Andrew P. Allen
Full Text Available Researchers interested in the neurobiology of the acute stress response in humans require a valid and reliable acute stressor that can be used under experimental conditions. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST provides such a testing platform. It induces stress by requiring participants to make an interview-style presentation, followed by a surprise mental arithmetic test, in front of an interview panel who do not provide feedback or encouragement. In this review, we outline the methodology of the TSST, and discuss key findings under conditions of health and stress-related disorder. The TSST has unveiled differences in males and females, as well as different age groups, in their neurobiological response to acute stress. The TSST has also deepened our understanding of how genotype may moderate the cognitive neurobiology of acute stress, and exciting new inroads have been made in understanding epigenetic contributions to the biological regulation of the acute stress response using the TSST. A number of innovative adaptations have been developed which allow for the TSST to be used in group settings, with children, in combination with brain imaging, and with virtual committees. Future applications may incorporate the emerging links between the gut microbiome and the stress response. Future research should also maximise use of behavioural data generated by the TSST. Alternative acute stress paradigms may have utility over the TSST in certain situations, such as those that require repeat testing. Nonetheless, we expect that the TSST remains the gold standard for examining the cognitive neurobiology of acute stress in humans.
Maniaci, G.; Goudriaan, A. E.; Cannizzaro, C.; van Holst, R. J.
Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)
Allen, Andrew P; Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard
Validated biological and psychological markers of acute stress in humans are an important tool in translational research. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), involving public interview and mental arithmetic performance, is among the most popular methods of inducing acute stress in experimental settings, and reliably increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. However, although much research has focused on HPA axis activity, the TSST also affects the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, the immune system, cardiovascular outputs, gastric function and cognition. We critically assess the utility of different biological and psychological markers, with guidance for future research, and discuss factors which can moderate TSST effects. We outline the effects of the TSST in stress-related disorders, and if these responses can be abrogated by pharmacological and psychological treatments. Modified TSST protocols are discussed, and the TSST is compared to alternative methods of inducing acute stress. Our analysis suggests that multiple readouts are necessary to derive maximum information; this strategy will enhance our understanding of the psychobiology of stress and provide the means to assess novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sage E Hawn
Full Text Available Social stressors that rely on the inclusion of confederates (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST are often used in clinical laboratory research paradigms to elicit a measurable stress response in participants. Although effective, the TSST is labor intensive and may introduce error variance as a function of confederate race, gender, and/or response characteristics. The present study aimed to develop and validate an electronic version of the TSST (e-TSST. The primary aim was to compare the e-TSST to an e-neutral control condition; the exploratory aim was to compare the magnitude of stress response elicited by the e-TSST to that elicited by the traditional TSST. Forty-three healthy adults were randomized to the e-TSST or e-neutral condition. Subjective (participant-rated distress and objective (cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure indices of stress were collected prior to, and multiple times following, the stressor. Using archival data collected from 19 healthy participants exposed to the traditional TSST in a prior study, stress reactivity was compared between the electronic and traditional versions of the TSST. The e-TSST elicited significant increases in all measures of stress reactivity compared to the e-neutral condition, with the exception of heart rate (HR. Results showed that the magnitude of subjective distress, BP, and HR responses elicited by the e-TSST did not differ significantly from that elicited by the traditional TSST. The traditional TSST elicited significantly higher cortisol than the e-TSST. Although these findings provide initial support for the development of electronic versions of the TSST, further refinement of the e-TSST is warranted prior to broad adoption of this technology. A refined, reliable e-TSST could allow for increased utilization of the TSST by enhancing convenience, reducing labor costs, and limiting potential error variance introduced by human confederates.
Maniaci, G; Goudriaan, A E; Cannizzaro, C; van Holst, R J
Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on cortisol and on cardiac interbeat intervals in relation to impulsivity, in a sample of male pathological gamblers compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the TSST, duration of the disorder and impulsivity. A total of 35 pathological gamblers and 30 healthy controls, ranging from 19 to 58 years old and all male, participated in this study. Stress response was measured during and after the TSST by salivary cortisol and cardiac interbeat intervals; impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Exposure to the TSST produced a significant increase in salivary cortisol and interbeat intervals in both groups, without differences between groups. We found a negative correlation between baseline cortisol and duration of pathological gambling indicating that the longer the duration of the disorder the lower the baseline cortisol levels. Additionally, we found a main effect of impulsivity across groups on interbeat interval during the TSST, indicating an association between impulsivity and the intensity of the neurovegetative stress response during the TSST. Involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pathological gambling was confirmed together with evidence of a correlation between length of the disorder and diminished baseline cortisol levels. Impulsivity emerged as a personality trait expressed by pathological gamblers; however the neurovegetative response to the TSST, although associated with impulsivity, appeared to be independent of the presence of pathological gambling.
Polheber, John P; Matchock, Robert L
Limited research has addressed how social support in the form of a pet can affect both sympathetic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity in response to a psychological challenge. The present study examined the effects of social support on salivary cortisol and heart rate (HR). Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to three different conditions (human friend, novel dog, or control). All participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test and provided cortisol, HR, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measures. For participants paired with a dog, overall cortisol levels were attenuated throughout the experimental procedure, and HR was attenuated during the Trier Social Stress Test. For all groups, state anxiety increased after the Trier Social Stress Test, and HR during the Trier Social Stress Test was a predictor of cortisol. These results suggest that short-term exposure to a novel dog in an unfamiliar setting can be beneficial. They also suggest a possible mechanism for the beneficial effect associated with affiliation with pets.
Erickson, Thane M; Mayer, Stefanie E; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Scarsella, Gina M; McGuire, Adam P; Crocker, Jennifer; Abelson, James L
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to mediate the effects of stress on illness. Research has identified a limited number of psychological variables that modulate human HPA responses to stressors (e.g. perceived control and social support). Prosocial goals can reduce subjective stress, but have not been carefully examined in experimental settings where pathways of impact on biological stress markers may be traced. Recent work demonstrated that coaching individuals to strive to help others reduced HPA responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) relative to other cognitive interventions. However, identification of mediational pathways, which were not examined in the original study, is necessary to determine whether the HPA buffering effects were due to helping motivations (compassionate goals; CGs) rather than via previously identified variables such as control or support. In this new analysis, we combined the original cortisol data with novel observer ratings of interpersonal behavior and psychological variables during the stress task, and conducted new, theory-driven analyses to determine psychological mediators for the intervention's effect on cortisol responses (N = 54; 21 females, 33 males; 486 cortisol samples). Control, support, and task ego-threat failed to account for the effects of the intervention. As hypothesized, self and observer-rated CGs, as well as observer-rated perceptions of participants' interpersonal behavior as morally desirable (but not as dominant or affiliative) were significant mediators of neuroendocrine responses. The findings suggest that stress-reduction interventions based on prosocial behavior should target particular motivational and interpersonal features.
Bershad, Anya K; Miller, Melissa A; de Wit, Harriet
±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a stimulant-psychedelic drug with unique social effects. It may dampen reactivity to negative social stimuli such as social threat and rejection. Perhaps because of these effects, MDMA has shown promise as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the effect of single doses of MDMA on responses to an acute psychosocial stressor has not been tested. In this study, we sought to test the effects of MDMA on responses to stress in healthy adults using a public speaking task. We hypothesized that the drug would reduce responses to the stressful task. Volunteers (N = 39) were randomly assigned to receive placebo (N = 13), 0.5 mg/kg MDMA (N = 13), or 1.0 mg/kg MDMA (N = 13) during a stress and a no-stress session. Dependent measures included subjective reports of drug effects and emotional responses to the task, as well as salivary cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure. The stress task produced its expected increase in physiological responses (cortisol, heart rate) and subjective ratings of stress in all three groups, and MDMA produced its expected subjective and physiological effects. MDMA alone increased ratings of subjective stress, heart rate, and saliva cortisol concentrations, but contrary to our hypothesis, it did not moderate responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Despite its efficacy in PTSD and anxiety, MDMA did not reduce either the subjective or objective responses to stress in this controlled study. The conditions under which MDMA relieves responses to negative events or memories remain to be determined.
Therrien, Fanny; Drapeau, Vicky; Lalonde, Josée; Lupien, Sonia J; Beaulieu, Serge; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Richard, Denis
Impact of body weight loss, body fat distribution and the nutritional status on the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was investigated in this study. Fifty-one men (17 non-obese, 20 abdominally obese and 14 reduced obese) and 28 women (12 non-obese, 10 peripherally obese and 6 reduced obese) were subjected to the TSST in fed and fasted states. The TSST response was determined using salivary cortisol measurements. The nutritional status (being fed or fasted) had no effect on the cortisol levels during and following the TSST. Reduced obese men exhibited lower cortisol levels than non-obese men. Cortisol levels in obese men were not different from those of non-obese and reduced obese subjects. In women, there was no significant difference between groups. These finding suggest that weight status in men influences cortisol reactivity to a psychological stress and the different responses seen among genders could be linked to the different fat distributions that characterize men and women. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Megan M; Deardorff, Julianna; Parra, Kimberly; Alkon, Abbey; Eskenazi, Brenda; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth
The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a well validated and widely used social stressor that has been shown to induce a 2-4 fold increase in cortisol, the biological output produced by the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis in humans. While studies have explored how modifications to the TSST influence stress responsivity, few studies have created a modified TSST appropriate for vulnerable youth that elicits a significant cortisol stress response. Thus, the current study sought to modify or adjust the TSST in a culturally sensitive way for a vulnerable sample of 14 year-old adolescents. The present study took place within the context of a longitudinal birth cohort study of Mexican American families in California called the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS). The CHAMACOS sample was optimal to test the effectiveness of a modified culturally appropriate TSST, as it is comprised of Mexican American youth, who are often excluded from research. These youths also have experienced significant early life adversity. Example modifications included timed prompts, alternative math tasks, use of same-ethnicity peers as confederates, debriefing immediately after the conclusion of the TSST, and using an unknown youth examiner to administer the debrief. Saliva samples were collected at baseline (after a resting phase), and then again at 15, 30, and 45 min post-TSST onset to assess cortisol concentration. A pilot study of 50 participants (50% female) have been analyzed for cortisol reaction to the TSST. Results confirmed that this modified version of the TSST was successful at eliciting a significant cortisol reaction, with a wide range of variability likely due to individual differences. Goals for modifications and ethnicity considerations are discussed. This study provides the foundation for future research to utilize a modified TSST with vulnerable youth.
Jönsson, Peter; Wallergård, Mattias; Osterberg, Kai
The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a widely used protocol to induce stress in laboratory settings. Briefly, in the TSST, the test participant is asked to hold a speech and to do an arithmetic task in front of an audience. In the present pilot study, we examined endocrine and autonomic reactiv...... studies using the real-life TSST. If these results can be replicated with larger samples, VR technology may be used as a simple and standardized tool for social stress induction in experimental settings.......The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a widely used protocol to induce stress in laboratory settings. Briefly, in the TSST, the test participant is asked to hold a speech and to do an arithmetic task in front of an audience. In the present pilot study, we examined endocrine and autonomic...... reactivity and habituation to repeated stress provocations using a virtual reality (VR) version of TSST. The VR system was a CAVE™ system with three rear projected walls (4 m×3 m), and one floor projection. The system also included a head tracking system and passive stereoscopy. The virtual audience...
Fu, Jiling; Weng, Tingting; Tao, Fangbiao
To compare obese and non-obese adolescents in terms of their salivary cortisol response to the Trier Socia l Stress Test ( TSST). This is a cross - sectional study involving 41 healthy adolescents aged 12-14 years in the city of Shenyang, China. The TSST response was determined using salivary cortisol measurements, and measurements were repeated after the test period. Repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to compare salivary cortisol levels between groups. The male group comprised of 16 individuals (10 obese and 6 non-obese), and the female group comprised 25 individuals ( 13 obese and 12 non-obese). ANOVA with repeated measures demonstrated that weight status (obese or non-obese) had a significant main effect on the measures of salivary cortisol levels during the TSST among females but not males. The finding suggested that weight status is associated with cortisol response to psychological stress among Chinese adolescent girls.
Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E; Okerstrom, Katrina L; Bowles Edwards, Angela; Tranel, Daniel
Acute psychological stress affects each of us in our daily lives and is increasingly a topic of discussion for its role in mental illness, aging, cognition, and overall health. A better understanding of how such stress affects the body and mind could contribute to the development of more effective clinical interventions and prevention practices. Over the past 3 decades, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) has been widely used to induce acute stress in a laboratory setting based on the principles of social evaluative threat, namely, a judged speech-making task. A comparable alternative task may expand options for examining acute stress in a controlled laboratory setting. This study uses a within-subjects design to examine healthy adult participants' (n = 20 men, n = 20 women) subjective stress and salivary cortisol responses to the standard TSST (involving public speaking and math) and the newly created Iowa Singing Social Stress Test (I-SSST). The I-SSST is similar to the TSST but with a new twist: public singing. Results indicated that men and women reported similarly high levels of subjective stress in response to both tasks. However, men and women demonstrated different cortisol responses; men showed a robust response to both tasks, and women displayed a lesser response. These findings are in line with previous literature and further underscore the importance of examining possible sex differences throughout various phases of research, including design, analysis, and interpretation of results. Furthermore, this nascent examination of the I-SSST suggests a possible alternative for inducing stress in the laboratory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Henze, Gina-Isabelle; Zänkert, Sandra; Urschler, David F; Hiltl, Tanja J; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Pruessner, Jens C; Wüst, Stefan
The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is the most widely used laboratory stress protocol in psychoneuroendocrinology. Despite its popularity, surprisingly few attempts have been made to explore the ecological validity of the TSST. In the present study, 31 young healthy subjects (24 females) were exposed to the TSST about 4 weeks before completing an oral exam on a separate day. Salivary cortisol levels increased significantly in response to both stimuli (TSST: F(2.21, 66.33)=5.73, p=0.004; oral exam: F(1.98, 59.28)=4.38, p=0.017) with similar mean response curves and significant correlations between cortisol increases and areas under the response curves (increase: r=0.67; AUC: r=0.56; both p≤0.01). Correspondingly, changes in positive and negative affect did also show significant correlations between conditions (increase: positive affect: r=0.36; negative affect: r=0.50; both: p≤0.05; AUC: positive affect: r=0.81; negative affect: r=0.70; both p≤0.01) while mean time course dynamics were significantly different (positive affect: F(2.55, 76.60)=10.15, p=0.001; negative affect: F(1.56, 46.82)=23.32, p=0.001), indicating that the oral exam had a more pronounced impact on affect than the TSST. Our findings provide new evidence for the view that cortisol as well as subjective stress responses to the TSST are indeed significantly associated with acute stress responses in real life. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Herten, Nadja; Pomrehn, Dennis; Wolf, Oliver T
Previously, we observed enhanced long-term memory for objects used (central objects) by committee members in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on the next day. In addition, startle responsivity was increased. However, response specificity to an odour involved in the stressful episode was lacking and recognition memory for the odour was poor. In the current experiments, immediate effects of the stressor on memory and startle responsivity were investigated. We hypothesised memory for central objects of the stressful episode and startle response specificity to an odour ambient during the TSST to be enhanced shortly after it, in contrast to the control condition (friendly TSST). Further, memory for this odour was also assumed to be increased in the stress group. We tested 70 male (35) and female participants using the TSST involving objects and an ambient odour. After stress induction, a startle paradigm including olfactory and visual stimuli was conducted. Indeed, memory for central objects was significantly enhanced in immediate aftermath of the stressor. Startle responsivity increased at a trend level, particularly with regard to the odour involved in the stressful episode. Moreover, the stress group descriptively tended towards a better recognition of the odour involved. The study shows that stress enhances memory for central aspects of a stressful situation before consolidation processes come into play. In addition, results preliminarily suggest that the impact of stress on startle responsivity increases in strength but decreases in specificity during the first 24h after stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Guez, Jonathan; Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Keha, Eldad; Tiferet-Dweck, Chen
Psychological stress, induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), has repeatedly been shown to alter memory performance. Although factors influencing memory performance such as stimulus nature (verbal/pictorial) and emotional valence have been extensively studied, results whether stress impairs or improves memory are still inconsistent. This study aimed at exploring the effect of TSST on item versus associative memory for neutral, verbal, and pictorial stimuli. 48 healthy subjects were recruited, 24 participants were randomly assigned to the TSST group and the remaining 24 participants were assigned to the control group. Stress reactivity was measured by psychological (subjective state anxiety ratings) and physiological (Galvanic skin response recording) measurements. Subjects performed an item-association memory task for both stimulus types (words, pictures) simultaneously, before, and after the stress/non-stress manipulation. The results showed that memory recognition for pictorial stimuli was higher than for verbal stimuli. Memory for both words and pictures was impaired following TSST; while the source for this impairment was specific to associative recognition in pictures, a more general deficit was observed for verbal material, as expressed in decreased recognition for both items and associations following TSST. Response latency analysis indicated that the TSST manipulation decreased response time but at the cost of memory accuracy. We conclude that stress does not uniformly affect memory; rather it interacts with the task’s cognitive load and stimulus type. Applying the current study results to patients diagnosed with disorders associated with traumatic stress, our findings in healthy subjects under acute stress provide further support for our assertion that patients’ impaired memory originates in poor recollection processing following depletion of attentional resources. PMID:27148117
Full Text Available Psychological stress, induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, has repeatedly been shown to alter memory performance. Although factors influencing memory performance such as stimulus nature (verbal /pictorial and emotional valence have been extensively studied, results whether stress impairs or improves memory are still inconsistent. This study aimed at exploring the effect of TSST on item versus associative memory for neutral, verbal, and pictorial stimuli. 48 healthy subjects were recruited, 24 participants were randomly assigned to the TSST group and the remaining 24 participants were assigned to the control group. Stress reactivity was measured by psychological (subjective state anxiety ratings and physiological (Galvanic skin response recording measurements. Subjects performed an item-association memory task for both stimulus types (words, pictures simultaneously, before, and after the stress/non-stress manipulation. The results showed that memory recognition for pictorial stimuli was higher than for verbal stimuli. Memory for both words and pictures was impaired following TSST; while the source for this impairment was specific to associative recognition in pictures, a more general deficit was observed for verbal material, as expressed in decreased recognition for both items and associations following TSST. Response latency analysis indicated that the TSST manipulation decreased response time but at the cost of memory accuracy. We conclude that stress does not uniformly affect memory; rather it interacts with the task’s cognitive load and stimulus type. Applying the current study results to patients diagnosed with disorders associated with traumatic stress, our findings in healthy subjects under acute stress provide further support for our assertion that patients’ impaired memory originates in poor recollection processing following depletion of attentional resources.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cortisol is an essential hormone in the regulation of the stress response along the HPA axis, and salivary cortisol has been used as a measure of free circulating cortisol levels. Recently, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA has also emerged as a novel biomarker for psychosocial stress responsiveness within the sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM system. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured sAA and salivary cortisol in healthy volunteers after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST and electric stimulation stress. One hundred forty-nine healthy volunteers participated in this study. All subjects were exposed to both the TSST and electric stimulation stress on separate days. We measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels three times immediately before, immediately after, and 20 min after the stress challenge. The State (STAI-S and Trait (STAI-T versions of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory test and the Profile of Mood State (POMS tests were administered to participants before the electrical stimulation and TSST protocols. We also measured HF, LF and LF/HF Heart Rate Variability ratio immediately after electrical stimulation and TSST exposure. Following TSST exposure or electrical stimulation, sAA levels displayed a rapid increase and recovery, returning to baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Salivary cortisol responses showed a delayed increase, which remained significantly elevated from baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Analyses revealed no differences between men and women with regard to their sAA response to the challenges (TSST or electric stimulations, while we found significantly higher salivary cortisol responses to the TSST in females. We also found that younger subjects tended to display higher sAA activity. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly correlated with the strength of the applied electrical stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results suggest that the HPA axis (but not the SAM
Tarbell, Sally E; Millar, Amanda; Laudenslager, Mark; Palmer, Claire; Fortunato, John E
This study compared anxiety and physiological responses during the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C) in adolescents. 38 subjects (26 females) were enrolled: 11 cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS), 11 anxiety, and 16 controls. Salivary cortisol, α-amylase and heart rate variability (HRV) were assessed during the TSST-C. Anxiety was measured by the Screen for Childhood Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C). 11 anxiety and 7 CVS subjects had ≥1 anxiety disorder. 82% in the anxiety and CVS groups met criteria for an anxiety disorder on the SCARED. Combining groups, cortisol increased from baseline to recovery during the TSST-C (p=0.0004) and the stressor to recovery (p=0.005). α-amylase did not differ during the TSST-C for the total sample, but increased for anxiety compared to controls from baseline to recovery (p=0.01). HRV decreased during the stressor (p=0.0001) and increased at recovery (p=0.004). No associations were found between biomarkers and trait anxiety. Associations were found between baseline HRV and pre-test state anxiety (r=-0.406, p=0.012) and between recovery HRV and post-test state anxiety (r=-0.501, p=0.002) for the total sample. Anxiety is prevalent in CVS warranting screening. HRV may serve as a biomarker for evaluating stress as a potential trigger for CVS episodes. State but not trait anxiety was associated with changes in HRV, suggesting acute anxiety may be more relevant in linking stress and CVS episodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hellhammer, Juliane; Schubert, Melanie
The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is an effective psychosocial laboratory protocol for inducing stress in humans and has been used in numerous research studies. The stressor leads to a physiological response of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and the autonomous nervous system (ANS). Common biomarkers are cortisol levels and heart rate. In addition to the physiological stress response, the TSST also triggers a psychological response such as an increase in perceived stress, anxiety and emotional insecurity. Whereas HPA and ANS measures can easily be obtained for the TSST period itself, psychological measures are usually determined prior to (baseline) and after the TSST. This may exclude information of the stressful event itself. In the present study, we assessed perceived stress, anxiety and emotional insecurity before, during and after the TSST using visual analogue scales. In addition, cortisol levels and heart rates were assessed. Data of 260 healthy non-smoking males aged 16-60 yrs were used for analyses. Our results show that stress perception, anxiety and emotional insecurity were significantly higher during the TSST as compared to post-TSST ratings. Furthermore, our results suggest a covariance of the psychological stress response during the TSST and the physiological stress responses (cortisol and heart rate) for stress perception though the explained variance was small. This observation was not found for pre- and post-TSST ratings suggesting that assessing psychological stress measures during the stressor itself present a more informative measure of the stress response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goossens, Lien; Van Durme, Kim; Van Beveren, Marie-Lotte; Claes, Laurence
Previous studies have already found a positive association between attachment and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in children and adolescents. However, to our knowledge, no experimental studies have examined whether changes in negative and/or positive affect moderate the association between attachment anxiety and body dissatisfaction in children. A controlled laboratory setting was used to investigate whether changes in state negative and/or positive affect moderate the association between attachment anxiety and body satisfaction in a sample of 81 children (M age =11.74). The changes in state affect were caused by the exposure to a performance-related stressor using the Trier Social Stress Test for Children. Children with high levels of attachment anxiety reported a decrease in body satisfaction, but only if the TSST-C led to a decrease in their positive affect. Early detection and intervention programs may benefit from addressing insecure attachment and maladaptive emotion regulation in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fogelman, Nia; Canli, Turhan
'Purpose in Life' ( Purpose ) is associated with healthy aging, but it is unknown whether this association is causal. Conceptualizing Purpose as a form of psychosocial resource, one mechanism promoting health could be the regulation of stress hormones. To test this hypothesis, we recruited 44 older community-dwelling adults to examine the association between Purpose and cortisol at baseline, in response to, and recovery from, an acute social laboratory stressor. Purpose did not predict cortisol baseline or reactivity, but did predict a faster recovery to pre-stress baseline levels. The health benefits of Purpose in aging may therefore reflect the combination of a normal stress response, which serves an adaptive benefit of allostasis, with an accelerated stress recovery, which reduces the burden of allostatic load. This model should be tested in future studies using larger samples, multiple related constructs, and longitudinal designs that include participants' health records.
Sallen, Jeffrey; Hirschmann, Florian; Herrmann, Christian
The demands of a career in competitive sports can lead to chronic stress perception among athletes if there is a non-conformity of requirements and available coping resources. The Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress (TICS) (Schulz et al., 2004) is said to be thoroughly validated. Nevertheless, it has not yet been subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis. The present study aims (1) to evaluate the factorial validity of the TICS within the context of competitive sports and (2) to adapt a short version (TICS-36). The total sample consisted of 564 athletes (age in years: M = 19.1, SD = 3.70). The factor structure of the original TICS did not adequately fit the present data, whereas the short version presented a satisfactory fit. The results indicate that the TICS-36 is an economical instrument for gathering interpretable information about chronic stress. For assessment in competitive sports with TICS-36, we generated overall and gender-specific norm values.
Sallen, Jeffrey; Hirschmann, Florian; Herrmann, Christian
The demands of a career in competitive sports can lead to chronic stress perception among athletes if there is a non-conformity of requirements and available coping resources. The Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress (TICS) (Schulz et al., 2004) is said to be thoroughly validated. Nevertheless, it has not yet been subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis. The present study aims (1) to evaluate the factorial validity of the TICS within the context of competitive sports and (2) to adapt a short version (TICS-36). The total sample consisted of 564 athletes (age in years: M = 19.1, SD = 3.70). The factor structure of the original TICS did not adequately fit the present data, whereas the short version presented a satisfactory fit. The results indicate that the TICS-36 is an economical instrument for gathering interpretable information about chronic stress. For assessment in competitive sports with TICS-36, we generated overall and gender-specific norm values. PMID:29593611
Lars von Trier er i hans film Antichrist i sin negation af kristendommen stærkt bundet til kristendommens dualistiske verdensbillede. Samtidig er filmen kvindefjendsk. Udgivelsesdato: 2. september......Lars von Trier er i hans film Antichrist i sin negation af kristendommen stærkt bundet til kristendommens dualistiske verdensbillede. Samtidig er filmen kvindefjendsk. Udgivelsesdato: 2. september...
Lanni, Kimberly E.; Schupp, Clayton W.; Simon, David; Corbett, Blythe A.
The aims of this study were to evaluate the physiological stress and anxiety responses in children with autism following completion of a standardized, social-evaluative stressor (Trier Social Stress Test-Child version), document the relationship between verbal ability, stress, and anxiety, and determine the association between stress and anxiety…
Nielsen, Lisbeth Overgaard
Afhandlingen undersøger Lars von Triers filmæstetik, som den kommer til udtryk i spillefilmene fra perioden 1984-2007. Afhandlingen analyserer de enkelte films stil, virkningsstrategi og betydningsdannelse.......Afhandlingen undersøger Lars von Triers filmæstetik, som den kommer til udtryk i spillefilmene fra perioden 1984-2007. Afhandlingen analyserer de enkelte films stil, virkningsstrategi og betydningsdannelse....
Christoffersen, Erik Exe
Artiklen diskuterer det parataktiske som dramaturgisk princip i forhold til Lars von Triers film.......Artiklen diskuterer det parataktiske som dramaturgisk princip i forhold til Lars von Triers film....
Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, Andre; Luo, Yuejia
The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular
Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.
Kriener, C; Schwertfeger, A; Deimel, D; Köhler, T
In this quantitative study, data on 746 students of social work were collected regarding their current sense of stress, experience of psychosocial drain as well as their use of specific coping strategies. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress (TICS) were used. The results show that one out of 3 students suffer from a lot of to extreme stress. One-fourth of the students report feeling overworked and socially overburdened. More than half of the students are exposed to psychosocial drain as a consequence of past events in their biography (e. g. death or mental illness of a close relative). Despite these obvious burdens, only one-fourth made use of professional aid or counseling. Students who are primarily using functional coping strategies have a lower sensibility to stress and feel less overworked than students primarily using dysfunctional coping strategies. In the university setting, the theoretically and empirically sound knowledge based on this report can be used profitably: The increasing implementation of seminars on coping with stress at universities itself suggests that learning and utilizing functional coping strategies can contribute to a reduction of stress and strain among students. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
The following dissertation investigates whether Lars von Trier's film representations of depression go beyond medical and social conventions related to the illness, in order to underline the complex character of its suffering and causes. To contextualise cinematic depression, the first chapter offers a historical summary of movie portrayals of the illness against the backdrop of the social and medical fields. The main corpus explores the way the motif of depression transpires in von Trier's t...
Skadhauge, Troels; Tønder, Lars
Translation of Martin Krasnik interview with Lars von Trier broadcast on DR2, January 12, 2015. The following is an interview of Lars von Trier (LvT) by the Danish journalist Martin Krasnik (MK). The interview took place in Lars von Trier’s home in Brede, a small town just outside Copenhagen. The...
Lauridsen, Palle Schantz
En præsentation af filmsociologisk metode med en analyse af, hvilke publikumsgrupper der ser - og ikke ser - Lars von Triers film......En præsentation af filmsociologisk metode med en analyse af, hvilke publikumsgrupper der ser - og ikke ser - Lars von Triers film...
Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning
Interview om min forskning i Lars von Triers filmværker i anledning af min bogudgivelse på dansk: Lars von Triers fornyelse af filmen 1984-2014.......Interview om min forskning i Lars von Triers filmværker i anledning af min bogudgivelse på dansk: Lars von Triers fornyelse af filmen 1984-2014....
This is an experimental study and it discusses the effectiveness of social support in managing academic stress among students. The purpose of this study is to understand the importance of social support in managing stress. Simple random sampling was assigned to a number of 120 students, equally divided into an experimental and a control group. Classes on social support as coping mechanisms were given to the experimental group only. The accumulated data were then analyzed, descriptive statistics were used to interpret and evaluate the prevalence of academic stress, and social support. Correlation analysis was employed in the examination of the relationship between stress and social support. The findings of this study indicate that there are significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in relation to stress and social support. Eventually, the experimental group proved to cope with academic stress better than the control group, and they were satisfied with their academic performance during the experimentation. Hence, it is highly advisable to encourage the students to use social support as coping mechanisms.
Lars von Trier alustab oma ameerika triloogia teise filmiga "Manderlay", mis on film orjusest, seekord Grace'i rollis Bryce Dallas Howard. Lisatud katkend intervjuust prantsuse näitleja Jean-Marc Barr'iga
Cheetham, Tara J; Turner-Cobb, Julie M
Whilst acute stress paradigms in adults make use of adult panel members, similar paradigms modified for child participants have not manipulated the panel. Most work has utilised an audience of adult confederates, regardless of the age of the population being tested. The aim of this study was to trial a social stress test for children that provided a meaningful environment using age-matched child peers as panel actors. Thirty-three participants (7-11 years) underwent the Bath Experimental Stress Test for Children (BEST-C). Based on the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), it comprises a shortened six-minute public speaking task and four-minute maths challenge. It differs from previous stress tests by using age-matched children on the panel, pre-recorded and presented as a live feed, and includes an expanded manipulation check of subjective experience. Salivary cortisol was assessed at four time points, pre-post stress testing; life events, daily hassles and coping strategies were measured through questionnaires. A simple numerical coding scheme was applied to post-test interview data. The BEST-C generated a typical stress and adaptation response in salivary cortisol (p=.032). Age and gender differences were observed during recovery. Cortisol responses mapped directly onto three distinct subjective response patterns: (i) expected response and recovery; (ii) expected response, no recovery; (iii) no response. The BEST-C, utilising child confederates of participant target age is a meaningful social stress test for children. This is the first social stress test developed specifically for children that manipulates panel characteristics by using child confederates and a pre-recorded sham panel. Greater cortisol responses to the test were also found to match subjective verbal accounts of the experience. It offers a meaningful acute stress paradigm with potential applications to other child and adolescent age groups. Furthermore, it leads the way in the use of panel manipulation
Burton, C L; Bonanno, G A; Hatzenbuehler, M L
Social support has been repeatedly associated with mental and physical health outcomes, with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity posited as a potential mechanism. The influence of social bonds appears particularly important in the face of stigma-related stress; however, there is a dearth of research examining social support and HPA axis response among members of a stigmatized group. To address this gap in the literature, we tested in a sample of 70 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) young adults whether family support or peer support differentially predict cortisol reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. While greater levels of family support were associated with reduced cortisol reactivity, neither peer support nor overall support satisfaction was associated with cortisol response. These findings suggest that the association between social support and neuroendocrine functioning differs according to the source of support among members of one stigmatized group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guo, Jinhong; Mrug, Sylvie; Knight, David C
Reactivity patterns to acute stress are important indicators of physical and mental health. However, the relationships between emotion socialization and stress responses are not well understood. This study aimed to examine whether parental responses to negative emotions predicted physiological and psychological responses to acute stress in late adolescence and emerging adulthood, and whether these relationships varied by gender and ethnicity. Participants were 973 individuals (mean age=19.20years; 50% male; 63% African American, 34% European American) who reported on parental emotion socialization. Participants completed a standardized social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test; TSST). Heart rate, blood pressure and salivary samples were assessed from baseline throughout the task and during recovery period. Psychological responses to stress were measured immediately after the TSST. Unsupportive parental responses to children's negative emotions were associated with blunted cortisol reactivity and greater negative emotions to a psychosocial stress task in females and African American youth, whereas supportive parental responses predicted greater cortisol reactivity and lower negative emotions to stress in European American youth, as well as less negative emotions in males. However, parental responses to negative emotions did not predict heart rate or SBP reactivity to the TSST. Findings suggest that parental emotion socialization may be an important factor influencing HPA axis reactivity and psychological responses to stress, with important differences across gender and ethnic youth subgroups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gross, Katharina M.; Schote, Andrea B.; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst
Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress (‘Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress’: TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants. PMID:24647796
Jansen, Steffy W M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen; Westendorp, Rudi; Oei, Nicole Y L
Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n = 31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n = 26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design. Physiological (cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate) and subjective responses were measured during the entire procedure. The results showed that Offspring had lower overall cortisol levels compared to Non-offspring regardless of condition, and lower absolute cortisol output (AUCg) during stress compared to Non-Offspring, while the increase (AUCi) did not differ between groups. In addition, systolic blood pressure in Offspring was lower compared to Non-offspring during the entire procedure. At baseline, Offspring had significantly lower systolic blood pressure and reported less subjective stress than Non-offspring and showed a trend towards lower heart rate. Offspring from long-lived families might thus be less stressed prior to potentially stressful events and consequently show overall lower levels in physiological responses. Although attenuated physiological responding cannot be ruled out, lower starting points and a lower peak level in physiological responding when confronted with an actual stressor, might already limit damage due to stress over a lifetime. Lower physiological responding may also contribute to the lower prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and other stress-related diseases in healthy longevity.
van Hedger, Kathryne; Necka, Elizabeth A; Barakzai, Anam K; Norman, Greg J
Time perception is a fundamental component of everyday life. Although time can be measured using standard units, the relationship between an individual's experience of perceived time and a standard unit is highly sensitive to context. Stressful and threatening stimuli have been previously shown to produce time distortion effects, such that individuals perceive the stimuli as lasting for different amounts of time as compared to a standard unit. As a highly social species, humans are acutely sensitive to social stressors; however, time distortion effects have not been studied in the context of social stress. We collected psychophysiological (electrocardiogram and impedance cardiography) and time perception data before, during, and after a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test for 42 participants. Based on prior theories and evidence from the time perception literature, we hypothesized that experiencing a stressful event would result in time distortion. This hypothesis was supported by the data, with individuals on average reproducing short and long duration negative and positive stimuli as lasting longer after experiencing social stress, t(41) = -3.55, p = .001, and t(41) = -4.12, p social stress. These findings are in line with some other studies of time distortion, and provide evidence for the interoceptive salience model of time perception. Implications for mechanisms of time distortion are discussed. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Full Text Available To experimentally examine if adolescents with excess weight are more sensitive to social stress and hence more sensitive to harmful effects of stress in cognition.We conducted an experimental study in 84 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old classified in two groups based on age adjusted Body Mass Index percentile: Normal weight (n=42 and Excess weight (n=42. Both groups were exposed to social stress as induced by the virtual reality version of the Trier Social Stress Task--participants were requested to give a public speech about positive and negative aspects of their personalities in front of a virtual audience. The outcome measures were salivary cortisol levels and performance in cognitive tests before and after the social stressor. Cognitive tests included the CANTAB Rapid Visual Processing Test (measuring attention response latency and discriminability and the Iowa Gambling Task (measuring decision-making.Adolescents with excess weight compared to healthy weight controls displayed increased cortisol response and less improvement of attentional performance after the social stressor. Decision-making performance decreased after the social stressor in both groups.Adolescents who are overweight or obese have increased sensitivity to social stress, which detrimentally impacts attentional skills.
Robyn J. McQuaid
Full Text Available Stress responses in humans can be attenuated by exogenous oxytocin administration, and these stress-buffering properties may be moderated by social factors. Yet, the influence of acute stressors on circulating endogenous oxytocin levels have been inconsistent, and limited information is available concerning the influence of social support in moderating this relationship. In the current investigation, undergraduate women (N = 67 were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST with either social support available from a close female friend or no social support being available. An additional set of women served as controls. The TSST elicited marked elevations of state anxiety and negative emotions, which were largely attenuated among women who received social support. Furthermore, baseline oxytocin levels were inversely related to women's general feelings of distrust, as well as basal plasma cortisol levels. Despite these associations, oxytocin levels were unaffected by the TSST, and this was the case irrespective of oral contraceptive use or estrogen levels. In contrast, plasma cortisol elevations were elicited by the psychosocial stressor, but only in women using oral contraceptives, an effect that was prevented when social support was available. Taken together, these data provisionally suggest that changes in plasma oxytocin might not accompany the stress attenuating effects of social support on cortisol levels. Moreover, as plasma oxytocin might not reliably reflect brain oxytocin levels, the linkage between oxytocin and prosocial behaviors remains tenuous.
Bin Jiang; Chun-Yen Chang; William C. Sullivan
Although it is well established that exposure to nearby nature can help reduce stress in individuals, the shape of the dose-response curve is entirely unclear. To establish this dose-response curve, we recruited 160 individuals for a laboratory experiment. Participants engaged in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to induce psychological stress, and were then randomly...
Iratxe Fresneda Delgado
Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza el modo en el que Lars von Trier recrea para el cine el estereotipo de Medea. Mediante el análisis fílmico de la película y apoyándose en los estudios culturales, el texto se interroga acerca de la importancia y el poder potencial del cine a la hora recuperar el antiguo mito y demostrar su vigencia. El análisis amplía horizontes para la compresión de los mecanismos que articulan el entramado de significados de la película, donde Von Trier aporta una nueva visión del arquetipo de Medea uniéndola, a la tradición pictórica del Romanticismo. Una influencia que habita en las posteriores obras del director danés, donde el paisaje, la naturaleza, se erige en elemento catalizador de las pulsiones humanas, en su cómplice y testigo.This paper explores the way that Lars von Trier’s film recreates the stereotype of Medea. Using film analysis and based on cultural studies the article asks about the importance and potential power of cinema to recover the ancient myth and show their effects. The analysis expands horizons for the understanding of the mechanisms that link the network of meanings of the film, where the author offers a new vision of Medea's archetype attaching it to the pictorial tradition tied to the Romanticism. An influence that can be seen in the later works of Lars von Trier, where the landscape, the nature, stands as a catalyst of human drives, as his accomplice and witness.
Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Having close friends and family has far-reaching benefits for your health. Here's how to build and ... can be critical to help you through the stress of tough times, whether you've had a ...
Lapp, Hannah E; Ahmed, Sarah; Moore, Celia L; Hunter, Richard G
Histories of early life stress (ELS) or social discrimination can reach levels of severity characterized as toxic to mental and physical health. Such toxic social stress during development has been linked to altered acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to social stress in adulthood. However, there are important individual differences in the size and direction of these effects. We explored developmental, genetic, epigenetic, and contextual sources of individual differences in the relationship between ELS, discrimination, and adult responses to acute social stress in a standard laboratory test. Additional measures included perceived status, social support, background activity of HPA axis, and genetic variants in aspects of the stress response system. Participants (n = 90) answered questions about historical and ongoing stress, provided a DNA sample to examine genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic marks, and underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) during which three saliva samples were collected to assess HPA function. Individuals who reported high levels of childhood adversity had a blunted salivary cortisol response to the TSST. Childhood adversity, discrimination experiences, and FKBP5 genotype were found to predict pretest cortisol levels. Following up on recent observations that the glucocorticoid receptor directly interacts with the mitochondrial genome, particularly the NADH dehydrogenase 6 (MT-ND6) gene, individuals who reported high childhood adversity were also found to have higher percent methylation across six CpG sites upstream of MT-ND6. These findings suggest multiple contributions across psychological, genetic, epigenetic, and social domains to vulnerability and resilience in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation. Further study to examine how these multiple contributors affect developmental endpoints through integrated or independent pathways will be of use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arch, Joanna J; Landy, Lauren N; Brown, Kirk Warren
Arch et al. (2014) demonstrated that brief self-compassion meditation training (SCT) dampened sympathetic (salivary alpha-amylase) and subjective anxiety responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), relative to attention and no-instruction control conditions. The present study examined baseline predictors and moderators of these SCT intervention effects. Baseline characteristics included two stress vulnerability traits (social anxiety and rumination) and two potential resiliency traits (non-attachment and self-compassion). We investigated how these traits moderated the effects of SCT on response to the TSST, relative to the control conditions. We also tested how these individual differences predicted TSST responses across conditions in order to uncover characteristics that confer increased vulnerability and resiliency to social stressors. Trait non-attachment, rumination (for sympathetic TSST response only), and social anxiety (for subjective TSST response only) interacted with training condition to moderate TSST responses such that following SCT, lower attachment and lower social anxiety predicted lower TSST stress responses, relative to those scoring higher on these traits. In contrast, trait self-compassion neither moderated nor predicted responses to the TSST. Thus, although SCT had robust effects on buffering stress across individuals with varying levels of trait self-compassion, other psychological traits enhanced or dampened the effect of SCT on TSST responses. These findings support the importance of examining the role of relevant baseline psychological traits to predict sympathetic and subjective responses to social evaluative threat, particularly in the context of resiliency training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Busse, David; Yim, Ilona S; Campos, Belinda
Exposure to chronic discrimination is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The study of biobehavioral pathways linking discrimination with health outcomes has mostly focused on the cardiovascular system, with fewer studies addressing the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In this study we tested associations between Latino ethnicity, experiences of discrimination, and cortisol responses to an acute laboratory stressor. One hundred fifty eight individuals (92 female, 66 male) between the ages of 18 and 29 years participated in the study. Salivary cortisol was measured once before and eight times after administration of a laboratory stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test). Past experiences of discrimination were measured with the Experiences of Discrimination Scale. Findings from conditional process modeling suggest that Latino ethnicity predicted a) heightened cortisol reactivity and b) more pronounced cortisol recovery through discrimination experiences (mediator), and that this effect was further moderated by sex with a significant indirect effect only among males. The direct path from Latino ethnicity to cortisol reactivity or cortisol recovery was, however, not significant. In sum, findings suggest that Latino ethnicity and discrimination interact to predict cortisol dysregulation, which implies that an appropriate model for understanding minority health discrepancies must incorporate interactive processes and cannot simply rely on the effects of ethnicity or discrimination alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D
Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Trent, J T; Smith, A L; Wood, D L
Occupational stress and social support were measured in adults, 15 working as telecommuters, 9 working at home, and 14 working in a company office. Analysis showed telecommuters and office workers perceived more support than those working at home. Telecommuters also reported less stress and a stronger preference for this new work option.
Phan, Jenny M; Schneider, Ekaterina; Peres, Jeremy; Miocevic, Olga; Meyer, Vanessa; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A
Laboratory stress tasks such as the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) have provided a key piece to the puzzle for how psychosocial stress impacts the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, other stress-responsive biomarkers, and ultimately wellbeing. These tasks are thought to work through biopsychosocial processes, specifically social evaluative threat and the uncontrollability heighten situational demands. The present study integrated an experimental modification to the design of the TSST to probe whether additional social evaluative threat, via negative verbal feedback about speech performance, can further alter stress reactivity in 63 men and women. This TSST study confirmed previous findings related to stress reactivity and stress recovery but extended this literature in several ways. First, we showed that additional social evaluative threat components, mid-task following the speech portion of the TSST, were still capable of enhancing the psychosocial stressor. Second, we considered stress-reactive hormones beyond cortisol to include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone, and found these hormones were also stress-responsive, and their release was coupled with one another. Third, we explored whether gain- and loss-framing incentive instructions, meant to influence performance motivation by enhancing the personal relevance of task performance, impacted hormonal reactivity. Results showed that each hormone was stress reactive and further had different responses to the modified TSST compared to the original TSST. Beyond the utility of showing how the TSST can be modified with heightened social evaluative threat and incentive-framing instructions, this study informs about how these three stress-responsive hormones have differential responses to the demands of a challenge and a stressor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lund, Rikke; Christensen, Ulla; Nilsson, Charlotte Juul
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the relationship between stressful social relations in private life and all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between stressful social relations (with partner, children, other family, friends and neighbours, respectively) and all...... men and women aged 36-52 years, linked to the Danish Cause of Death Registry for information on all-cause mortality until 31 December 2011. Associations between stressful social relations with partner, children, other family, friends and neighbours, respectively, and all-cause mortality were examined...... hazards model. RESULTS: Frequent worries/demands from partner or children were associated with 50-100% increased mortality risk. Frequent conflicts with any type of social relation were associated with 2-3 times increased mortality risk. Interaction between labour force participation and worries...
Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Lindsay, Emily K; Brown, Kirk Warren
To test whether a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention buffers self-reported psychological and neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in young adult volunteers. A second objective evaluates whether pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness moderate the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on stress reactivity. Sixty-six (N=66) participants were randomly assigned to either a brief 3-day (25-min per day) mindfulness meditation training or an analytic cognitive training control program. All participants completed a standardized laboratory social-evaluative stress challenge task (the TSST) following the third mindfulness meditation or cognitive training session. Measures of psychological (stress perceptions) and biological (salivary cortisol, blood pressure) stress reactivity were collected during the social evaluative stress-challenge session. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduced self-reported psychological stress reactivity but increased salivary cortisol reactivity to the TSST, relative to the cognitive training comparison program. Participants who were low in pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness and then received mindfulness meditation training had the greatest cortisol reactivity to the TSST. No significant main or interactive effects were observed for systolic or diastolic blood pressure reactivity to the TSST. The present study provides an initial indication that brief mindfulness meditation training buffers self-reported psychological stress reactivity, but also increases cortisol reactivity to social evaluative stress. This pattern may indicate that initially brief mindfulness meditation training fosters greater active coping efforts, resulting in reduced psychological stress appraisals and greater cortisol reactivity during social evaluative stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Up to 90% of children with special education needs and about 40% of children in the general population show insecure or disorganized attachment patterns, which are linked to a diminished ability to use social support by others for the regulation of stress. The aim of the study was to investigate if children with insecure-avoidant/disorganized attachment can profit more from social support by a dog compared to a friendly human during a stressful task. We investigated 47 male children (age 7-11 with insecure-avoidant or disorganized attachment. Social stress was elicited via the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C. For one group of children a friendly therapy-dog (N=24 was present, for one control group a friendly human (N=10 and for the other control group a toy dog (N=13. Stress levels were measured via salivary cortisol before, during, and after the TSST-C and subjective reports. The physiological stress response was significantly lower in the dog condition in comparison to the two other support conditions. Cortisol levels correlated negatively with the amount of physical contact between child and dog. We conclude that male children with insecure-avoidant or disorganized attachment profit more from the presence of a therapy-dog than of a friendly human under social stress. Our findings support the assumption that the increasing practice of animal-assisted education is reasonable and that dogs can be helpful assistants in education/special education, since stress interferes with learning and performance in students.
Lange, Claudia; Huber, Christian G; Fröhlich, Daniela; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E; Walter, Marc
HPA axis functioning plays an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). However, only few studies have examined HPA axis responsivity to psychosocial stress in SSD, and results are heterogeneous. Furthermore, childhood trauma is known to influence psychopathology and treatment outcome in SSD, but studies on the influence of childhood trauma on stress related HPA axis activity are missing. The purpose of this study was to investigate cortisol response to a psychosocial stress challenge in SSD patients, and to examine its association with severity of childhood trauma. The present study included 25 subacutely ill patients with a current episode of a chronic SSD and 25 healthy controls. Participants underwent the modified Trier Social Stress Test, and salivary cortisol levels were assessed. The childhood trauma questionnaire was used to assess severity of adverse life events. Overall, cortisol response was blunted in the patient group compared to the control group (pchildhood trauma experience: responders had experienced more emotional abuse in their past (pchildhood trauma might influence stress-related HPA axis activity in SSD. Our data contribute to the hypothesis that severity of childhood trauma may be of pathophysiological relevance in schizophrenia. In addition, it may be an overlooked factor contributing to inconsistent findings regarding HPA axis response to psychosocial stress in SSD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Espín, Laura; Marquina, Mónica; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia; Gómez-Amor, Jesús
Generalized Social Phobia (GSP) is a common anxiety disorder that produces clear social life disruptions. There is no consensus on the specific processes involved in its development, but the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested. This study analyzed the effects of the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on the memory retrieval of pictures with different emotional valences in 45 non-treated young students with GSP and 50 non-anxious (NA) subjects (mean=19.35years, SD=0.18). No differences were found in the cortisol response of GSP and NA subjects to the TSST and control sessions. In addition, psychosocial stress impaired memory retrieval in both the GSP and NA groups, with no differences between them. Regarding the sex factor, no effects were found in the cortisol response to the TSST. However, during the encoding session, GSP men had higher cortisol levels than GSP women and NA subjects. There was also a significant interaction between sex and stress exposure on memory retrieval. Women recognized more unpleasant and neutral pictures than men; however, under stress, the women's advantage disappeared, and the men's performance improved. Sex also interacted with social phobia on positive mood, with GSP women exposed to the TSST showing the lowest positive mood. These results suggest that GSP subjects do not present an HPA axis sensitization to psychosocial stress, and they emphasize the importance of Sex in understanding stress effects on memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
provided advice and assistance in conducting this project. we wish to thank especially Eric Gunderson, James LaRocco, Ross Vickers and Harold Ward...accounting for a great variety of volitional behaviors such as drinking (Schlegel et al., 1977), family planning (Davidson & Jaccard , 1979), drug use...1976. Cobb, S. Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1976, 38, 300-314. Davidson, A., & Jaccard , J. Variables that
Boks, Marco P; Rutten, Bart P F; Geuze, Elbert; Houtepen, Lotte C; Vermetten, Eric; Kaminsky, Zachary; Vinkers, Christiaan H
Genomic variation in the SKA2 gene has recently been identified as a promising suicide biomarker. In light of its role in glucocorticoid receptor transactivation, we investigated whether SKA2 DNA methylation influences cortisol stress reactivity and is involved in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Increased SKA2 methylation was significantly associated with lower cortisol stress reactivity in 85 healthy individuals exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (B=?173.40, t=...
Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning
Bogen undersøger Lars von Triers affektskabende og etisk involverende stil med udgangspunkt i hans værker over en 30-årig periode (1984-2014). Centralt i bogens læsninger står væsentlige analytiske begreber som det haptiske, det affektive, det diagrammatiske og det signaletiske materiale, der med...
Dogma95 werd toegejuicht als een Europees alternatief voor de Hollywoodblockbuster. Voor veel critici en filmliefhebbers is Dogma95 gaan staan voor de begrippen waarmee de kunstzinnige film gebruikelijk in verband wordt gebracht: low budget en realisme. Von Triers benadering van filmen voert film
The basic aim of this research is to examine the predicting role of social emotional learning skills in educational stress. The participants were 238 adolescents at high school. In this study, the Social Emotional Learning Skills Scale and the Educational Stress Scale were used. The relationships between social emotional learning skills and…
Peu de villes en Allemagne peuvent se prévaloir d’une telle ancienneté et d’une telle urbanité. C’est le cas d’Augusta Treverorum, un peu une »ville-mère«, dont l’Université fondée en 1473, a édité et dirigé, à l’occasion du deuxième millénaire, une histoire de la cité en trois volumes. Les deux premiers sont diponibles depuis maintenant longtemps (Heinz Heinen, Trier und das Trevererland in römischer Zeit, 1985 (2e éd. 1993) et Kurt Düwell, Franz Irsigler (dir.), Trier in der Neuzeit, 1988 (...
Full Text Available In this paper a 21 year old patient was presented with Ménétrier's disease, associated with ulcerative colitis. The first symptoms of ulcerative colitis occured at the age of eleven, since when the patient has been conservatively treated several times because of the exacerbations of the desease. During control examinations presence of polipoid changes in stomach was discovered by upper endoscopy. Gastrectomy was suggested because the patient had excessive anemic syndrome which required weekly substitutional therapy with deplasmatic eritrocytes, as well as hypoproteinemia, while multiple polipoid changes suspect for malignancy were gastroscopically identifided. Patient accepted surgical treatment, and was transfered to the Clinic of Surgery. Total gastrectomy was performed, and patohystological finding confirmed Ménétrier's desease. After two weeks, the patient was released from the hospital in good general condition, with regular clinical and laboratory findings.
McCaul, Mary E; Hutton, Heidi E; Stephens, Mary Ann C; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Wand, Gary S
Stress and anxiety are widely considered to be causally related to alcohol craving and consumption, as well as development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, numerous preclinical and human studies examining effects of stress or anxiety on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems have been equivocal. This study examined relationships between scores on self-report anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and stress measures and frequency and intensity of recent drinking, alcohol craving during early withdrawal, as well as laboratory measures of alcohol craving and stress reactivity among heavy drinkers with AUD. Media-recruited, heavy drinkers with AUD (N = 87) were assessed for recent alcohol consumption. Anxiety and stress levels were characterized using paper-and-pencil measures, including the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Eligible subjects (N = 30) underwent alcohol abstinence on the Clinical Research Unit; twice daily measures of alcohol craving were collected. On day 4, subjects participated in the Trier Social Stress Test; measures of cortisol and alcohol craving were collected. In multivariate analyses, higher BAI scores were associated with lower drinking frequency and reduced drinks/drinking day; in contrast, higher ASI-3 scores were associated with higher drinking frequency. BAI anxiety symptom and ASI-3 scores also were positively related to Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test total scores and AUD symptom and problem subscale measures. Higher BAI and ASI-3 scores but not PSS scores were related to greater self-reported alcohol craving during early alcohol abstinence. Finally, BAI scores were positively related to laboratory stress-induced cortisol and alcohol craving. In contrast, the PSS showed no relationship with most measures of alcohol craving or stress reactivity. Overall, clinically oriented measures of anxiety compared with perceived stress were more
Alberto PRIETO ARCINIEGA
Full Text Available El eje de la comunicación corresponderá a la película Manderley, pero se tendrá en cuenta, como precedente, la película Dogville y el texto de Jean Paulhan, La bonheur dans l´esclavage, que inspiró a Lars von Trier para la elaboración de su propio y peculiar guión.
Buse, Judith; Enghardt, Stephanie; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Ehrlich, Stefan; Roessner, Veit
It has been suggested that psychosocial stress influences situational fluctuations of tic frequency. However, evidence from experimental studies is lacking. The current study investigated the effects of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-C) on tic frequency in 31 children and adolescents with tic disorders. A relaxation and a concentration situation served as control conditions. Patients were asked either to suppress their tics or to “tic freely.” Physiological measures of stress were measure...
The central subject of this paper is metafiction. Through a number of analyses of selected works the Danish film director, Lars von Trier, is placed within this frame, in order to characterize the particular film style of Trier. The aim is to define how the metafictive films of Trier functions with a focus on the relations between the narrative style and its content. Finally the viewer positions in metafictional film are examined. How does one comprehend the balance between identification and...
Britton, Willoughby B; Shahar, Ben; Szepsenwol, Ohad; Jacobs, W Jake
The high likelihood of recurrence in depression is linked to a progressive increase in emotional reactivity to stress (stress sensitization). Mindfulness-based therapies teach mindfulness skills designed to decrease emotional reactivity in the face of negative affect-producing stressors. The primary aim of the current study was to assess whether Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is efficacious in reducing emotional reactivity to social evaluative threat in a clinical sample with recurrent depression. A secondary aim was to assess whether improvement in emotional reactivity mediates improvements in depressive symptoms. Fifty-two individuals with partially remitted depression were randomized into an 8-week MBCT course or a waitlist control condition. All participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) before and after the 8-week trial period. Emotional reactivity to stress was assessed with the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory at several time points before, during, and after the stressor. MBCT was associated with decreased emotional reactivity to social stress, specifically during the recovery (post-stressor) phase of the TSST. Waitlist controls showed an increase in anticipatory (pre-stressor) anxiety that was absent in the MBCT group. Improvements in emotional reactivity partially mediated improvements in depressive symptoms. Limitations include small sample size, lack of objective or treatment adherence measures, and non-generalizability to more severely depressed populations. Given that emotional reactivity to stress is an important psychopathological process underlying the chronic and recurrent nature of depression, these findings suggest that mindfulness skills are important in adaptive emotion regulation when coping with stress. Copyright Â© 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Khalfa, Stephanie; Bella, Simone Dalla; Roy, Mathieu; Peretz, Isabelle; Lupien, Sonia J
The goal of the present study was to determine whether relaxing music (as compared to silence) might facilitate recovery from a psychologically stressful task. To this aim, changes in salivary cortisol levels were regularly monitored in 24 students before and after the Trier Social Stress Test. The data show that in the presence of music, the salivary cortisol level ceased to increase after the stressor, whereas in silence it continued to increase for 30 minutes.
María I Cordero
Full Text Available Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1 by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2 by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between “specific” individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.
Ferguson, Kristen; Mang, Colin; Frost, Lorraine
In this paper, we explore how the frequency of utilization of social supports is related to teacher demographics, stress factors, job satisfaction, career intent, career commitment, and the perception of a stigma attached to teacher stress. Using data from self-report questionnaires (N = 264) from teachers in northern Ontario, we found that…
Full Text Available Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120 rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors.
Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy
Alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function are well-established in adults with current depression. HPA alterations may persist into remission and confer increased risk for recurrence. A modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered at baseline to 32 young adults with remitted major depressive disorder and 36 never-depressed controls. Participants were randomly assigned to either a 'high-stress' condition involving social evaluation or a 'low-stress' control condition. Cortisol concentrations were measured in saliva samples throughout the TSST. Participants were assessed again after 6 months for the occurrence of stressful life events and depressive symptoms/disorders during the follow-up period. Participants who exhibited enhanced cortisol reactivity in the low-stress condition showed increases in depressive symptoms over follow-up, after controlling for stressful life events during the follow-up period. Anticipatory stress cortisol and cortisol reactivity each interacted with history of depressive episodes to predict depression trajectories. The single TSST administration limits conclusions about whether alterations of cortisol reactivity represent trait-like vulnerability factors or consequences ("scars') of past depression. These results extend previous findings on stress sensitivity in depression and suggest that altered HPA function during remission could reflect an endophenotype for vulnerability to depression recurrence. Findings support interactive models of risk for depression recurrence implicating HPA function, depression history, and sensitivity to minor stressors. Results may have implications for interventions that match treatment approaches to profiles of HPA function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ditzen, Beate; Heinrichs, Markus
Social integration and social support have a substantial influence on individual health and longevity, an effect assumed to be mediated through reduced stress reactivity in support recipients. However, considerable variability in individual responses to social support has been documented, suggesting that the beneficial effect of social support interacts with early experiences, genetically influenced differences in biological systems mediating social behavior, personality traits, and psychopathology. Here we outline the historical background of social support research, including epidemiological studies, laboratory studies, and field studies on the subject of social support and health, with regard to different psychobiological effector systems. Most recent research has focused on brain mechanisms which link social integration or social support with reduced neural threat responses. As numerous mental disorders are associated with considerable social impairment, understanding the potentially underlying mechanisms of neural plasticity in relation to social support, stress buffering and health in these disorders can help tailor new diagnostic and treatment strategies. Thus, theories of socially-driven emotional learning and memory, as presented in this review, might eventually lead to psychobiology-based treatment concepts for mental disorders involving social deficits.
Pires, Vera Lúcia; UFSM/UCPel; Monteiro, Ênio Chaves; UniRitter
Este artigo teve como motivação a percepção sobre a representação da personagem fílmica Justine da película, Melancolia de Lars von Trier, como uma versão hipermoderna de Ophélia, personagem feminina e misteriosa da obra Hamlet do dramaturgo William Shakespeare. É uma tentativa de abordar (ou flagrar) a metamorfose dessa figura feminina shakespeariana ao perpassar o tempo, o espaço e gêneros variados (pintura, literatura, fotografia, dentre outros), acumulando elementos por meio da intertextu...
Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R
Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available I denne artikel anskueliggøres, hvorledes forskellige filmiske strategier kan medvirke til at formidle autenticitetsfølelser til tilskueren. Artiklen diskuterer desuden ud fra eksempler, hvorledes filmisk autenticitet kan indkredses ved hjælp af Jay David Bolter og Richard Grusins begreber ’immediacy og ’hypermediacy’. Der argumenteres for, at der eksempelvis i film af Lars von Trier eksisterer et langt mere komplekst forhold mellem disse to begreber, end det anskues i Bolter og Grusins bog, Remediation. Men at begreberne fra denne bog kan medvirke til at kvalificere diskussionen om og forskning i autenticitet, bl.a. i nye film. Autenticitet, eller immediacy, optræder i Triers værker side om side og synes nærmest at betinge hinanden. Især filmen Idioterne (1999 analyseres i nærværende artikel som en film, der rummer en kompleks og særdeles iscenesat form for autenticitet. I denne film er bl.a. den radikale brug af filmiske virkemidler med til at skabe autenticitet. Artiklen medtænker endvidere, at ’de såkaldte naturlige historier’ ligeledes er strategier, der fremmaner følelsen af virkelighed både i Idioterne og andre nyere danske film.
Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Chaudoir, Stephenie; Bublitz, Margaret; O'Reilly Treter, Maggie; Stroud, Laura
We examined the associations between 2 dimensions of maternal parenting style (care and overprotection) and cortisol response to an acute laboratory-induced stressor in healthy youth. Forty-three participants completed the Parental Bonding Instrument and an adapted version of the Trier Social Stress Test-Child (TSST-C). Nine cortisol samples were collected to investigate heterogeneity in different phases of youth's stress response. Multiphase growth-curve modeling was utilized to create laten...
Childs, Emma; White, Tara L; de Wit, Harriet
An individual's susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure, for example, cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined the relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardized laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease.
Kopp, Mária S; Skrabski, Arpád; Székely, András; Stauder, Adrienne; Williams, Redford
In the last decades in the transforming societies of Central and Eastern Europe, premature mortality increased dramatically, especially among men. Increasing disparities in socioeconomic conditions have been accompanied by a widening socioeconomic gradient in mortality among men. Social cohesion and meaning in life may help to counterbalance the widening gap in material circumstances. Not the difficult social situation in itself, but the subjective experience of relative disadvantage, the prolonged negative emotional state, that is, chronic stress seems to be the most important risk factor. The health consequences of a low socioeconomic situation among men might be mostly explained by chronic stress caused by work and close-partner-related factors, and the toxic components of this interaction are depression and hopelessness. In the case of women, the broader personal and family relations are the most important health-related factors. Weekend workload, low social support at work and low control at work accounted for a large part of variation in male premature cardiovascular mortality rates, whereas job insecurity, high weekend workload, and low control at work contribute most markedly to variations in premature cardiovascular mortality rates among women. There are two general approaches that scientists and practitioners might take: train individuals and groups to use skills that will enable them to cope better with the stressful conditions that are damaging their health; and lobby governments to adopt policies that will result in decreased chronic stress on the societal level.
Christopher Anthony Murgatroyd
Full Text Available A social signal transduction theory of depression has been proposed that states that exposure to social adversity alters the immune response and these changes mediate symptoms of depression such as anhedonia and impairments in social behavior. The exposure of maternal rats to the chronic social stress (CSS of a male intruder depresses maternal care and impairs social behavior in the F1 and F2 offspring of these dams. The objective of the present study was to characterize basal peripheral levels of several immune factors and related hormone levels in the adult F2 offspring of CSS exposed dams and assess whether changes in these factors are associated with previously reported deficits in allogrooming behavior. CSS decreased acid glycoprotein (α1AGP and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in F2 females, and increased granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF in F2 males. There were also sex dependent changes in IL-18, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Progesterone was decreased and alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH was increased in F2 males, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF was decreased in F2 females. Changes in α1AGP, GM-CSF, progesterone and α-MSH were correlated with decreased allogrooming in the F2 offspring of stressed dams. These results support the hypothesis that transgenerational social stress affects both the immune system and social behavior, and also support previous studies on the adverse effects of early life stress on immune functioning and stress associated immunological disorders, including the increasing prevalence of asthma. The immune system may represent an important transgenerational etiological factor in disorders which involve social and/or early life stress associated changes in social behavior, such as depression, anxiety, and autism, as well as comorbid immune disorders. Future studies involving immune and
Llavedot Pascual, Laura
Este trabajo trata de ubicar el cine de Lars von Trier dentro de la línea de pensamiento abierta por Kierkegaard. Argumento que el cine de Trier debe comprenderse como un “cine de mostraje” en oposición al “cine de montaje”, y que los procedimientos cinematográficos que Trier emplea son análogos a los procedimientos estilísticos kierkegaardianos en la medida en que para ambos se trata de transmitir una verdad existencial. The aim of this paper is to show Lars von Trier’s films on the persp...
Wolf, Oliver T; Schulte, Judith M; Drimalla, Hanna; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Knoch, Daria; Dziobek, Isabel
Empathy is a core prerequisite for human social behavior. Relatively, little is known about how empathy is influenced by social stress and its associated neuroendocrine alterations. The current study was designed to test the impact of acute stress on emotional and cognitive empathy. Healthy male participants were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stressor (trier social stress test, (TSST)) or a well-matched control condition (Placebo-TSST). Afterwards they participated in an empathy test measuring emotional and cognitive empathy (multifaceted empathy test, (MET)). Stress exposure caused an increase in negative affect, a rise in salivary alpha amylase and a rise in cortisol. Participants exposed to stress reported more emotional empathy in response to pictures displaying both positive and negative emotional social scenes. Cognitive empathy (emotion recognition) in contrast did not differ between the stress and the control group. The current findings provide initial evidence for enhanced emotional empathy after acute psychosocial stress.
Wolfram, Maren; Bellingrath, Silja; Feuerhahn, Nicolas; Kudielka, Brigitte M
Ambulatory assessments of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to acute natural stressors yield evidence on stress regulation with high ecological validity. Sampling of salivary cortisol is a standard technique in this field. In 21 healthy student teachers, we assessed cortisol responses to a demonstration lesson. On a control day, sampling was repeated at analogous times. Additionally, the cortisol awakening response (CAR) was assessed on both days. Participants were also exposed to a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, and rated their individual levels of chronic work stress. In pre-to-post-stress assessment, cortisol levels declined after the lesson. However, post-stress cortisol levels were significantly higher compared with those on the control day. Also, the Trier Social Stress Test yielded higher cortisol responses when using the control day as reference baseline. Associations between the CAR and chronic stress measures were observed solely on the control day. There were no significant associations between cortisol responses to the natural and laboratory stressors. Our results indicate that a control day might be an important complement in laboratory but especially in ambulatory stress research. Furthermore, associations between chronic stress measures and the CAR might be obscured by acute stress exposure. Finally, responses to the laboratory stressor do not seem to mirror natural stress responses. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
La madriguera (2000). Robert Bresson, Mariano Barroso, Paskaljevich, Mary Harron, David Trueba, Lars von Trier, Liv Ullmann, Zhang Yimou. Ediciones de intervención cultural S.L. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/41911. 80 80 33
Full Text Available Controversial and unconventional designer of formal experimentations, simultaneously celebrated and despised around the world, performative to a point that realism is achieved through the manipulation of realistic conventions hidden in everyday forms of human interactions, von Trier is indeed one of the most important contemporary filmmakers within European cinema, as well as the protagonist of Koutsourakis’s Politics as Form in Lars von Trier: A Post-Brechtian Reading.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between social emotional learning and educational stress. Participants were 321 elementary students. Social emotional learning and educational stress scale were used as measures. The relationships between social emotional learning and educational stress were examined using correlation…
Social stress is a population hypothesis that is invoked to explain the precipitous declines observed in population levels of such rodent species as Microtus pennsylvanicus. According to this hypothesis, stress is produced by the increase in aggressive contacts between animals in a growing population. Continued contacts produce profound hormonal and behavioral changes in these animals which lead to decreases in reproduction and viability. Several theoretical weaknesses of the hypothesis are raised. First, increases in density may not be positively correlated with the number of contacts. Animals may merely build more runways. Second, even if contacts do increase, they may not necessarily be aggressive in nature. Finally, confined populations which reach excessively high densities and for which contacts between animals must increase, fail to show a precipitous decline in numbers. In addition, a major methodological problem is revealed. Although researchers tend to causally connect social stress and precipitous population declines, most studies are correlational in nature. Of those studies that involve actual manipulations of populations, these manipulations are usually performed on confined populations that fail to exhibit the desired phenomonen. The difficulties associated with manipulating unconfined populations are discussed
Lidiana Morais Longo
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de menina com doença de Ménétrier. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Menina de dez anos, admitida com história de vômitos, diarréia, distensão e dor abdominal intermitentes há três dias. A suspeita foi apendicite e a paciente foi submetida à laparotomia, com achado de ascite e adenomegalia mesentérica. No pós-operatório, evoluiu com edema generalizado, ascite e derrame pleural. Os exames complementares e a evolução clínica demonstraram tratar-se de doença de Ménétrier. COMENTÁRIOS: O quadro clínico e os exames solicitados (alfa-1-antitripsina fecal aumentada, mucosa gástrica tipo fúndica com moderado grau de hiperplasia do epitélio luminal e foveolar e seriografia com hipertrofia do pregueado mucoso gástrico confirmaram a doença de Ménétrier.OBJECTIVE: To report a case of Ménétrier's disease in a girl. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 10-year-old girl was admitted to the hospital with a 3-day history of vomiting, diarrhea, intermittent distension and abdominal pain. Appendicitis was suspected, and patient had a laparotomy which showed only ascites and mesenteric adenomegaly. Generalized edema, ascites and right pleural effusion evolved after the surgery. Menetrier’s disease was diagnosed by laboratorial exams and clinical evolution. COMMENTS: Clinical aspects and the increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin associated to gastric mucosa of fundic type with moderate level of hyperplasia of lumina and foveola epithelium and serioscopy with hypertrophy of the plica of gastric mucosa confirmed Ménétrier's disease.
Gevonden, Martin; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Wichers, Marieke; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim; van Winkel, Ruud; Selten, Jean-Paul
Repeated exposures to social exclusion, through a process of sensitization, may result in larger responses to experiences of social stress. The current study tested the hypothesis that healthy Moroccan-Dutch men respond stronger to social stress than Dutch controls 1) in daily life, and 2) in an
Junk, Jürgen; Helbig, Alfred; Krein, Andreas
In the course of the European Council Directive on permissible air pollutant limit values, valid starting from 2005 there is an urgent call for action, particularly for fine dust (PM10). Current investigations (Junk & Helbig 2003, Reuter & Baumüller 2003) show that the limit values in certain places in congested areas are exceeded. Only if it is possible to locate these Hot Spots purposeful measures to reduce the ambient air pollution can be conducted. For an efficient identification of these Hot Spots numerical computer models or establishing special measurements networks are too expensive. Using the statistical model STREET 5.0 (KTT 2003) a cost-effective screening of the air pollution situation caused by the traffic can be done. STREET is based on the 3-dimensional micro-scale non-hydrostatic flow- and dispersion model MISCAM (Eichhorn 1989). The results of over 100.000 different calculations with MISCAM are stored in a Database and used to calculate the emissions with STREET. In collaboration with the city council of Trier more than 150 streets were investigated, mapped, and calculated. A special urban climate measuring network supplies the necessary meteorological input data about the wind field and precipitation events in the valley of the Moselle. Information about road width and road orientation as well as building density was derived from aerial photographs. Traffic censuses and mobile air pollutants measurements supplied the remaining input data. We calculated the mean annual air pollutant concentrations for NO2, CO, SO2, O3, benzene as well as PM10. A comparison of the model results with the values obtained from the stations of the central emission measuring network of Rhineland-Palatinate (ZIMEN, annual report 2002) shows very good agreements. The model was not only used to calculate the annual air pollutant but also for urban planning and management. The absolute level of the air pollutant is mainly dependent on the amount of traffic in the street
Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee
The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…
Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M.; Dawani, Hania A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of social support and perceived stress among university students in Jordan. A sample of 241 university students from private and government universities in Jordan answered self-report questionnaires including the perceived social support scale and perceived stress scale.…
Nielsen, Lisbeth Overgaard
Lars von Trier er en performativ auteur, som ikke kun iscenesætter sine film, men også sig selv som auteur. Det samlede værk, der opstår herfra, kan karakteriseres af en legende dobbelthed og modsatrettede strategier og inkluderer såvel fiktionsproduktionen som instruktørens iscenesættelser i det...
A. M. Liashevych
Full Text Available Our experiments studied changes in lipid compound of bile of non-purebred male rats under the condition of social stress while the preparation “Korvitin” was used against the stress. Using the method of thin-layer chromatography, we determined the concentrations of phospholipids, cholesterol and its esters, free fatty acids and triglycerides in the animals’ bile, which was obtained through vivesection a day and a month after the rats were first subjected to chronic social stress (model of social defeat, and also in the bile of the animals which were treated intragastrically with “Korvitin” against the stress (1 mg/kg, 7 days. In the bile of the male rats which experienced chronic social stress the concentration of free cholesterol decreased and the content of its esters increased both immediately after the initiation of stress and after a month of exposure to stress. The concentration of free fatty acids in the bile decreased after modeling chronic social stress, but increased in liver secretion, taken a month after the animals had first experienced stress. In the bile of male rats immediately after the procedure of exposing the animals to stress, the content of phospholipids decreased. Using “Korvitin” during the modeling of social stress caused decrease in the content of phospholipids in the rats’ bile and caused significant increase in the concentration of free fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesterol esters in the liver secretion. The study found significant changes in the concentration of lipids in the bile and in their distribution in the organism of male rats under the conditions of experimentally induced chronic stress. The effect of stress on the bile of rats requires further study for determining its pathogenic role.
Full Text Available Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with high social anxiety were more likely to conform to the opinions from the unanimous majority. The results suggest that adolescents with high social anxiety may show different styles of strong conformity with the change of stress type. We believe that socially anxious adolescents avoid potential social situations with weaker conformity, while avoiding negative evaluations from others with stronger conformity. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the social dysfunctions among adolescents with high social anxiety and provide a new direction for clinical interventions.
Farrell, Michelle; Langrehr, Kimberly J.
This study examined the stress-buffering role of social support on indicators of psychosocial functioning among a combined and split sample of ethnically diverse college students. Although high social support significantly moderated 2 relationships in the combined sample, high and low levels of social support significantly reduced the effect of…
Dissing, Nete; Jørgensen, Tobias Bornakke; Gerds, Thomas Alexander
Individuals reporting high stress are engaging in social interactions more frequently via calls and text messages, and they appear to spend shorter time in social interactions meeting face-to-face with fellow students. This pattern is also reflected in the self-reported social interactions where...
Wadman, Ruth; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
Social interactions can be a source of social stress for adolescents. Little is known about how adolescents with developmental difficulties, such as specific language impairment (SLI), feel when interacting socially. Participants included 28 adolescents with SLI and 28 adolescents with typical language abilities (TL). Self-report measures of…
Meerlo, P; Pragt, Bertrand J.; Daan, S
We studied the effect of social stress on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in rats. Animals were subjected to a single social defeat by introducing them in the cage of an aggressive male conspecific for 1 h. The animals responded to the social conflict by a sharp increase in EEG slow-wave activity
Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda
Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725
Faraji, Jamshid; Soltanpour, Nabiollah; Lotfi, Hamid; Moeeini, Reza; Moharreri, Ali-Reza; Roudaki, Shabnam; Hosseini, S Abedin; Olson, David M; Abdollahi, Ali-Akbar; Soltanpour, Nasrin; Mohajerani, Majid H; Metz, Gerlinde A S
Stress is a primary risk factor for psychiatric disorders. However, it is not fully understood why some stressed individuals are more vulnerable to psychiatric disorders than others. Here, we investigated whether multigenerational ancestral stress produces phenotypes that are sensitive to depression-like symptoms in rats. We also examined whether social isolation reveals potentially latent sensitivity to depression-like behaviours. F4 female rats born to a lineage of stressed mothers (F0-F3) received stress in adulthood while housed in pairs or alone. Social isolation during stress induced cognitive and psychomotor retardation only in rats exposed to ancestral stress. Social isolation also hampered the resilience of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to chronic stress and reduced hippocampal volume and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Thus, synergy between social isolation and stress may unmask a latent history of ancestral stress, and raises vulnerability to mental health conditions. The findings support the notion that social support critically promotes stress coping and resilience.
Peng eZhang; Peng eZhang; Yanhe eDeng; Xue eYu; Xin eZhao; Xiangping eLiu
Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with high social...
van der Kooij, Michael A; Sandi, Carmen
Intact social memory forms the basis of meaningful interactions between individuals. Many factors can modulate the quality of social memory, and these have been studied in detail in rodents. Social memory, however, cannot be considered a single entity. The term social memory reflects different processes, such as social recognition of a novel conspecific individual and social learning (or 'learning from others'). This review summarizes the findings obtained with behavioral paradigms that were developed for the study of memory formation by social recognition and social learning. In particular, we focus on studies that include tests for social habituation/discrimination paradigms, tests for memory of a previously established social hierarchy and the social transmission of the food preference test. The role of individual differences and the main neurobiological mechanisms (i.e., the brain regions and neurochemical systems involved) that have been implicated in each of these types of social-related memories are reviewed. In addition, we address the key modulatory influence of stress on the formation of these types of memories; discussing the contribution of central (corticotropin-releasing factor, CRF) and peripheral (glucocorticoids) stress systems and their interactions with the social neuropeptide systems. Overall, we present here a general overview of the current state of a thriving research area within the field of social neuroscience. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smith, Adam S; Wang, Zuoxin
While stressful life events can enhance the risk of mental disorders, positive social interactions can propagate good mental health and normal behavioral routines. Still, the neural systems that promote these benefits are undetermined. Oxytocin is a hormone involved in social behavior and stress; thus, we focus on the impact that social buffering has on the stress response and the governing effects of oxytocin. Female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) were exposed to 1 hour immobilization stress and then recovered alone or with their male partner to characterize the effect of social contact on the behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine stress response. In addition, we treated immobilized female voles recovering alone with oxytocin or vehicle and female voles recovering with their male partner with a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist or vehicle. Group sizes varied from 6 to 8 voles (N = 98 total). We found that 1 hour immobilization increased anxiety-like behaviors and circulating levels of corticosterone, a stress hormone, in female prairie voles recovering alone but not the female prairie voles recovering with their male partner. This social buffering by the male partner on biobehavioral responses to stress was accompanied by increased oxytocin release in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Intra-paraventricular nucleus oxytocin injections reduced behavioral and corticosterone responses to immobilization, whereas injections of an oxytocin receptor antagonist blocked the effects of the social buffering. Together, our data demonstrate that paraventricular nucleus oxytocin mediates the social buffering effects on the stress response and thus may be a target for treatment of stress-related disorders. Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry on behalf of Society of Biological Psychiatry.
Cosio, Saharay E.
Occupational stress creates a negative impact both at the microlevel (i.e., individuals) and at the macrolevel (i.e., organization). This study investigated the role of protective factors of social support and religiosity on occupational stress among university employees. The study used data collected from participants ( N = 72) in a private…
Workers in Nigeria are faced with many stress factors such as work-related, domestic, after job, age or retirement problem to cope with or managed. In view of this, the present study examined the effects of gender, social support and personality (Type A and Type B) on work stress adaptation. Using random and accidental ...
appraisal, or the personal evaluation of encountered threats and accessible coping resources ( Lazarus & Folkman , 1984). Accordingly, the...and social resources the individual is able to mobilize" (para. 1). Lazarus and Folkman (1984) support that "stress be treated as an organizing concept...role of cognitive appraisal in the stress process ( Lazarus & Folkman , 1984). According to Lazarus and his transactional model, stress did not arise
Drescher, Larissa S.; Hasselbach, Johanna
It is a known fact that stress negatively affects food choices. Consequentially, this paper analyzes three different research questions using a sample of 330 international students in Germany. Firstly, it is observed if stress affects students’ motivations to eat, i.e. if it triggers changes in the motivation behind food choices. Results show that this is not the case. Secondly, it is tested if social support acts as a buffer on the relationship between stress and healthy eating, similarly to...
Markham, A. Catherine; Santymire, Rachel M.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Heintz, Matthew R.; Lipende, Iddi; Murray, Carson M.
Given the deleterious consequences associated with chronic stress, individual differences in stress susceptibility can have important fitness implications. These differences may be explained in part by dominance status because high rank is typically associated with decreased aggression and improved nutrition. Here, we examined the relationship between dominance and social stress in lactating chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We did so by pairing da...
Markham, A. Catherine; Santymire, Rachel M.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Heintz, Matthew R.; Lipende, Iddi; Murray, Carson M.
Given the deleterious consequences associated with chronic stress, individual differences in stress susceptibility can have important fitness implications. These differences may be explained in part by dominance status because high rank is typically associated with decreased aggression and improved nutrition. Here, we examined the relationship between dominance and social stress in lactating chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We did so by pairing da...
Full Text Available A proposta do presente artigo é refletir acerca da herança brechtiana no cinema contemporâneo, atravésda análise do filme Dogville (2003, do cineasta dinamarquês Lars Von Trier. Dogville (2003, inseridonos postulados do movimento cinematográfico Dogma 95, é um exemplo de hibridez artística ou um“cinema de fusão”, como prefere o diretor. O cinema de Von Trier nega Hollywood, assim como o teatrode Brecht nega a catarse aristotélica, marcando-se, decididamente, como propostas que têm em comum,entre outras características, a anti-ilusão.
Gallagher, Stephen; Meaney, Sarah; Muldoon, Orla T
This study tested a recent theoretical development in stress research to see whether group membership influenced cardiovascular reactions following exposure to acute stress. Participants (N = 104) were exposed to a message in which a maths test was described as stressful or challenging by an ingroup member (a student) or outgroup member (a stress disorder sufferer). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored throughout a standard reactivity study. As expected, a significant interaction was found; relative to those who were told that the task was challenging, ingroup members reported more stress and had higher DBP and HR reactivity when told by an ingroup member that the maths task was stressful; task information did not have the same effect for outgroup members. These results indicate that informational support is not constant but varies as a function of group membership. Finally, this recent development in stress research may prove useful for those interested in investigating the interactions between social, psychological and physiological processes underlying health disparities. What is already known on this subject? Stress is a common risk factor for hypertension and coronary heart disease. Social support has been found to reduce cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. The influence of social support on stress varies as a consequence of social identity. What does this study add? The social group that one belongs to influences how one appraises and responds to stress. Social identity provides a useful framework for understanding how social processes are associated with health disparities. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Introduction: Justicial proceeding is able to make any stress or anxiety for everyone that through on it, especially if the process happens on teenagers. The stressor which can make stress in justicial proceeding are the justicial proceeding that doesn’t go along with UU RI No. 3 tahun 1997, i. e. children justicial process, fearness of parents and friend lost, worried about his future, and new neighborhood that is not appropriate with the child’s psychology development. The presence of family is very important to give a social support to the arrested teenagers.The objective of this study was to know the correlation between family social support and post judegement stress in teenagers and the factors of stress in teenagers. Method: This study use Cross Sectional design. Population had taken from teenagers from 13 until 17 years old. Sample was comprised in to 12 individuals who fit with the inclusion criteria. The independent variable in this study was family social support and factors of stress in teenagers, and the dependent variable was post judgement stress in teenagers. Data was collected by measurement using Mood and Feeling Questionnaire (MFQ for stress, questionnaire of family social support, and interviewed. They were analyzed by Spearman’s test with significance level α<0.05 and content analysis for interview result. Result: The result showed that there is a correlation between family social support and post judgement stress in teenagers with significance level p=0.013. Analysis: It means, Content analysis’ results showed that the factors which related with stress in teenagers are environment, caring type, interfamily member’s relationship, bad event, and characteristic of children. Discussion: Higher family social support makes teenagers have higher self esteem and more optimistic view, so the teenagers will able to face their problem.
Nielsen, Lisbeth Overgaard
Den danske filminstruktør Lars von Trier er en nyskabende og eksperimenterende filmkunstner, der iscenesætter ikke kun sine egne værker, men også sig selv som auteur. Det samlede værk, der opstår herfra, inkluderer både fiktionsproduktionen og instruktørens iscenesættelser i det kulturelle...
Full Text Available Social work was classified as a scare skill and the retention of social workers is an important aspect that needs urgent attention. The research goal of this study was to determine what degree of work engagement and job satisfaction South African social workers experience in their current positions and how this influences job turnover, burnout and the intention to leave the profession. The purpose was to determine the needs social workers experience that will affect turnover in the profession. The needs/problems social workers experienced were stress, burnout, lower job satisfaction and work engagement.
Rus, Holly M; Tiemensma, Jitske
Facebook remains the most widely used social media platform. Research suggests that Facebook may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being, and that it may impair physiological stress recovery. However, little is known about its influence on stress reactivity. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined how Facebook influences reactivity to an acute social stressor. Facebook users (n=104, 53 males, mean age 19.50, SD=1.73) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook account or sit quietly with the option of reading electronic magazines before experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers in response to the stressor. However, participants who used Facebook experienced lower levels of psychosocial stress, physiological stress, and rated the stressor as less threatening (p'sFacebook use may buffer stress-in particular psychosocial stress-if used before experiencing an acute social stressor. This study is among the first to incorporate both objective and subjective measures in investigating the complex relationship between Facebook use and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Peng; Deng, Yanhe; Yu, Xue; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiangping
Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety (HSA) were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with HSA w...
Lu, Wei; Wang, Zhenhong
The present studies examined the influence of extraversion on physiological reactivity, recovery, and physiological habituation-sensitization to repeated social stressors. In Study 1, subjective and physiological data were collected from 97 college students who were categorized as high (n = 51) and low (n = 46) on extraversion (NEO-FFI) across five laboratory stages: baseline, stress 1, poststress 1, stress 2, and poststress 2. Results indicated high extraversion (HE) participants exhibited relative lesser heart rate (HR) reactivity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) withdrawals to, and more complete HR and RSA recovery after the first social stress, and also exhibited relative lesser HR reactivity to the second social stress. When repeatedly exposed to a social stressor, HE participants showed pronounced systolic blood pressure (SBP) adaptation, low extraversion (LE) participants displayed diastolic blood pressure (DBP) sensitization. In Study 2, data were collected from another 78 participants (HE: n = 40, LE: n = 38) across the same laboratory stages with speech performance videotaped. After controlling for the speech styles, Study 2 found the same HR response and SBP/DBP adaptation pattern across extraversion groups to social stress as Study 1 but not RSA reactivity. These findings suggest extraverts exhibit more adaptive physiological reactivity to recurrent social stressors, which thus might benefit their health. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Mulia, Nina; Schmidt, Laura; Bond, Jason; Jacobs, Laurie; Korcha, Rachael
Previous studies have found that stress contributes to problem drinking, while social support can buffer its effects. However, these studies are confined largely to middle-class and general populations. We extend what is known by examining how the unique stressors and forms of social support experienced by women in poverty impact alcohol problems over a 4-year time-period. This prospective study used generalized estimating equations (GEE) transition modeling and four annual waves of survey data from 392 American mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in a large Northern California county. We examined the effects of neighborhood disorder, stressful life events and economic hardship on psychological distress and problem drinking over time, and whether social support moderated these relationships for women in poverty. Neighborhood disorder and stressful life events increased significantly the risk for problem drinking, largely through their effect on psychological distress. We found little evidence, however, that social support buffers poor women from the effects of these stressors. Women in poverty are exposed to severe, chronic stressors within their communities and immediate social networks which increase vulnerability to psychological distress and problem drinking. The finding that social support does not buffer stress among these women may reflect their high level of exposure to stressors, as well as the hardships and scarce resources within their networks. If the 'private safety net' of the social network fails to provide a strong buffer, more effective environmental interventions that reduce exposure to stressors may be needed to prevent alcohol problems in poor women's lives.
Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni
Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 combined, without any medical or psychiatric comorbidities and 25 healthy controls were included. The Trier Social Stress Test was used to assess physiological stress responses. Clinical data and subjective stress levels, including the Perceived Stress Scale, were also recorded. No significant differences in the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test were found between patients and controls. However, albeit there were no basal differences, lower cortisol levels at 15 (P=.015), 30 (P=.015), and 45 minutes (P=.045) were observed in the combined compared with the inattentive subtype after the stress induction; these differences disappeared 60 minutes after the stress. In contrast, the subjective stress responses showed significant differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients and controls (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. In turn, subjective stress measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale, positively correlated with the whole cortisol stress response (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults exhibited a normal cortisol response to stress when challenged. Nevertheless, the inattentive patients displayed a higher level of cortisol after stress compared with the combined patients. Despite the differences in the cortisol response, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reported high levels of subjective stress in their every-day life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
Hartanto, D.; Kampmann, I.L.; Morina, N.; Emmelkamp, P.G.M.; Neerincx, M.A.; Brinkman, W.P.
Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study:
Scott E. Wilks
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170) from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data we...
Bancila, Delia; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; Kronborg Bak, Carsten
From a transactional perspective on stress, the study aimed to examine if the relationships of social support with perceived stress and psychosomatic symptoms are equivalent in deprived and wealthier neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional data were randomly collected from 2906 inhabitants in a deprived...... neighbourhood (851) and wealthier communities (2055), in Esbjerg, Denmark. A model that included psychosomatic symptoms as outcome, and daily worries, economic deprivation, perceived stress and social support as predictors was tested with structural equation modelling in two-group analyses. The findings showed...... significant differences (D2 (6)¼16.66, p.¼0.011) between neighbourhoods, and the fit statistics (CFI¼0.930, RMSEA¼0.034, R2¼0.48) showed good fit. Under an increased perceived stress’ effect, the social support’s impact on psychosomatic symptoms decreased in the deprived neighbourhood compared with the other...
Stratton, V N
42 women and 48 men from an introductory course in psychology served in 6 conditions (ns = 12 to 20). Music was helpful in alleviating the stress produced by having to wait for 10 min. with a small group of strangers who did not interact socially. Those college students in small groups who interacted and those who waited alone did not find the 10-min. wait to be stressful, with or without music.
Full Text Available Stress plays a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders and has a negative impact on sleep integrity. In mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS is an ethologically valid model of stress-related disorders but little is known about its effects on sleep regulation. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of 10 consecutive days of social defeat (SD on vigilance states in C57Bl/6J male mice. Social behavior was assessed to identify susceptible mice, i.e., mice that develop long-lasting social avoidance, and unsusceptible mice. Sleep-wake stages in mice of both groups were analyzed by means of polysomnographic recordings at baseline, after the first, third, and tenth stress sessions and on the 5th recovery day (R5 following the 10-day CSDS. In susceptible mice, each SD session produced biphasic changes in sleep-wake states that were preserved all along 10-day CSDS. These sessions elicited a short-term enhancement of wake time while rapid eye-movement (REM sleep was strongly inhibited. Concomitantly, delta power was increased during non REM (NREM sleep. During the following dark period, an increase in total sleep time, as well as wake fragmentation, were observed after each analyzed SD session. Similar changes were observed in unsusceptible mice. At R5, elevated high-frequency EEG activity, as observed in insomniacs, emerged during NREM sleep in both susceptible and unsusceptible groups suggesting that CSDS impaired sleep quality. Furthermore, susceptible but not unsusceptible mice displayed stress-anticipatory arousal during recovery, a common feature of anxiety disorders. Altogether, our findings show that CSDS has profound impacts on vigilance states and further support that sleep is tightly regulated by exposure to stressful events. They also revealed that susceptibility to chronic psychological stress is associated with heightened arousal, a physiological feature of stress vulnerability.
Rimmele, Ulrike; Spillmann, Maria; Bärtschi, Carmen; Wolf, Oliver T; Weber, Cora S; Ehlert, Ulrike; Wirtz, Petra H
Animal studies suggest that the pineal hormone melatonin influences basal stress hormone levels and dampens hormone reactivity to stress. We investigated whether melatonin also has a suppressive effect on stress-induced catecholamine and cortisol release in humans. As stress hormones affect memory processing, we further examined a possible accompanying modulation of memory function. Fifty healthy young men received a single oral dose of either 3 mg melatonin (n = 27) or placebo medication (n = 23). One hour later, they were exposed to a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test). During stress, subjects encoded objects distributed in the test room, for which memory was assessed a day later ("memory encoding under stress"). Fifteen minutes following stress, memory retrieval for words learnt the day before was tested ("memory retrieval after stress"). Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels, salivary free cortisol levels and psychological responses (attention, wakefulness) were repeatedly measured before and after stress exposure. Melatonin specifically enhanced recognition memory accuracy of objects encoded under stress (p cortisol levels were highest, retrieval of memories acquired the day before was not influenced by melatonin. Moreover, melatonin did not influence stress-induced elevation of catecholamine and cortisol levels which in turn did not correlate with the effects of melatonin on memory. The findings point to a primary action of melatonin on central nervous stimulus processing under conditions of stress and possibly on memory consolidation and exclude any substantial suppressive action of the substance on hormonal stress responses.
Smeets, Tom; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald
The current studies investigated whether acute stress potentiates false recollections (so-called "false memories") in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, and whether sex differences modulate these effects. Participants were assigned to either a stress (trier social stress test) or a control group. Subsequently, they were subjected to DRM word lists and probed for recall and recognition. Results showed no differences between the stress and control group on measures of false recollections (Study 1; N=60). Even though correct recall was impaired by acute stress, there were no differences between high or low cortisol responders and controls on false recall or recognitions rates (Study 2; N=92). These results suggest that cortisol responses do not directly potentiate false recollections. Neither in Study 1 nor in Study 2 did we find any evidence that the effects of cortisol on false recollections are different in men and women, although there was an indication that independent of stress men produced more commission errors.
Full Text Available Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6 = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6 = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6 = -0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes.
Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L.; Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul G. M.; Neerincx, Mark A.; Brinkman, Willem-Paul
Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive) between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6) = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6) = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6) = −0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24671006
Belding, Jennifer N; Howard, Malcolm G; McGuire, Anne M; Schwartz, Amanda C; Wilson, Janie H
Social buffering is characterized by attenuation of stress in the presence of others, with supportive individuals providing superior buffering. We were interested in learning if the implied presence of a supportive entity, God, would reduce acute stress. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: prayer, encouraging self-talk, and control. They were subsequently placed in a stressful situation. Self ratings of stress were lower among the prayer and self-talk conditions relative to controls. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures only among those who prayed were lower than controls; however, prayer and self-talk did not differ. Prayer alone did not significantly reduce stress, perhaps because the majority of students in the prayer condition did not consider reading a prayer to constitute praying.
Olini, Nadja; Rothfuchs, Iru; Azzinnari, Damiano; Pryce, Christopher R; Kurth, Salome; Huber, Reto
Disturbed sleep and altered sleep homeostasis are core features of many psychiatric disorders such as depression. Chronic uncontrollable stress is considered an important factor in the development of depression, but little is known on how chronic stress affects sleep regulation and sleep homeostasis. We therefore examined the effects of chronic social stress (CSS) on sleep regulation in mice. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were implanted for electrocortical recordings (ECoG) and underwent either a 10-day CSS protocol or control handling (CON). Subsequently, ECoG was assessed across a 24-h post-stress baseline, followed by a 4-h sleep deprivation, and then a 20-h recovery period. After sleep deprivation, CSS mice showed a blunted increase in sleep pressure compared to CON mice, as measured using slow wave activity (SWA, electroencephalographic power between 1-4Hz) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Vigilance states did not differ between CSS and CON mice during post-stress baseline, sleep deprivation or recovery, with the exception of CSS mice exhibiting increased REM sleep during recovery sleep. Behavior during sleep deprivation was not affected by CSS. Our data provide evidence that CSS alters the homeostatic regulation of sleep SWA in mice. In contrast to acute social stress, which results in a faster SWA build-up, CSS decelerates the homeostatic build up. These findings are discussed in relation to the causal contribution of stress-induced sleep disturbance to depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Markham, A Catherine; Santymire, Rachel M; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Heintz, Matthew R; Lipende, Iddi; Murray, Carson M
Given the deleterious consequences associated with chronic stress, individual differences in stress susceptibility can have important fitness implications. These differences may be explained in part by dominance status because high rank is typically associated with decreased aggression and improved nutrition. Here, we examined the relationship between dominance and social stress in lactating chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii , at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We did so by pairing daily demographic and behavioural data with faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations collected over 37 months. While there was no main effect of rank, interesting differences emerged by adult subgroup size and adult sex ratio (males/females). We found that differences in FGM concentrations between high- and low-ranking females were most pronounced as adult subgroup size and sex ratio increased. Low-ranking females had higher FGM concentrations in larger subgroups and in subgroups biased towards adult males; we observed no comparable change in FGM concentrations amongst high-ranking females. Because low-ranking females were the recipient of significantly more male aggression relative to females of high rank, these patterns may be driven by psychosocial stress in low-ranking females. There was no significant change in diet quality across subgroup sizes; this finding suggests that nutritional stressors were not driving differences in female FGM concentrations. Being susceptible to social stress has important fitness implications as it may constrain low-ranking females from 'choosing' optimal subgroups to take advantage of food resources and/or for the socialization of their offspring.
Cavanagh, James F.; Frank, Michael J.; Allen, John J. B.
To examine how stress affects cognitive functioning, individual differences in trait vulnerability (punishment sensitivity) and state reactivity (negative affect) to social evaluative threat were examined during concurrent reinforcement learning. Lower trait-level punishment sensitivity predicted better reward learning and poorer punishment learning; the opposite pattern was found in more punishment sensitive individuals. Increasing state-level negative affect was directly related to punishme...
Fagan, Jay; Bernd, Elisa; Whiteman, Valerie
The present study examined the relationship between concurrent measures of adolescent fathers' parenting stress, social support, and fathers' care-giving involvement with the 3-month-old infant, controlling for fathers' prenatal involvement. The study sample consisted of 50 teenage father-mother dyads. Findings from multivariate regression…
Bride, Brian E.
Social workers are increasingly being called on to assist survivors of childhood abuse, domestic violence, violent crime, disasters, and war and terrorism. It has become increasingly apparent that the psychological effects of traumatic events extend beyond those directly affected. Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is becoming viewed as an…
Cheryl M. McCormick
Full Text Available Studies in animal models generate and test hypotheses regarding developmental stage-specific vulnerability that might inform research questions about human development. In both rats and humans, peer relationships are qualitatively different in adolescence than at other stages of development, and social experiences in adolescence are considered important determinants of adult social function. This review describes our adolescent rat social instability stress model and the long-lasting effects social instability has on social behaviour in adulthood as well as the possible neural underpinnings. Effects of other adolescent social stress experiences in rats on social behaviours in adulthood also are reviewed. We discuss the role of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA function and glucocorticoid release in conferring differential susceptibility to social experiences in adolescents compared to adults. We propose that although differential perception of social experiences rather than immature HPA function may underlie the heightened vulnerability of adolescents to social instability, the changes in the trajectory of brain development and resultant social deficits likely are mediated by the heightened glucocorticoid release in response to repeated social stressors in adolescence compared to in adulthood.
Cunliffe, Vincent T
Epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in the processes through which social stressors erode health in humans and other animals. Here I review progress in elucidating the biological pathways underlying the social gradient in health, with particular emphasis on how behavioral stresses influence epigenomic variation linked to health. The evidence that epigenetic changes are involved in embedding of social status-linked chronic stress is reviewed in the context of current knowledge about behavior within animal dominance hierarchies and the impacts of social position on behaviors that affect health. The roles of epigenetic mechanisms in responses to trauma and the evidence for their involvement in intergenerational transmission of the biological impacts of traumatic stress are also considered. Taken together, the emerging insights have important implications for development of strategies to improve societal health and well-being.
Liu, Jenny J W; Vickers, Kristin; Reed, Maureen; Hadad, Marilyn
The consequences of stress are typically regarded from a deficit-oriented approach, conceptualizing stress to be entirely negative in its outcomes. This approach is unbalanced, and may further hinder individuals from engaging in adaptive coping. In the current study, we explored whether negative views and beliefs regarding stress interacted with a stress framing manipulation (positive, neutral and negative) on measures of stress reactivity for both psychosocial and physiological stressors. Ninety participants were randomized into one of three framing conditions that conceptualized the experience of stress in balanced, unbalanced-negative or unbalanced-positive ways. After watching a video on stress, participants underwent a psychosocial (Trier Social Stress Test), or a physiological (CO2 challenge) method of stress-induction. Subjective and objective markers of stress were assessed. Most of the sampled population regarded stress as negative prior to framing. Further, subjective and objective reactivity were greater to the TSST compared to the CO2 challenge. Additionally, significant cubic trends were observed in the interactions of stress framing and stress-induction methodologies on heart rate and blood pressure. Balanced framing conditions in the TSST group had a significantly larger decrease in heart rate and diastolic blood pressure following stress compared to the positive and negative framing conditions. Findings confirmed a deficit-orientation of stress within the sampled population. In addition, results highlighted the relative efficacy of the TSST compared to CO2 as a method of stress provocation. Finally, individuals in framing conditions that posited stress outcomes in unbalanced manners responded to stressors less efficiently. This suggests that unbalanced framing of stress may have set forth unrealistic expectations regarding stress that later hindered individuals from adaptive responses to stress. Potential benefits of alternative conceptualizations
Unternaehrer, E; Luers, P; Mill, J; Dempster, E; Meyer, A H; Staehli, S; Lieb, R; Hellhammer, D H; Meinlschmidt, G
Environmentally induced epigenetic alterations are related to mental health. We investigated quantitative DNA methylation status before and after an acute psychosocial stressor in two stress-related genes: oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF ). The cross sectional study took place at the Division of Theoretical and Clinical Psychobiology, University of Trier, Germany and was conducted from February to August 2009. We included 83 participants aged 61–67 years. Thereof, 76 participants completed the full study procedure consisting of blood sampling before (pre-stress), 10 min after (post-stress) and 90 min after (follow-up) the Trier social stress test. We assessed quantitative DNA methylation of whole-blood cells using Sequenom EpiTYPER. Methylation status differed between sampling times in one target sequence of OXTR (P<0.001): methylation increased from pre- to post-stress (P=0.009) and decreased from post-stress to follow-up (P<0.001). This decrease was also found in a second target sequence of OXTR (P=0.034), where it lost statistical significance when blood cell count was statistically controlled. We did not detect any time-associated differences in methylation status of the examined BDNF region. The results suggest a dynamic regulation of DNA methylation in OXTR—which may in part reflect changes in blood cell composition—but not BDNF after acute psychosocial stress. This may enhance the understanding of how psychosocial events alter DNA methylation and could provide new insights into the etiology of mental disorders. PMID:22892716
Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Champagne, Frances A
Animal models of early-life stress and variation in social experience across the lifespan have contributed significantly to our understanding of the environmental regulation of the developing brain. Plasticity in neurobiological pathways regulating stress responsivity, cognition, and reproductive behavior is apparent during the prenatal period and continues into adulthood, suggesting a lifelong sensitivity to environmental cues. Recent evidence suggests that dynamic epigenetic changes--molecular modifications that alter gene expression without altering the underlying DNA sequence--account for this plasticity. In this review, we highlight studies of laboratory rodents that illustrate the association between the experience of prenatal stress, maternal separation, maternal care, abusive caregiving in infancy, juvenile social housing, and adult social stress and variation in DNA methylation and histone modification. Moreover, we discuss emerging evidence for the transgenerational impact of these experiences. These experimental paradigms have yielded insights into the potential role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating the effects of the environment on human development and also indicate that consideration of the sensitivity of laboratory animals to environmental cues may be an important factor in predicting long-term health and welfare.
Hilterscheid, Esther; Laessle, Reinhold
Basal release of GUT peptides has been found to be altered in restrained eaters. Stress-induced secretion, however, has not yet been described, but could be a biological basis of overeating that exposes restrained eaters to a higher risk of becoming obese. The aim of the present study was to compare restrained and unrestrained eaters with respect to stress-induced release of the GUT peptides ghrelin and PYY. 46 young women were studied. Blood sampling for peptides was done before and after the Trier Social Stress Test. Ghrelin secretion after stress was significantly elevated in the restrained eaters, whereas no significant differences were detected for PYY. Stress-induced release of GUT peptides can be interpreted as a cause as well as a consequence of restrained eating.
Buse, Judith; Enghardt, Stephanie; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Ehrlich, Stefan; Roessner, Veit
It has been suggested that psychosocial stress influences situational fluctuations of tic frequency. However, evidence from experimental studies is lacking. The current study investigated the effects of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-C) on tic frequency in 31 children and adolescents with tic disorders. A relaxation and a concentration situation served as control conditions. Patients were asked either to suppress their tics or to "tic freely." Physiological measures of stress were measured throughout the experiment. The TSST-C elicited a clear stress response with elevated levels of saliva cortisol, increased heart rate, and a larger number of skin conductance responses. During relaxation and concentration, the instruction to suppress tics reduced the number of tics, whereas during stress, the number of tics was low, regardless of the given instruction. Our study suggests that the stress might result in a situational decrease of tic frequency.
Buse, Judith; Enghardt, Stephanie; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Ehrlich, Stefan; Roessner, Veit
It has been suggested that psychosocial stress influences situational fluctuations of tic frequency. However, evidence from experimental studies is lacking. The current study investigated the effects of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-C) on tic frequency in 31 children and adolescents with tic disorders. A relaxation and a concentration situation served as control conditions. Patients were asked either to suppress their tics or to “tic freely.” Physiological measures of stress were measured throughout the experiment. The TSST-C elicited a clear stress response with elevated levels of saliva cortisol, increased heart rate, and a larger number of skin conductance responses. During relaxation and concentration, the instruction to suppress tics reduced the number of tics, whereas during stress, the number of tics was low, regardless of the given instruction. Our study suggests that the stress might result in a situational decrease of tic frequency. PMID:27242554
Doumas, Michail; Morsanyi, Kinga; Young, William R
Postural control is an adaptive process that can be affected by many aspects of human behavior, including emotional contexts. The main emotional contexts that affect postural control are postural threat and passive viewing of aversive or threatening images, both of which produce a reduction in postural sway. The aim of the present study was to assess whether similar stress-related changes in postural sway can be observed using stress induced by social evaluative threat (SET) while performing arithmetic tasks. Twelve young adults performed an arithmetic and a postural control task separately, concurrently, and concurrently with added time pressure in the arithmetic task. In the final condition, participants were given negative feedback about their performance in the arithmetic task and performed it again while being observed (SET condition). Results showed that stress increased linearly with task demand. Postural sway and reaction times were not affected by the first two conditions; however, when time pressure was introduced, reaction times became faster and sway amplitude increased. Finally, introduction of SET caused the predicted reduction in postural sway and an increase in reaction times relative to the time pressure condition. Our results suggest that stress induced using a combination of arithmetic tasks and social evaluative threat leads to systematic changes in postural control. The paradigm developed in the present study would be very useful in assessing interactions between cognition, stress, and postural control in the context of postural instability and falls in older adults.
Brorson Fich, Lars; Jönsson, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
influences these mechanisms. The question that this study attempts to start addressing is therefore whether certain design, characteristics of indoor spaces can make a difference to the physiological stress response as well. Using a virtual version of the Trier Social Stress Test, in which the space...... is computer generated and properties of the space therefore can be systematically varied, we measured saliva cortisol and heart rate variability in participants in a closed room versus a room with openings. As shown by a significant linear contrast interaction between groups and TSST conditions, participants...... in the closed room responded with more pronounced cortisol reactivity to stress induction, and continued to show higher levels throughout recovery, compared to participants in the open room. No differences were found regarding any part of the autonomic nervous system....
Kottwitz, Maria Undine; Grebner, Simone Irmgard; Semmer, Norbert K.; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim
Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions —specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work— on women’s change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participa...
Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou
João Nunes Silva
Full Text Available RESUMO O Anticristo, filme de Lars von Trier, lançado em 2009, mostra o desespero de um casal ao perder seu único filho. Extremamente polêmico e repleto de referências bíblicas - a começar pelo título -, é um filme que choca pelo incessante desespero de uma mãe em luto que parece carregar o peso do mundo em sua condição de mulher. A proposta deste artigo é fazer uma análise deste filme iluminando a culpa cristã historicamente atribuída à mulher e seus desdobramentos imediatos, como o feminicídio. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Análise Fílmica; Cristianismo; Feminicídio; O Anticristo. ABSTRACT Antichrist, film of Lars von Trier, released on 2009, shows the the despair of a couple to lose their only son. Extremely controversial and fraught with biblical references - beginning with the title -, it’s a film that shocked the unyielding despair a bereaved mother that seems to carry the weight of the world on his wife's condition. The purpose of this paper is to analyze of this film illuminating the christian guilt historically attributed to the woman and their immediate consequences, like the feminicide. KEYWORDS: Filmic Analysis; Christianity; Feminicide; Antichrist. RESUMEN Anticristo, pelicula de Lars von Trier, lanzada em 2009, muestra el desespero de una pareja cuando pierde su único hijo. Extremadamente polémica y llena de referencias bíblicas - empezando con el título -, es una película que sorprende al inquebrantable desesperación de una madre em luto que parece cargar el peso del mundo por ser mujer. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar esta película iluminando la culpa cristiana históricamente asignada a las mujeres y sus consecuencias inmediatas, como el feminicidio. PALABRAS CLAVE: Análisis fílmica; Cristianismo; Feminicidio; Anticristo.
Florez Acevedo, Stefani; Universidad de Los Andes; Cardenas Parra, Luis Fernando; Universidad de Los Andes
Oxytocin, a neuropeptide, is known to allow peripheral nervous system functions related specifically to the reproductive system. However, the modulatory function of Oxytocin in social behavior has been recognized in the last decades through its release in the central nervous system. Likewise, some studies have mentioned that Oxytocin is a promising anxiolytic when an individual has been exposed to social stress. Therefore, the objective in this review is to show a characterization of Oxytocin...
Vânia Lúcia Pereira de Andrade
Full Text Available Occupational stress and coping strategies have increasingly become the focus of research for their applied feature. The aim of this study was to investigate how social support has helped people deal with stressful situations in the workplace. In order to reach this aim an exploratory mixed method embedded research design was conducted. Study 1, quantitative, described the level of satisfaction with social support and perceived organizational support by employing a scale that summarized factors of the perceived organizational support. Study 2, a qualitative one, sought to describe the stressors in the workplace environment, to whom the workers resorted to, and the kind of perceived social support. The group interview script was based on the dimensions proposed by Folkman e Lazarus (1985 model. Fifty-one volunteer workers participated in the study. Results showed a lack of social support in the workplace: incivility of colleagues and managers, psychological contract breach and conflict of values. Investments in personal development that stimulate urbanity in organizations and a listening space for employees are suggested actions that can benefit affective dimensions of work.
Kanitz, Ellen; Hameister, Theresa; Tuchscherer, Margret; Tuchscherer, Armin; Puppe, Birger
Social deprivation is a severe stressor affecting a number of behavioral and physiological functions of gregarious species. It is assumed that, dependent upon the level of familiarity, social support given by a conspecific may attenuate the adverse consequences of stress. We investigated the effects of a 4h maternal and littermate deprivation on behavioral reactions, stress hormone responses and brain corticosteroid receptor expression in 7-, 21- and 35-day-old domestic piglets (Sus scrofa) that were left alone or in the presence either of a familiar or unfamiliar age-matched piglet. Compared to control animals, all of the socially deprived piglets showed significant stress responses, such as impaired habituation in repeated open-field/novel-object tests, enhanced ACTH and cortisol release, and altered corticosteroid receptor expression in the hypothalamus. In addition, our results demonstrated that younger piglets had more difficulty coping with stress. The presence of an age-matched conspecific had a direct calming effect on the deprived piglet during the deprivation procedure, which was revealed by diminished stress-induced HPA activity and altered reactions in the behavioral test situations (e.g., activity, escape, and vocalization). Furthermore, because the presence of a familiar piglet causes a more pronounced buffering effect, we have shown for the first time that the degree of familiarity between the piglets may influence the effectiveness of social support. Our study emphasizes the benefits of social partners on positive welfare and the ability for pigs to cope with stress; therefore, our results should be taken into account during handling practices such as weaning and mixing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Our intention is to present a dissonant study about the representation of madness in the film Antichrist (2009, by Danish filmmaker Lars von Trier. Departing from the analysis of the point of view presented by the film, which we think is associated with the male character, we aim to observe how femininity and its supposed “deviance from the norm” are filtered by the interests of the discourse embodied in this male figure. More broadly, we are interested in illustrating through a backward reading how the hallucinatory, paranoid processes and the trance state that the film exhibits refer to this very male figure, and what the consequences of this particular formal setting are.
Lorig, Fabian; Kießl, Gundula Rebecca Raphaela; Laessle, Reinhold Gustav
Stress-related cortisol secretion has been linked to increased appetite and subsequent food intake in overweight individuals. The present study addresses this relationship in a repeated-measures randomized controlled laboratory experiment. Nineteen obese women were compared to 36 normal weight controls with respect to stress-induced salivary cortisol and laboratory eating behavior, measured by a universal eating monitor. The trier social stress test served as stressor. Stress-induced cortisol levels were significantly higher in the obese compared to the normal weight controls. Unexpectedly, a corresponding increase in laboratory food intake was not detected. The results are interpreted and discussed with regard to restrained eating, which was found to be present to a significant degree in the obese women.
Jansen, Steffy W M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen
might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n = 31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n = 26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design......Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity....... Physiological (cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate) and subjective responses were measured during the entire procedure. The results showed that Offspring had lower overall cortisol levels compared to Non-offspring regardless of condition, and lower absolute cortisol output (AUCg) during stress compared to Non...
Hodges, Travis E; Baumbach, Jennet L; Marcolin, Marina L; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H; McCormick, Cheryl M
Social experiences in adolescence are essential for displaying context-appropriate social behaviors in adulthood. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in adolescence had reduced social interactions with unfamiliar peers compared with non-stressed controls (CTL). Here we determined whether SS altered social recognition and social reward and brain oxytocin and vasopressin receptor density in adolescence. We confirmed that SS rats spent less time interacting with unfamiliar peers than did CTL rats (p=0.006). Furthermore, CTL rats showed a preference for novel over familiar conspecifics in a social recognition test whereas SS rats did not, which may reflect reduced recognition, impaired memory, or reduced preference for novelty in SS rats. The reward value of social interactions was not affected by SS based on conditioned place preference tests and based on the greater time SS rats spent investigating stimulus rats than did CTL rats when the stimulus rat was behind wire mesh (p=0.03). Finally, oxytocin receptor binding density was higher in the dorsal lateral septum and nucleus accumbens shell in SS rats compared with CTL rats (p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively). No effect of SS was found for vasopressin 1a receptor binding density in any of the brain regions analyzed. We discuss the extent to which the differences in social behavior exhibited after social instability in adolescence involve changes in social salience and social competency, and the possibility that changes in oxytocin signaling in the brain underlie the differences in social behavior. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate academic stress, social support and their relationships with mental health and academic performance in university students. Three hundred and twenty one students from a technological university in Caracas, Venezuela, responded instruments on academic stress, social support and mental health during the most academically stressful period. The results indicate that favorable conditions of mental health were associated to more social support and less academic stress. In women, higher stress levels were associated to a lesser amount of social support from friends whereas in men stress was related to less social support coming from close people and general social support. Both displayed better performance when perceived higher levels of academic stress and the social support of the near people was moderate. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for academic life and mental health in university students.
Lupis, Sarah B; Sabik, Natalie J; Wolf, Jutta M
Studies assessing the role of shame in HPA axis reactivity report mixed findings. Discrepancies may be due to methodological difficulties and inter-individual differences in the propensity to experience shame in a stressful situation. Hence, the current study combined self-report of shame and facial coding of shame expressions and assessed the role of body esteem as a moderator of the shame-stress link. For this, 44 healthy students (24F, age 20.5 ± 2.1 years) were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Salivary cortisol levels were measured throughout the protocol. Trait shame was measured before the stress test, and state shame immediately afterwards. Video recordings of the TSST were coded to determine emotion expressions. State shame was neither associated with cortisol stress responses nor with body esteem (self-report: all ps ≥ .24; expression: all ps ≥ .31). In contrast, higher trait shame was associated with both negative body esteem (p = .049) and stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .013). Lastly, having lower body esteem predicted stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .022); however, it did not significantly moderate the association between shame indices and cortisol stress responses (all ps ≥ .94). These findings suggest that body esteem and trait shame independently contribute to strength of cortisol stress responses. Thus, in addition to trait shame, body esteem emerged as an important predictor of cortisol stress responses and as such, a potential contributor to stress-related negative health outcomes.
Galea, Sandro; Acierno, Ron; Ruggiero, Kenneth; Resnick, Heidi; Tracy, Melissa; Kilpatrick, Dean
A growing body of research is identifying the molecular and genetic correlates of psychopathology and holds tremendous promise in suggesting the biologic mechanisms that may explain emergent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) phenotypes. Another body of research has begun to consider how elements of the social context may influence the risk of PTSD. It is likely that the social context and molecular/genetic factors jointly determine the risk of PTSD and as such scientific inquiry that considers the interrelationship of these factors stands to advance the field. However, there are particular conceptual and methodologic challenges to conducting and designing studies that adequately assess both the social context and the biologic determinants of PTSD. Much of the current research exploring the biology of PTSD is conducted with highly selective samples that were recruited on the basis of strict phenotypic or medical history criteria. In contrast, population-based sampling represents an opportunity to obtain heterogeneous samples that better represent the population distribution of relevant molecular, genotypic, and phenotypic parameters of interest. These sampling strategies also allow researchers to consider the role of the social context and in turn, how the social context influences the molecular determinants of PTSD. An example of our own work illustrates the feasibility of the population-based sampling approach.
Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G; Blair, Clancy
Several studies have investigated associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and indicators of children's physiological and cognitive self-regulation. Although objective measures of family SES may be good proxies for families' experiences of disadvantage, less is known about subjective aspects of families' experiences. We hypothesize that subjective social status (SSS) and perceived stress may be important independent predictors of children's stress physiology and executive functioning (EF). Eighty-two children from diverse SES backgrounds were administered EF measures and provided saliva samples for cortisol assay. Caregivers reported on objective SES, SSS, and perceived stress. Results suggest that SES and SSS are both independently and positively related to EF. In models predicting stress physiology, higher perceived stress was associated with lower baseline cortisol. Moreover, SES and age interacted to predict cortisol levels such that among younger children, lower SES was associated with higher cortisol, whereas among older children, lower SES was associated with lower cortisol. Results highlight the importance of considering both objective and subjective indicators of families' SES and stressful experiences in relation to multiple aspects of children's self-regulation.
Raffaelli, Marcela; Andrade, Flavia C. D.; Wiley, Angela R.; Sanchez-Armass, Omar; Edwards, Laura L.; Aradillas-Garcia, Celia
This study examined social support as a potential moderator between stress and depressive symptoms among Mexican university applicants aged 16--21 years ("N" = 6,715; "M" age = 17.9 years; 55% female). In bivariate analyses, perceived stress was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, and social support with lower…
Cavanagh, James F; Frank, Michael J; Allen, John J B
To examine how stress affects cognitive functioning, individual differences in trait vulnerability (punishment sensitivity) and state reactivity (negative affect) to social evaluative threat were examined during concurrent reinforcement learning. Lower trait-level punishment sensitivity predicted better reward learning and poorer punishment learning; the opposite pattern was found in more punishment sensitive individuals. Increasing state-level negative affect was directly related to punishment learning accuracy in highly punishment sensitive individuals, but these measures were inversely related in less sensitive individuals. Combined electrophysiological measurement, performance accuracy and computational estimations of learning parameters suggest that trait and state vulnerability to stress alter cortico-striatal functioning during reinforcement learning, possibly mediated via medio-frontal cortical systems.
Halldorsson, Brynjar; Draisey, Jenny; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy
It has been suggested that elevated maternal social anxiety may play a disorder-specific role in maintaining childhood social anxiety disorder (SAD), but few studies have examined whether mothers of children with SAD are more socially anxious than mothers of children with other anxiety disorders (ANX). This study set out to examine whether symptoms of social anxiety were more severe amongst mothers of 7-12 year old children presenting for treatment with SAD (n = 260) compared to those presenting with ANX (n = 138). In addition, we examined whether there were differences between these two groups in terms of maternal and paternal general anxiety, depression, and stress. Parents of 7-12 year old children referred for treatment of SAD or ANX completed self-report questionnaire measures of emotional symptoms. Compared to mothers of children with ANX, mothers of children with SAD reported significantly higher levels of social anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. In addition, fathers of children with SAD reported significantly higher levels of anxiety, stress, and depression than fathers of children with ANX. This study is one of the few existing studies that have examined mothers' and fathers' psychopathology across different childhood anxiety disorders. Compared to parents of children with ANX, parents of children with SAD may have poorer mental health which may inhibit optimum child treatment outcomes for children with SAD. Thus, targeting parental psychopathology may be particularly important in the treatment of childhood SAD. Consideration of parental psychopathology may be particularly important in the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder. Mothers of children with social anxiety disorder are more socially anxious than mothers of children with other anxiety disorders Fathers of children with social anxiety disorder are more anxious and depressed than fathers of children with other anxiety disorders Participants were predominantly of high
Yin, Yong-Qin; Zhang, Chun; Wang, Jian-Xin; Hou, Jia; Yang, Xu; Qin, Jing
Strong evidence has shown that caffeine exerts antidepressant-like effects in chronic stress situations by increasing dopamine levels. However, whether caffeine mediates the dopaminergic system and interferes with the resilience to social defeat stress in mice is unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of caffeine in the behavioral responses to social defeat stress and the possible regulatory role of the dopaminergic system. Mice experienced chronic social defeat stress for 10 days. Caffeine was administered intraperitoneally before, during and after social defeat stress. The time spent in interaction zone, social interaction ratio and sucrose preference test was used to measure the social avoidance and anhedonia in mice. The results showed that chronic pretreatment with caffeine for 14 days and for 10 days during stress reversed the avoidance of social behavior and anhedonia induced by social defeat stress in mice, suggesting the enhancement of the resilience to social defeat stress induced by caffeine. However, neither the treatment with caffeine only during the social defeat stress for 10 days nor the treatment with acute caffeine after defeat stress altered the resilience to stress. Furthermore, chronic caffeine treatment did not affect the normal locomotor activity and the desperate behavior in naïve mice. Moreover, the antagonism of dopamine D1 receptor and not D2 receptor reversed the effect of caffeine on the social avoidance and depressive-like behavior. Finally, pretreatment with higher doses of caffeine did not affect the behavioral response to social defeat stress. Taken together, our findings provide new insight into the effects of caffeine on social avoidance and anhedonia in mice. In addition, our results illustrated the value of measuring changes in depressive-like behavior before and after social defeat stress to determine the potential treatment of caffeine on depression through the regulation of dopaminergic system.
Gaab, J; Blättler, N; Menzi, T; Pabst, B; Stoyer, S; Ehlert, U
Psychosocial stress is a potent activator of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. While neuroendocrine stress responses are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, evidence suggests that excessive activation of the HPA axis constitutes a risk for disease and psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of cognitive-behavioral stress management training on endocrine stress responses and cognitive appraisal under acute psychosocial stress among healthy young subjects. Forty-eight healthy, non-smoking male students without acute or chronic medical or psychiatric disorder on self report were randomly assigned to receive group-based cognitive-behavioral stress management training either before or after a standardized psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). Endocrine and psychological stress responses were assessed with salivary free cortisol response and cognitive appraisal processes to the TSST. In comparison with the control group, subjects in the treatment group showed an attenuated endocrine response (F (2.55/117.41) = 3.81; P = 0.02; effect size f(2) = 0.35) to the TSST. In addition, subjects in the SIT group had lower stress appraisal and higher control expectancies (F (2/45) = 6.56; P = 0.003, effect size f(2) = 0.29) compared to controls. Short group-based cognitive-behavioral stress management training reduces the neuroendocrine stress response to an acute stressor in healthy subjects. Therefore, stress management training may prove useful in preventing detrimental effects of stress-induced neuroendocrine activation
Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien
The author examined the conditions (i.e., social support and dysfunctional coping) under which perceived stress predicted psychological well-being in 459 college students. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant 2-way interaction (Perceived Stress x Social Support) and a significant 3-way interaction (Perceived Stress x Social…
de Lima, A P N; Massoco, C O
This study reports that short-term social instability stress (SIS) in adolescence increases passive-coping in adulthood in male mice. Short-term SIS decreased the latency of immobility and increased the frequency and time of immobility in tail suspension test. These findings support the hypothesis that adolescent stress can induce a passive adaptation to stress in adulthood, even if it is a short period of stress.
Dittmar, Carsten [Nibe Systemtechnik, Celle (Germany). Produktmanagement Technik
The 'Simeonstift' building, which houses the Trier city museum, was expanded by an annex building. At the same time, the climate and conservatorial conditions were improved. The heating system was modern used as well and was made to function as one unit with the existing heating and cooling system of the older building. This was achieved by installing a heat pump. (orig.)
Conclusion: Perceived stress has negative direct relationship with social support and positive direct relationship with academic burnout. Social support also has positive direct relationship with academic performance. Relationship of maladaptive perfectionism with academic burnout and also the relationship of adaptive perfectionism with academic performance is direct positive. Relationship of perceived stress with academic performance is indirect mediated by social support.
Chaplin, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Tebes, Jacob K.; Mayes, Linda C.
Experience with and management of stress has implications for adolescents’ behavioral and socioemotional development. This study examined the relationship between adolescents’ physiological response to an acute laboratory stressor (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and anger regulation and interpersonal competence in a sample of 175 low-income urban adolescents (51.8% girls). Findings suggested that heightened reactivity as indicated by cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure was associated with increased interpersonal competence and anger regulation. However, these findings were context dependent such that, for youth high in self-reported child maltreatment, heightened reactivity was associated with decreased interpersonal competence and anger regulation. Results highlight the importance of considering how context may condition the effect of stress reactivity on functioning during adolescence. PMID:22359225
Vaz-Leal, Francisco J; Ramos-Fuentes, María I; Rodríguez-Santos, Laura; Chimpén-López, Carlos; Fernández-Sánchez, Nieves; Zamora-Rodríguez, Francisco J; Beato-Fernández, Luis; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Guisado-Macías, Juan A
Clinical research on cortisol response to stress in patients with eating disorders has provided controversial and even contradictory results. As this might be the consequence of the inclusion in the studies of heterogeneous clinical populations, 3 highly selected samples were studied. Dexamethasone suppression test was performed on 15 restricting anorexia nervosa patients without history of bulimia nervosa (BN), 17 BN patients with normal weight and no history of anorexia nervosa, and 22 healthy controls. Three days later, the Trier Social Stress Test was applied, and 8 saliva samples were collected along the trial for cortisol assessment. When the patients were considered as a single group, a slightly blunted cortisol response to stress was observed, but when the 3 groups were considered separately, the blunted response was observed only in the BN patients. The results support the association between blunted cortisol response and bulimic features. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Iranzad, Ilnaz; Bani, Soheila; Hasanpour, Shirin; Mohammadalizadeh, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mozhgan
Introduction: Social support is considered the interaction between the person and environment, which reduces stressors, covers the effects of stress and consequently protects individuals from the harmful effects of stressful situations. This study aimed to determine social support in pregnant women and its relationship with the rate of pregnant women's perceived stress at health centers of Tabriz in 2012-13. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 450 pregnant women selected through cluster sampling. Data collection tools consisted of a demographic questionnaire, interpersonal support evaluation list (ISEL) and perceived stress questionnaire (PSS) that were completed in an interview. The range of obtainable score for social support and perceived stress was 0-90 and 0-30, respectively. Descriptive and analytical statistics including Pearson and Independent t-test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The mean score of social support and perceived stress in pregnant women was 96.6 (14.6), and 11.5 (5.5), respectively .The women with favorable social support had significantly less stress than the women with unfavorable social support. Conclusion: The study finding showed that the rate of social support in highly stressful women is significantly less than low-stress mothers. Therefore, considering adverse effects of the stress on pregnancy outcomes, some strategies should be designed and implemented in order to strengthen and improve the social support for pregnant women so that it can reduce the rate of pregnant women's stress. PMID:25709981
Vinkers, Christiaan H; Penning, Renske; Hellhammer, Juliane; Verster, Joris C; Klaessens, John H G M; Olivier, Berend; Kalkman, Cor J
Even though there are indications that stress influences body temperature in humans, no study has systematically investigated the effects of stress on core and peripheral body temperature. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on body temperature using different readout measurements. In two independent studies, male and female participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a non-stressful control task. Core temperature (intestinal and temporal artery) and peripheral temperature (facial and body skin temperature) were measured. Compared to the control condition, stress exposure decreased intestinal temperature but did not affect temporal artery temperature. Stress exposure resulted in changes in skin temperature that followed a gradient-like pattern, with decreases at distal skin locations such as the fingertip and finger base and unchanged skin temperature at proximal regions such as the infra-clavicular area. Stress-induced effects on facial temperature displayed a sex-specific pattern, with decreased nasal skin temperature in females and increased cheek temperature in males. In conclusion, the amplitude and direction of stress-induced temperature changes depend on the site of temperature measurement in humans. This precludes a direct translation of the preclinical stress-induced hyperthermia paradigm, in which core temperature uniformly rises in response to stress to the human situation. Nevertheless, the effects of stress result in consistent temperature changes. Therefore, the present study supports the inclusion of body temperature as a physiological readout parameter of stress in future studies.
Gerber, Markus; Ludyga, Sebastian; Mücke, Manuel; Colledge, Flora; Brand, Serge; Pühse, Uwe
The pathways by which physical activity impacts on participants' health are still not fully understood. The purpose of the present study was to go beyond existing research by combining methods from survey-based and experimental stress research, and by examining whether the potential of vigorous physical activity (VPA) to attenuate physiological and psychological stress responses is moderated by participants' subjective stress perception. The sample consisted of 42 undergraduate students (M=21.2±2.2 years, 52% women). Participants self-reported their stress and wore an accelerometer device for seven consecutive days. To examine differences in the adrenocortical, autonomic and psychological stress reactivity, salivary free cortisol, heart rate, state anxiety, mood and calmness were assessed prior to, during and after the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The cut-offs of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) were used to distinguish between students below/above current VPA recommendations. High levels of perceived stress combined with VPA levels below the ACSM's standards (students with high stress/low VPA experienced less favourable affect throughout the entire testing session (pstress-protective potential among undergraduate students with high stress levels. Our findings highlight that promoting VPA in young adults seems to be a promising strategy to increase physiological and psychological stress resilience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
LYA FELDMAN; LILA GONCALVES; GRACE CHACÓN-PUIGNAU; JOANMIR ZARAGOZA; NURI BAGÉS; JOAN DE PABLO
The objective of the present study was to evaluate academic stress, social support and their relationships with mental health and academic performance in university students. Three hundred and twenty one students from a technological university in Caracas, Venezuela, responded instruments on academic stress, social support and mental health during the most academically stressful period. The results indicate that favorable conditions of mental health were associated to more social support and ...
Kim, Dong-hee; Kim, Seok Kyoung; Yi, Young Hoon; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Chae, Jiun; Hwang, Jiyeon; Roh, HyeRin
Objectives To examine the relationship between stress, social support, and empathy among medical students. Methods We evaluated the relationships between stress and empathy, and social support and empathy among medical students. The respondents completed a question-naire including demographic information, the Jefferson Scale of Empathy, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Corre-lation and linear regression analyses were conducted, along with sub-analyses according to gender, admission system, and study year. Results In total, 2,692 questionnaires were analysed. Empathy and social support positively correlated, and empathy and stress negatively correlated. Similar correla-tion patterns were detected in the sub-analyses; the correla-tion between empathy and stress among female students was negligible. In the regression model, stress and social support predicted empathy among all the samples. In the sub-analysis, stress was not a significant predictor among female and first-year students. Conclusions Stress and social support were significant predictors of empathy among all the students. Medical educators should provide means to foster resilience against stress or stress alleviation, and to ameliorate social support, so as to increase or maintain empathy in the long term. Furthermore, stress management should be emphasised, particularly among female and first-year students. PMID:26342190
Park, Kyung Hye; Kim, Dong-hee; Kim, Seok Kyoung; Yi, Young Hoon; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Chae, Jiun; Hwang, Jiyeon; Roh, HyeRin
To examine the relationship between stress, social support, and empathy among medical students. We evaluated the relationships between stress and empathy, and social support and empathy among medical students. The respondents completed a questionnaire including demographic information, the Jefferson Scale of Empathy, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Correlation and linear regression analyses were conducted, along with sub-analyses according to gender, admission system, and study year. In total, 2,692 questionnaires were analysed. Empathy and social support positively correlated, and empathy and stress negatively correlated. Similar correlation patterns were detected in the sub-analyses; the correlation between empathy and stress among female students was negligible. In the regression model, stress and social support predicted empathy among all the samples. In the sub-analysis, stress was not a significant predictor among female and first-year students. Stress and social support were significant predictors of empathy among all the students. Medical educators should provide means to foster resilience against stress or stress alleviation, and to ameliorate social support, so as to increase or maintain empathy in the long term. Furthermore, stress management should be emphasised, particularly among female and first-year students.
Gary R Bortolotti
Full Text Available Extravagant ornaments used as social signals evolved to advertise their bearers' quality. The Immunocompetence Handicap Hypothesis proposes that testosterone-dependent ornaments reliably signal health and parasite resistance; however, empirical studies have shown mixed support. Alternatively, immune function and parasite resistance may be indirectly or directly related to glucocorticoid stress hormones. We propose that an understanding of the interplay between the individual and its environment, particularly how they cope with stressors, is crucial for understanding the honesty of social signals.We analyzed corticosterone deposited in growing feathers as an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in a wild territorial bird, the red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. We manipulated two key, interrelated components, parasites and testosterone, which influence both ornamentation and fitness. Birds were initially purged of parasites, and later challenged with parasites or not, while at the same time being given testosterone or control implants, using a factorial experimental design. At the treatment level, testosterone enhanced ornamentation, while parasites reduced it, but only in males not implanted with testosterone. Among individuals, the degree to which both parasites and testosterone had an effect was strongly dependent on the amount of corticosterone in the feather grown during the experiment. The more stressors birds had experienced (i.e., higher corticosterone, the more parasites developed, and the less testosterone enhanced ornamentation.With this unique focus on the individual, and a novel, integrative, measure of response to stressors, we show that ornamentation is ultimately a product of the cumulative physiological response to environmental challenges. These findings lead toward a more realistic concept of honesty in signaling as well as a broader discussion of the concept of stress.
Boosting recovery rather than buffering reactivity: Higher stress-induced oxytocin secretion is associated with increased cortisol reactivity and faster vagal recovery after acute psychosocial stress.
Engert, Veronika; Koester, Anna M; Riepenhausen, Antje; Singer, Tania
Animal models and human studies using paradigms designed to stimulate endogenous oxytocin release suggest a stress-buffering role of oxytocin. We here examined the involvement of stress-induced peripheral oxytocin secretion in reactivity and recovery phases of the human psychosocial stress response. Healthy male and female participants (N=114) were subjected to a standardized laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. In addition to plasma oxytocin, cortisol was assessed as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activity, alpha-amylase and heart rate as markers of sympathetic activity, high frequency heart rate variability as a marker of vagal tone and self-rated anxiety as an indicator of subjective stress experience. On average, oxytocin levels increased by 51% following psychosocial stress. The stress-induced oxytocin secretion, however, did not reduce stress reactivity. To the contrary, higher oxytocin secretion was associated with greater cortisol reactivity and peak cortisol levels in both sexes. In the second phase of the stress response the opposite pattern was observed, with higher oxytocin secretion associated with faster vagal recovery. We suggest that after an early stage of oxytocin and HPA-axis co-activation, the stress-reducing action of oxytocin unfolds. Due to the time lag it manifests as a recovery-boosting rather than a reactivity-buffering effect. By reinforcing parasympathetic autonomic activity, specifically during stress recovery, oxytocin may provide an important protective function against the health-compromising effects of sustained stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mayara Barbosa Sindeaux Lima
Full Text Available Abstract Stress and social support are relevant variables for understanding the impact of disability on the care relationship. Thus, this study investigates the association between the parental stress index, social support indicators, and the sociodemographic variables of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy in a capital city of the Eastern Amazon. The following instruments were applied to 100 caregivers: the Sociodemographic Inventory, the Gross Motor Function Classification System, the Parenting Stress Index, and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. For data analysis, descriptive statistics were used, in addition to techniques of multivariate analysis. It was found that most participants had high parental stress and a high perception of social support. Specific aspects of the perception of social support and sociodemographic indicators were associated with stress. This knowledge favors the design of more assertive interventions because it outlines the aspects of these variables that appear to have a more effective impact on parental stress.
Intan Hashimah Mohd. Hashim
Full Text Available This paper results from a study that was conducted on 209 Form Fourstudents from two schools in Penang. In this study, a semi-structuredinterview covering questions on demographics, a 12-item measure ofself-esteem, and a 20-item measure of well-being was conducted.Students were also asked to report their Penilaian Menengah Rendah(PMR results as an indicator of their academic performance. To assess stress, coping and social supports, respondents were given a list of possible stressors (e.g., problems with relationships at home and school and were asked to indicate whether or not they were bothered by these stressors, the type of coping that they had used in dealing with these stressors, and the type of social supports that they had received in relation to these stressors. A higher proportion of respondents (77% identified issues related to academics and lessons as a problem compared to other issues (relationships at home, 34%, and relationships at school, 31%. The number of stressors related to everyday life was significantly related to well-being, but not to self-esteem or academic performance. Respondents reported a variety of problem-specificcoping. Supports received were also problem-specific in nature. Thefindings have both applied and theoretical implications.
van Schalkwijk, Frank J; Blessinga, Agaath N; Willemen, Agnes M; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Schuengel, Carlo
Academic expectations and demands become primary sources of stress during adolescence, negatively affecting sleep. To cope with stress, adolescents may turn to social support figures. The present study tested the extent of main and moderating effects of various sources of social support on the association between stress and sleep. Adolescents (n = 202, meanage 14.6 years, standard deviation = 0.71) reported on academic stress, sleep, and support using questionnaires during a low- and high-stress period, defined by the absence or presence of examinations, respectively. Inquiries were made regarding social support from parents, friends, and class supervisor. During both stress periods, academic stress was associated negatively with sleep quality and positively with sleep reduction. Social support increased sleep quality and lowered sleep reduction. In addition, social support moderated the effects of academic stress on sleep, thus improving sleep quality and lowering sleep reduction. Moderating effects were stronger during a period of high stress. The present study showed that adolescents can benefit from stress moderation through social support by improvements of sleep quality and sleep reduction. Such moderating effects should be taken into account when studying stress and sleep. Implications and recommendations based on these findings are discussed. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.
Praharso, Nurul F; Tear, Morgan J; Cruwys, Tegan
The relationship between stressful life transitions and wellbeing is well established, however, the protective role of social connectedness has received mixed support. We test two theoretical models, the Stress Buffering Hypothesis and the Social Identity Model of Identity Change, to determine which best explains the relationship between social connectedness, stress, and wellbeing. Study 1 (N=165) was an experiment in which participants considered the impact of moving cities versus receiving a serious health diagnosis. Study 2 (N=79) was a longitudinal study that examined the adjustment of international students to university over the course of their first semester. Both studies found limited evidence for the buffering role of social support as predicted by the Stress Buffering Hypothesis; instead people who experienced a loss of social identities as a result of a stressor had a subsequent decline in wellbeing, consistent with the Social Identity Model of Identity Change. We conclude that stressful life events are best conceptualised as identity transitions. Such events are more likely to be perceived as stressful and compromise wellbeing when they entail identity loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The social skills deficit vulnerability model predicts that people with inadequate social skills are at risk for a range of psychosocial problems, especially when confronted with stress. People with poor social skills often experience stress and loneliness and these two constructs were tested as potential pathways by which the poor social skills confer a risk for compromised mental and physical health. An online survey was completed by 775 adults, aged 18-91. The sample matched national demographics for race/ethnicity and age, among those over 18. Structural equation modeling revealed indirect effects of social skills on both mental and physical health through both stress and loneliness. The models showed that poor social skills were associated with poor mental and physical health through elevated stress and increased loneliness. The findings reveal that social skills deficits are associated with physical as well as mental health problems.
Finnell, Julie E; Lombard, Calliandra M; Padi, Akhila R; Moffitt, Casey M; Wilson, L Britt; Wood, Christopher S; Wood, Susan K
Repeated exposure to social stress can precipitate the development of psychosocial disorders including depression and comorbid cardiovascular disease. While a major component of social stress often encompasses physical interactions, purely psychological stressors (i.e. witnessing a traumatic event) also fall under the scope of social stress. The current study determined whether the acute stress response and susceptibility to stress-related consequences differed based on whether the stressor consisted of physical versus purely psychological social stress. Using a modified resident-intruder paradigm, male rats were either directly exposed to repeated social defeat stress (intruder) or witnessed a male rat being defeated. Cardiovascular parameters, behavioral anhedonia, and inflammatory cytokines in plasma and the stress-sensitive locus coeruleus were compared between intruder, witness, and control rats. Surprisingly intruders and witnesses exhibited nearly identical increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate during acute and repeated stress exposures, yet only intruders exhibited stress-induced arrhythmias. Furthermore, re-exposure to the stress environment in the absence of the resident produced robust pressor and tachycardic responses in both stress conditions indicating the robust and enduring nature of social stress. In contrast, the long-term consequences of these stressors were distinct. Intruders were characterized by enhanced inflammatory sensitivity in plasma, while witnesses were characterized by the emergence of depressive-like anhedonia, transient increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. The current study highlights that while the acute cardiovascular responses to stress were identical between intruders and witnesses, these stressors produced distinct differences in the enduring consequences to stress, suggesting that witness stress may be more likely to produce long-term cardiovascular
Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Chaudoir, Stephenie; Bublitz, Margaret; O'Reilly Treter, Maggie; Stroud, Laura
We examined the association between two dimensions of maternal parenting style (care and overprotection) and cortisol response to an acute laboratory-induced stressor in healthy youth. Forty-three participants completed the Parental Bonding Instrument and an adapted version of the Trier Social Stress Test-Child (TSST-C). Nine cortisol samples were collected to investigate heterogeneity in different phases of youth's stress response. Multiphase growth-curve modeling was utilized to create latent factors corresponding to individual differences in cortisol during baseline, reactivity, and recovery to the TSST-C. Youth report of maternal overprotection was associated with lower baseline cortisol levels, and a slower cortisol decline during recovery, controlling for maternal care, puberty, and gender. No additive or interactive effects involving maternal care emerged. These findings suggest that maternal overprotection may exert a unique and important influence on youth's stress response.
Grace E Giles
Full Text Available Extensive experimental psychology research has attempted to parse the complex relationship between psychosocial stress, mood, cognitive performance, and physiological changes. To do so, it is necessary to have effective, validated methods to experimentally induce psychosocial stress. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST is the most commonly used method of experimentally inducing psychosocial stress, but it is resource intensive. Less resource intense psychosocial stress tasks include the Socially Evaluative Cold Pressor Task (SECPT and a computerized mental arithmetic task (MAT. These tasks effectively produce a physiological and psychological stress response and have the benefits of requiring fewer experimenters and affording data collection from multiple participants simultaneously. The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of these three experimental psychosocial stress induction paradigms. On each of four separate days, participants completed either a control non-stressful task or one of the three experimental stressors: the TSST, SECPT, or MAT. We measured mood, working memory performance, salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (AA, and heart rate. The TSST and SECPT exerted the most robust effects on mood and physiological measures. TSST effects were generally evident immediately post-stress as well as 10- and 20-minutes after stress cessation, whereas SECPT effects were generally limited to the duration of the stressor. The stress duration is a key determinant when planning a study that utilizes an experimental stressor, as researchers may be interested in collecting dependent measures prior to stress cessation. In this way, the TSST would allow the investigator a longer window to administer tasks of interest.
Veling, Wim; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Counotte, Jacqueline; van Os, Jim; van der Gaag, Mark
The impact of social environments on mental states is difficult to assess, limiting the understanding of which aspects of the social environment contribute to the onset of psychotic symptoms and how individual characteristics moderate this outcome. This study aimed to test sensitivity to environmental social stress as a mechanism of psychosis using Virtual Reality (VR) experiments. Fifty-five patients with recent onset psychotic disorder, 20 patients at ultra high risk for psychosis, 42 siblings of patients with psychosis, and 53 controls walked 5 times in a virtual bar with different levels of environmental social stress. Virtual social stressors were population density, ethnic density and hostility. Paranoia about virtual humans and subjective distress in response to virtual social stress exposures were measured with State Social Paranoia Scale (SSPS) and self-rated momentary subjective distress (SUD), respectively. Pre-existing (subclinical) symptoms were assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), Green Paranoid Thoughts Scale (GPTS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Paranoia and subjective distress increased with degree of social stress in the environment. Psychosis liability and pre-existing symptoms, in particular negative affect, positively impacted the level of paranoia and distress in response to social stress. These results provide experimental evidence that heightened sensitivity to environmental social stress may play an important role in the onset and course of psychosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Olver, James S; Pinney, Myra; Maruff, Paul; Norman, Trevor R
Few studies have investigated the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm on impaired attention and working memory in humans. Further, the duration of any stress-related cognitive impairment remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm, the Trier Social Stress, on cognitive function in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy male and female subjects were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task. Physiological measures (salivary cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure) and subjective stress ratings were measured at baseline, in anticipation of stress, immediately post-stress and after a period of rest. A neuropsychological test battery including spatial working memory and verbal memory was administered at each time point. Acute psychosocial stress produced significant increases in cardiovascular and subjective measures in the anticipatory and post-stress period, which recovered to baseline after rest. Salivary cortisol steadily declined over the testing period. Acute psychosocial stress impaired delayed verbal recall, attention and spatial working memory. Attention remained impaired, and delayed verbal recall continued to decline after rest. Acute psychosocial stress is associated with an impairment of a broad range of cognitive functions in humans and with prolonged abnormalities in attention and memory. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
de Jong, IC; Sgoifo, A; Lambooij, E; Korte, SM; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM
The effects of social stress on heart rate, heart rate variability and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias were studied in 12 growing pigs. Social stress was induced during a good competition test with a pen mate, and subsequently during a resident-intruder test with an unacquainted pig in which
van Schalkwijk, Frank J; Blessinga, Agaath N; Willemen, Agnes M; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Schuengel, Carlo
Academic expectations and demands become primary sources of stress during adolescence, negatively affecting sleep. To cope with stress, adolescents may turn to social support figures. The present study tested the extent of main and moderating effects of various sources of social support on the
Jong, de I.C.; Sgoifo, A.; Lambooij, E.; Korte, S.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.
The effects of social stress on heart rate, heart rate variability and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias were studied in 12 growing pigs. Social stress was induced during a good competition test with a pen mate, and subsequently during a resident-intruder test with an unacquainted pig in which
Sultan, Sarwat; Rashid, Safia
This research was conducted to examine the mediating effect of perceived social support between perceived stress and job satisfaction among employees. A conveniently selected sample of 280 employees provided the information on Perceived Social Support Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Job Satisfaction Survey. Employing Regression analyses,…
Cho, Yong-Beom; Haslam, Nick
Acculturative stress and social support play important roles in suicide-related phenomena among adolescent immigrants. To examine their contributions, measures of acculturative and general life stress and a measure of multiple sources of social support were used to predict psychological distress and suicidal ideation among Korean-born high school…
Rising, Camella J; Bol, Nadine; Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Rains, Stephen; Wright, Kevin B
Men with prostate cancer often need social support to help them cope with illness-related physiological and psychosocial challenges. Whether those needs are met depends on receiving support optimally matched to their needs. This study examined relationships between perceived stress, prostate cancer-related stigma, weak-tie support preference, and online community use for social support in a survey of online prostate cancer community participants (n = 149). Findings revealed a positive relationship between stigma and perceived stress. This relationship, however, was moderated by weak-tie support preference and online community use for social support. Specifically, stigma was positively related to perceived stress when weak-tie support was preferred. Analyses also showed a positive relationship between stigma and perceived stress in those who used their online community for advice or emotional support. Health communication scholars should work collaboratively with diagnosed men, clinicians, and online community administrators to develop online interventions that optimally match social support needs.
Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Lars L.
Work-related musculoskeletal pain and stress are both highly prevalent in the working environment and relate well to the biopsychosocial model. While the onset of musculoskeletal pain is often dependent on the biological element of the biopsychosocial model, chronic pain is often influenced...... by psychological and social factors. Similarly, stress is also influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors. This study investigates the possibility of social capital being a buffer for stress and musculoskeletal pain in a group of female laboratory technicians.Female laboratory technicians (n = 500......) replied to questions about stress (Cohens Perceived Stress Scale-10), musculoskeletal pain (0-10 visual analog scale), and social capital at the workplace (bonding [in teams], bridging [between teams], and linking [between teams and leaders]). Outcome variables were stress and musculoskeletal pain...
Denmark, Ashley; Tien, David; Wong, Keith; Chung, Amanda; Cachat, Jonathan; Goodspeed, Jason; Grimes, Chelsea; Elegante, Marco; Suciu, Christopher; Elkhayat, Salem; Bartels, Brett; Jackson, Andrew; Rosenberg, Michael; Chung, Kyung Min; Badani, Hussain; Kadri, Ferdous; Roy, Sudipta; Tan, Julia; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Stewart, Adam; Zapolsky, Ivan; Gilder, Thomas; Kalueff, Allan V
Stress induced by social defeat is a strong modifier of animal anxiety and depression-like phenotypes. Self-grooming is a common rodent behavior, and has an ordered cephalo-caudal progression from licking of the paws to head, body, genitals and tail. Acute stress is known to alter grooming activity levels and disrupt its patterning. Following 15-17 days of chronic social defeat stress, grooming behavior was analyzed in adult male C57BL/6J mice exhibiting either dominant or subordinate behavior. Our study showed that subordinate mice experience higher levels of anxiety and display disorganized patterning of their grooming behaviors, which emerges as a behavioral marker of chronic social stress. These findings indicate that chronic social stress modulates grooming behavior in mice, thus illustrating the importance of grooming phenotypes for neurobehavioral stress research. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Fiebach, Christian J
Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect.
Marina M Doucerain; Raheleh eShiri Varnaamkhaasti; Norman eSegalowitz; Norman eSegalowitz; Andrew G Ryder; Andrew G Ryder
Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress. In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict communication-related acculturative stress. The...
Daniel A. Hackman
Full Text Available Lower socioeconomic status (SES is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African-American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders.
Linsky, Arnold S.; And Others
This study investigated the relationship between the stressfulness of each state's social environment, smoking, and mortality rates for respiratory cancer. It was based on a health behavior model which assumed that under conditions of high stress some people fail to exercise normal prudence in either protecting their health or engage in practices…
The Simeonstift building at Trier, which houses the city museum, dates back nearly 1000 years. Since 1973, it has been listed by the Unesco as part of the world's cultural heritage. The museum contains many important exhibits of the city's history. Already in the nineties, it became clear that modernisation was urgently necessary, as well as an expansion of the building because of the increasing number of exhibits. This includes, of course, modern and energy-efficient technical facilities. (orig.)
Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J
Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Richards, Jessica M; Patel, Nilam; Daniele-Zegarelli, Teresa; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W; Ernst, Monique
Risk-taking behavior increases during adolescence, leading to potentially disastrous consequences. Social anxiety emerges in adolescence and may compound risk-taking propensity, particularly during stress and when reward potential is high. However, the manner in which social anxiety, stress, and reward parameters interact to impact adolescent risk-taking is unclear. To clarify this question, a community sample of 35 adolescents (15-18yo), characterized as having high or low social anxiety, participated in a study over two separate days, during each of which they were exposed to either a social stress or a control condition, while performing a risky decision-making task. The task manipulated, orthogonally, reward magnitude and probability across trials. Three findings emerged. First, reward magnitude had a greater impact on the rate of risky decisions in high social anxiety (HSA) than low social anxiety (LSA) adolescents. Second, reaction times (RTs) were similar during the social stress and the control conditions for the HSA group, whereas the LSA group's RTs differed between conditions. Third, HSA adolescents showed the longest RTs on the most negative trials. These findings suggest that risk-taking in adolescents is modulated by context and reward parameters differentially as a function of social anxiety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Henrik B Jacobsen
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1 See whether increased or decreased variation relate to subjective reports of common somatic and psychological symptoms for a population on long-term sick leave; and (2 See if this pattern in variation is correlated with autonomic activation and psychological appraisal. METHODS: Our participants (n = 87 were referred to a 3.5-week return-to-work rehabilitation program, and had been on paid sick leave >8 weeks due to musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and/or common mental disorders. An extensive survey was completed, addressing socio-demographics, somatic and psychological complaints. In addition, a physician and a psychologist examined the participants, determining baseline heart rate, medication use and SCID-I diagnoses. During the 3.5-week program, the participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups. Participants wore heart rate monitors and filled out Visual Analogue Scales during the TSST-G. RESULTS: Our participants presented a low cortisol variation, with mixed model analyses showing a maximal increase in free saliva cortisol of 26% (95% CI, 0.21-0.32. Simultaneously, the increase in heart rate and Visual Analogue Scales was substantial, indicating autonomic and psychological activation consistent with intense stress from the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings are the first description of a blunted cortisol response in a heterogeneous group of patients on long-term sick leave. The results suggest lack of cortisol reactivity as a possible biological link involved in the pathway between stress, sustained activation and long-term sick leave.
Carlos Cézar Mascarenhas de Souza
Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo abordar, a partir da enunciação irônica que afeta a voz do narrador no filme Dogville, do cineasta Lars Von Trier, a imagem de um destino trágico em função do “Drama da hospitalidade cani-bal”, à luz da psicanálise freudo-lacaniana articulada às contribuições de Jac-ques Derrida e Emmanuel Lévinas.
Lischke, Alexander; Jacksteit, Robert; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Pahnke, Rike; Hamm, Alfons O; Weippert, Matthias
Psychosocial stress is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, there is a growing interest in biomarkers that indicate whether individuals show adaptive (i.e., stress-buffering and health-promoting) or maladaptive (i.e., stress-escalating and health-impairing) stress reactions in social contexts. As heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested to be a biomarker of adaptive behavior during social encounters, it may be possible that inter-individual differences in HRV are associated with inter-individual differences regarding stress in distinct social domains. To test this hypothesis, resting state HRV and psychosocial stress was assessed in 83 healthy community-dwelling individuals (age: 18-35years). HRV was derived from heart rate recordings during spontaneous and instructed breathing to assess the robustness of possible associations between inter-individual differences in HRV and inter-individual differences in psychosocial stress. Psychosocial stress was determined with a self-report questionnaire assessing stress in distinct social domains. A series of categorical and dimensional analyses revealed an association between inter-individual differences in HRV and inter-individual differences in psychosocial stress: Individuals with high HRV reported less stress in social life, but not in family life, work life or everyday life, than individuals with low HRV. On basis of these findings, it may be assumed that individuals with high HRV experience less psychosocial stress than individuals with low HRV. Although such an assumption needs to be corroborated by further findings, it seems to be consistent with previous findings showing that individuals with high HRV suffer less from stress and stress-related disorders than individuals with low HRV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Su, Xiaoyou; Lau, Joseph T F; Mak, Winnie W S; Chen, Lin; Choi, K C; Song, Junmin; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Guanglu; Feng, Tiejian; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chuliang; Liu, Jun; Liu, De; Cheng, Jinquan
Perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) was associated with severe mental health problems and risk behaviors. Discrimination toward PLWH in China is prevalent. Both perceived discrimination and social supports are determinants of the stress level among PLWH. Psychological support services for PLWH in China are scarce. It is unknown whether social support is a buffer between the perceived discrimination and perceived stress. With written consent, this study surveyed 258 PLWH recruited from multiple sources in two cities in China. Instruments were validated in previous or the present study, including the perceived stress scale for PLWH (PSSHIV), the perceived social support scale (PSSS), and the perceived discrimination scale for PLWH (PDSHIV). Pearson correlations and multiple regression models were fit. PDSHIV was associated with the Overall Scale and all subscales of PSSHIV, whilst lower socioeconomic status in general and lower scores of PSSS were associated with various subscales of PSSHIV. The interaction item (PSSS×PSDHIV) was nonsignificant in modeling PSSHIV, hence no significant moderating effect was detected. Whilst perceived discrimination is a major source of stress and social support can reduce stress among PLWH in China, improved social support cannot buffer the stressful consequences due to perceived discrimination. The results highlight the importance to reduce discrimination toward PLWH and the difficulty to alleviate its negative consequences. It is warranted to improve mental health among PLWH in China and it is still important to foster social support among PLWH as it has direct effects on perceived stress.
Michiel van Boxelaere
Full Text Available Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD, anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC and prefrontal cortex (PFC might underlie these social and cognitive deficits. Specifically, stress-induced deficiencies in neural plasticity have been associated with a hypodopaminergic state and reduced neural plasticity persistence. Here we assessed the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS on exploratory, social and cognitive behavior of females of two inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J that differ in their dopaminergic profile. Exposure to chronic stress resulted in impaired circadian rhythmicity, sociability and social cognition in both inbred strains, but differentially affected activity patterns and contextual discrimination performance. These stress-induced behavioral impairments were accompanied by reduced expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the prefrontal cortex. The strain-specific cognitive impairment was coexistent with enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced expression of genes related to dopamine signaling in hippocampus. These results underline the importance of assessing different strains with multiple test batteries to elucidate the neural and genetic basis of social and cognitive impairments related to chronic stress.
van Boxelaere, Michiel; Clements, Jason; Callaerts, Patrick; D'Hooge, Rudi; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna
Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD), anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) might underlie these social and cognitive deficits. Specifically, stress-induced deficiencies in neural plasticity have been associated with a hypodopaminergic state and reduced neural plasticity persistence. Here we assessed the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) on exploratory, social and cognitive behavior of females of two inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J) that differ in their dopaminergic profile. Exposure to chronic stress resulted in impaired circadian rhythmicity, sociability and social cognition in both inbred strains, but differentially affected activity patterns and contextual discrimination performance. These stress-induced behavioral impairments were accompanied by reduced expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the prefrontal cortex. The strain-specific cognitive impairment was coexistent with enhanced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced expression of genes related to dopamine signaling in hippocampus. These results underline the importance of assessing different strains with multiple test batteries to elucidate the neural and genetic basis of social and cognitive impairments related to chronic stress.
Yeoh, Su Ying; Wilkinson, Paul
Dysfunctional attitudes about oneself, the world and the future, measured quantitatively by Weissman's Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), are thought to influence the onset and persistence of major depressive disorder. However, never-depressed individuals may also harbour latent negative schema which may become activated under stressful conditions, giving rise to dysfunctional negative cognitions. This study investigated whether everyday psychosocial stresses could be sufficient to activate dysfunctional self-schema and increase negative cognitions in a large group of healthy adolescents and a preliminary cohort of previously depressed adolescents. 92 never-depressed adolescents aged 17-19 and 18 previously depressed adolescents, recruited from the Cambridge ROOTS cohort, took either version A or B of the DAS at rest on day 1. On day 2, they were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test, a psychosocial stress paradigm, 22 minutes after which they took the other version of DAS. Stress did not affect the DAS score in either group. Brief psychosocial stress does not appear to influence negative assumptions in healthy young adults with or without a past history of depression. It is possible that this is because dysfunctional assumptions, unlike self-schemas, are not latent. More long-term stresses may be needed to activate negative thoughts to a level where risk of depression is increased.
Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Lars L.
Abstract Work-related musculoskeletal pain and stress are both highly prevalent in the working environment and relate well to the biopsychosocial model. While the onset of musculoskeletal pain is often dependent on the biological element of the biopsychosocial model, chronic pain is often influenced by psychological and social factors. Similarly, stress is also influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors. This study investigates the possibility of social capital being a buffer for stress and musculoskeletal pain in a group of female laboratory technicians. Female laboratory technicians (n = 500) replied to questions about stress (Cohens Perceived Stress Scale-10), musculoskeletal pain (0–10 visual analog scale), and social capital at the workplace (bonding [in teams], bridging [between teams], and linking [between teams and leaders]). Outcome variables were stress and musculoskeletal pain and the predictor variable was social capital. General linear models tested the association of the 3 types of social capital (predictor variables) with stress and pain (mutually adjusted outcome variables). Analyses were controlled for age, lifestyle (body mass index, smoking), seniority, and working hours per week. For stress as outcome, moderate and high bonding social capital were different from low social capital with −2.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] −3.33 to −0.76) and −4.56 (95% CI −5.84 to −3.28) points on the Perceived Stress Scale of 0 to 42, respectively. Similarly, moderate and high bridging social capital were different from low social capital with −1.50 (95% CI −2.76 to −0.24) and −4.39 (95% CI −5.75 to −3.03), respectively. For linking, only high social was significantly different from low with −2.94 (95% CI −4.28 to −1.60). None of the 3 types of social capital was associated with musculoskeletal pain. Higher levels of social capital at the workplace appear to buffer against stress, but not against
Brkic, Sejla; Söderpalm, Bo; Söderpalm Gordh, Anna
The differentiation between high and low cortisol responders to stress is of interest in determining the risk factors which may, along with genetic vulnerability, influence alcohol intake. Thirty-two healthy volunteers, family history positive to alcoholism (FHP, n = 16) and family history negative (FHN, n = 16) attended two laboratory sessions during which alcohol or placebo was offered. There were no differences in consumption of alcohol or placebo between FHP and FHN subjects. STUDY 2: Fifty-eight healthy social drinkers, FHP (n = 27) and FHN (n = 31) attended two laboratory sessions. They were administered either alcohol or placebo in both sessions they attended. All subjects underwent either a stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a stress-free period, at two separate occasions, before being offered beverage. After the salivary cortisol analysis, subjects in each group were divided into high (HCR) or low (LCR) cortisol responders. After stress, subjects who were FHP-HCR consumed more alcohol than FHN-HCR. There were no differences in the placebo intake between FHP and FHN subjects regardless of their cortisol response. This result indicates that stress promotes alcohol consumption only in subjects with a family history of Type 1 alcoholism who show an increase in cortisol response to stress. This behaviour is similar to that previously observed in alcohol dependent individuals after stress and thus could represent an endophenotype posing a risk for future development of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Cruz, Fábio C; Duarte, Josiane O; Leão, Rodrigo M; Hummel, Luiz F V; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C
It has been demonstrated that disruption of social bonds and perceived isolation (loneliness) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adolescence is proposed as a period of vulnerability to stress. Nevertheless, the impact of chronic social stress during this ontogenic period in cardiovascular function is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the impact in cardiovascular function of social isolation for 3 weeks in adolescent and adult male rats. Also, the long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence were investigated longitudinally. Social isolation reduced body weight in adolescent, but not in adult animals. Disruption of social bonds during adolescence increased arterial pressure without affecting heart rate and pulse pressure (PP). Nevertheless, social isolation in adulthood reduced systolic arterial pressure and increased diastolic arterial pressure, which in turn decreased PP without affecting mean arterial pressure. Cardiovascular changes in adolescents, but not adults, were followed by facilitation of both baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity to the vasodilator agent acetylcholine. Vascular responsiveness to either the vasodilator agent sodium nitroprusside or the vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine was not affected by social isolation. Except for the changes in body weight and baroreflex sensitivity, all alterations evoked by social isolation during adolescence were reversed in adulthood after moving animals from isolated to collective housing. These findings suggest a vulnerability of adolescents to the effects of chronic social isolation in cardiovascular function. However, results indicate minimal cardiovascular consequences in adulthood of disruption of social bonds during adolescence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Varlinskaya, Elena I; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Spear, Linda P
Human adolescents consume alcohol largely to enhance social interactions. Adolescent, but not adult rats likewise exhibit ethanol-induced social facilitation under low-stress circumstances. Since the relationship between stress and ethanol sensitivity across ontogeny still has yet to be well explored, the present study sought to characterize possible age-associated differences in the influence of stressor exposure on ethanol-induced changes in social behavior in adolescent [postnatal days (P) 30-36] and adult (P65-71) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were repeatedly restrained (90min/day) for 5days, followed by examination of ethanol-induced (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0g/kg) alterations in social behaviors on the last day. Results revealed typical age-related differences in sensitivity to ethanol among controls, with adolescents being uniquely sensitive to low-dose ethanol stimulation of social investigation and play fighting, but less sensitive than adults to the social suppression emerging at higher doses. At both ages, stressor exposure decreased sensitivity to social inhibitory effects of ethanol, while augmenting expression of ethanol's social facilitatory effects. Ethanol also attenuated the stress-related suppression of social motivation at both ages. These results suggest that repeated stressor exposure diminishes age-related differences in the social consequences of ethanol, with stress enhancing ethanol-induced social facilitation across age. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rus, Holly M.; Tiemensma, Jitske
Social media's influence on stress remains largely unknown. Conflicting research suggests that Facebook use may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined the impact of social media use on stress recovery. Facebook users (n = 92, 49 males, mean age 19.55 SD = 1.63) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook profile or quietly read after experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers during recovery. Participants who used Facebook experienced greater sustained cortisol concentration (p Facebook use may negatively impact well-being. PMID:28974938
Rus, Holly M; Tiemensma, Jitske
Social media's influence on stress remains largely unknown. Conflicting research suggests that Facebook use may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined the impact of social media use on stress recovery. Facebook users ( n = 92, 49 males, mean age 19.55 SD = 1.63) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook profile or quietly read after experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers during recovery. Participants who used Facebook experienced greater sustained cortisol concentration ( p Facebook use may negatively impact well-being.
León-Pérez, Gabriela; Wallston, Kenneth A; Goggins, Kathryn M; Poppendeck, Heidi M; Kripalani, Sunil
Little is known about the role of stress on the psychological well-being of patients after cardiac hospitalization or about factors that protect against or exacerbate the effects of stress. We use prospective data from 1542 patients to investigate the relationship between post-discharge stress and changes in depressive symptoms, and whether the level of prior depressive symptoms, health competence, and perceived social support moderate this relationship. Net of depressive symptoms in the 2 weeks prior to hospitalization, higher levels of post-discharge stress significantly increase depressive symptoms 30 days after discharge. The level of prior depressive symptoms moderates the effect of stress. On the other hand, perceived health competence and social support buffer the negative effects of post-discharge stress. Knowing which patients are particularly vulnerable to experiencing stress and a subsequent increase in depressive symptoms can help trigger interventions prior to discharge and possibly ameliorate the prevalence of depression.
During college years, which are known as a stressful time, students may often face stress personally, socially, academically, economically, and so forth in various areas of life. One of the important sources that students use to cope with stress is social support. Students can cope with stress easier via the support they receive from their friends…
Ciarma, Jessica Lyn; Mathew, Jaya Miriam
While previous research indicates a strong link between social anxiety and disordered eating, more research is needed in order to understand the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. Given that stress is often implicated in disordered eating, it was hypothesised that ones reaction to stress (i.e. stress reactivity) would mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. Similarly, given that low self-esteem is commonly reported in both those with social anxiety and eating disorders, it was hypothesised that self-esteem would also mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. In order to test this, an online survey measuring social anxiety, disordered eating, stress reactivity and self-esteem, was administered to 282 participants in the community, aged between 18 and 35years. Results showed that self-esteem and a reactivity to stress during social conflict - but not during negative social evaluations - partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. These findings demonstrate that low self-esteem and interpersonal conflict are powerful mechanisms that can maintain eating disorder psychopathology in those who are socially anxious. This highlights the importance of ensuring that these mechanisms are sufficiently addressed in eating disorder prevention and treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kircanski, Katharina; Colich, Natalie L; Gotlib, Ian H
Early life stress is associated with poorer social functioning. Attentional biases in response to threat-related cues, linked to both early experience and psychopathology, may explain this association. To date, however, no study has examined attentional biases to fearful facial expressions as a function of early life stress or examined these biases as a potential mediator of the relation between early life stress and social problems. In a sample of 154 children (ages 9-13 years) we examined the associations among interpersonal early life stressors (i.e., birth through age 6 years), attentional biases to emotional facial expressions using a dot-probe task, and social functioning on the Child Behavior Checklist. High levels of early life stress were associated with both greater levels of social problems and an attentional bias away from fearful facial expressions, even after accounting for stressors occurring in later childhood. No biases were found for happy or sad facial expressions as a function of early life stress. Finally, attentional biases to fearful faces mediated the association between early life stress and social problems. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions, evidenced by a bias away from these stimuli, may be a developmental response to early adversity and link the experience of early life stress to poorer social functioning. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Phibbs, Sandi; Stawski, Robert S; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Munoz, Elizabeth; Smyth, Joshua M; Sliwinski, Martin J
Lack of social support and high levels of stress represent potentially modifiable risk factors for cognitive aging. In this study we examined the relationships between these two risk factors and response time inconsistency (RTI), or trial-to-trial variability in choice response time tasks. RTI is an early indicator of declining cognitive health, and examining the influence of modifiable psychosocial risk factors on RTI is important for understanding and promoting cognitive health during adulthood and old age. Using data from a community sample study (n = 317; M age = 49, range = 19-83), we examined the effects of social support, including size of network and satisfaction with support, global perceived stress, and their interactions on RTI. Neither size of network nor satisfaction with support was associated with RTI independent of perceived stress. Stress was positively associated with increased RTI on all tasks, independent of social support. Perceived stress did not interact with either dimension of social support to predict RTI, and perceived stress effects were invariant across age and sex. Perceived stress, but not social support, may be a unique and modifiable risk factor for normal and pathological cognitive aging. Discussion focuses on the importance of perceived stress and its impact on RTI in supporting cognitive health in adulthood and old age.
Bass, Ellyn Charlotte; Stednitz, Sarah Josephine; Simonson, Kevin; Shen, Tori; Gahtan, Ethan
Experiences of social exclusion elicit social pain responses. The current study examined the ability of social exclusion to activate physiological stress responses and adaptively modulate affect and empathy consistent with "defensive emotional analgesia." Measures of affect and empathy, and saliva samples for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) analysis, were collected before and after subjects participated in a computer game ("Cyberball") designed to manipulate feelings of social exclusion. Contrary to our hypotheses, social exclusion was associated with a reduction in cortisol, and social inclusion with an increase in cortisol. Both Cyberball groups showed increases in sAA and decreases in both positive and negative affect, with the greatest drop in affect occurring after social exclusion. Empathy did not differ between the social exclusion and inclusion groups and was not correlated with cortisol or sAA levels. These results support the presence of a defensive response to social exclusion in which central stress pathways controlling cortisol release are inhibited. Cortisol and sAA were shown to have distinct patterns of responses to psychological stress, with sAA responding more rapidly. Related methodological concerns for the use of these physiological stress markers and of Cyberball in social neuroscience research are discussed.
Constantinides, Efthymios; Dinkelbach, Hanna; de Vries, Sjoerd A.
Usage motivations for social networking sites range from maintaining relationships to expanding social networks. Nevertheless, the increasing Social Media use has also brought disadvantages. It leads to negative psychological effects by the fear of missing out, and fulfilling needs as gossiping and
Brunton, Paula J
A suboptimal in utero environment, for example, as a result of maternal stress, can have detrimental effects on the pregnancy and long-term adverse 'programming' effects on the offspring. This article focuses on the effects of prenatal social stress on the mother, her pregnancy and the offspring, since these issues have ethological relevance in both animals and humans. The consequences of social stress exposure depend on when during pregnancy the stress occurs, and many of the effects on the offspring are sex specific. Social stress during early pregnancy tends to result in pregnancy loss, whereas stress exposure later in pregnancy, when the mother has already invested considerable resources in the foetuses, results in programmed offspring of low birth weight: a risk factor for various adulthood diseases. Neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress in the offspring are particularly sensitive to foetal programming by prenatal stress, indicated by enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses and increased anxiety behaviour, which result from permanent changes in the offspring's brain. The dysregulation of HPA axis function may also interfere with other systems, for example, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, as there is evidence for alterations in steroidogenesis, reproductive potential and impaired reproductive/social behaviours in prenatally stressed offspring. Prenatal social stress also programmes future maternal behaviour, highlighting the potential for negative phenotypes to be transmitted to future generations. The possible mechanisms through which maternal stress during pregnancy is transmitted to the foetuses and the foetal brain is programmed by prenatal stress and the potential to overwrite programming of the offspring are discussed.
Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P
The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested
Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Goldstein, Sara E
Social support protects individuals against adversity throughout the lifespan, and is especially salient during times of intense social change, such as during the transition to adulthood. Focusing on three relationship-specific sources of social support (family, friends, and romantic partners), the current study examined the stress-buffering function of social support against loneliness and whether the association between social support and loneliness with stress held constant would vary by its source. The role of gender in these associations was also considered. The sample consisted of 636 ethnically diverse college youth (age range 18-25; 80 % female). The results suggest that the stress-buffering role of social support against loneliness varies by its source. Only support from friends buffered the association between stress and loneliness. Further, when stress was held constant, the association between social support and loneliness differed by the sources, in that support from friends or romantic partners (but not from family) was negatively associated with loneliness. Regarding gender differences, the adverse impact of lower levels of familial or friends' support on loneliness was greater in females than in males. This research advances our understanding of social support among college-aged youth; implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Previous studies have reported that international students in the US experience unique difficulties and acculturative stress related to cultural differences, language barriers, academic pressure, and interpersonal relationships (Mallinckrodt & Leong, 1992). Berry, Kim, Minde, and Mok (1987) defined this "acculturative stress" as…
Bentley, Eryn; Millman, Zachary B; Thompson, Elizabeth; Demro, Caroline; Kline, Emily; Pitts, Steven C; DeVylder, Jordan E; Smith, Melissa Edmondson; Reeves, Gloria; Schiffman, Jason
Stress is related to symptom severity among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, although this relation may be influenced by protective factors. We explored whether the association of CHR diagnosis with social stress is moderated by the quality of parent-child relationships in a sample of 96 (36 CHR; 60 help-seeking controls) adolescents and young adults receiving mental health services. We examined self-reported social stress and parent-child relationships as measured by the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), and determined CHR status from the clinician-administered Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndrome (SIPS). The social stress subscale, part of the clinical domain of the BASC-2, assesses feelings of stress and tension in personal relationships and the relations with parents subscale, part of the adaptive domain of the BASC-2, assesses perceptions of importance in family and quality of parent-child relationship. There was a modest direct relation between risk diagnosis and social stress. Among those at CHR, however, there was a significant relation between parent-child relationships and social stress (b=-0.73, t=-3.77, pchild relationship may be a protective factor against social stress for those at risk for psychosis. Findings provide additional evidence to suggest that interventions that simultaneously target both social stress and parent-child relationships might be relevant for adolescents and young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test, an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one’s emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.
Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Pulopulos, Matias M; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia
Some personality traits have key importance for health because they can affect the maintenance and evolution of different disorders with a high prevalence in older people, including stress pathologies and diseases. In this study we investigated how two relevant personality traits, optimism and pessimism, affect the psychophysiological response of 72 healthy participants (55 to 76 years old) exposed to either a psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a control task; salivary cortisol, heart rate (HR) and situational appraisal were measured. Our results showed that optimism was related to faster cortisol recovery after exposure to stress. Pessimism was not related to the physiological stress response, but it was associated with the perception of the stress task as more difficult. Thus, higher optimism was associated with better physiological adjustment to a stressful situation, while higher pessimism was associated with worse psychological adjustment to stress. These results highlight different patterns of relationships, with optimism playing a more important role in the physiological component of the stress response, and pessimism having a greater effect on situational appraisal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jones, Kristian T; Shelton, Richard C; Wan, Jun; Li, Li
Individuals with insulin resistance (IR) are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Psychological stress may contribute to develop CVD in IR, although mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that individuals with IR have enhanced emotional and physiological responses to acute psychological stress, leading to increased CVD risk. Sixty participants were enrolled into the study, and classified into IR group (n = 31) and insulin sensitive group (n = 29) according to the Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, which was calculated based on an oral glucose tolerance test. The Trier social stress test, a standardized experimental stress paradigm, was performed on each participant, and emotional and physiological responses were examined. Blood was collected from each subject for insulin, cytokines, and cortisol measurements. Compared with the insulin-sensitive group, individuals with IR had significantly lower ratings of energy and calm, but higher fatigue levels in response to acute stressors. Individuals with IR also showed blunted heart rate reactivity following stress. In addition, the IR status was worsened by acute psychological stress as demonstrated by further increased insulin secretion. Furthermore, individuals with IR showed significantly increased levels of leptin and interleukin-6, but decreased levels of adiponectin, at baseline, stress test, and post-stress period. Our findings in individuals with IR under acute stress would allow a better understanding of the risks for developing CVD and to tailor the interventions for better outcomes.
Wan, Cynthia; Couture-Lalande, Marie-Ève; Lebel, Sophie; Bielajew, Catherine
Atypical patterns of cortisol secretion following an acute stressor have been commonly reported in breast cancer survivors. Stressful life events have been associated with blunted acute cortisol levels in other populations. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of stressful life events on cortisol secretion patterns of breast cancer survivors following an acute stressor. The Trier Social Stress (TSST) was used to elicit a moderate stress response in breast cancer survivors (n = 19) and a control group (n = 17). Saliva samples were collected before, during and after the TSST to provide cortisol concentrations. During recovery, we recorded the frequency and subjective impact of stressful life events in the past year using the Life Experience Survey. Simple regressions analyses were performed; results suggest no group differences between the total number of stressful life events and their subjective impact. However, the total number of stressful life events as well as their subjective impact correlated negatively with the peak cortisol concentration in breast cancer survivors. The cumulative effect of stressful life events, positive and negative, may impact the endocrine stress system of breast cancer survivors more so than that of women with no history of cancer.
Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Eack, Shaun M.
This study examined differences between adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 40) and typical community volunteers (N = 25) on measures of stressful life events, perceived stress, and biological stress response (cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity) during a novel social stress task. Additional analyses examined the relationship between…
Doucerain, Marina M.; Varnaamkhaasti, Raheleh S.; Segalowitz, Norman; Ryder, Andrew G.
Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress (CRAS). In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants’ L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict CRAS. The main idea underlying this hypo...
Couret, David; Otten, W.; Puppe, B.; Prunier, Armelle; Merlot, Elodie
Pregnant sows are exposed to various stressors in intensive pig husbandry that may have negative consequences on their health, reproductive performances and welfare. Social stress is one of these challenges, because gestating sows have to be housed in groups according to EU guidelines (2001/88/CE). The purpose of this study was to determine the consequences of repeated social stress in pregnant female pigs on their behavioural, endocrine and immunological responses and on pregnancy outcome. P...
Corbett Blythe A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are defined by impairment in reciprocal social interaction and flexible adaptation to the environment. This study compared physiological stress in children with and without ASD exposed to two social stress protocols. We hypothesized that the ASD group would show heightened initial and enduring cortisol levels to the social stressors, which would be moderated by age and intelligence. Methods Twenty-seven children with ASD and 32 with typical development (TYP completed a standardized social-evaluative performance task and a validated paradigm of social play with peers. Physiological stress was measured by salivary cortisol at nine time points. Statistical approaches included repeated-measures linear mixed models and correlation analyses. Results The average cortisol level of both groups during initial exposure to social situations was significantly greater than baseline levels (ASD, P = 0.018; TYP, P = 0.006. Stress responsivity was significantly different between the groups; the TYP group showed a significant reduction in cortisol over time (P = 0.023, whereas the ASD group maintained an elevated cortisol level (P >0.05. The ASD group evidenced greater variability in between-group, within-group and intra-individual analyses. Age was a positive moderator of stress for the ASD group (P = 0.047, whereas IQ was a negative moderator for the TYP group (P = 0.061. Conclusions Initial stress to novel social scenarios is idiosyncratic and predictive of subsequent exposure. Amidst significant variability in cortisol, children with ASD show enhanced and sustained social stress that increases with age. Developmental and cognitive factors differentially moderate stress in children with ASD and TYP, respectively. A model of neuroendocrine reactivity is proposed.
Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Lim, Lynette; Sleigh, Adrian
Social capital includes collective features such as social trust, norms, and networks. This paper examines social capital-related variables against demographic, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics of 87,134 adult distance-learning students from Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University.We have found economic stress to be higher in non-married groups, lower income groups, and those residing in rural areas. Social trust was higher among married, especially with higher income and those in rural areas. Those who were separated, divorced or widowed and those with lower socioeconomic status had the highest economic stress and the least social trust. These groups also reported high importance of religious belief, karma and spiritual belief, along with lower income groups. Despite having high economic stress, social interaction with and support from families were found to be high among those not-married, with lower income, and in rural areas.As Thailand urbanises and progresses economically, diverse patterns of social capital have emerged and some changes might have offset others. For example, we have shown that economic stress associated with low income tends to co-occur with high social interaction and family support. This observation should be reassuring to policymakers aiming to preserve and promote social capital as Thailand continues to urbanise and modernise.
Herten, Nadja; Otto, Tobias; Wolf, Oliver T
In a stressful situation, attention is shifted to potentially relevant stimuli. Recent studies from our laboratory revealed that participants stressed perform superior in a recognition task involving objects of the stressful episode. In order to characterize the role of a stress induced alteration in visual exploration, the present study investigated whether participants experiencing a laboratory social stress situation differ in their fixation from participants of a control group. Further, we aimed at shedding light on the relation of fixation behaviour with obtained memory measures. We randomly assigned 32 male and 31 female participants to a control or a stress condition consisting of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a public speaking paradigm causing social evaluative threat. In an established 'friendly' control condition (f-TSST) participants talk to a friendly committee. During both conditions, the committee members used ten office items (central objects) while another ten objects were present without being used (peripheral objects). Participants wore eye tracking glasses recording their fixations. On the next day, participants performed free recall and recognition tasks involving the objects present the day before. Stressed participants showed enhanced memory for central objects, accompanied by longer fixation times and larger fixation amounts on these objects. Contrasting this, fixation towards the committee faces showed the reversed pattern; here, control participants exhibited longer fixations. Fixation indices and memory measures were, however, not correlated with each other. Psychosocial stress is associated with altered fixation behaviour. Longer fixation on objects related to the stressful situation may reflect enhanced encoding, whereas diminished face fixation suggests gaze avoidance of aversive, socially threatening stimuli. Modified visual exploration should be considered in future stress research, in particular when focussing on memory for a
Lykeridou, Katerina; Gourounti, Kleanthi; Sarantaki, Antigoni; Loutradis, Dimitrios; Vaslamatzis, Grigorios; Deltsidou, Anna
The aims of this study were to examine the association between (1) occupational social class and coping responses, (2) coping responses and infertility-related stress and (3) occupational social class and infertility-related distress. The coping strategies that individuals use in most of the stressful situations vary according to certain factors, such as, the appraised characteristics of the stressful condition, personality dispositions and social resources. This study was a cross-sectional survey. The study involved 404 women undergoing infertility treatment at a public clinic in Athens, Greece. State and trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), infertility-related stress (Copenhagen Multi-centre Psychosocial Infertility) and coping strategies (Copenhagen Multi-centre Psychosocial Infertility) were measured. Women of low/very low social class reported higher levels of active-confronting coping compared with women of higher social class (p social) were positively correlated with both active-avoidance (r = 0·302, 0·423 and 0·211, respectively, p Infertile women of the lowest social class used more active-confronting coping and more passive-avoidance coping than women of the highest social class. Factors such as low social class and maladaptive coping strategies might contribute to infertility-related stress and anxiety. Nurses and midwives who work in infertility clinics should aim to identify individuals who are at high risk for infertility stress and adjustment difficulties and they should minimise the identified risk factors for infertility-related stress and strengthen the protective factors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Marina M Doucerain
Full Text Available Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress. In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2 learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict communication-related acculturative stress. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants' L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N=100 support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants' L2 network account for unique variance in communication-related acculturative stress but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants' L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning.
Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan
Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.
Lin, En-Ju D; Sun, Meng; Choi, Eugene Y; Magee, Daniel; Stets, Colin W; During, Matthew J
Stress is a widely recognized risk factor for psychiatric and metabolic disorders. A number of animal models utilizing various stressors have been developed to facilitate our understanding in the pathophysiology of stress-related dysfunctions. The most commonly used chronic stress paradigms include the unpredictable chronic mild stress paradigm, the social defeat paradigm and the social deprivation paradigm. Here we assess the potential of social crowding as an alternative chronic stress model to study the effects on affective behaviors and metabolic disturbances. Ten-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were housed in groups of four (control) or eight (social crowding; SC) in standard cage for 9 weeks. Exploration, anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors were assessed in the open field test, the elevated T-maze, the novelty-suppressed feeding test and the forced swim test. SC mice exhibited a modest anxiety-like phenotype without change in depressive-like behaviors. Nine weeks of social crowding did not affect the body weight, but robustly increased adiposity as determined by increased mass of fat depots. Consistent with the increased fat content, serum leptin was markedly elevated in the SC mice. Specific changes in gene expression were also observed in the hypothalamus and the white adipose tissue following SC housing. Our study demonstrates the potential of social crowding as an alternative model for the study of stress-related metabolic and behavioral dysfunctions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vankim, Nicole A; Nelson, Toben F
To examine cross-sectional associations between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing among 4-year college students. A national cross-sectional sample of 4-year colleges in the United States. Ninety-four 4-year colleges in the United States. A total of 14,804 undergraduate students. Self-report vigorous physical activity, perceived stress (measured using the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale), mental health (measured using the SF-36), and socializing (assessed using self-report number of friends and hours spent socializing). Logistic regression models accounting for clustering within schools were estimated to examine the association between vigorous physical activity, mental health, perceived stress, and socializing. Adjusted models included high school vigorous physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Students who met vigorous physical activity recommendations were less likely to report poor mental health (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: .79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .69, .90) and perceived stress (adjusted OR: .75; 95% CI: .67, .83) than students who did not meet recommendations. In addition, socializing partially mediated the relationship between vigorous physical activity, mental health, and perceived stress; however, race and sex did not moderate the relationship. Interventions aiming to improve mental well-being of college students should also consider promoting physical activity. At least some of the positive benefits of physical activity may arise from social interactions.
MacGeorge, Erina L.; Samter, Wendy; Feng, Bo; Gillihan, Seth J.; Graves, Angela R.
The current study was designed to examine associations among stress due to the 9/11 terrorist attacks, social support, and health (depression and physical illness) in a college student sample. In December 2001, students from Eastern universities (N = 666; 482 women, 184 men; average age 19.5 yrs.) completed measures of stress from terrorism…
Swartzman, Samantha; Sani, Fabio; Munro, Alastair J
We compared social support with other potential psychosocial predictors of posttraumatic stress after cancer. These included family identification, or a sense of belonging to and commonality with family members, and family constraints, or the extent to which family members are closed, judgmental, or unreceptive in conversations about cancer. We also tested the hypothesis that family constraints mediate the relationship between family identification and cancer-related posttraumatic stress. We used a cross-sectional design. Surveys were collected from 205 colorectal cancer survivors in Tayside, Scotland. Both family identification and family constraints were stronger independent predictors of posttraumatic stress than social support. In multivariate analyses, social support was not a significant independent predictor of posttraumatic stress. In addition, there was a significant indirect effect of family identification on posttraumatic stress through family constraints. Numerous studies demonstrate a link between social support and posttraumatic stress. However, experiences within the family may be more important in predicting posttraumatic stress after cancer. Furthermore, a sense of belonging to and commonality with the family may reduce the extent to which cancer survivors experience constraints on conversations about cancer; this may, in turn, reduce posttraumatic stress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kerdijk, Carlijn; van der Kamp, John; Polman, Remco
Lazarus (1999) model of stress and coping is based on the reciprocal interaction between the person and the environment. The aim of this study therefore was to examine whether the social environment (significant others) are of influence on the stress and coping of team athletes. The study consisted
Stasiak, Lynne W.
Stress and anxiety are pervasive in education and society. Schools are initiating policy and programs aimed at addressing resiliency and wellbeing of students; yet, research and practice are lagging. This phenomenological study sought to explore social emotional teaching and learning with a specific focus on the potential impact on stress and…
Westenbroek, Christel; Boer, Johan A. den; Veenhuis, Maarten; Horst, Gert J. ter
Stress plays an important role in the development of affective disorders. Women show a higher prevalence for these disorders than men. The course of a depression is thought to be positively influenced by social support. We have used a chronic stress model in which rats received foot-shocks daily for
Fleming, R; Baum, A; Gisriel, M M; Gatchel, R J
Symptom reporting, task performance, and urinary catecholamine excretion were studied in a group of people living near the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant and in control populations. More than a year after the accident, living near the damaged reactor was associated with elevations in all indices of stress compared with control levels. Social support mediated these stress indices such that higher levels were associated with fewer psychological and behavioral symptoms of stress. Biochemical measures showed a different pattern of results.
Full Text Available Adolescence is a time of developmental changes and reorganization in the brain. It has been hypothesized that stress has a greater neurological impact on adolescents than on adults. However, scientific evidence in support of this hypothesis is still limited. We treated adolescent (4-week-old and adult (8-week-old rats with social instability stress for five weeks and compared the subsequent structural and functional changes to amygdala neurons. In the stress-free control condition, the adolescent group showed higher fear-potentiated startle responses, larger dendritic arborization, more proximal dendritic spine distribution and lower levels of truncated TrkB than the adult rats. Social instability stress exerted opposite effects on fear-potentiated startle responses in these two groups, i.e., the stress period appeared to hamper the performance in adolescents but improved it in adult rats. Furthermore, whilst the chronic social stress applied to adolescent rats reduced their dendritic field and spine density in basal and lateral amygdala neurons, the opposite stress effects on neuron morphology were observed in the adult rats. Moreover, stress in adolescence suppressed the amygdala expression of synaptic proteins, i.e., full-length TrkB and SNAP-25, whereas, in the adult rats, chronic stress enhanced full-length and truncated TrkB expressions in the amygdala. In summary, chronic social instability stress hinders amygdala neuron development in the adolescent brain, while mature neurons in the amygdala are capable of adapting to the stress. The stress induced age-dependent effects on the fear-potentiated memory may occur by altering the BDNF-TrkB signaling and neuroplasticity in the amygdala.
Fleming, R.; Baum, A.; Gisriel, M.M.; Gatchel, R.J.
Symptom reporting, task performance, and urinary catecholamine excretion were studied in a group of people living near the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant and in control populations. More than a year after the accident, living near the damaged reactor was associated with elevations in all indices of stress compared with control levels. Social support mediated these stress indices such that higher levels were associated with fewer psychological and behavioral symptoms of stress. Biochemical measures showed a different pattern of results
Stress is one of the most severe occupational risks among nurses working in different health care settings, as well for nurses working in primary health care. Most frequently nurses experience stress when they have a heavy workload, experience conflict with supervisors and staff, or undertake work with high emotional demands. Furthermore, researchers have found potential relationships that exist between stress and the organizational social context (i.e. the organizational culture, organizatio...
Lü, Wei; Wang, Zhenhong; Hughes, Brian M
The association between openness (assessed by shortened Chinese version of NEO Five-Factor Inventory, NEOFFI) and physiological reactivity to, and recovery from, social stress (a video-recorded, timed public speaking task with evaluators present in the room), and physiological adaptation to repeated social stress was examined in the present study. Subjective and physiological data were collected from 70 college students across five laboratory stages: baseline, stress exposure period 1, post-stress period 1, stress exposure period 2, and post-stress period 2. Results indicated that higher openness was associated with lesser heart rate (HR) reactivity to the first and second stress exposure, and lesser systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity to the second stress exposure. Higher openness was associated with higher resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), lesser RSA withdrawals to the first stress exposure, and more complete RSA recovery after the first stress exposure. Moreover, higher openness was associated with pronounced systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) adaptation with greater decreases in SBP and DBP reactivity across the two successive stress exposures. These findings might shed light on the biological basis linking openness to health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pieritz, Karoline; Schäfer, Sarina J; Strahler, Jana; Rief, Winfried; Euteneuer, Frank
Experiences of social pain due to social exclusion may be processed in similar neural systems that process experiences of physical pain. The present study aimed to extend the findings on social exclusion and pain by examining the impact of social exclusion on an affective (ie, heat pain tolerance) and a sensory component of pain (ie, heat pain intensity). Whether a potential effect may be moderated by chronic life stress, social status, or social sup-port was further examined. A community-based sample of 59 women was studied. Social exclusion and inclusion were experimentally manipulated by using a virtual ball-tossing game called Cyberball in which participants were randomly assigned to either being excluded or being included by two other virtual players. Heat pain tolerance and intensity were assessed before and after the game. Potential psychosocial moderators were assessed via a questionnaire. The main finding of this study is that chronic stress moderates the impact of social exclusion on pain tolerance ( p socially excluded participants showed a lower heat pain tolerance than participants who were socially included. Contrary to the authors' hypothesis, pain sensitivity was increased in socially included participants compared with socially excluded participants after the game ( p social exclusion.
Lederbogen, Florian; Haddad, Leila; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas
Living in an urban environment is associated with an increased prevalence of specific mental health disorders, particularly schizophrenia. While many factors have been discussed as possible mediators of this association, most researchers favour the hypothesis that urban living stands as a proxy for an increased exposure to social stress. This factor has been recognized as one of the most powerful causes for the development of mental disorders, and appears to correlate with the markedly increased incidence of schizophrenia in urban minority groups. However, the hypothesis that the general urban population is exposed to increased levels of social stress has to be validated. Pursuing the goal of understanding how social stress acts as a risk factor for mental disorder in urban populations must include factors like social conditions, environmental pollutants, infrastructure and economic issues. -- Highlights: • City living is associated with an increased prevalence of mental health disorders, particularly schizophrenia. • Possible mediators of this association include exposure to social stress. • This mechanism seems plausible in urban minority groups. • However, it is unclear whether social stress exposure is increased in the general urban population. -- New data support the hypothesis that increased exposure to social stressors is a key factor mediating the increased prevalence of specific mental disorders in urban populations
Buwalda, B.; Stubbendorff, C.; Zickert, N.; Koolhaas, J. M.
Childhood bullying or social stress in adolescent humans is generally considered to increase the risk of developing behavioral disorders like depression in adulthood. Juveniles are hypothesized to be particularly sensitive to stressors in their environment due to the relatively late maturation of
Yanovich, Chen; Kirby, Michael L; Michaelevski, Izhak; Yadid, Gal; Pinhasov, Albert
Studies of personality have suggested that dissimilarities in ability to cope with stressful situations results in differing tendency to develop addictive behaviors. The present study used selectively bred stress-resilient, socially-dominant (Dom) and stress-vulnerable, socially-submissive (Sub) mice to investigate the interaction between environmental stress and inbred predisposition to develop addictive behavior to cocaine. In a Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) paradigm using cocaine, Sub mice displayed an aversion to drug, whereas Dom mice displayed drug attraction. Following a 4-week regimen of Chronic Mild Stress (CMS), Sub mice in CPP displayed a marked increase (>400%) in cocaine attraction, whereas Dom mice did not differ in attraction from their non-stressed state. Examination of hippocampal gene expression revealed in Sub mice, exposure to external stimuli, stress or cocaine, increased CRH expression (>100%), which was evoked in Dom mice only by cocaine exposure. Further, stress-induced decreases in DRD1 (>60%) and DRD2 (>50%) expression in Sub mice differed markedly from a complete lack of change in Dom mice. From our findings, we propose that social stratification dictates vulnerability to stress-induced attraction that may lead to addiction via differential regulation of hippocampal response to dopaminergic input, which in turn may influence differing tendency to develop addictive behaviors.
Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.
This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…
Taylor, Catherine J
Social influence is an important component of contemporary conceptualizations of masculinity in the U.S. Men who fail to achieve masculinity by maintaining social influence in the presence of other men may be at risk of stigmatization. As such, men should be especially likely to exhibit a stress response to loss of social influence in the presence of other men. This study assesses whether men who lose social influence exhibit more of a stress response than men who gain social influence, using data collected in a laboratory setting where participants were randomly assigned into four-person groups of varying sex compositions. The groups were videotaped working on two problem-solving tasks. Independent raters assessed change in social influence using a well-validated measure borrowed from experimental work in the Status Characteristics Theory tradition. Cortisol is used as a measure of stress response because it is known to increase in response to loss of social esteem. Results show that young men who lose social influence while working with other young men exhibit cortisol response. In contrast women do not exhibit cortisol response to loss of social influence, nor do men working with women. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that loss of social influence in men may be associated with a physiological stress response because maintaining social influence is very important to men while in the presence of other men. This physiological response to loss of social influence underscores the importance to men of achieving masculinity through gaining and maintaining social influence, and avoiding the stigma associated with the failure to do so. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
October 20, 42-44. Bowlby , J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Attachment (Vol. 1). London: Hogarth Press. Bowlby , J. (1973). Attachment and loss...Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University. Dolan, N. (1987). The relationship between burnout and job satisfaction in nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing...Nurses under stress (pp. 98-110). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Jacobson, S. F., & McGrath, H. M. (Eds.). (1983). Nurses under stress. New York
Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Almela, Mercedes; Espín, Laura; Gómez-Amor, Jesús; Salvador, Alicia
Social stress affects cognitive processes in general, and memory performance in particular. However, the direction of these effects has not been clearly established, as it depends on several factors. Our aim was to determine the impact of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity to psychosocial stress on short-term non-declarative memory and declarative memory performance. Fifty-two young participants (18 men, 34 women) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. Implicit memory was assessed by a priming test, and explicit memory was assessed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The TSST provoked greater salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) responses than the control task. Men had a higher cortisol response to stress than women, but no sex differences were found for sAA release. Stress was associated with an enhancement of priming but did not affect declarative memory. Additionally, the enhancement on the priming test was higher in those whose sAA levels increased more in response to stress (r(48) = 0.339, p = 0.018). Our results confirm an effect of acute stress on priming, and that this effect is related to SNS activity. In addition, they suggest a different relationship between stress biomarkers and the different memory systems.
Takahashi, Aki; Flanigan, Meghan E; McEwen, Bruce S; Russo, Scott J
Social stress can lead to the development of psychological problems ranging from exaggerated anxiety and depression to antisocial and violence-related behaviors. Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in responses to social stress in adulthood. For example, human studies show that individuals with high aggression traits display heightened inflammatory cytokine levels and dysregulated immune responses such as slower wound healing. Similar findings have been observed in patients with depression, and comorbidity of depression and aggression was correlated with stronger immune dysregulation. Therefore, dysregulation of the immune system may be one of the mediators of social stress that produces aggression and/or depression. Similar to humans, aggressive animals also show increased levels of several proinflammatory cytokines, however, unlike humans these animals are more protected from infectious organisms and have faster wound healing than animals with low aggression. On the other hand, subordinate animals that receive repeated social defeat stress have been shown to develop escalated and dysregulated immune responses such as glucocorticoid insensitivity in monocytes. In this review we synthesize the current evidence in humans, non-human primates, and rodents to show a role for the immune system in responses to social stress leading to psychiatric problems such as aggression or depression. We argue that while depression and aggression represent two fundamentally different behavioral and physiological responses to social stress, it is possible that some overlapped, as well as distinct, pattern of immune signaling may underlie both of them. We also argue the necessity of studying animal models of maladaptive aggression induced by social stress (i.e., social isolation) for understanding neuro-immune mechanism of aggression, which may be relevant to human aggression.
Full Text Available Social stress can lead to the development of psychological problems ranging from exaggerated anxiety and depression to antisocial and violence-related behaviors. Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in responses to social stress in adulthood. For example, human studies show that individuals with high aggression traits display heightened inflammatory cytokine levels and dysregulated immune responses such as slower wound healing. Similar findings have been observed in patients with depression, and comorbidity of depression and aggression was correlated with stronger immune dysregulation. Therefore, dysregulation of the immune system may be one of the mediators of social stress that produces aggression and/or depression. Similar to humans, aggressive animals also show increased levels of several proinflammatory cytokines, however, unlike humans these animals are more protected from infectious organisms and have faster wound healing than animals with low aggression. On the other hand, subordinate animals that receive repeated social defeat stress have been shown to develop escalated and dysregulated immune responses such as glucocorticoid insensitivity in monocytes. In this review we synthesize the current evidence in humans, non-human primates, and rodents to show a role for the immune system in responses to social stress leading to psychiatric problems such as aggression or depression. We argue that while depression and aggression represent two fundamentally different behavioral and physiological responses to social stress, it is possible that some overlapped, as well as distinct, pattern of immune signaling may underlie both of them. We also argue the necessity of studying animal models of maladaptive aggression induced by social stress (i.e., social isolation for understanding neuro-immune mechanism of aggression, which may be relevant to human aggression.
The study was guided by Social Cognitive Theory, employed to examine the psycho-social environments of serving primary school teachers in Olugbo-Less City, Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. 100 rural active teachers currently undergoing in-service training in Ogun State Universal Basic Education ...
Ommer, Rosemary E
... the human impact of restructuring and social-ecological health 9 The Restructuring of Health Care on Both Coasts since the 1980 s 183 The Statistical Face of Restructuring and Human Health 210 The Human Voice of Social-Ecological Restructuring: Jobs, Incomes, Livelihoods, Ways of Life, and Human Health 241vi Contents 10 11 Restructuring, Nutrition,...
Ra, Young-An; Trusty, Jerry
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of social support and coping on acculturation and acculturative stress of international students. The authors used hierarchical multiple regression analysis to study a sample of 232 East Asian international students. The results indicate that social support and coping were partial mediators…
Gray-Stanley, Jennifer A.; Muramatsu, Naoko
Work stress is endemic among direct care workers (DCWs) who serve people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Social resources, such as work social support, and personal resources, such as an internal locus of control, may help DCWs perceive work overload and other work-related stressors as less threatening and galvanize them to cope…
Leslie, Leigh A.; Smith, Jocelyn R.; Hrapczynski, Katie M.; Riley, Debbie
Racial socialization protects minority adolescents from stress associated with racial discrimination. The process of racial socialization, however, may be challenging in transracial adoptive families. White parents may struggle with preparing their children for discrimination and fostering the development of racial pride. Thus, transracially…
Chan, David W.
Examines teacher stress, self-efficacy, social support, and psychological distress in a sample of Chinese prospective teachers (n=83) in Hong Kong. Reports that the teachers experienced higher levels of symptoms in somatic problems followed by anxiety and dysphoria. Discusses self-efficacy and social support as protective factors for teacher…
Veling, W.; Counotte, J.; Pot-Kolder, R.; van Os, J.; van der Gaag, M.
Background. Childhood trauma is associated with higher risk for mental disorders, including psychosis. Heightened sensitivity to social stress may be a mechanism. This virtual reality study tested the effect of childhood trauma on level of paranoid ideations and distress in response to social
Veling, Wim; Counotte, Jacqueline; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Van Os, Jim; Van Der Gaag, Mark
Introduction: Childhood trauma may be related to risk for psychosis by the mechanism of sensitization to social stress. Virtual Reality (VR) provides the opportunity to test this mechanism by controlled experimental exposure to different social environments. Methods: Fifty-five patients with recent
Chome, Gesa, Ed.
Some 180 experts from 10 European countries met at the University of Trier (Germany) to exchange information about youth assistance projects and hear views about the extent of unemployment among disadvantaged youth and development of innovative solutions. "The Failure of Young People to Cope with Life When Unemployed" (Bohnisch) showed…
Aguilar, Maria A; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Miñarro, José; Do Couto, Bruno Ribeiro
Psychostimulant addiction, most notably cocaine and amphetamine - type stimulants are an important public health problem worldwide. It appears that social factors may influence the initiation, maintenance and recovery from addictions. Several animal models have been developed to study addiction, highlighting drug self-administration (SA) and the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms. These models have been modified to accurately reflect the characteristics of drug addiction in its different stages. One factor that clearly plays a major role in addiction is stress, which is a risk factor not only for the initiation, maintenance and escalation of drug consumption, but also for relapse. In animal models, stress for itself can provoke reinstatement of self-administration or CPP. The relationship between stress and addiction is very tight. One example is the close anatomical relationship of some areas that share these two phenomena. It seems obvious to think that the main source of stress in humans is social interaction. The aim of the present review is to gather the current information regarding the role of social stress in the addiction to psychostimulant drugs in animal models. First, we briefly describe the mechanisms by which stress exerts its effects and the basic concepts of addiction. We will try to establish common pathways of stress and addiction, to address later social stress effects on different stages of addiction. Then, we will address pharmacological therapies and preventive factors that counteract the enhancing effects of social stress in addiction. Finally, we will analyze how negative environmental conditions may induce individuals to increased vulnerability to drugs, and how favorable environmental conditions may have protective and curative effects against addiction. In this sense, we also analyze the importance of social interactions and their ability to modulate the different stages of addiction. As a conclusion, and despite the scarcity of
Zniva, Richard; Pauli, Paul; Schulz, Stefan M
Self-determination theory suggests that autonomy-enhancing social support helps individuals to perceive stressors as challenging rather than stressing. Overprotective support may reduce stress in the short-run but undermines autonomy, thus hampering stress-coping in the long run, particularly when social support is terminated. Heartrate, blood-pressure and ratings were examined in N=44 undergraduate students receiving autonomy support (calculation steps) or overprotection (solutions) from a close friend or no support for solving arithmetic tasks as well as during a subsequent stress-challenge (solving arithmetic tasks alone). Overprotection resulted in increased heartrate, diastolic blood-pressure, stress ratings, and decreased subjective control during stress-challenge. Autonomy support did not lead to unfavorable stress responding. The current findings are in line with assumptions derived from self-determination theory and indicate that autonomy support can help to prevent stress. Overprotection does not buffer stress and is associated with increased stress when discontinued. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of coping strategies, personality trait and social support as the main social and psychological factors on infertility stress.Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 201 infertile Iranian women referred to the Vali-e-Asr Reproductive health Research Center, and completed the following questionnaires: The fertility problem inventory, measuring perceived infertility related stress (Newton CR, 1999, big five factor personality questionnaire (Farahani, 2009, multidimensional scale of perceived social support MSPS (Zimmet 1988, and multidimensional assessment of coping (Endler, 1990.The results were then analyzed using the Pearson Correlation and stepwise regression.Results: Infertility stress has negative and significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, perceived social support and bring extrovert. It has a positive, significant relation with emotion-oriented coping method, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. The results of the stepwise regression showed that emotion-oriented coping method, OCD and being extrovert are suitable predictors of infertility stress.Conclusion: About 22% of the infertility stress variance was explained by coping strategies and personality trait. Therefore our result demonstrates the importance of social and psychological factors on experiencing the infertility stress.
Wright, Kevin B; King, Shawn; Rosenberg, Jenny
This study investigated the influence of social support and self-verification on loneliness, depression, and stress among 477 college students. The authors propose and test a theoretical model using structural equation modeling. The results indicated empirical support for the model, with self-verification mediating the relation between social support and health outcomes. The results have implications for social support and self-verification research, which are discussed along with directions for future research and limitations of the study.
Aroian, Karen; Uddin, Nizam; Blbas, Hazar
Using a stress and social support framework, this study explored the trajectory of depression in 388 married Arab immigrant women. The women provided three panels of data approximately 18 months apart. Depression at Time 3 was regressed on Time 1 depression, socio-demographic variables, and rate of change over time in stress and social support. The regression model was significant and accounted for 41.16% of the variation in Time 3 depression scores. Time 1 depression, English reading ability, husband’s employment status, and changes over time in immigration demands, daily hassles, and social support from friends were associated with Time 3 Depression. PMID:27791495
Melaina T Vinski
Full Text Available The current work investigates the influence of acute stress on mind wandering. Participants completed the Positive and Negative Affect Scale as a measure of baseline negative mood, and were randomly assigned to either the high stress or low stress version of the Trier Social Stress Test. Participants then completed the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART as a measure of mind wandering behaviour. In Experiment 1, participants reporting a high degree of negative mood that were exposed to the high stress condition were more likely to engage in a variable response time, make more errors, and were more likely to report thinking about the stressor relative to participants that report a low level of negative mood. These effects diminished throughout task performance, suggesting that acute stress induces a temporary mind wandering state in participants with a negative mood. The temporary affect-dependent deficits observed in Experiment 1 were replicated in Experiment 2, with the high negative mood participants demonstrating limited resource availability (indicated by pupil diameter immediately following stress induction. These experiments provide novel evidence to suggest that acute psychosocial stress briefly suppresses the availability of cognitive resources and promotes an internally-oriented focus of attention in participants with a negative mood.
Schulz, S; Laessle, R G
Aim of the study was to compare the microstructural eating behavior of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder (BED) after stress induction in laboratory. Seventy-one female subjects were investigated (mean BMI 36.9). Thirty-five fulfilled criteria for BED. A 2×2 factorial design with repeated measurement (stress vs. no stress) on the second factor was applied. Stress was induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and chocolate pudding served as laboratory food. Variables of eating behavior were measured by a universal eating monitor (UEM). Only in participants with BED stress was associated with an increase in the initial eating rate and a diminished deceleration of eating at the end of the meal. Generally, BED subjects ate with larger size of spoonfuls during the laboratory meal than non BED controls. The eating behavior of obese patients with binge eating disorder seems to be significantly affected by stress. The stress-induced eating behavior of BED patients is characterized by a stronger motivation to eat (indicated by a fast initial eating rate) as well as by a lack of satiety perception (indicated by less deceleration of eating rate). Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tell, Dina; Mathews, Herbert L; Burr, Robert L; Witek Janusek, Linda
Childhood adversity has long-lasting neuro-biological effects that can manifest as exaggerated stress responsivity to environmental challenge. These manifestations include a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis as well as increased levels of inflammatory mediators in response to stress. In this investigation, vagal parasympathetic activity was assessed for its capacity to moderate the relationship between childhood adversity and stress responsivity (cortisol and inflammation) during an acute laboratory challenge (Trier Social Stress Test-TSST). Thirty women recently diagnosed with breast cancer underwent the TSST during which their heart rate was recorded and saliva samples collected for measurement of cortisol and the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-6. Vagal activity during the TSST was calculated as the high-frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability (HRV). Vagal activity during the TSST moderated the effect of childhood adversity on both the cortisol and the IL-6 response. Women who had lower vagal stress-reactivity during the TSST and reported greater childhood adversity showed a larger rise in cortisol and IL-6 when compared to women with lower childhood adversity. The findings demonstrate that women with exposure to childhood adversity and low vagal stress-reactivity (reduced parasympathetic activity) exhibit an elevated stress response characterized by greater cortisol and proinflammatory cytokine release. Inflammatory burden and HPA dysregulation subsequent to stress may impair cancer control.
Brynne C. DiMenichi
Full Text Available Acute stress can harm performance. Paradoxically, writing about stressful events—such as past failures—has been shown to improve cognitive functioning and performance, especially in tasks that require sustained attention. Yet, there is little physiological evidence for whether writing about past failures or other negative events improves performance by reducing stress. In this experiment, we studied the effects of an acute psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, on attentional performance and salivary cortisol release in humans. Additionally, we investigated whether an expressive writing task could reduce the detrimental effects of stress, both on performance and physiological response. We found that when individuals were asked to write about a past failure before experiencing a stressor, they exhibited attenuated stress responses. Moreover, those who wrote about a past failure before being exposed to stress also exhibited better behavioral performance. Our results suggest that writing about a previous failure may allow an individual to experience a new stressor as less stressful, reducing its physiological and behavioral effects.
Lindsay, Emily K; Young, Shinzen; Smyth, Joshua M; Brown, Kirk Warren; Creswell, J David
Mindfulness interventions, which train practitioners to monitor their present-moment experience with a lens of acceptance, are known to buffer stress reactivity. Little is known about the active mechanisms driving these effects. We theorize that acceptance is a critical emotion regulation mechanism underlying mindfulness stress reduction effects. In this three-arm parallel trial, mindfulness components were dismantled into three structurally equivalent 15-lesson smartphone-based interventions: (1) training in both monitoring and acceptance (Monitor+Accept), (2) training in monitoring only (Monitor Only), or (3) active control training (Coping control). 153 stressed adults (mean age=32years; 67% female; 53% white, 21.5% black, 21.5% Asian, 4% other race) were randomly assigned to complete one of three interventions. After the intervention, cortisol, blood pressure, and subjective stress reactivity were assessed using a modified Trier Social Stress Test. As predicted, Monitor+Accept training reduced cortisol and systolic blood pressure reactivity compared to Monitor Only and control trainings. Participants in all three conditions reported moderate levels of subjective stress. This study provides the first experimental evidence that brief smartphone mindfulness training can impact stress biology, and that acceptance training drives these effects. We discuss implications for basic and applied research in contemplative science, emotion regulation, stress and coping, health, and clinical interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study presents the interrelationships between stressful life events, motives for Internet use, social support, and the use of the Internet among a sample of adolescents and children aged 8 to 18 (N = 717). The results show that stressful life events are significantly associated with the consumption of the Internet for mood management (such as entertainment and information seeking) and social compensation (such as recognition gaining and relationship maintenance) motives. Secondly, the more children and adolescents exhibit high levels of social support, either online or offline, the less they find stressful life events upsetting. Thirdly, as individuals exhibit greater ability to personally access different types of social support to meet their needs, their motivations for Internet use are characteristically more allied to mood-management and social-compensation. This study reasserts that the mental and physical impact of stressful life events are in fact buffered by one's degree of social support and Internet use, particular examples of which are entertainment and relationship maintenance, and positive coping strategies, which temporarily reduce stress and anxiety.
DeFreese, J D; Mihalik, Jason P
Burnout is an important psychological health concern for working professionals. Understanding how psychological stress and markers of workload contribute to athletic trainers' (ATs') perceptions of burnout is highly valuable. Both positive (social support) and negative social interactions should be considered when examining relationships among markers of ATs' health and wellbeing. To examine the potential effects of social interactions on the relationships between (1) burnout and perceived stress and (2) burnout and workload incongruence in ATs. Cross-sectional study. Participating ATs completed a computer-based survey during the fall sports season. Responding participants were ATs randomly sampled from the National Athletic Trainers' Association membership (N = 154; men = 78, women = 76; age = 36.8 ± 9.5 years). Participants completed self-report assessments (Perceived Stress Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Social Exchanges, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey) via a secure e-mail link. Workload incongruence was calculated by subtracting anticipated work hours from actual current work hours (6.0 ± 9.6 hours). We used hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine hypothesized relationships among study variables. Social interactions did not affect the relationships between burnout and perceived stress or workload incongruence at the global or dimensional level. However, perceived stress (β = .47, P workplace interventions.
Lowry, Richard; Johns, Michelle M; Robin, Leah E; Kann, Laura K
Sexual minority youth often experience increased social stress due to prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and victimization. Increased stress may help explain the disproportionate use of substances like tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use by sexual minority youth. This study examined the effect of social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation among U.S. high school students. In 2016, data from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, conducted among a nationally representative sample of 15,624 U.S. high school students, were analyzed to examine the effect of school-related (threatened/injured at school, bullied at school, bullied electronically, felt unsafe at school) and non-school-related (forced sexual intercourse, early sexual debut) social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation, by comparing unadjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and adjusted (for social stressors, age, sex, and race/ethnicity) prevalence ratios (APRs). Unadjusted PRs reflected significantly (preduce social stress, including policies and practices designed to provide a safe school environment and improved access to social and mental health services. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Rising, C.J.; Bol, N.; Burke-Garcia, A.; Rains, S.; Wright, K.B.
Men with prostate cancer often need social support to help them cope with illness-related physiological and psychosocial challenges. Whether those needs are met depends on receiving support optimally matched to their needs. This study examined relationships between perceived stress, prostate
W.A. van der Schuur (Winneke); S.E. Baumgartner (Susanne E.); S.R. Sumter (Sindy R.)
textabstractThere are concerns that social media (SM) use and SM stress may disrupt sleep. However, evidence on both the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships is limited. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to address this gap in the literature by examining the cross-sectional and
Vidal, Jose; de Bie, Josien; Granneman, Ramon A.; Wallinga, Alinde E.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Buwalda, Bauke
Adolescence has been described as an important period to acquire social competences required for adult life. It has been suggested that early stress experiences could affect the development of the brain at different levels. These changes in the brain during adolescence may be related with the
Kesting, Marie-Luise; Bredenpohl, Marcel; Klenke, Julia; Westermann, Stefan; Lincoln, Tania M
Vulnerability-stress models propose that social stress triggers psychotic episodes in high risk individuals. Previous studies found not only stress but also a decrease in self-esteem to precede the formation of delusions. As evidence for causal conclusions has not been provided yet, the present study assessed the direct impact of social stress on paranoid beliefs using an experimental design and considered a decrease in self-esteem as a mediator and the proneness to psychosis and paranoia as moderators of the effect. A nonclinical population sample (n = 76) was randomly assigned to an experimental (EG) or a control group condition (CG). In the EG, participants were excluded during a virtual ball game (Cyberball) by the other two players and received a negative feedback after performing a test. The CG was included in the game and received a neutral feedback. Before and after the experimental conditions, emotions, self-esteem and paranoid beliefs were assessed using state-adapted questionnaires. After the social stress induction, the EG reported a higher increase in subclinical paranoid beliefs compared to the CG. The impact of social stress on paranoid ideation was mediated by a decrease in self-esteem and moderated by proneness to paranoia. Individuals who felt distressed by paranoid thoughts at baseline were more likely to react with an increase in paranoid ideation under social stress. The results need to be confirmed in a patient sample to draw conclusions about the processes involved in the formation of delusions in clinically relevant stages. The impact of social stress on symptom formation and self-esteem is discussed in terms of recent models of symptom formation and interventions in psychosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bowen, Kimberly S; Uchino, Bert N; Birmingham, Wendy; Carlisle, McKenzie; Smith, Timothy W; Light, Kathleen C
Social support is a reliable predictor of cardiovascular health. According to the buffering hypothesis, stress is 1 mechanism by which support is able to affect physiological processes. However, most of the experimental evidence for the hypothesis comes from laboratory studies. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) protocols examine participants in their natural environment, where they are more likely to encounter personally relevant real-world stressors. Furthermore, prior work shows that examining support by its specific functional components reveals additional independent links to health. The current study aimed to examine the stress-buffering effects of functional social support on ABP. One hundred eighty-eight participants completed a 1-day ABP assessment along with measures of functional social support and both global perceived stress and momentary stress at time of reading. RESULTS indicated main effects for both stress measures. Global support, emotional, tangible, and informational support only moderated the effects of momentary stress, but not global stress, in predicting ABP. Informational support was the most consistent stress-buffering predictor of ABP, predicting both ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The predicted values in ABP for informational support achieved health-relevant differences, emphasizing the value of examining functional support beyond global support alone. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Tamara B Franklin
Full Text Available Exposure to adverse environments during early development is a known risk factor for several psychiatric conditions including antisocial behavior and personality disorders. Here, we induced social anxiety and altered social recognition memory in adult mice using unpredictable maternal separation and maternal stress during early postnatal life. We show that these social defects are not only pronounced in the animals directly subjected to stress, but are also transmitted to their offspring across two generations. The defects are associated with impaired serotonergic signaling, in particular, reduced 5HT1A receptor expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus, and increased serotonin level in a dorsal raphe projection area. These findings underscore the susceptibility of social behaviors and serotonergic pathways to early stress, and the persistence of their perturbation across generations.
Finnell, Julie E; Wood, Susan K
A large body of evidence has emerged linking stressful experiences, particularly from one's social environment, with psychiatric disorders. However, vast individual differences emerge in susceptibility to developing stress-related pathology which may be due to distinct differences in the inflammatory response to social stress. Furthermore, depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, another inflammatory-related disease, and results in increased mortality in depressed patients. This review is focused on discussing evidence for stress exposure resulting in persistent or sensitized inflammation in one individual while this response is lacking in others. Particular focus will be directed towards reviewing the literature underlying the impact that neuroinflammation has on neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that could be involved in the pathogenesis of comorbid depression and cardiovascular disease. Finally, the theme throughout the review will be to explore the notion that stress-induced inflammation is a key player in the high rate of comorbidity between psychosocial disorders and cardiovascular disease.
Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Denson, Thomas F; Satyshur, Maureen
Although previous research provides evidence for the role of rewarding activities in reducing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress, no studies have tested whether rewards can buffer cortisol responses in humans undergoing social stressors. This study experimentally investigated whether viewing appetitive rewarding pictures reduces cortisol responses to an acute stress challenge. Fifty-four heterosexual men were randomly assigned to view either mildly erotic (reward) or neutral images (control) of mixed-sex couples before completing the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Participants in the reward condition had significantly lower area-under-the-curve cortisol reactivity to the TSST (mean [M] = 363.46) in comparison with participants in the control group (M = 807.06; F(1,46) = 4.84, p = .033, η(2) = 0.095). Reward participants also had improved cognitive performance on the math portion of the TSST (M = 20.74) in comparison with control participants (M = 13.82; F(44) = 5.44, p = .024, η(2) = 0.11). The stress-buffering effects of reward were specific to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity: the reward and control groups did not differ on psychological perceptions of anticipatory or poststress perceptions, heart rate, or blood pressure responses. This research provides the first evidence linking the experience of reward with reduced stress reactivity in humans and suggests a potential novel reward pathway for coping under stress.
Youssef, Farid F; Dookeeram, Karine; Basdeo, Vasant; Francis, Emmanuel; Doman, Mekaeel; Mamed, Danielle; Maloo, Stefan; Degannes, Joel; Dobo, Linda; Ditshotlo, Phatsimo; Legall, George
While early studies of moral decision making highlighted the role of rational, conscious executive processes involving frontal lobe activation more recent work has suggested that emotions and gut reactions have a key part to play in moral reasoning. Given that stress can activate many of the same brain regions that are important for and connected to brain centres involved in emotional processing we sought to evaluate if stress could influence moral decision making. Sixty-five undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to control (n=33) and experimental groups (n=32). The latter underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and induction of stress was assessed by measurement of salivary cortisol levels. Subjects were then required to provide a response to thirty moral dilemmas via a computer interface that recorded both their decision and reaction time. Three types of dilemmas were used: non-moral, impersonal moral and personal moral. Using a binary logistic model there were no significant predicators of utilitarian response in non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas. However the stressed group and females were found to predict utilitarian responses to personal moral dilemmas. When comparing percentage utilitarian responses there were no significant differences noted for the non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas but the stressed group showed significantly less utilitarian responses compared to control subjects. The stress response was significantly negatively correlated with utilitarian responses. Females also showed significantly less utilitarian responses than males. We conclude that activation of the stress response predisposed participants to less utilitarian responses when faced with high conflict personal moral dilemmas and suggest that this offers further support for dual process theory of moral judgment. We also conclude that females tend to make less utilitarian personal moral decisions compared to males, providing further evidence that there are
Lancel, Marike; Droste, Susanne K; Sommer, Susanne; Reul, Johannes M H M
To investigate the impact of regular physical exercise on sleep, we assessed sleep-wake behaviour in male C57BL/6N mice with and without long-term access (i.e. 4 weeks) to a running wheel. We studied sleep-wake behaviour during undisturbed conditions as well as after social stress. The exercising mice ran approximately 4 km/day, which affected their physical constitution, their spontaneous sleep-wake pattern and their endocrine and sleep responses to stress. When compared with the control mice, exercising animals had more muscle substance, less body fat and heavier adrenal glands. At baseline, exercising mice showed fewer, but longer-lasting, sleep episodes (indicating improved sleep consolidation) and less rapid-eye-movement sleep. In both control and exercising mice, mild social stress (elicited by a 15-min social conflict) evoked elevated plasma levels of adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone, an increase in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep, an enhancement of low-frequency activity in the electroencephalogram within non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (indicating increased sleep intensity) and a decrease in wakefulness. However, as compared with the control animals, exercising mice responded to social stress with higher corticosterone levels, but not adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels, suggesting an increased sensitivity of their adrenal glands to adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Moreover, in control mice, social stress increased rapid-eye-movement sleep in parallel to non-rapid-eye-movement sleep, whereas this stressor selectively decreased rapid-eye-movement sleep in exercising animals. Corticosterone is known to decrease rapid-eye-movement sleep. Therefore, changes in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis as a result of the long-term exercise may contribute to the observed differences in spontaneous and social stress-affected sleep. In conclusion, regular exercise appears to increase sleep quality and reverses the effects of mild
Hung Sa Lee, PhD, RN
Conclusions: This study found that social support and discrimination had indirect effects on depression through stress. More specifically, decreased stress led to a reduction of depression. Therefore, social support based on a thorough understanding of stress is very important for caring elderly who are depressive.
Full Text Available Sex differences in the ability to cope with stress may contribute to the higher prevalence of stress-related disorders among women compared to men. We recently provided evidence that displacement behaviour--activities such as scratching and face touching--represents an important strategy for coping with stressful situations: in a healthy population of men, displacement behaviour during a social stress test attenuated the relationship between anxiety experienced prior to this test, and the subsequent self-reported experience of stress. Here, we extend this work to look at physiological and cognitive (in addition to self-reported measures of stress, and study both men and women in order to investigate whether sex moderates the link between displacement behaviour and the response to stress. In a healthy study population, we quantified displacement behaviour, heart rate and cognitive performance during the Trier Social Stress Test, and used self-report questionnaires to assess the experience of stress afterwards. Men engaged in displacement behaviour about twice as often as women, and subsequently reported lower levels of stress. Bivariate correlations revealed that for men, higher rates of displacement behaviour were associated with decreased self-reported stress, fewer mistakes in the cognitive task and a trend towards lower heart rate; no relationships between displacement behaviour and stress measures were found for women. Moreover, moderation analyses revealed that high rates of displacement behaviour were associated with lower stress levels in men but not in women, and that high displacement behaviour rates were associated with poorer cognitive performance in women, but not men. These results point to an important sex difference in coping strategies, and highlight new avenues for research into sex biases in stress-related disorders.
Youdell, Deborah; Harwood, Valerie; Lindley, Martin R.
There are well documented concerns with the imposition of high stakes testing into the fabric of school education, and there is now an increasing focus on how such tests impact children's "well-being." This can be witnessed in reports in the popular news media, where discussion of these impacts frequently refer to "stress" and…
Bierwiaczonek, Kinga; Waldzus, Sven; van der Zee, Karen
Living outside one's home country may be stressful, and having strong social ties should help deal with this stress. However, social ties may be protective or harmful depending on whether the social group they evoke belongs to the host- or the home country context. The current study examines how
rababah, Mahdi mohamme saied
Counsellors need to be able to understand students' social self-efficacy, in order to provide them appropriate counselling services. This study investigated social gender self-efficacy differences, and depression, anxiety and stress, and examined the relationship of social self-efficacy to depression, anxiety and stress among a sample of 573…
Ross, Amy P; Norvelle, Alisa; Choi, Dennis C; Walton, James C; Albers, H Elliott; Huhman, Kim L
Although Syrian hamsters are thought to be naturally solitary, recent evidence from our laboratory demonstrates that hamsters may actually prefer social contact. Hamsters increase their preference for a location associated with an agonistic encounter regardless of whether they have "won" or "lost". It has also been reported that social housing as well as exposure to intermittent social defeat or to a brief footshock stressor increase food intake and body mass in hamsters. By contrast, it has also been suggested that housing hamsters in social isolation causes anxiety-induced anorexia and reductions in body mass selectively in females. The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological consequences of housing hamsters in social isolation versus in social groups. Male and female hamsters were housed singly or in stable groups of 5 for 4weeks after which they were weighed and trunk blood was collected. In addition, fat pads and thymus and adrenal glands were extracted and weighed. Serum and fecal cortisol were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Housing condition had no effect on serum or fecal cortisol, but socially housed hamsters displayed modest thymus gland involution. Socially housed females weighed more than did any other group, and socially housed females and males had more fat than did socially isolated hamsters. No wounding or tissue damage occurred in grouped hamsters. Overall, these data suggest that Syrian hamsters tolerate both stable social housing and social isolation in the laboratory although social housing is associated with some alteration in stress-related and bioenergetic measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Singer, Nina; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Zänkert, Sandra; Wüst, Stefan; Kudielka, Brigitte M
In everyday life, moral decisions must frequently be made under acute stress. Although there is increasing evidence that both stress and cortisol affect moral judgment and behavior as well as decision-making in various domains unrelated to morality, surprisingly few attempts have been made to explore the effects of stress on everyday moral decision-making. Therefore, in the present study, we exposed 50 young healthy men to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or its non-stressful placebo version (PTSST). We investigated the impact of acute stress exposure and stress-related cortisol levels on decision-making, decision certainty, and emotions in 28 everyday moral conflict situations with altruistic versus egoistic response alternatives. Results showed that the TSST-exposed group made more altruistic decisions than the non-stress control group, while groups did not differ in decision certainty and emotion ratings. Moreover, in correlational as well as regression analyses, additionally controlling for confounding variables, we observed significant positive associations between cortisol levels and altruistic decision-making. Further analyses revealed that altruistic decisions came along with significantly higher decision certainty and significantly more positive emotion ratings than egoistic decisions. Notably, our data also raise the idea that the personality trait agreeableness plays an important role in everyday moral decision-making. In sum, our findings provide initial evidence that both acute stress exposure and cortisol levels have prosocial effects on everyday moral decision-making in young healthy men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fournier, Marion; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Radel, Rémi
Instrumental learning occurs through both goal-directed and habit memory systems, which are supported by anatomically distinct brain systems. Interestingly, stress may promote habits at the expense of goal-directed performance, since stress before training in an instrumental task was found to cause individuals to carry on with the learned association in spite of a devalued outcome. These findings nevertheless left pending questions, and it has been difficult to determine which system is primarily affected by stress (an improved habit system, an impaired goal-directed system, or both) and at what point the stress acts (at the moment of learning by making more resistant habits, or after devaluation by making individuals less sensitive to change in the outcome value). The present study (N=72 participants, 63 males and 9 females) aimed to answer these questions with (i) an instrumental task that dissociates the two memory systems and (ii) three conditions of psychosocial stress exposure (Trier Social Stress Test): stress induced before learning, before devaluation, and not induced for the control group. The study confirms that exposure to psychosocial stress leads to habitual performance. Moreover, it provides new insight into this effect by locating its origin as an impairment in the capacity of the goal-directed system rather than a reinforcement in habit learning. These results are discussed in light of recent neurobiological models of stress and memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soman, S; Bhat, S M; Latha, K S; Praharaj, S K
To study the gender differences in perceived social support and life events in patients with depression. A total of 118 patients aged 18 to 60 years, with depressive disorder according to the DSM-IV-TR, were evaluated using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale. The perceived social support score was significantly higher in males than females (p social support from friends than females (p life events as well as specific type of life events in males that became apparent after controlling for education (p life event in both males and females. Work-related problems were more commonly reported by males, whereas family and marital conflict were more frequently reported by females. Perceived social support and stressful life events were higher in males with depression than females.
Baor, Liora; Soskolne, Varda
Twin pregnancies and births resulting from assisted reproductive technologies have been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and maternal health complications leading to psychologically complex parenting. In the current study the authors assess the prevalence of clinical levels of maternal stress among mothers of twins resulting from in vitro fertilization and examine the association of social coping resources with three maternal stress sub-scales. During the years 2003-2005, 88 primiparous Israeli mothers of in vitro fertilization-conceived twins provided socio-demographic data during their third trimester of pregnancy, and at 6 months after birth provided data on delivery and medical condition of infants, coping resources (social support and marital quality), and a maternal stress scale. Forty-one percent of the mothers reached a clinically significant level of maternal stress. Social support and maternal employment were the most significant variables associated with experience of the stress in the early stages of adaptation to mothering in vitro fertilization twins. Primiparous mothers of in vitro fertilization twins are vulnerable to maternal stress in early stages of adaptation to the maternal role, some of whom reach clinical levels that may require professional interventions. Unemployed mothers with low social support were the most susceptible to the deleterious effects of in vitro fertilization treatment.
Cornelius, Jamie M; Perreau, Gillian; Bishop, Valerie R; Krause, Jesse S; Smith, Rachael; Hahn, Thomas P; Meddle, Simone L
Social information is used by many vertebrate taxa to inform decision-making, including resource-mediated movements, yet the mechanisms whereby social information is integrated physiologically to affect such decisions remain unknown. Social information is known to influence the physiological response to food reduction in captive songbirds. Red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) that were food reduced for several days showed significant elevations in circulating corticosterone (a "stress" hormone often responsive to food limitation) only if their neighbors were similarly food restricted. Physiological responses to glucocorticoid hormones are enacted through two receptors that may be expressed differentially in target tissues. Therefore, we investigated the influence of social information on the expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA in captive red crossbill brains. Although the role of MR and GR in the response to social information may be highly complex, we specifically predicted social information from food-restricted individuals would reduce MR and GR expression in two brain regions known to regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity - given that reduced receptor expression may lessen the efficacy of negative feedback and release inhibitory tone on the HPA. Our results support these predictions - offering one potential mechanism whereby social cues could increase or sustain HPA-activity during stress. The data further suggest different mechanisms by which metabolic stress versus social information influence HPA activity and behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Doucerain, Marina M.; Varnaamkhaasti, Raheleh S.; Segalowitz, Norman; Ryder, Andrew G.
Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress (CRAS). In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants’ L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict CRAS. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants’ L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N = 100) support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants’ L2 network account for unique variance in CRAS but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants’ L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning. PMID:26300809
Crnic, K A; Greenberg, M T; Ragozin, A S; Robinson, N M; Basham, R B
This study examined the relationships of stress and social support to maternal attitudes and early mother-infant interactive behavior. 52 mother-premature infant pairs and 53 mother-full-term infant pairs were seen for structured home interviews at 1 month, and behavioral interactions at 4 months. Maternal life stress, social support, life satisfaction, and satisfaction with parenting were assessed at the 1-month home visit. Although no group differences were found, both stress and support significantly predicted maternal attitudes at 1 month and interactive behavior at 4 months when data were pooled. Mothers with greater stress were less positive in their attitudes and behavior, while mothers with greater support were significantly more positive. Intimate support proved to have the most general positive effects. Additionally, social support moderated the adverse effects of stress on mother's life satisfaction and on several behavioral variables. Maternal social support was further found to have several significant effects on infant interactive behavior. Results are discussed in terms of the ecological significance of social support to parenting and infants' early development.
Doucerain, Marina M; Varnaamkhaasti, Raheleh S; Segalowitz, Norman; Ryder, Andrew G
Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress (CRAS). In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict CRAS. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants' L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N = 100) support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants' L2 network account for unique variance in CRAS but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants' L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning.
Tsang, Seng-Su; Chen, Tzu-Yin; Wang, Shih-Fong; Tai, Hsin-Ling
The nursing workplace imposes significantly more stress on its employees than other workplace settings. Organizational resources, both physical and psychological, have been recognized in prior studies as important alleviators of nursing workplace stress. Whereas physical resources are less difficult to manipulate because of their tangibility, psychological resources, particularly psychological support from colleagues, are typically not deployed to greatest effect. This article investigated the alleviation of nursing work stress using resources already extant in coworker social networks. Researchers conducted a survey in a dialysis department at a medical center located in Taipei City, Taiwan. This survey measured nurse work stress, satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and social network structures. Researchers employed UCINET to analyze the network structure data, which were in dyadic matrix format to estimate nurse network centralities and used partial least squares analysis to estimate research construct path coefficients and test extrapolated hypotheses. The level of OCB induced by nurse social ties was satisfactory and did not only directly increased work satisfaction but also alleviated work stress, which indirectly boosted work satisfaction. Findings suggest that managers may be able to use social network analysis to identify persons appropriate to conduct the distribution of organizational resources. Choosing those with multiple social connections can help distribute resources effectively and induce higher OCB levels within the organization. In addition, staff with strong friendship network connections may provide appropriate psychological resources (support) to coworkers. If those with high friendship network centrality receive proper counseling training, they should be in a good position to provide assistance when needed.
Martin, M S; Maddocks, E; Chen, Y; Gilman, S E; Colman, I
Food insecurity is associated with elevated risk of mental illness. This risk may be further compounded by stressful life events and by social isolation. This study investigated whether the risk of mental illness is higher among individuals experiencing food insecurity along with greater stress and social isolation. Cross-sectional self-report survey data from the 2009-10 Canadian Community Health Survey (N = 100,401). We estimated prevalence differences of the risk of self-reported mental illness associated with food insecurity alone and in combination with stressful life events and social isolation. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on a sub-sample who completed a structured diagnostic interview. Overall, the prevalence of mental illness was 18.4% [95% CI 16.7-20.1] higher for women and 13.5% higher [95% CI 11.9, 15.2] for men in severely food insecure households compared to those reporting food security. The increased risk of mental illness associated with food insecurity was more pronounced among females and those reporting higher stress and social isolation. Individuals reporting food insecurity are at increased risk of mental illness. This increased risk is further exacerbated in high stress and socially isolated environments. Policies, clinical and public health interventions must address broader constellations of risks that exist when food insecurity is present. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moore, Raeanne C; Eyler, Lisa T; Mausbach, Brent T; Zlatar, Zvinka Z; Thompson, Wesley K; Peavy, Guerry; Fazeli, Pariya L; Jeste, Dilip V
Psychological and psychosocial resources, including resilience and social support, have traditionally been studied in the context of the stress paradigm and, more recently, in the context of successful aging. This study used moderated mediation analyses to examine the role of perceived stress in the relationships between physical and mental health functioning and self-rated successful aging (SRSA) and whether differences between people in level of resilience and social support changes the role of perceived stress in these relationships. A cross-sectional study of 1,006 older adults (mean age: 77 years) completed scales addressing SRSA, physical and mental health functioning, perceived stress, resilience, and social support. Results indicated that the strength of relationships between both physical and mental health functioning and SRSA were reduced after accounting for variation in level of perceived stress. The role of perceived stress in the association between mental health functioning and SRSA was found to be stronger among participants with the highest levels of resilience, and the influence of perceived stress on the degree of relationship between physical health functioning and SRSA was stronger among those with greatest social support. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce perceived stress may help break the link between disability and poor well-being in older adults. The findings further suggest that the impact of such interventions might differ depending on psychological resources (i.e., resilience) for mental health disabilities and external resources (i.e., social support) for those with physical health problems. The complex interplay of these factors should be taken into account in clinical settings. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. All rights reserved.
Veer, Ilya Milos
The aim of this thesis was to identify the neural mechanisms that enable a person to adaptively respond to, and recover from stress, which was studied in healthy controls, in people with increased vulnerability or resilience to stress-related disorders, and in people with depression or PTSD, using
To investigate the current status of occupational stress, social support, and happiness in junior civil servants in northern Zhejiang Province, China, and to investigate the relationship between occupational stress, social support and happiness. A total of 360 junior civil servants from below-county-level administrative organizations in Huzhou, Jiaxing, and Hangzhou were surveyed using the job stress questionnaire and social support rating scale for civil servants. The total average score of occupational stress in junior civil servants was 2.52 ± 0.48, indicating a moderate level of occupational stress; career prospects topped the rank list of sources of occupational stress with a score of 2.90 ± 0.60; different generations showed significant differences in the sources and total average scores of occupational stress, with the scores of the 1980s, 1990s, 1970s, 1950s, and 1960s groups decreasing in the same order (Phappiness among the junior civil servants were relatively low, with scores of 38.43 ± 8.38 and 76.88 ± 12.77, respectively; different generations also showed significant differences, with the scores of 1980s, 1990s, 1970s, 1950s, and 1960s groups increasing in the same order (Phappiness than males (Phappiness of junior civil servants (r=0.405~0.571, Phappiness of junior civil servants.
Matthews, Stephen A; Yang, Tse-Chuan
Health researchers have explored how different aspects of neighborhood characteristics contribute to health and well-being, but current understanding of built environment factors is limited. This study explores whether the association between stress and health varies by residential neighborhood, and if yes, whether built and social neighborhood environment characteristics act as moderators. This study uses multilevel modeling and variables derived from geospatial data to explore the role of neighborhood environment in moderating the association of stress with health. Individual-level data (N = 4,093) were drawn from residents of 45 neighborhoods within Philadelphia County, PA, collected as part of the 2006 Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Household Health Survey. We find that the negative influence of high stress varied by neighborhood, that residential stability and affluence (social characteristics) attenuated the association of high stress with health, and that the presence of hazardous waste facilities (built environment characteristics) moderated health by enhancing the association with stress. Our findings suggest that neighborhood environment has both direct and moderating associations with health, after adjusting for individual characteristics. The use of geospatial data could broaden the scope of stress-health research and advance knowledge by untangling the intertwined relationship between built and social environments, stress, and health. In particular, future studies should integrate built environment characteristics in health-related research; these characteristics are modifiable and can facilitate health promotion policies.
Larrieu, Thomas; Cherix, Antoine; Duque, Aranzazu; Rodrigues, João; Lei, Hongxia; Gruetter, Rolf; Sandi, Carmen
Extensive data highlight the existence of major differences in individuals' susceptibility to stress [1-4]. While genetic factors [5, 6] and exposure to early life stress [7, 8] are key components for such neurobehavioral diversity, intriguing observations revealed individual differences in response to stress in inbred mice [9-12]. This raised the possibility that other factors might be critical in stress vulnerability. A key challenge in the field is to identify non-invasively risk factors for vulnerability to stress. Here, we investigated whether behavioral factors, emerging from preexisting dominance hierarchies, could predict vulnerability to chronic stress [9, 13-16]. We applied a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model of depression in C57BL/6J mice to investigate the predictive power of hierarchical status to pinpoint which individuals will exhibit susceptibility to CSDS. Given that the high social status of dominant mice would be the one particularly challenged by CSDS, we predicted and found that dominant individuals were the ones showing a strong susceptibility profile as indicated by strong social avoidance following CSDS, while subordinate mice were not affected. Data from 1 H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the metabolic profile in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) relates to social status and vulnerability to stress. Under basal conditions, subordinates show lower levels of energy-related metabolites compared to dominants. In subordinates, but not dominants, levels of these metabolites were increased after exposure to CSDS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that identifies non-invasively the origin of behavioral risk factors predictive of stress-induced depression-like behaviors associated with metabolic changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vidal Mollon, Jose; Buwalda, Bauke; Koolhaas, Jaap M.
Adolescence is an important period for the development of adult social competences. Social stress during adolescence may contribute not only to an inadequate social development but also to adult vulnerability to social anxiety. There seems to be a clear individual differentiation, however, in the
Kaur, Balvinder; Durek, Joseph J.; O'Kane, Barbara L.; Tran, Nhien; Moses, Sophia; Luthra, Megha; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki N.
Heart rate variability (HRV) can be an important indicator of several conditions that affect the autonomic nervous system, including traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder and peripheral neuropathy , ,  & . Recent work has shown that some of the HRV features can potentially be used for distinguishing a subject's normal mental state from a stressed one ,  & . In all of these past works, although processing is done in both frequency and time domains, few classification algorithms have been explored for classifying normal from stressed RRintervals. In this paper we used 30 s intervals from the Electrocardiogram (ECG) time series collected during normal and stressed conditions, produced by means of a modified version of the Trier social stress test, to compute HRV-driven features and subsequently applied a set of classification algorithms to distinguish stressed from normal conditions. To classify RR-intervals, we explored classification algorithms that are commonly used for medical applications, namely 1) logistic regression (LR)  and 2) linear discriminant analysis (LDA) . Classification performance for various levels of stress over the entire test was quantified using precision, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity measures. Results from both classifiers were then compared to find an optimal classifier and HRV features for stress detection. This work, performed under an IRB-approved protocol, not only provides a method for developing models and classifiers based on human data, but also provides a foundation for a stress indicator tool based on HRV. Further, these classification tools will not only benefit many civilian applications for detecting stress, but also security and military applications for screening such as: border patrol, stress detection for deception ,, and wounded-warrior triage .
Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia
Several studies have shown that acute stress affects working memory (WM) in young adults, but the effect in older people is understudied. As observed in other types of memory, older people may be less sensitive to acute effects of stress on WM. We performed two independent studies with healthy older men and women (from 55 to 77 years old) to investigate the effects of acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and cortisol on WM. In study 1 (n = 63), after the TSST women (but not men) improved their performance on Digit Span Forward (a measure of the memory span component of WM) but not on Digit Span Backward (a measure of both memory span and the executive component of WM). Furthermore, in women, cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing showed a positive association with the memory span component of WM before and after the TSST, and with the executive component of WM only before the stress task. In study 2 (n = 76), although participants showed a cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) response to the TSST, stress did not affect performance on Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS; a task that places a high demand on the executive component of WM). Cortisol and sAA were not associated with WM. The results indicate that circulating cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing, and not the stress response, affect memory span in older women, and that stress and the increase in cortisol levels after stress do not affect the executive component of WM in older men and women. This study provides further evidence that older people may be less sensitive to stress and stress-induced cortisol response effects on memory processes.
Fokkema, Dirk S.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meulen, Jan van der; Schoemaker, Regien
A large amplitude blood pressure oscillation occurs during social defeat in a territorial fight between male rats, and during the application of a psychosocial stimulus associated with this defeat. Synchronous recording of blood pressure, intrathoracic pressure and diaphragm activity shows that the
Moeller, Christin; Chung-Yan, Greg A.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how various types of workplace social support from different support sources interact with occupational stressors to predict the psychological well-being of university professors. Design/method/approach: A total of 99 full-time professors participated via an online or paper questionnaire. Findings:…
Ditzen, Beate; Palm-Fischbacher, Simona; Gossweiler, Lara; Stucky, Livia; Ehlert, Ulrike
Women's preferences for masculinity in men's faces seem to vary across the menstrual cycle and are assumed to be strongest around ovulation. A number of hormones have been proposed to underlie these subtle cyclic shifts. Furthermore, mating preferences are context-dependent, and stress has been found to alter mate choice, both in animals and humans. Currently, the effects of stress on women's preference for masculinity remain unknown. To examine the hormonal basis and the impact of stress on facial masculinity preference, we tested for within-subject changes in 52 healthy young women who underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and the placebo-TSST in randomized order in the late follicular and mid-luteal phases of their menstrual cycle. Menstrual cycle phase and hormone levels were confirmed using estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, and cortisol analyses from saliva. Results show that women were more likely to be attracted to masculine-faced men right before ovulation than in the mid-luteal phase. Estradiol modulated this masculinity preference with high estradiol levels being related to stronger masculinity preference. When stressed however, women experienced a decrease in male facial masculinity preference. In line with these findings, the higher the cortisol increase to stress, the less were masculine faces preferred to more feminine faces. Mate choice is a central component of reproduction. The present results provide information about the effects of stress and hormonal influences on mate preferences in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tomiyama, A Janet; Schamarek, Imke; Lustig, Robert H; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Puterman, Eli; Havel, Peter J; Epel, Elissa S
Both animals and humans show a tendency toward eating more "comfort food" (high fat, sweet food) after acute stress. Such stress eating may be contributing to the obesity epidemic, and it is important to understand the underlying psychobiological mechanisms. Prior investigations have studied what makes individuals eat more after stress; this study investigates what might make individuals eat less. Leptin has been shown to increase following a laboratory stressor, and is known to regulate satiety. This study examined whether leptin reactivity accounts for individual differences in stress eating. To test this, we exposed forty women to standardized acute psychological laboratory stress (Trier Social Stress Test) while blood was sampled repeatedly for measurements of plasma leptin. We then measured food intake after the stressor. Increasing leptin during the stressor predicted lower intake of comfort food. These initial findings suggest that acute changes in leptin may be one of the factors modulating down the consumption of comfort food following stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leder, Johannes; Häusser, Jan Alexander; Mojzisch, Andreas
Often, economic decisions do not only depend on one's own preferences, but also on the choices of others and therefore require strategizing (i.e., thinking about what others might think). In experimental economics, this has been modeled by the beauty contest game. Another typical feature of economic decisions is that they are often carried out under stress. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to examine the influence of stress on decision-making in the beauty contest game. Participants were randomly assigned to either the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) or a placebo version of the TSST-G (control condition). Then, participants played four rounds of a standard beauty contest game. As a biomarker of stress, salivary cortisol was measured. As predicted, participants under stress chose higher numbers in the beauty contest game than non-stressed participants, indicating less strategizing. This effect was mediated by the stress-induced increase in cortisol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia
Stress has been associated with negative changes observed during the aging process. However, very little research has been carried out on the role of age in acute stress effects on memory. We aimed to explore the role of age and sex in the relationship between hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity to psychosocial stress and short-term declarative memory performance. To do so, sixty-seven participants divided into two age groups (each group with a similar number of men and women) were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. Memory performance was assessed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). As expected, worse memory performance was associated with age; but more interestingly, the stressor impaired recall after interference only in the older group. In addition, this effect was negatively correlated with the alpha-amylase over cortisol ratio, which has recently been suggested as a good marker of stress system dysregulation. However, we failed to find sex differences in memory performance. These results show that age moderates stress-induced effects on declarative memory, and they point out the importance of studying both of the physiological systems involved in the stress response together. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G.; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J.; Pruessner, Jens C.
BACKGROUND Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. METHODS The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. RESULTS Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their “coming out”). CONCLUSIONS Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. PMID:25444167
Brown, Kirk Warren; Weinstein, Netta; Creswell, J David
Individual differences in mindfulness have been associated with numerous self-report indicators of stress, but research has not examined how mindfulness may buffer neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses under controlled laboratory conditions. The present study investigated the role of trait mindfulness in buffering cortisol and affective responses to a social evaluative stress challenge versus a control task. Participants completed measures of trait mindfulness, perceived stress, anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation before being randomized to complete the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum et al., 1993) or a control task. At points throughout the session, participants provided five saliva samples to assess cortisol response patterns, and completed four self-report measures of anxiety and negative affect to assess psychological responses. In accord with hypotheses, higher trait mindfulness predicted lower cortisol responses to the TSST, relative to the control task, as well as lower anxiety and negative affect. These relations remained significant when controlling for the role of other variables that predicted cortisol and affective responses. The findings suggest that trait mindfulness modulates cortisol and affective responses to an acute social stressor. Further research is needed to understand the neural pathways through which mindfulness impacts these responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DeLongis, A; Folkman, S; Lazarus, R S
This study examined daily stress processes among 75 married couples across 20 assessments during a 6-month period. The somatic and psychological effects of common everyday hassles were investigated. Overall, there was a significant relationship between daily stress and the occurrence of both concurrent and subsequent health problems such as flu, sore throat, headaches, and backaches. The relationship of daily stress to mood disturbance was more complex. The negative effects of stress on mood were limited to a single day, with the following day characterized by mood scores that were better than usual. Furthermore, striking individual differences were found in the extent to which daily stress was associated with health and mood across time. Participants with unsupportive social relationships and low self-esteem were more likely to experience an increase in psychological and somatic problems both on and following stressful days than were participants high in self-esteem and social support. These data suggest that persons with low psychosocial resources are vulnerable to illness and mood disturbance when their stress levels increase, even if they generally have little stress in their lives.
Muscatell, Keely A; Dedovic, Katarina; Slavich, George M; Jarcho, Michael R; Breen, Elizabeth C; Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R; Eisenberger, Naomi I
Social stratification has important implications for health and well-being, with individuals lower in standing in a hierarchy experiencing worse outcomes than those higher up the social ladder. Separate lines of past research suggest that alterations in inflammatory processes and neural responses to threat may link lower social status with poorer outcomes. This study was designed to bridge these literatures to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms linking subjective social status and inflammation. Thirty-one participants reported their subjective social status, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while they were socially evaluated. Participants also provided blood samples before and after the stressor, which were analysed for changes in inflammation. Results showed that lower subjective social status was associated with greater increases in inflammation. Neuroimaging data revealed lower subjective social status was associated with greater neural activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) in response to negative feedback. Finally, results indicated that activation in the DMPFC in response to negative feedback mediated the relation between social status and increases in inflammatory activity. This study provides the first evidence of a neurocognitive pathway linking subjective social status and inflammation, thus furthering our understanding of how social hierarchies shape neural and physiological responses to social interactions. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Dedovic, Katarina; Slavich, George M.; Jarcho, Michael R.; Breen, Elizabeth C.; Bower, Julienne E.; Irwin, Michael R.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.
Social stratification has important implications for health and well-being, with individuals lower in standing in a hierarchy experiencing worse outcomes than those higher up the social ladder. Separate lines of past research suggest that alterations in inflammatory processes and neural responses to threat may link lower social status with poorer outcomes. This study was designed to bridge these literatures to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms linking subjective social status and inflammation. Thirty-one participants reported their subjective social status, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while they were socially evaluated. Participants also provided blood samples before and after the stressor, which were analysed for changes in inflammation. Results showed that lower subjective social status was associated with greater increases in inflammation. Neuroimaging data revealed lower subjective social status was associated with greater neural activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) in response to negative feedback. Finally, results indicated that activation in the DMPFC in response to negative feedback mediated the relation between social status and increases in inflammatory activity. This study provides the first evidence of a neurocognitive pathway linking subjective social status and inflammation, thus furthering our understanding of how social hierarchies shape neural and physiological responses to social interactions. PMID:26979965
Christensen, Janne Winther; Ahrendt, Line Peerstrup; Lintrup, Randi
affect neurons within the hippocampus; a brain region central to learning and memory. In a series of experiments, we aimed to investigate the link between performance in two learning tests, the baseline level of stress hormones, measured as faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM), fearfulness, and social rank......The ability of horses to learn and remember new tasks is fundamentally important for their use by humans. Fearfulness may, however, interfere with learning, because stimuli in the environment can overshadow signals from the rider or handler. In addition, prolonged high levels of stress hormones can...... in the novel environment (e.g. object alertness and final stage: rS = −0.43, P = 0.04), suggesting that performance under unfamiliar, stressful conditions may be predicted by behavioural responses in a fear test. There was a negative correlation between social rank and baseline stress hormones (rS = −0.43, P...
Juliana N Souza-Talarico
Full Text Available Several studies have emphasized the association between socioeconomic status (SES and inadequate response of the biological stress system. However, other factors related to SES are rarely considered, such as cultural values, social norms, organization, language and communication skills, which raises the need to investigate cross-country differences in stress response. Although some studies have shown differences in cortisol levels between immigrants and natives, there is no cross-country evidence regarding cortisol levels in country-native elders. This is particularly important given the high prevalence of stress-related disorders across nations during aging. The current study examined basal diurnal and reactive cortisol levels in healthy older adults living in two different countries.Salivary cortisol of 260 older adults from Canada and Brazil were analyzed. Diurnal cortisol was measured in saliva samples collected at home throughout two working days at awakening, 30 min after waking, 1400 h, 1600 h and before bedtime. Cortisol reactivity was assessed in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST in both populations.Our results showed that even under similar health status, psychological and cognitive characteristics, Brazilian elders exhibited higher basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion compared to the Canadian participants.These findings suggest that country context may modulate cortisol secretion and could impact the population health.
Lederberg, Amy R; Golbach, Traci
This longitudinal study investigated the impact of child deafness on mothers' stress, size of social networks, and satisfaction with social support. Twenty-three hearing mothers of deaf children and 23 hearing mothers of hearing children completed a series of self-report questionnaires when their children were 22 months, 3, and 4 years old. When children were 22 months, more mothers of deaf children reported pessimism about their children's achieving self-sufficiency and concerns about their children's communication abilities than did mothers of hearing children. When their children were 3 and 4 years old, mothers of deaf and hearing children did not differ in their reports of general parenting stress, as measured by the Parenting Stress Index (PSI). Likewise, mothers' ratings of satisfaction with social support were not affected by child deafness, nor did they change developmentally. Mothers of deaf and hearing children did differ in the types of support networks utilized. Mothers of deaf 22-month-olds reported significantly larger professional support networks, while mothers of hearing children reported significantly larger general support networks across all child ages. Mothers' feelings of stress and satisfaction with social support were very stable across the 2 years examined. The results suggest that most mothers of deaf children do not feel a high level of general parenting stress or dissatisfaction with their lives and support networks. However, mothers of deaf children are likely to feel stress in areas specific to deafness. In addition, because parenting stress was highly stable, special efforts should be made to intervene when mothers of deaf children are expressing high levels of stress.
Darling, Katherine E; Fahrenkamp, Amy J; Wilson, Shana M; Karazsia, Bryan T; Sato, Amy F
This study sought to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between stress eating and body mass index (BMI) change over the freshman year in males and females. This longitudinal study included 70 college students (72.9% female; M age = 18.23) who completed self-reported measures of stress eating and perceived social support, with objective height and weight measurements collected. Among males, social support moderated the relationship between stress eating and BMI change. Among males, social support may serve as a buffer against the impact of stress eating on weight gain during the freshman year of college.
Watson, Noreen L; DeMarree, Kenneth G; Cohen, Lee M
Previous research indicates that social anxiety (SA) is a risk factor for the maintenance and relapse of smoking behaviors. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. The current study tested the effects of state and trait levels of SA as well as smoking to cope with symptoms of SA on craving during a social stressor task in abstinent conditions. Participants (n = 60) were daily smokers, aged 18-30. Participants attended two sessions: a baseline session and a second session, wherein they engaged in a social stressor task while deprived from nicotine for 24 h. Subjective ratings of cigarette craving and state levels of SA were assessed six times throughout the task. Data were analyzed via multilevel modeling. Both trait SA and some forms of smoking to cope with symptoms of SA were more likely to predict increased craving during times of high, relative to low, social stress. Further, individuals with higher state SA, greater smoking to cope behaviors, and those who experience greater relief of social distress by smoking experienced greater craving throughout the task. These effects remained after controlling for nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, depression, and other symptoms of anxiety and stress. Smoking to cope with symptoms of SA did not moderate the relationship between state SA and craving. Smokers high in SA (state and trait) and smoking to cope with symptoms of SA may be at risk for continued smoking and relapse because of the intensity of cravings they experience during stressful social situations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Huang, Cindy Y; Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S
Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children.
Andrea eBeetz; Henri eJulius; Dennis eTurner; Dennis eTurner; Kurt eKotrschal; Kurt eKotrschal
Up to 90% of children with special education needs and about 40% of children in the general population show insecure or disorganized attachment patterns, which are linked to a diminished ability to use social support by others for the regulation of stress. The aim of the study was to investigate if children with insecure-avoidant/disorganized attachment can profit more from social support by a dog compared to a friendly human during a stressful task. We investigated 47 male children (age 7-11...
Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Dik, Bryan J
This study aimed to examine how sources of social support intersect with stress and health by testing two theoretical models. Three relationship-specific sources of social support (family, friends, and romantic partners) and two health indicators (self-rated physical health and depressive symptoms) were investigated. The sample consisted of 636 emerging adults attending college (age range: 18-25). Results suggest that only support from family was a stress-buffer, in that it buffered the adverse association between stress and depressive symptoms. Holding stress constant, only support from family was related to self-rated physical health and only support from friends or romantic partners was associated with depressive symptoms. There were no gender differences in the mean levels of self-rated physical health and depressive symptoms. However, gender moderations were found, in that the positive relationship between friends support and physical health was observed only in women, that the association between friends support and depressive symptoms was greater in men than in women, and that family support buffered the negative relationship between stress and physical health only in men. Findings of this study suggest that the associations among stress, social support, and health vary by the sources of support, the health outcome, and gender. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Polman, Remco; Borkoles, Erika; Nicholls, Adam R
This study investigated whether approach coping, avoidance coping, or perceptions of available social support mediated the relationship between Type D personality and perceived stress. Furthermore, this research also examined whether Type D moderated the relationship between perceived stress and symptoms of burnout. In this cross-sectional study, 334 (male N=180; female N=154) first-year undergraduate students completed the Type D Scale-14 (DS14), the Brief Approach/Avoidance Coping Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. Cross-sectional. Multiple mediation analysis revealed that only resignation and withdrawal coping, but not social support partially mediated the relationship between Type D and perceived stress. A small moderation effect was found for the disengagement subscale of the burnout inventory, with Type D individuals experiencing higher levels of disengagement at low and average stress levels. The correlations between variables provided support for most of the prediction from the literature with regard to Type D. Of the participants in the present study, 24.9% were classified as Type D. These individuals tend to use more passive and maladaptive avoidance coping strategies such as resignation and withdrawal. This is associated with higher levels of perceived stress and linked to increased levels of burnout symptoms.
Orth, Ulrich; Luciano, Eva C
We examined whether self-esteem and narcissism predict the occurrence of stressful life events (i.e., selection) and whether stressful life events predict change in self-esteem and narcissism (i.e., socialization). The analyses were based on longitudinal data from 2 studies, including samples of 328 young adults (Study 1) and 371 adults (Study 2). The effects of self-esteem and narcissism were mutually controlled for each other and, moreover, controlled for effects of depression. After conducting the study-level analyses, we meta-analytically aggregated the findings. Self-esteem had a selection effect, suggesting that low self-esteem led to the occurrence of stressful life events; however, this effect became nonsignificant when depression was controlled for. Regardless of whether depression was controlled for or not, narcissism had a selection effect, suggesting that high narcissism led to the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, stressful life events had a socialization effect on self-esteem, but not on narcissism, suggesting that the occurrence of stressful life events decreased self-esteem. Analyses of trait-state models indicated that narcissism consisted almost exclusively of perfectly stable trait variance, providing a possible explanation for the absence of socialization effects on narcissism. The findings have significant implications because they suggest that a person's level of narcissism influences whether stressful life events occur, and that self-esteem is shaped by the occurrence of stressful life events. Moreover, we discuss the possibility that depression mediates the selection effect of low self-esteem on stressful life events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
van der Schuur, Winneke A; Baumgartner, Susanne E; Sumter, Sindy R
There are concerns that social media (SM) use and SM stress may disrupt sleep. However, evidence on both the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships is limited. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to address this gap in the literature by examining the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between SM use, SM stress, and sleep (i.e., sleep latency and daytime sleepiness) in adolescents. In total, 1,441 adolescents 11-15 years, 51% boys) filled out a survey in at least one of three waves that were three to four months apart (N Wave1 = 1,241; N Wave2 = 1,216; N Wave3 = 1,103). Cross-sectionally, we found that SM use and SM stress were positively related to sleep latency and daytime sleepiness. However, when examined together, SM use was not a significant predictor of sleep latency and daytime sleepiness above the effects of SM stress. The longitudinal findings showed that SM stress was positively related to subsequent sleep latency and daytime sleepiness, but only among girls. Our findings stress that it is important to focus on how adolescents perceive and cope with their SM use, instead of focusing on the mere frequency of SM use.
Vidal, Jose; Buwalda, Bauke; Koolhaas, Jaap M
Adolescence is an important period for the development of adult social competences. Social stress during adolescence may contribute not only to an inadequate social development but also to adult vulnerability to social anxiety. There seems to be a clear individual differentiation, however, in the vulnerability to the long-term negative consequences of social stress. The current study further explores this individual vulnerability and is aimed at the influence of social stress during adolescence on adult social anxiety and its context specificity. Rats from different strains (Wistar and Wild-type Groningen rats) were exposed to the resident-intruder paradigm five times during 10 min each in the period between postnatal day 45 and 58. Three and 7 weeks later, the animals were re-exposed to the context in the presence of either a dominant male or an anestrous female behind a wire mesh screen. Wistar rats that were socially defeated spent less time exploring the social stimulus in comparison with socially defeated Wild-type rats and their non-defeated controls. We conclude that the stressed Wistar rat shows signs of generalized social anxiety indicating that the Wistar rat can be considered as a vulnerable phenotype to effects of adolescent social stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zandara, M; Garcia-Lluch, M; Villada, C; Hidalgo, V; Salvador, A
Being unemployed and looking for a job has become a source of stress for many people in several European countries. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of this stressful situation on the individuals' psychophysiological stress responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of being an unemployed job seeker on cognitive threat appraisal and cardiac responses to a psychosocial stressor. We exposed a group of unemployed job seekers (N = 42) and a matched group of unemployed non-job seekers (N = 40) to a standardized social stressor in form of job interview, the Trier Social Stress Test. Our results showed that unemployed job seekers manifest lower cardiac responses, along with a lower cognitive threat appraisal, compared to non-job seekers. Moreover, we observed a full mediating role of cognitive threat appraisal on the relationship between being an unemployed job seeker and cardiac responses to stress. These findings reveal that being unemployed and looking for a job has an effect on physiological responses to acute stress, as well as the importance of psychological process related to the situation. These responses might lead to negative health and motivational consequences. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jou, Y H; Fukada, H
This study examined the influence of stress and social support on mental and physical health and happiness of 175 Chinese students enrolled in 13 Japanese universities. Needed support accounted for only 10% of the variance in reported stress, indicating that the relation between the two variables was not strong and they were generally independent. With greater scores on stress or needed support and lower scores on perceived or received support, depression and somatic complaints become more severe. The higher the scores on perceived or received support, the higher the reported happiness. Both perceived and received support showed a buffering effect on somatic complaints. Finally, stress and needed support had an interesting interaction, indicating that only among students reporting more stress did students who experienced greater need for support report more severe depression than those who experienced less need for support.
Nawijn, Laura; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Koch, Saskia B J; Frijling, Jessie L; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda
Therapeutic alliance and perceived social support are important predictors of treatment response for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Intranasal oxytocin administration may enhance treatment response by increasing sensitivity for social reward and thereby therapeutic alliance and perceived social support. As a first step to investigate this therapeutical potential, we investigated whether intranasal oxytocin enhances neural sensitivity to social reward in PTSD patients. Male and female police officers with (n = 35) and without PTSD (n = 37) were included in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over fMRI study. After intranasal oxytocin (40 IU) and placebo administration, a social incentive delay task was conducted to investigate neural responses during social reward and punishment anticipation and feedback. Under placebo, PTSD patients showed reduced left anterior insula (AI) responses to social rewards (i.e. happy faces) compared with controls. Oxytocin administration increased left AI responses during social reward in PTSD patients, such that PTSD patients no longer differed from controls under placebo. Furthermore, in PTSD patients, oxytocin increased responses to social reward in the right putamen. By normalizing abberant insula responses and increasing putamen responses to social reward, oxytocin administration may enhance sensitivity for social support and therapeutic alliance in PTSD patients. Future studies are needed to investigate clinical effects of oxytocin. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.
O'Donovan, Aoife; Hughes, Brian
Socially supportive relationships at university may buffer against psychological stress in students, particularly in those experiencing loneliness. To examine the relation of social support at university and loneliness with pulse pressure (PP) reactivity to acute psychological stress in a sample of first-year undergraduate students. Sixty-five female, adolescent, first-year university students. Pulse pressure (PP) was calculated as the arithmetic difference between systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, which were measured during a resting baseline and during a stressful reading task. The difference between baseline and reading task PP represents PP reactivity. The Social Support at University Scale (SSUS) was used to assess social support availability in university, and the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale was used to assess loneliness. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine main and interactive effects of SSUS and loneliness on PP change scores, and simple slopes were computed to assist in the interpretation of interaction effects. Social support at university was associated with lower PP reactivity in students reporting medium (t = -2.03, p = .04) or high levels of loneliness (t = -2.93, p = .004), but not in those reporting low levels of loneliness (t = -0.20, p = .83). Psychosocial interventions designed to increase social support available at university, and targeted at students experiencing loneliness may buffer against the harmful effects of acute stressors in lonely first-year students.
Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.
We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or Aerobic Exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity.
Linnemann, Alexandra; Strahler, Jana; Nater, Urs M
Given that music listening often occurs in a social context, and given that social support can be associated with a stress-reducing effect, it was tested whether the mere presence of others while listening to music enhances the stress-reducing effect of listening to music. A total of 53 participants responded to questions on stress, presence of others, and music listening five times per day (30min after awakening, 1100h, 1400h, 1800h, 2100h) for seven consecutive days. After each assessment, participants were asked to collect a saliva sample for the later analysis of salivary cortisol (as a marker for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) and salivary alpha-amylase (as a marker for the autonomic nervous system). Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that music listening per se was not associated with a stress-reducing effect. However, listening to music in the presence of others led to decreased subjective stress levels, attenuated secretion of salivary cortisol, and higher activity of salivary alpha-amylase. When listening to music alone, music that was listened to for the reason of relaxation predicted lower subjective stress. The stress-reducing effect of music listening in daily life varies depending on the presence of others. Music listening in the presence of others enhanced the stress-reducing effect of music listening independently of reasons for music listening. Solitary music listening was stress-reducing when relaxation was stated as the reason for music listening. Thus, in daily life, music listening can be used for stress reduction purposes, with the greatest success when it occurs in the presence of others or when it is deliberately listened to for the reason of relaxation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In recent decades there has been increasing interest in the subject of stress and a proliferation of research into the contribution of stress as a cause of illness. This association has been widely popularized and now has an established position within the body of popular ideas about health and illness. Nevertheless, very little has been confidently established about the relationship between stress and illness. The precise nature of stress itself eludes definition and there is no consensus as to what it encompasses. There has been a confusion of the models of stress developed in the laboratory and those applied to society. Early laboratory research was modelled on 'mechanical' images of stress taken from contemporary physics and engineering. Since then the stress theory has been heavily psychologised, although it still relies for its validation on the physiological models with which it is fundamentally non-comparable. It is argued that stress is not something naturally occurring in the world, but a manufactured concept which has by now become a 'social fact'. As such it has direct implications for the ways in which people perceive their world and act within it. Stress has increasingly come to be regarded as an integral part of everyday experience. Although much of the attractiveness of the stress theory derives from its seeming to reduce the arbitrariness of suffering, it also carries with it a significant ideological component. This can serve as a means of organising and expressing a variety of ideas about the social order relating, for example, to issues of individual autonomy and responsibility, or to the ways in which society might be perceived as dangerous, repressive or pathogenic.
Full Text Available High resolution thermal infrared imaging is a pioneering method giving indices of sympathetic activity via the contact-free recording of facial tissues (thermal imprints. Compared to established stress markers, the great advantage of this method is its non-invasiveness. The goal of our study was to pilot the use of thermal infrared imaging in the classical setting of human stress research. Thermal imprints were compared to established stress markers (heart rate, heart rate variability, finger temperature, alpha-amylase and cortisol in 15 participants undergoing anticipation, stress and recovery phases of two laboratory stress tests, the Cold Pressor Test and the Trier Social Stress Test. The majority of the thermal imprints proved to be change-sensitive in both tests. While correlations between the thermal imprints and established stress markers were mostly non-significant, the thermal imprints (but not the established stress makers did correlate with stress-induced mood changes. Multivariate pattern analysis revealed that in contrast to the established stress markers the thermal imprints could not disambiguate anticipation, stress and recovery phases of both tests. Overall, these results suggest that thermal infrared imaging is a valuable method for the estimation of sympathetic activity in the stress laboratory setting. The use of this non-invasive method may be particularly beneficial for covert recordings, in the study of special populations showing difficulties in complying with the standard instruments of data collection and in the domain of psychophysiological covariance research. Meanwhile, the established stress markers seem to be superior when it comes to the characterization of complex physiological states during the different phases of the stress cycle.
Millman, Zachary B; Pitts, Steven C; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily R; Demro, Caroline; Weintraub, Marc J; DeVylder, Jordan E; Mittal, Vijay A; Reeves, Gloria M; Schiffman, Jason
Research suggests that social stress exposure influences illness presentation and course among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, though less is known about the extent to which self-reported perceptions of social stress relate to the severity of positive symptoms. Importantly, despite the notion that youth at CHR are especially susceptible to elevations in positive symptoms under conditions of stress, no study has examined this presumption relative to other psychiatric groups. Extending previous work demonstrating that perceived social stress was higher in a CHR group than in a clinical group of non-CHR, help-seeking controls, the current study aimed to: (1) examine whether perceived social stress is related to the severity of attenuated positive symptoms in the full sample (N=110); and (2) determine whether CHR status moderates the stress-symptom relation. Exploratory analyses examined relations of perceived social stress to negative, disorganized, and general symptoms. Greater perceptions of social stress were associated with more severe positive symptoms in the entire sample; however, although positive symptoms and perceived social stress were higher in the CHR group, the strength of this relation was statistically indistinguishable across groups. No differential effect of perceived social stress was observed for any symptom domain. Results provide some support for the diathesis-stress model of psychosis, while also suggesting that social stress and symptomatology are related independent of clinical vulnerability to psychosis. Future research would benefit from longitudinal studies of stress-symptom relations across CHR and help-seeking control groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alyne Kalyane Câmara de Oliveira
Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to describe the levels of stress and perceived social support for caregivers of children with cerebral palsy (CP, as well as investigate the relationship between stress, social support, and variables related to caregivers, the environment and children, namely: the number of children, education level of caregivers, family income, behavior, and the child’s motor level. This study comprised 50 children with CP between 3 and 7.5 years old, their 50 caregivers, and 25 rehabilitation professionals who care for children in health institutions from the countryside of São Paulo state, Brazil. The following measuring instruments were used: the Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy, the Lipp’s Inventory of Stress Symptoms in Adults, the Social Support Questionnaire, and a form identifying the participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by the following tests: Chi-square, Fisher exact, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and Odds Ratio. The results showed stress among the participating caregivers (66%, with predominance of the resistance phase (93.9% and psychological symptoms (69.7%, low perceived social support for caregivers, concomitant with an adequate satisfaction with the support received, as well as significant relationships of stress versus social support (p = 0.017 and education level versus social support (p = 0.037. The data allow analysis of the relationship between the variables investigated and about the impact of having a child with CP in the family regarding the physical, emotional and psychological well-being of caregivers, besides providing subsidies to think of strategies at different levels of care for families of children with disabilities.
Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Ecker, Anthony H; Jeffries, Emily R
Social anxiety disorder appears to be a risk factor for cannabis-related problems. Although it is presumed that increases in cannabis craving during elevated social anxiety reflect an intent to cope with greater negative affectivity, it is unclear whether increases in physiological arousal during social stress are related to cannabis craving, especially among those with social anxiety disorder. Similarly, no studies have assessed motivational reasons for cannabis use during elevated social st...
Quas, Jodi A; Rush, Elizabeth B; Yim, Ilona S; Nikolayev, Mariya
Although a sizeable body of research has examined children's memory for stressful prior experiences, relatively few studies have experimentally manipulated stress during a to-be-remembered event to draw causal inferences about the effects of stress, especially across wide age ranges. We exposed children and adolescents to a more or a less arousing version of the Trier Social Stress Test-Modified (TSST-M), a widely used laboratory stress task. Two weeks later, we tested their memory for what happened. Interviewers behaved in a supportive or non-supportive manner. In adolescents, those who completed the high-arousal TSST-M provided fewer correct responses to recognition questions and fewer incorrect responses to misleading questions for which any answer would have been incorrect, compared to those who completed the lower-arousal TSST-M. Thus, arousal seemed to have reduced the adolescents' willingness to answer questions rather than having influenced their memory per se. In children, across TSST-M conditions, greater physiological arousal during the TSST-M predicted enhanced recall. Finally, interviewer support reduced the amount of factual information provided in free recall but increased correct responses to misleading questions. Results highlight the complex ways in which event stress and interviewer demeanour shape recounting of prior experiences across development.
Hall, Kelli Stidham; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Gatny, Heather; Barber, Jennifer
Prior research linking young women's mental health to family planning outcomes has often failed to consider their social circumstances and the intersecting biosocial mechanisms that shape stress and depression as well as reproductive outcomes during adolescence and young adulthood. We extend our previous work to investigate relationships between social discrimination, stress and depression symptoms, and unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult women. Data were drawn from 794 women aged 18-20 years in a longitudinal cohort study. Baseline and weekly surveys assessed psychosocial information including discrimination (Everyday Discrimination Scale), stress (Perceived Stress Scale), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale), and reproductive outcomes. Multilevel, mixed-effects logistic regression and discrete-time hazard models estimated associations between discrimination, mental health, and pregnancy. Baron and Kenny's method was used to test mediation effects of stress and depression on discrimination and pregnancy. The mean discrimination score was 19/45 points; 20% reported moderate/high discrimination. Discrimination scores were higher among women with stress and depression symptoms versus those without symptoms (21 vs. 18 points for both, p stress (adjusted relative risk ratio, [aRR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.4), depression (aRR, 2.4; CI, 1.5-3.7), and subsequent pregnancy (aRR, 1.8; CI, 1.1-3.0). Stress and depression symptoms did not mediate discrimination's effect on pregnancy. Discrimination was associated with an increased risk of mental health symptoms and unintended pregnancy among these young women. The interactive social and biological influences on reproductive outcomes during adolescence and young adulthood warrant further study. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dubreucq, Sarah; Matias, Isabelle; Cardinal, Pierre; Häring, Martin; Lutz, Beat; Marsicano, Giovanni; Chaouloff, Francis
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) tightly controls emotional responses to acute aversive stimuli. Repeated stress alters ECS activity but the role played by the ECS in the emotional consequences of repeated stress has not been investigated in detail. This study used social defeat stress, together with pharmacology and genetics to examine the role of cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors on repeated stress-induced emotional alterations. Seven daily social defeat sessions increased water (but not food) intake, sucrose preference, anxiety, cued fear expression, and adrenal weight in C57BL/6N mice. The first and the last social stress sessions triggered immediate brain region-dependent changes in the concentrations of the principal endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Pretreatment before each of the seven stress sessions with the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant prolonged freezing responses of stressed mice during cued fear recall tests. Repeated social stress abolished the increased fear expression displayed by constitutive CB1 receptor-deficient mice. The use of mutant mice lacking CB1 receptors from cortical glutamatergic neurons or from GABAergic neurons indicated that it is the absence of the former CB1 receptor population that is responsible for the fear responses in socially stressed CB1 mutant mice. In addition, stress-induced hypolocomotor reactivity was amplified by the absence of CB1 receptors from GABAergic neurons. Mutant mice lacking CB1 receptors from serotonergic neurons displayed a higher anxiety but decreased cued fear expression than their wild-type controls. These mutant mice failed to show social stress-elicited increased sucrose preference. This study shows that (i) release of endocannabinoids during stress exposure impedes stress-elicited amplification of cued fear behavior, (ii) social stress opposes the increased fear expression and delayed between-session extinction because of the absence of CB1 receptors from cortical
Kramer, Martina; Seefeldt, Wiebke Lina; Heinrichs, Nina; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Schmitz, Julian; Wolf, Oliver Tobias; Blechert, Jens
Reports of exaggerated anxiety and physiological hyperreactivity to social-evaluative situations are characteristic of childhood social phobia (SP). However, laboratory research on subjective, autonomic and endocrine functioning in childhood SP is scarce, inconsistent and limited by small sample sizes, limited breadth of measurements, and the use…
Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara
Mental health social workers are at increased risk of being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behavior (CSB). Research has documented personal and professional reactions to CSB; however, empirical evidence describing the potential long-term effects is scarce. This study examined current reactions of perceived stress and continual…
Pickens, Jeffrey; And Others
One month after Hurricane Andrew, surveyed students who reported experiencing the most severe impact damage from the storm also reported experiencing the most stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that material and emotional social support were significant predictors of anxiety and depression scores after the…
Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.
The aims of this study were to investigate whether and how teachers' perceptions of social-emotional learning and climate in their schools influenced three outcome variables--teachers' sense of stress, teaching efficacy, and job satisfaction--and to examine the interrelationships among the three outcome variables. Along with sense of job…
Sullivan, Christopher; Kashubeck-West, Susan
This study examined the relationship between acculturation modes (assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization), social support, and acculturative stress in undergraduate and graduate international students (N=104) at a medium-sized public university in the Midwestern United States. The study found that international students with…
de Groot, Johanna; Ruis, Marko A.W.; Scholten, Jan. W.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Boersma, Wim J.A.
Mixing of unfamiliar pigs is common practice in intensive pig husbandry. Since pigs maintain a dominance hierarchy, mixing often leads to vigorous fighting. Apart from the negative impact that fighting has on welfare, there is evidence that the social stress associated with fighting suppresses
Prince van Leeuwen, A.; Creemers, H.E.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.
Aims: To investigate the relationship of life-time and repeated cannabis use with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to social stress in a general population sample of adolescents. Design: Adolescents who reported life-time or repeated cannabis use, life-time or repeated tobacco
van Leeuwen, Andrea Prince; Creemers, Hanneke E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Huizink, Anja C.
Aims To investigate the relationship of life-time and repeated cannabis use with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to social stress in a general population sample of adolescents. Design Adolescents who reported life-time or repeated cannabis use, life-time or repeated tobacco use
Tefft, Donita; Guerette, Paula; Furumasu, Jan
Powered mobility has been found to have positive effects on young children with severe physical disabilities, but the impact on the family has been less well documented. We evaluated the impact of early powered mobility on parental stress, negative emotions, perceived social interactions, and parental satisfaction with wheelchair characteristics…
Fernández-González, L.; González-Hernández, A.; Trianes-Torres, M. V.
Introduction: This research aims to analyse how optimism, self-esteem and social support help to predict academic stress. Method: The sample consisted of 123 students aged 20 to 31 years old, from the 3rd Year in the Psychology Degree. Students completed the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Optimism Questionnaire (LOT-R), the…
Laurence, Brian; Williams, Carla; Eiland, Derrick
Objective: The authors measured the prevalence of depressive symptoms among dental students at a historically black college in the United States to determine how depressive symptoms, stress, and social support influence each other within this student population. Participants: Dental students (n = 143) completed a self-administered survey to assess…
Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Murdaca, Anna Maria; Costa, Sebastiano; Filippello, Pina; Larcan, Rosalba
The aim of this research was to compare parental stress, coping strategies and social support perceived in families of children with low functioning autism (n = 8), high functioning autism (n = 10), Down syndrome (n = 12) and parents of typically developing children (n = 20). Specifically, the objective was to investigate which variables (coping…
Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Ang, Rebecca P.; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Wong, Geraldine; Cai, Yiming
This study examined the impact of the quality of parent-child attachment on aggression, social stress, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of 91 boys with disruptive behaviour disorders ranging from 8 to 12 years of age. These boys were included in the study if they were found to exhibit various aggressive and antisocial behaviours such as…
Perry, R.W.; Schuller, C.R.; Lindell, M.K.; Greene, M.R.; Walsh, J.T.; Earle, T.
The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive examination of existing research on community organizations and community political systems. These findings will be integrated into a framework for understanding the variety of social and political responses which may be manifest in small communities facing the prospect of hosting a major nuclear facility. The principal focus is on the formation and behavior of social groups in communities, particularly politically oriented social movements or community action groups. This analysis is set on the context of a community experiencing social stress. Most of the discussion which follows is based on an extrapolation from the large body of reseach literature on the topics in sociology, political science, and psychology. Chapter I examines the community political systems which are the arena in which local action groups will operate. Chapter II focuses on the internal conditions necessary for the formation and maintenance of community action groups. Chapter III reviews the research literature on the social environment of organizations in communities and the external conditions which are necessary to maintain organizations over time. Chapter IV develops a logic whereby the community consensus model can be adopted to particular social movement organizations and community actions groups. Chapter V examines changes in aspects of the environment which can be a function of the operation of movement organizations, and changes in the structure and tactics of movement organizations which appear to be a response to the environment.
Korzan, W J; Summers, C H
Serotonergic activity is influenced by social status and manipulation of social signals. In the lizard Anolis carolinensis, eyespot formation, i.e. darkening of postorbital skin from green to black, appears during stressful and agonistic situations, forming first in males that become dominant. To assess the effect of eyespots on central serotonergic activity during social interaction, males were paired by weight and painted postorbitally with green or black paint. Manipulation of eyespot color influenced social interactions and status. All males that viewed an opponent with black painted eyespots became subordinate. In these subordinate animals, serotonergic activity was elevated in hippocampus, striatum, nucleus accumbens and locus ceruleus. In contrast, males that viewed opponents with hidden eyespots (painted green) and became dominant had increased serotonergic activity in hypothalamus, medial amygdala and raphé. Pre-painted eyespots produced results that distinguish dominant and subordinate relationships based on serotonergic activity not previously seen in unmanipulated pairs. Results from experiments using pairs are similar to those using mirrors for medial amygdala and locus ceruleus, but not hippocampus, nucleus accumbens or raphé. Decreased hypothalamic serotonin was associated with increased aggressive behavior. These results, when compared with previous studies, suggest some flexibility in central serotonergic systems, which may shape dominant and subordinate rank acquisition, and appear to be influenced by the completion of social role formation. Furthermore, social status and central serotonergic activity was influenced by a visual cue, the presence or absence of postorbital eyespots on an opponent.
Howard, Siobhán; Creaven, Ann-Marie; Hughes, Brian M; O'Leary, Éanna D; James, Jack E
The benefits of perceived social support for physical and psychological health are well-established. However, little research has explored associations between perceived social support and cardiovascular reactivity in older adults. This exploratory study recruited a sample of older adults (M age =69years, SD=5.62) and examined quality and quantity of perceived social support as predictors of cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory-based stress (N=39 participants) and ambulatory cardiovascular activity in everyday life (n=28). The results suggest that quality, but not quantity, of perceived social support predicts reduced blood pressure reactivity to stress in the laboratory. Although quality of support was not associated with ambulatory blood pressure, results suggest that quantity of daily social support may be associated with higher ambulatory heart rate, but not with social contact during measurement. This preliminary study extends prior work on social support and cardiovascular function to a group of older adults in both laboratory and field settings. Challenges for much-needed future research in this area are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Graham, James M; Barnow, Zoe B
The beneficial effect of social support on the well-being of individuals and romantic relationships has been extensively studied in married heterosexual relationships. The direct effects model suggests that social support is directly associated with well-being, while the social buffering model describes how social support can protect individual well-being from the negative impact of stress. In the present study, we seek to test the extent to which these processes apply to gay and lesbian couples. We use a sample of 111 gay, lesbian, and married heterosexual couples to test the predictions of the social buffering models across relationship types. Irrespective of sexual orientation, the results suggest that social support from family and friends is directly related to well-being, while support provided by one's romantic partner buffered individual well-being from the negative impact of stress. The direct and buffering effects of partner support on romantic relationship quality were likewise consistent across couple types. While the amount of social support received from family members had a beneficial effect on the relationship quality of heterosexual couples, family support was unrelated to relationship quality in same-sex couples. Furthermore, the relation between friend support and relationship quality differed across couple types. We discuss the results in the context of the unique challenges faced by same-sex couples. © 2013 American Psychological Association
Padgett, David A.; Sheridan, John F.; Dorne, Julianne; Berntson, Gary G.; Candelora, Jessica; Glaser, Ronald
Psychological stress is thought to contribute to reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although several animal models have been developed in an effort to reproduce different pathogenic aspects of HSV keratitis or labialis, until now, no good animal model existed in which application of a psychological laboratory stressor results in reliable reactivation of the virus. Reported herein, disruption of the social hierarchy within colonies of mice increased aggression among cohorts, activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and caused reactivation of latent HSV type 1 in greater than 40% of latently infected animals. However, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis using restraint stress did not activate the latent virus. Thus, the use of social stress in mice provides a good model in which to investigate the neuroendocrine mechanisms that underlie behaviorally mediated reactivation of latent herpes-viruses.
Wei, Meifen; Wang, Kenneth T; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Du, Yi
Carter (2007) proposed the notion of race-based traumatic stress and argued that experiences of racial discrimination can be viewed as a type of trauma. In a sample of 383 Chinese international students at 2 predominantly White midwestern universities, the present results supported this notion and found that perceived racial discrimination predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms over and above perceived general stress. Furthermore, Berry (1997) proposed an acculturation framework and recommended that researchers advance the literature by examining the moderation effects on the association between racial discrimination and outcomes. The present results supported the moderation effect for Ethnic SC (i.e., social connectedness in the ethnic community), but not for Mainstream SC (i.e., social connectedness in mainstream society). A simple effects analysis indicated that a high Ethnic SC weakened the strength of the association between perceived racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms more than a low Ethnic SC. Moreover, although Mainstream SC failed to be a moderator, Mainstream SC was significantly associated with less perceived general stress, less perceived racial discrimination, and less posttraumatic stress symptoms.
FeldmanHall, Oriel; Raio, Candace M; Kubota, Jennifer T; Seiler, Morgan G; Phelps, Elizabeth A
Uncertainty preferences are typically studied in neutral, nonsocial contexts. This approach, however, fails to capture the dynamic factors that influence choices under uncertainty in the real world. Our goal was twofold: to test whether uncertainty valuation is similar across social and nonsocial contexts, and to investigate the effects of acute stress on uncertainty preferences. Subjects completed matched gambling and trust games following either a control or a stress manipulation. Those who were not under stress exhibited no differences between the amount of money gambled and the amount of money entrusted to partners. In comparison, stressed subjects gambled more money but entrusted less money to partners. We further found that irrespective of stress, subjects were highly attuned to irrelevant feedback in the nonsocial, gambling context, believing that every loss led to a greater chance of winning (the gamblers' fallacy). However, when deciding to trust a stranger, control subjects behaved rationally, treating each new interaction as independent. Stress compromised this adaptive behavior, increasing sensitivity to irrelevant social feedback. © The Author(s) 2015.
Field, Richard J.; Gallas, Jason A. C.; Schuldberg, David
Recent work has introduced social dynamic models of people's stress-related processes, some including amelioration of stress symptoms by support from others. The effects of support may be ;direct;, depending only on the level of support, or ;buffering;, depending on the product of the level of support and level of stress. We focus here on the nonlinear buffering term and use a model involving three variables (and 12 control parameters), including stress as perceived by the individual, physical and psychological symptoms, and currently active social support. This model is quantified by a set of three nonlinear differential equations governing its stationary-state stability, temporal evolution (sometimes oscillatory), and how each variable affects the others. Chaos may appear with periodic forcing of an environmental stress parameter. Here we explore this model carefully as the strength and amplitude of this forcing, and an important psychological parameter relating to self-kindling in the stress response, are varied. Three significant observations are made: 1. There exist many complex but orderly regions of periodicity and chaos, 2. there are nested regions of increasing number of peaks per cycle that may cascade to chaos, and 3. there are areas where more than one state, e.g., a period-2 oscillation and chaos, coexist for the same parameters; which one is reached depends on initial conditions.
Elhai, Jon D; Hall, Brian J; Erwin, Meredith Claycomb
A sample of 359 students participated in a web survey, administered the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) as a pre-test. We subsequently randomly assigned subjects to either 1) a smart phone loss group or 2) social media accounts loss group. We asked them to imagine losing two days' access to the technology in their respective group, and rate associated symptoms using the DASS-21. Compared to subjects in the smartphone loss group, social media loss subjects evidenced stronger relations between suppressive emotion regulation with depression, anxiety and stress from imagined loss. Controlling for age and gender, social media loss subjects' increased use of suppression, and decreased use of cognitive reappraisal in emotion regulation, were related to depression, stress and (for suppression only) anxiety due to imagined lost social media. Emotion regulation was not related to psychopathology for subjects in the smartphone loss scenario. Results suggest that emotion dysregulation may be associated with psychopathology from social media loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tessa K Solomon-Lane
Full Text Available Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds has been hypothesized to play a mechanistic role linking status to sex change. The HPA/I axis responds to environmental stressors by integrating relevant external and internal cues and coordinating biological responses including changes in behavior, energetics, physiology, and morphology (i.e., metamorphosis. Through actions of both corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoids (GCs, the HPA/I axis has been implicated in processes central to sex change, including the regulation of agonistic behavior, social status, energetic investment, and life history transitions. In this paper, we review the hypothesized roles of the HPA/I axis in the regulation of sex change and how those hypotheses have been tested to date. We include original data on sex change in the bluebanded goby (Lythyrpnus dalli, a highly social fish capable of bidirectional sex change. We then propose a model for HPA/I involvement in sex change and discuss how these ideas might be tested in the future. Understanding the regulation of sex change has the potential to elucidate evolutionarily conserved mechanisms responsible for translating pertinent information about the environment into coordinated biological changes along multiple body axes.
Kwag, Kyung Hwa; Martin, Peter; Russell, Daniel; Franke, Warren; Kohut, Marian
This study investigated how perceived stress, social support, and home-based physical activity affected older adults' fatigue, loneliness, and depression. We also explored whether social support and physical activity mediated the relationships between stress and mental health problems. The data of 163 older participants were analyzed in this…
Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Espín, Laura; Gómez-Amor, Jesús; Salvador, Alicia
Stress has been identified as a main factor involved in the cognitive changes that occur during the aging process. This study investigated sex differences in the relationship between the magnitude of the acute stress-induced salivary cortisol response and memory performance among middle-aged people. To this end, 16 men and 16 women (aged 54-72 years) were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test and a control condition in a crossover design. Afterwards their memory performance was measured using a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Only among women, there was an acute impact of stress on memory performance and a significant relationship between a higher cortisol response to the stressor and poorer memory performance in both the stress and control conditions. Additionally, a poorer memory performance was related to earlier timing of sexual maturation (age at menarche), which was also marginally related to higher cortisol reactivity to stress. These results confirm that sex is a critical factor in the relationship between cortisol and poor memory performance. Furthermore, the findings emphasize a strong link between the individual cortisol response to stress and memory functioning among postmenopausal women.
Morrison, Kathleen E.; Narasimhan, Sneha; Fein, Ethan
The peripubertal period of development is a sensitive window, during which adverse experiences can increase the risk for presentation of cognitive and affective dysfunction throughout the lifespan, especially in women. However, such experiences in the context of a supportive social environment can actually ameliorate this risk, suggesting that resilience can be programmed in early life. Affective disorders and cognitive deficits commonly emerge during aging, with many women reporting increased difficulty with prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent executive functions. We have developed a mouse model to examine the interaction between peripubertal experience and age-related changes in cognition and stress regulation. Female mice were exposed to peripubertal chronic stress, during which they were either individually housed or housed with social interaction. One year after this stress experience, mice were examined in tasks to access their cognitive ability and flexibility in stress reactive measures. In a test of spatial memory acquisition and reversal learning where aged females normally display a decreased performance, the females that had experienced stress with social interaction a year earlier showed improved performance in reversal learning, a measure of cognitive flexibility. Because peripuberty is a time of major PFC maturation, we performed transcriptomic and biochemical analysis of the aged PFC, in which long-term changes in microRNA expression and in myelin proteins were found. These data suggest that stress in the context of social support experienced over the pubertal window can promote epigenetic reprogramming in the brain to increase the resilience to age-related cognitive decline in females. PMID:26943365
Chen, Guanghui; Kong, Yanhong; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Zhang, Wenxin
Childhood adverse experiences have been consistently documented to engender persistent changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to chronic stress. However, there has been very little research examining whether this effect can be elicited among children when using a standardized laboratory stress test, or whether such effects are found in non-Western youth. In the current study, 80 10-year-old Chinese children (45% girls, 4-5th grades) were selected from 970 students based on the experience of being bullied, resulting in a sample of 59 victims (physical, verbal, and relational/social), and a group of 21 nonbullied children with distributions of age and gender that were comparable. We examined the association between bullying victimization and cortisol reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at six time points using repeated-measures analyses of variance. The results showed that the TSST was a valid protocol among Chinese children for testing the functioning of HPA axis, based on two indicators: cortisol increase in response to stressor, and cortisol decrease after stressor removal. Based on the TSST, both cortisol reactivity and total cortisol concentration over the course of TSST were higher in bullied children relative to nonbullied children. Moreover, there were no differences in cortisol levels between victimization sub-types. Our study extended prior findings, by showing that cortisol dysregulation in response to stress may be related to bullying victimization.
Moretta, Tania; Buodo, Giulia
The link between autonomic stress reactivity and subjective urge/craving has been less systematically examined in behavioral addictions (i.e. problematic Internet use) than in substance use disorders. The present study investigated whether problematic Internet users (PU) show enhanced autonomic stress reactivity than non-PU, indexed by lower Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and higher Skin Conductance Level (SCL) reactivity during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), whether greater reactivity is related to stronger Internet craving, and whether problematic Internet usage is associated with some dysfunctional psychological features. Based on their Internet Addiction Test scores, participants were divided into PU (N = 24) and non-PU (N = 21). Their heart rate and skin conductance were continuously recorded during baseline, social stressors, and recovery. Craving for Internet usage were collected using a Likert scale before and after the TSST. The SDNN, an overall measure of HRV, was significantly lower in PU than non-PU during baseline, but not during and after stressful task. Furthermore, only among PU a significant negative correlation emerged between SDNN during recovery and craving ratings after the test. No group differences emerged for SCL. Lastly, PU endorsed more mood, obsessive-compulsive, and alcohol-related problems. Our findings suggest that problems in controlling one's use of the Internet may be related to reduced autonomic balance at rest. Moreover, our results provide new insights into the characterization of craving in PIU, indicating the existence of a relationship between craving for Internet usage and reduced autonomic flexibility.
De Rossi, Chiara; Bierl, Reinhard; Riefstahl, Jens
Organic pollutants are nowadays part of our environment and they can be found in every compartment, though in different levels of concentration. Studies which are related to the content of these substances in precipitation deal with very low concentration levels which, nevertheless, cannot be ignored. The city of Trier, with nearly 100,000 inhabitants, is located at the river Moselle, in south-west Germany, and is one of the main centres of the vinicultural area of the Moselle-Saar-Ruwer, where pesticides, among them many fungicides, are widely used. In this study, rain samples were weekly collected, from July 1999 till December 2000, in nine different sites, and two classes of compounds were investigated: PAHs and pesticides, with a particular attention on selected fungicides. Sampling sites were selected in order to evaluate the dispersion of pollutants in relation to their main sources, therefore urban sites were chosen as well as industrial and rural sites. Such a monitoring plan allowed an investigation on the spatial and temporal variation of typology and amount of the detected substances. As a result, urban sites, relatively far from vinicultural areas, showed to be contaminated by pesticides; on the other hand, samples collected in open land areas showed different levels of contamination by PAHs. Pesticides could be detected only during the application time (spring and summer), while PAHs, due to the characteristics of the emitting sources, could be detected during the whole period of monitoring.
Full Text Available Riget, la serie de televisión de dos temporadas dirigida por Lars von Trier entre 1994 y 1997, pone en escena un hospital acechado por fantasmas y una comunidad científica atrapada por sus propias supersticiones. Guiada por estaserie el artículo explora la contaminación de la mirada médica así como la contaminación de los ojos de los espectadores. Al reflexionar sobre la práctica de la autopsia, Foucault describió la mirada médica como ver la vida a travésdel espejo de la muerte, el “gran analista” que hace posible entender y describirla enfermedad. Pero es sobre todo la noción de Derrida de autoinmunidad la que permite pensar la mirada como algo que ya estaba permeada por otro ojo—un extranjero, un extraño, un elemento ominoso que infecta nuestra visión mientras que es, a su vez, su propia condición de posibilidad.
Tanaka, Takakuni; Hong, Guang; Tominami, Kanako; Kudo, Tada-Aki
Oral fat sensitivity (OFS), the ability to taste fat, is associated with eating habits in humans, including daily fatty food consumption; namely, proper OFS is important for health. In addition, lifestyle factors, such as stress and sleep, may affect fat intake. However, correlations between OFS, stress management, and sleep are largely unknown. Thus, we investigated the associations of OFS with lifestyle factors regarding stress management and daytime sleepiness in healthy young adult men. We measured OFS, sensitivities for three prototypical tastes (sweet, salty, and sour), and BMI in 22 subjects (27.2 ± 6.0 years), who also completed a self-reported questionnaire on health, including lifestyle-related questions. The correlations of taste sensitivities with stress management and daytime sleepiness were analyzed. We thus found that the number of mentors for personal concerns (a question regarding stress management, social support) was positively associated with OFS (P = 0.041), but not the other taste sensitivities. In contrast, other lifestyle factors related to stress management (frequency of relaxation, frequency of eating when irritated or worried, and degree of satisfaction with one's sleep) and daytime sleepiness were not significantly associated with OFS, similar to that observed for other tested taste sensitivities. These results characterize the unique association of OFS with the degree of social support in healthy young men and provide novel insights into the nature of individual OFS differences. Thus, measuring the degree of social support may be helpful for the evaluation of OFS impairment, thereby contributing to the prevention of stress-induced overeating.
Schutte, Claire; Richardson, Wendy; Devlin, Morgan; Hill, Jeanna; Ghossainy, Maliki; Hewitson, Laura
This study investigated categories of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition and their association with maternal stress. Social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors were compared with levels of maternal stress, measured by the Parenting Stress Index, in 102 children…
Travis, Dnika J; Lizano, Erica Leeanne; Mor Barak, Michàlle E
The well-documented day-to-day and long-term experiences of job stress and burnout among employees in child welfare organisations increasingly raise concerns among leaders, policy makers and scholars. Testing a theory-driven longitudinal model, this study seeks to advance understanding of the differential impact of job stressors (work-family conflict, role conflict and role ambiguity) and burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation) on employee disengagement (work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours). Data were collected at three six-month intervals from an availability sample of 362 front line social workers or social work supervisors who work in a large urban public child welfare organisation in the USA. The study's results yielded a good model fit (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.96, NFI = 0.94). Work-family conflict, role ambiguity and role conflict were found to impact work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours indirectly through burnout. The outcome variable, exit-seeking behaviours, was positively impacted by depersonalisation and work withdrawal at a statistically significant level. Overall, findings, at least in the US context, highlight the importance of further examining the development of job burnout among social workers and social work supervisors working in child welfare settings, as well as the utility of long-term administrative strategies to mitigate risks of burnout development and support engagement.
Lau, Ying; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Wang, Yuqiong; Kwong, Dennis Ho Keung; Wang, Ying
A community-based sample of 755 pregnant Chinese women were recruited to test the direct and moderating effects of social support in mitigating perceived stress associated with antenatal depressive or anxiety symptoms. The Social Support Rating Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Edinburgh Depressive Postnatal Scale and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale were used. Social support was found to have direct effects and moderating effects on the women's perceived stress on antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms in multiple linear regression models. This knowledge of the separate effects of social support on behavioral health is important to psychiatric nurse in planning preventive interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
314-335. Badia-Elder NE, Gilpin NW, Stewart RB (2007) Neuropeptide Y modulation of ethanol intake: effects of ethanol drinking history and genetic...Breese GR, Chu K, Dayas CV, Funk D, Knapp DJ, Koob GF, Le DA, O’Dell LE, Overstreet DH, Roberts AJ, Sinha R, Valdez GR, Weiss F (2005) Stress enhancement...sNAcks. Appetite 15:89-101. De La Garza R, 2nd, Mahoney JJ, 3rd (2004) A distinct neurochemical profile in WKY rats at baseline and in response to acute
Hisam, Aliya; Safoor, Iqra; Khurshid, Nawal; Aslam, Aakash; Zaid, Farhan; Muzaffar, Ayesha
To find out the association of psychological stress with political activism on social networking sites (SNS) in adults. To find association of psychological stress and political activism with age, gender and occupational status. A descriptive cross-sectional study of 8 months (Aug 2014 to March 2015) was conducted on young adults between age group of 20-40 years of different universities of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Closed ended standardized questionnaires (i.e. Cohen Perceived Stress-10) were distributed via non-probability convenient sampling among a total sample size of 237. Sample size was calculated using WHO sample size calculator and data was analyzed in STATA version 12. The mean age of participants was 21.06±1.425 years. Out of the 237 participants, 150 (63.3%) were males and 87 (36.7%) females. Regarding their occupation, 13 (51.9%) were military cadets, 8 (3.4%) were consultant, 47 (19.8%) medical officer, 3 (1.3%) PG students and 56 (23.6%) MBBS students. Significant association of occupation was established with both political activism and psychological stress (p=0.4 and p=0.002 respectively). Among 237 individuals, 91 (38.4%) were stressed out and 146 (61.6%) were not. Among whole sample, political activists on SNS were found to be 23 (9.7%). Out of these 23 individuals who were politically active, 15 (65.2%) were stressed out and 8 (34.7%) were not. A significant association between stress and political activism was established (p=0.005). Political activism via social networking sites is playing significant role on adult person's mental health in terms of stress among different occupation.
Wirtz, Petra H; Redwine, Laura S; Ehlert, Ulrike; von Känel, Roland
To investigate the relationship between social support and coagulation parameter reactivity to mental stress in men and to determine if norepinephrine is involved. Lower social support is associated with higher basal coagulation activity and greater norepinephrine stress reactivity, which in turn, is linked with hypercoagulability. However, it is not known if low social support interacts with stress to further increase coagulation reactivity or if norepinephrine affects this association. These findings may be important for determining if low social support influences thrombosis and possible acute coronary events in response to acute stress. We investigated the relationship between social support and coagulation parameter reactivity to mental stress in men and determined if norepinephrine is involved. We measured perceived social support in 63 medication-free nonsmoking men (age (mean +/- standard error of the mean) = 36.7 +/- 1.7 years) who underwent an acute standardized psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic in front of an audience. We measured plasma D-dimer, fibrinogen, clotting Factor VII activity (FVII:C), and plasma norepinephrine at rest as well as immediately after stress and 20 minutes after stress. Independent of body mass index, mean arterial pressure, and age, lower social support was associated with higher D-dimer and fibrinogen levels at baseline (p social support and stress on fibrinogen, D-dimer, and norepinephrine (p social support and the coagulation measures D-dimer and fibrinogen. Our results suggest that lower social support is associated with greater coagulation activity before and after acute stress, which was unrelated to norepinephrine reactivity.
Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Bauer, Stephanie; Semple, Stuart
When stressed, people typically show elevated rates of displacement behaviour--activities such as scratching and face touching that seem irrelevant to the ongoing situation. Growing evidence indicates that displacement behaviour may play a role in regulating stress levels, and thus may represent an important component of the coping response. Recently, we found evidence that this stress-regulating effect of displacement behaviour is found in men but not in women. This sex difference may result from women's higher levels of public self-consciousness, which could inhibit expression of displacement behaviour due to the fear of projecting an inappropriate image. Here, we explored the link between public self-consciousness, displacement behaviour and stress among 62 healthy women (mean age = 26.59 years; SD = 3.61). We first assessed participants' public self-consciousness, and then quantified displacement behaviour, heart rate and cognitive performance during a Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and used self-report questionnaires to assess the experience of stress afterwards. Public self-consciousness was negatively correlated with rate of displacement behaviour, and positively correlated with both the subjective experience of stress post-TSST and the number of mistakes in the cognitive task. Moderation analyses revealed that for women high in public self-consciousness, high levels of displacement behaviour were associated with higher reported levels of stress and poorer cognitive performance. For women low in public self-consciousness, stress levels and cognitive performance were unrelated to displacement behaviour. Our findings indicate that public self-consciousness is associated with both the expression of displacement behaviour and how such behaviour mediates responses to social stress.
Varlinskaya, Elena I; Truxell, Eric M; Spear, Linda P
In rats, considerable differences in the social consequences of acute ethanol are seen across ontogeny, with adolescents being more sensitive to low dose ethanol-induced social facilitation and less sensitive to the social inhibition evident at higher ethanol doses relative to adults. Stressor exposure induces social anxiety-like behavior, indexed via decreases in social preference, and alters responsiveness to the social consequences of acute ethanol by enhancing ethanol-associated social facilitation and anxiolysis regardless of age. Given that substantial ontogenetic differences in the social consequences of ethanol are evident even within the adolescent period, the present study was designed to investigate whether similar stress-associated alterations in social behavior and ethanol responsiveness are evident in early and late adolescents. Juvenile-early adolescent [postnatal days (P) 24-28] and mid-late adolescent (P38-42) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly restrained (90 min/day) for 5 days, followed by examination of ethanol-induced (0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 g/kg) alterations in social behaviors on the last day. Responsiveness to restraint stress in terms of both stress-induced behavioral alterations and stress-associated changes in sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol challenge differed drastically at the two ages. Repeated restraint increased anxiety-like behavior in a social context in older adolescents, whereas previously stressed young adolescent males showed substantial increases in play fighting - an effect of stress not evident in P28 females or P42 adolescents of either sex. Unexpectedly, repeated restraint eliminated sensitivity to ethanol-induced social facilitation in P28 adolescent males and made their female counterparts less sensitive to this effect. In contrast, previously stressed late adolescents became sensitive to the socially facilitating and anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol. © 2013.
Isaksson, Alexandra; Martin, Peter; Kaufmehl, Jan; Heinrichs, Markus; Domes, Gregor; Rüsch, Nicolas
Ingroup perception or the views people with depression have about their group, may influence their vulnerability to social identity threat and lead to enhanced stress reactions and impaired performance. It is unclear how ingroup perception can influence stress appraisals in performance situations among people with a history of depression who are currently in remission. We investigated the impact of ingroup perception on primary stress appraisal, i.e. how threatening a test situation is perceived, as well as on secondary stress appraisal, or perceived coping resources. Sixty people with a history of depression and currently in remission underwent computerized performance tests. Ingroup perception (group identification, group value and entitativity) and stress appraisals were assessed by self-report. In multiple linear regressions higher group identification predicted stronger perception of the situation as stressful if participants perceived people with depression as a coherent group (high entitativity) and held this group in low regard (low group value). In turn, stronger group identification was related to more perceived coping resources especially if participants did not regard people with depression as a coherent group. Our findings highlight the relevance of ingroup perception for stress and coping processes in people with a history of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Polgar, Michael F; North, Carol S; Pollio, David E
This article focuses on the stressors of parenting an adult child who experiences homelessness. Parents whose adult children become homeless may provide support to this child, but they may also subsequently experience stress and require social support themselves. Findings from this study support the hypothesis that parents who spend more time or money helping their homeless adult offspring experience higher levels of stress. Results also show higher levels of stress among parents who helped with activities of daily living and among parents who worked to prevent harm involving their adult homeless offspring. Among 37 respondents, a majority of whom were African American mothers parenting homeless sons, parents who engaged in activities to prevent harm and parents who experienced stress from harm prevention received more extensive social support. Health and social service providers should recognize and respond to the financial, emotional, and temporal burdens of parenting an adult who becomes homeless. Service providers can both support people who become homeless and reinforce larger family systems, particularly in circumstances that involve more extensive parental support or more harmful situations.
Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Eack, Shaun M.
Scientific Abstract Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face substantial challenges accomplishing basic tasks associated with daily living, which are exacerbated by their broad and pervasive difficulties with social interactions. These challenges put people with ASD at increased risk for psychophysiological distress, which likely factors heavily into social functioning for adults with ASD, as suggested by a growing literature on stress in children that indicates that children with ASD have differential responses to stress than healthy children. We hypothesized that adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n=38) would experience more stress than healthy volunteers (n=37) and that there would be an inverse relationship between stress and social functioning in individuals with ASD. Baseline, semi-structured interview data from a randomized-controlled trial of two treatments for adults with ASD were used to assess differences in stress between adults with ASD and healthy volunteers and to assess the relationship between stress response and social functioning in adults with ASD. Findings indicate that adults with ASD experience greater perceived and interviewer-observed stress than did healthy volunteers and that stress is significantly related to social functioning in adults with ASD. These findings highlight the role of stress in adult functioning and outcomes and suggest the need to develop and assess treatments designed to target stress and coping in adults with ASD. PMID:25524571
Reeve, Kristen L; Shumaker, Catherine J; Yearwood, Edilma L; Crowell, Nancy A; Riley, Joan B
Nursing students experience high levels of stress. Coping mechanisms such as utilization of social support are effective in managing the effects of stress and promoting individual well-being. The use of social support from faculty members and peers in nursing programs has not been studied sufficiently. Faculty members who can perceive and understand student emotions add to the students' positive perception of the educational environment, making it more conducive to learning. To identify the stress experience and use of social support as a coping mechanism in traditional and second degree nursing students' educational experiences. A mixed method study was conducted. Undergraduate nursing students at a private university. 107 baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in either a traditional (n=49) or second degree (n=58) program during the Fall 2011 semester. Five instruments were combined to develop the quantitative and qualitative questions for an online survey. Traditional and second degree nursing students report high levels of anxiety, worry and depression in response to stress, resulting in feelings of rejection and inadequacy. Respondents used faculty members for support less frequently than they used their peers, spouse/significant other or parents. Second degree students and traditional students differ in their level of alcohol consumption with traditional students more likely to drink heavily than second degree students. In addition, traditional students are more likely to use fellow nursing students and other friends as social support, whereas second degree students rely more on their spouse/significant other. Students' high levels of maladaptive reactions to stress should encourage educators to help students develop positive coping strategies. Educators have the potential to impact the development of their students as they transition into nurses capable of handling the rigors of the profession. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Physical activity has long been considered beneficial to health and regular exercise is purported to relieve stress. However empirical evidence demonstrating these effects is limited. In this study, we compared psychophysiological responses to an acute psychosocial stressor between individuals who did, or did not, report regular physical exercise. Healthy men and women (N=111 participated in two experimental sessions, one with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST and one with a non-stressful control task. We measured heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol and self-reported mood before and at repeated times after the tasks.Individuals who reported physical exercise at least once per week exhibited lower heart rate at rest than non-exercisers, but the groups did not differ in their cardiovascular responses to the TSST. Level of habitual exercise did not influence self-reported mood before the tasks, but non-exercisers reported a greater decline in positive affect after the TSST in comparison to exercisers. These findings provide modest support for claims that regular exercise protects against the negative emotional consequences of stress, and suggest that exercise has beneficial effects in healthy individuals. These findings are limited by their correlational nature, and future prospective controlled studies on the effects of regular exercise on response to acute stress are needed.
Mordecai, Kristen L; Rubin, Leah H; Eatough, Erin; Sundermann, Erin; Drogos, Lauren; Savarese, Antonia; Maki, Pauline M
Oral contraceptive (OC) users typically show a blunted or no cortisol response to psychosocial stress. Although most OC regimens include both an inactive (dummy) and active pill phase, studies have not systematically investigated cortisol responses during these pill phases. Further, high levels of cortisol following a stressor diminish retrieval of emotional material, but the effects of stress on memory among OC users are poorly understood. We examined the effects of a psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, vs. a control condition on cortisol responsivity and emotional memory retrieval in women tested either during their active (n = 18) or inactive pill phase (n = 21). In secondary analyses, we quantitatively compared OC users with normally cycling women and showed a significant lack of cortisol response during both active and inactive pill phase. Emotional recall did not differ between active and inactive pill phases. Stress differentially diminished recall of negative words compared with positive or neutral words, but cortisol levels were unrelated to memory performance. These findings indicate that OC users have distinct cortisol and memory responses to stress that are similar between the active and inactive pill phases. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Salivary alpha-amylase activity (sAA and plasma noradrenaline (NA concentrations are often considered to be surrogate markers of sympathetic activation in response to stress. However, despite accumulating evidence for a close association between sAA and noradrenaline and other indicators of sympathetic activity, reliability and generality of this relation remains unclear. We employed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST in order to directly compare the responses in sAA and NA to psychological stress in healthy volunteers (n = 23. The TSST significantly increased sAA and NA plasma levels with no significant differences in females and males. However, when subjects were divided according to their NA responses into low versus high responders, both groups did not significantly differ in their sAA before, during or after stress exposure. These data suggest that in response to acute psychological stress both plasma NA levels and sAA reflect sympathetic activity, however seemed to increase independently from each other.
Tyler, Kimberly; Melander, Lisa; Almazan, Elbert
Although self-mutilation has been studied from medical and individual perspectives, it has rarely been examined within a social stress context. As such, we use a social stress framework to examine risk factors for self-mutilation to determine whether status strains that are often associated with poorer health outcomes in the general population are also associated with self-mutilation among a sample of young adults in the United States who have a history of homelessness. Data are drawn from the Homeless Young Adult Project which involved interviews with 199 young adults in 3 Midwestern United States cities. The results of our path analyses revealed that numerous stressors including running away, substance use, sexual victimization, and illegal subsistence strategies were associated with more self-mutilation. In addition, we found that certain social statuses exacerbate the risk for self-mutilation beyond the respondents' current situation of homelessness. We discuss the implications of our findings for the social stress framework and offer suggestions for studying this unique population within this context. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yıldırım, N; Karaca, A; Cangur, S; Acıkgoz, F; Akkus, D
Nursing education can be a stressful experience. To fully benefit from this experience and develop a positive professional identity, it is essential for nursing students to effectively cope with education-related stress. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between nursing students' education-related stress and stress coping, self-esteem, social support, and health status. This study utilized a cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational design. The sample consisted 517 nursing students from a bachelor program in Turkey during the 2014-2015 academic year. Participants provided data on sociodemographic characteristics as well as completing the following instruments: Nursing Education Stress Scale, Coping Behavior Inventory for Nursing Students, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and General Health Questionnaire. Relationships were examined using multivariate structural equation modeling. Results indicated that nursing students' stress coping levels were affected by self-esteem and social support. Additionally, this interaction appears to affect general health status. Although the direct effect of stress on coping was non-significant, its overall effect was significant within the model. It is necessary to conduct further intervention studies examining the role of self-esteem and social support in facilitating nursing students' stress-related coping during their education. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Munteanu, Alexandru M; Stocker, Martina; Stöwe, Mareike; Massen, Jorg J M; Bugnyar, Thomas
Social life is profitable, but it facilitates conflicts over resources and creates interdependence between individuals. Separating highly social animals triggers intense reactions aimed at re-establishing lost connections. Less is known, however, about behavioural and physiological responses to separation in socially facultative species, where individuals temporarily form groups and may subsequently leave them. Non-breeding common ravens ( Corvus corax ) gather in large numbers at feeding and roosting sites, but otherwise spend time seemingly solitary or in small subgroups. We here studied how ravens cope with being socially isolated, and investigated the life characteristics that might explain potential individual differences. For this, we individually separated captive subadult ravens (n = 25) and housed them in physical and visual isolation from their group members across 4 d. During the separation period, we collected behavioural data and measured the amount of immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites from bird droppings to assess the ravens' physiological stress response. We found behavioural indicators of stress at the start of the separation, when ravens showed higher levels of tension than of comfort - a pattern that reversed at the end of the separation. Furthermore, we found that the upbringing of ravens affected their behaviour during separation. Hand-raised birds produced more vocalisations in the beginning of the separation, and were less active at the end, while the reverse pattern occurred with parent-raised ravens. Contrary to our predictions, we did not find differences in hormonal responses between the beginning and end of the separation period or any link between hormonal responses and behaviours. Ravens' behavioural responses to social separation stress seem to be dependent on their arousal states, although possible links with hormonal reactions remain unclear. Our results show that behavioural reactions are not always linked with hormonal
García-Pardo, M P; Roger-Sánchez, C; Rodríguez-Arias, M; Miñarro, J; Aguilar, M A
Adverse life experiences such as social stress may make an individual more vulnerable to drug addiction and mental disorders associated with drug consumption. The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of stress induced by acute social defeat combined with the administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on depression-like behaviour, memory function and motor response to drug in late adolescent male mice. Two groups of mice were exposed to social defeat (SD) during four encounters with an aggressive co-specific, which took place on alternate days. Immediately after defeat, animals were treated with saline or MDMA 10mg/kg (SD+SAL and SD+MDMA). In control groups, mice were placed in a neutral cage without an opponent (Control+SAL, Control+MDMA). Corticosterone levels and temperature were measured on the last day of this phase. During the following days, the behaviour of the animals was evaluated in the tail suspension test (an animal model of depression), memory tasks (passive avoidance and object recognition) and, after administration of 5mg/kg of MDMA, in the open-field test. Exposure of adult mice to acute social defeat plus MDMA increased immobility in the tail suspension test (depression-like behaviour), produced cognitive impairment, and reduced the motor response to MDMA. An increase in corticosterone levels and a decrease of temperature were also observed. As hypothesised, a combination of social stress and consumption of MDMA increases the risk of developing mental and cognitive disorders. Our results support the idea that stress is a common contributing factor to the high rate of comorbidity between substance abuse and mental disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bangasser, Debra A; Lee, Catherine S; Cook, Philip A; Gee, James C; Bhatnagar, Seema; Valentino, Rita J
Responses to acute stressors are determined in part by stress history. For example, a history of chronic stress results in facilitated responses to a novel stressor and this facilitation is considered to be adaptive. We previously demonstrated that repeated exposure of rats to the resident-intruder model of social stress results in the emergence of two subpopulations that are characterized by different coping responses to stress. The submissive subpopulation failed to show facilitation to a novel stressor and developed a passive strategy in the Porsolt forced swim test. Because a passive stress coping response has been implicated in the propensity to develop certain psychiatric disorders, understanding the unique circuitry engaged by exposure to a novel stressor in these subpopulations would advance our understanding of the etiology of stress-related pathology. An ex vivo functional imaging technique, manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), was used to identify and distinguish brain regions that are differentially activated by an acute swim stress (15 min) in rats with a history of social stress compared to controls. Specifically, Mn(2+) was administered intracerebroventricularly prior to swim stress and brains were later imaged ex vivo to reveal activated structures. When compared to controls, all rats with a history of social stress showed greater activation in specific striatal, hippocampal, hypothalamic, and midbrain regions. The submissive subpopulation of rats was further distinguished by significantly greater activation in amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and septum, suggesting that these regions may form a circuit mediating responses to novel stress in individuals that adopt passive coping strategies. The finding that different circuits are engaged by a novel stressor in the two subpopulations of rats exposed to social stress implicates a role for these circuits in determining individual strategies for responding to stressors
Niu, Qikun; Liu, Yihao; Sheng, Zitong; He, Yue; Shao, Xiaolin
Social Network Service (SNS) has become a buzzword in recent media coverage with the development of the second generation of Web-based communities. In China, SNS has played an increasingly important role in its users' daily lives, especially among students. With a sample of 471 college students, we tested the direct relationship between perceived stress and life satisfaction using a regression analysis. Moreover, we found SNS use could buffer the negative effect of perceived stress. This study has practical implications on Internet users' SNS use.
Wright, Kevin B; Banas, John A; Bessarabova, Elena; Bernard, Daniel R
Drawing upon Kreps's (1988) Relational Health Communication Competence Model (RHCCM), this study examined the effect of perceived communication competence on perceived stress and subsequently perceived job burnout. In addition, the role of social support satisfaction as a potential mediator between perceived communication competence and perceived stress was explored. The extended RHCCM was proposed and tested in a survey of 221 health care workers from three Veterans Administration hospitals in the United States. The model was tested by structural equation modeling. The results indicated support for the extended model. The implications of the findings for the extended RHCCM are discussed along with limitations of the study and directions for future research.
Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Skov, Lotte; Andersen, John Sahl
parents of a severely disabled young child during the first two years after the diagnosis of the child's disabilities. Data were analysed using grounded theory. RESULTS: We found that the encounter with the social services increased stress in the families. Parental expectations were not met, especially......INTRODUCTION: Parents of a young child with severe disabilities are facing a large range of new challenges; furthermore, most of these families have extended social needs regarding information, financial support, day care facilities, disability aids, etc. Many parents with disabled children have...... been found to be dissatisfied with social services. This study explores parents' experiences with Danish social services during their transition to a new daily life after the birth of a severely disabled child. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Repeated qualitative interviews were performed individually with 16...
Segrin, Chris; Passalacqua, Stacey A
Prior research has established clear links between social support, loneliness, and various health outcomes. This study was designed to test several theoretically derived explanations for such associations. A survey of 265 adults ages 19-85 years was conducted with measures of social support, loneliness, stress, health behaviors, and general health. Results showed that loneliness was more strongly associated with number of close relationships than with sheer contact with social network members. Further, loneliness mediated the association between social support and better health. In addition, health behaviors, especially poor sleep and medical adherence, mediated the association between loneliness and poor health. These results provide confirmation of theoretical mechanisms postulated to explain why loneliness is associated with poor health.
Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J
We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or aerobic exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise (AE) are effective in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity can be used to inform treatment recommendations. Both MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly levels of social anxiety symptoms. MBSR appears to be most effective for patients with lower pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. AE appears to be most effective for patients with higher pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Nemeth, Matthias; Millesi, Eva; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Wallner, Bernard
Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), such as omega-3 and omega-6 poly- and omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids are important nutrients and major components of neuronal cell membranes. They play a major role in modulating brain functions and physiology and may therefore diminish behavioral and physiological stress reactions in corroboration with decreased cortisol concentrations. Functionally, cortisol itself can modulate several behaviors and also the fatty acid metabolism in the long term. But only little is known about the behavioral and physiological influences of dietary UFAs in a social group, where individuals are regularly exposed to stressful situations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary UFAs on saliva cortisol concentrations and behavioral responses in socially confronted guinea pigs. Three groups of animals were additionally supplemented with 500 mg chia seeds (high in omega-3), walnuts (high in omega-6), or peanuts (high in omega-9) per kg bodyweight each day and compared to a control group. During social confrontation saliva cortisol concentrations significantly increased in all groups, which was accompanied by a loss in bodyweight. However, cortisol levels remained lower in the chia and walnut groups compared to controls. Additionally, the walnut group displayed significantly increased locomotion, while no differences between groups were detected in socio-positive, sexual, or aggressive behaviors. Total plasma omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were significantly increased in the corresponding groups, due to the dietary supplementations. However, a significant decrease in plasma omega-3 and an increase in plasma n-6 fatty acids were detected in the chia group when comparing the measurements before and after social confrontation. We conclude that both omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids can diminish behavioral and physiological stress responses to the social environment, enabling individuals to cope
Full Text Available Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs, such as omega-3 and omega-6 poly- and omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids are important nutrients and major components of neuronal cell membranes. They play a major role in modulating brain functions and physiology and may therefore diminish behavioral and physiological stress reactions in corroboration with decreased cortisol concentrations. Functionally, cortisol itself can modulate several behaviors and also the fatty acid metabolism in the long term. But only little is known about the behavioral and physiological influences of dietary UFAs in a social group, where individuals are regularly exposed to stressful situations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary UFAs on saliva cortisol concentrations and behavioral responses in socially confronted guinea pigs. Three groups of animals were additionally supplemented with 500 mg chia seeds (high in omega-3, walnuts (high in omega-6, or peanuts (high in omega-9 per kg bodyweight each day and compared to a control group. During social confrontation saliva cortisol concentrations significantly increased in all groups, which was accompanied by a loss in bodyweight. However, cortisol levels remained lower in the chia and walnut groups compared to controls. Additionally, the walnut group displayed significantly increased locomotion, while no differences between groups were detected in socio-positive, sexual, or aggressive behaviors. Total plasma omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were significantly increased in the corresponding groups, due to the dietary supplementations. However, a significant decrease in plasma omega-3 and an increase in plasma n-6 fatty acids were detected in the chia group when comparing the measurements before and after social confrontation. We conclude that both omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids can diminish behavioral and physiological stress responses to the social environment, enabling
Slavich, George M.; Irwin, Michael R.
Major life stressors, especially those involving interpersonal stress and social rejection, are among the strongest proximal risk factors for depression. In this review, we propose a biologically plausible, multilevel theory that describes neural, physiologic, molecular, and genomic mechanisms that link experiences of social-environmental stress with internal biological processes that drive depression pathogenesis. Central to this social signal transduction theory of depression is the hypothesis that experiences of social threat and adversity up-regulate components of the immune system involved in inflammation. The key mediators of this response, called proinflammatory cytokines, can in turn elicit profound changes in behavior, which include the initiation of depressive symptoms such as sad mood, anhedonia, fatigue, psychomotor retardation, and social-behavioral withdrawal. This highly conserved biological response to adversity is critical for survival during times of actual physical threat or injury. However, this response can also be activated by modern-day social, symbolic, or imagined threats, leading to an increasingly proinflammatory phenotype that may be a key phenomenon driving depression pathogenesis and recurrence, as well as the overlap of depression with several somatic conditions including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic pain, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and neurodegeneration. Insights from this theory may thus shed light on several important questions including how depression develops, why it frequently recurs, why it is strongly predicted by early life stress, and why it often co-occurs with symptoms of anxiety and with certain physical disease conditions. This work may also suggest new opportunities for preventing and treating depression by targeting inflammation. PMID:24417575
Rosenberg, Noa; Bloch, Miki; Ben Avi, Irit; Rouach, Vanessa; Schreiber, Shaul; Stern, Naftali; Greenman, Yona
While stress and negative affect are known to precede "emotional eating", this relationship is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between induced psychological stress, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and eating behavior in binge eating disorder (BED). The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was applied in obese participants with (n=8) and without BED (n=8), and normal weight controls (n=8). Psychological characteristics, eating-related symptoms, and cortisol secretion were assessed. Baseline stress, anxiety and cortisol measures were similar in all groups. At baseline desire to binge was significantly higher among the BED group. While the TSST induced an increase in cortisol levels, a blunted cortisol response was observed in the BED group. In the BED group, a positive correlation was found between cortisol (area under the curve) levels during the TSST and the change in VAS scores for desire to binge. Post-TSST desire to binge and sweet craving were significantly higher in the BED group and correlated positively with stress, anxiety, and cortisol response in the BED group only. These results suggest chronic down-regulation of the HPA axis in participants with BED, and a relationship between psychological stress, the acute activation of the HPA axis, and food craving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Willie, Tiara C; Powell, Adeya; Kershaw, Trace
Adolescent and young mothers transitioning from pregnancy to postpartum need to maintain an optimal quality of life. Stress and exposure to violence (e.g., intimate partner violence (IPV), nonpartner violence) are predictors of poor quality of life for adult women; however, these associations remain understudied among adolescent and young mothers in urban areas. Guided by the social ecological model, the current study created a latent variable, urban social stress, to examine the impact of the urban social environment (i.e., stressful life events, discrimination, family stress, and neighborhood problems) on the quality of life of adolescent and young mothers during both pregnancy and postpartum. The current study is a secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study of 296 expectant young mothers recruited at obstetrics and gynecology clinics. Results from structural equation and multigroup models found that higher urban social stress predicted lower mental and physical quality of life during pregnancy, but these associations were significantly stronger for IPV-exposed and nonpartner violence-exposed mothers. In the postpartum period, higher urban social stress predicted lower mental and physical quality of life, but these associations were significantly stronger for IPV-unexposed and nonpartner violence-exposed mothers. Stress reduction programs need to help adolescent and young mothers in urban areas develop stress management skills specific to urban social stress. Pregnancy and parenting programs need to be tailored to the specific needs of young mothers in urban areas by becoming sensitive to the role of IPV and nonpartner violence in these young women's lives.
Wang, Huiying; Braun, Christoph; Enck, Paul
The Cyberball paradigm is often used to study social stress by exclusion/rejection. We aimed to review the existing neuroimaging literatures in order to provide an overview of the neurophysiological mechanisms of social exclusion. Literature search was conducted to identify neurophysiological studies that investigated effects of social exclusion on neural activity using the Cyberball game and the relevant influential factors on these effects. In total, 42 studies using different neuroimaging methods were considered. Regions of the insula, anterior cingulate cortex, temporal and prefrontal cortex were activated to social exclusion. These neural activities were pronounced at latencies ranging from 200 to 400ms, and between 400 and 900ms. Influential factors were identified and categorized as intrinsic and extrinsic factors. An integrated framework describing neural activities under social exclusion in terms of both, temporal and spatial processes is provided. Furthermore, the summary of influential intrinsic and extrinsic factors may help us to understand the diversity of the processes and may guide clinical therapy of stress related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khan, Aqeel; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Ahmad, Roslee; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Mahalle, Salwa
This study examined whether productive coping styles and social support were significant mediators of the relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation. The survey was performed on a sample of 300 Malaysian and 300 Indian college students. The participants completed psychological assessments of productive coping styles, social support, academic stress, and suicidal ideation. Significant cultural and demographic differences emerged. Indian students reported higher suicidal ideation and academic stress than did Malaysian students, and Malaysian students received more social support and had better problem-solving coping styles than did Indian students. Overall, students who were male, non-religious, and from low-income families reported more academic stress and more suicidal ideation. Productive coping styles and overall social support strongly affected the relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation among both countries' participants.
Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Skov, Lotte; Andersen, John Sahl
parents of a severely disabled young child during the first two years after the diagnosis of the child's disabilities. Data were analysed using grounded theory. RESULTS: We found that the encounter with the social services increased stress in the families. Parental expectations were not met, especially......INTRODUCTION: Parents of a young child with severe disabilities are facing a large range of new challenges; furthermore, most of these families have extended social needs regarding information, financial support, day care facilities, disability aids, etc. Many parents with disabled children have...
Mackin, D M; Perlman, G; Davila, J; Kotov, R; Klein, D N
The effect of life stress on suicidal symptoms during adolescence is well documented. Stressful life events can trigger suicidality, but most adolescents are resilient and it is unclear which factors protect against the deleterious impact of stress. Social support is thought to be one such factor. Therefore, we investigated the buffering effect of specific sources of social support (parental and peer) on life stress (interpersonal and non-interpersonal) in predicting suicidal symptoms during adolescence. In order to test the specificity of this stress buffering, we also examined it with regard to dysphoric mood. Data come from the Adolescent Development of Emotions and Personality Traits (ADEPT) Project, a cohort of 550 adolescent females aged 13.5-15.5 recruited from Long Island. Self-reported social support, suicidality, and dysphoria were assessed at baseline and suicidality and dysphoria were assessed again at 9-month follow-up. Life stress was assessed by interview at the follow-up. High levels of parental support protected adolescent girls from developing suicidal symptoms following a stressor. This effect was less pronounced for peer support. Also, social support did not buffer the pathogenic effects of non-interpersonal stress. Finally, social support did not buffer the effect of life stress on dysphoric symptoms. Altogether, our results highlight a distinct developmental pathway for the development of suicidal symptoms involving parental support that differs from the development of dysphoria, and signifies the importance and specificity of social support in protecting against suicidality in adolescent girls.
Full Text Available Despite extensive research on stress among hospital nurses, the important effects of support and stress on care quality are not yet well established. Similar to other jobs, nurses face stress in their routine working day. The relationship between occupational stress, social support and factors relating to each of them, among Iranian nurses are attempted to correlate. This cross-sectional analytical-descriptive study was carried out in 2013 in Zanjan province where 248 nurses filled the given questionnaires including Demographic data, Work Factors, Nursing Stress Scale, and Social Integration Scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.00. In our study, we found that the stress and social support were significantly correlated. Our findings revealed a significant relation between social supports and occupational stress in nurses. Conclusively, support from supervisors and coworkers can help control nurses’ stress. In addition, both social support and occupational stress are related to three major components: job satisfaction, job security and others' attitude towards nursing. Therefore, creating a positive attitude towards nursing in society, and a suitable working environment for them is a way to increase their efficiency.
Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Lars L
Work-related musculoskeletal pain and stress are both highly prevalent in the working environment and relate well to the biopsychosocial model. While the onset of musculoskeletal pain is often dependent on the biological element of the biopsychosocial model, chronic pain is often influenced by psychological and social factors. Similarly, stress is also influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors. This study investigates the possibility of social capital being a buffer for stress and musculoskeletal pain in a group of female laboratory technicians.Female laboratory technicians (n = 500) replied to questions about stress (Cohens Perceived Stress Scale-10), musculoskeletal pain (0-10 visual analog scale), and social capital at the workplace (bonding [in teams], bridging [between teams], and linking [between teams and leaders]). Outcome variables were stress and musculoskeletal pain and the predictor variable was social capital. General linear models tested the association of the 3 types of social capital (predictor variables) with stress and pain (mutually adjusted outcome variables). Analyses were controlled for age, lifestyle (body mass index, smoking), seniority, and working hours per week.For stress as outcome, moderate and high bonding social capital were different from low social capital with -2.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] -3.33 to -0.76) and -4.56 (95% CI -5.84 to -3.28) points on the Perceived Stress Scale of 0 to 42, respectively. Similarly, moderate and high bridging social capital were different from low social capital with -1.50 (95% CI -2.76 to -0.24) and -4.39 (95% CI -5.75 to -3.03), respectively. For linking, only high social was significantly different from low with -2.94 (95% CI -4.28 to -1.60). None of the 3 types of social capital was associated with musculoskeletal pain.Higher levels of social capital at the workplace appear to buffer against stress, but not against musculoskeletal pain. Intervention studies should
Denhardt, David T
I present a brief introduction to epigenetics, focused primarily on methylation of the genome and various regulatory RNAs, modifications of associated histones, and their importance in enabling us to adapt to real and changing environmental, developmental, and social circumstances. Following this is a more extensive overview of how it impacts our inheritance, our entire life (which changes as we age), and how we interact with others. Throughout, I emphasize the critical influence that stress, of many varieties exerts, via epigenetic means, on much of how we live and survive, mostly in the brain. I end with a short section on multigenerational transmission, drugs, and the importance of both social life and early life experiences in the development of adult diseases. There will be nothing about cancer. Although epigenetics is critical in that field, it is a whole different cobweb of complications (some involving stress). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Buckner, Julia D; Schmidt, Norman B; Bobadilla, Leonardo; Taylor, Jeanette
Despite epidemiological reports indicating an association between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and cannabis use disorders (CUD), there is a paucity of research exploring the nature of this relationship. The present investigation examined potential moderators of this relationship that are consistent with a tension-reduction model of addiction. Specifically, physiological reactivity to stress and perceived coping with stress were evaluated as moderators of the relation between symptoms of SAD and CUD. Physiological (SCR) and subjective (perceived coping) responses to unpredictable white noise bursts were collected from non-clinical participants (n=123). Lifetime symptoms of CUD and anxiety disorders were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. CUD symptomatology was associated with symptoms of SAD but not with symptoms of any other anxiety disorder. Only perceived coping to unpredictable stimuli moderated the relationship between SAD and CUD symptoms. Findings are discussed in the context of tension-reduction models of co-occurring social anxiety and problematic cannabis use.
Echterhoff, Gerald; Wolf, Oliver T
Both arousal during the encoding of stimuli and subsequent stress can affect memory, often by increasing memory for important or central information. We explored whether event-based (thematic) arousal and post-event stress interact to selectively enhance eyewitnesses' memory for the central aspects of an observed incident. Specifically, we argue that memory for stimuli should be enhanced when (1) the stimuli are encoded under arousal (vs. non-arousal), and (2) stress is experienced soon after the encoding episode. We designed an experiment that extended previous research by manipulating arousal without changing the stimulus material, distinguishing between central and peripheral event information, and using a dynamic, life-like event instead of static pictures. After watching a video depicting a burglary under high or low thematic arousal, psychosocial stress was induced or not induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol was measured at standard intervals. Consistent with our prediction, we found a significant post-event stress × thematic arousal × centrality interaction, indicating that the recognition advantage for central event items over peripheral event items was most pronounced under both high thematic arousal and post-event stress. Because stress was induced after encoding this interaction cannot be explained by possible differences at encoding, such as narrowed attention. The centrality effect of post-event stress under high thematic arousal was statistically mediated by the cortisol increase, which suggests a key role of the stress hormone. We discuss implications of our findings for psychological and neuroscientific theories of emotional memory formation.
Echterhoff, Gerald; Wolf, Oliver T.
Both arousal during the encoding of stimuli and subsequent stress can affect memory, often by increasing memory for important or central information. We explored whether event-based (thematic) arousal and post-event stress interact to selectively enhance eyewitnesses' memory for the central aspects of an observed incident. Specifically, we argue that memory for stimuli should be enhanced when (1) the stimuli are encoded under arousal (vs. non-arousal), and (2) stress is experienced soon after the encoding episode. We designed an experiment that extended previous research by manipulating arousal without changing the stimulus material, distinguishing between central and peripheral event information, and using a dynamic, life-like event instead of static pictures. After watching a video depicting a burglary under high or low thematic arousal, psychosocial stress was induced or not induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol was measured at standard intervals. Consistent with our prediction, we found a significant post-event stress × thematic arousal × centrality interaction, indicating that the recognition advantage for central event items over peripheral event items was most pronounced under both high thematic arousal and post-event stress. Because stress was induced after encoding this interaction cannot be explained by possible differences at encoding, such as narrowed attention. The centrality effect of post-event stress under high thematic arousal was statistically mediated by the cortisol increase, which suggests a key role of the stress hormone. We discuss implications of our findings for psychological and neuroscientific theories of emotional memory formation. PMID:22936900
Naseem, Sabahat; Munaf, Seema
Pursuing higher education is not an easy task as it requires hard work, dedication, and motivation. Although there are many rewards involved in growing up academically, nevertheless, it contains a few hazards too. For instance, suicidal ideation is associated with presence of depression, anxiety, and stress with low level of satisfaction with life in students finding difficulty in handling educational demands of higher education. Therefore, the present study focused on the query that whether there is any difference or not among medical, engineering, and social sciences students of city of Karachi, Pakistan in the level of suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, stress, and life satisfaction. Using comparative group design, total 300 students (150 males and 150 females) with age range of 19-26 were selected from faculties of medical, engineering, and social sciences of different universities of Karachi, Pakistan, through purposive sampling. Respondent Profile Form, The Suicide Behaviours Questionnaire-Revised, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, and Satisfaction with Life Scale were administered to assess suicidal ideation; depression, anxiety, stress; and life satisfaction, respectively, of the students. Scores were analysed through ANOVA and Post Hoc (Tukey's HSD) test using SPSS. Social sciences and engineering students were significantly higher on depression, anxiety, and stress than medical students [F (2, 297) =8.701, p=.000] whereas insignificant differences in the level of suicidal ideation [F (2, 297) =1.914, p=.149] and life satisfaction [F (2, 297) = .726, p = .485] among these students were found. With the help of these findings, it would be easier to counsel students of different disciplines in time on the lines of suggested preventive measures.
Reisner, Sari L.; Greytak, Emily A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Ybarra, Michele
Bullying and substance use represent serious public health issues facing adolescents in the U.S. Few large-sample national studies have examined differences in these indicators by gender identity. The Teen Health and Technology Study (N=5,542) sampled adolescents 13–18 years-old online. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models investigated disparities in substance use and tested a gender minority social stress hypothesis, comparing gender minority youth (i.e., who are transgender/gen...
which may increase cortisol production leading to arrhythmias , increased cholesterol, and an accumulation of abdominal fat. Norepinephrine is also...postnatal day 17 to minimize any additional stress. 44 There were at least two known deaths of newborn pups. There may have been . other deaths, but...the offspring. Presence of another (social enrichment) was meant and hypothesized to be a positive, but presence of another with newborn offspring may
Larsen, Britta Ann
Social support has been shown to confer health benefits by buffering stress, yet men use support much less than women. It is not known, however, which barriers prevent support use in men, and whether they apply only to seeking help or receiving help in general. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore support seeking, accepting, and effectiveness for men and women, and how gender differences in perceived costs and benefits of support govern these processes. Using an online survey, parti...
Pourseyyed SM; Motevalli MM; Pourseyyed SR; Barahimi Z
Aims: Academic burnout is of most important researchable issues in the universities and identifying its predictor variables is very important. The purpose of the present study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship of perceived stress, perfectionism and social support with academic burnout and academic performance in students. Instrument & Methods: In this inexperimental study with correlative design, 200 students of basic sciences of general medical of Ahvas Jundishapur Unive...
Çam, Zekeriya; Deniz, Kaan Zülfikar; Kurnaz, Arzu
School burnout is described as the apathetic, ironic behavior and insufficiency of feeling from a student towards school and is associated not only with emotional and behavioral disorder but also with school absenteeism and school dropout. Determining the variables affecting school burnout is essential since it is related to emotional behavioral disorders concerning depression and stress. Additionally, it has a negative relationship with students’ psycho-social status and a positive relations...
Full Text Available Chronic social defeat stress (CSDS is a clinically relevant model of mood disorders. The relationship between the CSDS model and a physiologically pertinent paradigm of synaptic plasticity is not known. Here, we found that cluster analysis of the emotional behavior states of mice exposed to CSDS allowed their segregation into anxious and non-anxious groups. Endocannabinoid-mediated spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP in the nucleus accumbens was attenuated in non-anxious mice and abolished in anxious mice. Anxiety-like behavior in stressed animals was specifically correlated with their ability to produce STDP. Pharmacological enhancement of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG signaling in the nucleus accumbens normalized the anxious phenotype and STDP in anxious mice. These data reveal that endocannabinoid modulation of synaptic efficacy in response to a naturalistic activity pattern is both a molecular correlate of behavioral adaptability and a crucial factor in the adaptive response to chronic stress.
Nelemans, S A; Hale, W W; Branje, S J T; van Lier, P A C; Koot, H M; Meeus, W H J
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms demonstrate a marked persistence over time, but little is known empirically about short-term processes that may account for this long-term persistence. In this study, we examined how self-reported and physiological stress reactivity were associated with persistence of SAD symptoms from early to late adolescence. A community sample of 327 adolescents (56% boys, M age =13.01 at T 1 ) reported their SAD symptoms for 6 successive years and participated in a public speaking task, during which self-reported (i.e., perceived nervousness and heart rate) and physiological (i.e., cortisol and heart rate) measures of stress were taken. Overall, our results point to a developmental process in which adolescents with a developmental history of higher SAD symptoms show both heightened perceived stress reactivity and heart rate reactivity, which, in turn, predict higher SAD symptoms into late adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Macrynikola, Natalia; Miranda, Regina; Soffer, Ariella
Preventing self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) is particularly challenging on commuter campuses, given lower social cohesion and higher levels of stress than among traditional college populations. The present study examined the relationship between stressful life events (SLEs) and risk for different forms of SITBs, along with the potential buffering role of social connectedness, in a diverse sample of young adults from a commuter college. Participants were 1712 (81% female; 61% racial/ethnic minority; 20% sexual minority) undergraduate and graduate students from a public commuter college in New York City. Participants completed an anonymous survey that inquired about lifetime and recent (past 12months) history of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), along with social connectedness and lifetime history of SLEs. Lower levels of social connectedness and exposure to a higher number of SLEs were associated with engaging in SITBs in the past year, particularly both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury. However, social connectedness did not buffer against the impact of SLEs on SITBs. Data are cross-sectional, limiting conclusions about directionality, and females were overrepresented. Identifying ways to increase social connectedness on diverse commuter campuses may help decrease risk of SITBs. However, it may not buffer against the impact of SLEs on risk of SITBs. Future studies should examine contextual variables (e.g., type and timing of social support) that may play a role in protecting against SITBs, particularly for those with a history of adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Garcia-Pardo, M P; de la Rubia, J E; Aguilar, M A
Addiction to drugs is a chronic illness with severe repercussions for those that consume them and to date has no known cure. Psychostimulants, such as ecstasy, are the most widely consumed illegal drugs among adolescents and young adults. To describe and to analyse the different variables that can influence the effects of social stress and the reinforcing properties of ecstasy. Likewise, it also seeks to evaluate whether the effects of social stress on conditioned place preference (induced by ecstasy) are similar to those deriving from other psychostimulants, such as cocaine. Social defeat evaluated in the short term has an effect only on adult animals by diminishing sensitivity to the conditioned reinforcing effects of ecstasy. Conversely, long-term social stress increases the reinforcing effects of this drug in adolescent and adult animals. The dose of ecstasy employed has little influence on the effects of social defeat on conditioned place preference. In comparison to the effects of social stress on the reinforcing properties of cocaine, a different effect is only observed when defeat is evaluated in the short term. Different variables modulate the reinforcing effects of ecstasy, such as the age of the animals, the dose employed or exposure to stress. It is essential to study these variables in order to determine the neurobiological and environmental vulnerability factors that can have an influence on the development of addiction to ecstasy.
Herbison, Carly E; Henley, David; Marsh, Julie; Atkinson, Helen; Newnham, John P; Matthews, Stephen G; Lye, Stephen J; Pennell, Craig E
Dysregulation of the biological stress response system has been implicated in the development of psychological, metabolic, and cardiovascular disease. Whilst changes in stress response are often quantified as an increase or decrease in cortisol levels, three different patterns of stress response have been reported in the literature for the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) (reactive-responders (RR), anticipatory-responders (AR) and non-responders (NR)). However, these have never been systematically analyzed in a large population-based cohort. The aims of this study were to examine factors that contribute to TSST variation (gender, oral contraceptive use, menstrual cycle phase, smoking, and BMI) using traditional methods and novel analyses of stress response patterns. We analyzed the acute stress response of 798, 18-year-old participants from a community-based cohort using the TSST. Plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone, plasma cortisol, and salivary cortisol levels were quantified. RR, AR, and NR patterns comprised 56.6%, 26.2%, and 17.2% of the cohort, respectively. Smokers were more likely to be NR than (RR or AR; adjusted, p stress-response patterns, in addition to other parameters vary with gender, smoking, and BMI. The distribution of these patterns has the potential to vary with adult health and disease and may represent a biomarker for future investigation.
Swearer, Susan M; Hymel, Shelley
With growing recognition that bullying is a complex phenomenon, influenced by multiple factors, research findings to date have been understood within a social-ecological framework. Consistent with this model, we review research on the known correlates and contributing factors in bullying/victimization within the individual, family, peer group, school and community. Recognizing the fluid and dynamic nature of involvement in bullying, we then expand on this model and consider research on the consequences of bullying involvement, as either victim or bully or both, and propose a social-ecological, diathesis-stress model for understanding the bullying dynamic and its impact. Specifically, we frame involvement in bullying as a stressful life event for both children who bully and those who are victimized, serving as a catalyst for a diathesis-stress connection between bullying, victimization, and psychosocial difficulties. Against this backdrop, we suggest that effective bullying prevention and intervention efforts must take into account the complexities of the human experience, addressing both individual characteristics and history of involvement in bullying, risk and protective factors, and the contexts in which bullying occurs, in order to promote healthier social relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Water stress in Northern China is characterized with major, inefficient irrigation water use and rapidly growing non-agricultural water demands, as well as limited water quantity and declining water quality. Water use in the region is undergoing transfer from agricultural to municipal and industrial sectors. Currently, part of the economic loss and environmental damage due to water stress can be considered as a consequence of water transfer failures, including the current transfers, which hurt farmers' livelihood and income, and the needed transfers, which industry and cities have been waiting for but have not received. This paper starts with a discussion of the causes of water stress in Northern China, which is fundamental to understand the necessity and complexity of agricultural water transfers. Following that, it reviews water transfers in Northern China as a cause for concern over the social stability, economy and environment of the region. Based on an integrated analysis of economic, environmental, fiscal and social implications, this paper begins by identifying critical barriers to smooth water redistribution; and ends with implications for policy reforms, ensuring that farmers can and will save water. It is concluded that the decisions of water reallocation under water stress should be shared by communities at all levels, from the local to the national, to ensure equal access of water, especially the availability of the basic water need for all groups.
Reader, B F; Jarrett, B L; McKim, D B; Wohleb, E S; Godbout, J P; Sheridan, J F
The development and exacerbation of depression and anxiety are associated with exposure to repeated psychosocial stress. Stress is known to affect the bidirectional communication between the nervous and immune systems leading to elevated levels of stress mediators including glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines and increased trafficking of proinflammatory immune cells. Animal models, like the repeated social defeat (RSD) paradigm, were developed to explore this connection between stress and affective disorders. RSD induces activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, increases bone marrow production and egress of primed, GC-insensitive monocytes, and stimulates the trafficking of these cells to tissues including the spleen, lung, and brain. Recently, the observation that these monocytes have the ability to traffic to the brain perivascular spaces and parenchyma have provided mechanisms by which these peripheral cells may contribute to the prolonged anxiety-like behavior associated with RSD. The data that have been amassed from the RSD paradigm and others recapitulate many of the behavioral and immunological phenotypes associated with human anxiety disorders and may serve to elucidate potential avenues of treatment for these disorders. Here, we will discuss novel and key data that will present an overview of the neuroendocrine, immunological and behavioral responses to social stressors. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In adult life, many of the social determinants of health are connected to working life. Yet, our knowledge of the role of work-related factors for the risk of stroke is fairly limited. In contemporary occupational health research, the Demand-Control Model (DCM is frequently used to measure work stress. Previous literature reviews of the association of work stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD do not include stroke as a specific outcome. Results regarding work stress and the risk of CVD are less evident in working women. With the focus on working women, the purpose of the present paper was to review the current research into the DCM in relation to stroke and to scrutinize potential gender differences. A literature search was performed and eight studies from three countries were identified. Based on the reviewed studies, there is some evidence that high psychological demands, low job control, and job strain are associated with increased stroke risk in women as well as in men. Any major reduction in deaths and disability from stroke is likely to come from decreasing social inequalities in health, and reducing work stress has a potential to contribute to a reduced risk of stroke in working populations.
Wong, Celia Ching Yee; Correa, Alma; Robinson, Kendall; Lu, Qian
Acculturative stress has been linked to psychological distress, but few studies have explored the moderating role of social constraints on this relationship. Social constraints are the perception that social networks are unsupportive to stressor-related discussions. In the present study, the relationship between acculturative stress and psychological distress in Hispanic/Latino and Asian immigrants and the moderating role of social constraints in this relationship were examined. Participants were 306 college students (169 Hispanics/Latinos, 137 Asians; 33.9% first-generation immigrants, 66.1% second-generation immigrants) from two Texas universities. Correlation results showed that acculturative stress and social constraints were significantly associated with higher levels of psychological distress in Hispanics/Latinos and Asians. In addition, regression results indicated a significant three-way interaction effect among acculturative stress, social constraints, and racial/ethnic groups. Social constraints were found to moderate the relationship between acculturative stress and psychological distress in Asians but not in Hispanics/Latinos. Significant association between acculturative stress and psychological distress was found in Asians with higher levels of social constraints but not in Asians with lower levels of social constraints. These findings suggested that the interaction effect of acculturative stress and social constraints on psychological distress may be subject to cultural influences, and social constraints may have differential roles in Hispanics/Latinos and Asians. Potential implications on the development of culturally adaptive interventions for different racial/ethnic minority groups were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The presence of an affiliative conspecific may alleviate an individual's stress response in threatening conditions. However, the mechanisms and neural circuitry underlying the process of social buffering have not yet been elucidated. Using the domestic pig as an animal model, we examined the effect of a 4-h maternal and littermate deprivation on stress hormones and on mRNA expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR, 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11ß-HSD types 1 and 2 and the immediate early gene c-fos in various brain regions of 7-, 21- and 35-day old piglets. The deprivation occurred either alone or with a familiar or unfamiliar age-matched piglet. Compared to piglets deprived alone, the presence of a conspecific animal significantly reduced free plasma cortisol concentrations and altered the MR/GR balance and 11ß-HSD2 and c-fos mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC, amygdala and hypothalamus, but not in the hippocampus. The alterations in brain mRNA expression were particularly found in 21- or 35-day old piglets, which may reflect the species-specific postnatal ontogeny of the investigated brain regions. The buffering effects of social support were most pronounced in the amygdala, indicating its significance both for the assessment of social conspecifics as biologically relevant stimuli and for the processing of emotional states. In conclusion, the present findings provide further evidence for the importance of the cortico-limbic network underlying the abilities of individuals to cope with social stress and strongly emphasize the benefits of social partners in livestock with respect to positive welfare and health.
Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Ecker, Anthony H; Jeffries, Emily R
Social anxiety disorder appears to be a risk factor for cannabis-related problems. Although it is presumed that increases in cannabis craving during elevated social anxiety reflect an intent to cope with greater negative affectivity, it is unclear whether increases in physiological arousal during social stress are related to cannabis craving, especially among those with social anxiety disorder. Similarly, no studies have assessed motivational reasons for cannabis use during elevated social stress. Thus, the current study tested whether increases in state social anxiety (measured subjectively and via physiological arousal) were related to greater cannabis craving among 126 current cannabis users (88.9% with cannabis use disorder, 31.7% with social anxiety disorder, 54.0% non-Hispanic Caucasian) randomly assigned to either a social interaction or reading task. As predicted, cannabis users in the social interaction condition reported greater cannabis craving than those in the reading condition. This effect was particularly evident among those with social anxiety disorder. Although physiological arousal did not moderate the relationship between condition and craving, coping motives were the most common reasons cited for wanting to use cannabis and were reported more among those in the social interaction task. These experimental results uniquely add to a growing literature suggesting the importance of elevated state social anxiety (especially among those with social anxiety disorder) in cannabis use vulnerability processes. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar los efectos del estrés social agudo inducido experimentalmente con una versión modificada del TSST (Trier Social Stress Test, en los niveles sistémicos de la hormona cortisol y en la ejecución de una tarea de atención sostenida y dividida, en estudiantes universitarios de ambos sexos. Los resultados mostraron que el protocolo modificado del TSST produjo incrementos en los niveles sistémicos de cortisol en los participantes de sexo masculino, pero no afectó la ejecución en la prueba PASAT (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task. Se discuten estos resultados a la luz de trabajos previos en los que se observan diferencias por género en los efectos del estrés.
McCormick, Cheryl M; Cameron, Nicole M; Thompson, Madison A; Cumming, Mark J; Hodges, Travis E; Langett, Marissa
Ongoing development of brain systems for social behaviour renders these systems susceptible to the influence of stressors in adolescence. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in mid-adolescence had decreased sexual performance compared with control males (CTL). Here, we test the hypotheses that SS in adolescence decreases the "attractiveness" of male rats as sexual partners compared with CTL rats and that dominance status is a protective factor against the effects of SS. The main prediction was that females would spend more time with CTL males than SS males, and that this bias would be greater for submissive than for dominant rats. Among dominant pairs (n=16), females preferred SS males, spending more time with and visiting more often SS than CTL males (each pair tested 5×), and SS males had shorter latencies to ejaculation, shorter inter-ejaculation intervals, and made more ejaculations compared with CTL males. Among submissive pairs (n=16), females spent more time with, visited more often, and displayed more paracopulatory behaviour with CTL than with SS males, and differences in sexual performance between SS and CTL males were modest and in the opposite direction from that in dominant pairs. The heightened motivation of SS males relative to CTL males for natural rewards may have attenuated differences in sexual performance in a paced mating context. In sum, the experience of stress in adolescence leads to long-lasting changes in males that are perceptible to females, are moderated by social status, and influence sexual behaviour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Learning disability includes wide range of educational problems which treating these problems need child's social, emotional and behavior treatment. As prevalence of learning disabilities among children and their difficulties, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of coping with stress training on social adjustment of students with learning disabilities. The statistical population consists of all boy student with learning disabilities in learning disabilities center, in which 34 students were selected by convenience sampling. The social adjustment questionnaire was used. The experimental group had coping strategies training in 9 sessions for 90 minutes every week. Covariance analysis was used to compare the scores. The results showed that there was significant difference in pretest and posttest of experimental group. The findings also indicated that coping strategies training increased social adjustment, affective and educational adjustments of experimental group in comparison of control group. Appropriate strategies can be used for dealing with stress in students with learning disabilities. Coping training can be used as supplemental program in schools and centers of learning disabilities to improve the adjustment problems of these students.
Couret, D; Otten, W; Puppe, B; Prunier, A; Merlot, E
Pregnant sows are exposed to various stressors in intensive pig husbandry that may have negative consequences on their health, reproductive performances and welfare. Social stress is one of these challenges, because gestating sows have to be housed in groups according to EU guidelines (2001/88/CE). The purpose of this study was to determine the consequences of repeated social stress in pregnant female pigs on their behavioural, endocrine and immunological responses and on pregnancy outcome. Pregnant gilts were submitted to a repeated social stress procedure induced by housing unfamiliar gilts in pairs changed twice a week between days 77 and 105 of gestation (S group, n = 18). Control gilts were housed in stable pairs during the same period (C group, n = 18). Agonistic behaviour was observed during the first 3 h after each grouping. Skin lesions were numbered 2 h after each grouping. Salivary cortisol was measured before and repeatedly during the 4 weeks of grouping. Gilts were immunized against keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) on days 81 and 95 of gestation. Immunoglobulins G against KLH, proliferative responses to concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide, pokeweed mitogen and KLH and peripheral blood leukocyte numbers were evaluated 1 week before the first grouping and 3 days after the last one. Agonistic interactions and skin lesions were observed in S gilts at each grouping, although there was a decline between the first and the last grouping (P gilts compared to C gilts. The cellular as well as the humoral immunity and the leukocyte numbers were not influenced by social stress. Gestation length tended to be shorter in S gilts (P = 0.09), but litter size, piglet weight or mortality at birth were not affected. Variability of the response of S gilts to groupings was partly explained by their average success value determined according to the outcome (defeat or win) of all the groupings. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the application of repeated social stress
Cauce, A M; Hannan, K; Sargeant, M
Examined the relationships between negative events, locus of control, social support, and psychological adjustment in an early adolescent sample. Of interest were the potential stress-buffering effects of social support and the conjunctive effects of social support and locus of control upon adjustment. Family support was positively related to adjustment in several domains, whereas school support was only related to school competence. Peer support was positively related to peer competence and anxiety, and negatively related to school competence. Examination of the buffering hypothesis suggested that both family and school support served to moderate the relationship between negative events and school competence. Conjunctive effects were also detected in that school support buffered number of negative events best for those individuals with an internal locus of control for successes.
Smith, Timothy W; Birmingham, Wendy; Uchino, Bert N
Physiological effects of social evaluation are central in models of psychosocial influences on physical health. Experimental manipulations of evaluative threat evoke substantial cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses in laboratory studies, but only preliminary evidence is available regarding naturally occurring evaluative threats in daily life. In such nonexperimental ambulatory studies, it is essential to distinguish effects of evaluative threat from related constructs known to alter stress, such as ability perceptions and concerns about appearance. 94 married, working couples (mean age 29.2 years) completed a 1-day (8 a.m. to 10 p.m.) ambulatory blood pressure protocol with random interval-contingent measurements using a Suntech monitor and Palm Pilot-based measures of control variables and momentary experiences of social-evaluative threat, concerns about appearance, and perceived ability. In hierarchical analyses for couples and multiple measurement occasions (Proc Mixed; SAS) and controlling individual differences (BMI, age, income) and potential confounds (e.g., posture, activity), higher reports of social-evaluative threat were associated with higher concurrent systolic (estimate = .87, SE = .34) and diastolic blood pressure (estimate = 1.06; SE = .26), both p social-evaluative threat remained significant when perceived ability and appearance concerns were controlled. Naturally occurring social-evaluative threat during daily activity is associated with increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Given associations between ambulatory blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease, the findings support conceptual models of threats to the social self as a potentially important influence on physical health.
Otabi, Hikari; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Okayama, Tsuyoshi; Kohari, Daisuke; Toyoda, Atsushi
Behavioral and physiological evaluations of animal models of depression are essential to thoroughly understand the mechanisms of depression in humans. Various models have been developed and characterized, and the socially defeated mouse has been widely used for studying depression. Here, we developed and characterized a mouse model of social aversion using a subchronic and mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) paradigm. Compared to control mice, sCSDS mice showed significantly increased body weight gain, water intake, and social aversion to dominant mice on the social interaction test. We observed nest building behavior in sCSDS mice using the pressed cotton as a nest material. Although sCSDS mice eventually successfully built nests, the onset of nest building was severely delayed compared to control mice. The underlying mechanism of this significant delay in nest building by sCSDS mice is unclear. However, our results demonstrate that nest building evaluation is a simple and useful assay for understanding behavior in socially defeated mice and screening drugs such as antidepressants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Capobianco, Lora; Morrison, Anthony P; Wells, Adrian
Negative metacognitive beliefs are central determinants of distress in the metacognitive model of psychological vulnerability to stress. The current study tested this assertion in 75 undergraduate students assigned to either experimental (metacognitive belief manipulation) or control (no metacognitive belief manipulation) condition. All participants underwent a fake EEG, where they were told that the EEG would detect negative thoughts. The experimental subjects were informed that if they had a negative thought they may be exposed to a contingent burst of loud noise, while the control condition was told that they may be exposed to a burst of loud noise at random. Participants also underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. The results showed that on physiological measures (skin conductance level) there were no significant differences between groups. However, on self-report measures (positive and negative affect) participants in the experimental condition reported greater levels of negative affect and lower levels of positive affect in response to stress and maintained low positive affect at recovery. The results are consistent with the metacognitive model and suggest that metacognitive beliefs impact on positive and negative affect in reaction to and recovery from stress exposure.
Mielock, Alyssa S; Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma
Childhood maltreatment can trigger enduring changes in major stress response systems, particularly in the context of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relative impact of maltreatment versus MDD on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system stress reactivity is not well understood. This study examined salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 26 maltreated (15 with current MDD) and 26 non-maltreated (17 with current MDD) women. Maltreated women showed greater anticipatory cortisol reactivity during the TSST protocol compared to non-maltreated women. Maltreated women also showed rapid deceleration in cortisol levels. Whereas non-maltreated women showed initial declines in alpha-amylase levels but rapidly increasing alpha-amylase levels during the TSST protocol, maltreated women did not exhibit changes in alpha-amylase levels during the TSST protocol. Contrary to expectation, MDD did not impact cortisol or alpha-amylase responses. The present study is limited by retrospective report of childhood maltreatment, cross-sectional design, and modest sample sizes. These findings suggest that childhood maltreatment plays a greater role driving alterations in cortisol and alpha-amylase stress reactivity than MDD. Understanding the biological embedding of maltreatment is critical for elucidating mechanisms linking these experiences to risk for negative mental and physical health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Montero-López, Eva; Santos-Ruiz, Ana; García-Ríos, M Carmen; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Manuel; Rogers, Heather L; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel
The menstrual cycle involves significant changes in hormone levels, causing physical and psychological changes in women that are further influenced by stress. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and salivary cortisol patterns during the day as well as the salivary cortisol response to the Virtual Reality Version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-VR). Forty two women not taking oral contraceptives (24 in follicular phase and 18 in luteal phase) participated in the study. Five samples of salivary cortisol collected during the day and another five samples of cortisol during the TSST-VR were analyzed. Psychological stress measures and psychopathological symptomatology were also evaluated. A 2 × 4 mixed ANCOVA showed an interaction between the two groups on the TSST-RV invoked cortisol response to the [F(3,42) = 3.681; p = 0.023) where women in luteal phase showed higher cortisol post exposure levels (5.96 ± 3.76 nmol/L) than women in follicular phase (4.31 ± 2.23 nmol/L). No other significant differences were found. Our findings provide evidence that menstrual cycle phase tended to influence cortisol response to laboratory-induced mental stress, with more reactivity observed in the luteal phase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fich, Lars Brorson; Jönsson, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Wallergård, Mattias; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse
Is has long been established, that views to natural scenes can a have a dampening effect on physiological stress responses. However, as people in Europe, Canada and North America today spent 50-85% of their time indoors, attention might also be paid to how the artificial man-made indoor environment influences these mechanisms. The question that this study attempts to start addressing is therefore whether certain design, characteristics of indoor spaces can make a difference to the physiological stress response as well. Using a virtual version of the Trier Social Stress Test, in which the space is computer generated and properties of the space therefore can be systematically varied, we measured saliva cortisol and heart rate variability in participants in a closed room versus a room with openings. As shown by a significant linear contrast interaction between groups and TSST conditions, participants in the closed room responded with more pronounced cortisol reactivity to stress induction, and continued to show higher levels throughout recovery, compared to participants in the open room. No differences were found regarding any part of the autonomic nervous system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martin, Loren J; Hathaway, Georgia; Isbester, Kelsey; Mirali, Sara; Acland, Erinn L; Niederstrasser, Nils; Slepian, Peter M; Trost, Zina; Bartz, Jennifer A; Sapolsky, Robert M; Sternberg, Wendy F; Levitin, Daniel J; Mogil, Jeffrey S
Empathy for another's physical pain has been demonstrated in humans  and mice ; in both species, empathy is stronger between familiars. Stress levels in stranger dyads are higher than in cagemate dyads or isolated mice [2, 3], suggesting that stress might be responsible for the absence of empathy for the pain of strangers. We show here that blockade of glucocorticoid synthesis or receptors for adrenal stress hormones elicits the expression of emotional contagion (a form of empathy) in strangers of both species. Mice and undergraduates were tested for sensitivity to noxious stimulation alone and/or together (dyads). In familiar, but not stranger, pairs, dyadic testing was associated with increased pain behaviors or ratings compared to isolated testing. Pharmacological blockade of glucocorticoid synthesis or glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors enabled the expression of emotional contagion of pain in mouse and human stranger dyads, as did a shared gaming experience (the video game Rock Band) in human strangers. Our results demonstrate that emotional contagion is prevented, in an evolutionarily conserved manner, by the stress of a social interaction with an unfamiliar conspecific and can be evoked by blocking the endocrine stress response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kerdijk, Carlijn; van der Kamp, John; Polman, Remco
Lazarus (1999) model of stress and coping is based on the reciprocal interaction between the person and the environment. The aim of this study therefore was to examine whether the social environment (significant others) are of influence on the stress and coping of team athletes. The study consisted of two separate studies in which a total of 12 team athletes participated. First, six field hockey players (two males, four females) aged 18-29 years (M = 23.0 years) participated in a diary study. Second, six team athletes of different sports (two males, four females) aged 24-29 years (M = 25.8 years) were interviewed. The results showed that in particular teammates are important for the appraisal of stress and coping in team sports. For over half (i.e., 51.5%) of the reported stressors in the diary study the participants felt that others were of influence on their coping. Team athletes experienced the highest stress intensity during competition, or when they appraised the situation as a threat. When others were of influence the team athletes were most likely to appraise the situation as a challenge and use problem- or emotion-focused coping strategies. These finding might provide a new portal for intervention to enhance coping with stress in sport and enhance performance and satisfaction.
Chan, Y C
Thirty-seven identified abusive mothers were matched on demographic and socioeconomic parameters with a known nonabusive comparison sample in order to examine the role of parenting stress and maternal social support. The mothers were assessed using a personal (demographic) questionnaire, the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and the Maternal Support Index (MSSI). Demographic data showed that the two groups were comparable on all variables except abusive mothers had significantly more children (p = .01). Abusive mothers showed significantly more stress on total PSI scores (p = .005), as well as in all three of the subjects: Child Domain (p = .007) Parent Domain (p = .02), and Life Stress (p = .016). Abusive mothers scored lower in all seven items on the MSSI. The difference was significant on the MSSI as a whole (p = .007) and on four subsets: number of people to count on in time of need (p = .02), perceived neighborhood support (p = .04), satisfaction with spousal relationship (p = .01), and degree of community involvement (p = .03). The greatest percentage (74.32%) of correct predictions of child abuse was achieved by combining the number of children, the Life Stress Scale and the MSSI. Implications for future research are discussed.
Riad-Allen, Lilian; van der Kooy, Derek
Benzodiazepines have been demonstrated to have a high abuse liability in persons suffering from anxiety but have demonstrated mixed abuse liability findings in preclinical models. We hypothesized that by modeling anxiety in a male C57BL/6 mouse model it would be possible to reveal a preference for benzodiazepines within this subpopulation through negative reinforcement. Using the Tube Test of Social Dominance and the Resident/Intruder Paradigm we investigated whether animals identified as dominant or submissive/defeated would differentially display a preference for midazolam (a short acting benzodiazepine) in a conditioned place preference paradigm. Consistent with our hypotheses, benzodiazepine conditioned motivation was mediated by negative reinforcement as submissive but not dominant mice displayed a preference for midazolam. Furthermore, different neural systems mediated midazolam conditioned motivation depending on the stress status of the animal (single vs. repeated stress-as induced by the Resident/Intruder Paradigm). Singly stressed animals showed midazolam place preferences through a dopamine-independent pathway, whereas the place preferences of repeatedly stressed animals were mediated through a dopamine-dependent pathway. This demonstrates that stress is sufficient for switching the neural system mediating midazolam conditioned motivation. Finally, midazolam reinforcement in the conditioned place preference paradigm was shown to be predictive for dominance/submission status.
María José Montero-Simó
Full Text Available This study aims to analyse whether any differences exist between the genders with respect to the effect of perceived Job Demands, Control and Support (JDCS model on how individuals reach high levels of job stress. To do this, the perceived risk of suffering an illness or having an accident in the workplace is used as an outcome measure. The study is based on the First Survey on Working Conditions in Andalusia, which has a sample of 5,496 men and 2,779 women. We carry out a multi-sample analysis with structural equation models, controlling for age and sector. The results show that the generation of job stress has a different pattern in men and women. In the case of men, the results show that only one dimension of the job demands stressor is significant (quantitative demands, whose effect on job stress is weakened slightly by the direct effects of control and support. With women, in contrast, emotional and intellectual aspects (qualitative demands are also statistically significant. Moreover, social support has a greater weakening effect on the levels of job stress in women than in men. These results suggest that applying the JDCS model in function of the gender will contribute to a greater understanding of how to reduce the levels of job stress in men and women, helping the design of more effective policies in this area.
Golub, Sarit A; Walker, Ja'nina J; Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Bimbi, David S; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Transgender women completed questionnaires of religiosity, social support, stigma, stress-related growth, and sexual risk behavior. In a multivariate model, both social support and religious stress-related growth were significant negative predictors of unprotected anal sex, but religious behaviors and beliefs emerged as a significant positive predictor. The interaction between religious behaviors and beliefs and social support was also significant, and post-hoc analyses indicated that high-risk sex was least likely among individuals with high-levels of social support but low levels of religious behaviors and beliefs. These data have important implications for understanding factors that might protect against HIV risk for transgender women.
Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Higgins, Melinda; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E
Social subordination in female macaques is imposed by harassment and the threat of aggression and produces reduced control over one's social and physical environment and a dysregulation of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis resembling that observed in people suffering from psychopathologies. These effects support the contention that this particular animal model is an ethologically relevant paradigm in which to investigate the etiology of stress-induced psychological illness related to women. Here, we sought to expand this model by performing a discriminate analysis (DA) on 33 variables within three domains; behavioral, metabolic/anthropomorphic, and neuroendocrine, collected from socially housed female rhesus monkeys in order to assess whether exposure to social subordination produces a distinct phenotype. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was also calculated to determine each domain's classification accuracy. DA found significant markers within each domain that differentiated dominant and subordinate females. Subordinate females received more aggression, showed more submissive behavior, and received less of affiliation from others than did dominant females. Metabolic differences included increased leptin, and reduced adiponectin in dominant compared to subordinate females. Dominant females exhibited increased sensitivity to hormonal stimulation with higher serum LH in response to estradiol, cortisol in response to ACTH, and increased glucocorticoid negative feedback. Serum oxytocin, CSF DOPAC and serum PACAP were all significantly higher in dominant females. ROC curve analysis accurately predicted social status in all three domains. Results suggest that socially house rhesus monkeys represent a cogent animal model in which to study the physiology and behavioral consequences of chronic psychosocial stress in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Engert, Veronika; Kok, Bethany E.; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P.; Singer, Tania
Psychosocial stress is a public health burden in modern societies. Chronic stress–induced disease processes are, in large part, mediated via the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. We asked whether the contemplative mental training of different practice types targeting attentional, socio-affective (for example, compassion), or socio-cognitive abilities (for example, perspective-taking) in the context of a 9-month longitudinal training study offers an effective means for psychosocial stress reduction. Using a multimethod approach including subjective, endocrine, autonomic, and immune markers and testing 313 participants in a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor, we show that all three practice types markedly reduced self-reported stress reactivity in healthy participants. However, only the training of intersubjective skills via socio-affective and socio-cognitive routes attenuated the physiological stress response, specifically the secretion of the HPA axis end-product cortisol, by up to 51%. The assessed autonomic and innate immune markers were not influenced by any practice type. Mental training focused on present-moment attention and interoceptive awareness as implemented in many mindfulness-based intervention programs was thus limited to stress reduction on the level of self-report. However, its effectiveness was equal to that of intersubjective practice types in boosting the association between subjective and endocrine stress markers. Our results reveal a broadly accessible low-cost approach to acquiring psychosocial stress resilience. Short daily intersubjective practice may be a promising method for minimizing the incidence of chronic social stress–related disease, thereby reducing individual suffering and relieving a substantial financial burden on society. PMID:28983508
A presente pesquisa tem como objetivo principal examinar a representação do feminino no cinema de Lars Von Trier. Debruçando-se, mais detidamente, sobre Dançando no Escuro, Dogville e Melancolia, corpus que recobre o período de 2000 a 2011, buscamos indicar as estratégias de construção do sentido aí em jogo. Teoricamente, o trabalho requisita a semiologia barthesiana, notadamente o conceito clássico de mito , e a psicanálise freudianolacaniana em torno do feminino. A primeira ...
Prof. Dr. Marcos Júlio Sergl
Este artigo analisa a abertura de Melancolia, filme do diretor dinamarquês Lars Von Trier, lançado no 64º Festival Internacional de Cannes, em setembro de 2011, que traça de maneira poética e sentimental o fim do planeta Terra, ocasionado por sua colisão com o planeta imaginário Melancolia. A abertura do filme, com sete minutos e cinquenta segundos, em uma sequência que traz os momentos fundamentais do filme, uma espécie de resumo do mesmo em dezesseis cenas, consiste, basicamente, em imagens...
Carobrez, SG; Gasparotto, OC; Buwalda, B; Bohus, B
Social stress has strong and long-lasting effects on autonomic nervous, neuroendocrine and behavioural functioning. The functionality of the immune system is profoundly influenced by autonomic nervous and neuroendocrine activities. Changes in sympathetic-adrenal and
Gonçalves Carobrez, Sonia; Gasparotto, Odival Cezar; Buwalda, Bauke; Bohus, Bela
Social stress has strong and long-lasting effects on autonomic nervous, neuroendocrine and behavioural functioning. The functionality of the immune system is profoundly influenced by autonomic nervous and neuroendocrine activities. Changes in sympathetic–adrenal and
Monteleone, Palmiero; Tortorella, Alfonso; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Serino, Ismene; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Maj, Mario
Stress is a precipitating factor for both binge eating and bulimia nervosa (BN); however, the biological mechanisms through which it may trigger binge eating are poorly understood. There is evidence that the adrenal hormone cortisol and the gastric peptide ghrelin might be involved in stress-induced food ingestion. We hypothesized that symptomatic patients with BN might disclose deranged responses of ghrelin and/or cortisol to stressors and that this could be related to their binge-eating behaviour. Here we investigated salivary cortisol and ghrelin responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 10 women with acute BN and 10 age-matched healthy females. Eating-related psychopathology and behaviours were assessed by self-report measures. No significant differences emerged between bulimic patients and healthy controls in the pre-stress salivary levels of both cortisol and ghrelin. The BN patients displayed normal cortisol but enhanced ghrelin responses to TSST. No significant correlations emerged between stress-induced salivary hormone changes and self-report measures of binge eating. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing deranged salivary ghrelin reactivity to a psychosocial stressor in symptomatic patients with BN. The extent to which this could contribute to the binge-eating behaviour of BN subjects awaits clarification. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Lunau, Thorsten; Wahrendorf, Morten; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes
Maintaining health and work ability among older employees is a primary target of national labour and social policies (NLSP) in Europe. Depression makes a significant contribution to early retirement, and chronic work-related stress is associated with elevated risks of depression. We test this latter association among older employees and explore to what extent indicators of distinct NLSP modify the association between work stress and depressive symptoms. We choose six indicators, classified in three categories: (1) investment in active labour market policies, (2) employment protection, (3) level of distributive justice. We use data from three longitudinal ageing studies (SHARE, HRS, ELSA) including 5650 men and women in 13 countries. Information on work stress (effort-reward imbalance, low work control) and depressive symptoms (CES-D, EURO-D) was obtained. Six NLSP indicators were selected from OECD databases. Associations of work stress (2004) with depressive symptoms (2006) and their modification by policy indicators were analysed using logistic multilevel models. Risk of depressive symptoms at follow-up is higher among those experiencing effort-reward imbalance (OR: 1.55 95% CI 1.27-1.89) and low control (OR: 1.46 95% CI 1.19-1.79) at work. Interaction terms indicate a modifying effect of a majority of protective NLSP indicators on the strength of associations of effort - reward imbalance with depressive symptoms. Work stress is associated with elevated risk of prospective depressive symptoms among older employees from 13 European countries. Protective labour and social policies modify the strength of these associations. If further supported findings may have important policy implications.
Yeung, Nelson C Y; Ramirez, Jeffrey; Lu, Qian
Previous studies primarily fo c used on how disease- and treatment-related variables affect cancer survivors' sleep quality. Little is known about the impact of the psychosocial factors on their sleep quality. Social constraints are perceived negative social interactions inhibiting one's disclosure. This study examined the association between social constraints and Chinese American breast cancer survivors' (BCS) sleep quality and tested perceived stress as a mediator explaining the association. Chinese American BCS (n = 94) were recruited from Southern California. Participants' social constraints, perceived stress, and sleep quality were measured in a questionnaire package. Social constraints were associated with higher perceived stress (r = 0.32, p = .002) and poorer sleep quality (r = 0.33, p Perceived stress was associated with poorer sleep quality (r = 0.47, p perceived stress was significant (β = 0.20; 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.06, 0.40). The path coefficient for direct effect from social constraints to PSQI significantly dropped from β = 0.32 (95% CI = 0.11, 0.51) to β = 0.13 (95% CI = -0.12, 0.35) after considering perceived stress as a mediator, suggesting a mediation effect. This study implied that social constraints may worsen sleep quality among Chinese American BCS through increasing perceived stress. Interventions to reduce social constraints and perceived stress may improve sleep quality.
Ruis, MAW; te Brake, JHA; Engel, B; Buist, WG; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM
The present experiment studied the acute and long-term stress responses of reactive and proactive prepubertal gilts to social isolation. Gilts with either reactive or proactive features were identified according to behavioral resistance in a backtest at a young age (2-4 days), respectively being low (LR) and high resistant (HR) in this test. At 7 weeks of age, 12 gilts of each type were socially isolated. Initially, isolation was stressful for both types of gilts, as shown by increased cortis...
Kaprinay B.; Bernatova I.; Sotnikova R.
The aim of the work was to study the effect of chronic social stress induced by increased population density, “crowding stress” on blood pressure and endothelial function of arteries of male normotensive Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Based on the results, we assume that social stress-induced reduction in endothelium-dependent relaxation and increased blood pressure of SHR rats is most likely associated with decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide.
Chambers, David W
We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.
Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Schafer, Ellen J; Ashida, Sato
Poor maternal mental health during the postpartum period can have significant effects on the health of mothers, infants, and families. The findings from cross-sectional studies suggest that stress and social support are related to maternal mental health. This study contributes to the literature through the use of longitudinal data, and examines moderation and mediation among these factors. In 2012-2013, mothers completed surveys assessing stress, social support, and depressive and anxiety symptoms following birth (n = 125), and 3 months (n = 110) and 6 months (n = 99) after birth. The authors examined temporal associations, moderation, and mediation of social support on the relationship between stress and postpartum depressive and anxiety symptoms using modified Poisson regression models and the counterfactual approach to mediation. Current levels of stress and social support were associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, both independently and when considered together at multiple time points. Social support did not strongly moderate or mediate the relationships between stress and maternal mental health. Interventions to reduce current perceptions of stress and increase social support for mothers during the postpartum period may help improve maternal mental health symptoms. Efforts are needed to assess the current needs of mothers continuously.
Adams, Danielle R.; Meyers, Steven A.; Beidas, Rinad S.
Objective: Financial strain may directly or indirectly (i.e., through perceived stress) impact students' psychological symptoms and academic and social integration, yet few studies have tested these relationships. The authors explored the mediating effect of perceived stress on the relationship between financial strain and 2 important outcomes:…
Farchi, Moshe; Cohen, Ayala; Mosek, Atalia
This article addresses the challenging task of preparing baccalaureate social work students to master proficiency as first responders in stress and trauma situations. We begin with a brief description of the context, goals, admission procedure, structure, and process of a stress and trauma studies (STS) program. We then compare the development of…
Wang, H Y; Wei, W
Objective: To understand the relationship between occupational stress, social support and job burnout, and to explore the moderating role of social support for occupational stress and job burnout. Methods: 256 employees were conveniently chosen to engage in a survey, including occupational stress indicator (OSI) , social support rating scale (SSRS) as well as maslach burnout inventory-general survey (MBI-GS) from March to June in 2017. Results: The occupational stress score of the stafls in sport goods Chain stores was 55.5 ± 11.7, the score of social support was 28.2 ± 7.6, and the score of job burnaut was 41.3 ± 11.6. Occupational stress was positively correlated with job burnout ( r =0.425, P stress was negatively related to objective support, subjective support and support utilization ( r values were-0.182, -0.227, and-0.208, P stress and subjective support and support utilization were statistically significant ( β values were-0.069 and-0.077, P stress and job burnout, especially in subjective support and support utilization.
Smith, Tara; Renk, Kimberly
This study examined potential predictors of the academic-related stress experienced by college students. In particular, the relationships among the coping strategies used by college students, social support, the parenting style used by college students' mothers and fathers, college students' experience of anxiety, and academic-related stress were…
Williams-Tolliver, Sarah D.
The purpose of this study was to explore how women attending graduate degree programs in public universities in Virginia were affected by such issues as stress and lack of marital/social support. Utilizing a mixed method approach for data collection, 23 participants completed demographic data, an essay response, and the PSS-10 Stress Scale; 8 were…
The intention of this study was to better understand how certain aspects in a college student's life (i.e., perceived stress, styles of coping, and social support) or how combinations of these variables may contribute to higher levels of alcohol consumption. The present study examined the relationship between perceived stress, functional coping…
Wiesli, Peter; Schmid, Christoph; Kerwer, Oranna; Nigg-Koch, Christel; Klaghofer, Richard; Seifert, Burkhardt; Spinas, Giatgen A; Schwegler, Kyrill
To compare the effect of acute psychosocial stress on glucose concentrations in the fasting state and following food intake in patients with type 1 diabetes. In study 1, 20 patients were exposed to moderate psychosocial stress by means of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in the fasting state. In study 2, the TSST was applied to 20 additional patients 75 min after intake of a standard meal. Glucose concentrations (by continuous glucose monitoring system), blood pressure, and heart rate were monitored on the control day and on the stress testing day. In both studies, blood pressure increased in response to TSST from 122/77 +/- 14/9 mmHg at baseline to a maximum of 152/93 +/- 21/13 mmHg (P fasting state (study 1), glucose concentrations remained unchanged during the control day as well as during the stress testing day. In study 2, glucose concentrations were similar on both days before and up to 75 min after the intake of the standard meal. However, a significant delay (of 45 min) in the decrease of glucose concentrations was induced by psychological stress. A two-factor repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference of glucose concentrations over time (F = 646.65/P fasting state, no effect on poststress glucose concentrations was observed.
Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang;