples in Japan has increased, work-life balance has become important. This study aimed to examine the factors that contribute to work-family conflict. The participants included 3,594 (2,332 men and 1,262 women) civil servants aged 20-59 working for local government on the west coast of Japan. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate whether work, family, or lifestyle characteristics were associated with work-family conflict. For men, family-to-work conflict was associated with being elderly, having low-grade employment, working long hours, raising children, and sleeping shorter hours. For women, being married and raising children were strong determinants of family-to-work conflict, and being middle-aged, working long hours, and sleeping shorter hours were also associated with this type of conflict. Regarding work-to-family conflict, working long hours was the strongest determinant of conflict in both sexes. In men, being elderly, living with family, eating dinner late, and sleeping shorter hours were also associated with work-to-family conflict. In women, having high-grade employment, being married, raising children, and eating dinner late were associated with work-to-family conflict. This study showed that working long hours was the primary determinant of work-to-family conflict in both sexes and that being married and raising children were strong factors of family-to-work conflict in women only. Sex differences may reflect divergence of the social and domestic roles of men and women in Japanese society. To improve the work-life balance, general and sex-specific health policies may be required.

  12. Work Demands and Work-to-Family and Family-to-Work Conflict: Direct and Indirect Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voydanoff, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    This article uses a demands-and-resources approach to examine relationships between three types of work demands and work-to-family and family-to-work conflict: time-based demands, strain-based demands, and boundary-spanning demands. The analysis is based on data from 2,155 employed adults living with a family member who were interviewed for the…

  13. Workload, Work-to-Family Conflict, and Health : Gender Differences and the Influence of Private Life Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhoven, Marc J P M; Beijer, Susanne E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences in work-to-family conflict, and the latter's linkages with workload and health, has largely ignored the influence of private life context. Here, it is hypothesized that gender differences vary across private life contexts. A multiple-group analysis (SEM) is

  14. The effects of organizational and community embeddedness on work-to-family and family-to-work conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C

    2012-11-01

    The present study offers competing hypotheses regarding the relationships of changes in organizational and community embeddedness with changes in work-to-family and family-to-work conflict. Data were collected from 250 U.S. and 165 Chinese managers and professionals, all of whom were married, at 3 points in time over a 10-month period. Results suggest that increases in perceptions of organizational and community embeddedness are associated with increases in work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict over time. Further, we found that these effects were even stronger for employees with highly individualistic values. Thus, although much of the previous research has focused on the positive effects of employee embeddedness for individuals' work lives, the present study provides some evidence of the potentially negative effects of employee embeddedness for individuals' family lives. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict among Japanese dual-earner couples with preschool children: a spillover-crossover perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimazu, A.; Kubota, K.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Shimada, K.; Kawakami, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study among Japanese dual-earner couples examined the independent and combined associations of work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC) with psychological health of employees and their partners and the relationship quality between partners. Methods: The

  16. Embeddedness and well-being in the United States and Singapore: the mediating effects of work-to-family and family-to-work conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C

    2014-07-01

    Guided by conservation of resources theory, we propose that both organizational and community embeddedness are associated with increased work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family to-work conflict (FWC), which in turn are associated with strain-related outcomes. Because stress can have both short-term and long-term consequences, we examined negative mood as an immediate reaction to stress and chronic insomnia as a longer-term reaction to stress. We examined these relationships in 2-career couples in both the United States (n = 416) and Singapore (n = 400). Results provided full support for the mediating effects of WFC and FWC in the U.S. sample, with only limited support for those mediating effects in the Singaporean sample. In addition, we found that the effects of community embeddedness on FWC were significantly stronger in the U.S. sample than in the Singaporean sample.

  17. An examination of factors related to work-to-family conflict among employed men and women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Michiko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study of Japanese married employees were: 1) to examine the relationship between work-related factors and work-to-family conflict (WFC); 2) to examine the relationship between WFC and fatigue and depression; and 3) to explore the role of family togetherness in a path between WFC and health. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among employees belonging to a labor union federation of the chemical industry. All analyses were conducted by subgroup according to gender and parental status. Data was collected from 12 companies located in the Tokyo metropolitan area from September to October 2005. The data of 961 married employees were analyzed. The main findings by regression analyses were: 1) high job demands, low job control, and unsupportive work-family culture were associated with high level of WFC; 2) WFC was positively associated with fatigue and depression regardless of gender and parental status; and 3) maintaining family togetherness was slightly, yet significantly associated with fatigue in the father group. WFC was unfavorably related to fatigue and depression in both genders regardless of parental status, and plays a role linking unfavorable work situations and health. As possible work-related factors of WFC, the data indicate not only individual workplace variables but also an organizational support. Additionally, maintaining family togetherness appears to benefit fathers by preventing fatigue. Strategies for reduction of WFC are therefore necessary to promote health among married workers of both genders.

  18. Does work-to-family conflict really matter for health? Cross-sectional, prospective cohort and fixed-effects analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-02-01

    It is well known that work-to-family conflict (WFC) is negatively associated with employees' health outcomes, including mental health and health behavior. However, the associations may be overstated because of insufficient control for unobserved individual attributes. To address this possibility, we compared the associations between WFC and health observed from a cross-sectional, prospective cohort and from fixed-effects regression models. We analyzed data from a Japanese occupational cohort survey of 15,102 observations from 7551 individuals (5947 men and 1604 women), which were collected in two waves with a one-year interval. We constructed a binary variable of high WFC and considered psychological distress measured using the Kessler 6 (K6) score, job and life dissatisfaction, and five types of health behavior (current smoking, problem drinking, leisure-time physical inactivity, sickness absence, and refraining from medical care). Results showed that for men, a high WFC increased the probability of reporting psychological distress (K6 score ≥ 5); this increased by 12.4% in a fixed-effects model. The association was substantially limited, as compared to the increase of 30.9% and 23.2% observed in cross-sectional and prospective cohort models, respectively; however, the association remained significant. Similar patterns were observed for job and life dissatisfaction. In contrast, the associations of WFC with all five types of health behavior were non-significant after controlling for fixed effects. We obtained generally similar results for women and found no substantial gender difference in the fixed-effects models. We concluded that the associations of WFC with employees' mental health and subjective well-being were robust, whereas the association between WFC and health behavior was generally limited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. No Pain, No Gain? A Resource-Based Model of Work-to-Family Enrichment and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Powell, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Work-family scholars tend to work in two largely disconnected research streams, focusing on either work-family enrichment--the positive side of the work-family interface--or work-family conflict--the negative side of this interface. The purpose of this study is to suggest a reconciliation of the two research streams by proposing and testing a…

  20. Examining the mediating effect of work-to-family conflict on the associations between job stressors and employee psychological distress: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-08-03

    The mediating effect of work-to-family conflict (WFC) on the associations between eight types of job stressors (measured based on the job demands-control, effort-reward imbalance and organisational justice models) and psychological distress in employees was examined. This study employed a prospective design. An occupational cohort study in Japan (Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity; J-HOPE). 5859 men and 1560 women who were working for 11 firms and participated at three consecutive waves of J-HOPE, at 1-year intervals, from 2010 to 2013. Psychological distress, as measured by Kessler 6 scores. Mediation analysis using data on job stressors at baseline, WFC at 1-year follow-up and psychological distress at 2-year follow-up showed that WFC mediated 39.1% (95% CI 29.1% to 49.1%) and 44.5% (95% CI 31.4% to 51.7%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively, for men. The mediating effect of WFC was smaller for job stressors indicating reduced job resources, compared with job demands and effort. The mediating effect of WFC was somewhat larger for women than it was for men, with WFC mediating 47.5% (95% CI 22.5% to 72.6%) and 64.0% (95% CI 24.3% to 100.0%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively. WFC was a key mediator in the associations between most job stressors and employee psychological distress. Results suggest that policy measures and support from supervisors, to prevent job stressors from adding to WFC, are needed to reduce employee psychological distress. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Examining the mediating effect of work-to-family conflict on the associations between job stressors and employee psychological distress: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The mediating effect of work-to-family conflict (WFC) on the associations between eight types of job stressors (measured based on the job demands-control, effort–reward imbalance and organisational justice models) and psychological distress in employees was examined. Design This study employed a prospective design. Setting An occupational cohort study in Japan (Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity; J-HOPE). Participants 5859 men and 1560 women who were working for 11 firms and participated at three consecutive waves of J-HOPE, at 1-year intervals, from 2010 to 2013. Main outcome measures Psychological distress, as measured by Kessler 6 scores. Results Mediation analysis using data on job stressors at baseline, WFC at 1-year follow-up and psychological distress at 2-year follow-up showed that WFC mediated 39.1% (95% CI 29.1% to 49.1%) and 44.5% (95% CI 31.4% to 51.7%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively, for men. The mediating effect of WFC was smaller for job stressors indicating reduced job resources, compared with job demands and effort. The mediating effect of WFC was somewhat larger for women than it was for men, with WFC mediating 47.5% (95% CI 22.5% to 72.6%) and 64.0% (95% CI 24.3% to 100.0%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively. Conclusions WFC was a key mediator in the associations between most job stressors and employee psychological distress. Results suggest that policy measures and support from supervisors, to prevent job stressors from adding to WFC, are needed to reduce employee psychological distress. PMID:28775183

  2. Work-Family Conflict and Work-Related Attitude: The Mediating Effects of Stress Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisyah Binti Panatik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relationship between work-family conflict (i.e.work-to-family and family-to-work and work-related attitudes (i.e. job satisfaction,affective commitment and turnover intentions among academician in Malaysia.Mediationeffects of stress reactionswhich arebehavioral stress, somatic stress andcognitive stresswere also tested. A survey method using questionnaire was utilizedto obtain the data. A total of 267 respondents were participated, giving the return rateof 20% from the entire ofpopulation. Research data were analyzed using PASW18and AMOS SPSS18.Result indicated that onlywork-to-family conflict wassignificantly related to stress reactions.While, behavioral stress mediates the effectsof work-to-family conflict on job satisfaction, affective commitment and turnoverintentions. Cognitive stress only mediates the effects of work-to-family conflict onaffective commitment. This paper also discusses the implication of this study to theorganization and future research.

  3. Expanding the psychosocial work environment: workplace norms and work-family conflict as correlates of stress and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tove Helland; Saksvik, Per Øystein; Nytrø, Kjell; Torvatn, Hans; Bayazit, Mahmut

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of organizational level norms about work requirements and social relations, and work-family conflict, to job stress and subjective health symptoms, controlling for Karasek's job demand-control-support model of the psychosocial work environment, in a sample of 1,346 employees from 56 firms in the Norwegian food and beverage industry. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that organizational norms governing work performance and social relations, and work-to-family and family-to-work conflict, explained significant amounts of variance for job stress. The cross-level interaction between work performance norms and work-to-family conflict was also significantly related to job stress. Work-to-family conflict was significantly related to health symptoms, but family-to-work conflict and organizational norms were not.

  4. Work-Family Conflict and Work-Related Attitude: The Mediating Effects of Stress Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Aisyah Binti Panatik; Siti Khadijah Binti Zainal Badri; Azizah Binti Rajab; Rosman Bin Mohd. Yusof

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between work-family conflict (i.e.work-to-family and family-to-work) and work-related attitudes (i.e. job satisfaction,affective commitment and turnover intentions) among academician in Malaysia.Mediationeffects of stress reactionswhich arebehavioral stress, somatic stress andcognitive stresswere also tested. A survey method using questionnaire was utilizedto obtain the data. A total of 267 respondents were participated, giving...

  5. STRESS FROM ROLE CONFLICT: CONSEQUENCES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    curricular ... KEY WORDS: Stress, Role Conflict, Professional Effectiveness, Teachers, Cross River State. ... students. This is in effect, means that the professional effectiveness of the teacher is the ... relationship with co-workers may also determine.

  6. Work-to-family spillover and fruit and vegetable consumption among construction laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M; Stoddard, Anne M; Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Naishadham, Deepa; Sorensen, Glorian

    2007-01-01

    Spillover is the effect of one role on another as working adults attempt to integrate demands from work and family. We conducted a survey to understand how worker, job, and family characteristics were related to negative work-to-family spillover and how spillover was related to fruit and vegetable consumption to inform intervention design. A combined mail and telephone survey. A national random sample in the United States. 1108 (44% response) unionized construction laborers. Personal characteristics, job factors, family factors, work-to-family spillover, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Multivariable logistic and least-squares regression. A range of 20% to 50% of respondents reported negative work-to-family spillover, agreeing that work demands, time, fatigue, and stress interfered with family meals or food choices. Higher spillover was associated with job factors, being of white race/ethnicity, and having children at home. Lower fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with higher work-to-family spillover (p = .002), being of white race or ethnicity (p working the graveyard or day shift (p = .02). Negative experience of work-to-family spillover may link employment to fruit and vegetable consumption and thus to worker health. Understanding the contribution of spillover to fruit and vegetable consumption aids understanding of how work experience affects health.

  7. Stress from Role Conflict: Consequences for Professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ex-post facto data collected from 600 teachers and 2400 senior secondary two students from Cross River State were analyzed to determine the influence of stress arising from role conflict on professional effectiveness. One hypothesis was tested using One-Way Analysis of Variance. The result of the data analyses ...

  8. Work–Family Conflict and Mental Health Among Female Employees: A Sequential Mediation Model via Negative Affect and Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiyi; Da, Shu; Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xichao

    2018-01-01

    After the implementation of the universal two-child policy in 2016, more and more working women have found themselves caught in the dilemma of whether to raise a baby or be promoted, which exacerbates work–family conflicts among Chinese women. Few studies have examined the mediating effect of negative affect. The present study combined the conservation of resources model and affective events theory to examine the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and perceived stress in the relationship between work–family conflict and mental health. A valid sample of 351 full-time Chinese female employees was recruited in this study, and participants voluntarily answered online questionnaires. Pearson correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple mediation analysis were used to examine the relationships between work–family conflict, negative affect, perceived stress, and mental health in full-time female employees. We found that women’s perceptions of both work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict were significant negatively related to mental health. Additionally, the results showed that negative affect and perceived stress were negatively correlated with mental health. The 95% confidence intervals indicated the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and stress in the relationship between work–family conflict and mental health was significant, which supported the hypothesized sequential mediation model. The findings suggest that work–family conflicts affected the level of self-reported mental health, and this relationship functioned through the two sequential mediators of negative affect and perceived stress. PMID:29719522

  9. Work-Family Conflict and Mental Health Among Female Employees: A Sequential Mediation Model via Negative Affect and Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiyi; Da, Shu; Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xichao

    2018-01-01

    After the implementation of the universal two-child policy in 2016, more and more working women have found themselves caught in the dilemma of whether to raise a baby or be promoted, which exacerbates work-family conflicts among Chinese women. Few studies have examined the mediating effect of negative affect. The present study combined the conservation of resources model and affective events theory to examine the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and perceived stress in the relationship between work-family conflict and mental health. A valid sample of 351 full-time Chinese female employees was recruited in this study, and participants voluntarily answered online questionnaires. Pearson correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple mediation analysis were used to examine the relationships between work-family conflict, negative affect, perceived stress, and mental health in full-time female employees. We found that women's perceptions of both work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict were significant negatively related to mental health. Additionally, the results showed that negative affect and perceived stress were negatively correlated with mental health. The 95% confidence intervals indicated the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and stress in the relationship between work-family conflict and mental health was significant, which supported the hypothesized sequential mediation model. The findings suggest that work-family conflicts affected the level of self-reported mental health, and this relationship functioned through the two sequential mediators of negative affect and perceived stress.

  10. Work–Family Conflict and Mental Health Among Female Employees: A Sequential Mediation Model via Negative Affect and Perceived Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyi Zhou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available After the implementation of the universal two-child policy in 2016, more and more working women have found themselves caught in the dilemma of whether to raise a baby or be promoted, which exacerbates work–family conflicts among Chinese women. Few studies have examined the mediating effect of negative affect. The present study combined the conservation of resources model and affective events theory to examine the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and perceived stress in the relationship between work–family conflict and mental health. A valid sample of 351 full-time Chinese female employees was recruited in this study, and participants voluntarily answered online questionnaires. Pearson correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple mediation analysis were used to examine the relationships between work–family conflict, negative affect, perceived stress, and mental health in full-time female employees. We found that women’s perceptions of both work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict were significant negatively related to mental health. Additionally, the results showed that negative affect and perceived stress were negatively correlated with mental health. The 95% confidence intervals indicated the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and stress in the relationship between work–family conflict and mental health was significant, which supported the hypothesized sequential mediation model. The findings suggest that work–family conflicts affected the level of self-reported mental health, and this relationship functioned through the two sequential mediators of negative affect and perceived stress.

  11. Human Service Employees Coping with Job Stress, Family Stress and Work-Family Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Dominic J.

    The intersection of work and family life has always been a popular topic of discussion among family theorists. This study examined human service employees in direct service positions coping with work stress, family stress, and work-family conflict. The effects of work stress, family stress and work-family conflict on depression were examined.…

  12. Spillover of interpersonal conflicts from work to family life : a daily diary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez Corts, I.; Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.; Boz, M.

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 20(3) of Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (see record 2015-15847-001). There was a misspelling in the figures. The legends for Figure 1 and Figure 2 should read “High Daily Resilience”.] This study among a heterogeneous

  13. How Do Work Engagement, Workaholism, and the Work-to-Family Interface Affect Each Other? A 7-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakanen, Jari; Peeters, Maria

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the long-term relationships between work engagement, workaholism, work-to-family enrichment, and work-to-family conflict (WFC). We used structural equation modeling and the three-wave 7-year follow-up data of 1580 Finnish dentists to test our hypotheses. Work engagement and work-to-family enrichment mutually predicted each other, and work engagement also negatively predicted WFC. Workaholism predicted WFC, but not vice versa. Work engagement and workaholism were unrelated over time. The results indicate that beyond its suggested benefits for organizations, work engagement may boost the positive interaction between work and family, whereas workaholism is likely to lead to WFC over time. It is valuable for organizations to distinguish work engagement from workaholism and to enhance the former while preventing the latter to have sustainably hardworking working employees with happy home lives.

  14. Heart rate during conflicts predicts post-conflict stress-related behavior in greylag geese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A F Wascher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social stressors are known to be among the most potent stressors in group-living animals. This is not only manifested in individual physiology (heart rate, glucocorticoids, but also in how individuals behave directly after a conflict. Certain 'stress-related behaviors' such as autopreening, body shaking, scratching and vigilance have been suggested to indicate an individual's emotional state. Such behaviors may also alleviate stress, but the behavioral context and physiological basis of those behaviors is still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded beat-to-beat heart rates (HR of 22 greylag geese in response to agonistic encounters using fully implanted sensor-transmitter packages. Additionally, for 143 major events we analyzed the behavior shown by our focal animals in the first two minutes after an interaction. Our results show that the HR during encounters and characteristics of the interaction predicted the frequency and duration of behaviors shown after a conflict. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this is the first study to quantify the physiological and behavioral responses to single agonistic encounters and to link this to post conflict behavior. Our results demonstrate that 'stress-related behaviors' are flexibly modulated by the characteristics of the preceding aggressive interaction and reflect the individual's emotional strain, which is linked to autonomic arousal. We found no support for the stress-alleviating hypothesis, but we propose that stress-related behaviors may play a role in communication with other group members, particularly with pair-partners.

  15. A helping hand? : the moderating role of leaders' conflict management behavior on the conflict-stress relationship of employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, M.; Rispens, S.; Giebels, E.; Euwema, M.

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict between colleagues within organizations negatively affects employee well-being (e.g., stress). It is unclear how leaders' third-party conflict management behaviors influence the relationship between employee conflict and well-being. In this study, we examine the effects of

  16. Fetal programming by maternal stress: Insights from a conflict perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-10-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has pervasive effects on the offspring's physiology and behavior, including the development of anxious, reactive temperament and increased stress responsivity. These outcomes can be seen as the result of adaptive developmental plasticity: maternal stress hormones carry useful information about the state of the external world, which can be used by the developing fetus to match its phenotype to the predicted environment. This account, however, neglects the inherent conflict of interest between mother and fetus about the outcomes of fetal programming. The aim of this paper is to extend the adaptive model of prenatal stress by framing mother-fetus interactions in an evolutionary conflict perspective. In the paper, I show how a conflict perspective provides many new insights in the functions and mechanisms of fetal programming, with particular emphasis on human pregnancy. I then take advantage of those insights to make sense of some puzzling features of maternal and fetal physiology and generate novel empirical predictions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of work alienation on organizational commitment, work effort and work-to-family enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); L. den Dulk (Laura)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAim: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of work alienation on organizational commitment, work effort and work-to-family enrichment. Background: There is substantial research on the effects of work alienation on passive job performance, such as organizational commitment.

  18. The Impact of Role Modeling on Proteges' Personal Learning and Work-to-Family Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Ho Kwong; Mao, Yina; Zhang, Haina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the impact of role modeling as perceived by proteges on their personal learning (i.e., relational job learning and personal skill development) and work-to-family enrichment (WFE). Results from a two-wave field survey of 173 proteges in the People's Republic of China indicate that role modeling positively affects…

  19. Relating Climate and Enviornmental Stress to Conflict... or Cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    There are many factors which contribute to social unrest, including governance, economy, access to resources and others. As global climate change progresses, many regions and nations, particularly those that are most vulnerable and least resilient, will face increasing challenges with respect to water and food scarcity. Increasing population and demand for water, combined with declining access to groundwater, will greatly increase exisiting vulnerability. Syria, Yemen and other countries serve as examples of nations that have experienced increasing both environmental stress and conflict. The Syria case in particular has had clear global repercussions, most notably contributing to a global refugee crisis. However, there are also examples of nations that have experienced increasing environmental stress that instead demonstrated transboundary water cooperation rather than conflict. An important and emerging body of work is that which seeks to better understand and characterize real-time resilience and vulnerability in order to better mitigate the consequences of future regional climate change. Prediction of potential conflict is a formidable challenge, one that is highly complex and multivariate, operating on many different temporal and spatial scales.

  20. Conflict and Stress in Hospital Nursing: Improving Communicative Responses to Enduring Professional Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Jennifer J; Apker, Julie

    2016-07-01

    Nurses function as central figures of health teams, coordinating direct care and communication between team members, patients, and their families. The importance of nurses to health care cannot be understated, but neither can the environmental struggles nurses routinely encounter in their jobs. Organizational communication and nursing scholarship show conflict and stress as two visible and ongoing challenges. This case study aims to (a) explore the ways conflict communication and communicative stress are experienced and endure in nursing and (b) understand how nurses discursively (mis)manage conflict and stress. Open-ended survey comments from nurses (N = 135) employed at a large teaching and research hospital were qualitatively analyzed. Weick's model of organizing, specifically his notion of communication cycles, emerged as a conceptual lens helpful for understanding cyclical conflict and stress. Results show that exclusionary communication, specifically nonparticipatory and unsupportive messages, contribute to nurse conflict and stress. Nurses tend to (mis)manage conflict and stress using respectful and disrespectful discourse. These communication patterns can facilitate or prohibit positive change. Metaphorically, nurse communicative conflict and stress can be depicted as fire. Relationships can go up in flames due to out-of-control fires in the form of destructive conflict. However, conflict and stress, like fire, can be harnessed for positive ends such as organizational decision making and innovation. Findings suggest conveying respect may help nurses manage and even avoid flames of conflict and stress. Solutions are offered to mitigate the effects of conflict and stress while developing respectful organizational cultures.

  1. Work Family Conflict dan Stress Kerja Perempuan Bekerja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Yuliviona

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Perubahan secara demografis pada angkatan kerja di beberapa negara di  antara lain berupa bertambahnya kaum ibu yang bekerja, meningkatknya masalah masalah keluarga – pekerjaan di dalam lingkungan kerja. Walaupun   work family conflict  (konflik keluarga –pekerjaan dikenal sebagai masalah pria dan wanita, namun isu tersebut berlanjut hingga penempatan tanggung jawab bagi wanita karier. Perbedaan tanggung jawab disebabkanoleh peranan wanita secara tradisional, yang semula dianggap harus lebih bertanggung jawab daripada pria dalam masalah-masalah rumah tangga. Tanggung jawab wanita yang besar terhadap pekerjaan dan keluarga menimbulkan apa yang di sebut dengan stress,ketidak puasan kerja, absensi, perputaran kerja. Dengan demikian perusahaan harus serius manangani masalah ini.Kata kunci : konflik keluarga-pekerjaan, wanita-bekerja, stress kerja, kinerja karyawan Change in demography of the work force in American and some countries in Asia, such as the increase number of working mother has increase the work-family issue in work environment. Although work-family conflict is known as a man and women issue, but this issue is continues to place different responsibilities for working women. The different responsibilities is because of the tradisional role of women, who take more responsibilities than man for the domestic matter. Work-family issues forced organizations to adopt some policies in order to solve this issue, such as family-friendly policy. Some research acknowledge that organization abilities to adopt this kind of policy influence employee respon to their work life, such as job stress, job satisfaction/dissatisfaction, absence, and turnover. It is become clear that organizations have to be serious in handling this issue.Key words: Work-family conflict, work-women, work stress,job performance

  2. The effects of work alienation on organisational commitment, work effort and work-to-family enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummers, Lars G; Den Dulk, Laura

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of work alienation on organisational commitment, work effort and work-to-family enrichment. There is substantial research on the effects of work alienation on passive job performance, such as organisational commitment. However, studies analysing work alienation on active performance, such as work effort, and outside work, such as work-to-family enrichment, are scarce. Two dimensions of work alienation are considered: powerlessness and meaninglessness. Hypotheses are tested using surveys collected among a national sample of midwives in the Netherlands (respondents: 790, response rate 61%). the findings indicate that work alienation (powerlessness and meaninglessness) influence organisational commitment, work effort and--to a lesser extent--work-to-family enrichment. High work meaninglessness, in particular, has negative effects on these outcomes. When people feel that they have no influence in their work (hence, when they feel 'powerless') and especially when the feel that their work is not worthwhile (when they feel 'meaningless') this has substantial negative effects. Managers should increase the meaningfulness that people attach to their work, thereby maintaining a high-quality workforce. Possible strategies include: (1) improving person-job fit, (2) developing high-quality relationships, (3) better communicating the results people help to deliver. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. IS WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT A MULTILEVEL STRESSOR LINKING JOB CONDITIONS TO MENTAL HEALTH? EVIDENCE FROM THE WORK, FAMILY AND HEALTH NETWORK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Kaduk, Anne; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie; Buxton, Orfeu M; O'Donnell, Emily; Almeida, David; Fox, Kimberly; Tranby, Eric; Oakes, J Michael; Casper, Lynne

    Most research on the work conditions and family responsibilities associated with work-family conflict and other measures of mental health uses the individual employee as the unit of analysis. We argue that work conditions are both individual psychosocial assessments and objective characteristics of the proximal work environment, necessitating multilevel analyses of both individual- and team-level work conditions on mental health. This study uses multilevel data on 748 high-tech professionals in 120 teams to investigate relationships between team- and individual-level job conditions, work-family conflict, and four mental health outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, perceived stress, and psychological distress). We find that work-to-family conflict is socially patterned across teams, as are job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Team-level job conditions predict team-level outcomes, while individuals' perceptions of their job conditions are better predictors of individuals' work-to-family conflict and mental health. Work-to-family conflict operates as a partial mediator between job demands and mental health outcomes. Our findings suggest that organizational leaders concerned about presenteeism, sickness absences, and productivity would do well to focus on changing job conditions in ways that reduce job demands and work-to-family conflict in order to promote employees' mental health. We show that both work-to-family conflict and job conditions can be fruitfully framed as team characteristics, shared appraisals held in common by team members. This challenges the framing of work-to-family conflict as a "private trouble" and provides support for work-to-family conflict as a structural mismatch grounded in the social and temporal organization of work.

  4. IS WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT A MULTILEVEL STRESSOR LINKING JOB CONDITIONS TO MENTAL HEALTH? EVIDENCE FROM THE WORK, FAMILY AND HEALTH NETWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Kaduk, Anne; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie; Buxton, Orfeu M.; O’Donnell, Emily; Almeida, David; Fox, Kimberly; Tranby, Eric; Oakes, J. Michael; Casper, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Most research on the work conditions and family responsibilities associated with work-family conflict and other measures of mental health uses the individual employee as the unit of analysis. We argue that work conditions are both individual psychosocial assessments and objective characteristics of the proximal work environment, necessitating multilevel analyses of both individual- and team-level work conditions on mental health. Methodology/approach This study uses multilevel data on 748 high-tech professionals in 120 teams to investigate relationships between team- and individual-level job conditions, work-family conflict, and four mental health outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, perceived stress, and psychological distress). Findings We find that work-to-family conflict is socially patterned across teams, as are job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Team-level job conditions predict team-level outcomes, while individuals’ perceptions of their job conditions are better predictors of individuals’ work-to-family conflict and mental health. Work-to-family conflict operates as a partial mediator between job demands and mental health outcomes. Practical implications Our findings suggest that organizational leaders concerned about presenteeism, sickness absences, and productivity would do well to focus on changing job conditions in ways that reduce job demands and work-to-family conflict in order to promote employees’ mental health. Originality/value of the chapter We show that both work-to-family conflict and job conditions can be fruitfully framed as team characteristics, shared appraisals held in common by team members. This challenges the framing of work-to-family conflict as a “private trouble” and provides support for work-to-family conflict as a structural mismatch grounded in the social and temporal organization of work. PMID:25866431

  5. Conflict management style, supportive work environments and the experience of work stress in emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Mary L; Cadmus, Edna

    2016-03-01

    To examine the conflict management style that emergency department (ED) nurses use to resolve conflict and to determine whether their style of managing conflict and a supportive work environment affects their experience of work stress. Conflict is a common stressor that is encountered as nurses strive to achieve patient satisfaction goals while delivering quality care. How a nurse perceives support may impact work stress levels and how they deal with conflict. A correlational design examined the relationship between supportive work environment, and conflict management style and work stress in a sample of 222 ED nurses using the expanded nurse work stress scale; the survey of perceived organisational support; and the Rahim organisational conflict inventory-II. Twenty seven percent of nurses reported elevated levels of work stress. A supportive work environment and avoidant conflict management style were significant predictors of work stress. Findings suggest that ED nurses' perception of a supportive work environment and their approach to resolving conflict may be related to their experience of work stress. Providing opportunities for ED nurses in skills training in constructive conflict resolution may help to reduce work stress and to improve the quality of patient care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Impact of flexible scheduling on employee performance regarding stress and work-family conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Abdul Ghafoor Khan; Furqan Ahmad Khan; Dr. Muhammad Aslam Khan; Mohsin Shakeel

    2011-01-01

    Stress, work-family conflicts and flexible scheduling are three of the most important elements in organizational studies. The focus of current study is to understand the effect of Stress,work family conflicts and flexible scheduling on employee’s performance and also to understand whether flexible scheduling helps in reducing stress and work-family conflicts or not. The back bone of this study is the secondary data comprised of comprehensive literature review. A survey has also been conducted...

  7. Interaction of core self-evaluations and perceived organizational support on work-to-family enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNall, Laurel A; Masuda, Aline D; Shanock, Linda Rhoades; Nicklin, Jessica M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to offer an empirical test of J. H. Greenhaus and G. N. Powell's (2006) model of work-family enrichment by examining dispositional (i.e., core self-evaluations; CSEs) and situational (i.e., perceived organizational support; POS) factors associated with work-to-family enrichment (WFE) and whether these variables interact in predicting WFE. In a survey of 220 employed adults, our hierarchical regression analysis revealed that in highly supportive work environments, individuals reported high WFE regardless of CSE. However, when POS was low, individuals high in CSEs reported higher WFE than those low in CSEs, in support of conservation of resources theory (S. E. Hobfoll, 2002). Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  8. Relationship Between Intrinsic Motivation and Undergraduate Students' Depression and Stress: The Moderating Effect of Interpersonal Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunhui; Lv, Wei; Wu, Jiang

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the effect of intrinsic academic motivation and interpersonal conflict on the perceived depression and stress. Participants were 537 Chinese undergraduate students (191 males and 346 females; M age = 20.4 years, SD age = 1.3). They completed four scales measuring intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, stress, and depression. Linear regressions were conducted with intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, and their interaction as independent variables to predict depression and stress. Results showed that intrinsic academic motivation was negatively, while interpersonal conflict was positively, associated with depression and stress. Moreover, the interaction was significant: negative association of "intrinsic academic motivation and depression" and that of "intrinsic academic motivation and stress" was weaker among participants who reported higher (vs. lower) levels of interpersonal conflict. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. The Effect of Work Stress and Workplace Conflict on Job Performance at PT. Tirta Investama, Airmadidi

    OpenAIRE

    Massie, Patricia Magda Yull

    2013-01-01

    Many companies are trying to avoid the workplace stress, since it could effects the performance of employee. That's why negative effects of work stress and workplace conflict also become a concern of HR manager. Since those things can bring so many problem like cardiovascular problem, depression and increase the possibility to catch another disease. Work Stress is the adverse reaction people have to exercise pressures and Workplace Conflict contains a variety of personalities that can someth...

  10. Stress resiliency, psychological empowerment and conflict management styles among baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Eula W; Rauschhuber, Maureen L; Norgan, Gary H; Cook, Jennifer D; Canchola, Leticia; Richardson, Cynthia; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2012-07-01

    This article is a report of a Neuman Systems Model-guided correlational study of the relations of stress resiliency, psychological empowerment, selected demographic characteristics (age, ethnicity, semester in school) and conflict management styles. Emerging evidence suggests that stress resiliency and psychological empowerment can strengthen student nurses in academic achievement and coping with stress. Little is known about conflict management styles of students and the relationship to empowerment, resiliency and the implications for managing workplace conflict. A correlational study was conducted in Spring 2010 with 166 baccalaureate students. Most participants were female, single, Hispanic and 25 years old. The data collection instruments included the Stress Resiliency Profile, the Psychological Empowerment Instrument, the Conflict Mode Instrument and a demographic inventory. Descriptive and inferential correlational statistics were used to analyse the data. Students scored in the high range for focusing on their deficiencies in conflict situations; they scored above the 60th percentile for avoiding and accommodating behaviours and were less likely to use competing or collaborating strategies to manage conflict. Empowerment scores were significantly correlated with stress resiliency scores. Students with high scores on empowerment had high scores on the skill recognition subscale of the Stress Resiliency Profile suggesting more resilience; high scores on empowerment were related to high necessitating subscale scores of the Stress Resiliency Profile suggesting a predisposition to stress. Neuman Systems Model may provide guidance for educators to strengthen student nurses' management of stressors in the workplace. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Exploring moral conflicts in speech : Multidisciplinary analysis of affect and stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.; Kim, J.; Truong, K.; de Kort, Y.A.W.; Beute, F.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    Our moral conscience as the "inner light" that guides us shines brighter during moments of ethical conflicts, when we notice a tension between our many oughts and/or wants. We present the first analyses on speech related stress and affect in accounts of moral conflicts. For our exploratory study, we

  12. Exploring Moral Conflicts in Speech: Multidisciplinary Analysis of Affect and Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Minha; Kim, Jaebok; Truong, Khiet; de Kort, Yvonne; Beute, Femke; IJsselsteijn, Wijnand

    2017-01-01

    Our moral conscience as the “inner light” that guides us shines brighter during moments of ethical conflicts, when we notice a tension between our many oughts and/or wants. We present the first analyses on speech related stress and affect in accounts of moral conflicts. For our exploratory study, we

  13. Flexible work arrangements, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions: the mediating role of work-to-family enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNall, Laurel A; Masuda, Aline D; Nicklin, Jessica M

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between the availability of 2 popular types of flexible work arrangements (i.e., flextime and compressed workweek) and work-to-family enrichment and, in turn, the relation between work-to-family enrichment and (a) job satisfaction and (b) turnover intentions. In a sample of 220 employed working adults, hierarchical regression analyses showed that work-to-family enrichment mediated the relation between flexible work arrangements and both job satisfaction and turnover intentions, even after controlling for gender, age, marital status, education, number of children, and hours worked. Thus, the availability of flexible work arrangements such as flextime and compressed workweek seems to help employees experience greater enrichment from work to home, which, in turn, is associated with higher job satisfaction and lower turnover intentions. The authors discuss the implications for research and practice.

  14. Precursors Of Emotional Stability, Stress, And Work-Family Conflict Among Female Bank Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford Kendrick Hlatywayo; Tawanda Zingwe; Tatenda Shaleen Mhlanga; Bukhosi Dumoluhle Mpofu

    2014-01-01

    Women exposure to quality education and equity legislation has accelerated their participation in the workplace. The study investigated the relationship between emotional stability, stress, and work-family conflict among female bank employees in the border region of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Findings highlighted significant positive relationships between work-family conflict, stress, and neuroticism. The findings support most relationships found in literature. Correlations were also fou...

  15. Negative Affectivity, Role Stress, and Work-Family Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Albena Z.; Chiu, Randy K.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2002-01-01

    Measures of job and family stress and negative affectivity were completed by 148 (of 400) Hong Kong civil service employees. Persons with high negative affectivity experience more work and family stress. Job stress was associated with extensive interference of work with family, and family stress with extensive interference of family with work.…

  16. Posttraumatic stress disorder and responses to couple conflict: implications for cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caska, Catherine M; Smith, Timothy W; Renshaw, Keith D; Allen, Steven N; Uchino, Bert N; Birmingham, Wendy; Carlisle, McKenzie

    2014-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and difficulties in intimate relationships. Greater frequency and severity of couple conflict and greater cardiovascular reactivity to such conflict might contribute to CHD risk in those with PTSD, but affective and physiological responses to couple conflict have not been examined previously in this population. In a preliminary test of this hypothesis, 32 male veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars with PTSD and their female partners, and 33 control male veterans without PTSD and their female partners completed relationship quality assessments and a conflict discussion task. PTSD diagnosis was confirmed through diagnostic interviews and questionnaires. State anger, state anxiety, and cardiovascular measures (i.e., blood pressure, heart rate) were recorded during baseline and the conflict discussion. Compared with controls, PTSD couples reported greater couple conflict and less warmth, and displayed pronounced increases in anger and greater increases in systolic blood pressure in response to the conflict task (all ps conflict in veterans with PTSD and their partners. PTSD was associated with greater frequency and severity of couple conflict, and greater anger and cardiovascular reactivity to conflict discussions. Anger and physiological responses to couple discord might contribute to CHD risk in veterans with PTSD, and perhaps their partners, as well. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Factors associated with work-family conflict stress among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Portia L; Secret, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    Job demands and workplace culture variables associated with work-family conflict stress, in addition to workplace racial bias, were examined for a national sample of 607 African American women in 16 Fortune 1000 companies. Similar to other studies, women in this sample who had dependents were younger, had supervisory responsibilities, and experienced a less positive workplace culture, and those in professional job positions with high job demand were most likely to experience work-family stress. Married women who experienced a more subtle form of workplace racial bias reported more work-family conflict stress. Implications for social work policy, practice, and research are considered.

  18. Stress, depression and role conflict in working mothers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-08

    May 8, 2003 ... degrees of stress and psychological disorders, such as depression.8. The connections between stress ... Psychological factors are also important, such as coping styles and psychosocial ..... Psychosomatic medicine 1976; 38 ...

  19. Stress, depression and role conflict in working mothers | Mclean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is believed that depression will be the number one cause of disability worldwide in the year 2020, and stress will be a contributing factor. This is significant for South Africa which is considered to be one of the most highly stressed societies in the world with many social problems that contribute to stress and depression.

  20. The influence of family stress and conflict on depressive symptoms among working married women: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yeong Jun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Ju, Hyun-Jun; Lee, Sang Ah; Lee, Joo Eun; Kim, Woorim; Chun, Sung-Youn; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, researchers examined the association between depressive symptoms and family stress and conflict from multiple roles, along with the combined effect of family stress and family-work conflict. We used data from the 2008-2012 Korean Welfare Panel Study, consisting of 4,663 baseline participants. We measured depressive symptoms using the 11-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. There was a significant relationship between depressive symptoms and family stress and conflict among working married women. With regard to the combined analysis, working married women who reported both family stress and family-work conflict exhibited the highest odds of depressive symptoms.

  1. Does conflict between home and work explain the effect of multiple roles on mental health? A comparative study of Finland, Japan, and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka; Bartley, Mel; Lahelma, Eero; Marmot, Michael; Michikazu, Sekine; Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2004-08-01

    Although there have been a number of studies on the effects of multiple roles on health and how a combination of work and family roles may be either advantageous (role enhancement) or disadvantageous (role strain) for health, there has been relatively little investigation on the psychosocial content of such roles. Work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict could arise from inability to combine multiple roles and result in stress and ill health. The question of whether both types of conflict mediate between the association of multiple roles with health has not been analysed before. This paper sets out to investigate whether: (1) work-to-family conflict or family-to-work conflict contributes towards explaining the association of multiple roles with mental health; (2) the effect of work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict on mental health varies by gender; (3) the effect of work-to-family and family-to-work conflict on mental health vary between countries with different welfare state arrangements and social norms. Cross-sectional data of economically active male and female public sector employees aged 35-60 in London (UK), Helsinki (Finland), and the West Coast of Japan. Linear regression models (separate for each gender and cohort) of SF-36 mental component scores were analysed with role combinations, family-to-work and work-to-family conflict as explanatory variables. Single fathers in all three cohorts and of single mothers in the Helsinki cohort had poor mental health, and this was partly explained by their higher levels family-to-work conflict. Both types of conflict affect the mental health of men and women independently of each other. Japanese women had the greatest conflict and poorest mental health while Helsinki women had the lowest conflict and best mental health. Both work-to-family and family-to-work conflict affect the mental health of men and women in three different countries. Work and family roles and the balance between the two

  2. Impact of work pressure, work stress and work-family conflict on firefighter burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Todd D; DeJoy, David M; Dyal, Mari-Amanda Aimee; Huang, Gaojian

    2017-10-25

    Little research has explored burnout and its causes in the American fire service. Data were collected from career firefighters in the southeastern United States (n = 208) to explore these relationships. A hierarchical regression model was tested to examine predictors of burnout including sociodemographic characteristics (model 1), work pressure (model 2), work stress and work-family conflict (model 3) and interaction terms (model 4). The main findings suggest that perceived work stress and work-family conflict emerged as the significant predictors of burnout (both p < .001). Interventions and programs aimed at these predictors could potentially curtail burnout among firefighters.

  3. A Helping Hand? The Moderating Role of Leaders' Conflict Management Behavior on the Conflict–Stress Relationship of Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romer, M.; Rispens, Sonja; Giebels, Ellen; Euwema, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict between colleagues within organizations negatively affects employee well-being (e.g., stress). It is unclear how leaders' third-party conflict management behaviors influence the relationship between employee conflict and well-being. In this study, we examine the effects of

  4. Neuroticism, work demands, work-family conflict and job stress consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusława Halina Lachowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study was to the determine of neuroticism, requirements of the labor market and work-family conflict while exploring consequences of various aspects of job stress in occupationally active parents. Material and Methods: The investigations covered 159 females and 154 males from families where both parents are occupationally active and bring up at least one child aged up to 12 years. The following consequences of occupational stress were analyzed: the state of psychological health self-reported by the employees (symptoms of somatic disorders, anxiety and insomnia, functioning disorders, symptoms of depression, global distress, as well as distress experienced at work, employee intention to turnover, and job satisfaction. Results: The importance of neuroticism, work demands, and work-family conflict varies when explaining individual consequences of job stress. Of all the predictors analyzed, neuroticism is significantly correlated with the majority of consequences. Having considered the importance of work-family conflict, the role of work demands in understanding various consequences of job stress is much lower or even statistically insignificant. Conclusions: The construction of complex theoretical models, taking account of a wide range of factors related with the sphere of occupational activity, the role of work-family conflict and individual factors, allow for a better understanding of the determinants of job stress and its consequences. Med Pr 2014;65(3:387–398

  5. [Neuroticism, work demands, work-family conflict and job stress consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowska, Bogusława Halina

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to the determine of neuroticism, requirements of the labor market and work-family conflict while exploring consequences of various aspects of job stress in occupationally active parents. The investigations covered 159 females and 154 males from families where both parents are occupationally active and bring up at least one child aged up to 12 years. The following consequences of occupational stress were analyzed: the state of psychological health self-reported by the employees (symptoms of somatic disorders, anxiety and insomnia, functioning disorders, symptoms of depression, global distress), as well as distress experienced at work, employee intention to turnover, and job satisfaction. The importance of neuroticism, work demands, and work-family conflict varies when explaining individual consequences of job stress. Of all the predictors analyzed, neuroticism is significantly correlated with the majority of consequences. Having considered the importance of work-family conflict, the role of work demands in understanding various consequences of job stress is much lower or even statistically insignificant. The construction of complex theoretical models, taking account of a wide range of factors related with the sphere of occupational activity, the role of work-family conflict and individual factors, allow for a better understanding of the determinants of job stress and its consequences.

  6. Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley T. Kerridge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the association between deaths owing to terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence from 1994–2000 and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs attributable to diarrheal and related diseases, schistosomiasis, trachoma and the nematode infections (DSTN diseases in 2002 among World Health Organization Member States. Deaths resulting from terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence were significantly related to DSTN DALYs across the majority of sex–age subgroups of the populace, after controlling for baseline levels of improved water/sanitation and a variety of economic measures: overall, a 1.0% increase in deaths owing to terrorism and related violence was associated with an increase of 0.16% in DALYs lost to DSTN diseases. Associations were greatest among 0-to-4-year olds. The results of the present study suggest that DSTN disease control efforts should target conflict-affected populations with particular attention to young children who suffer disproportionately from DSTN diseases in these settings. In view of the evidence that terrorism and related violence may influence DSTN DALYs in the longer term, control strategies should move beyond immediate responses to decrease the incidence and severity of DSTN diseases to seek solutions through bolstering health systems infrastructure development among conflict-affected populations.

  7. Organizational role stress among medical school faculty members in Iran: dealing with role conflict

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    Brommels Mats

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little research has been conducted to investigate role stress experienced by faculty members in medical schools in developing countries. This becomes even more important when the process of reform in medical education has already taken place, such as the case of Iran. The objectives of this study were to investigate and assess the level and source of role-related stress as well as dimensions of conflict among the faculty members of Iranian medical schools. Variables like the length of academic work, academic rank, employment position, and the departments of affiliation were also taken into consideration in order to determine potentially related factors. Methods A survey was conducted at three different ranks of public medical schools. The validated Organizational Role Stress Scale was used to investigate the level of role stress and dimensions of role conflict among medical faculty members. The response rate was 66.5%. Results The findings show that role stress was experienced in high level among almost all faculty members. All three studied medical schools with different ranks are threatened with relatively the same levels of role stress. Specific differences were found among faculty members from different disciplines, and academic ranks. Also having permanent position and the length of services had significant correlation with the level of role stress. The major role- related stress and forms of conflict among faculty members were role overload, role expectation conflict, inter-role distance, resource inadequacy, role stagnation, and role isolation. Conclusion The most role-related stressors and forms of conflict among faculty members include too many tasks and everyday work load; conflicting demands from colleagues and superiors; incompatible demands from their different personal and organizational roles; inadequate resources for appropriate performance; insufficient competency to meet the demands of their role; inadequate

  8. Aggression in Teachers is Related to Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity as Occupational Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchika, Masaru; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Konish, Akihito; Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Kobayashi, Yumi; Nakada, Akihiro; Inoue, Koki

    2015-12-01

    Aggression in the workplace is increasingly recognized as a serious problem, but there are few studies about worker aggression toward outsiders in the workplace. We investigated the association between aggression and occupational stress among teachers. This was a cross-sectional study of 1583 teachers, principals, and vice-principals. Aggression was measured using the Japanese version of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ). The survey respondents were classified into tertiles according to the BAQ score. The high BAQ group was defined as the upper tertile for the BAQ total score (BAQ total score 625). Occupational stress was measured using the Japanese version of the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire. Comparisons among the groups were performed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Of the 1583 respondents, 488 were included in the high BAQ group. After adjusting for demographic and occupational variables, high role conflict and role ambiguity were significantly associated with belonging to the high BAQ group. In subscales of the BAQ, high role conflict and role ambiguity related to high levels of hostility, and physical aggression. Occupational stress such as role conflict and role ambiguity was associated with aggression among teachers. It is necessary to reduce problems which relates to role conflict and role ambiguity for preventing teachers' aggression.

  9. Associations of Marital Conflict with Emotional and Physiological Stress: Evidence for Different Patterns of Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore theoretically suggested but untested links between interparental conflict and stress physiology in late adolescence. A multi-method study was conducted involving families (n = 42) who previously participated in the University California, Irvine site of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development;…

  10. Stress Responses and Decision Making in Child Protection Workers Faced with High Conflict Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Vicki R.; Regehr, Cheryl; Shlonsky, Aron; Bogo, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The assessment of children at risk of abuse and neglect is a critical societal function performed by child protection workers in situations of acute stress and conflict. Despite efforts to improve the reliability of risk assessments through standardized measures, available tools continue to rely on subjective judgment. The goal of…

  11. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic…

  12. Perceived Job Insecurity and Quality of Life: Testing the Effect of Stress Proliferation from Work to Family Life

    OpenAIRE

    Fehrenbacher, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    The organization of work in the United States has changed dramatically over the last four decades as a result of globalization, industrial shifts, and technological innovation (Burgard et al., 2009; Seigrist & Marmot, 2005; Sverke & Hellgren, 2002). Long-term, stable employment relationships have increasingly been replaced with work arrangements characterized by shorter job tenure and fewer worker protections, leading to an increase in perceived job insecurity (Standing, 2011). Perceived job ...

  13. Investigating the effect of role conflict and role ambiguity on employees' job stress :Articulating the role of work-family conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Soltani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychologists and researchers of management sciences are of great interest in subject of stress and the major reason for this is its impact on psychological well-being and organizational consequences. They also recommend that preventing stress called destructive stress results from factors such as role ambiguity, role uncertainty, and organizational policies, and decreases both the individual and organizational performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of role conflict and role ambiguity on employees' job stress by explaining the role of work-family conflict. The statistical population of this study is comprised of 530 employees of Iran's central insurance. Using stratified random sampling and Cochran's formula, a sample of 118 employees was selected. We used a researcher-made questionnaire for data gathering. The Cronbach's alpha for this questionnaire was .88 and split-half reliability was .80, which represents for a reliable questionnaire. Furthermore, we used content validity and confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the validity of questionnaire. Data analysis was accomplished by structural equation modeling using the LISREL software v 8.7. Research results indicate that the effect of role ambiguity on work-family conflict is statistically significant (p-value = 62.40. Furthermore, the effect of role ambiguity on job stress was confirmed with significance of 1.83. On the other hand, the effect of role conflict on work-family conflict was not confirmed, because its significance value was negative. However, it was found that the job stress is influenced by role conflict (p-value = 2.35. And finally, the effect of work-family conflict on job stress was confirmed with the number of .93 for its significance value.

  14. Working Mothers in Finland: A Cross-Country Comparison of Work to Family Interference, Work Characteristics and Satisfaction with Life

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    Sirpa Weckström

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was examined whether work-related experiences of Finnish mothers are different from work-related experiences of mothers in 11 other European countries. The data was based on European Social Survey, round 2, conducted in the years 2004-2005. Descriptive statistics and ordinal regression analysis were used to assess the outcomes. Work to home interference was not especially frequent among mothers in Finland. However, interference that comprised other family members was more common than in the other countries investigated. With regard to work characteristics, Finnish mothers differed both negatively and positively from mothers in the other countries. Long working hours increased time-based interference from work to family members. Time pressure at work increased both time- and strain-based interferences. Social support from co-workers decreased strain-based interference. Work to family member interferences, especially strain-based interference, were negatively connected to life satisfaction. Both working and non-working mothers in Finland appeared to be satisfied with their life.

  15. [STRESS DUE TO THE WORK-LIFE CONFLICT: ADVICES FROM APPLIED RESEARCH FOR COPING IT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerio, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Unlike most of the work-related stress research, which emphasizes how to manage stressors and maximize the psychological well-being, the present article focuses on one particular kind of stressor: the experience of conflict or interference between demands at work and responsibilities and commitments outside of the work setting, especially in respect offamily life and one's personal life. Referred to as "work-family conflict" or (more recently) "work-life conflict", this stressor has been demonstrated in research since the 1990s to exert a considerable impact on individuals' well-being along with other areas such as family functioning and even performance on the job. In contrast to the intra-role conflict, which refers to interference between roles within a single domain (e.g., the work context), work-family (or work-life) conflict is a form of inter-role interference which occurs when there is conflict across domains. In the 1980s and 1990s, research and writing in this area focused predominantly on work versus family, but in recent years the "non-work" component has been expanded to include other aspects of people's lives. For simplicity, we will refer to the two major spheres as the "work domain" (i.e., a person's paid employment) and the "life domain" (which comprises all other dimensions of life, including family, recreation, community activities and personal life). Although this classification is not entirely appropriate, it enables differentiation between the two spheres.

  16. Relations between mothers' daily work, home, and relationship stress with characteristics of mother-child conflict interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; Boyer, Brittany P; Villarreal, Deyaun L; Smith, Olivia A

    2017-06-01

    This study examined whether daily variations in levels of mothers' work, home, and relationship stress were related to collaborative and oppositional qualities of mother-child conflict interactions across 1 week. Mothers reported on 1 specific conflict interaction with their 5- to 8-year-old child and their work, home, and relationship stress through online surveys each day for 7 consecutive days. Diary data from 142 mothers were analyzed in 6 multilevel models, each including within- and between-family levels of a stressor predicting collaborative or oppositional conflict qualities. Results suggested that families in the sample differed from each other, and also varied during the week, in collaborative and oppositional conflict qualities as well as stress in all 3 domains. Mothers reported a greater degree of oppositional conflict qualities on days characterized by higher perceptions of home chaos. Additionally, mothers who reported higher average levels of negativity in romantic relationships endorsed oppositional conflict qualities to a greater extent than mothers with lower relationship negativity. Two multilevel models including all 3 stressors in relation to collaborative and oppositional conflict revealed that for mothers managing multiple roles, average romantic relationship stress was the most important unique contributor to mother-child conflict qualities and daily relationship stress was particularly influential among mothers with sons compared to those with daughters. Results support the spillover hypothesis of stress within the family system and are discussed in terms of mothers' coping mechanisms and emotional engagement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Anthropological discourses on the globalization of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in post-conflict societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Yavar

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a construct that has moved far beyond its origins in Veterans Administration hospitals after the Vietnam War. It is now commonly used in post-conflict societies by humanitarian agencies and researchers. This article looks at the ever-growing expansion of PTSD and reviews medical anthropologists' critiques of this cross-cultural dissemination of Western psychiatric knowledge. The article also reviews post-conflict ethnographies and their results, which often highlight a mismatch between local priorities and the psycho-social services being provided by outside agencies. Finally, the author highlights interventions that are currently being undertaken by humanitarian agencies in an attempt to bridge psychiatric expertise and local forms of healing. Although PTSD is a useful construct for conceptualizing the experience of those who have suffered traumatic events, it does not lend itself to universal cross-cultural application and should be cautiously applied in post-conflict societies.

  18. The Impact of Performance Appraisal, Reward System, Job Stress, and Work Life Conflict to Employee Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rumambie, Yuliana Fransisca

    2014-01-01

    Employee Performance is an important part in a company or organization. It plays a very important role in an organization because performance of the company or organization largely depends on the performance of its employee. Recently, organizations realize that there are several factors that can affect employee performance. Several factors that can considered as the major determinants of employee performance, such as Performance Appraisal, Reward System, Job Stress, and Work life conflict. Th...

  19. Work-family conflict as a mediator of the work stress - mental health relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Poelmans, Steven

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between work stressors and mental health outcomes has been demonstrated in a whole range of work stress models and studies. But less has been written about factors outside the work setting that might predict or moderate the relationship between work stressors and strain. In this exploratory study, we suggest a model linking work stressors and "time-based" work-family conflict (TWFC) with mental health, with the intention to contribute to the refinement of the traditional work...

  20. Energy and Environmental Drivers of Stress and Conflict in Multi scale Models of Human Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    resolved by the recognition that cities are first and foremost self- organizing social networks embedded in space and enabled by urban infrastructure and...AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 15. SUBJECT TERMS b. ABSTRACT 2. REPORT TYPE 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 5d...Report: Energy and Environmental Drivers of Stress and Conflict in Multi-scale Models of Human Social Behavior The views, opinions and/or findings

  1. Conflict stress and reduced well-being at work : The buffering effect of third-party help

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, E; Janssen, O

    This study among 108 Dutch social services workers examined whether particularly the intrapsychic tension directly associated with interpersonal conflict at work, i.e., conflict stress, is responsible for reduced well-being in terms of emotional exhaustion, absenteeism, and turnover intentions.

  2. What the Person Brings to the Table: Personality, Coping, and Work-Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassi, Jeanine K.

    2011-01-01

    Employees (N = 291) of various industries and companies were surveyed to study how individual factors (coping and personality) affect work-family conflict: strain-based work-to-family conflict (S-WFC), time-based work-to-family conflict (T-WFC), strain-based family-to-work conflict (S-FWC), and time-based family-to-work conflict (T-FWC). As…

  3. Analyzing the Effect of Stress and Task Conflicts Toward Employee Performance at PT. Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Agustian, Desberini Enestha

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, employee often face Stress and Task Conflicts, because there will always be people or things that make them uncomfortable; and it includes people with different opinion whether it as at home or workplace. The researcher did this research in PT. Bank Negara Indonesia (BNI Bank) Persero Tbk. Manado. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of Stress and Task Conflicts on Employee Performance. In this research the researcher uses Associative method with Multiple Regression An...

  4. Perceived Workplace Culture as an Antecedent of Job Stress: The Mediating Role of Work-Family Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Aminah Ahmad; Zoharah Omar

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Few studies have tested the mediating effect of work-family conflict on the relationship between workplace culture and job stress. Approach: This study tested a mediation model consisting of job stress as the dependent variable, perceived family-supportive work culture as the independent variable and work-family conflict as the mediator. Data were gathered from 693 employees from private service organizations in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, using self-administered questionna...

  5. The role of general and occupational stress in the relationship between workaholism and work-family/family-work conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauk, Mateusz; Chodkiewicz, Jan

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of general and occupational stress in the relationship between workaholism (recognized in two ways: as addiction and as behavioral tendency) and the intensity of work-family and family-work conflict. The study included 178 working people. The survey was conducted at three stages - half a year before a holiday, right after the holiday and half a year after the holiday. The Excessive Work Involvement Scale (SZAP) by Golińska for the measurement of workaholism recognized as addiction; The Scale of Workaholism as Behavioral Tendencies (SWBT) by Mudrack and Naughton as adapted by Dudek et al for the measurement of workaholism as behavioral tendency; the Perceived Stress Scale by Cohen et al., as adapted by Juczyński for the measurement of general stress; the Scale of Occupational Stress by Stanton in the adaptation of Dudek and Hauk for measurement of occupational stress; the Scale of Work-Family Conflict WFC/FWC by Netemeyer et al. with the Polish adaptation of A.M. Zalewska. Workaholism was measured once - before a holiday, the explained and intervening variables (the level of conflicts and stress, respectively) were measured at three stages. To test the mediating role of general and occupational stress, hierarchical regression analysis as well as the method of bootstrapping were applied. Our results indicate that general stress is an important mediator of the relationship between workaholism recognized as an addiction and work-family conflicts. Occupational stress turned out to be the only mediator in the relationship between workaholism (recognized as an addiction) and the work-family conflict, noted exclusively in the first stage of the study. Both general and occupational stress were not significant mediators in the relationship between workaholism recognized as a behavioral tendency and the conflicts described.

  6. The role of general and occupational stress in the relationship between workaholism and work-family/family-work conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Hauk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of general and occupational stress in the relationship between workaholism (recognized in two ways: as addiction and as behavioral tendency and the intensity of work-family and familywork conflict. Materials and Methods: The study included 178 working people. The survey was conducted at three stages - half a year before a holiday, right after the holiday and half a year after the holiday. The Excessive Work Involvement Scale (SZAP by Golińska for the measurement of workaholism recognized as addiction; The Scale of Workaholism as Behavioral Tendencies (SWBT by Mudrack and Naughton as adapted by Dudek et al for the measurement of workaholism as behavioral tendency; the Perceived Stress Scale by Cohen et al., as adapted by Juczyński for the measurement of general stress; the Scale of Occupational Stress by Stanton in the adaptation of Dudek and Hauk for measurement of occupational stress; the Scale of Work-Family Conflict WFC/FWC by Netemeyer et al. with the Polish adaptation of A.M. Zalewska. Workaholism was measured once - before a holiday, the explained and intervening variables (the level of conflicts and stress, respectively were measured at three stages. To test the mediating role of general and occupational stress, hierarchical regression analysis as well as the method of bootstrapping were applied. Results and Conclusions: Our results indicate that general stress is an important mediator of the relationship between workaholism recognized as an addiction and work-family conflicts. Occupational stress turned out to be the only mediator in the relationship between workaholism (recognized as an addiction and the work-family conflict, noted exclusively in the first stage of the study. Both general and occupational stress were not significant mediators in the relationship between workaholism recognized as a behavioral tendency and the conflicts described.

  7. Managing complex workplace stress in health care organizations: leaders' perceived legitimacy conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellve, Lotta; Wikström, Ewa

    2009-12-01

    To conceptualize how health care leaders' strategies to increase their influence in their psychosocial work environment are experienced and handled, and may be supported. The complex nature of the psychosocial work environment with increased stress creates significant challenges for leaders in today's health care organizations. Interviews with health care leaders (n = 39) were analysed in accordance with constructivist grounded theory. Compound identities, loyalty commitments and professional interests shape conditions for leaders' influence. Strategies to achieve legitimacy were either to retain clinical skills and a strong occupational identity or to take a full leadership role. Ethical stress was experienced when organizational procedural or consequential legitimacy norms were in conflict with the leaders' own values. Leadership support through socializing processes and strategic support structures may be complementary or counteractive. Support programmes need to have a clear message related to decision-making processes and should facilitate communication between top management, human resource departments and subordinate leaders. Ethical stress from conflicting legitimacy principles may be moderated by clear policies for decision-making processes, strengthened sound networks and improved communication. Supportive programmes should include: (1) sequential and strategic systems for introducing new leaders and mentoring; (2) reflective dialogue and feedback; (3) team development; and (4) decision-making policies and processes.

  8. Individual- and Organization-Level Work-to-Family Spillover Are Uniquely Associated with Hotel Managers' Work Exhaustion and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Davis, Kelly D; Neuendorf, Claudia; Grandey, Alicia; Lam, Chun Bun; Almeida, David M

    2016-01-01

    Building on the Conservation of Resources theory, this paper examined the unique and interactive associations of negative and positive work-to-family spillover (NWFS and PWFS, respectively) at the individual and organizational level with hotel managers' work exhaustion and satisfaction, beyond job demands and supervisors' leadership style. Guided by the levels of analysis framework, we first tested the unique associations of NWFS and PWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction at the individual level (571 hotel managers), beyond job demands supervisors' leadership style. Second, using multilevel modeling, we tested the climate effects of NWFS and PWFS on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction aggregated at the organizational level (41 hotels). Third, we examined the role of the organizational climate of PWFS in the associations of individual-level NWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. Beyond the effects of psychological job demands and supervisor's transformational leadership, at the individual level, hotel managers who experienced higher NWFS than other managers reported more exhaustion and lower job satisfaction, whereas those with higher PWFS reported less exhaustion and higher satisfaction. At the organizational level, working in hotels where the average level of NWFS was higher than other hotels was associated with feeling more exhaustion of the individual members; working in hotels with higher PWFS was associated with feeling less exhaustion. The negative link between individual-level NWFS and job satisfaction was buffered when organization-level PWFS was higher, compared to when it was lower. This study moves beyond a focus on traditional job characteristics, toward considering individual and organizational experiences in the work-family interface as unique predictors of work exhaustion and satisfaction. Strengths of the study include illuminating organizational work-family climate effects such that coworkers' shared experiences of

  9. Ethnic Discrimination, Acculturative Stress, and Family Conflict as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking Among Latina/o Youth: The Mediating Role of Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B

    2015-10-01

    Latino youth can experience a range of cultural (i.e., ethnic discrimination and acculturative stress) and familial (i.e. family conflict) risk factors that can contribute to their perceived stress, thereby increasing their risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. To understand the mechanisms by which ethnic discrimination, acculturative stress and family conflict influence the risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking of youth, the current study investigated the mediating role of perceived stress in these associations. The data came from a longitudinal study of acculturation and substance use with 1919 Latino adolescents (52% female; 84% 14 year-olds; 87% U.S. born). Structural equation modeling indicated that discrimination and family conflict (Time 1) related with higher perceived stress (Time 2), which, in turn, related with more depressive symptoms and smoking (Time 3). The results suggest that perceived stress might be one mechanism by which ethnic discrimination and family conflict contribute to Latino youth symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking. The findings highlight the need for prevention and intervention strategies that help youth manage their general perceived stress and/or focus on stress reduction techniques.

  10. Individual- and Organization-level Work-to-Family Spillover are Uniquely Associated with Hotel Managers' Work Exhaustion and Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soomi Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Building on the Conservation of Resources theory, this paper examined the unique and interactive associations of negative and positive work-to-family spillover (NWFS and PWFS, respectively at the individual and organizational level with hotel managers’ wok exhaustion and satisfaction, beyond job demands and supervisors’ leadership style. Design/methodology/approach: Guided by the levels of analysis framework, we first tested the unique associations of NWFS and PWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction at the individual level (571 hotel managers, beyond job demands supervisors’ leadership style. Second, using multilevel modeling, we tested the climate effects of NWFS and PWFS on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction aggregated at the organizational level (41 hotels. Third, we examined the role of the organizational climate of PWFS in the associations of individual-level NWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. Findings: Beyond the effects of psychological job demands and supervisor’s transformational leadership, at the individual level, hotel managers who experienced higher NWFS than other managers reported more exhaustion and lower job satisfaction, whereas those with higher PWFS reported less exhaustion and higher satisfaction. At the organizational level, working in hotels where the average level of NWFS was higher than other hotels was associated with feeling more exhaustion of the individual members; working in hotels with higher PWFS was associated with feeling less exhaustion. The negative link between individual-level NWFS and job satisfaction was buffered when organization-level PWFS was higher, compared to when it was lower. Originality/value: This study moves beyond a focus on traditional job characteristics, toward considering individual and organizational experiences in the work-family interface as unique predictors of work exhaustion and satisfaction. Strengths of the study include

  11. WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT IN SOUTH ASIA: THE CASE OF PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Sumaiya; Memon, Salman; Goraya, Nasreen; Schalk, M.J.D.; Freese, C

    2016-01-01

    This study gives a picture of work-family conflict in South Asia, specifically the views of Pakistani Bank employees on antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflicts. We use the framework of the psychological contract to understand work-to family conflict for both employees and managers, to see how work-to family conflict might be resolved. Twenty bank employees, including three executives were selected from three privatized banks and two private Banks in Pakistan. Semi-structured intervi...

  12. Disruptive staff interactions: a serious source of inter-provider conflict and stress in health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Mona; Stecker, Mark M

    2014-07-01

    This study sought to explore the prevalence of workplace stress, gender differences, and the relationship of workplace incivility to the experience of stress. Effects of stress on performance have been explored for many years. Work stress has been at the root of many physical and psychological problems and has even been linked to medical errors and suboptimal patient outcomes. In this study, 617 respondents completed a Provider Conflict Questionnaire (PCQ) as well as a ten-item stress survey. Work was the main stressor according to 78.2% of respondents. The stress index was moderately high, ranging between 10 and 48 (mean = 25.5). Females demonstrated a higher stress index. Disruptive behavior showed a significant positive correlation with increased stress. This study concludes that employees of institutions with less disruptive behavior exhibited lower stress levels. This finding is important in improving employee satisfaction and reducing medical errors. It is difficult to retain experienced nurses, and stress is a significant contributor to job dissatisfaction. Moreover, workplace conflict and its correlation to increased stress levels must be managed as a strategy to reduce medical errors and increase job satisfaction.

  13. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predict post-traumatic stress disorder in postpartum African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Nancy J; Fry-McComish, Judith; Chiodo, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    To describe relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and post-traumatic stress in African-American postpartum women. Cumulative trauma exposure estimates for women in the USA range from 51-69%. During pregnancy, most trauma research has focused on physical injury to the mother. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with trauma and more prevalent in African-American women than women of other groups. Knowledge about both the rate and impact of cumulative trauma on pregnancy may contribute to our understanding of women seeking prenatal care, and disparities in infant morbidity and mortality. This retrospective, correlational, cross-sectional study took place on postpartum units of two Detroit hospitals. Participants were 150 African-American women aged between 18-45 who had given birth. Mothers completed the Cumulative Trauma Scale, Conflict Tactics Scale, Clinician Administered Post-traumatic Stress Scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and a Demographic Data form. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple regressions were used for data analysis. All participants reported at least one traumatic event in their lifetime. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predicted PTSD, with the trauma of a life-threatening event for a loved one reported by 60% of the sample. Nearly, one-fourth of the women screened were at risk for PTSD. Increased cumulative trauma, increased partner conflict and lower level of education were related to higher rates of PTSD symptoms. Both cumulative trauma and partner conflict in the past year predict PTSD. Reasoning was used most often for partner conflict resolution. The results of this study offer additional knowledge regarding relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and PTSD in African-American women. Healthcare providers need to be sensitive to patient life-threatening events, personal failures, abuse and other types of trauma. Current evidence supports the need to assess for

  14. The impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms on social support and social conflict during hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhart, James I; Asvat, Yasmin; Lillis, Teresa A; Fung, Henry; Grosse, Johanna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2018-01-01

    Social support and its relationship to psychological distress are of interest in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) as patients are dependent on caregivers pre-, during, and posttransplant.  Although social support is critical for managing stress and trauma, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) may erode social support and evoke conflict and abandonment within the support system. This study aimed to evaluate whether PTSS were associated with lower support and social conflict in a sample of patients undergoing HSCT. Prospective relationships between PTSS, perceived social support, and social conflict were assessed in 88 participants across the first three months of HSCT (T0 Baseline; T1 +30; T2 +60; T3 +90). When individuals experienced increase above their own average levels of PTSS, they reported concurrent increase in social conflict (p social support in the following month (p = .026). Results suggest PTSS during stem cell transplantation may evoke social conflict, but over time, the support system may recalibrate to be more supportive. Patients undergoing HSCT may benefit from family and social-level interventions that specifically target the incidence of interpersonal conflict as it unfolds during the initial stages of HSCT.

  15. Only reappraisers profit from reappraisal instructions: Effects of instructed and habitual reappraisal on stress responses during interpersonal conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauersberger, Heidi; Hoppe, Annekatrin; Brockmann, Gudrun; Hess, Ursula

    2018-04-22

    Conflicts are an undesirable yet common aspect of daily interactions with wide-ranging negative consequences. The present research aimed to examine the buffering effect of experimentally instructed reappraisal on self-reported, physiological and behavioral stress indices during interpersonal conflicts, taking into account habitual emotion regulation strategies. For this, 145 participants experienced a standardized laboratory conflict with the instruction to either reappraise (n = 48), to suppress (n = 50), or with no instruction (n = 47) while cardiovascular and neuroendocrine measures were taken. Participants were allowed to eat sweet and salty snacks during the conflict situation. Prior to as well as after the conflict, participants reported on their subjective stress level. Reappraisal instructions were only effective for high habitual reappraisers who exhibited lower cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity and demonstrated fewer snack-eating behaviors under reappraisal instructions than under suppression or no instructions. The opposite pattern emerged for low habitual reappraisers. Neither experimentally instructed nor habitual reappraisal by itself reduced the negative effects of conflicts. Our findings complement the literature on the diverging effects of instructed reappraisal in tense social interactions. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  16. Daily patterns of stress and conflict in couples: Associations with marital aggression and family-of-origin aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Adela C; Arbel, Reout; Margolin, Gayla

    2017-02-01

    For many married individuals, the ups and downs of daily life are connected such that stressors impacting one person also impact the other person. For example, stress experienced by one individual may "spill over" to negatively impact marital functioning. This study used both partners' daily diary data to examine same-day and cross-day links between stress and marital conflict and tested several factors that make couples vulnerable to spillover. Assessment of 25 wide-ranging sources of daily stress included both paid and unpaid work, health issues, financial concerns, and having to make difficult decisions. Results showed that both husbands' and wives' experiences of total daily stress were associated with greater same-day marital conflict and that conflict was greater on days both spouses experienced high levels of stress. Evidence of cross-day spillover was found only in those couples with high concurrent marital aggression and in couples where wives reported high family-of-origin aggression. These results highlight both the common, anticipated nature of same-day spillover and the potentially problematic aspects of more prolonged patterns representing failure to recover from stressors that occurred the previous day. The discussion focuses on how reactivity in one life domain puts that individual at risk for generating stress in another life domain and how current marital aggression and family-of-origin aggression are associated with difficulty recovering from stressful events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Daily Patterns of Stress and Conflict in Couples: Associations with Marital Aggression and Family-of-Origin Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Adela C.; Arbel, Reout; Margolin, Gayla

    2016-01-01

    For many married individuals, the ups and downs of daily life are connected such that stressors impacting one person also impact the other person. For example, stress experienced by one individual may “spill over” to negatively impact marital functioning. This study used both partners’ daily diary data to examine same-day and cross-day links between stress and marital conflict and tested several factors that make couples vulnerable to spillover. Assessment of 25 wide-ranging sources of daily stress included both paid and unpaid work, health issues, financial concerns, and having to make difficult decisions. Results showed that both husbands and wives’ experience of total daily stress were associated with greater same-day marital conflict and that conflict was greater on days both spouses experienced high levels of stress. Evidence of cross-day spillover was found only in those couples with high concurrent marital aggression and in couples where wives reported high family-of-origin aggression. These results highlight both the common, anticipated nature of same-day spillover and the potentially problematic aspects of more prolonged patterns representing failure to recover from stressors that occurred the previous day. The discussion focuses on how reactivity in one life domain puts that individual at risk for generating stress in another life domain and how current marital aggression and family-of-origin aggression are associated with difficulty recovering from stressful events. PMID:27504754

  18. Refining the multisystem view of the stress response: coordination among cortisol, alpha-amylase, and subjective stress in response to relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Powers, Sally I; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-07-02

    This study investigated associations among young adults' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, autonomic nervous system activity, and subjective stress in response to interpersonal conflict to better characterize coordination across stress systems. Seven saliva samples were collected from 199 young adult opposite-sex couples before, during, and after they discussed an unresolved relationship conflict. Samples were later assayed for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA). Couples rated anticipatory stress prior to the conflict and perceived stress immediately following the task. Growth curve modeling was used to examine two possible levels of within-person coordination across physiological systems: alignment between cortisol and sAA responses throughout the sampling period ("matched phase coordination"), and association between overall levels of cortisol and sAA in response to conflict ("average level coordination"). Whereas both partners showed the former type of coordination, only women showed the latter type. Positive anticipation of the stressor predicted stronger cortisol-sAA matched phase coordination for women. Pre-task ratings related to women's sAA, and post-task ratings related to both partners' cortisol responses. Implications for a multisystem interpretation of normal and pathological responses to daily stress are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Refining the multisystem view of the stress response: Coordination among cortisol, alpha-amylase, and subjective stress in response to relationship conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sally I.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations among young adults' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, autonomic nervous system activity, and subjective stress in response to interpersonal conflict to better characterize coordination across stress systems. Seven saliva samples were collected from 199 young adult opposite-sex couples before, during, and after they discussed an unresolved relationship conflict. Samples were later assayed for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA). Couples rated anticipatory stress prior to the conflict and perceived stress immediately following the task. Growth curve modeling was used to examine two possible levels of within-person coordination across physiological systems: alignment between cortisol and sAA responses throughout the sampling period (“matched phase coordination”), and association between overall levels of cortisol and sAA in response to conflict (“average level coordination”). Whereas both partners showed the former type of coordination, only women showed the latter type. Positive anticipation of the stressor predicted stronger cortisol-sAA matched phase coordination for women. Pre-task ratings related to women's sAA, and post-task ratings related to both partners' cortisol responses. Implications for a multisystem interpretation of normal and pathological responses to daily stress are discussed. PMID:23684904

  20. Family-Work Conflict and Type-E Personality as Stress Inducers in Married Female Nigerian University Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobola, A. A.; Nwoha, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    This piece of article is culled from a larger study. The study investigated the relationship between family-work conflict, Type-E personality and stress in married female Nigerian University Administrators. The study adopted ex-post facto design. The sample consisted of 800 female administrators in the senior cadre of executive/administrative…

  1. [Stress syndrome in patients receiving outpatient treatment at the General Hospital, in Bangui, in a context of armed conflict].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpembi, Magloire Nkosi; Lukeba, Thierry; Mayemba, Damien; Massamba, Victoria Kubuta; Ma Nzuzi, Thierry Matonda; Gokara, Symphorien; Vermeiren, Etienne; Mananga Lelo, Gilbert; Ma Miezi, Samuel Mampunza

    2018-01-01

    in Africa's zones of conflict, recent studies report a high frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) particularly in community settings. This study aimed to contribute to a better management of patients experiencing violence subsequent to the Central African Republic socio-political conflict. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the medical records of patients receiving outpatient treatment in the Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (France) Trauma Center, Bangui. 33.33% (n=35) of patients had PTSD, while 17.14% (n=18) of patients had acute stress syndrome. Stress syndrome (SS) was associated with female sex, rape, anxiety and depression. Rape multiplied the risk of SS occurrence by 8. The average age was 30 years (P25:22 years; P75:40 years). The majority of patients had mood disorder (63.81%; n=67). Insomnia was present in 62.83% (n=66) of patients. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was present in 44.76 % of patients. Depression was found in 40.95% (n=43) of patients. The obtained results show how the society, apart from militia members, is affected by conflict-related violence in the country. These results can enrich the reflections on health organisation and on the management of patients in Central African, by considering the impact of conflict-related acute stress syndome in the short, medium and long term.

  2. [Work-to-family influence and social supports: job satisfaction in a north-Italy public health organization --differences between medical and administrative staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Lara; Zito, Margherita; Ghislieri, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in the well-being at work has grown considerably, also considering the latest law directives. Several scholars have devoted particular attention to the topic of the work-to-family influence and of social supports, as elements able to affect the perceived well-being. The well-being in health care has to consider the particular nature of work and the relevant relational dimensions that require special attention for the emotional side. The research was promoted by the Committee for Equal Opportunities of a public health organization in the North-West Italy. Referring to the job demands-resources theoretical model, this study investigated the role of organizational and family supports, work-to-family spillover (positive and negative) and family workload as possible determinants of job satisfaction, intended as an indicator of psychological well-being at work. Respondents to the questionnaire are 541 (55% of the total employees), their average age is 43 and they are mostly women (80%). Data analysis showed the central role of supervisors supports, of the co-workers supports and, to a lesser extent, the role of the work-to-family spillover in influencing job satisfaction. Moreover, significant differences between medical and administrative staff were detected. The centrality of supports, especially those of supervisors in determining job satisfaction, is in line with studies indicating that a supportive leadership and a family-friendly culture can facilitate the arise of positive outcomes for both workers and organizations.

  3. Job Stress with Supervisor’s Social Support as a Determinant of Work Intrusion on Family Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary objective of this study is to examine the influence of supervisor’s social support in the correlation between job stress and work intrusion on family conflict.Design/methodology/approach: A survey method was employed to gather survey questionnaires from academic staff in a Malaysian government university in Borneo. Findings: The outcomes of SmartPLS path model showed three major findings: first, supervisor’s social support does act as an important moderating variable in the relationship between role ambiguity and work intrusion on family conflict. Second, supervisor’s social support does not act as an important moderating variable in the relationship between role conflict and work intrusion on family conflict. Third, supervisor’s social support does not act as an important moderating variable in the relationship between role overload and work intrusion on family conflict. In sum, supervisor’s social support does act as a partial moderating variable in the hypothesized model.Practical implications: The findings of this study can be used as guidelines by management to overcome job stress problems through updating the content and methods of stress management training program, strengthening work groups and group cohesiveness in executing job, improving work-life balance programs to reduce the employee physiological and psychological stresses, revisiting the existing job designs based on the qualifications and expectations of individual employees, and  revising compensation and benefits policies and procedures to cover stress-related disorder diseases, and activating internal employee assistance programme in order to help employees and their families with problems arising from both work-related and external resources. If these suggestions are given highly attention this may increase the capability of employees to enhance the performance of institutions of higher learning.Originality/value: The role of supervisor

  4. Group antenatal intervention to reduce perinatal stress and depressive symptoms related to intergenerational conflicts: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sharron S K; Lam, T H

    2012-11-01

    Intergenerational conflicts are a major source of stress, which might lead to depression in new mothers. The conflict is heightened when grandparents are involved in childcare. To examine the effectiveness of an interpersonal psychotherapy oriented group intervention to reduce stress and depressive symptoms in new mothers and enhance happiness and self-efficacy in managing intergenerational conflict in childcare. This study is one of the intervention projects of FAMILY: A Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society, funded by The Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust. Multisite randomized controlled trial with two arms: an intervention group attended an additional 4-week program and a control group who received usual care only. Six Maternal and Child Health Centres in Hong Kong From September 2009 to January 2010, 156 pregnant women who would have grandparents involved in childcare were recruited at their 14-32 weeks' gestation. Participants were randomized to groups using computer generated random sequences by blinded recruitment staff. Primary outcomes were stress and depressive symptoms immediately after the intervention and 6-8 weeks after delivery. Secondary outcomes were happiness and self-efficacy in managing conflict. After screening 2870 pregnant women, 156 eligible participants were randomized. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that the intervention group (n=78) had significantly lower perceived stress (p=0.017; Cohen d=0.38) and greater happiness (p=0.004; Cohen d=0.41) than the control group (n=78) immediately after the intervention. However, the effects were not sustained at postnatal follow-up. Subgroup analysis showed that participants with depressive symptoms (EPDS>12) at baseline reported significantly lower stress, greater happiness (p=0.035 and 0.037, respectively; both Cohen d=0.61), greater self-efficacy in managing conflict (p=0.012; Cohen d=0.76) than the control group after the intervention. Also, after delivery, they had significantly

  5. Work–Family Conflict and Mental Health Among Female Employees: A Sequential Mediation Model via Negative Affect and Perceived Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Shiyi Zhou; Shu Da; Heng Guo; Xichao Zhang

    2018-01-01

    After the implementation of the universal two-child policy in 2016, more and more working women have found themselves caught in the dilemma of whether to raise a baby or be promoted, which exacerbates work–family conflicts among Chinese women. Few studies have examined the mediating effect of negative affect. The present study combined the conservation of resources model and affective events theory to examine the sequential mediating effect of negative affect and perceived stress in the relat...

  6. Job stress with supervisor’s social support as a determinant of work Intrusion on family conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Azman; Suhaimi, Fara Farihana; Bakar, Rizal Abu; Alam, Syed Shah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study is to examine the influence of supervisor’s social support in the correlation between job stress and work intrusion on family conflict.Design/methodology/approach: A survey method was employed to gather survey questionnaires from academic staff in a Malaysian government university in Borneo. Findings: The outcomes of SmartPLS path model showed three major findings: first, supervisor’s social support does act as an important moderating variable in t...

  7. The relationship between job satisfaction, work stress, work?family conflict, and turnover intention among physicians in Guangdong, China: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yong; Hu, Xiao-Min; Huang, Xiao-Liang; Zhuang, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Pi; Feng, Li-Fen; Hu, Wei; Chen, Long; Zou, Huachun; Hao, Yuan-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between job satisfaction, work stress, work?family conflict and turnover intention, and explore factors associated with turnover intention, among physicians in Guangdong Province, China. Methods From August to October 2013, physicians completed questionnaires and scales with regard to their job satisfaction, work stress, work?family conflict, and turnover intention. Binary logistic regression and structural equation modelling (SEM) were used in data a...

  8. Work-family conflict as a mediator between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Norio; Danjo, Kazuma; Furukori, Hanako; Sato, Yasushi; Tomita, Tetsu; Fujii, Akira; Nakagami, Taku; Kitaoka, Kazuyo; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Occupational stress among mental health nurses may affect their psychological health, resulting in reduced performance. To provide high-quality, sustainable nursing care, it is necessary to identify and control the factors associated with psychological health among mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of work-family conflict (WFC) in the well-known relationship between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan. In this cross-sectional study, data were gathered from 180 mental health nurses who had a coresident child or were married. Data from the Work-Family Conflict Scale, the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale were obtained via self-report questionnaires. The effects of occupational stress and WFC on psychological health were explored by hierarchical linear regression analysis. The relationship between emotional exhaustion and occupational factors, including quantitative workload and the variance in workload, disappeared with the addition of WFC (each work interference with family [WIF] or family interference with work [FIW]). The relationship between emotional exhaustion and mental demands disappeared only with the addition of WIF. The relationship between depressive symptoms and variance in workload disappeared with the addition of WFC (each WIF or FIW). Our findings may encourage hospital administrators to consider the risks of medical staff WFC. Furthermore, longitudinal investigations into the factors associated with WFC are required for administrative and psychological interventions.

  9. Stress-buffering Effect of Coping Strategies on Interrole Conflict among Family Caregivers of People with Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Hiroshi; Furuta, Nobuo; Kono, Mitsue; Kabeya, Mayumi

    2017-08-23

    To examine the stress-buffering effect of coping strategies on the adverse effects of interrole conflict on the mental health of employed family caregivers, and clarify the moderating role of attentional control on this stress-buffering effect. Data were drawn from a two-wave longitudinal online survey of employed Japanese family caregivers of people with dementia (263 males, 116 females; age 51.54 ± 9.07 years). We assessed interrole conflict, coping strategies, attentional control, mental health variables (psychological strain and quality of life), and confounding factors. Hierarchical regression analyses controlled for sociodemographic factors found formal support seeking had a stress-buffering effect for strain- and behavior-based caregiving interfering with work (CIW) only on psychological strain, and was moderated by attentional control. Single slope analysis showed higher CIW was related to higher psychological strain in those with greater use of formal support seeking and lower attentional control, but not in those with higher attentional control. Greater use of formal support seeking weakens the adverse effects of strain- and behavior-based CIW on psychological strain in people with high attentional control. Attentional control is a key factor in the stress-buffering effect of formal support seeking on strain- and behavior-based CIW.

  10. Well-Being and Safety among Inpatient Psychiatric Staff: The Impact of Conflict, Assault, and Stress Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Erin L.; Fenwick, Karissa; Brekke, John S.; Novaco, Raymond W.

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric staff are faced with multiple forms of hostility, aggression, and assault at work, collectively referred to as workplace violence, which typically is activated by patients but can also come from coworkers and supervisors. Whether workplace violence adversely affects staff well-being may be related not only to its presence, but also to an individual’s stress reactivity. At a large public psychiatric hospital, an online survey was completed by 323 clinical care staff, of whom 69.5% had experienced physical assault in the previous 12 months. Staff well-being (depression, anger, and physical health) and staff safety concerns were adversely affected by conflicts with other staff members and by individual reactivity to social conflict and to assault. To improve staff well-being, in addition to safety protocols, interventions should target staff relationships, personal health maintenance practices, and individual coping skills for dealing with adverse workplace experiences. PMID:26377816

  11. What is role of sex and age differences in marital conflict and stress of patients under Cardiac Rehabilitation Program?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Komasi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the role of sex and age differences in marital conflict and stress of patients who were under cardiac rehabilitation (CR program. METHODS: The data of this cross-sectional study were collected from the database of the CR Department of Imam Ali Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran. The demographics and medical data of 683 persons were collected from January 2003 and January 2010 using medical records, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hudson’s Index of Marital Stress, and the Structured Clinical Interview for axis I disorders. Data were analyzed through Analysis of Covariance and Bonferroni test. RESULTS: About 74.8% of the subjects were male. After adjustment for age, educational level, anxiety, and depression-the findings showed that women in CR program had a higher level of marital stress compared to men (54.75 ± 2.52 vs. 49.30 ± 0.89; P = 0.042. Furthermore, it was revealed that women who aged 56-65 years and more experienced higher level of marital stress compared to younger patients (P < 0.050; however, no significant difference was observed between different age groups in male patients (P > 0.050. CONCLUSION: Marital conflict and stress threaten healthiness of women who aged 56-65 years more prominently than does in males or younger patients. Regarding the effect of marital stress on recurrence of the disease and cardiac-related morbidity and mortality in women, providing effective education and interventions to this group of patients, especially older women and even their spouses could be one of the useful objectives of CR programs. 

  12. What is role of sex and age differences in marital conflict and stress of patients under Cardiac Rehabilitation Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komasi, Saeid; Saeidi, Mozhgan

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the role of sex and age differences in marital conflict and stress of patients who were under cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. The data of this cross-sectional study were collected from the database of the CR Department of Imam Ali Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran. The demographics and medical data of 683 persons were collected from January 2003 and January 2010 using medical records, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hudson's Index of Marital Stress, and the Structured Clinical Interview for axis I disorders. Data were analyzed through Analysis of Covariance and Bonferroni test. About 74.8% of the subjects were male. After adjustment for age, educational level, anxiety, and depression-the findings showed that women in CR program had a higher level of marital stress compared to men (54.75 ± 2.52 vs. 49.30 ± 0.89; P = 0.042). Furthermore, it was revealed that women who aged 56-65 years and more experienced higher level of marital stress compared to younger patients (P age groups in male patients (P > 0.050). Marital conflict and stress threaten healthiness of women who aged 56-65 years more prominently than does in males or younger patients. Regarding the effect of marital stress on recurrence of the disease and cardiac-related morbidity and mortality in women, providing effective education and interventions to this group of patients, especially older women and even their spouses could be one of the useful objectives of CR programs.

  13. A Two-Study Examination of Work-Family Conflict, Production Deviance and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Merideth; Carlson, Dawn; Hunter, Emily M.; Whitten, Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    Building on the spillover and crossover literatures of work-family conflict and the theoretical framework of Conservation of Resources Theory (Hobfoll, 1989) we examine the effects of conflict on production deviance. Using a two-study constructive replication and extension design, we examine how partner work-to-family conflict contributes to job…

  14. Work-family conflict in South Asia : The case of Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syed, S.; Memon, S.B.; Goraya, N.A.; Schalk, R.; Freese, C.

    2016-01-01

    This study gives a picture of work-family conflict in South Asia, specifically the views of Pakistani Bank employees on antecedents and outcomes of work -family conflicts. We use the framework of the psychological contract to understand work-to family conflict for both employees and managers, to see

  15. The relationship among work-family conflict and enhancement, organizational work-family culture, and work outcomes for older working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Judith R; Whelan-Berry, Karen S; Hamilton, Elizabeth A

    2007-10-01

    This article examines the relationship among work-family conflict and enhancement, organizational work-family culture, and four work outcomes for 489 working women over the age of 50. Survey results from two U.S. health care organizations and one U.S. financial services organization indicate that older working women experience differing amounts of work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, work-to-family enhancement, and family-to-work enhancement. Hypotheses relating organizational work-family culture to work-family conflict and enhancement were partially supported, and hypotheses relating conflict and enhancement to four work outcomes were partially supported. Work-to-family conflict and work-to-family enhancement partially mediate the relationship between organizational work-family culture and selected work outcomes. Implications for theory and practice, limitations of this study, and directions for future research are also presented.

  16. The effects of supervisors' supportive role, job stress, and work-family conflicts on the nurses' attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Payam; Sharifian, Roxana; Feili, Ardalan; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2013-01-01

    This study developed and tested a research model that examined the effects of supervisor support (SUPPORT), work-family conflict (W-FCON), family-work conflict (F-WCON), and job stress (JSTRESS) on a number of selected consequences using data collected from nurses and nurse axillaries in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences hospitals in Fars province (south of Iran). The results demonstrated that W-FCON and F-WCON exerted a significant positive influence on JSTRESS. Contrary to the study hypothesis, the results did not provide any empirical support for the significant negative relationship between W-FCON, F-WCON, and JSTRESS with family satisfaction (FSAT). The findings further revealed that higher JSTRESS led to lower life satisfaction (LSAT). As expected, high levels of FSAT resulted in increased LSAT. However, this study failed to find significant negative relationships between conflicts in the work-family interface and LSAT. The results also revealed that JSTRESS was not significantly associated with LSAT. Consonant with the study hypotheses, W-FCON, F-WCON, and JSTRESS were found to be significant for turnover intentions, whereas LSAT did not. Implications for managers and future research directions are presented.

  17. Stress Regulation in Adolescents: Physiological Reactivity during the Adult Attachment Interview and Conflict Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijersbergen, Marielle D.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescents' attachment representations were associated with differences in emotion regulation during the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1996) and during a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task (Family Interaction Task [FIT]; J. P. Allen et al., 2003). Participants…

  18. Conflict about conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehn, K.A.; Rispens, S.; Thatcher, S.M.B.; Mannix, E.; Neale, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – There are a number of ongoing debates in the organizational literature about conflict in groups and teams. We investigate two "conflicts about conflict" (i.e., two meta-conflicts) in the literature: we examine whether and under what conditions conflict in workgroups might be beneficial and

  19. Work–family conflict as a mediator between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara N

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Norio Sugawara,1,2 Kazuma Danjo,3 Hanako Furukori,4 Yasushi Sato,2,5 Tetsu Tomita,2,6 Akira Fujii,7 Taku Nakagami,2,8 Kazuyo Kitaoka,9 Norio Yasui-Furukori2 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Translational Medical Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori, 3Mizoguchi Mental Hospital, Shizuoka, 4Department of Psychiatry, Kuroishi-Akebono Hospital, Kuroishi, 5Department of Psychiatry, Mutsu General Hospital, Mutsu, 6Department of Psychiatry, Hirosaki-Aiseikai Hospital, Kitazono, Hirosaki, 7Department of Psychiatry, Seihoku-Chuoh Hospital, Goshogawara, Aomori, 8Department of Psychiatry, Odate Municipal General Hospital, Odate, Akita, 9Mental Health Nursing, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan Background: Occupational stress among mental health nurses may affect their psychological health, resulting in reduced performance. To provide high-quality, sustainable nursing care, it is necessary to identify and control the factors associated with psychological health among mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of work–family conflict (WFC in the well-known relationship between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were gathered from 180 mental health nurses who had a coresident child or were married. Data from the Work–Family Conflict Scale, the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale were obtained via self-report questionnaires. The effects of occupational stress and WFC on psychological health were explored by hierarchical linear regression analysis. Results: The relationship between emotional exhaustion and occupational factors, including

  20. Managing Organizational Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali PATHAK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of conflict, being an outcome of behaviours, is an integral part of human life. Wherever there is a difference of opinion there are chances of conflict. Managing conflict effectively demands multifarious professional abilities and acumen. To resolve and manage conflict, the organisations must understand the causes, theories, approaches and strategies of conflict management. Conflict and stress are interlinked as they are dependent on each other. It is a psychological phenomenon that requires a high level of attention and thorough understanding. It appears that there is a very little margin to remain unaffected from the clutches of stress in contemporary time.

  1. Occupational Stress, Work-Family Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Bank Employees: The Role of Psychological Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Dan; Yu, Xiaosong

    2016-01-16

    Although depression is a major problem affecting the physical and mental health of the occupational population worldwide, little research is available among bank employees. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of occupational stress and work-family conflict on depressive symptoms and the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap). A cross-sectional study was performed from May to June in 2013 in Liaoning province, China. The effort-reward imbalance (ERB) scale, the work-family conflict scale, the PsyCap questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale were completed by 1546 employees in state-owned banks. A total of 1239 effective respondents (467 men and 772 women) became our subjects. Hierarchical regression analysis was carried out to explore the effects of extrinsic effort, reward, overcommitment, work-family conflict, and PsyCap on depressive symptoms. The mediating role of PsyCap was examined using Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies. The mean score of depressive symptoms was 18.4 (SD = 7.6) among the Chinese bank employees. Extrinsic effort, overcommitment and work-family conflict were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Reward and PsyCap were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. The significant mediating roles of PsyCap in the associations of extrinsic effort (a*b = 0.046, BCa 95% CI: 0.029, 0.066) and reward (a*b = -0.047, BCa 95% CI: -0.065, -0.030) with depressive symptoms were revealed. There is a high level of depressive symptoms among Chinese bank employees. PsyCap partially mediates the effects of extrinsic effort and reward on depressive symptoms. Investing in PsyCap may provide new approaches to improve mental health among Chinese bank employees.

  2. Measuring Men's Gender Norms and Gender Role Conflict/Stress in a High HIV-Prevalence South African Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottert, Ann; Barrington, Clare; Pettifor, Audrey; McNaughton-Reyes, Heath Luz; Maman, Suzanne; MacPhail, Catherine; Kahn, Kathleen; Selin, Amanda; Twine, Rhian; Lippman, Sheri A

    2016-08-01

    Gender norms and gender role conflict/stress may influence HIV risk behaviors among men; however scales measuring these constructs need further development and evaluation in African settings. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to evaluate the Gender Equitable Men's Scale (GEMS) and the Gender Role Conflict/Stress (GRC/S) scale among 581 men in rural northeast South Africa. The final 17-item GEMS was unidimensional, with adequate model fit and reliability (alpha = 0.79). Factor loadings were low (0.2-0.3) for items related to violence and sexual relationships. The final 24-item GRC/S scale was multidimensional with four factors: Success, power, competition; Subordination to women; Restrictive emotionality; and Sexual prowess. The scale had adequate model fit and good reliability (alpha = 0.83). While GEMS is a good measure of inequitable gender norms, new or revised scale items may need to be explored in the South African context. Adding the GRC/S scale to capture men's strain related to gender roles could provide important insights into men's risk behaviors.

  3. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Post-Traumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and post-traumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children’s self-esteem, and academic achievement, moderate the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence and subsequent post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Method We collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old; approximately half of each gender) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Results Greater cumulative exposure to ethnic-political conflict/violence across the first two waves of the study predicted higher subsequent PTS symptoms even when we controlled for the child’s initial level of PTS symptoms. This relation was significantly moderated by a youth’s self-esteem and by the positive parenting received by the youth. In particular, the longitudinal relation between exposure to violence and subsequent PTS symptoms was significant for low self-esteem youth and for youth receiving little positive parenting but was non-significant for children with high levels of these protective resources. Conclusions Our findings show that youth most vulnerable to PTS symptoms as a result of exposure to ethnic-political violence are those with lower levels of self-esteem and who experience low levels of positive parenting. Interventions for war-exposed youth should test whether boosting self-esteem and positive parenting might reduce subsequent levels of PTS symptoms. PMID:22594697

  4. Predicting adolescent posttraumatic stress in the aftermath of war: differential effects of coping strategies across trauma reminder, loss reminder, and family conflict domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kathryn H; Kaplow, Julie B; Layne, Christopher M; Benson, Molly A; Compas, Bruce E; Katalinski, Ranka; Pasalic, Hafiza; Bosankic, Nina; Pynoos, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of youth who lived through the Bosnian war were exposed to multiple traumatic events, including interpersonal violence, community destruction, and the loss of a loved one. This study examined factors that predict post-war psychological adjustment, specifically posttraumatic stress, in Bosnian adolescents. Regression analyses evaluated theorized differential relations between three types of post-war stressors - exposure to trauma reminders, loss reminders, and intrafamilial conflict - specific coping strategies, and posttraumatic stress symptom dimensions. We examined 555 Bosnian adolescents, aged 15-19 years, to predict their long-term posttraumatic stress reactions in the aftermath of war. Findings indicated that post-war exposure to trauma reminders, loss reminders, and family conflict, as well as engagement and disengagement coping strategies, predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. Secondary control engagement coping responses to all three types of post-war stressors were inversely associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms, whereas primary control engagement coping responses to family conflict were inversely associated with hyperarousal symptoms. Disengagement responses to trauma reminders and family conflict were positively associated with re-experiencing symptoms. These findings shed light on ways in which trauma reminders, loss reminders, and family conflict may intersect with coping responses to influence adolescent postwar adjustment.

  5. Deep sleep after social stress: NREM sleep slow-wave activity is enhanced in both winners and losers of a conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Jeanine; Lancel, Marike; Koolhaas, Jaap M; Meerlo, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Sleep is considered to be a recovery process of prior wakefulness. Not only duration of the waking period affects sleep architecture and sleep EEG, the quality of wakefulness is also highly important. Studies in rats have shown that social defeat stress, in which experimental animals are attacked and defeated by a dominant conspecific, is followed by an acute increase in NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA). However, it is not known whether this effect is specific for the stress of social defeat or a result of the conflict per se. In the present experiment, we examined how sleep is affected in both the winners and losers of a social conflict. Sleep-wake patterns and sleep EEG were recorded in male wild-type Groningen rats that were subjected to 1h of social conflict in the middle of the light phase. All animals were confronted with a conspecific of similar aggression level and the conflict took place in a neutral arena where both individuals had an equal chance to either win or lose the conflict. NREM sleep SWA was significantly increased after the social conflict compared to baseline values and a gentle stimulation control condition. REM sleep was significantly suppressed in the first hours after the conflict. Winners and losers did not differ significantly in NREM sleep time, NREM sleep SWA and REM sleep time immediately after the conflict. Losers tended to have slightly more NREM sleep later in the recovery period. This study shows that in rats a social conflict with an unpredictable outcome has quantitatively and qualitatively largely similar acute effects on subsequent sleep in winners and losers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender differences in work stress, related to organizational conflicts and organizational constrains: An empirical research

    OpenAIRE

    Stafyla, Amalia; Kaltsidou, Georgia; Spyridis, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    In modern era, stress at workplace is a component of employees' and organizations' daily routine. The current research intends to study the gender differences as far as the ways that stress is witnessed in the workplace is concerned. Participants in this study were 231 Greek adults, employed at various workplaces. During their working hours they were asked to fill in a questionnaire which contained two different measurement scales. The main hypothesis was that men would show interpersonal con...

  7. Eco policy: Environmental Stress and Conflicts in Africa. Case Study of Drainage Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okidi, C.O

    1994-01-01

    The main cause for African misery is limited supply of water which has a direct impact on agricultural production. The continent of Africa has a reticulation of 54 drainage basins including rivers which either traverse boundaries or form part of such boundaries. These basins cover approximately half of the continent but only 2% of the total water is utilized leaving 98% to replenish the oceans. In future Africa should focus attention on control, apportionment and utilization of the waters of it's drainage basins in order to ameliorate the the problems brought about by scarcity of rainfall and consequent drought and famine. After the drought in the late 1970s and mid-1980s, there has been efforts to control the promising rivers and transfer the water to to centres of agriculture and human settlements and this is likely to cause international conflicts. The author recommends that, in order to control such conflicts the basin states there should be systematic collaboration among the basin states in the management of such waters

  8. The mediating role of interpersonal conflict at work in the relationship between negative affectivity and biomarkers of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Damiano; Falco, Alessandra; De Carlo, Alessandro; Benevene, Paula; Comar, Manola; Tongiorgi, Enrico; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the association between interpersonal conflict at work (ICW) and serum levels of three possible biomarkers of stress, namely the pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin 12 (IL-12), and Interleukin 17 (IL-17). Additionally, this study investigated the role of negative affectivity (NA) in the relationship between ICW and the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Data from 121 employees in an Italian healthcare organization were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that ICW was positively associated with IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-17, after controlling for the effect of gender. Moreover, ICW completely mediated the relationship between NA and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-17. This mediating effect was significant after controlling for the effect of gender. Overall, this study suggests that work-related stress may be associated with biomarkers of inflammation, and that negative affectivity may influence the stress process affecting the exposure to psychosocial stressors.

  9. Work-family conflict and self-discrepant time allocation at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Patricia C; Glomb, Theresa M; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty; Leroy, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    We examine the relationships between work-to-family conflict, time allocation across work activities, and the outcomes of work satisfaction, well-being, and salary in the context of self-regulation and self-discrepancy theories. We posit work-to-family conflict is associated with self-discrepant time allocation such that employees with higher levels of work-to-family conflict are likely to allocate less time than preferred to work activities that require greater self-regulatory resources (e.g., tasks that are complex, or those with longer term goals that delay rewards and closure) and allocate more time than preferred to activities that demand fewer self-regulatory resources or are replenishing (e.g., those that provide closure or are prosocial). We suggest this self-discrepant time allocation (actual vs. preferred time allocation) is one mechanism by which work-to-family conflict leads to negative employee consequences (Allen, Herst, Bruck, & Sutton, 2000; Mesmer-Magnus & Viswesvaran, 2005). Using polynomial regression and response surface methodology, we find that discrepancies between actual and preferred time allocations to work activities negatively relate to work satisfaction, psychological well-being, and physical well-being. Self-discrepant time allocation mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and work satisfaction and well-being, while actual time allocation (rather than the discrepancy) mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and salary. We find that women are more likely than men to report self-discrepant time allocations as work-to-family conflict increases. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Work-family conflict among Indonesian working couples: In relation to work and family role importance, support, and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntari, I.S.R.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the number of women entering the labour market has grown sharply in Indonesia. This led to a situation in which many couples experience work-family conflicts. Work-family conflicts can occur in two directions, work-to-family (WFC) and family-to-work (FWC) conflicts. WFC

  11. Career involvement and family involvement as moderators of relationships between work-family conflict and withdrawal from a profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhaus, J H; Parasuraman, S; Collins, K M

    2001-04-01

    This study extended prior analyses by J. H. Greenhaus, K. M. Collins, R. Singh, and S. Parasuraman (1997) by examining relationships between 2 directions of work-family conflict (work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict) and withdrawal from public accounting. The sample consisted of 199 members of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (135 men and 64 women) who were married or in a long-term relationship and who had 1 or more children. It was found that work-to-family conflict (but not family-to-work conflict) was positively related to withdrawal intentions. In addition, relationships of work-to-family conflict with withdrawal intentions and withdrawal behavior were stronger for individuals who were relatively uninvolved in their careers than for those who were highly involved in their careers. The implications of the findings for future research are discussed.

  12. Battling on the Home Front: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Conflict Behavior among Military Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch-Fedders, Lynne M.; Caska-Wallace, Catherine; Smith, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated interpersonal behavior differences among male military service members with and without PTSD and their female partners. Couples (N = 64) completed a 17-minute videotaped conflict discussion, and their interaction behavior was coded using the circumplex-based Structural Analysis of Social Behavior model (SASB; Benjamin, 1979; 1987; 2000). Within couples, the behavior of partners was very similar. Compared to military couples without PTSD, couples with PTSD displayed more interpersonal hostility and control. Couples with PTSD also exhibited more sulking, blaming, and controlling behavior, and less affirming and connecting behavior, than couples without PTSD. Results advance our understanding of the relational impacts of PTSD on military service members and their partners, and underscore the value of couple-based interventions for PTSD in the context of relationship distress. PMID:28270334

  13. The relationship between job satisfaction, work stress, work–family conflict, and turnover intention among physicians in Guangdong, China: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong; Hu, Xiao-Min; Huang, Xiao-Liang; Zhuang, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Pi; Feng, Li-Fen; Hu, Wei; Chen, Long; Zou, Huachun; Hao, Yuan-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between job satisfaction, work stress, work–family conflict and turnover intention, and explore factors associated with turnover intention, among physicians in Guangdong Province, China. Methods From August to October 2013, physicians completed questionnaires and scales with regard to their job satisfaction, work stress, work–family conflict, and turnover intention. Binary logistic regression and structural equation modelling (SEM) were used in data analysis. Results A total of 3963 physicians were approached, with 3563 completing the questionnaire. The mean score of the overall perception of turnover intention of physicians who worked in Guangdong was 2.71 on a scale ranging from 1 to 6. Hours worked per week, working in an urban/rural area, type of institution, and age significantly impacted on turnover intention. Turnover intention was directly and negatively related to job satisfaction, and it was directly, indirectly and positively related to work stress and work–family conflict. Conclusion Job satisfaction, work stress, work–family conflict, hours worked per week, working in an urban/rural area, types of institution and age are influencing factors of turnover intention. Reducing working hours, raising salary, providing more opportunities for career development and training, supporting and encouraging physicians by senior managers could potentially contribute to the reduction in turnover intention. PMID:28501813

  14. Influence of Child Behavioral Problems and Parenting Stress on Parent-Child Conflict among Low-Income Families: The Moderating Role of Maternal Nativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Aileen S.; Ren, Lixin; Esteraich, Jan M.; Raikes, Helen H.

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether parenting stress and child behavioral problems are significant predictors of parent-child conflict in the context of low-income families and how these relations are moderated by maternal nativity. The authors conducted multiple regression analyses to examine relations between teachers' report of…

  15. The relationship between job satisfaction, work stress, work-family conflict, and turnover intention among physicians in Guangdong, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong; Hu, Xiao-Min; Huang, Xiao-Liang; Zhuang, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Pi; Feng, Li-Fen; Hu, Wei; Chen, Long; Zou, Huachun; Hao, Yuan-Tao

    2017-05-12

    To investigate the relationship between job satisfaction, work stress, work-family conflict and turnover intention, and explore factors associated with turnover intention, among physicians in Guangdong Province, China. From August to October 2013, physicians completed questionnaires and scales with regard to their job satisfaction, work stress, work-family conflict, and turnover intention. Binary logistic regression and structural equation modelling (SEM) were used in data analysis. A total of 3963 physicians were approached, with 3563 completing the questionnaire. The mean score of the overall perception of turnover intention of physicians who worked in Guangdong was 2.71 on a scale ranging from 1 to 6. Hours worked per week, working in an urban/rural area, type of institution, and age significantly impacted on turnover intention. Turnover intention was directly and negatively related to job satisfaction, and it was directly, indirectly and positively related to work stress and work-family conflict. Job satisfaction, work stress, work-family conflict, hours worked per week, working in an urban/rural area, types of institution and age are influencing factors of turnover intention. Reducing working hours, raising salary, providing more opportunities for career development and training, supporting and encouraging physicians by senior managers could potentially contribute to the reduction in turnover intention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Stress as a mediator between work-family conflict and psychological health among the nursing staff: Moderating role of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Dhar, Rajib Lochan; Tyagi, Akansha

    2016-05-01

    The study examined the extent to which work-family conflicts cause stress among nursing staff and its subsequent impact on their psychological health. It also examined if the emotional intelligence level of the nursing staff acted as a moderator between their level of stress and psychological health. A survey was carried out on 693 nursing staff associated with 33 healthcare institutions in Uttarakhand, India. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was carried out to understand the relationships shared by independent (work-family conflicts) and dependent (psychological health) constructs with the mediator (stress) as well as the moderator (emotional intelligence). The results revealed that stress acted as a mediator between work-family conflict of the nursing staff and their psychological health. However, their emotional intelligence level acted as a moderator between their stress level and psychological health. To conclude, the crucial roles of emotional intelligence in controlling the impact of stress on psychological health along with the practical as well as theoretical implications are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Conflicting deductions from machining and other tests, concerning flow stress at high strain rates and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, T.H.C.

    1974-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the friction interaction between an En1A chip and a cemented tungsten--titanium carbide cutting tool during turning En1A on a lathe at speeds between 0.25 and 7.5 m s -1 and at feeds of 0.13 and 0.26 mm rev -1 . The mean friction stress has been measured and deductions made from chip shape measurements about the variation of the friction stress over the rake face. Three regimes of continuous chip formation were seen. In the first, the mean friction stress was independent of strain rate and temperature, in the second it depended on temperature and in the third, at the highest cutting speeds, it depended on temperature and feed. In the third regime, softening of the chip material caused by frictional heating limited the friction force, but the softening temperature depended on the heating rate of the chip material. Softening occurred at 700 0 C when the rate of heating from room temperature was 5.4 x 10 5 0 C s -1 and at 1160 0 C when the rate was 1.7 x 10 7 0 C s -1 . (U.S.)

  18. Conflict and well-being: a comparative study of health-related quality of life, stress, and insecurity of university students in the West Bank and Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asi, Yara M; Unruh, Lynn; Liu, Xinliang

    2018-05-01

    A significant body of research indicates that the conflict environment is detrimental to the quality of life and well-being of civilians. This study assesses the health-related quality of life, stress, and insecurity of the West Bank, which has been engaged in conflict for seven decades, in comparison to a demographically and culturally similar population in Jordan, a neighboring nation with no conflict. We expect the Jordanian sample to report better functioning. We collected 793 surveys from university students (mean age = 20.2) in Nablus, West Bank (398 [50.2%]) and Irbid, Jordan (395 [49.8%]). The survey instrument consisted of the SF-36 to measure HRQoL, the PSS-4 to measure stress, and an insecurity scale, along with demographic characteristics. Our findings indicate that outcomes in the West Bank were not significantly worse than in Jordan, and in some cases represented better functioning, especially in the SF-36 measures. Our counterintuitive results suggest that health and well-being outcomes are dependent on many factors in addition to conflict. For one, it may be that the better perceived health and well-being of the Palestinians is because they have developed a culture of resilience. Additionally, Jordanians are undergoing a period of instability due to internal struggles and surrounding conflicts.

  19. The association between posttraumatic stress symptoms and functional impairment during ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, Wim; Hall, Brian J; Joosse, Petra

    2013-03-01

    The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has suffered from a bloody conflict for more than a decade. More than 5,400,000 people died from war-related causes since 1998 and exposure to violence was wide-spread. This study investigated the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms on perceived health and physical and social functioning, filling an important gap in the current literature. Data were collected from a sample of 93 adults living in Bunia, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Structured in-person interviews included the PTSD section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale. Additional questions were included to assess social resources. Study recruitment was balanced to achieve equal representation of both sexes and each quarter of town. Forty percent met symptom criteria for probable PTSD. Individuals with PTSD reported poor perceived general health and had high disability scores compared to those without PTSD. Of the three PTSD symptom clusters, hyperarousal was most strongly associated with disability. Individuals with PTSD were significantly more emotionally affected by their health problems than those without PTSD (85% versus 41%), had more difficulties in activities involving social contact (54% versus 16%) and in doing their daily work (54% versus 20%). The impact of war-related violence on mental health is severe in the DRC. Psychosocial interventions developed in conflict areas might be best targeted primarily to supporting social functioning and reducing hyperarousal. Implications for clinical treatment and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CONFLICT AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: A SPRINGBOARD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this paper, which is basically a literature review, the writer undertook a critical analysis of the causes and consequences of organisational conflict. He further ... The relevance and function of conflict in organisations have been an issue of ..... Studies have shown that “too much work can lead to a variety of stress-related.

  1. The Gutenberg health study: associations between occupational and private stress factors and work-privacy conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthus-Niegel, Susan; Hegewald, Janice; Seidler, Andreas; Nübling, Matthias; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Liebers, Falk; Wild, Philipp S; Latza, Ute; Letzel, Stephan

    2016-02-29

    Work-privacy conflict (WPC) is no longer a rarity but constitutes a societal problem. The objectives of the present study were (1) to investigate the distribution and prevalence of WPC among the employed participants in the Gutenberg Health Study at baseline and (2) to study the dependence of WPC on a broad range of private life and occupational characteristics as well as on psychosocial working conditions. This analysis is based on a representative, population-based sample of 3,709 employees participating in the Gutenberg Health Study. Descriptive and bivariable analyses were carried out separately for women and men. Distribution and prevalence of WPC were examined according to socio-demographic and occupational characteristics as well as psychosocial working conditions. Further, stepwise selection of Poisson log-linear regression models were performed to determine which socio-demographic and occupational characteristics were most associated with the outcome variable WPC and to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios from the final model. The multivariable analyses were conducted both separately for women and men and with all subjects together in one analysis. There was a high prevalence of WPC in the present study (27.4 % of the men and 23.0 % of the women reported a high or very high WPC). A variety of factors was associated with WPC, e.g. full-time employment, depression and many of the psychosocial risk factors at work. Also, the multivariable results showed that women were of higher risk for a WPC. By affecting the individual work life, home life, and the general well-being and health, WPC may lead to detrimental effects in employees, their families, employers, and society as a whole. Therefore, the high prevalence of WPC in our sample should be of concern. Among women, the risk for suffering from WPC was even higher, most likely due to multiple burdens.

  2. Reducing Work-Family Conflict through Different Sources of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Daalen, Geertje; Willemsen, Tineke M.; Sanders, Karin

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between four sources of social support (i.e., spouse, relatives and friends, supervisor, and colleagues) and time and strain-based work-to-family and family-to-work conflict among 444 dual-earners. Gender differences with respect to the relationship between social support and work-family conflict were…

  3. Education and Work-Family Conflict: Explanations, Contingencies and Mental Health Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieman, Scott; Glavin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a representative sample of American workers, we examine the association between education and work-to-family conflict--a form of inter-role conflict in which role pressures from each domain are incompatible in some way. The well-educated tend to occupy professional jobs with more income and pressures, and experience more…

  4. Interrole conflict and self-efficacy to manage work and family demands mediate the relationships of job and family demands with stress in the job and family domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoktunowicz, Ewelina; Cieslak, Roman; Demerouti, Evangelia

    2017-09-01

    This study derives from Work-Home Resources model (ten Brummelhuis, L. L., & Bakker, A. B. (2012). A resource perspective on the work-home interface: The work-home resources model. American Psychologist, 67(7), 545-556. doi: 10.1037/a0027974 ) and Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US: Prentice-Hall, Inc.) to investigate mechanisms responsible for the effect of job and family demands on work- and family-related perceived stress. We hypothesized that interrole conflict and self-efficacy to manage work and family demands operate either independently or sequentially transmitting the effects of demands on perceived stress. A sample of 100 employees of various occupations participated in the study conducted online in two waves: Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2) with a three-month interval. Regression analysis with bootstrapping was applied. Interrole conflict (T1) did not mediate the relationships between demands (T1) and perceived stress (T2), whereas self-efficacy (T1) mediated only those between family demands (T1) and stress (T2). However, data supported the sequential mediation hypotheses: Demands (T1) were associated with increased interrole conflict (T1) which in turn decreased self-efficacy (T1) and ultimately resulted in the elevated perceived stress at work and in the family (T2). Demands originating in one domain can impact stress both in the same and other life areas through the sequence of interrole conflict and context-specific self-efficacy.

  5. Nurses' work demands and work-family conflict: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Dilek; Aycan, Zeynep

    2008-09-01

    Work-family conflict is a type of interrole conflict that occurs as a result of incompatible role pressures from the work and family domains. Work role characteristics that are associated with work demands refer to pressures arising from excessive workload and time pressures. Literature suggests that work demands such as number of hours worked, workload, shift work are positively associated with work-family conflict, which, in turn is related to poor mental health and negative organizational attitudes. The role of social support has been an issue of debate in the literature. This study examined social support both as a moderator and a main effect in the relationship among work demands, work-to-family conflict, and satisfaction with job and life. This study examined the extent to which work demands (i.e., work overload, irregular work schedules, long hours of work, and overtime work) were related to work-to-family conflict as well as life and job satisfaction of nurses in Turkey. The role of supervisory support in the relationship among work demands, work-to-family conflict, and satisfaction with job and life was also investigated. The sample was comprised of 243 participants: 106 academic nurses (43.6%) and 137 clinical nurses (56.4%). All of the respondents were female. The research instrument was a questionnaire comprising nine parts. The variables were measured under four categories: work demands, work support (i.e., supervisory support), work-to-family conflict and its outcomes (i.e., life and job satisfaction). The structural equation modeling results showed that work overload and irregular work schedules were the significant predictors of work-to-family conflict and that work-to-family conflict was associated with lower job and life satisfaction. Moderated multiple regression analyses showed that social support from the supervisor did not moderate the relationships among work demands, work-to-family conflict, and satisfaction with job and life. Exploratory

  6. [Psychological features of body integrity identity disorder (BIID): personality traits, interpersonal aspects, coping mechanisms regarding stress and conflicts, body perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, S; Möller, J; Skoruppa, S; Stirn, A

    2014-05-01

    In BIID a disorder of body identity, concerned subjects desire an amputation of a healthy limb. So far, no psychiatric comorbidity was found in the few studies on BIID-subjects. This study explored clinical symptoms, personality characteristics, interpersonal aspects and coping strategies in 15 BIID persons. Psychometric testing on the topics (1) clinical symptoms, (2) personality and interpersonal aspects, (3) coping strategies, (4) attitudes towards the body were used and statistically evaluated with the T-test for one sample. Some psychopathologies such as depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) could be excluded although an increased tendency of depressiveness was found. BIID subjects showed specific personality and interpersonal characteristics: high agreeableness, autonomy, autarky and restrained behaviour towards others. Stress and conflicts are managed by self-control and self-affirmation. Their subjective physical attractiveness was low. BIID persons do not exhibit psychopathological characteristics (such as anxiety, depression or OCD), but do show specifics in personality, relationships and coping mechanisms. In the future, further personality traits and personality disorders should be investigated to shed more light on the categorisation and treatment of BIID. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Work-Family Conflict, Children, and Hour Mismatches in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jeremy; Aletraris, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    This article helps integrate research on work hours and work-family issues by examining how work-family conflict is related to the desire for more and fewer hours of work. Using the first wave of the Household Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia survey, we find that work-to-family conflict is associated with a desire for fewer hours of work.…

  8. Work-family conflict, cardiometabolic risk, and sleep duration in nursing employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Lisa F; Liu, Sze Yan; Hammer, Leslie; Moen, Phyllis; Klein, Laura Cousino; Kelly, Erin; Fay, Martha; Davis, Kelly; Durham, Mary; Karuntzos, Georgia; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2015-10-01

    We investigated associations of work-family conflict and work and family conditions with objectively measured cardiometabolic risk and sleep. Multilevel analyses assessed cross-sectional associations between employee and job characteristics and health in analyses of 1,524 employees in 30 extended-care facilities in a single company. We examined work and family conditions in relation to: (a) validated, cardiometabolic risk score based on measured blood pressure, cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, body mass index, and self-reported tobacco consumption and (b) wrist actigraphy-based sleep duration. In fully adjusted multilevel models, work-to-family conflict but not family-to-work conflict was positively associated with cardiometabolic risk. Having a lower level occupation (nursing assistant vs. nurse) was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, whereas being married and having younger children at home was protective. A significant Age × Work-to-Family Conflict interaction revealed that higher work-to-family conflict was more strongly associated with increased cardiometabolic risk in younger employees. High family-to-work conflict was significantly associated with shorter sleep duration. Working long hours and having children at home were both independently associated with shorter sleep duration. High work-to-family conflict was associated with longer sleep duration. These results indicate that different dimensions of work-family conflict may pose threats to cardiometabolic health and sleep duration for employees. This study contributes to the research on work-family conflict, suggesting that work-to-family and family-to-work conflict are associated with specific health outcomes. Translating theory and findings to preventive interventions entails recognition of the dimensionality of work and family dynamics and the need to target specific work and family conditions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Analysis of the effect of conflict-management and resolution training on employee stress at a healthcare organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraway, Dana L; Haraway, William M

    2005-01-01

    Conflict is inevitable and can be both positive and negative. Although it is impossible, and probably not wise, to eliminate conflict, it is prudent for healthcare organizations to provide direct instruction in conflict-management training. In this study, 23 supervisors and managers in a local healthcare organization participated in two 3-hour sessions designed to teach practical conflict-management strategies immediately applicable to their workplace duties and responsibilities. A comparison of pretest and posttest measures indicates statistically significant differences in four areas and suggests a positive influence of the brief intervention.

  10. Social Policies and Families in Stress: Gender and Educational Differences in Work-Family Conflict from a European Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notten, Natascha; Grunow, Daniela; Verbakel, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    In modern welfare states, family policies may resolve the tension between employment and care-focused demands. However these policies sometimes have adverse consequences for distinct social groups. This study examined gender and educational differences in working parents' perceived work-family conflict and used a comparative approach to test whether family policies, in particular support for child care and leave from paid work, are capable of reducing work-family conflict as well as the gender and educational gaps in work-family conflict. We use data from the European Social Survey 2010 for 20 countries and 5296 respondents (parents), extended with information on national policies for maternity and parental leave and child care support from the OECD Family Database. Employing multilevel analysis, we find that mothers and the higher educated report most work-family conflict. Policies supporting child care reduce the level of experienced work-family conflict; family leave policy appears to have no alleviating impact on working parents' work-family conflict. Our findings indicate that family policies appear to be unable to reduce the gender gap in conflict perception and even widen the educational gap in work-family conflict.

  11. Telecommuting's differential impact on work-family conflict: is there no place like home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Timothy D; Veiga, John F; Simsek, Zeki

    2006-11-01

    The literature on the impact of telecommuting on work-family conflict has been equivocal, asserting that telecommuting enhances work-life balance and reduces conflict, or countering that it increases conflict as more time and emotional energy are allocated to family. Surveying 454 professional-level employees who split their work time between an office and home, the authors examined how extensively working in this mode impacts work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict, as well as the contextual impact of job autonomy, scheduling flexibility, and household size. As hypothesized, the findings suggest that telecommuting has a differential impact on work-family conflict, such that the more extensively individuals work in this mode, the lower their work-to-family conflict, but the higher their family-to-work conflict. Additionally, job autonomy and scheduling flexibility were found to positively moderate telecommuting's impact on work-to-family conflict, but household size was found to negatively moderate telecommuting's impact on family-to-work conflict, suggesting that contextual factors may be domain specific. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Effects of recurrent violence on post-traumatic stress disorder and severe distress in conflict-affected Timor-Leste: a 6-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Liddell, Belinda; Rees, Susan; Chey, Tien; Nickerson, Angela; Tam, Natalino; Zwi, Anthony B; Brooks, Robert; Sila, Lazaro Lelan; Steel, Zachary

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of recurrent episodes of communal violence on mental health in countries recovering from mass conflict. We report results of a 6-year longitudinal study in post-conflict Timor-Leste assessing changes in mental health after a period of communal violence. We assessed 1022 adults (600 from a rural village, 422 from an urban district) exposed to mass conflict during the Indonesian occupation after independence in 2004, and again in 2010-11, following a period of internal conflict. We took a census of all adults living at the two sites. The survey included measures of post-traumatic stress disorder, severe distress, traumatic events, poverty, ongoing conflict, and injustice. 1247 (80%) of 1554 invited adults participated in the baseline survey. 1038 (89% of those eligible) were followed up. The analysis included 1022 people who had sufficient data at baseline and follow-up. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder increased from 23 of 1022 (2.3%) in 2004, to 171 of 1022 (16.7%) in 2010. The prevalence of severe distress also increased, from 57 of 1022 (5.6%) in 2004, to 162 of 1022 (15.9%) in 2010. Both these outcomes were associated with disability at follow-up. Having post-traumatic stress at follow-up was associated with being a woman (odds ratio [OR] 1.63, 95% CI 1.14-2.32), experience of human rights trauma (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.47), or exposure to murder (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.38-2.10) during the Indonesian occupation (1975-99), human rights trauma during the period of internal violence in 2006-07 (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.04-2.03), and ongoing family or community conflict (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.15-2.80) or preoccupations with injustice for two or three historical periods (OR 4.06, 2.63-6.28). Severe distress at follow-up was associated with health stress (OR 1.47, 1.14-1.90), exposure to murder (OR 1.57, 1.27-1.95), and natural disaster (OR 1.65, 1.03-2.64) during the Indonesian occupation, conflict-related trauma during the internal

  13. Work-family conflicts and work performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lawrence; David, Emily M

    2009-08-01

    Prior research indicates that work-family conflict interferes with family far more than it interferes with work. Conservation of resources provides a possible explanation: when shifting resources from family is no longer sufficient to maintain satisfactory work performance, then workers must acquire additional resources or reduce investments in work. One source of such additional resources could be high performance peers in the work group. The performance of workers with resource-rich peers may be less adversely affected by work-family conflict. In this study, 136 employees of a wholesale distribution firm (61% women, 62% minority) working in groups of 7 to 11 in manual labor and low-level administrative jobs rated their own work-to-family conflict. Their supervisors rated workers' performance. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that work-to-family conflict increasingly adversely affected job performance as work group performance decreased. Hence, work group performance may be an important moderator of the effects of work-family conflict.

  14. Finding time over time: Longitudinal links between employed mothers' work-family conflict and time profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C; Hammer, Leslie B; Almeida, David M

    2017-08-01

    Drawing upon the Work-Home Resources model (ten Brummelhuis & Bakker, 2012), this study examined the links between work-family conflict and employed mothers' profiles of time resources for work and parenting roles. Using a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified 3 profiles of time use and perceived time adequacy in a sample of mothers employed in the extended-care industry (N = 440): a Work-Oriented profile, characterized by spending relatively more time at work, perceiving lower time adequacy for work, spending less time with children, and perceiving lower time adequacy for children; a Parenting-Oriented profile, characterized by the opposite pattern; and a Role-Balanced profile, characterized by average levels across the 4 dimensions. Mothers in the Work-Oriented profile reported greater work-to-family conflict and family to-work conflict than those in the Role-Balanced and Parenting-Oriented profiles. Greater work-to-family conflict was linked to membership in the Work-Oriented profile, net of personal, family, and work characteristics. Longitudinal latent profile transition analysis showed that increases in work-to-family conflict across 12 months were linked to greater odds of moving toward the Work-Oriented profile (relative to staying in the same profile), whereas decreases in work-to-family conflict were linked to greater odds of moving toward the Parenting-Oriented profile. Results illuminate the heterogeneity in how employed mothers perceive and allocate time in work and parenting roles and suggest that decreasing work-to-family conflict may preserve time resources for parenting. Intervention efforts should address ways of increasing employees' family time resources and decreasing work-family conflict. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Prevalence of and factors influencing posttraumatic stress disorder among mothers of children under five in Kabul, Afghanistan, after decades of armed conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemat Shafiqullah

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the period following wars and other forms of armed conflict, health and quality of life of mothers is a major concern as they have the closest contact with children. The present study was performed to examine the impact of exposure to events related to armed conflicts on post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD among women raising children, and to identify factors that alleviate the negative consequences of exposure to traumatic events. Methods A structured interview survey was conducted in Kabul Province, Afghanistan, in 2006. The subjects were the mothers of children less than 5 years old randomly selected from 1400 households in Kabul Province, Afghanistan. Symptoms of PTSD were assessed according to the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV. Exposure to traumatic events related to armed conflict, experience of hardship with regard to basic needs, resources that the subjects seek for mental health support, and socioeconomic variables were evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between PTSD symptoms and predictor variables. Results The prevalence rate of PTSD among 1172 women participated in this study was 29.8%. The most prevalent symptom was arousal (74.8%, followed by re-experiencing (54.9% and avoidance (33.7%. The prevalence rate of PTSD symptoms among subjects who reported having experienced at least one event related to armed conflict (52.7% was significantly higher than that among those who reported no such experiences (9.6%. Experience of food shortage was independently associated with PTSD. Seeking support for mental health was related to lower prevalence of PTSD symptoms among those who reported no direct experience of events related to armed conflict. However, no such relationship was observed with PTSD symptoms among those who reported having direct experience of events related to armed conflict. Conclusion Direct

  16. The influence of perceived stress on work-family conflict and mental health: the moderating effect of person-environment fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Li-Chuan

    2014-07-01

    This study examines whether higher perceived stress among female hospital workers can result in more serious work-family conflict (WFC) and poorer mental health, and also identifies the role that person-environment (P-E) fit plays in moderating these relationships. Female hospital workers with higher perceived stress tend to report greater WFC and worse mental health than others with less perceived stress. A better fit between a person and her environment may lead to lower perceived stress. As a result, she may experience less WFC and better mental health. This study adopts a longitudinal design with 273 participants, all of whom are employed by hospitals in Taiwan. All hypotheses are tested using hierarchical regression analyses. The results show that perceived stress is an effective predictor of WFC and mental health status, whereas the P-E fit can moderate these relationships. Hospitals should pay more attention to the negative effects of perceived high stress on the WFC levels and mental health of their female employees. The P-E fit can buffer effectively the impact of perceived stress on both WFC and mental health. If hospitals can adopt appropriate human resource management practices as well as monitor and manage the P-E fit continuously, they can better help their employees to fit into the overall hospital environment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [High prevalence of work-family conflict among female physicians: lack of social support as a potential antecedent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adám, Szilvia

    2009-12-13

    According to stress theory, social support from work and non-work-related sources may influence the level of perceived work-family conflict. Despite the high prevalence of work-family conflict as a source of distress among female physicians, no information is available on the associations between work-family conflict and social support in a traditional, family-centric cultural setting, where female role expectations are demanding. The author hypothesized that high prevalence of work-family conflict could be attributed to the lack of social support among female physicians. To investigate the prevalence and psychosocial characteristics of social support and its relations to work-family conflict among female physicians. Quantitative and qualitative study using questionnaires ( n = 420) and in-depth interviews ( n = 123) among female and male physicians. Female physicians reported significantly higher mean level and prevalence of work-family conflict compared to men. The predominant form of work-family was work-to-family conflict among physicians; however, significantly more female physicians experienced family-to-work conflict and strain-based work-family conflict compared to men (39% vs. 18% and 68% vs. 20%, respectively). Significantly more male physicians experienced time-based work-family conflict compared to women. Content analyses of interview data revealed that provision of support to physicians manifested itself in parental support in career selection, spousal support with household duties, peer support with enabling access to professional role models-mentors, peer support to ensure gender equity, and organizational support with family-centric policies. Female physicians reported significantly less parental, spousal, and peer support compared to men. Female physicians lacking parental, peer, or organizational support experienced significantly higher level of work-family conflict compared to appropriate control. In regression analyses, high job demands, job

  18. Work-family conflict, cardiometabolic risk and sleep duration in nursing employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Lisa F.; Liu, Sze Yan; Hammer, Leslie; Moen, Phyllis; Klein, Laura Cousino; Kelly, Erin; Fay, Martha; Davis, Kelly; Durham, Mary; Karuntzos, Georgia; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the associations of work-family conflict and other work and family conditions with objectively-measured outcomes cardiometabolic risk and sleep duration in a study of employees in nursing homes. Multilevel analyses are used to assess cross-sectional associations between employee and job characteristics and health in analyses of 1,524 employees in 30 extended care facilities in a single company. We examine work and family conditions in relation to two major study health outcomes: 1) a validated, Framingham cardiometabolic risk score based on measured blood pressure, cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body mass index (BMI), and self-reported tobacco consumption, and 2) wrist actigraphy-based measures of sleep duration. In fully-adjusted multi-level models, Work-To-Family conflict, but not Family-to-Work conflict was positively associated with cardiometabolic risk. Having a lower-level occupation (nursing assistants vs. nurses) was also associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, while being married and having younger children at home was protective. A significant age by Work-To-Family conflict interaction revealed that higher Work-To-Family conflict was more strongly associated with increased cardiometabolic risk in younger employees. With regard to sleep duration, high Family-To-Work Conflict was significantly associated with shorter sleep duration. In addition, working long hours and having younger children at home were both independently associated with shorter sleep duration. High Work-To-Family Conflict was associated with longer sleep duration. These results indicate that different dimensions of work-family conflict (i.e., Work-To-Family Conflict and Family-To-Work Conflict) may both pose threats to cardiometabolic risk and sleep duration for employees. This study contributes to the research on work- family conflict suggesting that Work-To-Family and Family-To-Work conflict are associated with specific outcomes. Translating

  19. Work-family conflict and safety participation of high-speed railway drivers: Job satisfaction as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Guo, Ming; Ye, Long; Liao, Ganli; Yang, Zhehan

    2016-10-01

    Despite the large body of work on the work-family interface, hardly any literature has addressed the work-family interface in safety-critical settings. This study draws from social exchange theory to examine the effect of employees' strain-based work-to-family conflict on their supervisors' rating of their safety participation through job satisfaction. The sample consisted of 494 drivers from a major railway company in China. The results of a structural equation model revealed that drivers' strain-based work-to-family conflict negatively influences safety participation, and the relationship was partially mediated by job satisfaction. These findings highlight the importance of reducing employees' work-to-family conflict in safety-critical organizations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Conflict Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William; Koue, Glen

    1991-01-01

    Discusses general issues involved in conflict management and provides more specific examples of conflict management in libraries. Causes of conflict are considered, including organizational structure, departmentalization, performance appraisal, poor communication, and technological change; and methods of dealing with conflict are described,…

  1. PENGARUH WORK LIFE POLICIES, WORK LIFE CONFLICT, JOB STRESS, DAN LONELINESS TERHADAP TURNOVER INTENTIONS PADA SEBUAH UNIVERSITAS SWASTA DI KOTA BATAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hielvita Ludiya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Turnover intention has been an important issue in any organization; management has long recognized that low turnover intention of employees is helpful for consequently obtaining high organizational performance and avoiding the potential costs related to recruiting and training new employees. This study aims to examine the impact of work life policies, work life conflict, job stress dan loneliness on turnover intentions at a private university in Batam. A total of 101 completed responses were collected in the survey. The sampling method in this research is done with the approach of non-probability sampling with the convinience sampling. The data analysis technique used was the technique of multiple regression analyisis. The findings of this research showed that work life policies and job stress have negative and significant impact on turnover intentions. Work life conflict and loneliness have positive and significant impact on turnover intentions. The managerial implications of this research have several limitations such as taking only one university and some faculties of full time lecturer which become the object of research. Moreover, researcher was not able to spend a lot of time at the organisation for collecting the data from the respondents. This research suggest that further investigation needs to be expanded by taking some of the objects that are similar research at the education industry or other industries, and by increasing the sample size to improve the results of consistency.

  2. Work-family conflict among Indonesian working couples: In relation to work and family role importance, support, and satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntari, I.S.R.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the number of women entering the labour market has grown sharply in Indonesia. This led to a situation in which many couples experience work-family conflicts. Work-family conflicts can occur in two directions, work-to-family (WFC) and family-to-work (FWC) conflicts. WFC and FWC decrease couples marital satisfaction and their job satisfaction. The negative impact of WFC decreases if couples receive social support from their supervisors, while spouse and extended fami...

  3. Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Well-Being: Stability and Cross-Lagged Relations within One- and Six-Year Follow-Ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2008-01-01

    The rank-order stability and cross-lagged relations between work-to-family conflict (WFC), family-to-work conflict (FWC), and psychological well-being were examined in two longitudinal studies with full two-wave panel designs. In Study 1 (n = 365), the time lag was one year, and in Study 2 (n = 153), six years. The Structural Equation Modeling…

  4. Work-family conflict in Japan: how job and home demands affect psychological distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimazu, A.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Peeters, M.C.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine how job and home demands are related to psychological distress in a sample of Japanese working parents with preschool children (n=196). We expected that job and home demands are partially related to psychological distress through work-to-family conflict

  5. Reducing work-family conflict through different sources of social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daalen, G.; van Daalen, Geertje; Willemsen, Tineke M.; Sanders, Karin

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between four sources of social support (i.e., spouse, relatives and friends, supervisor, and colleagues) and time and strain-based work-to-family and family-to-work conflict among 444 dual-earners. Gender differences with respect to the relationship

  6. Conflict with less distress: promoting team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, V I; Bennett, J A; Birdsall, C

    1993-01-01

    As nurses increasingly turn to teamwork as a viable option for accomplishing a myriad of duties and responsibilities, they are discovering that teamwork can also be a source of conflict and stress. This article suggests that conflict is both inevitable and necessary within a team. A model of conflict is presented that aims not at reducing conflict, but at making it less distressing and thus more effective. The authors trace the influence of pre-conflict conditions and perspective-taking on conflict and ultimately team effectiveness. Finally, to apply the conflict model to practice, two examples are presented demonstrating both an ineffective and an effective use of conflict.

  7. Religious fundamentalism and conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffer Ercan Yılmaz

    2006-01-01

    This study provides an analytical discussion for the issue of religious fundamentalism and itsrelevance to conflict, in its broader sense. It is stressed that religious fundamentalism manifests itself in twoways: nonviolent intolerance and violent intolerance. The sources of both types of intolerance and theirconnection to conflict are addressed and discussed in detail. Further research is also suggested on conditionsconnecting religion to nonviolent intolerance so as to cope with the problem...

  8. Work-family conflict as a mediator in the association between work stress and depressive symptoms: cross-sectional evidence from the German lidA-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Peter, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The demographic change leads to a shrinking German work force. Depressive symptoms cause many days absent at work, loss of productivity and early retirement. Therefore, pathways for prevention of depressive symptoms are important for the maintenance of global competitiveness. We investigated the role of work-family conflict (WFC) in the well-known association between work stress and depressive symptoms. A total of 6,339 employees subject to social insurance, born in 1959 or 1965 and randomly drawn from 222 sample points in Germany participated in the first wave of the leben in der Arbeit-study. In the analysis, 5,906 study subjects working in full-time or part-time positions were included. Work stress was measured by effort-reward imbalance ratio, depressive symptoms by the applied Becks depression inventory (BDI-V) and WFC by items of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ)-scale. Multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for age, education, negative affectivity (PANAS), overcommitment and number of children was performed. Mediation was defined according to the criteria of Baron and Kenny. Work stress was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (BDI-V) in all full-time [ß1female = 6.61 (95 % CI 3.95-9.27); ß1male = 8.02 (95 % CI 5.94-10.09)] and female part-time employees [ß2female = 4.87 (95 % CI 2.16-7.59)]. When controlling for WFC effect, estimates became smaller in men and were even halved in women. WFC was also significantly associated with work stress and depressive symptoms: All criteria for partial mediation between work stress and depressiveness were fulfilled. Prevention of WFC may help to reduce days absent at work and early retirement due to work stress-related depressive symptoms in middle-aged women and men.

  9. The role of grief symptoms and a sense of injustice in the pathways to post-traumatic stress symptoms in post-conflict Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, A K; Rees, S; Steel, Z; Liddell, B; Nickerson, A; Tam, N; Silove, D

    2017-08-01

    Grief symptoms and a sense of injustice may be interrelated responses amongst persons exposed to mass conflict and both reactions may contribute to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. As yet, however, there is a dearth of data examining these relationships. Our study examined the contributions of grief and a sense of injustice to a model of PTSD symptoms that included the established determinants of trauma events, ongoing adversity and severe psychological distress. The study involved a large population sample (n = 2964, response rate: 82.4%) surveyed in post-conflict Timor-Leste. The survey sites included an urban administrative area (suco) in Dili, the capital of Timor-Leste and a rural village located an hour's drive away. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess conflict related traumatic events (TEs), ongoing adversity, persisting preoccupations with injustice, symptoms of grief, psychological distress (including depressive symptoms) and PTSD symptoms. We tested a series of structural equation models, the final comprehensive model, which included indices of grief symptoms and injustice, producing a good fit. Locating grief symptoms as the endpoint of the model produced a non-converging model. In the final model, strong associations were evident between grief and injustice (β = 0.34, s.e. = 0.02, p < 0.01) and grief and PTSD symptoms (β = 0.14, s.e. = 0.02, p < 0.01). The sense of injustice exerted a considerable effect on PTSD symptoms (β = 0.13, s.e. = 0.03, p < 0.01). In addition, multiple indirect paths were evident, most involving grief and a sense of injustice, attesting to the complex inter-relationship of these factors in contributing to PTSD symptoms. Our findings support an expanded model of PTSD symptoms relevant to post-conflict populations, in which grief symptoms and a sense of injustice play pivotal roles. The model supports the importance of a focus on loss, grief and a sense of injustice in conducting trauma

  10. Are organizations shooting themselves in the foot? : workplace contributors to family-to-work conflict

    OpenAIRE

    T. A. Beauregard

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - To examine 1) the direct effects of work domain variables on family-to-work conflict (FWC), beyond their indirect effects via the mediating variable of work-to-family conflict (WFC), and 2) sex differences in the effects of work role expectations and supervisor support on FWC. \\ud \\ud Methodology/Approach - A survey was conducted among 208 UK public sector employees. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis tested main and moderating effects of work domain variables and sex on FWC....

  11. Conflict Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Munteanu

    2016-01-01

    It is advisable to tackle conflicts as part of organizational life. It is necessary to be aware thatan employee brings with itself at different work values, and strategies of the individual workingunder these conditions conflict opportunities are numerous.

  12. The association between post-traumatic stress-related symptoms, resilience, current stress and past exposure to violence: a cross sectional study of the survival of Quechua women in the aftermath of the Peruvian armed conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The long lasting resilience of individuals and communities affected by mass violence has not been given equal prominence as their suffering. This has often led to psychosocial interventions in post-conflict zones being unresponsive to local realities and ill-equipped to foster local strengths. Responding to the renewed interest in resilience in the field of violence and health, this study examines the resilience and post-traumatic responses of Indigenous Quechua women in the aftermath of the political violence in Peru (1980–2000). Methods A cross-sectional study examined the relationship between resilience, post-traumatic responses, exposure to violence during the conflict and current life stress on 151 Quechua women participants. Purposive and convenience sampling strategies were used for recruitment in Ayacucho, the area most exposed to violence. The study instruments were translated to Quechua and Spanish and cross-culturally validated. Data was analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. A locally informed trauma questionnaire of local idioms of distress was also included in the analysis. Findings Sixty percent of women (n = 91) were recruited from Ayacucho city and the rest from three rural villages; the mean age was 45 years old. Despite high levels of exposure to violence, only 9.3% of the sample presented a level of symptoms that indicated possible PTSD. Resilience did not contribute to the overall variance of post-traumatic stress related symptoms, which was predicted by past exposure to violence, current life stress, age, and schooling (R2 = .421). Resilience contributed instead to the variance of avoidance symptoms (Stand β = −.198, t = −2.595, p = 0.010) while not for re-experiencing or arousal symptoms. Conclusions These findings identified some of the pathways in which resilience and post-traumatic responses interrelate in the aftermath of violence; yet, they also point to the complexity of their

  13. The association between post-traumatic stress-related symptoms, resilience, current stress and past exposure to violence: a cross sectional study of the survival of Quechua women in the aftermath of the Peruvian armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Eliana B

    2013-10-23

    The long lasting resilience of individuals and communities affected by mass violence has not been given equal prominence as their suffering. This has often led to psychosocial interventions in post-conflict zones being unresponsive to local realities and ill-equipped to foster local strengths. Responding to the renewed interest in resilience in the field of violence and health, this study examines the resilience and post-traumatic responses of Indigenous Quechua women in the aftermath of the political violence in Peru (1980-2000). A cross-sectional study examined the relationship between resilience, post-traumatic responses, exposure to violence during the conflict and current life stress on 151 Quechua women participants. Purposive and convenience sampling strategies were used for recruitment in Ayacucho, the area most exposed to violence. The study instruments were translated to Quechua and Spanish and cross-culturally validated. Data was analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. A locally informed trauma questionnaire of local idioms of distress was also included in the analysis. Sixty percent of women (n = 91) were recruited from Ayacucho city and the rest from three rural villages; the mean age was 45 years old. Despite high levels of exposure to violence, only 9.3% of the sample presented a level of symptoms that indicated possible PTSD. Resilience did not contribute to the overall variance of post-traumatic stress related symptoms, which was predicted by past exposure to violence, current life stress, age, and schooling (R2 = .421). Resilience contributed instead to the variance of avoidance symptoms (Stand β = -.198, t = -2.595, p = 0.010) while not for re-experiencing or arousal symptoms. These findings identified some of the pathways in which resilience and post-traumatic responses interrelate in the aftermath of violence; yet, they also point to the complexity of their relationship, which is not fully explained by linear

  14. Cardiovascular reactivity to a marital conflict version of the Trier social stress test in intimate partner violence perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Angel; Nunes-Costa, Rui; Lila, Marisol; González-Bono, Esperanza; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2014-07-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators have been categorized into two groups based on their heart rate (HR) reactivity to stress following Gottman's studies. Overall, type I perpetrators tend to show autonomic underarousal, whereas type II or reactive perpetrators present a hyper-reactivity in anticipation of stress. In this study, changes in HR, pre-ejection period (PEP), vagal ratio as well as psychological state variables (anxiety and anger) in response to stress were assessed, comparing a group of type II IPV perpetrators (based on violence reports and psychological assessment; n = 17; mean age = 37) with non-violent controls (n = 17; mean age = 35) using modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. IPV perpetrators had higher HRs and lower vagal ratios than controls, particularly during the recovery period. Moreover, the former presented shorter PEPs than controls. There were no differences between groups in the magnitude of response of the HR, PEP or vagal ratio. High baseline anxiety and anger were associated with an HR increase during the preparation time in IPV perpetrators but not in controls. These findings indicate a different cardiovascular pattern of response to psychosocial stress in IPV perpetrators, especially during recovery. Thus, they contribute to understanding the biological functioning of violence sub-types, supporting the validity of cardiovascular measures as diagnostic indicators for IPV classification.

  15. When can employees have a family life? The effects of daily workload and affect on work-family conflict and social behaviors at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilies, Remus; Schwind, Kelly M; Wagner, David T; Johnson, Michael D; DeRue, D Scott; Ilgen, Daniel R

    2007-09-01

    This article presents a longitudinal examination of antecedents and outcomes of work-to-family conflict. A total of 106 employees participating in an experience-sampling study were asked to respond to daily surveys both at work and at home, and their spouses were interviewed daily via telephone for a period of 2 weeks. Intraindividual analyses revealed that employees' perceptions of workload predicted work-to-family conflict over time, even when controlling for the number of hours spent at work. Workload also influenced affect at work, which in turn influenced affect at home. Finally, perhaps the most interesting finding in this study was that employees' behaviors in the family domain (reported by spouses) were predicted by the employees' perceptions of work-to-family conflict and their positive affect at home. (c) 2007 APA.

  16. Conflict management: importance and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Laurie

    2017-01-26

    Conflict is a consistent and unavoidable issue within healthcare teams. Despite training of nurse leaders and managers around areas of conflict resolution, the problem of staff relations, stress, sickness and retention remain. Conflict arises from issues with interpersonal relationships, change and poor leadership. New members of staff entering an already established healthcare team should be supported and integrated, to encourage mutual role respect between all team members and establish positive working relationships, in order to maximise patient care. This paper explores the concept of conflict, the importance of addressing causes of conflict, effective management, and the relevance of positive approaches to conflict resolution. Good leadership, nurturing positive team dynamics and communication, encourages shared problem solving and acceptance of change. Furthermore mutual respect fosters a more positive working environment for those in healthcare teams. As conflict has direct implications for patients, positive resolution is essential, to promote safe and effective delivery of care, whilst encouraging therapeutic relationships between colleagues and managers.

  17. Role Stress, Interrole Conflict, and Job Satisfaction among University Employees: The Creation and Test of a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Keisha M.; Tatman, Anthony W.; Chapman, Benjamin P.

    2010-01-01

    Many universities have experienced financial hardships during the recent economic downturn. To save money, several have resorted to laying off employees, which has often resulted in increased work and stress for the remaining employees. Such an increase has the potential to adversely affect employees' sense of job satisfaction. This study created…

  18. The Relationship of Complex Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in a Culturally Distinct, Conflict-Affected Population: A Study among West Papuan Refugees Displaced to Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Kareth, Moses; Rees, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Controversy continues about the validity of the construct of complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD). In particular, questions remain whether C-PTSD can be differentiated from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and, secondarily, other common mental disorders. The examination of these issues needs to be expanded to populations of diverse cultural backgrounds exposed to prolonged persecution. We undertake such an inquiry among a community sample of West Papuan refugees exposed to extensive persecution and trauma. We interviewed over 300 West Papuan refugees using the Refugee-Mental Health Assessment Package to record symptoms of PTSD, C-PTSD, major depressive disorder (MDD), and complex grief (CG). We used first- and second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test aspects of the convergent and discriminant validity of C-PTSD. The CFA analysis supported both a one-factor and two-factor model of PTSD and C-PTSD. Nested model comparison tests provide support for the parsimonious one-factor model solution. A second-order CFA model of PTSD and C-PTSD produced a poor fit. The modified three-factor multi-disorder solution combining a traumatic stress (TS) factor (amalgamating PTSD and C-PTSD), MDD, and CG yielded a good fit only after removing three CG domains (estrangement, yearning, and behavioral change), a model that produced large standardized residuals (>0.20). The most parsimonious model yielded a single TS factor combining symptom domains of C-PTSD and PTSD in this culturally distinct community exposed to extensive persecution and conflict-related trauma. There may be grounds for expanding the scope of psychological treatments for refugees to encompass this wider TS response. Our findings are consistent with theoretical frameworks focusing on the wider TS reaction of refugees exposed to human rights-related traumas of mass conflict, persecution, and displacement.

  19. The Relationship of Complex Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in a Culturally Distinct, Conflict-Affected Population: A Study among West Papuan Refugees Displaced to Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Silove

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundControversy continues about the validity of the construct of complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD. In particular, questions remain whether C-PTSD can be differentiated from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and, secondarily, other common mental disorders. The examination of these issues needs to be expanded to populations of diverse cultural backgrounds exposed to prolonged persecution. We undertake such an inquiry among a community sample of West Papuan refugees exposed to extensive persecution and trauma.MethodsWe interviewed over 300 West Papuan refugees using the Refugee-Mental Health Assessment Package to record symptoms of PTSD, C-PTSD, major depressive disorder (MDD, and complex grief (CG. We used first- and second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA to test aspects of the convergent and discriminant validity of C-PTSD.ResultsThe CFA analysis supported both a one-factor and two-factor model of PTSD and C-PTSD. Nested model comparison tests provide support for the parsimonious one-factor model solution. A second-order CFA model of PTSD and C-PTSD produced a poor fit. The modified three-factor multi-disorder solution combining a traumatic stress (TS factor (amalgamating PTSD and C-PTSD, MDD, and CG yielded a good fit only after removing three CG domains (estrangement, yearning, and behavioral change, a model that produced large standardized residuals (>0.20.ConclusionThe most parsimonious model yielded a single TS factor combining symptom domains of C-PTSD and PTSD in this culturally distinct community exposed to extensive persecution and conflict-related trauma. There may be grounds for expanding the scope of psychological treatments for refugees to encompass this wider TS response. Our findings are consistent with theoretical frameworks focusing on the wider TS reaction of refugees exposed to human rights-related traumas of mass conflict, persecution, and displacement.

  20. How to quantify exposure to traumatic stress? Reliability and predictive validity of measures for cumulative trauma exposure in a post-conflict population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilker, Sarah; Pfeiffer, Anett; Kolassa, Stephan; Koslowski, Daniela; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    While studies with survivors of single traumatic experiences highlight individual response variation following trauma, research from conflict regions shows that almost everyone develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) if trauma exposure reaches extreme levels. Therefore, evaluating the effects of cumulative trauma exposure is of utmost importance in studies investigating risk factors for PTSD. Yet, little research has been devoted to evaluate how this important environmental risk factor can be best quantified. We investigated the retest reliability and predictive validity of different trauma measures in a sample of 227 Ugandan rebel war survivors. Trauma exposure was modeled as the number of traumatic event types experienced or as a score considering traumatic event frequencies. In addition, we investigated whether age at trauma exposure can be reliably measured and improves PTSD risk prediction. All trauma measures showed good reliability. While prediction of lifetime PTSD was most accurate from the number of different traumatic event types experienced, inclusion of event frequencies slightly improved the prediction of current PTSD. As assessing the number of traumatic events experienced is the least stressful and time-consuming assessment and leads to the best prediction of lifetime PTSD, we recommend this measure for research on PTSD etiology.

  1. How to quantify exposure to traumatic stress? Reliability and predictive validity of measures for cumulative trauma exposure in a post-conflict population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wilker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: While studies with survivors of single traumatic experiences highlight individual response variation following trauma, research from conflict regions shows that almost everyone develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD if trauma exposure reaches extreme levels. Therefore, evaluating the effects of cumulative trauma exposure is of utmost importance in studies investigating risk factors for PTSD. Yet, little research has been devoted to evaluate how this important environmental risk factor can be best quantified. Methods: We investigated the retest reliability and predictive validity of different trauma measures in a sample of 227 Ugandan rebel war survivors. Trauma exposure was modeled as the number of traumatic event types experienced or as a score considering traumatic event frequencies. In addition, we investigated whether age at trauma exposure can be reliably measured and improves PTSD risk prediction. Results: All trauma measures showed good reliability. While prediction of lifetime PTSD was most accurate from the number of different traumatic event types experienced, inclusion of event frequencies slightly improved the prediction of current PTSD. Conclusions: As assessing the number of traumatic events experienced is the least stressful and time-consuming assessment and leads to the best prediction of lifetime PTSD, we recommend this measure for research on PTSD etiology.

  2. Work–family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers: How household income modifies associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Honjo, Kaori; Eshak, Ehab Salah; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations between work–family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers and to determine whether the associations differed by household income. Data was derived from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation in Saku area in 2011–2012 (7,663 men and 7,070 women). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for poor self-rated health by work–family conflict consisting of two dimensions (work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts) were calculated by gender and household income. Multivariate ORs of high work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts for poor self-rated health were 2.46 (95% CI; 2.04–2.97) for men and 3.54 (95% CI; 2.92–4.30) for women, with reference to the low work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts (p-value for gender interaction = 0.02). Subgroup analysis indicated that health effects of work–family conflict were likely to be more evident in the low income group only among women. Work–family conflict was associated with poor self-rated health among middle-aged Japanese men and women; its health impact was relatively stronger among women, and particularly economically disadvantaged women. PMID:28207757

  3. Work-family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers: How household income modifies associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Honjo, Kaori; Eshak, Ehab Salah; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations between work-family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers and to determine whether the associations differed by household income. Data was derived from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation in Saku area in 2011-2012 (7,663 men and 7,070 women). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for poor self-rated health by work-family conflict consisting of two dimensions (work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts) were calculated by gender and household income. Multivariate ORs of high work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts for poor self-rated health were 2.46 (95% CI; 2.04-2.97) for men and 3.54 (95% CI; 2.92-4.30) for women, with reference to the low work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts (p-value for gender interaction = 0.02). Subgroup analysis indicated that health effects of work-family conflict were likely to be more evident in the low income group only among women. Work-family conflict was associated with poor self-rated health among middle-aged Japanese men and women; its health impact was relatively stronger among women, and particularly economically disadvantaged women.

  4. Conflict: Organizational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, Stewart; Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Sewell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This article examines four contemporary treatments of the problem of organizational conflict: social psychological, anthropological, neo-Darwinian, and neo-Machiavellian. Social psychological treatments of organizational conflict focus on the dyadic relationship between individual disputants....... In contrast, anthropological treatments take a more socially and historically embedded approach to organizational conflict, focusing on how organizational actors establish negotiated orders of understanding. In a break with the social psychological and anthropological approaches, neo-Darwinians explain...... of organizational conflict where members of an organization are seen as politicized actors engaged in power struggles that continually ebb and flow....

  5. Role of basal stress hormones and amygdala dimensions in stress coping strategies of male rhesus monkeys in response to a hazard-reward conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Tekieh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In the present study the effect of stress on monkeys that had learned to retrieve food from a five-chamber receptacle, as well as the relationship between their behavior and the serum cortisol and epinephrine levels and relative size of the amygdala was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Six male rhesus monkeys were individually given access to the food reward orderly. They could easily retrieve the rewards from all chambers except for the chamber 4, which a brief, mild electric shock (3 V was delivered to them upon touching the chamber’s interior. The coping behaviors were video-recorded and analyzed offline. Baseline serum cortisol and epinephrine levels were measured before the experiments using monkey enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. One week after the behavioral experiment, the monkeys’ brains were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging under general anesthesia. The cross-sectional area of the left amygdala in sagittal plane relative to the area of the whole brain in the same slice was evaluated by the planimetric method using ImageJ software. Results: Exposure to the distressing condition caused different behavioral responses. Monkeys with higher baseline levels of serum cortisol and epinephrine and larger amygdala behaved more violently in the face of stress, indicating adopting emotion-focused stress-coping strategies. Conversely, those with low plasma epinephrine, moderate cortisol, and smaller amygdala showed perseverative behavior, indicating a problem-focused coping style. Conclusion: In dealing with the same stress, different responses might be observed from nonhuman primates according to their cortisol and epinephrine levels as well as their amygdala dimensions.

  6. Marital Conflict, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via…

  7. The Relationship Between Work-Family Conflict and Job Satisfaction Among Hospital Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAzzam, Manar; AbuAlRub, Raeda Fawzi; Nazzal, Ala H

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the incidence of work-family conflict and the association between work-family conflict and satisfaction level among Jordanian nurses. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from a convenience sample of 333 Jordanian nurses using a descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational design. The results revealed that nurses were exposed to both subtypes of work and family conflict, but they experienced the work-to-family conflict more than the family-to-work conflict. Both subtypes of work and family conflict were correlated negatively with age and positively with the number of children. Being female and absence of child care facilities at workplace had positive effects on the occurrence of work-to-family conflict. Finally, the negative and significant relationship between the work and family conflict and the job satisfaction level was supported. Those findings imply that nurse administrators and policy makers should establish different strategies to support the balance between the nurses' family life and nurses' work life such as child care and elder care services and other fringe benefits. Hospitals have to promote themselves as work environments that support job satisfaction to attract nurses, hence increasing patients' satisfaction and quality of nursing care. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Parenting Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Parenting Conflicts Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print ...

  9. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  10. CONFLICTING REASONS

    OpenAIRE

    Parfit, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Sidgwick believed that, when impartial reasons conflict with self-interested reasons, there are no truths about their relative strength. There are such truths, I claim, but these truths are imprecise. Many self-interested reasons are decisively outweighed by conflicting impar-tial moral reasons. But we often have sufficient self-interested reasons to do what would make things go worse, and we sometimes have sufficient self-interested reasons to act wrongly. If we reject Act Consequentialism, ...

  11. Emotional Dynamics in Conflict and Conflict Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul; Bramsen, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Isabel Bramsen & Poul Poder 2018. Emotional Dynamics in Conflict and Conflict Transformation. Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, Online Edition. Berlin: Berghof Foundation. Conflict and Conflict Transformation. Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, Online Edition. Berlin: Berghof Foundation.

  12. Conflicts about Conflict of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terrence

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutical representatives use detailing, gift giving, and the donation of free samples as a means to gain access to and influence over physicians. In biomedical ethics, there has been an ongoing debate as to whether these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest (COI) on the part of the physician. Underlying this debate are the following antecedent questions: (1) what counts as a conflict of interest, (2) when are such conflicts unethical, and (3) how should the ethical physician respond to conflicts? This article distinguishes between two perspectives that have been developed on these issues: a reliable performance model (PM) and a trustworthiness model (TM). PM advocates argue that a conflict of interest can only be established by demonstrating that a particular influence is undermining the reliability of the physician's judgment, and this requires empirical evidence of negative patient outcomes. TM advocates, on the other hand, argue that because of the fiduciary nature of the patient-physician relationship, physicians have an obligation to develop and be worthy of patient trust. A COI, on this view, is a condition that undermines the warrant for patients to judge a physician as trustworthy. Although there is much that is right in the PM, it is argued that the TM does a better job of responsibly addressing the unique vulnerabilities of the patient. The TM is then applied to the practices of detailing, gift giving, and sample donation. It is concluded that these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest.

  13. Major Causes of Organizational Conflict: Diagnosis for Action. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, C. Brooklyn

    Six major causes of organizational conflict (individual stress, role conflict, power struggles, differentiation, interdependence, and external pressures) are delineated; implications for managing these conflicts using collaboration, bargaining, and power plays are pointed out; a conflict management paradigm pointing out which mode of conflict…

  14. Interpersonal conflict and depression among Japanese workers with high or low socioeconomic status: findings from the Japan Work Stress and Health Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito

    2010-07-01

    Research that focuses on the relationship between interpersonal conflict at work (i.e., intragroup conflict and intergroup conflict) and depression that also considers differences in socioeconomic status (SES) is limited. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the relationship between interpersonal conflict at work and depression at different levels of SES. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 17,390 males and 2923 females employed in nine factories located in several regions of Japan. These participants were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire that included self-reported measures of interpersonal conflict at work (intragroup conflict and intergroup conflict), SES (education and occupation), worksite support (supervisor support and coworker support), depression (assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D] scale), and other demographic covariates. Those who had scores of 16 + on the CES-D scale (4066 males and 873 females) were classified as experiencing depression. The association of interpersonal conflict with depression was significantly greater among males of a high SES (i.e., higher educational status and non-manual workers) than males of a low SES (i.e., lower educational status and manual workers) after adjusting for demographic variables, supervisor support, and coworker support. More specifically, the association of intergroup conflict with depression was significantly greater among males of a high SES than males of a low SES. However, this pattern was not observed in females. The current study suggests that males of a higher SES are more vulnerable to interpersonal conflict at work in terms of developing depression than males of a lower SES. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Are status inconsistency, work stress and work-family conflict associated with depressive symptoms? Testing prospective evidence in the lidA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Richard; March, Stefanie; du Prel, Jean-Baptist

    2016-02-01

    Depressive symptoms are common and economically relevant. Women suffer more often than men do. We analyze associations between social status inconsistency, psychosocial factors, and depressive symptoms stratified by gender. In the present study, 3340 employees of two age cohorts (1959, 1965) working in two waves (2011, 2014) of the prospective German lidA-study and who gave written consent to link register data regarding their employment histories were included. Gender-specific influences of social status inconsistency (deviation of observed income from expected average income based on acquired education) on depressive symptoms and mediation of these associations by work stress in terms of effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) and work-family-conflict (WFC) were analyzed with confirmatory cross-lagged path models. Among men, consistent status (i.e., average income in a specific educational group) increased the frequency of depressive symptoms. No association between negative SSI (i.e., income below the average income given a specific educational attainment) or positive SSI (i.e., income above the average income given a specific educational attainment) and depressive symptoms was observed among men or women. ERI and WFC were longitudinally associated with the outcome and differed slightly regarding gender, i.e., showing stronger effects of ERI for women and of WFC for men. Mediation of the association between social status and depressive symptoms was observed for men and for consistent status (path: consistent status → ERI → depressive symptoms) but not for SSI. ERI and WFC increase the risk of future episodes with depressive symptoms in men and in women irrespective of SSI, occupational position, full- or part-time work, regional factors or individual characteristics. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Reported Levels of Time-Based and Strain-Based Conflict between Work and Family Roles in Europe: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiber, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    What are the determinants of the "subjective experience" of conflict between work and family roles among dual-earner couples in Europe? Taking a demands-and-resources approach, this study investigates the individual and macro-level factors that generate perceptions of negative spill-over from work to family. Comparative survey data for…

  17. The high cost of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forté, P S

    1997-01-01

    Conflict is inevitable, especially in highly stressed environments. Clinical environments marked by nurse-physician conflict (and nurse withdrawal related to conflict avoidance) have been proven to be counterproductive to patients. Clinical environments with nurse-physician professional collegiality and respectful communication show decreased patient morbidity and mortality, thus enhancing outcomes. The growth of managed care, and the organizational turmoil associated with rapid change, makes it imperative to structure the health care environment so that conflict can be dealt with in a safe and healthy manner. Professional health care education programs and employers have a responsibility to provide interactive opportunities for multidisciplinary audiences through which conflict management skills can be learned and truly change the interpersonal environment. Professionals must be free to focus their energy on the needs of the patient, not on staff difficulties.

  18. Depression and work family conflict among corrections officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidoa, Chiwekwu; Reeves, David; Warren, Nicholas; Reisine, Susan; Cherniack, Martin

    2011-11-01

    This article assessed work-to-family conflict (W-FC) and family-to-work conflict (F-WC) and their impact on depression among corrections officers in two correctional facilities in the United States. The sample consisted of 220 officers who completed questionnaires that included data on demographics, sense of coherence (SOC), physical health, psychosocial job characteristics, and work-family conflict. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) assessed depression. The mean CES-D score was 7.8 (SD = 5.2); 31% had scores of 10 or more, indicative of serious psychological distress. The SOC, W-FC, and F-WC were significantly and positively associated with depression; W-FC mediated the effects of SOC on depression. Psychosocial job characteristics were not related to depression. Depressive symptoms were high among officers, and W-FC was a critical factor contributing to psychological distress.

  19. "Conflict management" and "conflict resolution" are not synonymous terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, S P

    1978-01-01

    Robbins sees functional conflict as an absolute necessity within organizations and explicitly encourages it. He explains: "Survival can result only when an organization is able to adapt to constant changes in the environment. Adaption is possible only through change, and change is stimulated by conflict." Robbins cites evidence indicating that conflict can be related to increased productivity and that critical thinking encourages well-developed decisions. He admits, however, that not all conflicts are good for the organization. Their functional or dysfunctional nature is determined by the impact of the conflict on the objectives of the organization. The author identifies several factors underlying the need for conflict stimulation: (1) managers who are surrounded by "yes men"; (2) subordinates who are afraid to admit ignorance or uncertainty; (3) decision-makers' excessive concern about hurting the feelings of others; or (4) an environment where new ideas are slow in coming forth. He suggests techniques for stimulating conflict; manipulating the communication channels (i.e., repression of information); changing the organizational structure (i.e., changes in size or position); and altering personal behavior factors (i.e., role incongruence). Robbins stresses that the actual method to be used in either resolving or stimulating conflict must be appropriate to the situation.

  20. Mutable Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    their everyday life in Denmark, and to single out specific contemporary political events like the publishing of the cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad, local clashes with the Danish police and the Israeli invasion of Gaza. The ethnography discloses that the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is not a chronological...

  1. Celebritizing Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2 In......, conflict, and development in Africa....

  2. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.; Bauer, F.; Groß, H.; Sieglen, G.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  3. Work-family role conflict and job performance among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family role conflict generates some kind of stress and instability that further ... However, this relationship between work-family role conflict and low job performance is considered higher among women with more children and less spousal/family ...

  4. Work-family conflict and employee psychiatric disorders: the National Comorbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, M R

    2000-12-01

    This study examined the relation between work-family conflict and several types of psychiatric disorders: mood, anxiety, substance dependence, and substance abuse. Survey data were obtained from a representative national sample of 2,700 employed adults who were either married or the parent of a child 18 years old or younger. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses revealed that both work-to-family and family-to-work conflict were positively related to having a mood, anxiety, and substance dependence disorder. Depending on the type of work-family conflict and type of disorder, employees who reported experiencing work-family conflict often were 1.99-29.66 times more likely than were employees who reported no work-family conflict to experience a clinically significant mental health problem. No support was found for gender differences.

  5. Conceptions of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Clegg, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    . In doing so, we first apply a genealogical approach to study conceptions of conflict, and we find that three distinct and essentially contested conceptions frame studies of conflict at work. Second, we employ two empirical examples of conflict to illustrate how organizational conflict research can benefit......Diverse and often unacknowledged assumptions underlie organizational conflict research. In this essay, we identify distinct ways of conceptualizing conflict in the theoretical domain of organizational conflict with the aim of setting a new critical agenda for reflexivity in conflict research...

  6. Conflict between the work and family domains and exhaustion among vocationally active men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivet, Catarina; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Lindeberg, Sara I; Choi, BongKyoo; Karasek, Robert; Moghaddassi, Mahnaz; Isacsson, Sven-Olof

    2010-04-01

    Exhaustion is consistently found to be more prevalent in women than in men. Women suffer from job strain more often, which may constitute a partial explanation for this phenomenon, but experienced shortcomings in combining work and family demands may also contribute to ill health. The aim of this study was to investigate, and analyse by gender, how work-related and family-related factors, as well as the interface between them, i.e. work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC), are related to exhaustion. The study was cross-sectional with self-administered questionnaires assessing exposures and outcome with previously well-validated instruments. The participants were 2726 men and 2735 women, aged 45-64, vocationally active, and residing in Malmö, Sweden. Sixteen percent of the women and 8% of the men considered themselves exhausted. WFC, FWC, job strain, and low job support were all strongly correlated to exhaustion in both genders. In the multivariate analyses, adjusting for other work and family risk factors, WFC and FWC remained statistically significant risk factors for exhaustion in both men and women. Job strain, low job support, and having a somatic disorder were also independently associated with exhaustion. While WFC was more prevalent among men, it was more strongly associated with exhaustion in women than in men. In women, WFC and FWC contributed to a larger part of the explanatory power of the model, which amounted to 22% of the variance in women and 14% in men. The results imply that the concept of 'work stress' should be regarded in a wider context in order to understand gender related issues of exhaustion among vocationally active individuals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Conflicts between work and family life and subsequent sleep problems among employees from Finland, Britain, and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, T; Ferrie, J E; Kivimäki, M; Shipley, M J; Sekine, M; Tatsuse, T; Pietiläinen, O; Rahkonen, O; Marmot, M G; Lahelma, E

    2014-04-01

    Research on the association between family-to-work and work-to-family conflicts and sleep problems is sparse and mostly cross-sectional. We examined these associations prospectively in three occupational cohorts. Data were derived from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (n = 3,881), the British Whitehall II Study (n = 3,998), and the Japanese Civil Servants Study (n = 1,834). Sleep problems were assessed using the Jenkins sleep questionnaire in the Finnish and British cohorts and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in the Japanese cohort. Family-to-work and work-to-family conflicts measured whether family life interfered with work or vice versa. Age, baseline sleep problems, job strain, and self-rated health were adjusted for in logistic regression analyses. Adjusted for age and baseline sleep, strong family-to-work conflicts were associated with subsequent sleep problems among Finnish women (OR, 1.33 (95 % CI, 1.02-1.73)) and Japanese employees of both sexes (OR, 7.61 (95 % CI, 1.01-57.2) for women; OR, 1.97 (95 % CI, 1.06-3.66) for men). Strong work-to-family conflicts were associated with subsequent sleep problems in British, Finnish, and Japanese women (OR, 2.36 (95 % CI, 1.42-3.93), 1.62 (95 % CI, 1.20-2.18), and 5.35 (95 % CI, 1.00-28.55), respectively) adjusted for age and baseline sleep problems. In men, this association was seen only in the British cohort (OR, 2.02 (95 % CI, 1.42-2.88)). Adjustments for job strain and self-rated health produced no significant attenuation of these associations. Family-to-work and work-to-family conflicts predicted subsequent sleep problems among the majority of employees in three occupational cohorts.

  8. Work-family conflict in Japan: how job and home demands affect psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihito; Bakker, Arnold B; Demerouti, Evangelia; Peeters, Maria C W

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine how job and home demands are related to psychological distress in a sample of Japanese working parents with preschool children (n=196). We expected that job and home demands are partially related to psychological distress through work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC), respectively. Structural equation modeling showed that, as expected, home demands were partially related to psychological distress, both directly and indirectly through FWC. In contrast, job demands were only directly related to psychological distress. The differences between the roles of FWC and WFC are discussed using identity theory.

  9. Work-family conflicts and subsequent sleep medication among women and men: a longitudinal registry linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, T; Arber, S; Laaksonen, M; Lahelma, E; Partonen, T; Rahkonen, O

    2013-02-01

    Work and family are two key domains of life among working populations. Conflicts between paid work and family life can be detrimental to sleep and other health-related outcomes. This study examined longitudinally the influence of work-family conflicts on subsequent sleep medication. Questionnaire data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study mail surveys in 2001-2002 (2929 women, 793 men) of employees aged 40-60 years. Data concerning sleep medication were derived from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution's registers covering all prescribed medication from 1995 to 2007. Four items measured whether job responsibilities interfered with family life (work to family conflicts), and four items measured whether family responsibilities interfered with work (family to work conflicts). Cox proportional hazard models were fitted, adjusting for age, sleep medication five years before baseline, as well as various family- and work-related covariates. During a five-year follow-up, 17% of women and 10% of men had at least one purchase of prescribed sleep medication. Among women, family to work conflicts were associated with sleep medication over the following 5 years after adjustment for age and prior medication. The association remained largely unaffected after adjusting for family-related and work-related covariates. Work to family conflicts were also associated with subsequent sleep medication after adjustment for age and prior medication. The association attenuated after adjustment for work-related factors. No associations could be confirmed among men. Thus reasons for men's sleep medication likely emerge outside their work and family lives. Concerning individual items, strain-based ones showed stronger associations with sleep medication than more concrete time-based items. In conclusion, in particular family to work conflicts, but also work to family conflicts, are clear determinants of women's sleep medication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Work-Family Conflict Scale (WAFCS): development and initial validation of a self-report measure of work-family conflict for use with parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Divna; Filus, Ania; Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R; Fletcher, Renee

    2015-06-01

    This paper outlines the development and validation of the Work-Family Conflict Scale (WAFCS) designed to measure work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC) for use with parents of young children. An expert informant and consumer feedback approach was utilised to develop and refine 20 items, which were subjected to a rigorous validation process using two separate samples of parents of 2-12 year old children (n = 305 and n = 264). As a result of statistical analyses several items were dropped resulting in a brief 10-item scale comprising two subscales assessing theoretically distinct but related constructs: FWC (five items) and WFC (five items). Analyses revealed both subscales have good internal consistency, construct validity as well as concurrent and predictive validity. The results indicate the WAFCS is a promising brief measure for the assessment of work-family conflict in parents. Benefits of the measure as well as potential uses are discussed.

  11. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  12. Marital Conflict, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via functional impairment. We estimated a latent variable causal model using 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,832)....

  13. Work-Family Conflict among Female Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinamon, R.G.; Rich, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Work-family conflict was investigated among 187 Israeli women teachers to better understand relationships between teachers' professional and family lives. The research examined perceived importance of work and family roles and effects of stress and support variables on W->F and F->W conflict. Additionally, effects of teachers' years of experience…

  14. Work-family conflict and retirement preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymo, James M; Sweeney, Megan M

    2006-05-01

    This study investigates relationships between retirement preferences and perceived levels of work-family conflict. Using the large sample of 52-54-year-old respondents to the 1992 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we estimated multinomial logistic regression models of preferences for partial and full retirement within the next 10 years. We examined the association between retirement preferences and perceived work-family conflict, evaluated the extent to which work-family conflict was a mediating mechanism between stressful work and family circumstances and preferences to retire, and explored potential gender differences in the association between work-family conflict and preferring retirement. Work-family conflict was positively related to preferences for both full and partial retirement. Yet work-family conflict did not appear to mediate relationships between stressful work and family environments and retirement preferences, nor did significant gender differences emerge in this association. Our analyses provide the first direct evidence of the role played by work-family conflict in the early stages of the retirement process, although we were not able to identify the sources of conflict underlying this relationship. Identifying the sources of this conflict and the psychological mechanisms linking work-family conflict to retirement preferences is an important task for future researchers.

  15. Intragroup Conflict during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Co-national groups of individuals from the same country can provide members with psychological and sociocultural support when coping with the stresses of studying abroad. This article examines intragroup task and relationship conflict that occurred in one co-national group during a 14-week short-term study abroad program. Findings reveal the…

  16. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, severe psychological distress, explosive anger and grief amongst partners of survivors of high levels of trauma in post-conflict Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, D M; Tay, A K; Steel, Z; Tam, N; Soares, Z; Soares, C; Dos Reis, N; Alves, A; Rees, S

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the mental health of partners of survivors of high levels of trauma in post-conflict countries. We studied 677 spouse dyads (n = 1354) drawn from a community survey (response 82.4%) in post-conflict Timor-Leste. We used culturally adapted measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, explosive anger and grief. Latent class analysis identified three classes of couples: class 1, comprising women with higher trauma events (TEs), men with intermediate TEs (19%); class 2, including men with higher TEs, women with lower TEs (23%); and class 3, comprising couples in which men and women had lower TE exposure (58%) (the reference group). Men and women partners of survivors of higher TE exposure (classes 1 and 2) had increased symptoms of explosive anger and grief compared with the reference class (class 3). Women partners of survivors of higher TE exposure (class 2) had a 20-fold increased rate of PTSD symptoms compared with the reference class, a pattern that was not evident for men living with women exposed to higher levels of trauma (class 1). Men and women living with survivors of higher levels of trauma showed an increase in symptoms of grief and explosive anger. The manifold higher rate of PTSD symptoms amongst women living with men exposed to high levels of trauma requires replication. It is important to assess the mental health of partners when treating survivors of high levels of trauma in post-conflict settings.

  17. Putting conflict management into practice: a nursing case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivar, Cristina García

    2006-04-01

    This paper is intended to put knowledge in conflict management into practice through reflecting on a nursing case study. Nursing organizations are particularly vulnerable to conflict as the context of nurses' work may be difficult and stressful. Power conflict is argued to be an important source of tension within nursing units. Learning to manage conflict at an early stage is therefore crucial to the effective functioning of nursing organizations. A nursing case study that illustrates power conflict in an oncology nursing unit is displayed and reflection on conflict management from the case is provided. There is no appropriate or inappropriate strategy to deal with conflict. However, detecting initial symptoms of conflict and adopting the most effective behaviour to conflict resolution is essential in nursing units. Further nursing education in conflict management for staff nurses and nurse managers is greatly needed.

  18. Role conflict: cause of burnout or energizer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M L

    1993-03-01

    A year-long study of public child welfare administrators examined the effects of role conflict on their attitudes and performance. Popular belief and some of the literature have suggested that burnout is inevitable for those confronted with role conflict. Other literature has proposed that it may instead be energizing to individuals and lead to greater personal and organizational effectiveness. This qualitative study found that individuals in the study had developed specific, effective skills for responding to role conflict. Although there was a public presentation of self that indicated they were under stress and in "impossible" situations, there was in fact an energizing effect resulting from the ongoing challenge of dealing with conflict.

  19. Development of short questionnaire to measure an extended set of role expectation conflict, coworker support and work-life balance: The new job stress scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Shukla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of a new version of job stress scale, which measures the extended set of psychosocial stressors by adding new scales to the current version of the job stress scale. Additional scales were extensively collected from theoretical job stress models and similar questionnaire from different countries. Items were tested in workplace and refined through a pilot survey (n = 400 to examine the reliability and construct validity. Most scales showed acceptable levels of internal consistency, intra-class reliability, and test–retest reliability. Factor analysis and correlation analysis showed that these scales fit the theoretical expectations. These findings provided enough evidences that the new job stress scale is reliable and valid. Although confirmatory analysis should be examined in future studies. The new job stress scale is a useful instrument for organization and academicians to evaluate job stress in modern Indian workplace.

  20. Environmental changes and violent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Böhmelt, Tobias; Koubi, Vally

    2012-01-01

    This letter reviews the scientific literature on whether and how environmental changes affect the risk of violent conflict. The available evidence from qualitative case studies indicates that environmental stress can contribute to violent conflict in some specific cases. Results from quantitative large-N studies, however, strongly suggest that we should be careful in drawing general conclusions. Those large-N studies that we regard as the most sophisticated ones obtain results that are not robust to alternative model specifications and, thus, have been debated. This suggests that environmental changes may, under specific circumstances, increase the risk of violent conflict, but not necessarily in a systematic way and unconditionally. Hence there is, to date, no scientific consensus on the impact of environmental changes on violent conflict. This letter also highlights the most important challenges for further research on the subject. One of the key issues is that the effects of environmental changes on violent conflict are likely to be contingent on a set of economic and political conditions that determine adaptation capacity. In the authors' view, the most important indirect effects are likely to lead from environmental changes via economic performance and migration to violent conflict. (letter)

  1. Passive responses to interpersonal conflict at work amplify employee strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, M.T.M.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Evers, A.; van Dierendonck, D.

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict at work correlates with stress related outcomes such as psychological strain and exhaustion. Consistent with conflict theory, we argued that this relationship is moderated by the way conflict is managed. Cross-sectional data collected in The Netherlands, from students with

  2. Antecedents and consequences of intra-group conflict among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost, Joan; Doran, Diane M; McGillis Hall, Linda; Spence Laschinger, Heather K

    2010-11-01

    To test a theoretical model linking selected antecedent variables to intra-group conflict among nurses, and subsequently conflict management style, job stress and job satisfaction. A contributing factor to the nursing shortage is job dissatisfaction as a result of conflict among nurses. To develop strategies to reduce conflict, research is needed to understand the causes and outcomes of conflict in nursing work environments. A predictive, non-experimental design was used in a random sample of 277 acute care nurses. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the hypothesised model. Nurses' core self-evaluations, complexity of care and relationships with managers and nursing colleagues influenced their perceived level of conflict. Conflict management style partially mediated the relationship between conflict and job satisfaction. Job stress had a direct effect on job satisfaction and core self-evaluation had a direct effect on job stress. Conflict and its associated outcomes is a complex process, affected by dispositional, contextual and interpersonal factors. How nurses manage conflict may not prevent the negative effects of conflict, however, learning to manage conflict using collaboration and accommodation may help nurses experience greater job satisfaction. Strategies to manage and reduce conflict include building interactional justice practices and positive interpersonal relationships. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Varieties of Organizational Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Louis R.

    1969-01-01

    The viewpoints and findings of the seven empirical studies of organizational conflict contained in this issue are compared and contrasted. A distinction is made between conflict within a stable organization structure and conflict aimed at changing the organization structure. (Author)

  4. Healthy Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Without healthy conflict management skills, conflict can often escalate or intensify over time. This fact sheet gives tips on utilizing key negotiation skills to help individuals effectively address and cope with conflict and potentially build stronger relationships with others.

  5. Conflict Termination: Every Conflict Must End

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garza, Mario

    1997-01-01

    .... The operational commander and his staff must understand the nature of conflict termination and the post-conflict activities so that they will be able to effectively translate the desired end state...

  6. The reasons for conflict and conflict management

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Adnan; Ergün, Ercan; Alpkan, Lütfihak

    2000-01-01

    This study has been conducted in order to investigate the nature, types, reasons and parties of conflict, and thus to contribute to the conflict management. After defining the concept of conflict as "a struggle in the form of a limited competition" or "disagreement or discord among the parties" , this article has mentioned the fact that conflict is unavoidable and also if managed properly, it can bring to the organization some functional advantage. In this respect, we conducted a question...

  7. Family-supportive organization perceptions and organizational commitment: the mediating role of work-family conflict and enrichment and partner attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Julie Holliday; Casper, Wendy J; Matthews, Russell A; Allen, Tammy D

    2013-07-01

    The present study aims to explain the processes through which family-supportive organizational perceptions (FSOP) relate to employee affective commitment. We suggest multiple mechanisms through which this relationship transpires-(a) the focal employee's experience of work-to-family conflict and enrichment and (b) the attitudes of the employee's spouse/partner. Hypotheses are tested with data from 408 couples. Results suggest that employee FSOP is positively associated with employee commitment through both employee work-to-family experiences and partner attitudes. FSOP was positively related to employee work-to-family enrichment, which was positively associated with employee affective commitment. FSOP was negatively associated with employee work-to-family conflict, which related to a partner's more positive attitude toward the employee's work schedule and higher commitment to the employee's firm. Partner commitment was positively and reciprocally related to employee affective commitment. These relationships partially mediated the FSOP-employee affective commitment relationship and varied as a function of parental status and single- versus dual-earner couple status but not as a function of employee gender. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  9. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  10. Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict Management in the Bawku Municipal ... institutional arrangements for conflict monitoring and evaluation. Such processes are 'sine qua non' to pre-conflict and post-conflict prevention.

  11. Automated conflict resolution issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  12. Interpersonal Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Albert E.

    1978-01-01

    The difference between constructive and destructive conflicts may be traced to the way in which they are managed. Third-party help is often utilized to achieve constructive conflict management. This article describes two models for conflict management consultation. Five guidelines are given for constructive conflict management. (Author/JEL)

  13. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  14. Daily work-family conflict and alcohol use: testing the cross-level moderation effects of peer drinking norms and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Liu, Songqi; Zhan, Yujie; Shi, Junqi

    2010-03-01

    In the current study, we conducted daily telephone interviews with a sample of Chinese workers (N = 57) for 5 weeks to examine relationships between daily work-family conflict and alcohol use. Drawn from the tension reduction theory and the stressor-vulnerability model, daily work-family conflict variables were hypothesized to predict employees' daily alcohol use. Further, social variables (i.e., peer drinking norms, family support, and coworker support) were hypothesized to moderate the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use. Results showed that daily work-to-family conflict but not family-to-work conflict had a significant within-subject main effect on daily alcohol use. In addition, there was significant between-subject variation in the relationship between work-to-family conflict and alcohol use, which was predicted by peer drinking norms, coworker support, and family support. The current findings shed light on the daily health behavior consequences of work-family conflict and provide important theoretical and practical implications. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Coping with Family Conflict: What's Helpful and What's Not for Low-Income Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2009-01-01

    Family conflict is exacerbated by poverty-related stress and is detrimental to adolescent mental health. Adolescent coping with family conflict has the potential to buffer or exacerbate the negative effects of family conflict on internalizing symptoms. We examined coping with family conflict among 82 low-income adolescents (53.7% female, mean age…

  16. Deep sleep after social stress : NREM sleep slow-wave activity is enhanced in both winners and losers of a conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Jeanine; Lancel, Marike; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meerlo, Peter

    Sleep is considered to be a recovery process of prior wakefulness. Not only duration of the waking period affects sleep architecture and sleep EEG, the quality of wakefulness is also highly important. Studies in rats have shown that social defeat stress, in which experimental animals are attacked

  17. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gaal, Simon; Lamme, Victor A F; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2010-07-09

    In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked) or unconsciously (strongly masked primes). We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  18. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Gaal

    Full Text Available In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked or unconsciously (strongly masked primes. We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  19. Assessing the relationship between work-family conflict and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Candace C; Li, Yi; Sorensen, Glorian; Berkman, Lisa F

    2012-09-01

    We examined the relationship between smoking and work-family conflict among a sample of New England long-term-care facility workers. To collect data, we conducted in-person, structured interviews with workers in 4 extended-care facilities. There was a strong association between smoking likelihood and work-family conflict. Workers who experienced both stress at home from work issues (i.e., work-to-home conflict) and stress at work from personal issues (i.e., home-to-work conflict) had 3.1 times higher odds of smoking than those who did not experience these types of conflict. Workers who experienced home-to-work conflict had an odds of 2.3 compared with those who did not experience this type of conflict, and workers who experienced work-to-home conflict had an odds of 1.6 compared with workers who did not experience this type of conflict. The results of this study indicate that there is a robust relationship between work-family conflict and smoking, but that this relationship is dependent upon the total amount of conflict experienced and the direction of the conflict.

  20. Assessing the Relationship Between Work–Family Conflict and Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Candace C.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between smoking and work–family conflict among a sample of New England long-term-care facility workers. Methods. To collect data, we conducted in-person, structured interviews with workers in 4 extended-care facilities. Results. There was a strong association between smoking likelihood and work–family conflict. Workers who experienced both stress at home from work issues (i.e., work-to-home conflict) and stress at work from personal issues (i.e., home-to-work conflict) had 3.1 times higher odds of smoking than those who did not experience these types of conflict. Workers who experienced home-to-work conflict had an odds of 2.3 compared with those who did not experience this type of conflict, and workers who experienced work-to-home conflict had an odds of 1.6 compared with workers who did not experience this type of conflict. Conclusions. The results of this study indicate that there is a robust relationship between work–family conflict and smoking, but that this relationship is dependent upon the total amount of conflict experienced and the direction of the conflict. PMID:22720765

  1. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  2. Fulani herdsmen's pastoral activities, conflict and conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LGA) of Oyo state Nigeria had come with some challenges over the years of interacting with their host community. This study was aimed at determining the effects of nomadic farming in the study area attendant conflicts and conflict management ...

  3. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  4. Work-family conflict and work engagement among mothers: Conscientiousness and neuroticism as moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy J. Opie

    2013-07-01

    Research purpose: The job demand-resources model is utilised to investigate the moderating role of conscientiousness and neuroticism on the relationship between work-family conflict and work engagement. Motivation for the study: Working mothers are challenged to establish a balance between work and family life. The resulting work-family conflict can negatively affect well-being. It is thus necessary to explore personal factors that relate to work-family conflict, particularly in the South African context. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample (N = 267 was comprised of working mothers from several organisations. Data was gathered using the work-to-family conflict questionnaire, the Basic Traits Inventory and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Main findings: The results indicated that work-family conflict negatively predicts work engagement. Conscientiousness positively predicts work engagement, and neuroticism negatively predicts work engagement. A significant interaction effect was found for conscientiousness but not for neuroticism. The findings showed that for participants with high levels of conscientiousness, work engagement decreases significantly more with an increase in work-family conflict than for participants with low levels of conscientiousness. Practical/Managerial implications: Organisations should consider those individuals who have high levels of conscientiousness and low levels of neuroticism in the selection and placement of employees. In addition, organisations have a responsibility to provide conscientious women, particularly mothers, with adequate support to ensure that work-family conflict does not adversely impact their levels of work engagement.

  5. Work-family conflict, emotional exhaustion, and displaced aggression toward others: the moderating roles of workplace interpersonal conflict and perceived managerial family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihao; Wang, Mo; Chang, Chu-Hsiang; Shi, Junqi; Zhou, Le; Shao, Ruodan

    2015-05-01

    Taking a resource-based self-regulation perspective, this study examined afternoon emotional exhaustion as a mediator linking the within-person relations between morning work-family conflict and later employee displaced aggression in the work and family domains. In addition, it examined resource-related contextual factors as moderators of these relations. The theoretical model was tested using daily diary data from 125 employees. Data were collected at 4 time points during each workday for 3 consecutive weeks. Multilevel modeling analysis showed that morning family-to-work conflict was positively related to afternoon emotional exhaustion, which in turn predicted displaced aggression toward supervisors and coworkers in the afternoon and displaced aggression toward family members in the evening. In addition, morning workplace interpersonal conflict exacerbated the impact of morning work-to-family conflict on afternoon emotional exhaustion, whereas perceived managerial family support alleviated the impact of morning family-to-work conflict on afternoon emotional exhaustion. These findings indicate the importance of adopting a self-regulation perspective to understand work-family conflict at work and its consequences (i.e., displaced aggression) in both work and family domains. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Managing Conflict during Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join AAMFT Approved Supervisors My Account Benefits Managing Conflict During Divorce Ending a marriage or a long- ... themselves in the middle of confusing and overwhelming conflict. When children are involved, finding ways to manage ...

  7. The Darfur Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    present Presentation Interactive Media Element This interactive media element provides information related to the Darfur conflict in Sudan such as the locations of attacks, a conflict timeline, etc. NS4311 Contemporary Issues in African Politics

  8. Heuristics in Conflict Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Christian; Gebser, Martin; Kaufmann, Benjamin; Schaub, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Modern solvers for Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) and Answer Set Programming (ASP) are based on sophisticated Boolean constraint solving techniques. In both areas, conflict-driven learning and related techniques constitute key features whose application is enabled by conflict analysis. Although various conflict analysis schemes have been proposed, implemented, and studied both theoretically and practically in the SAT area, the heuristic aspects involved in conflict analysis have not yet receive...

  9. Conflict in workgroups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehn, K.A.; Rispens, S.; Barlings, J.; Cooper, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    The original research on conflict in organizations suggested that conflict was a negative force, but some of the early theorizing also suggested some positive effects (e.g., idea generation, constructive criticism, creativity). A resurgence of research on workgroup conflict in the past 15 years

  10. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is

  11. Conflicts and social impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Nielsen, Helle

    2017-01-01

    The transition to renewable energy is currently in many places challenged by conflicts over specific projects. For example siting of onshore wind turbines often causes conflicts with local communities, sometimes leading to abandonment of the project or plan. This paper presents an analysis...... of such conflicts, and the role social impacts play. The paper analyses in depth four cases of renewable energy projects, utilizing a conceptualization of conflict constituted by three elements: Attitude, behavior and contradictions. Through analysis of EIA reports and hearing responses as well as interviews......, the paper digs deeper to nuance what constitutes the conflicts and what role social impacts play....

  12. Conflict management and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay; Wood, Beverly P

    2006-03-01

    When people work collaboratively, conflict will always arise. Understanding the nature and source of conflict and its progression and stages, resolution, and outcome is a vital aspect of leadership. Causes of conflict include the miscomprehension of communication, emotional issues, personal history, and values. When the difference is understood and the resultant behavior properly addressed, most conflict can be settled in a way that provides needed change in an organization and interrelationships. There are serious consequences of avoiding or mismanaging disagreements. Informed leaders can effectively prevent destructive conflicts.

  13. Managing intercultural conflict effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    2001-01-01

    In this volume, Ting-Toomey and Oetzel accomplish two objectives: to explain the culture-based situational conflict model, including the relationship among conflict, ethnicity, and culture; and, second, integrate theory and practice in the discussion of interpersonal conflict in culture, ethnic, and gender contexts. While the book is theoretically directed, it is also a down-to-earth practical book that contains ample examples, conflict dialogues, and critical incidents. Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively helps to illustrate the complexity of intercultural conflict interactions and readers will gain a broad yet integrative perspective in assessing intercultural conflict situations. The book is a multidisciplinary text that draws from the research work of a variety of disciplines such as cross-cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, marital and family studies, international management, and communication.

  14. Enhancing conflict competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Roberta; McKinney, Nicole S

    2014-01-01

    Professional nurses are taking on leadership roles of diverse healthcare teams. Development of conflict competence is essential, yet requires self-awareness and deliberate effort. Heightened awareness of one's preferred conflict style and cognizance of the implications of overuse and/or underuse of these styles is important. DESIGN/METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: A pre-post survey design (N = 14) used paired sample T-test. Paired sample correlations and an overview of the paired sample test are reported. Students gained self-awareness about their preferred conflict style, recognized that each conflict style has its utility depending on any given situation, and demonstrated a difference in their most frequently used style. Limited data conveys conflict behavior styles among pre-licensure nursing; however, students can influence their own environments (either causing or fueling situations) by their personal conflict-handling styles. Early development of these skills can raise awareness and cultivate ease in the management of conflict within varied settings.

  15. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is important in determining whether conflicts are functional or dysfunctional. Moreover, the way conflicts are handled might reveal information about the nature of relationships and their developmental status...

  16. Managing Leadership Stress

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, Vidula; McDowell-Larsen, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Everyone experiences stress, and leaders face the additional stress brought about by the unique demands of leadership: having to make decisions with limited information, to manage conflict, to do more with less . . . and faster! The consequences of stress can include health problems and deteriorating relationships. Knowing what signs of stress to look for and having a strategy for increasing your resources will help you manage leadership stress and be more effective over a long career.Table of ContentsThe Stress of Leadership 7Why Is Leadership Stressful? 8Stress Assessment 13When Stress Is Wh

  17. Conflict in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Smolinski, Remigiusz; Speakman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this conceptual paper is to apply the insights of recent routine research in the area of conflict and conflict management. As a result, the authors identify four different types of conflict sources that are rooted in routines and the specific difficulties connected with their change......: the repetitive character of routine, disagreement over the “validity” of the existing routines, disagreement concerning the definition of new targets, and resistance towards change processes. Further the authors point to the inherent tendency to routinize conflict management strategies and the risks...... that are associated with this process. As a result, this paper offers new insights into the causes and structure of conflicts triggered by change processes as well as into the management of repetitive conflicts....

  18. Conflict or Consensus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Poulsen, Birgitte

    forms of institutional design of citizen participation processes, less attention has been paid to the role of public administrators, and their role in facilitating processes of citizen participation. Public administrators have to work with diverse groups of citizens with diverging, and often conflicting......, interests. However, many public administrators have not been adequately exposed to the rationales of conflicts and the skills in resolving conflicts. The aim of this paper is to analyse the different types of conflicts that public administrators experience in formal processes of citizen involvement. Whereas...... as drivers for innovation, provided they are carefully managed. However, we claim that more focus on different types of conflicts and the handling of these conflicts is important in public administration and processes of citizen participation. The paper, thus, aims at connecting the knowledge from vast...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT MEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA G. MIHUT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At a time of global economic crisis followed by resource crisis, a period in which the world seeks alternative resources through eco-investment, environmental conflicts are inevitable. Romania is among the few countries that do not pay enough attention to environmental conflicts and to the advantages to of solving them through mediation procedure. The present paper deals with areas in which conflicts can be applied in environmental mediation and its benefits.

  20. Resolving conflicts within organization

    OpenAIRE

    Augulytė, Rūta

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between individuals, whether it would be with colleagues, business partners or supervisors, is inevitable in every organisation. Collaborative work and aim for common goals encourages idea, experience and insight exchange. From time to time differences in opinions might arise, which result in value- related or intellectual clash, also known as a conflict. Therefore, it is paramount to know how to manage conflicts. In order to successfully overcome the conflicts, organisations shou...

  1. The benefits of bad economies: Business cycles and time-based work-life conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher M; Lefter, Alexandru M; Bhave, Devasheesh P; Wagner, David T

    2016-04-01

    Recent management research has indicated the importance of family, sleep, and recreation as nonwork activities of employees. Drawing from entrainment theory, we develop an expanded model of work-life conflict to contend that macrolevel business cycles influence the amount of time employees spend on both work and nonwork activities. Focusing solely on working adults, we test this model in a large nationally representative dataset from the Bureau of Labor Statistics that spans an 8-year period, which includes the "Great Recession" from 2007 through 2009. We find that during economic booms, employees work more and therefore spend less time with family, sleeping, and recreating. In contrast, in recessionary economies, employees spend less time working and therefore more time with family, sleeping, and recreating. Thus, we extend the theory on time-based work-to-family conflict, showing that there are potential personal and relational benefits for employees in recessionary economies. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Three cheers for conflict!

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D

    1981-01-01

    Conflict is pervasive and an inevitable part of life--at work and elsewhere. But author Dennis King, organizational consultant for The Procter & Gamble Manufacturing Company, adds that it is also a functional part of the social process. Managing conflict on the job involves the ability to identify, seek out, and utilize the functions of conflict and its outcomes. He identifies fifteen functions of conflict in three major categories: maintaining or reinforcing identity and innate strength, increasing operational effectiveness, and dealing with others. For example, conflict can lead to minor clashes that actually strengthen a relationship because they function as safety valves--preventing the buildup of tension to the stage of explosion. (Note, however, that a conflict over the basic foundation of a relationship spells trouble.) Similarly, in the union-management relationship, both negotiations and grievance handling focus on adjusting or eliminating problem elements so that the employer-employee relationship can exist satisfactorily. Recognizing and exploiting the functions of a conflict situation--that is, functional conflict management--can work to our benefit. If we develop a "functional mind-set," looking for the positive aspects of conflict will become natural.

  3. Committees and Conflict: Developing a Conflict Resolution Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Describes development of conflict-resolution framework to address committee conflict. Describes several conflict-resolution strategies. Matches appropriate strategies with different types of committee conflict. For example, compromise is listed at the appropriate strategy to resolve interpersonal conflict. (Contains 24 references.) (PKP)

  4. Managing and mitigating conflict in healthcare teams: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost, Joan; Wolff, Angela C; Stewart-Pyne, Althea; McCormick, Loretta G; Strachan, Diane; D'Souza, Christine

    2016-07-01

    To review empirical studies examining antecedents (sources, causes, predictors) in the management and mitigation of interpersonal conflict. Providing quality care requires positive, collaborative working relationships among healthcare team members. In today's increasingly stress-laden work environments, such relationships can be threatened by interpersonal conflict. Identifying the underlying causes of conflict and choice of conflict management style will help practitioners, leaders and managers build an organizational culture that fosters collegiality and create the best possible environment to engage in effective conflict management. Integrative literature review. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Proquest ABI/Inform, Cochrane Library and Joanne Briggs Institute Library were searched for empirical studies published between 2002-May 2014. The review was informed by the approach of Whittemore and Knafl. Findings were extracted, critically examined and grouped into themes. Forty-four papers met the inclusion criteria. Several antecedents influence conflict and choice of conflict management style including individual characteristics, contextual factors and interpersonal conditions. Sources most frequently identified include lack of emotional intelligence, certain personality traits, poor work environment, role ambiguity, lack of support and poor communication. Very few published interventions were found. By synthesizing the knowledge and identifying antecedents, this review offers evidence to support recommendations on managing and mitigating conflict. As inevitable as conflict is, it is the responsibility of everyone to increase their own awareness, accountability and active participation in understanding conflict and minimizing it. Future research should investigate the testing of interventions to minimize these antecedents and, subsequently, reduce conflict. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Conflicts in the ICU: perspectives of administrators and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjoux Meth, Nathalie; Lawless, Bernard; Hawryluck, Laura

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand conflicts in the ICU setting as experienced by clinicians and administrators and explore methods currently used to resolve such conflicts when there may be discordance between clinicians and families, caregivers or administration. Qualitative case study methodology using semi-structured interviews was used. The sample included community and academic health science centres in 16 hospitals from across the province of Ontario, Canada. A total of 42 participants including hospital administrators and ICU clinicians were interviewed. Participants were sampled purposively to ensure representation. The most common source of conflict in the ICU is a result of disagreement about the goals of treatment. Such conflicts arise between the ICU and referring teams (inter-team), among members of the ICU team (intra-team), and between the ICU team and patients' family/substitute decision-maker (SDM). Inter- and intra-team conflicts often contribute to conflicts between the ICU team and families. Various themes were identified as contributing factors that may influence conflict resolution practices as well as the various consequences and challenges of conflict situations. Limitations of current conflict resolution policies were revealed as well as suggested strategies to improve practice. There is considerable variability in dealing with conflicts in the ICU. Greater attention is needed at a systems level to support a culture aimed at prevention and resolution of conflicts to avoid increased sources of anxiety, stress and burnout.

  6. Stress in Humanitarian Workers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    recognized as one of the most serious occupational health hazards reducing workers' satisfaction and productivity,. 1-3 ... Using a self- ... Kan D, Yu X. Occupational Stress, Work-Family. Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese.

  7. Women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution among the Issa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the role of women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution, and the participation of women in social ... According to the field work investigation, such kinds of conflicts were ...... Narrative Activity and Performance Report, January through ...

  8. Models of Conflict Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-03

    that participants are fully engaged in the conflict. My task has more to do with classification and detection of conflict. In [ Sina et al., 2014] the...characters. In Ninth Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital En- tertainment Conference. [ Sina et al., 2014] Sina , S., Kraus, S., and Rosenfeld

  9. High-Conflict Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  10. Climate shocks and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation

  11. The relationship between work arrangements and work-family conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Christopher; Duxbury, Linda; Julien, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature determined that our understanding of the efficacy of flexible work arrangements (FWA) in reducing work-family conflict remains inconclusive. To shed light on this issue by examining the relationship between work-to-family conflict, in which work interferes with family (WFC), family-to-work conflict, in which family interferes with work (FWC), and four work arrangements: the traditional 9-5 schedule, compressed work weeks (CWWs) flextime, and telework. Hypotheses were tested on a sample of 16,145 employees with dependent care responsibilities. MANCOVA analysis was used with work arrangement as the independent variable and work interferes with family (WFC) and family interferes with work (FWC) as dependent variables. Work demands, non-work demands, income, job type and gender were entered into the analysis as covariates. The more flexible work arrangements such as flextime and telework were associated with higher levels of WFC than were fixed 9-to 5 and CWW schedules. Employees who teleworked reported higher FWC than their counterparts working a traditional 9-to-5 schedule particularly when work demands were high. The removal of both temporal and physical boundaries separating work and family domains results in higher levels of work-family interference in both directions. The results from this study suggest that policy makers and practitioners who are interested in improving employee well-being can reduce work-family conflict, and by extension improve employee mental health, by focusing on the effective use of traditional and CWW schedules rather than by implementing flextime and telework arrangements.

  12. Darfur: rainfall and conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevane, Michael; Gray, Leslie

    2008-07-01

    Data on rainfall patterns only weakly corroborate the claim that climate change explains the Darfur conflict that began in 2003 and has claimed more than 200 000 lives and displaced more than two million persons. Rainfall in Darfur did not decline significantly in the years prior to the eruption of major conflict in 2003; rainfall exhibited a flat trend in the thirty years preceding the conflict (1972 2002). The rainfall evidence suggests instead a break around 1971. Rainfall is basically stationary over the pre- and post-1971 sub-periods. The break is larger for the more northerly rainfall stations, and is less noticeable for En Nahud. Rainfall in Darfur did indeed decline, but the decline happened over 30 years before the conflict erupted. Preliminary analysis suggests little merit to the proposition that a structural break several decades earlier is a reasonable predictor of the outbreak of large-scale civil conflict in Africa.

  13. Assessing Psychodynamic Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Joshua; Constantinides, Prometheas; Perry, J Christopher; Drapeau, Martin; Sheptycki, Amanda R

    2015-09-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapies suggest that symptomatic relief is provided, in part, with the resolution of psychic conflicts. Clinical researchers have used innovative methods to investigate such phenomenon. This article aims to review the literature on quantitative psychodynamic conflict rating scales. An electronic search of the literature was conducted to retrieve quantitative observer-rated scales used to assess conflict noting each measure's theoretical model, information source, and training and clinical experience required. Scales were also examined for levels of reliability and validity. Five quantitative observer-rated conflict scales were identified. Reliability varied from poor to excellent with each measure demonstrating good validity. However a small number of studies and limited links to current conflict theory suggest further clinical research is needed.

  14. Conflict and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on conflict and memory aims to underscore the importance of memory (whether individual and collective) in relation to intergroup conflicts. We argue that the way in which societies reconstruct and bring the past into the present—especially, the historical past......—is crucial when it comes to the study of intergroup conflict dynamics. In this regard, we also highlight the growing importance of memory studies within the area of social sciences as well as the multiple ways of approaching memory. Drawing from this wide theoretical framework, we introduce the articles...... of this issue, eight articles that tackle the role of memory in different conflicts, whether currently under way, in progress of being resolved, in postwar settings, or in contexts conflicts expected to happen do not arise....

  15. Dialectic and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte; Kousholt, Dorte

    to turn into conflicts and the conflicts have personal and existential meanings to the participant in social practice (related to their possibilities for conducting everyday life) and they are historical and political (related to societal questions about education). We draw on conceptualizations of social......In this paper, we aim to develop a dialectical approach to analyzing social conflicts concerning children’s school life. Public education can be seen as a common cause different parties at the same time are engaged in and conflicting about. We want to discuss this unity between the distribution...... practice as contradictory and developed through its contradictions (Lave, Dreier, Axel). The theoretical discussion will be illustrated through examples from conflicts between children and between parents - in relation to dealing with focus on the tasks of the school as well as flexibility in relation...

  16. Darfur: rainfall and conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevane, Michael; Gray, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Data on rainfall patterns only weakly corroborate the claim that climate change explains the Darfur conflict that began in 2003 and has claimed more than 200 000 lives and displaced more than two million persons. Rainfall in Darfur did not decline significantly in the years prior to the eruption of major conflict in 2003; rainfall exhibited a flat trend in the thirty years preceding the conflict (1972-2002). The rainfall evidence suggests instead a break around 1971. Rainfall is basically stationary over the pre- and post-1971 sub-periods. The break is larger for the more northerly rainfall stations, and is less noticeable for En Nahud. Rainfall in Darfur did indeed decline, but the decline happened over 30 years before the conflict erupted. Preliminary analysis suggests little merit to the proposition that a structural break several decades earlier is a reasonable predictor of the outbreak of large-scale civil conflict in Africa

  17. Conflict in Cyber Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karsten; Ringsmose, Jens

    Over the past two decades, a new man-made domain of conflict has materialized. Alongside armed conflict in the domains of land, sea, air, and space, hostilities between different types of political actors are now taking place in cyberspace. This volume addresses the challenges posed by cyberspace...... the different scholarly and political positions associated with various key aspects of cyber conflict and seek to answer the following questions: do existing theories provide sufficient answers to the current challenges posed by conflict in cyberspace, and, if not, could alternative approaches be developed......?; how do states and non-state actors make use of cyber-weapons when pursuing strategic and political aims?; and, how does the advent of conflict in cyberspace challenge our established legal framework? By asking important strategic questions on the theoretical, strategic, ethical and legal implications...

  18. Developmental trajectories of work-family conflict for Finnish workers in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Kinnunen, Ulla; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kokko, Katja

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the developmental trajectories of work-family conflict among the same participants (n = 277; 48% female) at ages 36, 42, and 50. Across this 14-year time span, with respect to the sample as a whole, there was no significant change in the mean levels of work-to-family conflict (WFC) or family to-work conflict (FWC). However, latent profile analyses revealed four latent trajectories within the sample, showing both mean-level stability and change in WFC and FWC: (1) "WFC decreasing" (n = 151); (2) "WFC and FWC stable low" (n = 105); (3) "WFC and FWC increasing" (n = 14); and (4) "FWC decreasing" (n = 7). Of these trajectories the strongest contrast existed between the WFC and FWC stable low and the WFC and FWC increasing trajectories: the former had the lowest and the latter the highest number of weekly working hours at ages 36, 42, and 50, and in the former but not in the latter the number of children living at home significantly decreased from age 36 to 50. Also, at ages 42 and 50 the WFC and FWC increasing trajectory showed higher job exhaustion and depressive symptoms than the WFC and FWC stable low trajectory. Altogether these findings suggest that work-family conflict is not limited to the early part of employees' working career and that developmental trajectories of work-family conflict exhibit a substantial amount of heterogeneity.

  19. The NPD team conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    elaborates on the role of culture diversity and geographical dispersion in NPD team conflict. A simulation is conducted where organizations may be regarded as complex systems to affect the team conflict with a variety of influences. The results firstly indicate that there are two dimensions of NPD team...... conflict: stable and unstable dimensions with four elements: task characteristics, group members’ relationship, cultural diversity and geographical dispersion; secondly, there are two phenomena whereby the geographical dispersion influences the NPD team interaction, and the influence between cultural...

  20. For Richer, for Poorer: Money as a Topic of Marital Conflict in the Home

    OpenAIRE

    Papp, Lauren M.; Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.

    2009-01-01

    Guided by a family stress perspective, we examined the hypothesis that discussing money would be associated with the handling of marital conflict in the home. Analyses were based on dyadic hierarchical linear modeling of 100 husbands’ and 100 wives’ diary reports of 748 conflict instances. Contrary to findings from previous laboratory-based surveys, spouses did not rate money as the most frequent source of marital conflict in the home. However, compared to non-money issues, marital conflicts ...

  1. Workplace conflicts and psychological work-related injuries: our experience in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Taino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, all countries regularly recognise mental disorders as workplace accidents (mainly post-traumatic stress disorders. However, there has been little emphasis on this emerging issue in Italy. Our discussion focuses on a recent case report regarding an employee who was affected by an acute anxiety disorder after a common workplace conflict with a coworker. Given that prolonged and unresolved relationship conflicts may result in more extreme forms of conflict known as workplace bullying, relationship conflicts should be minimised or prevented as early as possible. These conflicts can also lead to acute stress disorders, particularly in workers who are at-risk for stress disorders. To prevent psychological work-related injuries, occupational stakeholders should use assessments for work-related stress as a framework for addressing all organisational risk factors that are related to workplace relationships and conflict.

  2. Tekanan dan Dukungan sebagai Anteseden Work-family Conflict; Studi pada Pegawai Bersekolah di Wilayah DIY

    OpenAIRE

    Widjajani, Susi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between job stress, job support, family support, and family stress , with work-family conflict. Variabel in this research were measured via survey of 226 student Magister Management on the University in the DIY. Multiple Regression Analysis were used to examine the effect to antecedent of work-family conflict. Result showed in this research that job stress, family support, and family stress significantly related to work-family...

  3. Ecosystemic Complexity Theory of Conflict: Understanding the Fog of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Greg; Lassiter, Pamela S.; Hill, Michele B.; Moore, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors often engage in conflict mediation in professional practice. A model for understanding the complex and subtle nature of conflict resolution is presented. The ecosystemic complexity theory of conflict is offered to assist practitioners in navigating the fog of conflict. Theoretical assumptions are discussed with implications for clinical…

  4. Parent-Adolescent Conflicts, Conflict Resolution Types, and Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branje, Susan J. T.; van Doorn, Muriel; van der Valk, Inge; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating role of conflict resolution on the association between parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent problematic adjustment. Participants were 1313 Dutch early and middle adolescents who completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict resolution with parents, and internalizing and externalizing adjustment…

  5. Playing With Conflict: Teaching Conflict Resolution through Simulations and Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Richard B.; Kirkpatrick, Kat

    2013-01-01

    Playing With Conflict is a weekend course for graduate students in Portland State University's Conflict Resolution program and undergraduates in all majors. Students participate in simulations, games, and experiential exercises to learn and practice conflict resolution skills. Graduate students create a guided role-play of a conflict. In addition…

  6. Approaches to Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Toddler Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nicole; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    The importance of conflict and its resolution for children's short- and long-term adjustment has been well established within the research literature. Conflict and conflict resolution differs according to a number of constructs, including age, gender and relationship status. The purpose of this study was to explore conflict origins, resolution…

  7. Managing Conflict during Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the underlying emotional issues that may be fueling conflict and keeping them from negotiating an agreement. The “strategic mediation” model is a practical problem-solving approach that focuses on addressing hidden dimensions of ...

  8. Dialectic and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte; Kousholt, Dorte

    In this paper, we aim to develop a dialectical approach to analyzing social conflicts concerning children’s school life. Public education can be seen as a common cause different parties at the same time are engaged in and conflicting about. We want to discuss this unity between the distribution...... are at one hand historical, and they demand situated handling and coordination in concrete situations to make things work. The involved experience the contradictions from different positions, types of responsibilities and with insight from different locations. In this way contradictions have potential...... to turn into conflicts and the conflicts have personal and existential meanings to the participant in social practice (related to their possibilities for conducting everyday life) and they are historical and political (related to societal questions about education). We draw on conceptualizations of social...

  9. Resolving Marital Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islami Hatixhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Couple relations are characterized as relations of an intimate nature dominated by constant interaction or strong interdependence and mutual influence of intense feelings between spouses. In marriages where there is conflict, there are typical examples of interaction, which result in high proportion of negative communicative acts that affect the quality of marital relationships such as: loss of confidence, the emergence of frustration, feelings of anxiety, discomfort, leading to escalation of marital conflicts. Communication as a variable has a large impact on the resolution of marital conflicts. The obtained results of our research indicate that the choice of different strategies of behavior in conflict situations among our respondents primarily depend on: the degree of persistence in the pursuit of its own interests and level of cooperation in addressing the interests of others.

  10. Conflict, Memory, and Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to bring the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of conflict to the fore in the study of how people remember a particular event in the past. Drawing from different case studies, it contains analyses of how subjects identifying with different political actors in the Basque...... conflict adopted their respective positions, and interpretation of the conflict, and how, in light of same, they reconstruct the failed peace process that took place in 2006 between the terrorist group ETA (Euzkadi ta Azcatasuna, or Basque Country and Freedom in English) and the Spanish government. Results...... show that the positioning adopted by participants gives rise to a certain form of interpreting the conflict, which, in turn, affects how the peace process is remembered. This occurs within a particular argumentative context in which each version constitutes an implicit response to a competing...

  11. Sexual conflict in plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other sex, usually through direct reproductive interactions. This leads ... Most of the interaction is through .... clearly indicating parental conflict over offspring provision- ing. ... Ba˜nuelos M. J. and Obeso J. R. 2003 Maternal provisioning, sibling.

  12. [Work-family conflict in call center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Ricotta, Simona; Colombo, Lara

    2012-01-01

    The working environment of call centers, which have seen a significant growth in recent years, has been the subject of several studies aiming at understanding its specific dynamics, with particular attention to the possible causes of stress and discomfort. Despite the fact that the work-family conflict is considered a source of stress responsible for undermining workers' well-being, and as such has been explored in many work environments, there is still very little research specific to call centers. This study had the following aims: to explore work-family conflict perceived by call-center operators taking account of any differences related to respondents'professional and personal characteristics; to understand which demands and resources can have an impact on work-family conflict in this context. The study was carried out on a sample of 898 call center operators in a telecommunications company through the administration of a self-reporting questionnaire. Data analysis included: t-test, one-way analysis of variance, linear correlations and multiple regressions. A higher perception of work-family conflict among workers having a full-time contract was observed compared to those having part-time contracts. Multiple regression analysis identified as sources of influence on work-family conflict: emotional dissonance, uneasiness due customer dissatisfaction, workload, avoidance coping and working hours. Work-family conflict in the context studied is not particularly critical: it is in part influenced by professional and personal characteristics of respondents and primarily caused by work demands. Managerial implications are discussed, especially referred to training activities.

  13. Preventing Deadly Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    34an ounce of type-A botulinal toxin, properly dis- persed, could kill every man, woman , and child in North America. . . just eight ounces of the...attend to the short-term humanitarian needs generated by conflict, frequently a good deal of "wheel- spinning " occurs; little headway is made in...Empire’s millet system, for exam- ple, where the religious leaders of Judaism and several Christian churches were entrusted with arbitrating conflicts

  14. Conflict, Space and Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Schoonderbeek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Footprint 19 focuses on the more recent roles of architecture in the contemporary spaces of conflict. Departing from a spatial understanding of geopolitical, climatological and economical conflicts, the various contributions highlight the large scale and phenomenal transitions in the physical world and in society by extrapolating, through examples, the abundance of relations that can be traced between conflict, territory and architecture. Conflict areas often prove to be fertile grounds for innovation and for the emergence of new spatial forms. The issue reports on the state of perpetual global unrest in architecture through a series of articles and case studies that highlight the consequences of conflicts in the places and spaces that we inhabit. In the introduction, these are discussed as an interlinked global reality rather than as isolated incidents. In doing so, the contemporary spaces of conflict are positioned in the context of emerging global trends, conditions, and discourses in the attempt to address their indicative symptoms while reflecting on their underlying causes.

  15. Automating the conflict resolution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to initiate a discussion of how the conflict resolution process at the Network Control Center can be made more efficient. Described here are how resource conflicts are currently resolved as well as the impacts of automating conflict resolution in the ATDRSS era. A variety of conflict resolution strategies are presented.

  16. Dysfunctional Effects of a Conflict in a Healthcare Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykova, Ekaterina L; Semerjieva, Mariya A; Yordanov, Georgi Y; Cherkezov, Todor D

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts in healthcare settings are quite common events because of the continuous changes and transformations today's healthcare organizations are undergoing and the vigorous interaction between the medical professionals working in them. To survey the opinions of medical professionals about the possible destructive effects of conflicts on them in the workplace. We conducted a direct individual survey of 279 medical employees at four general hospitals. We used a set of questions that reflect the negative effects and consequences of conflict on healthcare professionals as direct or indirect participants. All data were analysed using the descriptive statistics and non-parametric analysis at a significance level for the null hypothesis of p Workplace conflicts contribute a lot to the stress, psychological tension and emotional exhaustion medical professionals are exposed to. The confrontation the conflict brings the participants into acts as a catalyst of the conflict and enhances the manifestation of hostile actions. A conflict generates a situation which has an impact on the behaviour of all participants involved in it giving rise to emotional states such as anger, aggression and reproaches. The destructive consequences resulting from a conflict are seen in the reduced work satisfaction and demotivation to perform the work activity. The contradictions that arise as a result affect negatively the team cooperation and obstruct the collaborative efforts in solving the problems in the healthcare setting. A conflict in a healthcare setting exerts a considerable destructive effect on an employee, therefore it requires prompt identification and effective intervention to minimise its unfavourable outcomes.

  17. Relative Advantage: Strength for Favorable Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    by their extremes but by their limitations…Second: War’s original aims and methods are constantly revised by the stresses and actions of war…Third...monograph. Originally published following the Vietnam Conflict, this work provides a discussion on the “intellectual difficulty in connecting military...Derailing the Tokyo Express, Jack Coombe asserts that, “the islands of Palau, Yap, and Ulithi; and the Philippines, [were] all part of a gigantic dagger

  18. Work-Family Conflict, Family-Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), and Sleep Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Tori L.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Moen, Phyllis; Lilienthal, Richard; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Although critical to health and well-being, relatively little research has been conducted in the organizational literature on linkages between the work-family interface and sleep. Drawing on Conservation of Resources theory, we use a sample of 623 information technology workers to examine the relationships between work-family conflict, family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and sleep quality and quantity. Validated wrist actigraphy methods were used to collect objective sleep quality and quantity data over a one week period of time, and survey methods were used to collect information on self-reported work-family conflict, FSSB, and sleep quality and quantity. Results demonstrated that the combination of predictors (i.e., work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, FSSB) was significantly related to both objective and self-report measures of sleep quantity and quality. Future research should further examine the work-family interface to sleep link and make use of interventions targeting the work-family interface as a means for improving sleep health. PMID:24730425

  19. Work-family conflict and job satisfaction: emotional intelligence as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongdong; Shi, Junqi; Niu, Qikun; Wang, Lei

    2013-08-01

    The negative impact of work-family conflict (WFC) on employees' well-being and job-related outcomes has attracted much research attention recently. A major gap in the literature is which factors could potentially buffer its negative effect on employees. The present study examined the moderating effect of emotional intelligence on the relationship between WFC and job satisfaction in a sample of 212 Chinese high school teachers. On the basis of conservation of resource theory, we hypothesized that emotional intelligence would weaken the negative effect of family-to-work and work-to-family interference on job satisfaction. Results suggested that WFC (work-to-family interference and family-to-work interference) was negatively related to job satisfaction and that emotional intelligence weakened the effect of WFC on job satisfaction. These findings provide implications for theories on WFC and emotional intelligence, such as conservation of resource theory. The current study also provides a test of these theories in Chinese culture to support the generalizability of theories developed in previous research. Practical implications for reducing the negative influence of WFC on employees' job satisfaction are also provided, such as the potential value of emotional intelligence for the training and development of employees in teaching professions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Unpacking the Meaning of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Clegg, Steward

    2018-01-01

    In this conceptual essay, we review the field of organizational conflict to unpack how it has been constructed genealogically and with what consequences by investigating three major shifts in theorization that have occurred over the past six decades. First, a move away from viewing conflict...... as dysfunctional to viewing it as constructive. Second, a shift from normative prescriptions to descriptions of what disputants do in conflict. Third, a shift from psychological functional analyses to studying conflict as an organizational phenomenon. We find that three distinct and essentially contested...... conceptions frame studies of conflict at work: conflict as a distinct behavioral phenomenon, conflict as an instrumental means of achieving something else, and conflict as a social construction contingent on how reality is perceived. This conceptual essay adds to current thinking in organizational conflict...

  1. Conflicts in operating room: Focus on causes and resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joginder Pal Attri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The operation theater (OT environment is the most complex and volatile workplace where two coequal physicians share responsibility of one patient. Difference in information, opinion, values, experience and interests between a surgeon and anesthesiologist may arise while working in high-pressure environments like OT, which may trigger conflict. Quality of patient care depends on effective teamwork for which multidisciplinary communication is an essential part. Troubled relationships leads to conflicts and conflicts leads to stressful work environment which hinders the safe discharge of patient care. Unresolved conflicts can harm the relationship but when handled in a positive way it provides an opportunity for growth and ultimately strengthening the bond between two people. By learning the skills to resolve conflict, we can keep our professional relationship healthy and strong which is an important component of good patient care.

  2. Conflicts in operating room: Focus on causes and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Joginder Pal; Sandhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Mohan, Brij; Bala, Neeru; Sandhu, Kulwinder Singh; Bansal, Lipsy

    2015-01-01

    The operation theater (OT) environment is the most complex and volatile workplace where two coequal physicians share responsibility of one patient. Difference in information, opinion, values, experience and interests between a surgeon and anesthesiologist may arise while working in high-pressure environments like OT, which may trigger conflict. Quality of patient care depends on effective teamwork for which multidisciplinary communication is an essential part. Troubled relationships leads to conflicts and conflicts leads to stressful work environment which hinders the safe discharge of patient care. Unresolved conflicts can harm the relationship but when handled in a positive way it provides an opportunity for growth and ultimately strengthening the bond between two people. By learning the skills to resolve conflict, we can keep our professional relationship healthy and strong which is an important component of good patient care.

  3. Are there individual and sibling differences in appraisals of interparental conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; George, Melissa W

    2017-10-01

    Despite decades of empirical literature documenting the harmful effects of frequent, intense, violent, and unresolved interparental conflict on children's adjustment, there is considerable variability in the extent to which marital conflict contributes to the development of children's emotional and behavioral problems. Past research has documented links between properties of interparental conflict itself (e.g., intensity, frequency), children's appraisals of conflict, and children's outcomes, yet less is known about the role of individual and family characteristics in predicting children's conflict appraisals. Sibling studies may be especially helpful in understanding these individual differences yet are notably lacking in marital conflict research. The current study examines individual- and family-characteristic predictors of adolescents' appraisals of conflict in a study of 153 adolescents as well as sibling similarities in conflict appraisals in a subsample of 50 pairs of siblings. Controlling for parent reports of the frequency, intensity, and resolution of interparental conflict, parent-child relationship quality and stressful life events predicted conflict appraisals. In addition, there was nonindependence of sibling appraisals of conflict properties, but self-blame and threat appraisals appeared independent across siblings. Greater discrepancies in siblings' conflict appraisals were related to more negative marital conflict and discrepancies in parent-child relationship quality, and were found in mixed-sex sibling dyads. Implications for future studies on factors that impact children's appraisals of conflict and in particular making use of sibling studies to examine shared environmental and individual influences on appraisals is highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Intercultural conflict styles: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batkhina A.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analytical review of foreign psychological research on the international conflict styles is presented in this article. Intercultural conflict is understood as an interpersonal conflict between representatives of different cultures. The main models describing the intercultural conflict styles are analyzed: the dual concern model, the intercultural conflict styles inventory model, the face negotiation model. The publication provides a brief review of modern studies’ results of behavior predictors in the intercultural conflict; special attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of culture and intercultural communication apprehension on the choice of conflict styles. The importance of assessing the conflict styles effectiveness used in the situation of intercultural interaction is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and actual trends in the study of behavior in the intercultural conflict are designated.

  5. GENDER CONFLICTS OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Moskalyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of work. Student age has the most favourable conditions for psychological, biological and social development; however, there are reasons why such natural advantages over other social groups can be completely or partially levelled. One of them is the presence of conflicts in the life of a student, a special group, among which there are women. The causes of the emergence of gender conflicts in individual social groups and the strategies for their solution have not been sufficiently explored and require further study and, therefore, are relevant. Purpose of the article is to investigate the causes of gender conflicts among students as a separate social group and to develop measures to address them and prevent them. Methodology. The research conducted in the work is based on the analysis and generalization of the causes of the emergence of gender conflicts among students, the identification of the main sources of information that form the consciousness of children and adolescents, and also influence their attitude to gender equality. Originality. The nature of gender conflicts has been quite effectively studied for a long time. However, the scope of research is limited to the most numerous social groups, such as the family, labour collective, political and public organizations, etc. Being a dynamic and socio-demographic formation, the students perform an important function in society – it takes a direct part in the transformation of all spheres of the life activity of the society. Based on the study of the objective conditions of the social environment with certain models of socialization that form the consciousness of students from early childhood, a three-component system of influence was first proposed, which is aimed at overcoming gender inequality and preventing gender conflicts among students. At the same time, the interaction of the components of the system will allow to minimize the gender inequality index in our country

  6. Negotiating through conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormick, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    There are several major causes of conflict over the nuclear waste disposal siting process but conflict should not be ended or avoided merely to have peace. A number of issues are listed that should be addressed to ensure that negotiations can be performed in a manner that will result in agreements. During the negotiation process, participants should not reveal all secrets, but must not appear to be holding things back. The agreements reached as a result of negotiations should be spelled out clearly, in writing. The agreement should tell how to implement the decision and state how all parties will be involved. The agreement should also contain provisions for continued interaction among parties

  7. Environmental Systems Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipel, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR) is applied to a real-life groundwater contamination dispute to demonstrate how one can realistically model and analyze the controversy in order to obtain an enhanced understanding and strategic insights for permitting one to make informed decisions. This highly divisive conflict is utilized to explain a rich range of inherent capabilities of GMCR, as well as worthwhile avenues for extensions, which make GMCR a truly powerful decision technology for addressing challenging conflict situations. For instance, a flexible preference elicitation method called option prioritization can be employed to obtain the relative preferences of each decision maker (DM) in the dispute over the states or scenarios which can occur, based upon preference statements regarding the options or courses of actions available to the DMs. Solution concepts, reflecting the way a chess player thinks in terms of moves and counter-moves, are defined to mirror the ways humans may behave under conflict, varying from short to long term thinking. After ascertaining the best outcome that a DM can achieve on his or her own in a conflict, coalition analysis algorithms are available to check if a DM can fare even better via cooperating with others. The ability of GMCR to take into account emotions, strength of preference, attitudes, misunderstandings (referred to as hypergames), and uncertain preferences (unknown, fuzzy, grey and probabilistic) greatly broadens its scope of applicability. Techniques for tracing how a conflict can evolve over time from a status quo state to a final specified outcome, as well as how to handle hierarchical structures, such as when a central government interacts with its provinces or states, further enforces the comprehensive nature of GMCR. Within ongoing conflict research mimicking how physical systems are analyzed, methods for inverse engineering of preferences are explained for determining the preferences required by one or

  8. Use of family-friendly work arrangements and work-family conflict: Crossover effects in dual-earner couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooreel, Tess; Verbruggen, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a dyadic approach to examine how an employee's work-family conflict is affected when his or her partner makes use of family-friendly work arrangements. We focused on 2 types of family-friendly practices, that is, reduced work hours and schedule or workplace flexibility. Hypotheses were tested with multilevel structural equation modeling using information of 186 dual-earner couples. In line with our hypotheses, we found support for both a positive and a negative crossover effect, though the results showed differences between the 2 types of family-friendly work arrangements. First, a positive crossover effect was found for both reduced work hours and schedule or workplace flexibility; however, the specific mechanisms explaining this effect differed per type of arrangements. In particular, employees whose partner made use of reduced work hours were found to experience less home demands, which was in turn associated with lower family-to-work conflict, whereas employees whose partner made use of schedule or workplace flexibility experienced a similar positive crossover effect but through an increase in the social support they perceived. Second, a negative crossover effect was found only for reduced work hours and not for schedule or workplace flexibility. Specifically, employees whose partner made use of reduced work hours were found to work on average more hours a week, which was in turn related with more work-to-family conflict, whereas employees whose partner made use of schedule or workplace flexibility worked on average fewer hours a week and consequently experienced lower work-to-family conflict. Implications for literature and practice are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The role of mediation in resolving workplace relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Donna Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Stress triggered by workplace-based interpersonal conflict can result in damaged relationships, loss of productivity, diminished job satisfaction and increasingly, workers' compensation claims for psychological injury. This paper examined the literature on the role and effectiveness of mediation, as the most common method of Alternative Dispute Resolution, in resolving workplace relationship conflict. Available evidence suggests that mediation is most effective when supported by organisational commitment to ADR strategies, policies and processes, and conducted by independent, experienced and qualified mediators. The United States Postal Service program REDRESS™ is described as an illustration of the successful use of mediation to resolve conflict in the workplace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Types of conflicts and conflict management among Hungarian healthcare workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Éva; Kuna, Ágnes; Pintér, Judit Nóra; Kaló, Zsuzsa; Csabai, Márta

    2017-04-01

    Efficient communication, conflict management and cooperation are the key factors of a successful patient care. This study is part of an international comparative research. The aim of this study is to unfold conflicts among healthcare workers. 73 healthcare workers were interviewed using a standardized interview protocol. The in-person interviews used the critical incident method. 30 interviews (15 doctors, 15 nurses) were analysed with the Atlas.ti 7 content analysis software. The sources, types, effects of conflicts and conflict management strategies were investigated. The content analysis unfolded the specificities of conflicts in healthcare based on personal experiences. Organizational hierarchy was a substantial source of conflict, especially among physicians, which originates from implicit rules. As a result of the avoiding conflict management the conflicts remain partly unresolved which has negative individual and group effect. Our conceptual framework helps to develop a proper intervention specific to healthcare. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(16), 625-632.

  11. Work family conflict in its relations to perceived working situation and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Bernburg, Monika; Groneberg, David A; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard

    2016-02-15

    These days physicians' work is characterized by an increase in economic demands, pressure and challenges in establishing a balance between work and family life. The current study investigates the relationship between physicians' job demands and resources, perceived job stress, work-family conflict, work engagement and job satisfaction. 564 clinicians specialising in different medical fields participated in the cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaires, including the COPSOQ and the UWES- Scale were administered. Our results illustrated significant relationships between physicians' work engagement and their job satisfaction as well as between job stress and work family conflict. Moreover, perceived job stress moderated the effect of high job demands on work family conflict. In addition, significant gender differences have been found in perceived stress levels, work family conflict and work engagement. This study proves and verified associations between work engagement, work-family conflict, job demands and resources that may influence employees' satisfaction. Implications for both working physicians and hospital management are given.

  12. Identities in Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    When Danish soldiers wage war abroad and far from home, family relations are strained. Both during the mission and after return, the soldier experiences civil life as unorderly and conflicting with the warrior mindset with its clear demarcations of friend/foe, peace and war, battletime and the time...

  13. Derailing Intragroup Management Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, John; Vaughn, Glen

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of management conflict highlights differing job perceptions held by middle managers. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Assessment Program is described, and a management structure that requires members of each group to experience job perceptions and tasks of the other group is recommended for performance improvement. (Contains three…

  14. Leading through Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzon, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This article talks about leading significant learning opportunities through conflict of ideas in a school system. Catalyzing school change can turn emotional differences of opinion into learning opportunities. Leaders who want to deal effectively with these challenging, often tense situations need to be more than good managers. They need to be…

  15. The conflict zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Ana Maria Ribeiro de

    2006-01-01

    The chapter gives an overview on the beginning of the nuclear energy in the world passing through the conflicts at United Nations - UN, the new political order, the revision of MacMahon Law, the nuclear control, the fear peace and searching for the equilibrium

  16. Constructive conflict at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vliert, Evert; Nauta, Aukje; Giebels, Ellen; Janssen, Onne

    1999-01-01

    Two field studies of interpersonal conflict in organizations and a simulated dyadic negotiation show that problem solving and forcing are frequently combined simultaneously and sequentially. As a robust finding, conglomerations of problem solving and forcing appear to enhance the parties' joint

  17. Intralocus sexual conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, G. Sander; Schlichting, CD; Mousseau, TA

    2009-01-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict arises when there are sex-specific optima for a trait that is expressed in both sexes and when the constraint of a shared gene pool prevents males and females from reaching their optima independently. This situation may result in a negative intersexual correlation for

  18. Spousal Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shana R.

    2005-01-01

    Romantic relationships bud and sometimes bloom in the school district workplace. When those relationships involve a sitting member of a school board or an administrator with responsibility for managing other employees, questions about a conflict of interest will be raised. Most states have laws prohibiting a public official from taking official…

  19. Constructive conflict at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.; Nauta, A.; Giebels, E.; Janssen, O.

    Two field studies of interpersonal conflict in organizations and a simulated dyadic negotiation show that problem solving and forcing are frequently combined simultaneously and sequentially. As a robust finding, conglomerations of problem solving and forcing appear to enhance the parties' joint

  20. Conflict and Tao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lyall

    What can philosophical Taoism teach us about interpersonal conflict and effective approaches for dealing with it? Examination of selected portions of the R. Hendricks translation of the "Lao-Tzu" or "Te-Tao Ching," and experiences recorded in fieldnotes while a member of a Taoist commune suggest a four-point protocol for…

  1. Work-family conflict among members of full-time dual-earner couples: an examination of family life stage, gender, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tammy D; Finkelstein, Lisa M

    2014-07-01

    Based on cross-sectional data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, this study investigates relationships between gender, age, and work-family conflict across 6 family life stages. Participants were 690 married/partnered employees who worked 35 or more hours a week. Results indicated a small but negative relationship between age and work-family conflict. Work-family conflict was also associated with family stage, with the least amount of conflict occurring during the empty nest stage and the most occurring when the youngest child in the home was 5 years of age or younger. Gender differences were also observed. Specifically, men reported more work interference with family than did women when the youngest child in the home was a teen. Women overall reported more family interference with work than did men. Results concerning age and gender revealed a different pattern demonstrating that family stage is not simply a proxy for age. Age had a main effect on work-to-family conflict that was monotonic in nature and on family to-work conflict that was linear in nature. In conclusion, the results indicate gender, age, and family stage each uniquely relate to work-family conflict.

  2. Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... Such processes are 'sine qua non' to pre-conflict and post-conflict prevention. .... A Basic Approach to Pre-Conflict Management Planning ... and also factor in an evaluation of perception variables that help us to understand ...

  3. Conflict management, Part 1. Conflict management checklist: a diagnostic tool for assessing conflict in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siders, C T; Aschenbrener, C A

    1999-01-01

    Complex interpersonal conflicts are inevitable in the high speed, high stakes, pressured work of health care. Poorly managed, conflict saps productivity, erodes trust, and spawns additional disputes. Well managed, conflict can enhance the self-confidence and self-esteem of the parties, build relationships, and engender creative solutions beyond expectations. Just as thoughtful differential diagnosis precedes optimum treatment in the doctor-patient relationship, management of conflict is greatly enhanced when preceded by careful assessment. In the first of two articles, the authors present a diagnostic approach, the Conflict Management Checklist, to increase self-awareness and decrease anxiety around conflict.

  4. Military Strategy in Ethnic Conflicts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nesbitt, Wanda L

    1997-01-01

    .... It is therefor ironic to find so many of today's observers of the international scene arguing that the Cold War kept a lid on ethnic conflict and that with its passing this type of conflict is likely to proliferate...

  5. Constructive Conflict in Academic Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Collective bargaining is seen as a process of shared authority used in some institutions to manage conflict. Some ways in which parties to bargaining can significantly alter their relationships to promote constructive and creative outcomes of conflict are suggested. (MLW)

  6. Armed conflict and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.

  7. Conflict prevention, conflict mitigation, and manifestations of conflict during emergency department consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Teresa; Bakewell, Francis; Orlich, Donika; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to determine the causes of and mitigating factors for conflict between emergency physicians and other colleagues during consultations. From March to September 2010, a total of 61 physicians (31 residents and 30 attendings from emergency medicine [EM], internal medicine, and general surgery) were interviewed about how junior learners should be taught about emergency department (ED) consultations. During these interviews, they were asked if and how conflict manifests during the ED consultation process. Two investigators reviewed the transcripts independently to generate themes related to conflict until saturation was reached. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. The trustworthiness of the analysis was ensured by generating an audit trail, which was subsequently audited by an investigator not involved with the initial analysis. This analysis was compared to previously proposed models of trust and conflict from the sociology and business literature. All participants recalled some manifestation of conflict. There were 12 negative conflict-producing themes and 10 protective conflict-mitigating themes. When comparing these themes to a previously developed model of the domains of trust, each theme mapped to domains of the model. Conflict affects the ED consultation process. Areas that lead to conflict are identified that map to previous models of trust and conflict. This work extends the current understanding about intradisciplinary conflict in the clinical realm. These new findings may improve the understanding of the nature of conflicts that occur and form the foundation for interventions that may decrease conflict during ED consultations. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  8. Marital Conflicts and Parent-Adolescent Conflicts: The Mediator Role of Adolescents' Appraisals of Interparental Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ایرج مختارنیا

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mediating role of adolescents' appraisals from interparents conflict on the relationship of marital conflicts and parent-adolescent conflict. The study was descriptive correlational and the population of this study included students of Qods town of Tehran province. Sample size was 700 students that were selected by multistage random sampling. The data were collected by Parent-Adolescent Conflict Questionnaire (PACQ, Marital Conflict Scale (MCS and Children's Appraisals of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC. The results of structural equation modeling analysis showed that the theoretical model of the study included in the model was properly fitted with the data. This means that the variable of adolescent's appraisals of interparents’ conflict can be considered as a mediator variable in the relationship of marital conflict and parent-adolescent conflict. Furthermore, in this model all direct and indirect paths to predict parent-adolescent conflict were recognized. Therefore, marital conflict can predict parent-adolescent conflicts through mediating factors. Also, it can be concluded that the model of cognitive-contextual is capable of explaining the parent-adolescent conflicts.

  9. Family conflicts and conflict resolution regarding food choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria; Brunsø, Karen

    2011-01-01

    with food‐related conflicts, conflict resolutions or specific influence techniques with a focus on parents and tweens in family decision‐making. This article focuses on parents and tweens’ joint decision processes in evaluation and choice of food, specifically conflicts and conflict resolution. Assumptions......Previous studies on family decision‐making show that not only parents but also children participate actively in and achieve influence on the decision process, for instance during food buying. When decision‐making includes several active participants, conflicts may occur, but not much research deals...

  10. Digital Images and Globalized Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette; Mortensen, Mette; Neumayer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    As the number of digital images of globalized conflicts online grow, critical examination of their impact and consequence is timely. This editorial provides an overview of digital images and globalized conflict as a field of study by discussing regimes of visibility and invisibility, proximity...... of conflict-related images raise issues of knowledge production and research....

  11. Monitoring Financial Conflict of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Conflict of interest is heavily intertwined with research. The purpose of this study was to examine the literature and regulations in order to describe efforts required to properly monitor and disclose conflict of interest as researchers become steadily involved in innovation and discovery. The public assumes that when a conflict is disclosed, it…

  12. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ...-10] RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule...'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are necessary to the functionality or... body of its annual report whether its conflict minerals originated in the Democratic Republic of the...

  13. Recognizing and Managing Interpersonal Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Nancy; Hovland, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Practical advice is offered, to managers and supervisors at any level, on recognizing and analyzing interpersonal conflicts, managing such conflicts and making them productive, and ensuring that performance reviews result in progress for both supervisor and employee. Conflict is seen as inevitable, an opportunity to take action, and manageable.…

  14. Introduction: Negotiation in intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoulin, S.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2010-01-01

    Although conflicts most often occur between groups, research and theory on conflict management and negotiation have largely focused on the interpersonal system and ignored how groups negotiate a solution to their intergroup conflict. Thus we have a thorough understanding of the motivational,

  15. Managing conflicts in systems development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, E

    1997-05-01

    Conflict in systems development is nothing new. It can vary in intensity, but there will always be two possible outcomes--one constructive and the other destructive. The common approach to conflict management is to draw the battle lines and apply brute force. However, there are other ways to deal with conflict that are more effective and more people oriented.

  16. Cognitive conflict without explicit conflict monitoring in a dynamical agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Robert; Ward, Ronnie

    2006-11-01

    We examine mechanisms for resolving cognitive conflict in an embodied, situated, and dynamic agent, developed through an evolutionary learning process. The agent was required to solve problems of response conflict in a dual-target "catching" task, focusing response on one of the targets while ignoring the other. Conflict in the agent was revealed at the behavioral level in terms of increased latencies to the second target. This behavioral interference was correlated to peak violations of the network's stable state equation. At the level of the agent's neural network, peak violations were also correlated to periods of disagreement in source inputs to the agent's motor effectors. Despite observing conflict at these numerous levels, we did not find any explicit conflict monitoring mechanisms within the agent. We instead found evidence of a distributed conflict management system, characterized by competitive sources within the network. In contrast to the conflict monitoring hypothesis [Botvinick, M. M., Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Carter, C. S., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. Psychological Review, 108(3), 624-652], this agent demonstrates that resolution of cognitive conflict does not require explicit conflict monitoring. We consider the implications of our results for the conflict monitoring hypothesis.

  17. Conflict in schools: student nurses' conflict management styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantek, Filiz; Gezer, Nurdan

    2009-01-01

    Unless conflicts between the students and the instructors can be successfully managed, they will certainly result in negative outcomes for the students. The conflict management styles of the students should be recognized in detail in order to attain positive outcomes in regard to the conflict management styles. The purpose of this study was to examine the conflict management styles used by nursing students in conflict with faculty members and the differences in use of style from the aspect of some variables. This study was conducted with 151 students in a public university nursing school. Data were collected using a personal information form and the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory II (ROCI II). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Tukey test, Kruskal Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test and Cronbach alpha coefficient analyses. The students were found to use integrating (X=3.82) and obliging (X=3.81) styles the most, and dominating style (X=3.02) the least. In addition there were differences determined in management style between classes, frequency of experiencing conflict, and feeling of success in the conflict (pstyles were used more by those who evaluated themselves as successful in conflict management, but the avoiding and compromising styles were used more by students who evaluated themselves as unsuccessful. It was determined that the students preferred to use styles that produced positive results in conflict resolution and that the frequency of experiencing conflict and the feeling of success in conflict had an effect on choice of style. It will be helpful to analyze the relationship between the causes of conflict between the student and the instructor in the practice field and the uses of conflict management styles.

  18. Review of EU Conflict Management in DRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict......The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict...

  19. Conflict field energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebsbach-Gnath, C.

    1981-01-01

    Violent social controversies characterize the treatment of the energy problem. Solutions of this conflict decisively depend on the knowledge and evaluation of the causes and the possible development. How is it possible to explain the opinions, views, and the attitude of the population to different kinds of energy. Which factors are decisive for the explosive effect and the stability of the conflict in the field of nulcear energy. What will happen when there arises a possible lack of energy. Which socio-political effects will such a lack have. Are there new proposals for solving problems in the nulcear-energy debate. The contributions of this book are results of scientific and empiric works. They provide perceptive approaches and analyses to the problems and by discussing them are useful in giving an orientation for political action. (orig.) [de

  20. Conflict engagement: workplace dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Debra

    2015-04-01

    This article is one in a series on conflict. It is part of an ongoing series on leadership coordinated by the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE), highlighting topics of interest to nurse managers and emerging nurse leaders. The AONE provides leadership, professional development, advocacy, and research to advance nursing practice and patient care, promote nursing leadership excellence, and shape public policy for health care.

  1. Islam: Ideology and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    brands ’ (‘ popular fronts’ and ‘liberation fronts’). The difference was that the ‘fronts’ often had real state backers while the current VEOs do not...assuming the al Qaeda brand name. This underscores the essential role of local conflicts and rivalries.5 To a significant degree, this paper argues...under poor leadership it was disas- trous. The Abbasids did not have that luxury . They were far more dependent on political power centers that

  2. Solicitors' conflicts of interest

    OpenAIRE

    Bamford, Colin

    2003-01-01

    Brief overview of the need for the Law Society of England and Wales to formulate new rules to address conflicts of interest situations and accommodate modern practices which have followed from the merger of firms of solicitors resulting for example in requests to act in a dispute with a former client or to represent several parties in the same commercial or financial transaction. Published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal ...

  3. Institutional conflicts in Jungian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisold, K

    2001-04-01

    This paper explores how the institutional life of analytical psychology has been beset by its historical and continuing conflictual relationship with psychoanalysis. Stemming from a division in Jung's identity, that of the spiritual seeker and that of a mental health practitioner, the organizations of analytical psychology have repeatedly enacted that division, resulting in an unclear mission and considerable conflict. In England those conflicts have led to schisms; in America they have played out in internal conflicts within training institutes. Examples of areas of conflict are provided, along with suggestions for addressing these conflicts by recognizing them more openly.

  4. Conflict: an imperative for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, F J

    1986-04-01

    Conflict in organizations of any type is inevitable. Medical institutions, particularly multispecialty clinics, are no exception. This paper presents an examination of the anatomy of conflict in group practice settings. Several case studies, including the "Hunterdon Experiment," are presented to illustrate the outcome of conflict situations where management was unable to direct its energy to productive ends. Recommendations are made for identifying, considering, and resolving conflicts in a proactive fashion. The conflict management role of the top management of the organization is described, with particular emphasis on the pivotal position of the Medical Director.

  5. Flexible Conflict Management: Conflict Avoidance and Conflict Adjustment in Reactive Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Kiesel, Andrea; Eder, Andreas B.

    2015-01-01

    Conflict processing is assumed to serve two crucial, yet distinct functions: Regarding task performance, control is adjusted to overcome the conflict. Regarding task choice, control is harnessed to bias decision making away from the source of conflict. Despite recent theoretical progress, until now two lines of research addressed these…

  6. Timing of cyber conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Robert; Iliev, Rumen

    2014-01-28

    Nations are accumulating cyber resources in the form of stockpiles of zero-day exploits as well as other novel methods of engaging in future cyber conflict against selected targets. This paper analyzes the optimal timing for the use of such cyber resources. A simple mathematical model is offered to clarify how the timing of such a choice can depend on the stakes involved in the present situation, as well as the characteristics of the resource for exploitation. The model deals with the question of when the resource should be used given that its use today may well prevent it from being available for use later. The analysis provides concepts, theory, applications, and distinctions to promote the understanding strategy aspects of cyber conflict. Case studies include the Stuxnet attack on Iran's nuclear program, the Iranian cyber attack on the energy firm Saudi Aramco, the persistent cyber espionage carried out by the Chinese military, and an analogous case of economic coercion by China in a dispute with Japan. The effects of the rapidly expanding market for zero-day exploits are also analyzed. The goal of the paper is to promote the understanding of this domain of cyber conflict to mitigate the harm it can do, and harness the capabilities it can provide.

  7. Preventing Interstate Armed Conflict : whose responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Otunba, Ganiyu

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...

  8. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  9. When Task Conflict Becomes Personal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenter, Hannes; van Emmerik, Hetty; Schreurs, Bert; Kuypers, Tom; van Iterson, Ad; Notelaers, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Although potentially beneficial, task conflict may threaten teams because it often leads to relationship conflict. Prior research has identified a set of interpersonal factors (e.g., team communication, team trust) that help attenuate this association. The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative perspective that focuses on the moderating role of performance-related factors (i.e., perceived team performance). Using social identity theory, we build a model that predicts how task conflict associates with growth in relationship conflict and how perceived team performance influences this association. We test a three-wave longitudinal model by means of random coefficient growth modeling, using data from 60 ongoing teams working in a health care organization. Results provide partial support for our hypotheses. Only when perceived team performance is low, do task conflicts relate with growth in relationship conflict. We conclude that perceived team performance seems to enable teams to uncouple task from relationship conflict. PMID:28190944

  10. Functional imaging of decision conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Riis, Jason; Sanfey, Alan G; Nystrom, Leigh E; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2008-03-26

    Decision conflict occurs when people feel uncertain as to which option to choose from a set of similarly attractive (or unattractive) options, with many studies demonstrating that this conflict can lead to suboptimal decision making. In this article, we investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of decision conflict, in particular, the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Previous studies have implicated the ACC in conflict monitoring during perceptual tasks, but there is considerable controversy as to whether the ACC actually indexes conflict related to choice, or merely conflict related to selection of competing motor responses. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we dissociate the decision and response phases of a decision task, and show that the ACC does indeed index conflict at the decision stage. Furthermore, we show that it does so for a complex decision task, one that requires the integration of beliefs and preferences and not just perceptual judgments.

  11. When conflicts are good: nonconscious goal conflicts reduce confirmatory thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Tali; Hassin, Ran R

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we argue that nonconscious goal conflicts are accompanied by a mindset that has wide-ranging implications for reasoning and thinking in content areas that are not part of the conflict itself. Specifically, we propose that nonconscious goal conflicts induce a mode of processing information that increases the likelihood of approaching an issue from opposing perspectives. This hypothesis is examined by investigating the effects of nonconscious goal conflicts on confirmatory thinking, that is, a way of thinking that narrowly focuses on confirmation rather than on broader examination of information. In 5 experiments, we show that nonconscious goal conflicts significantly reduce confirmatory hypothesis testing (Experiments 1 through 3) and anchoring (Experiments 4 and 5). We further show that these effects result from a goal conflict by rejecting explanations based on priming of semantic opposites, and priming of multiple goals that do not conflict (Experiments 2 and 3), and by examining decision times as a conflict process variable (Experiment 5). Using various probes, we show that these changes in confirmatory judgments are not accompanied by changes in conflict phenomenology. Together, these results suggest that nonconscious goal conflicts attenuate the robust confirmatory thinking strategy that characterizes human thinking in numerous domains.

  12. Exploring how Conflict Management Training Changes Workplace Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima

    2012-01-01

    While many organisations offer conflict management training to both staff and management, there has been little research investigating the changes resulting from such training. Using an interpretive framework of analysis, a qualitative case study was conducted to understand how 'sensemakings' about...... conflicts change when enacted from the perspective of staff and management in a non-profit organisation that participated in conflict management training. The case study was constructed as a longitudinal investigation with ethnographic fieldwork as the primary method of inquiry. The training worked...... as a catalyst for the development of new sensemakings about workplace conflicts. These included increasing acknowledgement of workplace conflicts, recognition of interdependent and context embedded relationships in interpersonal conflicts, and enactment of active resistance in a subordinated occupational group...

  13. Managing Workplace Incivility: The Role of Conflict Management Styles--Antecedent or Antidote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Jeannie; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The workforce of the 21st century is dealing with rapid changes and increased competition across industries. Such changes place stress on management and workers alike, increasing the potential for workplace conflict and deviant workplace behaviors, including incivility. The importance of effective conflict management in the workplace has been…

  14. Professional stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Job stress is a line, for the person at work hired adverse physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions to situations in which job requirements are not in accordance with its capabilities, abilities and needs. Sources of stress at work are numerous. Personal factors: personality types have been most studied so far, environmental changes and demographic characteristics as well. Interpersonal stress inducing factors act and influence to the occurrence of many psychosomatic diseases. Psychosocial climate and relationships which are prevented or encouraged such as: cooperation and competition, trust and suspicion certainly affect to the appearance of professional stress. The way of leadership is very important. Organizational factors are the type of work, work time, noncompliance of the job, the introduction of new ethnologies, the conflict of personal roles, fear of job loss, bad physical conditions of working environment. The consequences of stress at work are numerous: at the cognitive level, the emotional level, the production plan, the health, plan reduces the immune system that cause a variety of psychosomatic illnesses and accidents at work.

  15. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT. SOME PROSPECTS ON THE LABOR CONFLICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Bădoi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Managers wish for harmony within their organizations, that the satisfied employees to work in well balanced teams in order to achieve the institutional goals without taking into account the individual and cultural differences, personal or group interests. Conflicts can be classified according to several criteria. This study aims to present the particularities of conflict resolution within labor relations. Starting from the analysis of the conflict concept viewed from several perspectives, including legal term, this paper aims to reveal the sources of labor disputes through statistical tools, to explain the development of the conflict and to propose solutions to reduce / solve conflicts. From the traditionalist perspective all conflicts are bad, being subsumed to terms of violence, anarchy, destruction, chaos, requiring major reality changes. Conflicts are seen as natural, normal, and cyclical from the human relations point of view. Moreover, inter-actionist perspective suggests encouraging for triggering conflicts because a group that is too long peaceful may become inert, listless and noncreative. This theory proposes to the leaders to maintain a level of conflict within institutions so that to be in the presence of a dynamic group, the manifestation of critical thinking, innovation and improvement of the human relationships’ quality.

  16. Conflicts in Public Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lindskog

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last couple of years, there has been a tendency to include more and more political goals into public procurements, such as environmental and societal considerations. This can result in higher prices paid by the public sector compared with similar procurements in the private sector. The decision makers at local level are elected and should represent the interest of their communities and voters, which includes promoting regional/local companies and economic development. This task can sometimes get into conflict with public procurement law or the political goals of a central government. (original abstract

  17. Work-family conflicts and self-rated health among middle-aged municipal employees in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Torsten; Roos, Eva; Rahkonen, Ossi; Martikainen, Pekka; Lahelma, Eero

    2006-01-01

    Work-family conflicts are common, but their effects on health are not well known. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between work-family conflicts and self-rated health among middle-aged municipal employees. In addition, the effect of social background factors on the association between work-family conflicts and self-rated health were examined. The data were based on cross-sectional postal surveys, which were carried out in 2001 and 2002, among female and male employees of the city of Helsinki, Finland. The participants were aged 40-60, and the response rate for women was 69%, and for men 60%. In the final analysis, 3,443 women and 875 men were included. For men and woman alike, work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts were associated with poor self-rated health. The association remained after adjusting for sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. This study shows that a better balance between family life and work outside the home would probably have a health promoting effect.

  18. How place attachments influence recreation conflict and coping behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Ping Wang; Yin-Hsun. Chang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how place attachment influences recreation conflict and coping behaviors based on the Transactional Stress/Coping Model. The interference between bikers and walkers in Bali Zon-An Park in Taipei County, Taiwan was investigated in May and June of 2007. A total of 384 valid questionnaires were collected.

  19. The Agent of Change: The Agent of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, C. R., Jr.

    This speech examines the role of change agents in third world societies and indicates that the change agent must, to some extent, manipulate the social situation, even if his view of society is a more optimistic one than he finds in reality. If he considers strains and stresses to be the lubricants of change, then his focus on conflict as a…

  20. The cerebellum mediates conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Tom A; Oriet, Chris; Meiran, Nachshon; Alexander, Michael P; Cusimano, Michael; Stuss, Donald T

    2007-12-01

    Regions within the frontal and parietal cortex have been implicated as important neural correlates for cognitive control during conflict resolution. Despite the extensive reciprocal connectivity between the cerebellum and these putatively critical cortical areas, a role for the cerebellum in conflict resolution has never been identified. We used a task-switching paradigm that separates processes related to task-set switching and the management of response conflict independent of motor processing. Eleven patients with chronic, focal lesions to the cerebellum and 11 healthy controls were compared. Patients were slower and less accurate in conditions involving conflict resolution. In the absence of response conflict, however, tasks-witching abilities were not impaired in our patients. The cerebellum may play an important role in coordinating with other areas of cortex to modulate active response states. These results are the first demonstration of impaired conflict resolution following cerebellar lesions in the presence of an intact prefrontal cortex.

  1. Post-conflict mental health in South Sudan: overview of common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-conflict mental health in South Sudan: overview of common psychiatric disorders Part 1: Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ...

  2. Conflict Elaboration and Cognitive Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Buchs, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio; Mugny, Gabriel; Darnon, Céline

    2004-01-01

    This article presents advice for teachers about using sociocognitive conflicts to promote academic learning. In doing so, the conditions under which sociocognitive conflicts are constructive or disruptive are examined and the relevant research is reviewed on social development, cooperative learning, and social influence. Two types of conflict elaboration—epistemic and relational—are identified. Epistemic elaborations focus students on task resolution leading to positive cognitive outcomes, an...

  3. Information system conflicts: causes and types

    OpenAIRE

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. Information Systems (IS) implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they understand the nature and causes of information system conflicts (IS conflicts). To contribute to such an understanding, this study focuses on the analysis of IS conflicts. I...

  4. Interdisciplinary conflict and organizational complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, M E

    1986-01-01

    Most people think that conflict among the professional staff is inevitable and results from each profession's unique set of values. Each profession then defends itself by claiming its own turf. This article demonstrates that organizational complexity, not professional territorialism, influences the amount of intraorganizational conflict. In a comparison of two psychiatric hospitals, this study shows that there is not necessarily greater conflict across professions than within professions. However, there is a significantly greater amount of conflict among staff at a structurally more complex hospital than at a less-complex hospital, regardless of profession. Implications for management are discussed.

  5. Armed conflict and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health\\ud throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives\\ud in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely\\ud to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark\\ud contrast to the effect on children, the international arms\\ud trade results in huge profits for the large corporations\\ud involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions.\\ud Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important\\ud health issue that should be...

  6. The cultural contagion of conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y.; Bruss, C. Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785

  7. Factors Influencing of Social Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwandi Sumartias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social conflicts that occur in several areas in Indonesia lately, one of them is caused by the weakness of law certainty. This is feared to threaten the integration of the Republic of Indonesia. This study aims to determine the factors that affect social conflict in Manis Lor village in Kuningan district. The method used the explanatory quantitative methods, the statistical test Path Analysis. The study population was a formal and informal community leaders (village chief, clergy, and youth, and the people who involved in a conflict in Manis Lor village Kuningan regency. The result shows a There is no significant influence between social identity factors with social conflict anarchist. b There is significant influence between socio-economic factors with social conflict anarchists. c There is no significant influence between the credibility factor anarchist leaders with social conflict. d There is no significant influence between the motive factor with anarchist social conflict. e There is significant influence between personality factors/beliefs with anarchist social conflict. f There is significant influence of behavioral factors anarchist communication with social conflict.

  8. Causes of Conflict and Conflict Resolution Styles among Bahir Dar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the causes of conflict and conflict resolution styles among university students. The participants were 390 (49 female and 341 male) sophomore (87.7%), junior (5.6%), and senior (6.7%) university students. Students identified themselves as Amhara, Oromo, Tigre, and as belonging to other ethnic groups ...

  9. Estrés laboral en profesores de enseñanza secundaria: examinando el papel de las conductas y/o actitudes problemáticas de los alumnos y la dificultad percibida en el manejo de conflictos. Occupational stress in secondary school teachers: examining the role of students’ disruptive behaviour and/or attitudes and the perceived difficulty in conflict management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Santiago

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo se examina, en función de distintas variables sociodemográficas y ocupacionales (sexo, edad, experiencia profesional, ciclo de docencia, no sólo el papel de las conductas y/o actitudes problemáticas de los alumnos, sino también las dificultades percibidas por los profesores en el manejo de conflictos. Los resultados obtenidos, a partir de una muestra de 1.386 docentes de ESO, permiten concluir que ambos tipos de estresores diferencian válidamente en función de las variables sociodemográficas y ocupacionales. Concretamente, el estrés asociado a los problemas de comportamiento de los alumnos y a las dificultades del docente en el manejo de conflictos, incide en mayor medida en las profesoras, en los docentes de segundo ciclo y en aquellas etapas intermedias de la profesión. En definitiva, si estos hallazgos se ratifican en futuras investigaciones, se trataría de diseñar programas preventivos y/o de intervención que sean sensibles a estos factores de riesgo.

    Palabras clave: Estrés, profesores, conductas problema alumnos, manejo conflictos.

    This study examines not only the role of students’ disruptive behaviour and/or attitudes but also the difficulties perceived by teachers in managing conflicts as a function of the different sociodemographic and occupational variables (gender, age, professional experience, teaching cycle. The results obtained from a sample consisting in 1386 ESO teachers allow us to conclude that both types of stressors validly discriminate as a function of sociodemographic and occupational variables. Specifically, the stress associated to students’ disruptive behaviour and to the difficulties faced by teachers in managing conflict has a greater incidence on female teachers, on second cycle teachers and on intermediate stages in the profession. If these findings are corroborated by further research, it would be important to design prevention and/or intervention programmes that are

  10. How Important is Conflict Detection to the Conflict Resolution Task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Joey; Gabets, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Edwards, Tamsyn; Bienert, Nancy; Claudatos, Lauren; Homola, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the capabilities and limitations of human operators and automation in separation assurance roles, the second of three Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) part-task studies investigates air traffic controllers ability to detect and resolve conflicts under varying task sets, traffic densities, and run lengths. Operations remained within a single sector, staffed by a single controller, and explored, among other things, the controllers conflict resolution performance in conditions with or without their involvement in the conflict detection task. Whereas comparisons of conflict resolution performance between these two conditions are available in a prior publication, this paper explores whether or not other subjective measures display a relationship to that data. Analyses of controller workload and situation awareness measures attempt to quantify their contribution to controllers ability to resolve traffic conflicts.

  11. For Richer, for Poorer: Money as a Topic of Marital Conflict in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M; Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C

    2009-02-01

    Guided by a family stress perspective, we examined the hypothesis that discussing money would be associated with the handling of marital conflict in the home. Analyses were based on dyadic hierarchical linear modeling of 100 husbands' and 100 wives' diary reports of 748 conflict instances. Contrary to findings from previous laboratory-based surveys, spouses did not rate money as the most frequent source of marital conflict in the home. However, compared to non-money issues, marital conflicts about money were more pervasive, problematic, and recurrent, and remained unresolved, despite including more attempts at problem solving. Implications for professionals who assist couples in managing their relationships and family finances are discussed.

  12. Enhancing resilience, empowerment, and conflict management among baccalaureate students: outcomes of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Eula W; Rauschhuber, Maureen L; Cook, Jennifer D; Norgan, Gary H; Canchola, Leticia; Richardson, Cynthia; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2014-01-01

    To manage interpersonal conflict, nursing students need evidence-based interventions to strengthen stress resiliency, psychological empowerment, and conflict management skills. A pilot 1-group, pre-post-design, 2-semester intervention used simulated experiences to enhance these skills with 60 undergraduate nursing students. Findings suggest that integration of conflict resolution skills throughout the curriculum, with repeated opportunities to practice using a variety of styles of conflict management in relation to situational factors, may be beneficial to prepare students for the challenges of today's healthcare environment.

  13. Starting and Stopping Spontaneous Family Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchinich, Samuel

    1987-01-01

    Examined how 52 nondistressed families managed spontaneous verbal conflicts during family dinners. Found conflict initiation to be evenly distributed across family roles. Extension of conflict was constrained by constant probability of a next conflict move occurring. Most conflicts ended with no resolution. Mothers were most active in closing…

  14. Moral Stress in Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colnerud, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study whether moral stress is a phenomenon relevant to teaching practice and which may make a significant contribution to understanding why teachers repeatedly reported feeling burdened by work. Moral stress can be caused by acting in conflict with one's own conscience, e.g. when one knows the right thing to…

  15. Social networks and intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takács, Károly

    2002-01-01

    Conflicts between groups are among the most challenging problems of mankind. They arise as groups compete for the possession of certain scarce resources. Under what conditions does such competition lead to conflict or to a peaceful coexistence? Why do individual group members, despite the likelihood

  16. Climate Change, Conflict, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We have good reason to predict that a warming climate will produce more conflict and violence. A growing contingent of researchers has been examining the relationship in recent years, and they've found that hotter temperatures and reduced rainfall are linked to increases in conflict at all scales, from interpersonal violence to war. Children are…

  17. Managing conflict in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weygman, L

    1986-08-01

    Conflict is inevitable in the workplace. Mounting pressures to reduce staffing levels and improve productivity will almost certainly increase the level of conflict in the hospital setting in the coming months and years. The most effective managers will be those who can handle it constructively.

  18. The Logic of Animal Conflict

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is not surprising that ani- mals are often in conflict because they compete for limited resources. What is surprising however is that such conflict is often re- solved by a trial of strength, followed by the weaker ani- mal surrendering resources to the stronger rival, with- out an injurious fight until. A sparring match between male ...

  19. Auditory Conflict Processing in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Rosa; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Konig, Claudia; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been implicated as an important developmental pathway to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive control is crucial to suppress interference resulting from conflicting information and can be measured by Stroop-like tasks. This study was conducted to gain insight into conflict processing…

  20. Conflict Elaboration and Cognitive Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, Celine; Butera, Fabrizio; Mugny, Gabriel; Darnon, Celine

    2004-01-01

    This article presents advice for teachers about using sociocognitive conflicts to promote academic learning. In doing so, the conditions under which sociocognitive conflicts are constructive or disruptive are examined and the relevant research is reviewed on social development, cooperative learning, and social influence. Two types of conflict…

  1. Conflict management in online relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kumi

    2010-08-01

    With the diffusion of networked technology, personal relationships can be easily formed and maintained online today. Similar to a face-to-face situation, conflict is also seen in these online relationships. Early theories suggested that computer-mediated communication (CMC) tends to increase conflicts because of the lack of social-context cues, and CMC is not rich enough to manage conflict. As CMC has become part of our daily life, we often face conflict online, and thus we need to understand how people manage conflict online. This study explored how online users manage interpersonal conflict. Self-report survey data from 159 university students were analyzed to examine their conflict-management styles in association with the perceived closeness of the online relationship and a future intention toward the relationship. The results indicated that online users select cooperative management styles to handle conflict in their close relationships. In addition, online users avoid less cooperative styles when they want to continue the relationship.

  2. Functional imaging of decision conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pochon, J.B.; Riis, J.; Sanfey, A.G.; Nystrom, L.E.; Cohen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Decision conflict occurs when people feel uncertain as to which option to choose from a set of similarly attractive ( or unattractive) options, with many studies demonstrating that this conflict can lead to suboptimal decision making. In this article, we investigate the neurobiological underpinnings

  3. Worldview conflict in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, M.J.; Crawford, Jarret; van Tongeren, D.R.

    2018-01-01

    Building on laboratory- and survey-based research probing the psychology of ideology and the experience of worldview conflict, we examined the association between worldview conflict and emotional reactions, psychological well-being, humanity esteem, and political ideology in everyday life using

  4. Email Adaptation for Conflict Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Joyce Yi‐Hui; Panteli, Niki; Bülow, Anne Marie

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the context of email‐based communication in anestablished but fragile, inter‐organisational partnership, which wasoften overlain with conflict. Drawing upon adaptation theory, thisstudy explores how participants adapt to the use of email to handleconflict. Extensive data were...... obtained during a 6‐month field studyof a case of cross‐border inter‐organisational collaboration in EastAsia. We observed that the individuals involved in the cross‐borderpartnership used email as a lean form of communication to stopcovert conflict from explicitly emerging. In contrast to prior researchon...... the leanness of email in managing conflict, we found that underthe described conflict situation the very leanness of emailwas appreciated and thus, exploited by those concerned tomanage the conflict situation. Specifically, we identified 4 keyconflict‐triggered adaptation strategies, namely...

  5. Considerations Regarding the Conflict Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Manolescu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The conflict has always been present among people. It arises at the level of human relationships and has a specific form of expression, according to its evolutionary stage. Because of the fact that people are part of an organization, they bring the conflict with themselves. Any attempt of efficiently managing an organization without taking into account the fact that organizational conflicts are inevitable are bound to failure. In order to successfully handle conflicting situations, old habits and empirical pieces of knowledge are no longer sufficient. We therefore witness the birth of new theoretical concepts and innovative practices, as well as the coming into being of different strategies and approaches re garding conflict management which are based on a set of clear ideas that we will develop in the following article.

  6. Creating constructive outcomes in conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, B

    1998-06-01

    1. Conflict and disagreement are a fact of business life. Effort toward optomizing differences rather than minimizing them is a value added activity--leading to greater creativity, increasing levels of respect in relationships, and better solutions. 2. Proactively looking at potential conflict--where diasgreeing parties are often inherent and/or predictable--can save energy, relationships, and costly mistakes. Diagnosing or "reading" a situation and planning an approach is wise. 3. Several options or responses are available when facing conflict. Knowing when to use a given response is an important interpersonal skill. Relying on learned, habitual, and exclusive approaches to conflict may be limiting. 4. Implementation of effective conflict resolution is a function of attitude, initiative, and flexibility. An exploratory posture and a willingness to learn are constructive in attempting to reach agreements with optimum short and long term effect.

  7. Understanding and managing conservation conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, Steve M; Young, Juliette; Evely, Anna; Adams, William M; Sutherland, William J; Whitehouse, Andrew; Amar, Arjun; Lambert, Robert A; Linnell, John D C; Watt, Allan; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-02-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing and need to be managed to minimise negative impacts on biodiversity, human livelihoods, and human well-being. Here, we explore strategies and case studies that highlight the long-term, dynamic nature of conflicts and the challenges to their management. Conflict management requires parties to recognise problems as shared ones, and engage with clear goals, a transparent evidence base, and an awareness of trade-offs. We hypothesise that conservation outcomes will be less durable when conservationists assert their interests to the detriment of others. Effective conflict management and long-term conservation benefit will be enhanced by better integration of the underpinning social context with the material impacts and evaluation of the efficacy of alternative conflict management approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationship between emotional intelligence competencies and preferred conflict-handling styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jeanne

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between emotional intelligence (EI) and preferred conflict-handling styles of registered nurses. Conflict cannot be eliminated from the workplace therefore learning appropriate conflict-handling skills is important. Ninety-four registered nurses working in three south Mississippi healthcare facilities participated in this quantitative study. Ninety-two valid sets of data instruments were collected for this study. Higher levels of EI positively correlated with collaborating and negatively with accommodating. The issue of occupational stress and conflict among nurses is a major concern. It is imperative nurses learn how to effectively handle conflict in the work environment. Developing the competencies of EI and understanding how to effectively handle conflict is necessary for nurses working in a highly stressful occupation. Effective leadership management includes conflict management and collaboration. The art of relationship management is necessary when handling other people's emotions. When conflict is approached with high levels of EI, it creates an opportunity for learning effective interpersonal skills. Understanding how EI levels and conflict skills correlate can be used to improve interpersonal relationships in a healthcare facility.

  9. Work-family conflict and self-rated health among dwellers in Minia, Egypt: Financial strain vs social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshak, E S; Kamal, N N; Seedhom, A E; Kamal, N N

    2018-04-01

    Egypt's economic reform is accompanied by both financial and social strains. Due to lack of evidence, we examined the associations between work-family conflict in its 2 directions, work-to-family conflicts (WFCs), and family-to-work conflicts (FWCs) and self-rated health in Minia, Egypt, and whether the association will vary by being financially responsible for others and by the level of perceived social support. A cross-sectional study that included 1021 healthy participants aged 18-60 years from Minia district. Data on participants' work-family conflict, social, and demographic data and individual self-rated health were collected by a questionnaire survey. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) with its 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for poor self-rated health according to categories of work-family conflict. There were significant positive associations between the poor self-rated health and both high WFC and FWC. Compared with participants with low WFC and low FWC, participants with high WFC low FWC, low WFC high FWC, and high WFC high FWC had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for poor self-rated health of 6.93 (3.02-13.13), 2.09 (1.06-4.12), and 10.05 (4.98-20.27), respectively. Giving financial support to others but not the level of perceived social support from others was an effect modifier of the association. Work-family conflict was positively associated with the self-report of poor health, especially in those who were financially responsible for other family members. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interpersonal Sources of Conflict in Young People with and without Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disabilities at Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, P.; Jahoda, A.; MacMahon, K.; Pert, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal conflict is a source of stress and contributes to poor mental health in people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities. Understanding the contexts in which conflict typically occurs can better equip services to help people with such difficulties. However, existing studies into the contexts of conflict have…

  11. Mismatch and conflict: neurophysiological and behavioral evidence for conflict priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Ralph; Meuth, Sven G; Kräuchi, Kurt; Schmidlin, Maria; Müller-Spahn, Franz; Falkenstein, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Conflict-related cognitive processes are critical for adapting to sudden environmental changes that confront the individual with inconsistent or ambiguous information. Thus, these processes play a crucial role to cope with daily life. Generally, conflicts tend to accumulate especially in complex and threatening situations. Therefore, the question arises how conflict-related cognitive processes are modulated by the close succession of conflicts. In the present study, we investigated the effect of interactions between different types of conflict on performance as well as on electrophysiological parameters. A task-irrelevant auditory stimulus and a task-relevant visual stimulus were presented successively. The auditory stimulus consisted of a standard or deviant tone, followed by a congruent or incongruent Stroop stimulus. After standard prestimuli, performance deteriorated for incongruent compared to congruent Stroop stimuli, which were accompanied by a widespread negativity for incongruent versus congruent stimuli in the event-related potentials (ERPs). However, after deviant prestimuli, performance was better for incongruent than for congruent Stroop stimuli and an additional early negativity in the ERP emerged with a fronto-central maximum. Our data show that deviant auditory prestimuli facilitate specifically the processing of stimulus-related conflict, providing evidence for a conflict-priming effect.

  12. CONFLICT PERSONALITY AS A PARTICIPANT OF CONFLICT DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyranyan Margarita Yuryevna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict discourse as a communicative event reveals the characteristics of its participants as linguistic personalities. In this respect, this study enables us to reveal and describe their personal and social features. Undoubtedly, the individual characteristics of participants, their cultural and ideological differences and similarities have a great impact on the interaction process in general and on the use of linguistic means in particular. To better understand the nature of conflict discourse, its causes and consequences, one should take into account that adverse behaviour depends on the personality type and the role the speaker plays in different situations. Conflict personality is referred to as an archetype, transcendental phenomenon common to everybody. The research revealed such key characteristics typical of conflict personality as: verbal (use of language units with "conflict" connotation, the "manipulation" of speech means that convey negative, conflict meaning in particular contexts and non-verbal (communicative aim, communication medium, pre- and post-supposition of the speaker and the listener, mode of behaviour. It also proved that conflict patterns of behavior may lead to confrontation and/or transfer of collaborative interaction into an adverse one.

  13. Local Political Conflict and Pela Gandong Amidst the Religious Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny SB Hoedodo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pela Gandong which is believed by Ambonese for its propitiational value is in fact failed to prevent horizontal conflict that victimized a big number of life and financial damages. However, Wayame villagem is found to survive from those conflicts, and the community of this village, comprising of Islam and Christian religious group, succeeds to maintain harmonious relation. The research aims at, first, describing the perception of Wayamae village community to Pela Gandong in the post-conflict period; second, analyzing the cultural competence of pela Gandong in conflict resolution in the era of technology. This research employed qualitative method, involving in-field data gathering based on official report, digging out information from the resource persons who were directly witnessing the conflict when it occured and other references obtained through Forum Group Discussion (FGD. An analysis was performed to seek answer concerning on how the community of Wayame village viewed Pela Gandong in post-conflict period, how it is – as a local wisdom – maintained in the middle of changing and how Pela Gandong was revitalized. Research showed that Pela Gandong was maintained by involving all elements such as customary community and the government. Pela Gandong grew as the icon of Ambonese society in settling conflicts by raising awareness that they are Eastern people, collectivistic in nature, and place kinship into priority.

  14. Is consciousness necessary for conflict detection and conflict resolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ling; Wang, Baoxi; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-06-15

    Is conflict control dependent on consciousness? To answer this question, we used high temporal resolution event-related potentials (ERPs) to separate conflict detection from conflict resolution in a masked prime Stroop task. Although behavioral interference effect was present in both the masked and unmasked conditions, the electrophysiological findings revealed more complex patterns. ERP analyses showed that N450 was greater for incongruent trials than for congruent trials and that it was located in the ACC and nearby motor cortex, regardless of whether the primes were masked or unmasked; however, the effects were smaller for the masked than unmasked condition. These results suggest that consciousness of conflict information may not be necessary for detecting conflict, but that it may modulate conflict detection. The analysis of slow potential (SP) amplitude showed that it distinguished incongruent trials from congruent trials, and that this modulation effects was reduced to a greater extent for the masked condition than for the unmasked condition. Moreover, the prefrontal-parietal control network was activated under the unmasked but not under the masked condition. These results suggest that the consciousness of conflict information may be a necessary boundary condition for the subsequent initiation of control operations in the more extended PFC-parietal control network. However, considering that the conflict interference effect was significantly reduced in the masked condition, it may be that, with larger unconscious conflict effects, more extensive cognitive control networks would have been activated. These findings have important implications for theories on the relationship between consciousness and cognitive control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Work-family conflict, health services and medication use among dual-income couples in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Wendy; Bracke, Piet

    2014-03-01

    Combination pressure or work-life imbalance is linked to adverse health. However, it remains unclear how work-family conflict is related to healthcare utilisation. Does work-family conflict function as a barrier or as a facilitator in relation to the use of health services and prescription medication? Lack of time may prevent people from visiting a doctor when they feel unwell. However, combination pressure can also be expected to intensify the use of health services, as the need for a quick fix is prioritised. Further, do women and men differ in their susceptibility to medicalisation and time pressure resulting from work-life imbalance? This article investigates the use of health services and prescription medication of dual-income couples with children, based on data from 23 countries in the European Social Survey round 2 (N(women) = 3755; N(men) = 3142). It was found that medical services and prescription medications are used more frequently in dual-income couples experiencing work-to-family spillover, but for women only this is irrespective of their self-reported health. Family-to-work spillover does not result in increased health service or medication use for either men or women. While women opt for a medical response to work-life imbalance, men's reluctance to seek formal health support is confirmed. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Work-family enrichment, work-family conflict, and marital satisfaction: a dyadic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, Elianne F; Kluwer, Esther S; Karney, Benjamin R

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to examine whether spouses' work-to-family (WF) enrichment experiences account for their own and their partner's marital satisfaction, beyond the effects of WF conflict. Data were collected from both partners of 215 dual-earner couples with children. As hypothesized, structural equation modeling revealed that WF enrichment experiences accounted for variance in individuals' marital satisfaction, over and above WF conflict. In line with our predictions, this positive link between individuals' WF enrichment and their marital satisfaction was mediated by more positive marital behavior, and more positive perceptions of the partner's behavior. Furthermore, evidence for crossover was found. Husbands who experienced more WF enrichment were found to show more marital positivity (according to their wives), which related to increased marital satisfaction in their wives. No evidence of such a crossover effect from wives to husbands was found. The current findings not only highlight the added value of studying positive spillover and crossover effects of work into the marriage, but also suggest that positive spillover and crossover effects on marital satisfaction might be stronger than negative spillover and crossover are. These results imply that organizational initiatives of increasing job enrichment may make employees' marital life happier and can contribute to a happy, healthy, and high-performing workforce.

  17. Influence of Conflict Resolution Training on Conflict Handling Styles of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waithaka, Abel Gitimu; Moore-Austin, Shante'; Gitimu, Priscilla N.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of conflict resolution skills training on conflict handling styles, and conflict orientation of college students. Conflict handling styles was measured by the Thomas-Kilmann MODE instrument, while Conflict orientation was measured by conflict orientation survey instrument. A sample of 135…

  18. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  19. Management of Conflicts within Beer Drinking Settings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toshiba

    2017-10-07

    Oct 7, 2017 ... Key words: conflict resolution, conflict management, public sphere, beer, conflict ... Alcohol is any beverage planned for consumption having least possible .... dropping out of school due to lack of good food and tuition fees ...

  20. Intergenerational Conflicts among Latinos in Early Adulthood: Separating Values Conflicts with Parents from Acculturation Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jessica; Basanez, Tatiana; Farahmand, Anahita

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of Latino and non-Latino college students sought to examine the ways in which perceived intergenerational conflicts with parents are related to acculturation, family dynamics, and psychosocial functioning. Participants reported the extent to which they experienced two types of intergenerational conflicts with parents:…

  1. Task conflict and relationship conflict in top management teams: the pivotal role of intragroup trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, T L; Peterson, R S

    2000-02-01

    Task conflict is usually associated with effective decisions, and relationship conflict is associated with poor decisions. The 2 conflict types are typically correlated in ongoing groups, however, which creates a prescriptive dilemma. Three explanations might account for this relationship--misattribution of task conflict as relationship conflict, harsh task conflict tactics triggering relationship conflict, and misattribution of relationship conflict as task conflict. The authors found that intragroup trust moderates the relationship between task conflict and relationship conflict in 70 top management teams. This result supports the "misattribution of task conflict" explanation. The authors also found a weak effect that is consistent with the argument that tactical choices drive the association between the 2 conflict types. We infer that trust is a key to gaining the benefits of task conflict without suffering the costs of relationship conflict.

  2. Climate change, conflict and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Devin C; Butler, Colin D; Morisetti, Neil

    2015-10-01

    Future climate change is predicted to diminish essential natural resource availability in many regions and perhaps globally. The resulting scarcity of water, food and livelihoods could lead to increasingly desperate populations that challenge governments, enhancing the risk of intra- and interstate conflict. Defence establishments and some political scientists view climate change as a potential threat to peace. While the medical literature increasingly recognises climate change as a fundamental health risk, the dimension of climate change-associated conflict has so far received little attention, despite its profound health implications. Many analysts link climate change with a heightened risk of conflict via causal pathways which involve diminishing or changing resource availability. Plausible consequences include: increased frequency of civil conflict in developing countries; terrorism, asymmetric warfare, state failure; and major regional conflicts. The medical understanding of these threats is inadequate, given the scale of health implications. The medical and public health communities have often been reluctant to interpret conflict as a health issue. However, at times, medical workers have proven powerful and effective peace advocates, most notably with regard to nuclear disarmament. The public is more motivated to mitigate climate change when it is framed as a health issue. Improved medical understanding of the association between climate change and conflict could strengthen mitigation efforts and increase cooperation to cope with the climate change that is now inevitable. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  3. Conflict and Ambiguity: Implementing Evolutionary Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sylvester, Richard

    2003-01-01

    .... Organizational conflict is inevitable but not necessarily counterproductive. In fact the original policy can be improved as the organization undergoes an iterative process of interpretation conflict and refinement.

  4. MANAGEMENT OF STRESS AND MOTIVATION OF EMPLOYEES

    OpenAIRE

    UNNIKRISHNAN.P

    2017-01-01

    Stress is a physical and emotional reaction when everyone encounters the various challenges of life. It will lead to mental unrest. Stress is the body’s automatic response to any physical or mental demand placed on it. Stress is a negative concept and creates a negative mental attitude in the mind of individuals. The various reasons for stress in organizations are over work load, role ambiguity, role conflict, isolation, lack of family-social support etc. Moderate stress relating to job aspec...

  5. Conflict and human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lundine, Jamie; Breau, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has reemerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a disease of major public health importance. The success of HAT elimination in sub-Saharan Africa is subject to the feasibility of controlling, eliminating, or mitigating the determinants of incidence in affected countries. Conflict has been widely recognized and cited as a contributing factor to the resurgence of HAT in many countries, as well as to continuing HAT incidence in politically unstable and resource-poor regions. Despite extensive anecdotal and qualitative recognition of the role of conflict, there has been no quantitative research of this topic at the population level in affected African countries. We characterize the qualitative and quantitative associations between HAT incidence and conflict-related processes in HAT-affected African countries over the past 30 years. HAT and conflict-related data were collected for 35 affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1976-2004. Descriptive and univariate inferential statistics, as well as negative binomial regression modeling, are used to assess the associations between HAT and conflict. A space-time scan statistic is used to identify significant incidence clusters. Clusters of HAT incidence over the past 30 years have predominantly coincided with periods of conflict or socio-political instability. HAT cases occurred significantly more often in countries and during years with conflict, high political terror, and internationalized civil war. The results indicate a lag period between the start of conflict events and a peak in incidence of approximately 10 years. We recommend explicit consideration and quantification of socio-political measures such as conflict and terror indices in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)-based risk assessments for HAT policy and intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Conflict and conflict resolution in Africa: Engaging the colonial factor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maintaining colonial-style approaches to African conflicts at the expense of a ... Educational Leadership at the College of Education and Human Services, University of .... Colonial rule was the antithesis of democracy, because it was premised.

  7. Environmental conflicts and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugallo, Alicia Irene

    2006-01-01

    In 1998 the Yungas forest of Argentina became the subject of tremendous debates, caused by the construction of the Norandino Gas-pipeline. Apart from technical and financial considerations, the discussion of constructing the duct confronted the different actors in questions of great ethical relevance. Environmental activists assumed positions that not only consider persons, but also the rest of living beings as morally relevant. An untenable strong anthropocentrism, which is a predominant attitude in our developed societies, was questioned. The final implementation of the Yungas Biosphere Reserve showed the conflictive process as a 'witness case' in which the will to dialogue and the wise rationality have predominated, with the application of a new active conservationist, which make it possible to make compatible human development with care of the environment. The incorporation of socio-cultural topics to conservation imply a true conceptual and methodological revolution, taking into account the intangible and not quantifiable elements of action and human spirit, the different perceptions of each population, their development way and life quality, their ambitions, the sense of belonging or of self-realization feeling

  8. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slider, J.E.; Patterson, M.

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of open-quotes safety culture.close quotes This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to open-quotes do the right thingclose quotes even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants

  9. Types of conflict, types of relationships and preferred conflict resolution strategies: Implications for constructive conflict resolution programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructive conflict resolution programmes are based on the idea that children and youth do no have sufficient knowledge of the procedures and skills for conflict resolution, which is why the conflicts they take part in soon become destructive. Notwithstanding the indubitable practical significance of the constructive conflict resolution programmes, it can be objected that they are not sufficiently based on empirical findings about the characteristics of conflicts in childhood and adolescence. Hence, this paper explores different types of conflict with peers and friends with the aim of determining the preferred conflict resolution strategies and using the obtained results to consider the implications for the improvement of constructive conflict resolution programmes. The research was conducted on the sample of 286 adolescents. The method of hypothetical conflict situations was used for studying the preferred conflict resolution strategies. The key results, which should be taken into account when developing constructive conflict resolution programmes, indicate that the preference for a conflict resolution strategy varies depending on conflict type (problem solving is mostly used in conflicts occurring due to opinion differences and disrespect of agreement, unlike the conflicts arising due to provocations, stubbornness and dishonesty and relationship types (in conflicts with friends, adolescents prefer problem solving, while in peer conflicts they more frequently opt for competition. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije

  10. Stress, Communication, and Marital Quality in Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Thomas; Bodenmann, Guy; Rudaz, Myriam; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    The association between daily stress outside and inside of the relationship and marital functioning in the form of communication in conflict situations and marital quality was examined. We hypothesized that relationship stress mediates the association between external stress and marital functioning at the individual level, and that the association…

  11. Digital Images and Globalized Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette; Mortensen, Mette; Neumayer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    As the number of digital images of globalized conflicts online grow, critical examination of their impact and consequence is timely. This editorial provides an overview of digital images and globalized conflict as a field of study by discussing regimes of visibility and invisibility, proximity...... and distance, and the multiplicity of images. It engages critically with these interlinking themes as they are addressed in the contributing articles to the Special Issue as well as beyond, asking how genres and tropes are reproduced, how power plays a role in access to images, and how the sheer quantity...... of conflict-related images raise issues of knowledge production and research....

  12. Acceptability of an e-learning program to help nursing assistants manage relationship conflict in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, Elsa; Mackenzie, Corey Scott; Tchernikov, Illia

    2015-02-01

    Management of nursing assistants' (NAs) emotional stress from relationship conflicts with residents, families, and coworkers is rarely the focus of educational programs. Our objective was to gather feedback from NAs and their nursing supervisors (NSs) about the utility of our e-learning program for managing relationship stress. A total of 147 NAs and their NSs from 17 long-term care homes viewed the educational modules (DVD slides with voice-over), either individually or in small groups, and provided feedback using conference call focus groups. Qualitative analysis of NA feedback showed that workplace relationship conflict stress was associated with workload and the absence of a forum for discussing relationship conflicts that was not acknowledged by NSs. This accessible e-learning program provides NAs with strategies for managing stressful emotions arising from workplace relationship conflict situations and underscores the importance of supervisory support and team collaboration in coping with emotionally evoked workplace stress. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Information system conflicts: causes and types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boonstra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. Information Systems (IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they understand the nature and causes of information system conflicts (IS conflicts. To contribute to such an understanding, this study focuses on the analysis of IS conflicts. In so doing, it aims to identify various types of IS conflicts and to develop a framework that can be helpful in assessing these conflicts. To this end, we have conducted a meta-ethnographic study – that is, we synthesized earlier case studies in which IS conflicts are described. We purposefully selected 11 descriptions of IS conflicts and we analyzed the topics, contexts, and processes of these conflicts. Based on this analysis, we propose a two-dimensional framework of IS conflicts that leads to a categorization involving four IS conflict types: task; implementation process; structure; and value conflicts. Based on the conflicts that were studied, this paper also reveals that, in reality, many IS conflicts have a hybrid form and develop from one type to another over time.

  14. Conflicts of the Global State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2016), s. 378-392 ISSN 2159-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : global state * global * conflicts * critical theory * recognition Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  15. Revisiting peace and conflict studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    dominant geopolitics it initially set out to criticise. Secondly, I will map – undoubtedly in cursory and incomplete fashion – the scholarly communities and literatures dealing with questions of peace and conflict. Rather than a literature review or an attempt at synthesis, my purpose is to highlight...... the broad variety of existing units of analysis, motivations, theories and methodologies of peace and conflict studies. Thirdly, I will propose a number of suggestions for a research attitude that, in absence of a better word, I subsume under the heading of ‘critical peace and conflict research’, striving...... to understand peace and conflict as concomitantly subjective and objective, as critique and hegemony, as normative and value-free, as local and global....

  16. Neurovascular conflict in oculomotor imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Agafonovna Totolyan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on the data of Russian and foreign literature, considers modern approaches to the understanding of neurovascular conflict (NVC term, different causes of its development and realization mechanisms; statistical data are presented on its occurrence in different medical specialties; modern approaches to early diagnosis of neurovascular conflicts are covered. Special attention is drawn to oculomotor imbalances being one of neurovascular conflict manifestations. Based on global experience, approaches to most exact and early diagnosis are described, differences in notion terminology of neurovascular contact and neurovascular conflict are shown. As most effective method for NVC diagnosis, the use of neurovisualization method, that is high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI (high field MRI, is positioned.

  17. Conflict Resolution for Contrasting Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifford C.; Lipp, G. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    A seven-step process can help people from different cultures understand each other's intentions and perceptions so they can work together harmoniously: problem identification, problem clarification, cultural exploration, organizational exploration, conflict resolution, impact assessment, and organizational integration. (JOW)

  18. Conflict in medical teams: opportunity or danger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lindred L; Saygi, Ozum; Aaldering, Hillie; de Dreu, Carsten K W

    2012-10-01

      Intragroup conflicts often occur when people are called upon to collaborate in the accomplishment of a task. For example, when surgeons and nurses work together during an operation, conflicts may emerge because of differences in functional understanding. Whether these conflicts are beneficial or detrimental to team outcomes has been the source of much debate. From one perspective, a conflict that stems from differences in members' functional understanding may enhance team members' understanding and performance of the task at hand. By contrast, such a conflict may cause hostility, emotionality and distraction from actual task accomplishment.   This study reviews findings on the relationships between intragroup conflict and team outcomes, discusses potential conflict resolution strategies for intragroup conflicts and explores how these link to the field of medical education.   Three primary types of conflict have been distinguished, involving, respectively, task-, process- and relationship-associated conflict. Both process conflict, or conflict about the logistics of task accomplishment, and relationship conflict, or conflict about interpersonal incompatibilities, have been shown to detract from effective team functioning. Task conflict, or conflict about the content of the task itself, is also generally negative for team functioning, but under certain conditions its negative effects may be minimised. For example, when teams can clearly separate task issues from relationship issues, task conflicts are less destructive for team outcomes. However, achieving such a separation in practice, and thereby realising the benefits of task conflict, is quite difficult to achieve.   Intragroup conflicts pose a challenge to effective team functioning. In the education of medical professionals, effective training in conflict management skills and their application to specific team conflict dynamics, such as with reference to how to resolve task as opposed to relationship

  19. Distribution Channels Conflict and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, Dr Vasanth; Majumdar, Dr Mousumi; Kishore, Dr Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Relationships in distribution channels tend to be long-term oriented and members of the channel rely on each other to jointly realize their goals by serving buyers. Despite the channels focus on serving buyers, conflicts often arise between channel members because of each members self-interest. When conflicts arise, the perceptions of a channel member based on normative, rational/instrumental, or emotional reasoning will influence relational norms like trust and commitment that characterize t...

  20. [Conflict of interest and bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemelmajer De Carlucci, Aida

    2014-06-01

    "Conflicts of interests" is a multi-meaning expression. To give a juridical concept is not easy because this concept is applied in public and private law. Maybe this is the reason of not having a law giving a valid definition in any case In health area, a conflict of interests is present many times, i.e. at the beginning of a research, when informing its results, etc. This conflict of interests may affect different aspects of the research work, economic or not; sometimes totally or partially. The economic resources is one of the most common reasons of the conflict of interests. The mass media often cause conflicts of interests informing the general public about new scientific discovery in a simple way to be understood but without been quite assertive. Other times, great enterprises hide information about new and better medicines due to the fact that they have many old medicines that should be sold before introducing in the market the new ones. From the academic point of view, conflicts may arise when the public funds are wrongly used to support unworthy researches.

  1. Genomic Signatures of Sexual Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimatis, Katja R; Nelson, Thomas C; Phillips, Patrick C

    2017-10-30

    Sexual conflict is a specific class of intergenomic conflict that describes the reciprocal sex-specific fitness costs generated by antagonistic reproductive interactions. The potential for sexual conflict is an inherent property of having a shared genome between the sexes and, therefore, is an extreme form of an environment-dependent fitness effect. In this way, many of the predictions from environment-dependent selection can be used to formulate expected patterns of genome evolution under sexual conflict. However, the pleiotropic and transmission constraints inherent to having alleles move across sex-specific backgrounds from generation to generation further modulate the anticipated signatures of selection. We outline methods for detecting candidate sexual conflict loci both across and within populations. Additionally, we consider the ability of genome scans to identify sexually antagonistic loci by modeling allele frequency changes within males and females due to a single generation of selection. In particular, we highlight the need to integrate genotype, phenotype, and functional information to truly distinguish sexual conflict from other forms of sexual differentiation. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Emotional conflict in interpersonal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, María; Tudela, Pío

    2011-01-15

    Facial displays of emotions can help to infer the mental states of other individuals. However, the expectations we generate on the basis of people's emotions can mismatch their actual behaviour in certain circumstances, which generates conflict. In the present study, we explored the neural mechanisms of emotional conflict during interpersonal interactions. Participants had to accept or reject economic offers made by several partners who displayed emotional expressions. On every trial, a cue informed participants of whether they could trust the emotion of their partner or not. Trustworthy (low-conflict) partners with happy facial expressions were cooperative and those with angry expressions did not cooperate. Untrustworthy (high-conflict) partners, on the other hand, cooperated when their expression was angry and did not cooperate when they displayed a happy emotion. Behavioural responses were faster for trustworthy than for untrustworty partners. High-conflict partners activated the anterior cingulate and the anterior insula. In turn, trustworthy partners were associated with activations in the left precuneus. Our results suggest that the emotion displayed by another person affects our decision-making in social contexts. When emotional expressions are linked to their natural consequences, they engage ToM processes. In contrast, untrustworthy emotional expressions engage conflict-related brain regions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effects of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Workplace Intervention on Sleep and Work-Family Conflict Outcomes in an Extended Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Miguel; Killerby, Marie; Lee, Soomi; Klein, Laura Cousino; Moen, Phyllis; Olson, Ryan; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; King, Rosalind; Erickson, Leslie; Berkman, Lisa F; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of a workplace-based intervention on actigraphic and self-reported sleep outcomes in an extended care setting. Cluster randomized trial. Extended-care (nursing) facilities. US employees and managers at nursing homes. Nursing homes were randomly selected to intervention or control settings. The Work, Family and Health Study developed an intervention aimed at reducing work-family conflict within a 4-month work-family organizational change process. Employees participated in interactive sessions with facilitated discussions, role-playing, and games designed to increase control over work processes and work time. Managers completed training in family-supportive supervision. Primary actigraphic outcomes included: total sleep duration, wake after sleep onset, nighttime sleep, variation in nighttime sleep, nap duration, and number of naps. Secondary survey outcomes included work-to-family conflict, sleep insufficiency, insomnia symptoms and sleep quality. Measures were obtained at baseline, 6-months and 12-months post-intervention. A total of 1,522 employees and 184 managers provided survey data at baseline. Managers and employees in the intervention arm showed no significant difference in sleep outcomes over time compared to control participants. Sleep outcomes were not moderated by work-to-family conflict or presence of children in the household for managers or employees. Age significantly moderated an intervention effect on nighttime sleep among employees (p=0.040), where younger employees benefited more from the intervention. In the context of an extended-care nursing home workplace, the intervention did not significantly alter sleep outcomes in either managers or employees. Moderating effects of age were identified where younger employees' sleep outcomes benefited more from the intervention.

  4. Stepping forward together: Could walking facilitate interpersonal conflict resolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christine E; Rossignac-Milon, Maya; Higgins, E Tory

    2017-01-01

    Walking has myriad benefits for the mind, most of which have traditionally been explored and explained at the individual level of analysis. Much less empirical work has examined how walking with a partner might benefit social processes. One such process is conflict resolution-a field of psychology in which movement is inherent not only in recent theory and research, but also in colloquial language (e.g., "moving on"). In this article, we unify work from various fields pointing to the idea that walking together can facilitate both the intra- and interpersonal pathways to conflict resolution. Intrapersonally, walking supports various psychological mechanisms for reconciliation, including creativity, locomotion motivation, and embodied notions of forward progress. Both alone and in combination with its effects on mood and stress, walking can encourage individual mindsets conducive to resolving conflict (e.g., divergent thinking). Interpersonally, walking can allow partners to reap the cognitive, affective, and behavioral advantages of synchronous movement, such as increased positive rapport, empathy, and prosociality. Walking partners naturally adopt cooperative (as opposed to competitive) postural stances, experience shared attention, and can benefit from discussions in novel environments. Overall, despite its prevalence in conflict resolution theory, little is known about how movement influences conflict resolution practice. Such knowledge has direct implications for a range of psychological questions and approaches within negotiation and alternative mediation techniques, clinical settings, and the study of close relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Types of conflict, types of relationships and preferred conflict resolution strategies: Implications for constructive conflict resolution programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Danijela S.; Vučetić Milica

    2012-01-01

    Constructive conflict resolution programmes are based on the idea that children and youth do no have sufficient knowledge of the procedures and skills for conflict resolution, which is why the conflicts they take part in soon become destructive. Notwithstanding the indubitable practical significance of the constructive conflict resolution programmes, it can be objected that they are not sufficiently based on empirical findings about the characteristics of conflicts in childhood and adol...

  6. Preparing Students for Early Work Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Larson, R. Sam

    2005-01-01

    To improve college students' skills in resolving workplace conflict, the authors studied the types of workplace conflicts that students encounter with peers or supervisors in part-time or seasonal work and with whom they discuss these conflicts. The authors found that most students report conflicts that are process or relational in nature, with…

  7. 32 CFR 776.6 - Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict. 776.6 Section 776.6 National Defense... Conflict. To the extent that a conflict exists between this part and the rules of other jurisdictions that... conflict between the rules contained in subpart B of this part and the rules of other jurisdictions shall...

  8. Evaluation conflicts in the enterprises activities

    OpenAIRE

    Podolchak, N.; Kovalchuk, G.

    2015-01-01

    It has been elaborated the method for quantitative evaluation of level and structure of the interpersonal management conflicts that prevail over the other conflicts in the machine-building enterprises functioning. According to the reasons of appearance investigated interpersonal management conflicts were divided into the following types: informational, behavioral, structural, conflicts of relationships and values.

  9. Information system conflicts : causes and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they

  10. 76 FR 61046 - TARP Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... conflict may depend on a variety of factors, including the type of conflict, the scope of work under the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 31 CFR Part 31 RIN 1505-AC05 TARP Conflicts of Interest AGENCY... interim rule that provided guidance on conflicts of interest pursuant to Section 108 of the Emergency...

  11. Conflict Management at School: An Unavoidable Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondesio, Mike J.

    Conflict management has become an integral part of a headmaster's tasks. Headmasters are not required to suppress or resolve conflict, but to manage it. Since 1976, conflict in black schools has increased, and headmasters have had to manage serious and dangerous situations. Unfortunately, there has been little research in conflict management in…

  12. Managing Conflict with Effective Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Dick B.

    Conflict is a basic social process; there is no conceivable way of removing all conflict from an organization. Interpersonal conflict, often created by interdependency of people and tasks within an organization, lowers staff morale and employee productivity and drives people away. Difficult employees who foster conflicts fall into five distinct…

  13. IDENTIFYING THE CRITICAL CAUSES OF CONFLICT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Completing construction projects entails inputs from various professional disciplines; this makes projects prone to conflicts. It has been acknowledged that management of conflict is crucial to improving project performance. Thus, understanding the causes of conflicts in construction project will ease the process of conflict ...

  14. Searching for climate-conflict links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Cullen S.

    2018-03-01

    Environmental scarcity caused by climate change has been implicated as a driver of violent conflict. Now, research shows significant bias in the regions analysed for climate-conflict links. This may limit understanding of the socioeconomic and political conditions in which such conflict occurs, and how these conflicts could be prevented.

  15. Constructive Management of Conflict in Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rex C.; Mitchell, Rie R.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a concise overview of important conflict management concepts and strategies for those working in group settings. Presents a brief conceptual basis for understanding conflict and group memebers' behavior when in conflict, followed by specific recommendations for managing and making use of conflict in groups. (JAC)

  16. Decisional Conflict: Relationships Between and Among Family Context Variables in Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-Won; Shon, En-Jung

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the relationships among life stress, family functioning, family coping, reliance on formal and informal resources, and decisional conflict in cancer survivors. 
. Cross-sectional.
. Participants were recruited from the California Cancer Surveillance Program, hospital registries, and community agencies in southern California and Cleveland, Ohio. 
. 243 European American, African American, Chinese American, and Korean American cancer survivors diagnosed with breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer.
. The merged data from an ethnically diverse cohort of cancer survivors participating in the two survey studies were used. Standardized measures were used to identify family context variables and decisional conflict. 
. Life stress, family functioning, family coping, reliance on formal and informal resources, and decisional conflict.
. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that life stress was significantly associated with decisional conflict. Family functioning significantly mediated the impact of life stress on decisional conflict through family coping. Reliance on formal and informal resources moderated the relationships among the study variables. 
. The role of the family context, which includes family functioning and coping, on decisional conflict is important in the adjustment process to make high-quality decisions in cancer survivorship care. 
. Findings present nursing practice and research implications that highlight the need for efforts to encourage and support family involvement in the decision-making process and to enhance cancer survivors' adjustment process.

  17. The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion: a prospective validation of the onset of sustained stress and exhaustion warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Österberg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for instruments that can assist in detecting the prodromal stages of stress-related exhaustion has been acknowledged. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE could accurately and prospectively detect the onset of incipient exhaustion and to what extent work stressor exposure and private burdens were associated with increasing LUCIE scores. Methods Using surveys, 1355 employees were followed for 11 quarters. Participants with prospectively elevated LUCIE scores were targeted by three algorithms entailing 4 quarters: (1 abrupt onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 18, (2 gradual onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 42, and (3 sustained Exhaustion Warning (n = 36. The targeted participants’ survey reports on changes in work situation and private life during the fulfillment of any algorithm criteria were analyzed, together with the interview data. Participants untargeted by the algorithms constituted a control group (n = 745. Results Eighty-seven percent of participants fulfilling any LUCIE algorithm criteria (LUCIE indication cases rated a negative change in their work situation during the 4 quarters, compared to 48 % of controls. Ratings of negative changes in private life were also more common in the LUCIE indication groups than among controls (58 % vs. 29 %, but free-text commentaries revealed that almost half of the ratings in the LUCIE indication groups were due to work-to-family conflicts and health problems caused by excessive workload, assigned more properly to work-related negative changes. When excluding the themes related to work-stress-related private life compromises, negative private life changes in the LUCIE indication groups dropped from 58 to 32 %, while only a negligible drop from 29 to 26 % was observed among controls. In retrospective interviews, 79 % of the LUCIE indication participants

  18. "I Do Not Have the Means to Speak:" Educating Youth for Citizenship in Post-Conflict Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaynor, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Although policymakers stress the importance of education in promoting peace, little research examines the ways that schools prepare students affected by conflict to participate in the restoration of peace in their political community. Post-conflict societies experience severe challenges in strengthening political processes and social cohesion.…

  19. Construct Validation of the Translated Version of the Work-Family Conflict Scale for Use in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Doo Hun; Morris, Michael Lane; McMillan, Heather S.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the stress of work-family conflict has been a critical workplace issue for Asian countries, especially within those cultures experiencing rapid economic development. Our research purpose is to translate and establish construct validity of a Korean-language version of the Multi-Dimensional Work-Family Conflict (WFC) scale used in the U.S.…

  20. The Impact of the School-Based Psychosocial Structured Activities (PSSA) Program on Conflict-Affected Children in Northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Akesson, Bree; Stark, Lindsay; Flouri, Eirini; Okot, Braxton; McCollister, Faith; Boothby, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children in northern Uganda have undergone significant psychosocial stress during the region's lengthy conflict. A Psychosocial Structured Activities (PSSA) program was implemented in 21 schools identified as amongst those most severely affected by conflict-induced displacement across Gulu and Amuru Districts. The PSSA intervention…

  1. Risk, Conflict, Mothers' Parenting, and Children's Adjustment in Low-Income, Mexican Immigrant, and Mexican American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumka, Larry E.; Roosa, Mark W.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a test of a risk-stress process model. Examines the influence of mothers' supportive parenting and inconsistent discipline practices on risk factors and family conflict as these affect children's conduct disorder and depression. Tests on 121 families indicate that mothers' supportive patenting partially mediated family conflict effects…

  2. Similarly Torn, Differentially Shorn? The Experience and Management of Conflict between Multiple Roles, Relationships, and Social Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle M. Jones

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In three studies we examined the experience and management of conflict between different types of multiple identities. Participants described a conflict between pairs of role, relational, or social identities before rating the experience (i.e., magnitude, stress, and growth and management of conflict on a newly developed scale assessing four strategies: reconciliation, where identities are integrated, realignment, where one identity is chosen over another, retreat, where both identities are avoided, and reflection, where fit (with others, situation determines identity selection. In general, the types of identities mattered for conflict management but not its experience: Magnitude and growth did not differ, however, stress was greater for role identity conflicts (Study 3 only and participants endorsed the use of more realignment for role conflicts (Study 2 and more retreat for relational conflicts (Study 3 relative to other types of identity conflicts. Furthermore, findings suggested that the perceived flexibility of identities, not their importance or valence, were associated with realignment and retreat for roles and with retreat for relationships. Experiencing conflicts between multiple identities leaves people similarly torn, but multiple roles and relationships may be differentially shorn to manage conflict.

  3. Similarly Torn, Differentially Shorn? The Experience and Management of Conflict between Multiple Roles, Relationships, and Social Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Janelle M.; Hynie, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    In three studies we examined the experience and management of conflict between different types of multiple identities. Participants described a conflict between pairs of role, relational, or social identities before rating the experience (i.e., magnitude, stress, and growth) and management of conflict on a newly developed scale assessing four strategies: reconciliation, where identities are integrated, realignment, where one identity is chosen over another, retreat, where both identities are avoided, and reflection, where fit (with others, situation) determines identity selection. In general, the types of identities mattered for conflict management but not its experience: Magnitude and growth did not differ, however, stress was greater for role identity conflicts (Study 3 only) and participants endorsed the use of more realignment for role conflicts (Study 2) and more retreat for relational conflicts (Study 3) relative to other types of identity conflicts. Furthermore, findings suggested that the perceived flexibility of identities, not their importance or valence, were associated with realignment and retreat for roles and with retreat for relationships. Experiencing conflicts between multiple identities leaves people similarly torn, but multiple roles and relationships may be differentially shorn to manage conflict. PMID:29051744

  4. Similarly Torn, Differentially Shorn? The Experience and Management of Conflict between Multiple Roles, Relationships, and Social Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Janelle M; Hynie, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    In three studies we examined the experience and management of conflict between different types of multiple identities. Participants described a conflict between pairs of role, relational, or social identities before rating the experience (i.e., magnitude, stress, and growth) and management of conflict on a newly developed scale assessing four strategies: reconciliation , where identities are integrated, realignment , where one identity is chosen over another, retreat , where both identities are avoided, and reflection , where fit (with others, situation) determines identity selection. In general, the types of identities mattered for conflict management but not its experience: Magnitude and growth did not differ, however, stress was greater for role identity conflicts ( Study 3 only ) and participants endorsed the use of more realignment for role conflicts ( Study 2 ) and more retreat for relational conflicts ( Study 3 ) relative to other types of identity conflicts. Furthermore, findings suggested that the perceived flexibility of identities, not their importance or valence, were associated with realignment and retreat for roles and with retreat for relationships. Experiencing conflicts between multiple identities leaves people similarly torn, but multiple roles and relationships may be differentially shorn to manage conflict.

  5. Fighting over forest : toward a shared analysis of livelihood conflicts and conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Kyereh, B.; Dietz, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts undermine forest-based livelihoods for the rural poor. Conflict management is key to preventing such conflicts. This article analyzes actor perceptions of forest- and tree-related conflicts and conflict management in Ghana's high forest zone. It also assesses a phased methodology that

  6. Fighting over forest: toward a shared analysis of livelihood conflicts and conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Kyereh, B.; Dietz, T.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts undermine forest-based livelihoods for the rural poor. Conflict management is key to preventing such conflicts. This article analyzes actor perceptions of forest- and tree-related conflicts and conflict management in Ghana's high forest zone. It also assesses a phased methodology that

  7. Conflict Resolution in Organization through Strategic Management

    OpenAIRE

    F. Zafar; H. Ashfaq; Muhammad Ahmad Ali; M. Imran

    2014-01-01

    This study reveals the conflict Resolution in organization through Strategic management. There are different causes of conflicts within Organization and impact of conflicts on organization performance. The past decade researches identify the negative relation of conflict with employee performance. The research methodology was case study approach of different National and Multinational companies. The aim of study is to alleviate conflicts in organization through strategic management for enhanc...

  8. Role of conflict in decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellman, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    In the siting process for a low-level waste disposal facility, there is a place for conflict, negotiation, arbitration, and public involvement. Contrary to popular belief, conflict is good. It signals pluralism and demonstrates a distribution of power. Conflict should not be eliminated because it is a dynamic method of decision-making. Conflict causes negotiation, which leads to compromise. Conflict is the product of the legitimacy of dissent

  9. The conciliation of collective labour conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Iulia Badoi

    2013-01-01

    The present article envisages presenting the conciliation as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts. The conciliation was stipulated as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts even from the first acts that regulated this domain, being foreseen as a mandatory phase within the process of solving this type of conflicts. The subject of conciliation was approached before within the doctrine, from this juridical in...

  10. Interpersonal conflict: strategies and guidelines for resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, D E; Bushardt, S C

    1985-02-01

    Historically, management theorists have recommended the avoidance or suppression of conflict. Modern management theorists recognize interpersonal conflict as an inevitable byproduct of growth and change. The issue is no longer avoidance of conflict but the strategy by which conflict is resolved. Various strategies of conflict resolution and the consequences of each are discussed in this article, along with guidelines for the effective use of confrontation strategy.

  11. Nuclear power and political conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitschelt, H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper is limited to the first phase of conflict up to 1977. The various forms of controversy on the issue of nuclear energy are examined. The conflict is explained as being the result of relevant research and (energy) infrastructure policies. The first task of such an investigation is to analyse the depoliticization of nuclear energy policy which took place over a period of nearly 20 years (1955-1973/4). This depoliticization and non-decisionmaking on the social consequences of nuclear energy have laid the foundations for the development of the conflict which occured in the first cycle of the nuclear energy conflict. The second task is to highlight the social structure of the opposition movement, its forms of struggle, and the response of the state apparatus, The crisis of the nuclear power policy has led to a more or less distinct paralysis of the state apparatus because the political and industrial decisionmaking processes in this area were not designed to cope with social conflicts. In fact, their very structure had excluded the possibility of political opposition to a specific technology. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Dating couples' attachment styles and patterns of cortisol reactivity and recovery in response to a relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sally I; Pietromonaco, Paula R; Gunlicks, Meredith; Sayer, Aline

    2006-04-01

    This study investigated theoretically predicted links between attachment style and a physiological indicator of stress, salivary cortisol levels, in 124 heterosexual dating couples. Cortisol was assessed at 7 points before and after an experimental conflict negotiation task, creating a trajectory of stress reactivity and recovery for each participant. Growth modeling of cortisol data tested hypotheses that (a) insecurely attached individuals show patterns of greater physiological stress reactions to interpersonal conflict than do securely attached individuals and (b) people with insecurely attached partners show patterns of greater stress in reaction to relationship conflict than those with securely attached partners. Hypothesis 1 was supported, but men and women differed in the type of insecure attachment that predicted stress trajectories. Hypothesis 2 was supported for men, but not for women. The discussion emphasizes the role of gender role norms and partner characteristics in understanding connections between adult attachment and patterns of cortisol responses to interpersonal stress.

  13. How can we cooperate better? The determinants of conflict solving competence in Polish pediatric nurses’ relations with parents of hospitalized children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Our pilot study carried out at two Polish pediatric hospital departments revealed that conflicts with parents of hospitalized children represent the main concern of pediatric nurses. The aim of this study was to examine factors determining the conflict solving competence in pediatric nurses in order to develop effective communication training programs for pediatric ward staff. Participants and procedure A total of 78 pediatric nurses completed measures of occupational and perceived stress, conflict modes and competence in solving conflicts with parents of hospitalized children. Results The key factor influencing conflict solving competence was the level of perceived stress and supervisor support. Conclusions Systemic supervised activities aimed at reducing the level of stress, e.g. Balint groups or reflective supervision, could be helpful in mastering the conflict solving competences. Also a paradigm shift from the individual patient to his/her family considered as a patient could potentially improve nurse-parent relations.

  14. Regional conflicts and nuclear fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, K.

    1984-01-01

    The real danger of nuclear weapons in the Third World is not that developing countries will acquire them, but that advanced countries will intervene in Third World affairs with them. Nuclear weapons can play a part in Third World conflicts in two ways: a recognized nuclear weapon power can threaten to use the weapon in the conflict situation or a clandestine nuclear power may do so. In noting that most conflicts in the Third World can be sustained only through support from the developing countries, the author complains that the Non-Proliferation Treaty is pernicious because it legitimizes the use of nuclear weapons by a few weapon powers. He urges a two-step effort to pressure the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the United Nations to make nuclear weapons illegal. 17 references

  15. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    in the five countries and discuss its implications. The present paper synthesizes possible ‘blind spots’ in the national policy, legal or administrative water governance frameworks with reference to the identified types of water-related conflictive and cooperative situations identified during the inventories.......In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...

  16. Technological risks and social conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.; Krebsbach-Gnath, C.

    1980-12-01

    This volume of materials is part of the report on 'Technological risks and social conflicts. Political risk strategies in the field of nuclear power'. The interested reader who wants to deepen his knowledge on the results and reasoning of the main report, will here find detailed explanations and brief drafts of subprojects; fundamental aspects of problems are presented in detail, and theoretical-conceptional, methodological and scientific-political points of view are explained. Furthermore it contains general reflections on the application-oriented research by order, a review of the status of risk research, historical considerations on the nuclear energy conflict, and finally explanations are attempted for the nuclear energy conflict. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Automatic Conflict Detection on Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Stephen; Pace, Gordon J.; Schneider, Gerardo

    Many software applications are based on collaborating, yet competing, agents or virtual organisations exchanging services. Contracts, expressing obligations, permissions and prohibitions of the different actors, can be used to protect the interests of the organisations engaged in such service exchange. However, the potentially dynamic composition of services with different contracts, and the combination of service contracts with local contracts can give rise to unexpected conflicts, exposing the need for automatic techniques for contract analysis. In this paper we look at automatic analysis techniques for contracts written in the contract language mathcal{CL}. We present a trace semantics of mathcal{CL} suitable for conflict analysis, and a decision procedure for detecting conflicts (together with its proof of soundness, completeness and termination). We also discuss its implementation and look into the applications of the contract analysis approach we present. These techniques are applied to a small case study of an airline check-in desk.

  18. Specificity of peer conflicts in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the survey conducted on the sample of 530 adolescents are presented in this paper. The sample included two age groups (13 and 16 years. The research was realized in 11 town and 26 schools. The method of the retrospection of the conflict contents, with one week retrospection interval, was used to research the perception of the conflict characteristics. The distinctive characteristics and the effects of the peer conflicts in adolescence have been identified by comparing them to the conflicts with friends, romantic partners, siblings and teachers. According to the results peer conflicts have certain specificity. Although less frequent than conflicts with parents and siblings, the peer conflicts in adolescence are widen phenomenon - on average, the adolescents get in conflict with their peers more than 13 times in a week, almost twice in a day. The most frequent causes are teasing and inappropriate jokes, deliberate provoking, gossips, insults and not respecting the differences in opinion. Peers follow the teachers as the least important persons in the conflict. Compared to the conflicts in other types of the social relations, the conflicts with peers are the least uncomfortable. Yielding is the least, competition the most present resolution strategy in peer conflicts. As well as the most conflicts in this age conflicts with peers are short time episode.

  19. Affective and substantive conflicts and interpersonal conflict management styles in the Turkish organizational context

    OpenAIRE

    Eruzun, Ayşegül; Eruzun, Aysegul

    2004-01-01

    Previous literature on affective and substantive workplace conflicts has been dominated by studies on intragroup efficiency and effectiveness with little attention paid to the relationship between these types of conflicts and interpersonal conflict management styles. To improve understanding of how different types of conflicts are managed by employees this thesis has explored the relationship between affective and substantive types of conflicts and interpersonal conflict management styles in ...

  20. Behavioral Responses to Interpersonal Conflict in Decision Making Teams: A Clarification of the Conflict Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Felice Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict in organizations plays an important role in performance, but the exact nature of that role remains unclear. Among conflict researchers a shift has occurred from believing that all conflict is debilitating for organizational performance to the realization that there are both positive and negative aspects of conflict. Contemporary research adopts a distinction between task conflict and relationship conflict. Conceptually, a positive relationship has been proposed between ...

  1. Are Emotions Transmitted From Work to Family? A Crossover Model of Psychological Contract Breach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huai-Liang

    2018-01-01

    Based on affective events theory and the crossover model, this study examines the effect of psychological contract breach on employee dysfunctional behavior and partner family undermining and explores the crossover effect of employee dysfunctional behavior on partner family undermining in work-family issues. This study collected 370 employee-partner dyads (277 male employees, 93 female employees, M age = 43.59 years) from a large manufacturing organization. The results of this study support the conception that employees' psychological contract breach results in frustration in the workplace. In addition, mediation analysis results reveal that psychological contract breach relates to employee dysfunctional behavior in the workplace. The findings show that partners' psychological strain mediates the relationship between employee dysfunctional behavior and partner family undermining. Furthermore, these findings provide investigations for the crossover model to display the value of psychological contract breach in family issues.

  2. Armed Conflict in Colombia : Different Resources Different Conflicts ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Most research on armed conflict in Colombia has focused on the narcotics trade. Little attention has been ... From “gender as usual” to “gender as transformative” ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards. IDRC is ...

  3. Conciliación y salud laboral: ¿una relación posible?: Actualidad en el estudio del conflicto trabajo-familia y la recuperación del estrés Work-family balance and occupational health: Is this relationship possible?: Current situation in the study of work-family conflict and recovery from stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Sanz Vergel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios económicos y sociales de los últimos años han generado nuevas estructuras organizacionales y familiares que afectan a los trabajadores. Aparecen así nuevos riesgos psicosociales, como el conflicto entre la vida laboral y familiar. Para poder enfrentarse a las demandas del trabajo y de la familia, es necesario tener un tiempo para recuperarnos del esfuerzo realizado. Así pues, para mejorar la calidad de vida del empleado, es necesario atender al bienestar de la persona en su conjunto. El objetivo del presente artículo es revisar las principales líneas de investigación surgidas en las últimas décadas en torno a estos temas. En primer lugar, se analizan los factores antecedentes del conflicto trabajo-familia así como sus consecuencias y diversas variables que intervienen en este proceso. Posteriormente, se examina la literatura reciente sobre "recuperación del estrés", atendiendo a las estrategias que pueden ayudar a los trabajadores a superar los esfuerzos llevados a cabo en la rutina diaria. Por último, se presentan las principales líneas de prevención e intervención a nivel organizacional e individual, dirigidas a reducir los estresores laborales, promover políticas de conciliación y desarrollar estrategias de recuperación.The economic and social changes of the last years have created new organizational and family structures that affect workers. As a result, new psychosocial risks appear, as the conflict between work and family life. To meet work and family demands, people need time to recover from the expended effort. Thus, to improve the quality of life of the employee, it is necessary to attend to the well-being of the person in general. The aim of this paper is to review the main lines of research emerged during the last decades on these topics. First, we analyze the background and consequences of work-family conflict as well as the main variables affecting this process. Second, we examine recent literature on

  4. PENGARUH KONFLIK INTERPERSONAL, WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT DAN STRES, TERHADAP KEPUASAN KERJA DAN DAMPAKNYA TERHADAP KEPUASAN HIDUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Rajak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis research aims to analyze that the effect of interpersonal conflict, work family on work stress and job satisfacton, effect of work stress on job satisfactin, dan effect of job satisfaction on life satisfaction at Civil Servant Secretariat of Ministry of Eduacation and Cultural. Research Method that used is survey method at fixed lecturer of Secretariat of Ministry. This Research Type is the verification descriptive. Sample size research this is the 200 Civil Servant and the technique used strafied random sampling. Method that used to test of hypothesis is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The result of the study, (1 Conflict of interpersonal positive effect on the work stress, (2 Work-family conflict negative effect on the Work stress, (3 Conflict of interpersonal negative effect on the Job satisfaction, (4 Work-family conflict negative effect on the Job satisfaction, (5 Work Stress negative effect on the Job satisfaction, and (6 Job satisfaction positive effect on the Life satisfaction. Recommendation of this study is the Secretariat of Ministry should manage interpersonal conflict and family conflict in a way to identify and evaluate accurately through approaches, Collaborating, problem solving, Avoiding, Competing and Accommodating. While the employee stress can be done through the Individual and organizational approach.Keywords: Interpersonal Conflict, Work Family Conflict, Work Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Life SatisfactionAbstrakTujuan dalam penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh konflik interpersonal, work-family conflict, terhadap stres kerja dan kepuasan kerja, serta pengaruh stres kerja terhadap kepuasan kerja dan kepuasan kerja terhada Kepuasan Hidup PNS pada Sekretariat Jenderal Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode survey pada PNS Sekretariat Jenderal. Ukuran sampel penelitian ini adalah 200 PNS dan menggunakan teknik strafied random sampling. Meode yang

  5. Conflict Avoidance and University Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliacozzo, Daisy M.

    The conditions that intensify conflict avoidance by the central administration in making strategic decisions, and the consequences of such avoidance for the management of college affairs, are discussed. The implication of an emerging decision-making style for adapting the organization to changing environments is also considered. Some of the…

  6. African Journal on Conflict Resolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal on Conflict Resolution (AJCR) publishes the writings of a wide range of African and international authors in the field, but emphasis has deliberately been kept on African writers and the thinking emerging from African universities, colleges and organisations. Other websites assiciated with this Journal: ...

  7. The semiosis of family conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-01-01

    by family members in attempts to break a cycle of conflict—violence but they also exacerbate negative emotions, which we see in the case of conflict. The article develops a critique of the practice of punishment and reward. By analyzing psychotherapy as signs and technologies of the self impacting family...

  8. Interactive behavior in conflict situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quant, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with interactive behavior in conflict situations. The first chapters consider several issues in relation to bankruptcy theory. Thereafter, several operations research problems are modeled within the framework of cooperative game theory. The main focus is on what is optimal for a

  9. Sexual conflict and life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedell, N.; Kvarnemo, C.; Lessells, C.M.; Tregenza, T.

    2006-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the costs of mating and in how this leads to sex differences in the optimal mating rate. Here, we attempt to look beyond an exclusive focus on matings to examine the fundamental conflicts that arise out of the fact that sexual reproduction involves investment in

  10. Distinguishing targets in armed conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main object of international humanitarian law (IHL) is the amelioration of the effect of armed conflict on the populace. It seeks to accomplish this by establishing rules that ensure that objects the destruction of which will not give military advantage e are protected; thus, such objects are not to be targeted or destroyed.

  11. Peace and conflict in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many interpretations of peace and conflict in Africa are too simplistic. The book under review, therefore, seeks to deviate from those interpretations and provide a more detailed perspective. A collection of essays edited by David J. Francis, the book is touted as an introduction text to key themes with regard to peace and.

  12. Conflict resolution in Western Sahara

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for the North African region vis-à-vis their Realpolitik conflict containment approach towards the ... Sahara (MINURSO) effectively monitors the ceasefire and the region remains relatively stable. ...... Nación Árabe, 47, pp. 33–39. Mcelroy, D.

  13. The paradox of intragroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Franciscus Remendus Cornelis de

    2013-01-01

    During group decision making, people often experience disagreements in which they need to choose between their own viewpoint and the viewpoint of another group member, for example, when cabinet members disagree about the best decision to tackle a crisis. These intragroup conflicts often pose a

  14. Games, the Socialization of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    The function of games in a society is discussed in this paper. An earlier definition of games as a concretistic way of processing information of cultural antitheses is enlarged to include a more bio-adaptive definition: the game is also a socialization of conflict. This view is compared and contrasted with those of Sigmund Freud and G. H. Mead.…

  15. Conflicting Pressures in Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.

    Papers were presented on these subcategories of the theme of conflicting pressures in postsecondary education: privacy and confidentiality; program analysis, goals, and outcomes; planning, research, and modeling; financing and resource allocation; faculty; and students. Individual topics addressed include: student-faculty interaction; student…

  16. Auditory conflict processing in ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, R.; Sergeant, J.A.; Helsenfeld, D.; Konig, C.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been implicated as an important developmental pathway to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive control is crucial to suppress interference resulting from conflicting information and can be measured by Stroop-like tasks. This study was

  17. Internal Conflicts in Muslim Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq Ali Shah

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of psychological theories and the social dynamics of the society help identify salient attributes and processes relevant to conflict among Muslims. The psychodynamic concept of personality and frustration-aggression hypothesis account for the socialization practices in the Muslim societies, emotional instability, unfavorable evaluation of those holding a different viewpoint and venting out one's aggression on the weaker. The tendency of the Muslims to praise their sect/tribe/religious group leads to a groupthink situation that polarizes intergroup relationships. The acts of categorization in group and out group, as postulated by the social identity theory, contribute towards the distorted perception of each other. The Islamic notions of brotherhood, unity and ethnic identity as means of personal identification and social interaction seems to have been forgotten by the Muslims. Though the Western social-psychological constructs are helpful in understanding the causes of conflict among Muslims, they are not germane to Muslim societies. The group belongingness and group favouritism is not necessarily a tool of discrimination and conflict but is an essential component of one's survival in a collectivist society. The Western theories also do not address the economic and political circumstances responsible for the multitude of conflicts among Muslims.

  18. Early Life Family Conflict, Social Interactions, and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean intima-media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean [standard deviation] age = 42.8 [7.3] years). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β = 0.08, t(447) = 2.13, p = .034, R = 0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and ecological momentary assessment reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0001-0.0014] and β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0002-0.0015], respectively). These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions.

  19. Determinants of academic stress and stress-related self- medication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of self-medication was 31.58 and 29.20 % among pharmacy and medical students, ... Conclusion: Academic stress in undergraduate students in health disciplines is ... reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. Tropical .... students stayed with family (N = 136, 63.8 %). ..... Conflict of interest.

  20. Hotspot identification of trans-boundary water conflict due to anthropogenic water use and climate change in the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, A.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    A significant fraction of world population is projected to experience increased water stress in response to the combined effects of population growth and climate change. Some previous studies have suggested that high water stress had significant causality for civil war, and militarized conflict and trans-boundary water conflict in international river basin. On the other hand, some previous empirical analyses have found that institutionalization (e.g., specific provisions in trans-boundary freshwater treaties) in international river basin was associated with a lower risk of water conflicts during water scarcity. The purpose of this study is to identify these water conflict "hotspots", integrating institutional and governance mechanisms of adaptations to impact of water stress. These adaptations is classified to 4 abilities and skills and then used to calculate the adaptive capacity. The adaptive capacity includes the way to manage water conflict effectively, plan to deal with uncertainty in the future, alter current situation and create institutionalization with common perspective throughout the whole activities. This study identifies water conflict "hotspots" by combining high water stress areas projected by a global water resource model and a lower degree of the adaptive capacity. This study finds that 9 water conflict "hotspots" in Africa, Asia and South America.

  1. Indigenous Approaches to Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the developing countries are a manifestation of a people's quest for self-identity, ... cultures, there exist pathways in the ethnic wisdom for managing conflicts. .... study of war focuses on attempts to explain armed conflicts as a universal feature.

  2. Post-Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menk, Peter

    2001-01-01

    ... nations and the United Nations. The purpose of the Post-Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop was to examine the United States military ground forces role in the post-conflict phase of operations...

  3. Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center (CPRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center is EPA's primary resource for services and expertise in the areas of consensus-building, collaborative problem solving, alternative dispute resolution, and environmental collaboration and conflict resolution.

  4. Conflict in organizations : Beyond effectiveness and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Beersma, Bianca

    Conflict theory and research has traditionally focused on conflict management strategies, in relation to individual and work-team effectiveness and productivity. Far less attention has been devoted to "soft" outcomes including job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intentions, and

  5. Low-intensity conflict in multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Andersen, Poul Houman; Storgaard, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    in four Danish MNCs. Findings: They describe consequences of low-intensity conflict and identify three types of actions by headquarters’ representatives that could lead to the development of low-intensity conflicts, namely, ignoring, bypassing and educating. Originality/value: Very few studies have dealt......Purpose: This paper aims to identify antecedents for, and consequences of, low-intensity inter-unit conflict in multinational corporations (MNCs). Inter-unit conflict in MNCs is an important and well-researched theme. However, while most studies have focused on open conflict acknowledged by both...... parties, much less research has dealt with low-intensity conflicts. Still, low-intensity conflicts can be highly damaging – not least because they are rarely resolved. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used a qualitative approach to understanding low-intensity conflict relying on 170 interviews...

  6. Environmental Degradation, Livelihood and Conflicts the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    able exploitation by man. One notable .... action of any of the parties in the quest to realise or secure those values. The struggle ... ethnic conflicts when they move to new areas, while decreases in ..... and Responses to International Conflict.

  7. Temporality of couple conflict and relationship perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew D; Horne, Rebecca M; Hardy, Nathan R; Anderson, Jared R

    2018-05-03

    Using 5 waves of longitudinal survey data gathered from 3,405 couples, the present study investigates the temporal associations between self-reported couple conflict (frequency and each partner's constructive and withdrawing behaviors) and relationship perceptions (satisfaction and perceived instability). Autoregressive cross-lagged model results revealed couple conflict consistently predicted future relationship perceptions: More frequent conflict and withdrawing behaviors and fewer constructive behaviors foretold reduced satisfaction and conflict frequency and withdrawal heightened perceived instability. Relationship perceptions also shaped future conflict, but in surprising ways: Perceptions of instability were linked with less frequent conflict, and male partner instability predicted fewer withdrawing behaviors for female partners. Higher satisfaction from male partners also predicted more frequent and less constructive conflict behavior in the future. These findings illustrate complex bidirectional linkages between relationship perceptions and couple conflict behaviors in the development of couple relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Conflicting health information: a critical research need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Geryk, Lorie L; Chen, Annie T; Nagler, Rebekah H; Dieckmann, Nathan F; Han, Paul K J

    2016-12-01

    Conflicting health information is increasing in amount and visibility, as evidenced most recently by the controversy surrounding the risks and benefits of childhood vaccinations. The mechanisms through which conflicting information affects individuals are poorly understood; thus, we are unprepared to help people process conflicting information when making important health decisions. In this viewpoint article, we describe this problem, summarize insights from the existing literature on the prevalence and effects of conflicting health information, and identify important knowledge gaps. We propose a working definition of conflicting health information and describe a conceptual typology to guide future research in this area. The typology classifies conflicting information according to four fundamental dimensions: the substantive issue under conflict, the number of conflicting sources (multiplicity), the degree of evidence heterogeneity and the degree of temporal inconsistency. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Conflict interaction management as a cultural phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е L Ryabova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the definition for the concept of conflict interaction culture, reveals its functions as well as the structure of its elements and components. Conflict interactions are also examined in the paper.

  10. Links between Conflict Management Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explicates the implications of my research on conflict management for self improvement and for practitioners who work to improve the conflict management of others. I also note how my experiences with practitioners have informed my research.

  11. Managing Teacher Stress and Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Dennis; Hammond, Janice

    This monograph offers a practical guide for identifying and managing those stressors that are in the specific domain of the individual--exercise, diet, sleep, interpersonal relations, time and conflict management, and relaxation. The first section covers stress theory; methods to identify and clarify stressors; restoration of a balanced…

  12. Student-Life Stress Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    The reliability of the Student-Life Stress Inventory of B. M. Gadzella (1991) was studied. The inventory consists of 51 items listed in 9 sections indicating different types of stressors (frustrations, conflicts, pressures, changes, and self-imposed stressors) and reactions to the stressors (physiological, emotional, behavioral, and cognitive) as…

  13. Conflict Management Strategies for Rangeland Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Metadata only record Numerous strategies have been developed to cope with conflicts. Collaborative processes are one group of conflict management strategies used. When successful these processes have several common features: they are voluntary, build trust, develop a shared vision, and use consensus. These techniques have often led to false expectations because the source of the conflict was ignored or adequately trained facilitators were not used. The source of the conflict (lack of infor...

  14. Army Officers’ Attitudes of Conflict Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-11

    The purpose of this study was to measure the attitudes of the middle level career Army officers relative to the concepts of conflict management . The...the literature concerning conflict management and its related fields of study, an exploratory analysis employing Hierarchical Clustering Schemes, and... conflict management . (2) No difference exists in the attitudes of conflict management according to the sample’s three branch groups: combat arms

  15. Conflict Management Styles of Turkish Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkalp, Enver; Sungur, Zerrin; Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine Turkish managers conflict styles in different sectors, namely durable consumer goods, aviation, automotive and banking. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 managers conflict management styles were assessed by applying the Rahim's 1983 Organizational Conflict Inventory-II. Findings: First,…

  16. University Students' Perceptions of Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the perceptions of American and international students on conflict resolution, and to determine if the students were willing to participate in conflict resolution. A survey was given to 226 students at an eastern university that asked them to identify a major international conflict and whether they felt…

  17. Conflict: How to Beat the Odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Patricia L.

    1993-01-01

    Conflict between people can arise over breakdowns in communication, work policies and practices, adversarial management, and personality conflict. A conflict-resolution plan involves defining the problem, collecting the facts and opinions, considering all solutions proposed, implementing the solutions, and evaluating the situation. (MLF)

  18. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gendron, R.; Hille, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are

  19. Conflict Resolution between Friends during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anupama

    2008-01-01

    The author interviewed 74 children (ages 8.5-11.5 years) in an exploratory study of interpersonal conflict resolution between children. Results suggest that children (a) most frequently used assertion and discussion as conflict resolution strategies, (b) used more than one strategy in a single conflict, and (c) used a strategy that corresponded to…

  20. Sibling Conflict Resolution Skills: Assessment and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brett W.; Roberts, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Sibling conflict can rise to the level of a clinical problem. In Phase 1 a lengthy behavioral role-play analog sampling child reactions to normal sibling conflicts was successfully shortened. In Phase 2 normal children who lacked sibling conflict resolution skills were randomly assigned to a Training or Measurement Only condition. Training…