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Sample records for stress trauma anxiety

  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, anxiety sensitivity, and alcohol-use motives in college students with a history of interpersonal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenz, Erin C; Kevorkian, Salpi; Chowdhury, Nadia; Dick, Danielle M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2016-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with coping-motivated alcohol use in trauma-exposed samples. However, it is unclear which individuals experiencing PTSD symptoms are at greatest risk for alcohol-use problems following trauma exposure. Individuals endorsing high anxiety sensitivity, which is the fear of anxiety and related sensations, may be particularly motivated to use alcohol to cope with PTSD symptoms. In the current study, we examined the moderating role of anxiety sensitivity in the association between PTSD symptoms and coping motives in a sample of 295 young adults with a history of interpersonal trauma and current alcohol use. Participants completed measures of past 30-day alcohol consumption, trauma history, current PTSD symptoms, anxiety sensitivity, and alcohol-use motives. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that greater anxiety sensitivity was significantly associated with greater coping (β = .219) and conformity (β = .156) alcohol-use motives, and greater PTSD symptoms were associated with greater coping motives (β = .247), above and beyond the covariates of sex, alcohol consumption, trauma load, and noncriterion alcohol-use motives. The interaction of anxiety sensitivity and PTSD symptoms accounted for additional variance in coping motives above and beyond the main effects (β = .117), with greater PTSD symptoms being associated with greater coping motives among those high but not low in anxiety sensitivity. Assessment and treatment of PTSD symptoms and anxiety sensitivity in young adults with interpersonal trauma may be warranted as a means of decreasing alcohol-related risk in trauma-exposed young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Anxiety, Stress, and Trauma Symptoms in African Americans: Negative Affectivity Does Not Explain the Relationship between Microaggressions and Psychopathology.

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    Williams, Monnica T; Kanter, Jonathan W; Ching, Terence H W

    2017-11-02

    Prior research has demonstrated a clear relationship between experiences of racial microaggressions and various indicators of psychological unwellness. One concern with these findings is that the role of negative affectivity, considered a marker of neuroticism, has not been considered. Negative affectivity has previously been correlated to experiences of racial discrimination and psychological unwellness and has been suggested as a cause of the observed relationship between microaggressions and psychopathology. We examined the relationships between self-reported frequency of experiences of microaggressions and several mental health outcomes (i.e., anxiety [Beck Anxiety Inventory], stress [General Ethnic and Discrimination Scale], and trauma symptoms [Trauma Symptoms of Discrimination Scale]) in 177 African American and European American college students, controlling for negative affectivity (the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and gender. Results indicated that African Americans experience more racial discrimination than European Americans. Negative affectivity in African Americans appears to be significantly related to some but not all perceptions of the experience of discrimination. A strong relationship between racial mistreatment and symptoms of psychopathology was evident, even after controlling for negative affectivity. In summary, African Americans experience clinically measurable anxiety, stress, and trauma symptoms as a result of racial mistreatment, which cannot be wholly explained by individual differences in negative affectivity. Future work should examine additional factors in these relationships, and targeted interventions should be developed to help those suffering as a result of racial mistreatment and to reduce microaggressions.

  3. An Examination of Differences in Psychological Resilience between Social Anxiety Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Context of Early Childhood Trauma

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    Melanie Marx

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much of the research on anxiety disorders has focused on associated risk factors with less attention paid to factors such as resilience that may mitigate risk or offer protection in the face of psychopathology.Objective: This study sought to compare resilience in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and social anxiety disorder (SAD relative to age-, gender- and education- matched individuals with no psychiatric disorder. We further assessed the correlation of resilience scores with childhood trauma severity and type.Method: The sample comprised of 93 participants, 40 with SAD with childhood trauma, 22 with PTSD with childhood trauma, and 31 with no psychiatric disorder (i.e., healthy matched controls. Participants were administered the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Short Form (CTQ-SF, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC. The mean age of participants was 34 years (SD = 11. 52 Participants were female (55.9% and 54 Caucasian (58.1%. Analysis of variance was used to assess for significant group differences in resilience scores. Non-parametric correlation analyses were conducted for resilience and different types of childhood trauma.Results: There were significant differences in resilience between the SAD and PTSD groups with childhood trauma, and controls. Both disorder groups had significantly lower levels of resilience than healthy controls. No significant correlation was found between total resilience scores and childhood trauma scores in the childhood trauma (SAD and PTSD groups. However, in the combined dataset (SAD, PTSD, healthy controls, significant negative correlations were found between resilience scores and emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and total childhood trauma scores.Conclusions: Patients who have PTSD and SAD with childhood trauma appear to be

  4. Vulnerability imposed by diet and brain trauma for anxiety-like phenotype: implications for post-traumatic stress disorders.

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    Ethika Tyagi

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, cerebral concussion is a risk factor for the development of psychiatric illness such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. We sought to evaluate how omega-3 fatty acids during brain maturation can influence challenges incurred during adulthood (transitioning to unhealthy diet and mTBI and predispose the brain to a PTSD-like pathobiology. Rats exposed to diets enriched or deficient in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 during their brain maturation period, were transitioned to a western diet (WD when becoming adult and then subjected to mTBI. TBI resulted in an increase in anxiety-like behavior and its molecular counterpart NPY1R, a hallmark of PTSD, but these effects were more pronounced in the animals exposed to n-3 deficient diet and switched to WD. The n-3 deficiency followed by WD disrupted BDNF signaling and the activation of elements of BDNF signaling pathway (TrkB, CaMKII, Akt and CREB in frontal cortex. TBI worsened these effects and more prominently in combination with the n-3 deficiency condition. Moreover, the n-3 deficiency primed the immune system to the challenges imposed by the WD and brain trauma as evidenced by results showing that the WD or mTBI affected brain IL1β levels and peripheral Th17 and Treg subsets only in animals previously conditioned to the n-3 deficient diet. These results provide novel evidence for the capacity of maladaptive dietary habits to lower the threshold for neurological disorders in response to challenges.

  5. Vulnerability imposed by diet and brain trauma for anxiety-like phenotype: implications for post-traumatic stress disorders.

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    Tyagi, Ethika; Agrawal, Rahul; Zhuang, Yumei; Abad, Catalina; Waschek, James A; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, cerebral concussion) is a risk factor for the development of psychiatric illness such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We sought to evaluate how omega-3 fatty acids during brain maturation can influence challenges incurred during adulthood (transitioning to unhealthy diet and mTBI) and predispose the brain to a PTSD-like pathobiology. Rats exposed to diets enriched or deficient in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) during their brain maturation period, were transitioned to a western diet (WD) when becoming adult and then subjected to mTBI. TBI resulted in an increase in anxiety-like behavior and its molecular counterpart NPY1R, a hallmark of PTSD, but these effects were more pronounced in the animals exposed to n-3 deficient diet and switched to WD. The n-3 deficiency followed by WD disrupted BDNF signaling and the activation of elements of BDNF signaling pathway (TrkB, CaMKII, Akt and CREB) in frontal cortex. TBI worsened these effects and more prominently in combination with the n-3 deficiency condition. Moreover, the n-3 deficiency primed the immune system to the challenges imposed by the WD and brain trauma as evidenced by results showing that the WD or mTBI affected brain IL1β levels and peripheral Th17 and Treg subsets only in animals previously conditioned to the n-3 deficient diet. These results provide novel evidence for the capacity of maladaptive dietary habits to lower the threshold for neurological disorders in response to challenges.

  6. Disaster psychology, stress, crisis, trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Miroslav Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophe or disaster entails material destruction - ecological and psychosocial - that transcends the coping capacities of the affected community. Undesirable consequences of disasters, which can be due to both human and natural causes, are reflected in the loss of life of millions in the last decades of the twentieth century, as well as in detrimental influence on the lives of several hundred million people and multi-billion dollar material and financial losses. For these reasons, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed the 1990s as the decade of prevention and reduction of the incidence of disasters under resolution 42/169. In order to succeed in preventing and reducing the incidence of disasters, as well as help those affected by them, we have to enrich our theoretical knowledge (i.e., get to know the nature of disaster psychology, understand stress, crisis and trauma, as International Classification of Diseases ISC-10 determines and describes psychosocial psychological reactions and psychological disorders… and practical, experiential and research results. The research we have conducted shows that as far as the spectrum of psychosocial reactions and psychological disorders is concerned, individuals who experience disasters most often exhibit anxiety-, depression-, and anxiety-depression-related disorders, Among the anxiety-related reactions, the most common ones are elevated tension and uneasiness. In some individuals, we can also expect the appearance of fears that were formerly not present, such as fears of being hurt, of mutilation and death. Our experience from working with the refugee population warns us that psychosocial reactions and reactive psychological disorders can emerge even years after disasters such as war and refuge, as well as that individuals affected by such disasters always deserve special attention and psychotherapeutic treatment.

  7. Trauma Tapping Technique: Practical First Aid for Stress and Trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trauma Tapping Technique: Practical First Aid for Stress and Trauma. Marie Claire Gasanganwa1, Rebecca L White1. 1University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Rwanda. Background. Epidemiological studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show a lifetime prevalence rate of up to. 6.8%.

  8. Stress and music performance anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Simoens, Veerle

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stress, as well as accompanying changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, affect cognitive processes, including memory. In professional musicians occupational stress and music performance anxiety (MPA) are a major source of concern during a musical career, whereas a boost is to a certain extent necessary for a musical performance. ---------- A protocol was successfully designed to induce acute stress in healthy students while measuring electro-encephalography...

  9. Tips to Manage Anxiety and Stress

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    ... 2018 Conference Snapshot Tips to Manage Anxiety and Stress When you're feeling anxious or stressed, the ... Subscribe to ADAA Triumph: Free Monthly E-News Stress Relief Kits Feeling stressed? Get an ADAA stress ...

  10. Childhood trauma in adults with social anxiety disorder and panic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The influence of childhood trauma as a specific environmental factor on the development of adult psychopathology is far from being elucidated. As part of a collaborative project between research groups from South Africa (SA) and Sweden focusing on genetic and environmental factors contributing to anxiety ...

  11. The impact of pre-existing anxiety on affective and cognitive processing of a Virtual Reality analogue trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Schweizer

    Full Text Available Dysfunctional processing of traumatic events may be in particular related to high trait anxiety as a pre-traumatic risk factor for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, as this has rarely been investigated in prospective, experimental studies, we aimed to analyse the association between high trait anxiety and affective as well as cognitive processing of stress using a new prospective Virtual Reality analogue trauma paradigm to overcome limitations of retrospective or current analogue designs. Individuals with high and low trait anxiety (N = 80 were exposed to a multi-sensory Virtual Reality emergency scenario while psychophysiological stress response, emotion regulation and intrusive memories were assessed. Our results showed that high trait anxiety individuals display increased (i subjective stress responses, (ii emotion dysregulation and (iii intrusive memories upon VR analogue trauma exposure. In particular, our sample of high trait anxiety individuals displayed limited access to different emotion regulation strategies as well as increased worry and rumination regarding perceived intrusive memories. Considering the complex interplay of multiple risk factors, our findings suggests that peri-traumatic affective processing seems to mediate high trait anxiety and post-traumatic intrusive memories thereby pointing out the central role of peri-traumatic processes for intrusion development. In addition, HA as a modulating pre-traumatic risk factor might further increase the risk of later dysfunctional processing of an analogue trauma by interacting with factors of affective processing during analogue trauma exposure. Implications of these findings which may contribute to a higher risk to develop PTSD are discussed.

  12. The impact of pre-existing anxiety on affective and cognitive processing of a Virtual Reality analogue trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Tina; Schmitz, Julian; Plempe, Laura; Sun, Dali; Becker-Asano, Christian; Leonhart, Rainer; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunctional processing of traumatic events may be in particular related to high trait anxiety as a pre-traumatic risk factor for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, as this has rarely been investigated in prospective, experimental studies, we aimed to analyse the association between high trait anxiety and affective as well as cognitive processing of stress using a new prospective Virtual Reality analogue trauma paradigm to overcome limitations of retrospective or current analogue designs. Individuals with high and low trait anxiety (N = 80) were exposed to a multi-sensory Virtual Reality emergency scenario while psychophysiological stress response, emotion regulation and intrusive memories were assessed. Our results showed that high trait anxiety individuals display increased (i) subjective stress responses, (ii) emotion dysregulation and (iii) intrusive memories upon VR analogue trauma exposure. In particular, our sample of high trait anxiety individuals displayed limited access to different emotion regulation strategies as well as increased worry and rumination regarding perceived intrusive memories. Considering the complex interplay of multiple risk factors, our findings suggests that peri-traumatic affective processing seems to mediate high trait anxiety and post-traumatic intrusive memories thereby pointing out the central role of peri-traumatic processes for intrusion development. In addition, HA as a modulating pre-traumatic risk factor might further increase the risk of later dysfunctional processing of an analogue trauma by interacting with factors of affective processing during analogue trauma exposure. Implications of these findings which may contribute to a higher risk to develop PTSD are discussed.

  13. Depression, anxiety and stress in dental students.

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    Basudan, Sumaya; Binanzan, Najla; Alhassan, Aseel

    2017-05-24

    To measure the occurrence and levels of depression, anxiety and stress in undergraduate dental students using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2014. A total of 289 dental students were invited to participate, and 277 responded, resulting in a response rate of 96%. The final sample included 247 participants. Eligible participants were surveyed via a self-reported questionnaire that included the validated DASS-21 scale as the assessment tool and questions about demographic characteristics and methods for managing stress. Abnormal levels of depression, anxiety and stress were identified in 55.9%, 66.8% and 54.7% of the study participants, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed multiple predictors: gender (for anxiety b=-3.589, p=.016 and stress b=-4.099, p=.008), satisfaction with faculty relationships (for depression b=-2.318, p=.007; anxiety b=-2.213, p=.004; and stress b=-2.854, pstress b=-2.854, pstress b=-2.648, p=.045). The standardized coefficients demonstrated the relationship and strength of the predictors for each subscale. To cope with stress, students engaged in various activities such as reading, watching television and seeking emotional support from others. The high occurrence of depression, anxiety and stress among dental students highlights the importance of providing support programs and implementing preventive measures to help students, particularly those who are most susceptible to higher levels of these psychological conditions.

  14. The Impact of a School-Based, Trauma-Informed CBT Intervention for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-23

    Anxiety; Anxiety Disorders; Behavioral Symptoms; Depression; Mental Disorders; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic; Stress Disorders, Traumatic; Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders; Wounds and Injuries

  15. Interpersonal trauma, attachment insecurity and anxiety in an inpatient psychiatric population.

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    Wiltgen, Anika; Arbona, Consuelo; Frankel, Leslie; Frueh, B Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Current research suggests that interpersonal trauma has an impact on insecure attachment and anxiety. Some research further suggests that attachment may play a mediating role between traumatic events and psychopathology. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the experience of interpersonal trauma, attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance and clinical anxiety severity among adult psychiatric inpatients who reported having experienced interpersonal trauma after the age of 16. It was hypothesized that attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance would mediate the relationship between interpersonal trauma and clinical anxiety level. This study used archival data on 414 adult psychiatric inpatients in a large city in the Southwest U.S. Results suggest that interpersonal trauma was correlated to attachment avoidance but not to attachment anxiety and that attachment avoidance partially mediated the relation of interpersonal trauma to anxiety. The attachment framework appositely explains how a negative model of other contributes to the relation between experiences of interpersonal trauma and anxiety in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trauma- and Stress-Induced Response in Veterans with Alcohol Dependence and Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

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    Ralevski, Elizabeth; Southwick, Steven; Jackson, Eric; Jane, Jane Serrita; Russo, Melanie; Petrakis, Ismene

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occur, and the co-occurrence is associated with worse prognosis than either disorder absent the other. Craving is an important construct related to relapse, but the relationship between PTSD symptoms, craving, and relapse is not well understood. Several studies have documented the relationship between stress and craving in individuals without comorbid PTSD, but the effect on those with comorbid PTSD is not well known. A small literature suggests that trauma imagery affects craving. This is the first study to explore the effects of trauma-induced and stress-induced scripts on alcohol craving, affect, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses in the laboratory. Veterans (n = 25) diagnosed with AD and PTSD who were participating in a randomized clinical treatment trial took part in this laboratory study. Baseline assessment included PTSD symptoms and drinking quantity and frequency over 3 months before study initiation. In the laboratory, participants were exposed to neutral, stressful, and trauma scripts randomly assigned. Main outcomes included craving, anxiety, mood states, salivary cortisol, and cardiovascular responses. Both stress and trauma scripts produced greater increases in craving, negative affect, and cardiovascular reactivity, compared to neutral scripts. Trauma scripts produced significantly stronger craving for alcohol and greater cardiovascular reactivity than stress scripts. Also, trauma-induced but not stress-induced craving was positively correlated with baseline levels of drinking. There were no changes in cortisol levels from pre- to postexposure of any scripts. The results highlight that trauma cues are more salient in inducing alcohol craving than stress cues and higher reactivity is related to more baseline drinking. This finding is consistent with clinical observations that show an association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol relapse. It also underscores the

  17. The Role of Mindfulness in Reducing the Adverse Effects of Childhood Stress and Trauma.

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    Ortiz, Robin; Sibinga, Erica M

    2017-02-28

    Research suggests that many children are exposed to adverse experiences in childhood. Such adverse childhood exposures may result in stress and trauma, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality into adulthood. In general populations and trauma-exposed adults, mindfulness interventions have demonstrated reduced depression and anxiety, reduced trauma-related symptoms, enhanced coping and mood, and improved quality of life. Studies in children and youth also demonstrate that mindfulness interventions improve mental, behavioral, and physical outcomes. Taken together, this research suggests that high-quality, structured mindfulness instruction may mitigate the negative effects of stress and trauma related to adverse childhood exposures, improving short- and long-term outcomes, and potentially reducing poor health outcomes in adulthood. Future work is needed to optimize implementation of youth-based mindfulness programs and to study long-term outcomes into adulthood.

  18. The Role of Mindfulness in Reducing the Adverse Effects of Childhood Stress and Trauma

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    Robin Ortiz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that many children are exposed to adverse experiences in childhood. Such adverse childhood exposures may result in stress and trauma, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality into adulthood. In general populations and trauma-exposed adults, mindfulness interventions have demonstrated reduced depression and anxiety, reduced trauma-related symptoms, enhanced coping and mood, and improved quality of life. Studies in children and youth also demonstrate that mindfulness interventions improve mental, behavioral, and physical outcomes. Taken together, this research suggests that high-quality, structured mindfulness instruction may mitigate the negative effects of stress and trauma related to adverse childhood exposures, improving short- and long-term outcomes, and potentially reducing poor health outcomes in adulthood. Future work is needed to optimize implementation of youth-based mindfulness programs and to study long-term outcomes into adulthood.

  19. Equine-assisted therapy for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

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    Earles, Julie L; Vernon, Laura L; Yetz, Jeanne P

    2015-04-01

    We tested the efficacy of the Equine Partnering Naturally(©) approach to equine-assisted therapy for treating anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 16 volunteers who had experienced a Criterion A traumatic event, such as a rape or serious accident, and had current PTSD symptoms above 31 on the PTSD Checklist (PCL-S; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, ). Participants engaged in tasks with horses for 6 weekly 2-hour sessions. Immediately following the final session, participants reported significantly reduced posttraumatic stress symptoms, d = 1.21, less severe emotional responses to trauma, d = 0.60, less generalized anxiety, d = 1.01, and fewer symptoms of depression, d = 0.54. As well, participants significantly increased mindfulness strategies, d = 1.28, and decreased alcohol use, d = 0.58. There was no significant effect of the treatment on physical health, proactive coping, self-efficacy, social support, or life satisfaction. Thus, we found evidence that the Equine Partnering Naturally(©) approach to equine-assisted therapy may be an effective treatment for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Future research should include larger groups, random assignment, and longer term follow-up. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  20. Animal models of anxiety disorders and stress

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    Alline C. Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and stress-related disorders are severe psychiatric conditions that affect performance in daily tasks and represent a high cost to public health. The initial observation of Charles Darwin that animals and human beings share similar characteristics in the expression of emotion raise the possibility of studying the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders in other mammals (mainly rodents. The development of animal models of anxiety and stress has helped to identify the pharmacological mechanisms and potential clinical effects of several drugs. Animal models of anxiety are based on conflict situations that can generate opposite motivational states induced by approach-avoidance situations. The present review revisited the main rodent models of anxiety and stress responses used worldwide. Here we defined as “ethological” the tests that assess unlearned/unpunished responses (such as the elevated plus maze, light-dark box, and open field, whereas models that involve learned/punished responses are referred to as “conditioned operant conflict tests” (such as the Vogel conflict test. We also discussed models that involve mainly classical conditioning tests (fear conditioning. Finally, we addressed the main protocols used to induce stress responses in rodents, including psychosocial (social defeat and neonatal isolation stress, physical (restraint stress, and chronic unpredictable stress.

  1. Childhood trauma and adult interpersonal relationship problems in patients with depression and anxiety disorders

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    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although a plethora of studies have delineated the relationship between childhood trauma and onset, symptom severity, and course of depression and anxiety disorders, there has been little evidence that childhood trauma may lead to interpersonal problems among adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Given the lack of prior research in this area, we aimed to investigate characteristics of interpersonal problems in adult patients who had suffered various types of abuse and neglect in childhood. Methods A total of 325 outpatients diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders completed questionnaires on socio-demographic variables, different forms of childhood trauma, and current interpersonal problems. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to measure five different forms of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect, and sexual abuse) and the short form of the Korean-Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scale (KIIP-SC) was used to assess current interpersonal problems. We dichotomized patients into two groups (abused and non-abused groups) based on CTQ score and investigated the relationship of five different types of childhood trauma and interpersonal problems in adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders using multiple regression analysis. Result Different types of childhood abuse and neglect appeared to have a significant influence on distinct symptom dimensions such as depression, state-trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity. In the final regression model, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse during childhood were significantly associated with general interpersonal distress and several specific areas of interpersonal problems in adulthood. No association was found between childhood physical neglect and current general interpersonal distress. Conclusion Childhood emotional trauma has more influence on interpersonal problems in adult patients with

  2. Emotional scars: impact of childhood trauma on depressive and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hovens, Jacqueline Gerarda Francisca Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of childhood trauma and childhood life-events on the development and course of depressive and anxiety disorders, and to identify risk factors contributing to these associations. In brief, our findings indicate that childhood trauma is an important risk factor for the development of depressive and/or anxiety disorders, especially depressive and comorbid disorders, and predicts a more chronic course of illness. Emotional neglect, as core comp...

  3. Emotional scars : impact of childhood trauma on depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline Gerarda Francisca Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of childhood trauma and childhood life-events on the development and course of depressive and anxiety disorders, and to identify risk factors contributing to these associations. In brief, our findings indicate that childhood trauma is an important

  4. Interaction between FKBP5 gene and childhood trauma on psychosis, depression and anxiety symptoms in a non-clinical sample.

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    de Castro-Catala, Marta; Peña, Elionora; Kwapil, Thomas R; Papiol, Sergi; Sheinbaum, Tamara; Cristóbal-Narváez, Paula; Ballespí, Sergi; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Rosa, Araceli

    2017-11-01

    Childhood trauma has been associated with a heightened risk for presenting clinical and non-clinical psychopathology in adulthood. Genes related with the stress response, such as the FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5), are plausible candidates moderating the effects of childhood trauma on the emergence of such symptoms later on. The present study aimed to explore the moderating role of FKBP5 genetic variability on the association of different types of childhood trauma with subclinical psychosis, depression and anxiety in a non-clinical sample. Schizotypy, psychotic-like experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms and childhood trauma were assessed in 808 young adults. Two FKBP5 haplotypic blocks were detected: block 1 (rs3800373 - rs9296158 - rs1360780) and block 2 (rs9470080 - rs4713916). Subjects were classified in two groups according to whether they carried or not the risk haplotype previously described in the literature (block 1: CAT and block 2: TA). Linear regression analyses were used to study (i) the main effects of childhood trauma and FKBP5 haplotype blocks and (ii) their interaction effects on the mentioned forms of psychopathology. All childhood trauma scales, except sexual abuse, were associated with schizotypy, psychotic-like experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms. None of the analysed symptoms was associated with the main effects of FKBP5 genetic variability. However an interaction effect between block 1 and physical abuse was observed on anxiety, with lower scores in CAT carriers. This effect was driven by SNP 1 and 2. Moreover, an interaction effect between block 2 and physical abuse was identified on the variables tapping depressive and anxiety symptoms. Specifically, non-TA carrier subjects who were exposed to physical abuse were found to be at higher risk for depressive and anxiety symptoms. These effects were driven by SNP 5. No interaction effect was observed for the other variables. Our data suggest that exposure to childhood physical

  5. [Anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder and trauma in the DSM-5].

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    van Balkom, A J L M; Gabriëls, L; van den Heuvel, O A

    2014-01-01

    The 12 anxiety disorders which were defined in the DSM-IV, have been increased to 27 disorders in the DSM-5. These 27 disorders have been subdivided into three chapters: 1. anxiety disorders, 2. obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) and 3. trauma and stressor-related disorders. To describe the most important differences between the DSM-IV and DSM-5 classifications of the above-mentioned disorders. Survey of the relevant literature. Within the chapter on anxiety disorders in DSM-5 the classifications of 'panic disorder' and 'agoraphobia' have been separated. In addition, DSM-5 allows the specification 'with panic attacks' to be applied to all psychiatric disorders. New additions to the group ocrd are: 'trichotillomania' and 'body dysmorphic disorder'. Also newly added to the group are the new classifications 'excoriation disorder' and 'hoarding disorder'. The DSM-IV group of adjustment disorders has been merged with the group of stress disorders. In accordance with the system adopted elsewhere in DSM-5, the disorders which are 'usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood and adolescence' and which resemble the disorders defined in the three chapters have been added to these chapters. Two extra categories are defined in each of the three chapters. The three chapters in DSM-5 are little more than a re-arrangement of the disorders defined in DSM-IV. The revision has not led to any clarification of or insight into the relationship between and the etiology of these disorders.

  6. Trauma exposure relates to heightened stress, altered amygdala morphology and deficient extinction learning: Implications for psychopathology.

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    Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Nees, Frauke; Grimm, Oliver; Ridder, Stephanie; Pohlack, Sebastian T; Diener, Slawomira J; Liebscher, Claudia; Flor, Herta

    2017-02-01

    Stress exposure causes a structural reorganization in neurons of the amygdala. In particular, animal models have repeatedly shown that both acute and chronic stress induce neuronal hypertrophy and volumetric increase in the lateral and basolateral nuclei of amygdala. These effects are visible on the behavioral level, where stress enhances anxiety behaviors and provokes greater fear learning. We assessed stress and anxiety levels in a group of 18 healthy human trauma-exposed individuals (TR group) compared to 18 non-exposed matched controls (HC group), and related these measurements to amygdala volume. Traumas included unexpected adverse experiences such as vehicle accidents or sudden loss of a loved one. As a measure of aversive learning, we implemented a cued fear conditioning paradigm. Additionally, to provide a biological marker of chronic stress, we measured the sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis using a dexamethasone suppression test. Compared to the HC, the TR group showed significantly higher levels of chronic stress, current stress and trait anxiety, as well as increased volume of the left amygdala. Specifically, we observed a focal enlargement in its lateral portion, in line with previous animal data. Compared to HC, the TR group also showed enhanced late acquisition of conditioned fear and deficient extinction learning, as well as salivary cortisol hypo-suppression to dexamethasone. Left amygdala volumes positively correlated with suppressed morning salivary cortisol. Our results indicate differences in trauma-exposed individuals which resemble those previously reported in animals exposed to stress and in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms through which traumatic stress might prompt vulnerability for psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurotic Anxiety, Pronoun Usage, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Lewis Sigmund; Groman, William D.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the function of a particular aspect of verbal communication, pronoun usage, by (a) using a Gestalt Therapy theory conceptual framework and (b) experimentally focusing on the relationship of pronoun usage to neurotic anxiety and emotional stress. (Author/RK)

  8. The management of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic and also carry a higher burden of early childhood trauma, other life traumas (e.g. rape and partner violence) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).1,2 Yet PTSD and other common psychiatric disorders (e.g. depression, alcohol abuse) are commonly ...

  9. Abstract: Trauma Tapping Technique: Practical First Aid for Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trauma tapping technique (TTT) is a procedure that uses touch through tapping to relieve anxiety symptoms. TTT is a nonverbal process that can be delivered at minimal cost with the potential for easy dissemination. This technique can be applied in urban or rural communities and in medical or mental health environments.

  10. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma.

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    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during "traumatic stressors." 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exposed to a "traumatic" film clip (trauma-film-paradigm). For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the "toy dog group" and the "alone group." Results of the "dog group" were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a "traumatic" stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed.

  11. Stress, Anxiety and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress has major role in functional gastrointestinal system disorders. The most typical example of this situation is Irritable bowel syndrome. Gastrointestinal system’s response to acute or short-term of stress is delay of gastric emptying and stimulation of colonic transition. While CRF2 receptors are mediate the upper section inhibition, CRF1 is responsible for the lower part colonic and anxiogenic response. Visceral hypersensitivity is managed by the emotional motor system, the amygdala plays a significant role and mucosal mast cells arise. But in people with symptoms of functional gastrointestinal, how is differ motility response in healthy individuals, this situation is due to lack of autonomous nervous system or an increased sensitivity of stress is not adequately understood. The brain-gastrointestinal axis frequency and severity of symptoms associated with negative emotions. American Gastroenterology Association is closely associated with the quality of life and is very difficult to treat the symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders, re-interpreted under the heading of 'Gastrointestinal Distress'. This review is defined as gastrointestinal distresses, physical, emotional, and behavioral components as a disorder in which, almost like an anxiety disorder are discussed. Physical component is pain, gas, and defecation problems, cognitive component is external foci control, catastrophization and anticipatory anxiety, the emotional component is somatic anxiety, hypervigilance, and avoidance of gastrointestinal stimuli as defined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 122-133

  12. Genetics of Anxiety and Trauma-Related Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Norrholm, Seth D.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric illnesses in the U.S. with approximately 30% of the population experiencing anxiety-related symptoms in their lifetime (Kessler et al., 2005). Notably, a variety of studies have demonstrated that 30−40% of the variance contributing to these disorders is heritable. In the present review, we discuss the latest findings regarding the genetic and environmental influences on the development and symptomatology of anxiety disorders. Specific emphasis...

  13. Coping with Mathematics Anxiety: Stress Management and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Wesley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Administered the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale to Introductory Statistics college students. A high mathematics anxiety was associated with lower performance on a statistics examination. Classroom stress-coping intervention reduced anxiety and physiological stress responses, but did not improve academic performance. (Author/KS)

  14. Social anxiety in first-episode psychosis: the role of childhood trauma and adult attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Maria; Birchwood, Max

    2014-07-01

    Social anxiety is among the most prevalent affective disturbances among people with psychosis. The developmental pathways associated with its emergence in psychosis, however, remain unclear. The aim of this study is to identify the developmental risk factors associated with social anxiety disorder in first-episode psychosis and to investigate whether social anxiety in psychosis and non-psychosis is associated with similar or different adult attachment styles. This is a cross-sectional study. A sample of individuals with social anxiety disorder (with or without psychosis) was compared with a sample with psychosis only and healthy controls on childhood trauma, dysfunctional parenting and adult attachment. Childhood trauma and dysfunctional parenting (pchildhood trauma and dysfunctional parenting between socially anxious people with and without psychosis. Higher levels of insecure adult attachment (x(2)1=38.5, pChildhood adversities were not associated with insecure adult attachment in people with social anxiety (with or without psychosis). Due to the cross-sectional nature of the study we cannot infer causal relationships between early risk factors, including childhood trauma and dysfunctional parenting, and social anxiety. Also, the use of self-report measures of attachment could be subject to biases. Shared developmental risk factors are implicated in the emergence of affective disorders in psychosis and non-psychosis. Social anxiety in psychosis is associated with insecurity in adult attachments which does not arise a result of adverse developmental pathways. Understanding the bio-psycho-social risk factors for affective dysregulation in psychosis could inform psychological interventions about the role of developmental anomaly and trauma in the emergence of affective dysregulation in psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. ADULT ANXIETY DISORDERS IN RELATION TO TRAIT ANXIETY AND PERCEIVED STRESS IN CHILDHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Elizabeth A; Weber, Mareen; Rauch, Scott L; Killgore, William D S; Simon, Naomi M; Pollack, Mark H; Rosso, Isabelle M

    2015-10-01

    It is well established that objective early life stressors increase risk for anxiety disorders and that environmental stressors interact with dispositional factors such as trait anxiety. There is less information on how subjective perception of stress during childhood relates to later clinical anxiety. This study tested whether childhood perceived stress and trait anxiety were independently and interactively associated with adult anxiety disorders. Forty-seven adults diagnosed with anxiety disorders (M age = 34 yr., SD = 11) and 29 healthy participants (M = 33 yr., SD = 13) completed the adult Perceived Stress Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Global Perceived Early Life Events Scale as a measure of perceived stress during childhood. In a logistic regression model, high childhood perceived stress (β = 0.64) and trait anxiety (β = 0.11) were associated with significantly greater odds of adult anxiety disorder. The association between childhood perceived stress and adult anxiety remained significant when controlling for adult perceived stress. These findings suggest that children's perception of stress in their daily lives may be an important target of intervention to prevent the progression of stress into clinically significant anxiety.

  16. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analogue trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eLass-Hennemann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for PTSD patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during traumatic stressors. 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 conditions. They were exposed to a traumatic film clip (trauma-film-paradigm. For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the toy dog group and the alone group. Results of the dog group were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a traumatic stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed.

  17. Effects of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Overexpression on Anxiety and Memory after Early Life Stress in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatsou, Sofia; Ter Horst, Judith P; Harris, Anjanette P; Seckl, Jonathan R; Krugers, Harmen J; Joëls, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for the development of psychopathology, particularly in women. Human studies have shown that certain haplotypes of NR3C2, encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), that result in gain of function, may protect against the consequences of stress exposure, including childhood trauma. Here, we tested the hypothesis that forebrain-specific overexpression of MR in female mice would ameliorate the effects of ELS on anxiety and memory in adulthood. We found that ELS increased anxiety, did not alter spatial discrimination and reduced contextual fear memory in adult female mice. Transgenic overexpression of MR did not alter anxiety but affected spatial memory performance and enhanced contextual fear memory formation. The effects of ELS on anxiety and contextual fear were not affected by transgenic overexpression of MR. Thus, MR overexpression in the forebrain does not represent a major resilience factor to early life adversity in female mice.

  18. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis variants and childhood trauma influence anxiety sensitivity in South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womersley, Jacqueline S; Martin, Lindi I; van der Merwe, Lize; Seedat, Soraya; Hemmings, Sian M J

    2017-11-04

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is characterised by the fear of anxiety-related symptoms and is a risk factor for the development of anxiety-related disorders. We examined whether genetic variation in three stress response genes, CRHR1, NR3C1, and FKBP5, interact with childhood trauma (CT) to predict AS in South African adolescents. Xhosa (n = 634) and Coloured (n = 317) students completed self-report measures of AS and CT, and a total of eighteen polymorphisms within CRHR1, NR3C1, and FKBP5 were genotyped. Differences in AS based on genetic variation and CT were analysed within population and gender groups using multiple linear regression. Associations were found between AS and FKBP5 rs9296158 (p = 0.025) and rs737054 (p = 0.045) in Coloured males. Analysis of gene x CT interactions indicated that NR3C1 rs190488 CC-genotype, NR3C1 rs10482605 G-allele addition, and FKBP5 rs3800373 C-allele addition protect against AS with increasing CT in Xhosa females (p = 0.009), Xhosa males (p = 0.036) and Coloured males (p = 0.049), respectively. We identified two different protective single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) combinations in a four-SNP CRHR1 haplotype in Coloured males. An analysis of the interaction between CT and a six-SNP FKBP5 haplotype in Coloured males revealed both protective and risk allelic combinations. Our results provide evidence for the influence of both genetic variation in CRHR1, NR3C1 and FKBP5, as well as CT x SNP interactions, on AS in South African adolescents. This study reinforces the importance of examining the influence of gene-environment (G X E) interactions within gender and population groups.

  19. Rumination as a Mediator between Childhood Trauma and Adulthood Depression/Anxiety in Non-clinical Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji S.; Jin, Min J.; Jung, Wookyoung; Hahn, Sang W.; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Although there is strong evidence that childhood trauma is associated with the development of depression and anxiety, relatively few studies have explored potential mediating factors for this relationship. The present study aimed to evaluate the mediating role of rumination in the link between childhood trauma and mood status such as depression, anxiety and affective lability. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seven non-clinical participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Ruminative Response Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State Anxiety Inventory, and the Affective Lability Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the results. Results: Our results supported that rumination is a meaningful mediator between childhood trauma and depression/anxiety in non-clinical participants. The mediation model indicated that childhood trauma and its subtypes are linked to depression and anxiety through three subtypes of rumination, thereby supporting a significant indirect relationship (Standardized coefficient [SC] = 0.56, p childhood trauma and mood symptoms was also significant in a model including rumination (SC = 0.68, p childhood trauma and mood was more predominant in female participants. Conclusions: The present study found that rumination mediates the influence of childhood trauma on the development of mood symptoms in non-clinical participants. Childhood trauma appears to be a critical determinant for developing symptoms of depression and anxiety. PMID:28993746

  20. Chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence causes long-term anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaby, L E; Cavigelli, S A; Hirrlinger, A M; Caruso, M J; Braithwaite, V A

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to stress during adolescence can cause long-term changes in behavior and cognition. Anxiety diagnoses rise during adolescence and are increased by adverse experiences. Currently, it is unknown how long stress during adolescence alters anxiety in adulthood. We found that rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence expressed altered behavior 6.5 months later; showing increased anxiety in a feeding test in a novel environment. Although behavioral changes indicative of anxiety were detected in late adulthood, the basal levels of fecal corticoid metabolites in prior-stressed rats did not differ from unstressed, control rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Running Therapy: Change Agent in Anxiety and Stress Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Michael L.

    1982-01-01

    Running can be used effectively to produce positive physiological and psychological changes, including cardiovascular and physical fitness, reduction of anxiety, and more effective management of stress. (CJ)

  2. Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Wiersma, J. E.; Giltay, E. J.; van Oppen, P.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    Objective: To investigate the association between childhood life events, childhood trauma and the presence of anxiety, depressive or comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood. Method: Data are from 1931 adult participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

  3. Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J.G.F.M.; Wiersma, J.E.; Giltay, E.J.; van Oppen, P.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Zitman, F.G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between childhood life events, childhood trauma and the presence of anxiety, depressive or comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood. Method: Data are from 1931 adult participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

  4. Trauma-related guilt and posttraumatic stress among journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Tess; Evangeli, Michael; Greenberg, Neil

    2012-04-01

    This study explored the psychological impact of exposure to work-related trauma among journalists. It was hypothesised that positive associations would exist between (a) exposure and PTSD symptoms, (b) exposure and guilt cognitions, and (c) guilt cognitions and PTSD symptoms, and that the relationship between exposure and PTSD symptoms would be mediated by guilt cognitions. The sample consisted of 50 journalists (response rate = 15%), who had recently been exposed to work-related trauma. They were predominantly male, aged 40 years or older, well-educated, and most had worked in journalism for at least 15 years. Participants completed an online questionnaire that explored their work-related experiences of trauma, PTSD symptoms, and trauma-related guilt cognitions. The findings showed that higher levels of exposure to work-related trauma were significantly associated with higher levels of PTSD symptoms (r = .36) and trauma-related guilt cognitions (r = .29). Guilt cognitions were significantly and positively independently associated with PTSD symptoms (r = .12) and were consistent with partial mediation of relationship between exposure to work-related trauma and PTSD symptoms. This study provides greater insight into the psychological processing of work-related traumatic events among journalists and emphasizes the importance of posttrauma appraisals of guilt regarding their experiences. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  5. HDAC inhibitors as cognitive enhancers in fear, anxiety and trauma therapy: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Nigel; Singewald, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    A novel strategy to treat anxiety and fear-related disorders such as phobias, panic and PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) is combining CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy), including extinction-based exposure therapy, with cognitive enhancers. By targeting and boosting mechanisms underlying learning, drug development in this field aims at designing CBT-augmenting compounds that help to overcome extinction learning deficits, promote long-term fear inhibition and thus support relapse prevention. Progress in revealing the role of epigenetic regulation of specific genes associated with extinction memory generation has opened new avenues in this direction. The present review examines recent evidence from pre-clinical studies showing that increasing histone acetylation, either via genetic or pharmacological inhibition of HDACs (histone deacetylases) by e.g. vorinostat/SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid), entinostat/MS-275, sodium butyrate, TSA (trichostatin A) or VPA (valproic acid), or by targeting HATs (histone acetyltransferases), augments fear extinction and, importantly, generates a long-term extinction memory that can protect from return of fear phenomena. The molecular mechanisms and pathways involved including BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor signalling are just beginning to be revealed. First studies in healthy humans are in support of extinction-facilitating effects of HDAC inhibitors. Very recent evidence that HDAC inhibitors can rescue deficits in extinction-memory-impaired rodents indicates a potential clinical utility of this approach also for exposure therapy-resistant patients. Important future work includes investigation of the long-term safety aspects of HDAC inhibitor treatment, as well as design of isotype(s)-specific inhibitors. Taken together, HDAC inhibitors display promising potential as pharmacological adjuncts to augment the efficacy of exposure-based approaches in anxiety and trauma therapy.

  6. Negative metacognitive beliefs moderate the influence of perceived stress and anxiety in long-term anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Cejudo, Juan; Salguero, J Martín

    2017-04-01

    Metacognitive theory of emotional disorders (Matthews and Wells, 1994; Wells, 2009) suggests that metacognitive beliefs can play a causal role in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms. In this prospective study, we examine the relationships between metacognitive beliefs, perceived stress and anxiety in a non-clinical sample. Participants were 135 undergraduate students who completed a battery of questionnaire at two time points (3- months apart). Results revealed metacognitive beliefs do not predict long-term anxiety independently. However, moderation analyses demonstrated negative beliefs about uncontrollability and danger prospectively moderated the relationship between perceived stress and Time 2 anxiety. Negative metacognitive beliefs also interacted with baseline anxiety to predict the change in anxiety symptoms. The results confirm metacognitions play a causal role in anxiety and have implications for cognitive models and the treatment of anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Among Syrian Refugees: Trauma Exposure Characteristics, Trauma Centrality, and Emotional Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Shakra, Mudar; AlQarni, Nowf; AlMazrouei, Mariam; Al Mazrouei, Sara; Al Hashimi, Shurooq

    2018-03-01

    This study revisited the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and examined a hypothesized model describing the interrelationship between trauma exposure characteristics, trauma centrality, emotional suppression, PTSD, and psychiatric comorbidity among Syrian refugees. A total of 564 Syrian refugees participated in the study and completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Centrality of Event Scale, and Courtauld Emotional Control Scale. Of the participants, 30% met the cutoff for PTSD. Trauma exposure characteristics (experiencing or witnessing horror and murder, kidnapping or disappearance of family members or friends) were associated with trauma centrality, which was associated with emotional suppression. Emotional suppression was associated with PTSD and psychiatric comorbid symptom severities. Suppression mediated the path between trauma centrality and distress outcomes. Almost one-third of refugees can develop PTSD and other psychiatric problems following exposure to traumatic events during war. A traumatized identity can develop, of which life-threatening experiences is a dominant feature, leading to suppression of depression with associated psychological distress.

  8. Measuring resilience in adult women using the 10-items Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC. Role of trauma exposure and anxiety disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Scali

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Resilience is the ability of individuals to adapt positively in the face of trauma. Little is known, however, about lifetime factors affecting resilience. METHODS: We assessed the effects of psychiatric disorder and lifetime trauma history on the resilience self-evaluation using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10 in a high-risk-women sample. Two hundred and thirty eight community-dwelling women, including 122 participants in a study of breast cancer survivors and 116 participants without previous history of cancer completed the CD-RISC-10. Lifetime psychiatric symptoms were assessed retrospectively using two standardized psychiatric examinations (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and Watson's Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Inventory. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, education, trauma history, cancer, current psychiatric diagnoses, and psychoactive treatment indicated a negative association between current psychiatric disorder and high resilience compared to low resilience level (OR = 0.44, 95% CI [0.21-0.93]. This was related to anxiety and not mood disorder. A positive and independent association with a trauma history was also observed (OR = 3.18, 95% CI [1.44-7.01]. CONCLUSION: Self-evaluation of resilience is influenced by both current anxiety disorder and trauma history. The independent positive association between resilience and trauma exposure may indicate a "vaccination" effect. This finding need to be taken into account in future studies evaluating resilience in general or clinical populations.

  9. Sexual motivation and anxiety-like behaviors of male rats after exposure to a trauma followed by situational reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne; Grissom, Elin; Keskitalo, Lisa; Hastings, Tyler; Dohanich, Gary

    2011-02-01

    Experiencing a traumatic event can produce long-lasting impairments in affective and social behaviors. In humans, psychopathologies associated with exposure to a single traumatic event often are associated with varying degrees of sexual dysfunction. Similarly, in rats, exposure to a trauma results in long-lasting changes in social behaviors. The current investigation examined if the sexual and affective behaviors of male rats were impacted by exposure to a discrete traumatic event that was followed days later by reminders of the event. The initial trauma combined exposure to a foot shock and predator odor, followed 3 and 7 days later by reminders of the trauma in the absence of either stressor. A day after the final reminder, traumatized rats exhibited decreased sexual motivation indicated by prolonged mount and intromission latencies, although ejaculation latencies and post-ejaculatory intervals remained unchanged. Traumatized rats also exhibited marked increases in anxiety-like behavior in a novel environment as evidenced by longer latencies to begin feeding, decreased movement and ambulation, and fewer entries into the center of an open field. Taken together, the results of the current study suggest that exposure to a single traumatic event, followed by reminders of the event, affected the motivation of male rats to interact with a receptive female and increased their anxiety-like behaviors. Moreover, because posttraumatic stress disorder can arise from exposure to a single traumatic event and is associated with recurrent and intrusive thoughts related to the trauma, the current findings have implications for our understanding of this disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Traumatic stress and psychopathology: experiences of a trauma clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    traumatic events were grouped according to Friedman's categorisation of traumatic exposure and experience2 as follows: Traumatic stress and psychopathology: experiences of a trauma clinic. U Subramaney. Division of Psychiatry, Department of Neurosciences, University of the Witwatersrand, and Centre for the Study of ...

  11. Biofeedback and Counseling for Stress and Anxiety among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Sverduk, Kevin; Prince, Judy; Hayashino, Diane

    2012-01-01

    With the rise in stress and anxiety among college students, there is a need for more comprehensive and effective counseling options for counselors in college counseling centers. This study investigated the impact of using biofeedback and brief counseling in treating stress and anxiety in an ethnically diverse college student population. Results…

  12. Relationships between adolescents' test anxiety, stress and sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald, J.F.; Meijer, A.M.; Oort, F.J.; Bögels, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to investigate the relationship between adolescents' test anxiety, stress and different aspects of sleep. Method. 175 adolescents (70.8% girls, mean age 15.14 years) participated in the study. Test anxiety, stress and chronic sleep reduction were assessed at baseline using

  13. Unpredictable neonatal stress enhances adult anxiety and alters amygdala gene expression related to serotonin and GABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarro, E C; Sullivan, R M; Barr, G

    2014-01-31

    Anxiety-related disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, thought to have both genetic and environmental causes. Early-life trauma, such as abuse from a caregiver, can be predictable or unpredictable, each resulting in increased prevalence and severity of a unique set of disorders. In this study, we examined the influence of early unpredictable trauma on both the behavioral expression of adult anxiety and gene expression within the amygdala. Neonatal rats were exposed to unpaired odor-shock conditioning for 5 days, which produces deficits in adult behavior and amygdala dysfunction. In adulthood, we used the Light/Dark box test to measure anxiety-related behaviors, measuring the latency to enter the lit area and quantified urination and defecation. The amygdala was then dissected and a microarray analysis was performed to examine changes in gene expression. Animals that had received early unpredictable trauma displayed significantly longer latencies to enter the lit area and more defecation and urination. The microarray analysis revealed over-represented genes related to learning and memory, synaptic transmission and trans-membrane transport. Gene ontology and pathway analysis identified highly represented disease states related to anxiety phenotypes, including social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and bipolar disorder. Addiction-related genes were also overrepresented in this analysis. Unpredictable shock during early development increased anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood with concomitant changes in genes related to neurotransmission, resulting in gene expression patterns similar to anxiety-related psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceptual-motor learning benefits from increased stress and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordacre, Brenton; Immink, Maarten A; Ridding, Michael C; Hillier, Susan

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to manipulate psychological stress and anxiety to investigate effects on ensuing perceptual-motor learning. Thirty-six participants attended two experimental sessions separated by 24h. In the first session, participants were randomized to either a mental arithmetic task known to increase stress and anxiety levels or a control condition and subsequently completed training on a speeded precision pinch task. Learning of the pinch task was assessed at the second session. Those exposed to the high stress-anxiety mental arithmetic task prior to training reported elevated levels of both stress and anxiety and demonstrated shorter movement times and improved retention of movement accuracy and movement variability. Response execution processes appear to benefit from elevated states of stress and anxiety immediately prior to training even when elicited by an unrelated task. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduced Trauma Symptoms and Perceived Stress in Male Prison Inmates through the Transcendental Meditation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidich, Sanford; O’Connor, Tom; Rutledge, Thomas; Duncan, Jeff; Compton, Blaze; Seng, Angela; Nidich, Randi

    2016-01-01

    Context Trauma events are four times more prevalent in inmates than in the general public and are associated with increased recidivism and other mental and physical health issues. Objective To evaluate the effects of Transcendental Meditationa (TM) on trauma symptoms in male inmates. Design One hundred eighty-one inmates with a moderate- to high-risk criminal profile were randomly assigned to either the TM program or to a usual care control group. Main Outcome Measures The Trauma Symptom Checklist and the Perceived Stress Scale were administered at baseline and four-month posttest. Results Significant reductions in total trauma symptoms, anxiety, depression, dissociation, and sleep disturbance subscales, and perceived stress in the TM group were found compared with controls (all p values < 0.001). The high-trauma subgroup analysis further showed a higher magnitude of effects in the TM group compared with controls on all outcomes, with Cohen effect sizes ranging from 0.67 to 0.89. Conclusion Results are consistent with those of prior studies of the TM program in other populations and its effects on trauma symptoms and perceived stress. PMID:27723444

  16. Anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gar-Yen; Patel, Nisha; Umasunthar, Thisanayagam; Gore, Claudia; Warner, John O; Hanna, Heather; Phillips, Katherine; Zaki, Amirah Mohd; Hodes, Matthew; Boyle, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    Previous reports suggest that parents especially mothers of food-allergic children may have increased anxiety. Studies with an appropriate control group have not been undertaken, and the determinants of such anxiety are not known. We compared measures of anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children and atopic non-food-allergic children, with anxiety and stress in mothers of children with no chronic illness. Cross-sectional study of mothers attending a hospital appointment for their 8- to 16-year-old child. Mothers of children with food allergy, asthma but no food allergy or no chronic illness completed questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and measures of anxiety and psychologic adjustment in their child. Forty mothers of food-allergic children, 18 mothers of asthmatic children without food allergy and 38 mothers of children with no chronic illness (controls) were recruited. Mothers of food-allergic children showed increased state anxiety – median anxiety score 38.0 (IQR 30.0, 44.0) food allergy, 27.0 (22.0, 40.0) control p = 0.012; and increased stress – median stress score 18.5 (12.0, 22.0) food allergy, 14.0 (7.5, 19.5)control p = 0.035. No significant differences were seen between mothers in the asthmatic group and controls. In multivariate analysis, previous food anaphylaxis(p = 0.008) and poorly controlled asthma (p = 0.004) were associated with increased maternal anxiety. Child anxiety and adjustment did not differ between food-allergic and control groups. Mothers of food-allergic children have increased anxiety and stress compared with mothers of children with no chronic illness. Anaphylaxis and poorly controlled asthma are associated with maternal anxiety.

  17. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress, and anger in Turkish prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unver, Yener; Yuce, Mehmet; Bayram, Nuran; Bilgel, Nazan

    2013-09-01

    In Turkey, prison studies are rare and the mental health status of prisoners has not received proper attention. The purpose of this cross-sectional and descriptive study was to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress, and anger among a group of Turkish prisoners. Two self-reporting instruments (the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-42 and Multidimensional Anger Scale) were filled out by 685 prisoners. Prisoners in the study group were found to be depressive, anxious, and stressed. Anger symptoms and aggressive behaviors were found to be at a moderate level. Prisoners with a history of being subjected to domestic violence in childhood had higher depression, anxiety, and stress scores than those without such a history. Young prisoners, those who had been previously imprisoned, with substance dependency and higher stress and anxiety levels reported more anger symptoms than others. Psychological support, together with stress and anger management programs, seems to be essential. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. The Relationship Between Dental Trauma, Anxiety and Aggression Behavior in 7 to14 Year old Children in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliti, Fehim; Juric, Hrvoje

    2017-03-01

    Dental fear has a negative impact on the treatment outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental anxiety among children with different measurement scales, with the aim of getting more precise and thorough estimations, as well as correlation between anxiety scale and aggression scale in children with/or without dental trauma. The study population include 254 children's experience with dental trauma (59.1% male), and 251 children without dental trauma (46.6% male), between 7 and 14 years old, and their respective parents were evaluated during 2015-2016. Psychometric measures used for this purpose included several questionnaires. The result was tested with the X 2 test, Student's t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The Cronbach alpha was used to check the reliability and validity of the measures. The predetermined significance levels were set at 0.05. All used test has satisfactory reliability and validity of the scale. The mean anxiety score was significantly higher in children with dental trauma. The children with dental trauma had a higher mean aggression scale (OAS). The girls had significantly higher mean anxiety score than boys in all used questionnaires. The mean aggression score was significantly higher for boys than girls in both compared groups (pdental trauma decrease for 0.95 when the value of the mean DVSS-SV scale is increased by one units, and increase for 1.04 when the means anxiety score increased by one units. The mean anxiety score was significantly higher in children with dental trauma, as well as the girls and children who are more afraid of medical interventions (CMFQ). Also the children with dental trauma, and boys had a higher mean aggression scale (OAS).
Significant correlation was found between dental anxiety level and aggressive behavior of children's. The odds of the aggressive behavior increased with increasing of mean score of each anxiety measurement scale, but not significantly, except for S

  19. Exams? Why worry? Interpreting anxiety as facilitative and stress appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Juliane; Esteves, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined why people differ in how they appraise the same stressful situation (an approaching exam). We explored whether interpreting anxiety as a facilitative emotion can affect the type of stress appraisal people make. One hundred and three undergraduate students took part in this study, which lasted for 10 days (leading up to an exam). The students completed a daily self-reported evaluation of anxiety, emotional exhaustion, and stress experienced. The findings suggest a process by which a stressful time can be experienced as motivating rather than threatening or emotionally exhausting. For example, interpreting anxiety as facilitative moderated the relationship between anxiety and stress appraisals. When interpreting their anxiety as facilitative, individuals showed a higher tendency to make challenge stress appraisals and a lower tendency to appraising the stressor as a threat. These differences were especially visible with high levels of anxiety. Furthermore, interpreting anxiety as facilitative was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion, but positively associated with the academic performance. These findings suggest an explanation why people differ in how they appraise the same stressor: how people interpret their anxiety may to a large part affect how they appraise difficult events and situations.

  20. Secondary traumatic stress and vicarious trauma: a validational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Baird, Stephanie

    2002-10-01

    Vicarious trauma (VT) and secondary traumatic stress (STS) or compassion fatigue both describe effects of working with traumatized persons on therapists. Despite conceptual similarities, their emphases differ: cognitive schemas vs. posttraumatic symptoms and burnout, respectively. The TSI Belief Scale (TSI-BSL) measures VT; the Compassion Fatigue Self-Test (CFST) for Psychotherapists measures STS. Neither has substantial psychometric evidence yet, nor has their association been studied. Results for 99 sexual assault and domestic violence counselors show concurrent validity between TSI-BSL and CFST, moderate convergence with burnout but useful discrimination, and strong convergence with general distress, but adequate independent shared variance. Counselors with interpersonal trauma histories scored higher on CFST, but not TSI-BSL or burnout, consistent with the CFST's emphasis on trauma symptomatology.

  1. Effects of mineralocorticoid receptor overexpression on anxiety and memory after early life stress in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia eKanatsou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early-life stress is a risk factor for the development of psychopathology, particularly in women. Human studies have shown that certain haplotypes of NR3C2, encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR, that result in gain of function, may protect against the consequences of stress exposure, including childhood trauma. Here, we tested the hypothesis that forebrain-specific overexpression of MR in female mice would ameliorate the effects of early-life stress on anxiety and memory in adulthood. We found that early-life stress increased anxiety, did not alter spatial discrimination and reduced contextual fear memory in adult female mice. Transgenic overexpression of MR did not alter anxiety but affected spatial memory performance and enhanced contextual fear memory formation. The effects of early life stress on anxiety and contextual fear were not affected by transgenic overexpression of MR. Thus MR overexpression in the forebrain does not represent a major resilience factor to early life adversity in female mice.

  2. Vicarious trauma, secondary traumatic stress or simply burnout? Effect of trauma therapy on mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devilly, Grant J; Wright, Renee; Varker, Tracey

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform an assessment for secondary traumatic stress (STS), vicarious trauma (VT) and workplace burnout for Australian mental health professionals involved in clinical practice. Recruited directly by mail, randomly selected participants were invited to submit a questionnaire by post or online. Of the 480 participants contacted, 152 mental health professionals completed the questionnaire, which contained measures of STS, VT and burnout. Exposure to patients' traumatic material did not affect STS, VT or burnout, contradicting the theory of the originators of STS and VT. Rather, it was found that work-related stressors best predicted therapist distress. These findings have significant implications for the direction of research and theory development in traumatic stress studies, calling into question the existence of secondary trauma-related phenomena and enterprises aimed at treating the consultants.

  3. The Impact of a Mindfulness Based Program on Perceived Stress, Anxiety, Depression and Sleep of Incarcerated Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginette G. Ferszt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Incarcerated women enter the prison setting with remarkable histories of trauma, mental health and substance abuse issues. Given the stress of incarceration and separation from their children, families, and significant others, it is not surprising that many women experience increased anxiety, depression, and problems with sleep. Due to these negative outcomes, it is imperative to find efficient non-pharmacological interventions. This pilot study examined the impact of a 12-week mindfulness based program on the stress, anxiety, depression and sleep of women with a total of 33 completing the study. In one group, women’s perceived stress, anxiety and depression were all significantly lower following the intervention compared to prior to the intervention. Challenges with implementing the pilot study are addressed. Despite challenges and limitations, the low-cost non-pharmacological intervention has potential for a reducing the symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  4. Perceptual abnormalities in clinical high risk youth and the role of trauma, cannabis use and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Marshall, Catherine; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; Cornblatt, Barbara A; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Bearden, Carrie E; Mathalon, Daniel; Addington, Jean

    2017-12-01

    Recent research suggests that perceptual abnormalities are a group of diverse experiences, which have been associated with trauma, cannabis use, and anxiety. Of the attenuated psychotic symptoms that are present in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis, perceptual abnormalities tend to be one of the most frequently endorsed symptoms. However, very few studies have explored perceptual abnormalities and their relationships with the above environmental and affective factors in a CHR sample. Four hundred and forty-one CHR individuals who met criteria for attenuated psychotic symptom syndrome (APSS) determined by the Structured Interview for Psychosis-risk Syndromes (SIPS) were assessed on the content of their perceptual abnormalities, early traumatic experience, cannabis use and self-reported anxiety. Logistic regression analyses suggested that both simple auditory and simple visual perceptual abnormalities were more likely to be reported by CHR who had early traumatic experiences, who are current cannabis users, and who have higher levels of anxiety. Multiple regression analysis revealed that only trauma and anxiety were independent predictors of both simple auditory and simple visual perceptual abnormalities. It is possible that examining subtypes of perceptual abnormalities in CHR leads to an improved understanding of the prevalence of such symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Social anxiety, stress type, and conformity among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng eZhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with high social anxiety were more likely to conform to the opinions from the unanimous majority. The results suggest that adolescents with high social anxiety may show different styles of strong conformity with the change of stress type. We believe that socially anxious adolescents avoid potential social situations with weaker conformity, while avoiding negative evaluations from others with stronger conformity. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the social dysfunctions among adolescents with high social anxiety and provide a new direction for clinical interventions.

  6. Social Anxiety, Stress Type, and Conformity among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peng; Deng, Yanhe; Yu, Xue; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety (HSA) were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with HSA w...

  7. Social anxiety, stress type, and conformity among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Peng eZhang; Peng eZhang; Yanhe eDeng; Xue eYu; Xin eZhao; Xiangping eLiu

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with high social...

  8. Symptoms of social anxiety, depression, and stress in parents of children with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsson, Brynjar; Draisey, Jenny; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy

    2018-01-16

    It has been suggested that elevated maternal social anxiety may play a disorder-specific role in maintaining childhood social anxiety disorder (SAD), but few studies have examined whether mothers of children with SAD are more socially anxious than mothers of children with other anxiety disorders (ANX). This study set out to examine whether symptoms of social anxiety were more severe amongst mothers of 7-12 year old children presenting for treatment with SAD (n = 260) compared to those presenting with ANX (n = 138). In addition, we examined whether there were differences between these two groups in terms of maternal and paternal general anxiety, depression, and stress. Parents of 7-12 year old children referred for treatment of SAD or ANX completed self-report questionnaire measures of emotional symptoms. Compared to mothers of children with ANX, mothers of children with SAD reported significantly higher levels of social anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. In addition, fathers of children with SAD reported significantly higher levels of anxiety, stress, and depression than fathers of children with ANX. This study is one of the few existing studies that have examined mothers' and fathers' psychopathology across different childhood anxiety disorders. Compared to parents of children with ANX, parents of children with SAD may have poorer mental health which may inhibit optimum child treatment outcomes for children with SAD. Thus, targeting parental psychopathology may be particularly important in the treatment of childhood SAD. Consideration of parental psychopathology may be particularly important in the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder. Mothers of children with social anxiety disorder are more socially anxious than mothers of children with other anxiety disorders Fathers of children with social anxiety disorder are more anxious and depressed than fathers of children with other anxiety disorders Participants were predominantly of high

  9. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on

  10. From prenatal anxiety to parenting stress : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A. C.; Menting, B.; De Moor, M. H.M.; Verhage, M. L.; Kunseler, F. C.; Schuengel, C.; Oosterman, M.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how maternal mood during pregnancy, i.e., general anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and depression predicted parenting stress 3 months after giving birth, thereby shaping the child’s early postnatal environmental circumstances. To this end, data were

  11. Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: A large number of factors were associated with experiencing menopausal and psycho‑social problems and which had negative effects on the quality of life among Arabian women. Depression, anxiety, and stress should be considered as important risk factors for osteoporosis. Keywords: Anxiety, Complex ...

  12. [Stress, anxiety and depression in magistrates from Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Alberto; Chue, Héctor; Padilla, Alberto; Barahona, Lorenzo

    2011-12-01

    To measure the general and work related stress, depression and anxiety in Magistrates (Judges and District Attorneys) of Lima Judicial District. We carried out a transversal and descriptive study. A population of 1137 magistrates from the Lima Jurisdictional District of the Judicial System, was randomly sampled by a strata representing every agency of the Judicial System. The final sample included 287 magistrates: 138 District Attorneys and 149 Judges. After informed consent, a questionnaire composed by four previously validated instruments was applied to measure general and work related stress, anxiety and depression. General stress was present in 18.5 % of the participants; work related stress 33.7 %; anxiety 12.5 %, and depression 15 %. All three conditions were present in 6.6 % of the participants and at least one in 25.9 %. General stress was associated to depression (OR: 4.9; IC95 % 1.6-15.1) and anxiety (OR: 8.5; IC95 % 2.5-28.6) by logistic regression. Lima Judicial District's Magistrates present a triad composed by high levels of labor stress, anxiety and depression. A quarter of the participants present at least one of those conditions. In that perspective, it is recommended that intervention and preventive programs address stress, anxiety and depression simultaneously, given their strong association.

  13. Variation in the oxytocin receptor gene is associated with increased risk for anxiety, stress and depression in individuals with a history of exposure to early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Amanda J; Williams, Leanne; Gatt, Justine M; McAuley-Clark, Erica Z; Dobson-Stone, Carol; Schofield, Peter R; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2014-12-01

    Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that is involved in the regulation of mood, anxiety and social biology. Genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been implicated in anxiety, depression and related stress phenotypes. It is not yet known whether OXTR interacts with other risk factors such as early life trauma to heighten the severity of experienced anxiety and depression. In this study, we examined genotypes in 653 individuals and tested whether SNP variation in OXTR correlates with severity of features of self-reported experience on the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), and whether this correlation is enhanced when early life trauma is taken into account. We also assessed the effects of OXTR SNPs on RNA expression levels in two separate brain tissue cohorts totaling 365 samples. A significant effect of OXTR genotype on DASS anxiety, stress and depression scores was found and ELS events, in combination with several different OXTR SNPs, were significantly associated with differences in DASS scores with one SNP (rs139832701) showing significant association or a trend towards association for all three measures. Several OXTR SNPs were correlated with alterations in OXTR RNA expression and rs3831817 replicated across both sets of tissues. These results support the hypothesis that the oxytocin system plays a role in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. From prenatal anxiety to parenting stress: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizink, A C; Menting, B; De Moor, M H M; Verhage, M L; Kunseler, F C; Schuengel, C; Oosterman, M

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how maternal mood during pregnancy, i.e., general anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and depression predicted parenting stress 3 months after giving birth, thereby shaping the child's early postnatal environmental circumstances. To this end, data were used from 1073 women participating in the Dutch longitudinal cohort Generations 2 , which studies first-time pregnant mothers during pregnancy and across the transition to parenthood. Women filled out the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire-revised (PRAQ-R), and Beck Depression Index (BDI) three times during pregnancy: at 12, 22, and 32 weeks gestational age. Three months postpartum, a parenting stress questionnaire was filled out yielding seven different parenting constructs. Latent scores were computed for each of the repeatedly measured maternal mood variables with Mplus and parenting stress constructs were simultaneously regressed on these latent scores. Results showed that trait anxiety and pregnancy-specific anxiety were uniquely related to almost all parenting stress constructs, taking depression into account. Early prevention and intervention to reduce maternal anxiety in pregnancy could hold the key for a more advantageous trajectory of early postnatal parenting.

  15. Behavioral interventions for office-based care: stress and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James S; Larzelere, Michele McCarthy

    2014-03-01

    Numerous behavioral therapies have been investigated in the management of anxiety- and stress-related disorders. There is strong evidence to support cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the management of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and social phobias. Adjunctive behavioral sleep intervention may enhance results for GAD, and initiation of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for GAD before CBT also may enhance response. Several randomized clinical trials showed benefit of Internet-based CBT for GAD, but additional studies are needed before conclusions can be drawn regarding its effectiveness for posttraumatic stress disorder. Although outcome data are limited, family physicians can offer patients screening for anxiety disorders, psychological first aid (ie, listening to and comforting patients, teaching about emotional and physiologic responses to traumatic incidents, and encouraging engagement with social supports and coping) after trauma, education about anxiety disorders, and referral to evidence-based self-help resources. Family physicians also can ensure linkage with behavioral health care physicians and encourage adherence to self-help protocols. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  16. Stress, anxiety, and depression among individuals with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Kumar Ranjan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is a disorder characterised by recurrent seizures of cerebral origin, presenting with episodes of sensory, motor, or autonomic phenomenon with or without loss of consciousness. Patients with epilepsy commonly have coexisting psychiatric conditions including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Aim: To assess and compare stress, anxiety, and depression among male and female with epilepsy. Methods: The sample consisted of 100 individuals with epilepsy (50 males and 50 females selected from the Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry & Allied Sciences (RINPAS outpatient department (OPD by using purposive sampling method. Socio-demographic and clinical details of the entire individuals were assessed through socio-demographic datasheet, clinical datasheet, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS. Result: Finding of this study showed that stress, anxiety, and depression was higher among female with epilepsy in comparison to male with epilepsy.

  17. Computer Anxiety, Academic Stress, and Academic Procrastination on College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Rahardjo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic procrastination is fairly and commonly found among college students. The lack of understanding in making the best use of computer technology may lead to anxiety in terms of operating computer hence cause postponement in completing course assignments related to computer operation. On the other hand, failure in achieving certain academic targets as expected by parents and/or the students themselves also makes students less focused and leads to tendency of postponing many completions of course assignments. The aim of this research is to investigate contribution of anxiety in operating computer and academic stress toward procrastination on students. As much as 65 students majoring in psychology became participants in this study. The results showed that anxiety in operating computer and academic stress play significant role in influencing academic procrastination among social sciences students. In terms of academic procrastination tendencies, anxiety in operating computer and academic stress, male students have higher percentage than female students.

  18. Which Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Trauma Types, and Substances Correlate With Suicide Attempts in Trauma Survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Jeffrey; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Mata, Nicholas; Farnsworth, Seth

    2017-10-26

    To examine among trauma survivors several potential suicide risk factors, some of which have never been studied in this population (eg, DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] symptoms, benzodiazepines). Using a cross-sectional self-report survey methodology in a consecutive sample of adult outpatients with trauma (N = 480), we examined relationships between suicide attempts and demographics, trauma types, PTSD symptoms, substance-related problems, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. The study was conducted from October 2014 to February 2015. PTSD diagnosis was significantly correlated with suicide attempt prevalence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.6) and was the variable most strongly associated with the number of attempts among participants with at least 1 suicide attempt. PTSD symptom severities (total, cluster, and all but 3 individual symptoms) significantly correlated with attempted suicide; recklessness (AOR = 1.7), anhedonia (AOR = 1.7), and negative beliefs (AOR = 1.6) were most strongly correlated. Mood/cognitive alterations-a cluster new to the DSM-5-were particularly associated with suicide attempts (AOR = 3.2). Childhood maltreatment was strongly associated with attempted suicide; childhood physical abuse (AOR = 2.9) was the only trauma type significantly correlated with suicide attempts after adjustment for multiple testing. Attempted suicide was significantly correlated with substance-related problems in general (AOR = 2.6) and alcohol specifically (AOR = 2.9). As predicted, suicide attempts correlated with PTSD symptom severity, childhood maltreatment, and substance-related problems. Our hypothesized correlation between suicide and benzodiazepine prescriptions was in part explained by PTSD symptom severity. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. Comorbidity of post-traumatic stress disorder and anxiety in flood survivors: Prevalence and shared risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenjie; Kaminga, Atipatsa C; Tan, Hongzhuan; Wang, Jieru; Lai, Zhiwei; Wu, Xin; Xiong, Yuan; Deng, Jing; Liu, Aizhong

    2017-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety are both prevalent in trauma-related populations. However, comorbidity of these 2 psychiatric disorders has not been investigated in flood survivors. This study aimed to estimate the extent to which PTSD and anxiety co-occur in flood survivors, and identify shared risk factors for PTSD only and comorbidity of PTSD and anxiety.Individuals who experienced Dongting Lake flood in 1998 were enrolled in this study using stratified and systematic random sampling method. Information on social support, personality traits, PTSD, and anxiety was collected using self-report questionnaires. The intensity of exposure to the flood was measured by some questions. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with PTSD only and comorbidity of PTSD and anxiety.In all, 325 participants were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of PTSD, anxiety, and comorbidity of PTSD and anxiety among survivors of the 1998 Dongting Lake flood at 17-year follow-up was 9.54%, 9.23%, and 6.15%, respectively. Furthermore, 64.52% of those with PTSD had anxiety and 66.67% of those with anxiety had PTSD. Loss of relative, injury of body, damage of house, and emotional instability were shared risk factors for PTSD only and comorbidity of PTSD and anxiety, in comparison with neither PTSD nor anxiety.Post-traumatic stress disorder only and comorbidity of PTSD and anxiety are prevalent in flood survivors, and are both related to the intensity of exposure to the flood and personality traits, indicating that integrated intervention strategies of PTSD and anxiety for flood survivors are needed.

  20. Social support, world assumptions, and exposure as predictors of anxiety and quality of life following a mass trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills-Taquechel, Amie E; Littleton, Heather L; Axsom, Danny

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the influence of a mass trauma (the Virginia Tech campus shootings) on anxiety symptoms and quality of life, as well as the potential vulnerability/protective roles of world assumptions and social support. Pre-trauma adjustment data, collected in the six months prior to the shooting, was examined along with two-month post-shooting data in a sample of 298 female students enrolled at the university at the time of the shootings. Linear regression analyses revealed consistent predictive roles for world assumptions pertaining to control and self-worth as well as family support. In addition, for those more severely exposed to the shooting, greater belief in a lack of control over outcomes appeared to increase vulnerability for post-trauma physiological and emotional anxiety symptoms. Implications of the results for research and intervention following mass trauma are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Nature of Trauma Memories in Acute Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmond, C. H.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Glucksman, E.; Thompson, P.; Dalgleish, T.; Smith, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is increasing theoretical, clinical and research evidence for the role of trauma memory in the aetiology of acute pathological stress responses in adults. However, research into the phenomenology of trauma memories in young people is currently scarce. Methods: This study compared the nature of trauma narratives to narratives of…

  2. Anxiety, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Perceived Stress as Predictors of Recent Drinking, Alcohol Craving, and Social Stress Response in Heavy Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, Mary E; Hutton, Heidi E; Stephens, Mary Ann C; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Wand, Gary S

    2017-04-01

    Stress and anxiety are widely considered to be causally related to alcohol craving and consumption, as well as development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, numerous preclinical and human studies examining effects of stress or anxiety on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems have been equivocal. This study examined relationships between scores on self-report anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and stress measures and frequency and intensity of recent drinking, alcohol craving during early withdrawal, as well as laboratory measures of alcohol craving and stress reactivity among heavy drinkers with AUD. Media-recruited, heavy drinkers with AUD (N = 87) were assessed for recent alcohol consumption. Anxiety and stress levels were characterized using paper-and-pencil measures, including the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Eligible subjects (N = 30) underwent alcohol abstinence on the Clinical Research Unit; twice daily measures of alcohol craving were collected. On day 4, subjects participated in the Trier Social Stress Test; measures of cortisol and alcohol craving were collected. In multivariate analyses, higher BAI scores were associated with lower drinking frequency and reduced drinks/drinking day; in contrast, higher ASI-3 scores were associated with higher drinking frequency. BAI anxiety symptom and ASI-3 scores also were positively related to Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test total scores and AUD symptom and problem subscale measures. Higher BAI and ASI-3 scores but not PSS scores were related to greater self-reported alcohol craving during early alcohol abstinence. Finally, BAI scores were positively related to laboratory stress-induced cortisol and alcohol craving. In contrast, the PSS showed no relationship with most measures of alcohol craving or stress reactivity. Overall, clinically oriented measures of anxiety compared with perceived stress were more

  3. From prenatal anxiety to parenting stress: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Huizink, A.C.; Menting, B.; De Moor, M.H.M.; Verhage, M. L.; Kunseler, F.C.; Schuengel, C.; Oosterman, M.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how maternal mood during pregnancy, i.e., general anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and depression predicted parenting stress 3 months after giving birth, thereby shaping the child’s early postnatal environmental circumstances. To this end, data were used from 1073 women participating in the Dutch longitudinal cohort Generations2, which studies first-time pregnant mothers during pregnancy and across the transition to parenthood. Women filled out t...

  4. Internet-based prevention of posttraumatic stress symptoms in injured trauma patients: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Mouthaan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injured trauma victims are at risk of developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD and other post-trauma psychopathology. So far, interventions using cognitive behavioral techniques (CBT have proven most efficacious in treating early PTSD in highly symptomatic individuals. No early intervention for the prevention of PTSD for all victims has yet proven effective. In the acute psychosocial care for trauma victims, there is a clear need for easily applicable, accessible, cost-efficient early interventions. Objective: To describe the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT evaluating the effectiveness of a brief Internet-based early intervention that incorporates CBT techniques with the aim of reducing acute psychological distress and preventing long-term PTSD symptoms in injured trauma victims. Method: In a two armed RCT, 300 injured trauma victims from two Level-1 trauma centers in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, will be assigned to an intervention or a control group. Inclusion criteria are: being 18 years of age or older, having experienced a traumatic event according to the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV and understanding the Dutch language. The intervention group will be given access to the intervention's website (www.traumatips.nl, and are specifically requested to login within the first month postinjury. The primary clinical study outcome is PTSD symptom severity. Secondary outcomes include symptoms of depression and anxiety, quality of life, and social support. In addition, a cost-effectiveness analysis of the intervention will be performed. Data are collected at one week post-injury, prior to first login (baseline, and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Analyses will be on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion: The results will provide more insight into the effects of preventive interventions in general, and Internet-based early interventions specifically, on acute stress reactions and PTSD, in an injured population, during the

  5. Anxiety Sensitivity and Breath-Holding Duration in Relation to PTSD Symptom Severity among Trauma Exposed Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenz, Erin C.; Vujanovic, Anka A.; Coffey, Scott F.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation examined the main and interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and behavioral distress tolerance, indexed using the breath-holding task, in relation to PTSD symptom severity among trauma-exposed adults. Participants were 88 adults (63.6% women; Mage = 22.9, SD = 9.1, Range = 18-62), recruited from the community, who met DSM-IV-TR PTSD Criterion A for lifetime trauma exposure. Covariates included number of potentially traumatic events, nonclinical panic attack history, and participant sex. Anxiety sensitivity was significantly incrementally associated with PTSD total symptom severity, as well as Avoidance and Hyperarousal symptom severity (p's Breath-holding duration was not significantly related to PTSD symptom severity (p's > .05). However, breath-holding duration emerged as a significant moderator of the association between anxiety sensitivity and PTSD Avoidance symptom severity, such that lower breath-holding duration exacerbated the effect of heightened anxiety sensitivity with regard to PTSD Avoidance symptom severity. PMID:22047652

  6. Burnout, Perceived Stress, and Job Satisfaction Among Trauma Nurses at a Level I Safety-Net Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munnangi, Swapna; Dupiton, Lynore; Boutin, Anthony; Angus, L D George

    Nurses are at the forefront of our health care delivery system and have been reported to exhibit a high level of burnout. Burnout and stress in trauma nurses at a safety-net hospital can negatively impact patient care. Safety-net hospitals are confronted with unique social, financial, as well as resource problems that can potentially make the work environment frustrating. The purpose of this study was to explore the levels of burnout, stress, and job satisfaction in nurses providing care to trauma patients at a Level I safety-net trauma center. A cross-sectional survey design was used to investigate principal factors including personal and professional demographics, burnout, perceived stress, and job satisfaction. Trauma nurses working at a Level I safety-net trauma center are stressed and exhibited moderate degree of burnout. The extent of emotional exhaustion experienced by the nurses varied with work location and was highest in surgical intensive care unit nurses. The level of job satisfaction in terms of opportunities for promotion differed significantly by race and the health status of the nurses. Satisfaction with coworkers was lowest in those nurses between the ages of 60-69 years. Female nurses were more satisfied with their coworkers than male nurses. In addition, the study revealed that significant relationships exist among perceived stress, burnout, and job satisfaction. Work environment significantly impacts burnout, job satisfaction, and perceived stress experienced by trauma nurses in a safety-net hospital. Nursing administration can make an effort to understand the levels of burnout and strategically improve work environment for trauma nurses in order to minimize stressors leading to attrition and enhance job satisfaction.

  7. Character strengths, social anxiety, and physiological stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.

  8. The Effects of Early-Life Predator Stress on Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors of Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-jing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood emotional trauma contributes significantly to certain psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. In experimental animals, however, whether or not early-life stress results in behavioral abnormalities in adult animals still remains controversial. Here, we investigated both short-term and long-term changes of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of Wistar rats after being exposed to chronic feral cat stress in juvenile ages. The 2-week predator stress decreased spontaneous activities immediately following stress but did not increase depression- or anxiety-like behaviors 4 weeks after the stimulation in adulthood. Instead, juvenile predator stress had some protective effects, though not very obvious, in adulthood. We also exposed genetic depression model rats, Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, to the same predator stress. In WKY rats, the same early-life predator stress did not enhance anxiety- or depression-like behaviors in both the short-term and long-term. However, the stressed WKY rats showed slightly reduced depression-like behaviors in adulthood. These results indicate that in both normal Wistar rats and WKY rats, early-life predator stress led to protective, rather than negative, effects in adulthood.

  9. Correlates of depression, anxiety and stress among Malaysian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Fadzil, Fariza; Ismail, Wan Salwina Wan; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Omar, Khairani; Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Jaffar, Aida; Ismail, Aniza; Mahadevan, Raynuha

    2013-08-01

    University students face not only challenges related with independent living, but also academic challenges. This predisposes them to depression, anxiety and stress, which are fairly common. The aim was to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, and identify their correlates among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 506 students between the ages of 18 and 24 years from four public universities in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Through an anonymous, self administered questionnaire, they were assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Data on socio-demographic, family characteristics and living arrangement were also obtained. Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to explore association between these aspects. Analysis showed among all students, 27.5% had moderate, and 9.7% had severe or extremely severe depression; 34% had moderate, and 29% had severe or extremely severe anxiety; and 18.6% had moderate and 5.1% had severe or extremely severe stress scores based on the DASS-21 inventory. Both depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher among older students (20 and above) and those born in rural areas. Whereas, higher stress scores were significantly higher among older students (20 and above), females, Malays and those whose family had either low or high incomes compared to those with middle incomes. The prevalence of anxiety is much higher than either depression or stress, with some differences in their correlates except for age. These differences need to be further explored for development of better intervention programs and appropriate support services targeting this group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Orexin, stress, and anxiety/panic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip L; Molosh, Andrei; Fitz, Stephanie D; Truitt, William A; Shekhar, Anantha

    2012-01-01

    A panic response is an adaptive response to deal with an imminent threat and consists of an integrated pattern of behavioral (aggression, fleeing, or freezing) and increased cardiorespiratory and endocrine responses that are highly conserved across vertebrate species. In the 1920s and 1940s, Philip Bard and Walter Hess, respectively, determined that the posterior regions of the hypothalamus are critical for a "fight-or-flight" reaction to deal with an imminent threat. Since the 1940s it was determined that the posterior hypothalamic panic area was located dorsal (perifornical hypothalamus: PeF) and dorsomedial (dorsomedial hypothalamus: DMH) to the fornix. This area is also critical for regulating circadian rhythms and in 1998, a novel wake-promoting neuropeptide called orexin (ORX)/hypocretin was discovered and determined to be almost exclusively synthesized in the DMH/PeF perifornical hypothalamus and adjacent lateral hypothalamus. The most proximally emergent role of ORX is in regulation of wakefulness through interactions with efferent systems that mediate arousal and energy homeostasis. A hypoactive ORX system is also linked to narcolepsy. However, ORX role in more complex emotional responses is emerging in more recent studies where ORX is linked to depression and anxiety states. Here, we review data that demonstrates ORX ability to mobilize a coordinated adaptive panic/defense response (anxiety, cardiorespiratory, and endocrine components), and summarize the evidence that supports a hyperactive ORX system being linked to pathological panic and anxiety states. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effects of Acute Stress-Induced Sleep Disturbance on Acoustic Trauma-Induced Tinnitus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic tinnitus is a debilitating condition and often accompanied by anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance. It has been suggested that sleep disturbance, such as insomnia, may be a risk factor/predictor for tinnitus-related distress and the two conditions may share common neurobiological mechanisms. This study investigated whether acute stress-induced sleep disturbance could increase the susceptibility to acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats. The animals were exposed to unilateral acoustic trauma 24 h before sleep disturbance being induced using the cage exchange method. Tinnitus perception was assessed behaviourally using a conditioned lick suppression paradigm 3 weeks after the acoustic trauma. Changes in the orexin system in the hypothalamus, which plays an important role in maintaining long-lasting arousal, were also examined using immunohistochemistry. Cage exchange resulted in a significant reduction in the number of sleep episodes and acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus with acoustic features similar to a 32 kHz tone at 100 dB. However, sleep disturbance did not exacerbate the perception of tinnitus in rats. Neither tinnitus alone nor tinnitus plus sleep disturbance altered the number of orexin-expressing neurons. The results suggest that acute sleep disturbance does not cause long-term changes in the number of orexin neurons and does not change the perception of tinnitus induced by acoustic trauma in rats.

  12. Stress, anxiety, and dendritic spines: what are the connections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuner, B; Shors, T J

    2013-10-22

    Stressful life events, especially those that induce fear, can produce a state of anxiety that is useful for avoiding similar fearful and potentially dangerous situations in the future. However, they can also lead to exaggerated states, which over time can produce mental illness. These changing states of readiness versus illness are thought to be regulated, at least in part, by alterations in dendritic and synaptic structure within brain regions known to be involved in anxiety. These regions include the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. In this article, we review the reciprocal relationships between the expression of stress- and anxiety-related behaviors and stress-induced morphological plasticity as detected by changes in dendrites and spines in these three brain regions. We begin by highlighting the acute and chronic effects of stress on synaptic morphology in each area and describe some of the putative mechanisms that have been implicated in these effects. We then discuss the functional consequences of stress-induced structural plasticity focusing on synaptic plasticity as well as cognitive and emotional behaviors. Finally, we consider how these structural changes may contribute to adaptive behaviors as well as maladaptive responses associated with anxiety. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Music performance anxiety and occupational stress amongst opera chorus artists and their relationship with state and trait anxiety and perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Davis, Pamela; Oates, Jenni

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the inter-relationships among state and trait anxiety, occupational stress, perfectionism, aspiration, and music performance anxiety in a group of elite operatic chorus artists employed full-time by a national opera company. The chorus artists reported higher trait anxiety, higher occupational role concerns, and higher occupational personal strain than normative samples. Higher scores on personal resources were associated with the higher scores on trait anxiety. It appears that these resources were used adaptively to manage anxiety. High trait anxiety was also associated with high personal strain in the work environment. Anxiety was not related to occupational roles or issues related to the physical environment or working conditions. These results suggest that while trait anxiety and music performance anxiety were closely associated, occupational stress makes a separate contribution to the quality of working life experienced by elite choral artists.

  14. Stress and development of depression and heavy drinking in adulthood: moderating effects of childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Ian; Garad, Yasmin; Zeng, Yiye; Naicker, Kiyuri; Weeks, Murray; Patten, Scott B; Jones, Peter B; Thompson, Angus H; Wild, T Cameron

    2013-02-01

    Studies suggest that childhood trauma is linked to both depression and heavy drinking in adulthood, and may create a lifelong vulnerability to stress. Few studies have explored the effects of stress sensitization on the development of depression or heavy drinking among those who have experienced traumatic childhood events. This study aimed to determine the effect of childhood trauma on the odds of experiencing depression or heavy drinking in the face of an adult life stressor, using a large population-based Canadian cohort. A total of 3,930 participants were included from the National Population Health Survey. The associations among childhood trauma, recent stress and depression/heavy drinking from 1994/1995 to 2008/2009 were explored using logistic regression, as were interactions between childhood trauma and recent stress. A generalized linear mixed model was used to determine the effects of childhood trauma and stressful events on depression/heavy drinking. Analyses were stratified by sex. Childhood trauma significantly increased the odds of becoming depressed (following 1 event: OR = 1.66; 95%CI 1.01, 2.71; 2+ events, OR = 3.89; 95%CI 2.44, 6.22) and drinking heavily (2+ events: OR = 1.79; 95%CI 1.03, 3.13). Recent stressful events were associated with depression, but not heavy drinking. While most interaction terms were not significant, in 2004/2005 the association between recent stress and depression was stronger in those who reported childhood trauma compared to those with no childhood trauma. Childhood trauma increases risk for both depression and heavy drinking. Trauma may moderate the effect of stress on depression; the relationship among trauma, stress and heavy drinking is less clear.

  15. Gender differences in trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has focused primarily on Vietnam War veterans. A handful of recent studies have been conducted on samples of the general population. We sought to examine gender differences in exposure to traumatic events and in the emergence of PTSD following exposure in the general population. A representative sample of 2181 persons in the Detroit metropolitan area, ages 18-45 years. Subjects were interviewed to assess history of traumatic events and PTSD using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) criteria. The risk of PTSD was assessed in relation to a representative sample of traumas experienced in the population. Lifetime prevalence of traumatic events was slightly higher in men than in women. The risk for PTSD following traumatic experiences was twofold higher in women than in men. This gender difference was primarily due to women's greater risk of PTSD following events that involved assaultive violence. The probability of PTSD in women versus men exposed to assaultive violence was 36% versus 6%. Prior exposure to assaultive violence was associated with an increased risk of PTSD from a subsequent trauma; the gender difference in the vulnerability for PTSD is not explained by prior exposure. Duration of PTSD was longer in women than in men. The burden of PTSD in U.S. communities is greater in women than in men, chiefly due to the greater effect of assaultive violence on women.

  16. Psychometrics of the Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS) in a sample of women with and without trauma histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sonya B; Allard, Carolyn B; Trim, Ryan S; Thorp, Steven R; Behrooznia, Michelle; Masino, Tonya T; Stein, Murray B

    2013-04-01

    Many women have unidentified anxiety or trauma histories that can impact their health and medical treatment-seeking behavior. This study examined the sensitivity, specificity, efficiency, and sensitivity to change of the Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS) for identifying an anxiety disorder in a female sample with and without trauma history related to intimate partner violence (IPV). Forty-three women with full or partial PTSD from IPV and 41 women without PTSD completed the OASIS. All participants with trauma history completed the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale. This report is a secondary analysis of a study on the neurobiology of psychological trauma in survivors of IPV recruited from the community. A cut-score of 5 best discriminated those with PTSD from those without, successfully classifying 91% of the sample with 93% sensitivity and 90% specificity. The measure showed strong sensitivity to change in a subsample of 20 participants who completed PTSD treatment and strong convergent and divergent validity in the full sample. This study suggests that the OASIS can identify the presence of an anxiety disorder among a female sample of IPV survivors when PTSD is present.

  17. Impact of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the onset and recurrence of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J.G.; Giltay, E.J.; Spinhoven, P.; van Hemert, A.M.; Penninx, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the onset and recurrence of depressive and/or anxiety disorders over a 2-year period in participants without current psychopathology at baseline. Method: Longitudinal data in a large sample of participants without

  18. Impact of Childhood Life Events and Childhood Trauma on the Onset and Recurrence of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; Spinhoven, Philip; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: To investigate the effect of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the onset and recurrence of depressive and/or anxiety disorders over a 2-year period in participants without current psychopathology at baseline. Method: Longitudinal data in a large sample of participants without

  19. HDAC inhibitors as cognitive enhancers in fear, anxiety and trauma therapy: where do we stand?

    OpenAIRE

    Whittle, Nigel; Singewald, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    A novel strategy to treat anxiety and fear-related disorders such as phobias, panic and PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) is combining CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy), including extinction-based exposure therapy, with cognitive enhancers. By targeting and boosting mechanisms underlying learning, drug development in this field aims at designing CBT-augmenting compounds that help to overcome extinction learning deficits, promote long-term fear inhibition and thus support relapse prevent...

  20. Abundance of Stress, Anxiety and Depression in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dehghan

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this research revealed high stress, anxiety and depression in Multiple Sclerosis Patients that can jeopardize their health. Hence the providing appropriate education for coping and adapting with the symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis Patients seems to be necessary.

  1. Computer Anxiety, Phobia, Obsession and Work Stress at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the prevalence and correlation of computer-related behavioural variables among students and staff of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The behaviours were information anxiety, computer phobia, obsessive computing, and computer work stress. Validated scales were designed to measure these ...

  2. Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women: Shedding more light on a complex relationship. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about ...

  3. Depression, anxiety, stress and substance use in medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The mental health of medical students is a global concern, and medical training has been described by some as being detrimental to the health of medical students, affecting both their student experience and professional life. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and substance ...

  4. Prevalence and associated factors of stress, anxiety and depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wafaa Yousif Abdel Wahed

    2016-02-20

    Feb 20, 2016 ... restlessness, and loss of interest in activities or hobbies once pleasurable.5 ... matched peers by the later years of training.11–13 In Arab coun- tries, recent ..... Table 4 Demographic, physical activity and body weight risk factors of stress, anxiety, and depression among study participants. Normal. Mild &.

  5. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Following Discharge from Intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress experienced by patients who were discharged from the intensive care units and transferred to the general wards and later discharged. The study was a prospective, descriptive, and used correlational quantitative design that investigated 36 patients.

  6. Prevalence and associated factors of stress, anxiety and depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and associated factors of stress, anxiety and depression among medical Fayoum University students. ... Background: Mental health issues are increasing in severity and number on college campuses. Improving ... Female sex, increasing age, overweight and obesity are significant associated factors. Further ...

  7. Depression, anxiety, stress and substance use in medical students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical school.[5]. A prospective longitudinal study by Zoccolillo et al.[6] used the Diagnostic. Interview Schedule (DIS) to screen for possible depression in 1st- and. 2nd-year ... To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and substance use among preclinical students in a 5-year outcomes-based medical ...

  8. Relationship among perceived stress, anxiety, depression and craniocervical pain in nursing professionals under stress at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pozzebon

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The appearance and evolution of some clinical pain conditions may be influenced by stress and other psychosocial factors. Face, head and cervical muscles may increase their activity and tension in the presence of stress, leading to craniocervicomandibular pain in individuals exposed to stress. Objective: To assess the relationship among perceived stress, anxiety, depression and craniocervicomandibular pain in nursing professionals under stress at work. Materials and Methods: Forty-three women under stress at work, according to the Job Stress Scale (JSS, were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, pressure pain threshold, measured by algometry, and muscle sensitivity to hand palpation of the masticatory and cervical muscles. Results: A low moderate level of perceived stress was found in 62.79% of the sample, anxiety in 11.63% and depression in 9.30%. The psychosocial scales correlated with each other. No correlation was found between pressure pain threshold and perceived stress, anxiety and depression. The level of pain to hand palpation correlated with the perceived stress scores. Conclusion: Pressure pain threshold was not influenced by the psychosocial factors assessed. Pain intensity to hand palpation, however, was higher as the perception of stress increased.

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Suicide Risk in Male Firefighters: The Mediating Role of Anxiety Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffa, Joseph W; Stanley, Ian H; Smith, Lia J; Mathes, Brittany M; Tran, Jana K; Buser, Sam J; Schmidt, Norman B; Vujanovic, Anka A

    2018-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are positively related to suicide risk among firefighters. One mechanism that may account for this relationship is anxiety sensitivity (AS) cognitive concerns-the fear that cognitive symptoms of anxiety will have catastrophic consequences. We sought to replicate the mediating effect of AS cognitive concerns on the relationship between PTSD symptoms and suicide risk among 214 trauma-exposed male firefighters with non-zero suicide risk. Bootstrap mediation analyses tested AS cognitive concerns as a statistical mediator of PTSD symptoms (total and symptoms clusters scores) and suicide risk, controlling for depression symptoms and relevant demographic variables. AS cognitive concerns statistically mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms (total score, as well as intrusion, avoidance, and arousal-reactivity symptoms clusters) and suicide risk; however, the reverse was also true. AS cognitive concerns may confer risk for suicide among trauma-exposed firefighters. Firefighters may benefit from AS-specific interventions, which are shown to reduce PTSD symptoms and suicidality.

  10. Secondary traumatic stress in attorneys and their administrative support staff working with trauma-exposed clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Andrew P; Albert, Linda; Besser, Avi; Smith, Deborah; Zelenski, Alex; Rosenkranz, Stacey; Neria, Yuval

    2011-12-01

    Although secondary trauma has been assessed in various groups of mental health professionals, few studies, to date, have examined secondary trauma among attorneys exposed to clients' traumatic experiences. This study examined indicators of secondary trauma among attorneys (N = 238) and their administrative support staff (N = 109) in the Wisconsin State Public Defender Office. Attorney participants demonstrated significantly higher levels of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, depression, secondary traumatic stress, burnout, and functional impairment compared with the administrative support staff. This difference was mediated by attorneys' longer work hours and greater contact with clients who had experienced or had been directly involved with trauma. Sex, age, years on the job, office size, and personal history of trauma did not predict symptoms. These findings suggest a need to support attorneys experiencing these symptoms and to address high workloads as well as the intensity of contact with trauma-exposed clients.

  11. Betrayal Trauma in Youth and Negative Communication During a Stressful Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Vanessa M; Krackow, Elisa; Scotti, Joseph R

    2017-03-01

    Attachment-based theories and related research illustrate that emotion regulation develops in the context of a secure relationship between a child and caregiver. When a secure bond is broken, such as in the context of betrayal trauma, children fail to develop necessary emotion regulation skills which can lead to an array of relational problems. The current study examined the relations between betrayal trauma history, type of communication during a stressful interpersonal laboratory task, and emotion regulation difficulties in a sample of trauma-exposed adolescents. Results showed that adolescents with a betrayal trauma history reported more emotion regulation difficulties and exhibited more aggressive and fewer positive communication behaviors when engaged in a stressful interpersonal task with their mothers than did adolescents exposed only to nonbetrayal trauma. Emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relation between betrayal trauma history and negative communication. The clinical and developmental implications from these findings are discussed.

  12. Childhood trauma exposure and toxic stress: what the PNP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Trauma exposure in childhood is a major public health problem that can result in lifelong mental and physical health consequences. Pediatric nurse practitioners must improve their skills in the identification of trauma exposure in children and their interventions with these children. This continuing education article will describe childhood trauma exposure (adverse childhood experiences) and toxic stress and their effects on the developing brain and body. Adverse childhood experiences include a unique set of trauma exposures. The adverse childhood experiences or trauma discussed in this continuing education offering will include childhood exposure to emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, domestic violence, household substance abuse, household mental illness, parental separation or divorce, and a criminal household member. Thorough and efficient methods of screening for trauma exposure will be discussed. Appropriate intervention after identification of trauma exposure will be explored. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in South Africa: analysis from the South African Stress and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwoli, Lukoye; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R; Mclaughlin, Katie A; Petukhova, Maria; Kessler, Ronald C; Koenen, Karestan C

    2013-07-03

    South Africa's unique history, characterised by apartheid, a form of constitutional racial segregation and exploitation, and a long period of political violence and state-sponsored oppression ending only in 1994, suggests a high level of trauma exposure in the general population. The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the South African general population. The South African Stress and Health Study is a nationally representative survey of South African adults using the WHO's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess exposure to trauma and presence of DSM-IV mental disorders. The most common traumatic events were the unexpected death of a loved one and witnessing trauma occurring to others. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of PTSD were 2.3% and 0.7% respectively, while the conditional prevalence of PTSD after trauma exposure was 3.5%. PTSD conditional risk after trauma exposure and probability of chronicity after PTSD onset were both highest for witnessing trauma. Socio-demographic factors such as sex, age and education were largely unrelated to PTSD risk. The occurrence of trauma and PTSD in South Africa is not distributed according to the socio-demographic factors or trauma types observed in other countries. The dominant role of witnessing in contributing to PTSD may reflect the public settings of trauma exposure in South Africa and highlight the importance of political and social context in shaping the epidemiology of PTSD.

  14. TRAUMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing temperatures are associated with increased attendances. Soccer matches and their outcomes have no significant effect on IPV-related attendances. Conclusion: Temporal and weather factors can help predict which trauma unit shifts will be busiest. Keywords: trauma unit, assault, motor vehicle collision, weather, ...

  15. Modulation of HPA axis response to social stress in schizophrenia by childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Claudia; Huber, Christian G; Fröhlich, Daniela; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E; Walter, Marc

    2017-08-01

    HPA axis functioning plays an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). However, only few studies have examined HPA axis responsivity to psychosocial stress in SSD, and results are heterogeneous. Furthermore, childhood trauma is known to influence psychopathology and treatment outcome in SSD, but studies on the influence of childhood trauma on stress related HPA axis activity are missing. The purpose of this study was to investigate cortisol response to a psychosocial stress challenge in SSD patients, and to examine its association with severity of childhood trauma. The present study included 25 subacutely ill patients with a current episode of a chronic SSD and 25 healthy controls. Participants underwent the modified Trier Social Stress Test, and salivary cortisol levels were assessed. The childhood trauma questionnaire was used to assess severity of adverse life events. Overall, cortisol response was blunted in the patient group compared to the control group (pchildhood trauma experience: responders had experienced more emotional abuse in their past (pchildhood trauma might influence stress-related HPA axis activity in SSD. Our data contribute to the hypothesis that severity of childhood trauma may be of pathophysiological relevance in schizophrenia. In addition, it may be an overlooked factor contributing to inconsistent findings regarding HPA axis response to psychosocial stress in SSD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Attachment typologies and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety: a latent profile analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background Bartholomew (1990) proposed a four category adult attachment model based on Bowlby's (1973) proposal that attachment is underpinned by an individual's view of the self and others. Previous cluster analytic techniques have identified four and two attachment styles based on the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS). In addition, attachment styles have been proposed to meditate the association between stressful life events and subsequent psychiatric status. Objective The current study aimed to empirically test the attachment typology proposed by Collins and Read (1990). Specifically, LPA was used to determine if the proposed four styles can be derived from scores on the dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, we aimed to test if the resultant attachment styles predicted the severity of psychopathology in response to a whiplash trauma. Method A large sample of Danish trauma victims (N=1577) participated. A Latent Profile Analysis was conducted, using Mplus 5.1, on scores from the RAAS scale to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes/subgroups. Class membership was used in a series of one-way ANOVA tests to determine if classes were significantly different in terms of mean scores on measures of psychopathology. Results The three class solution was considered optimal. Class one was termed Fearful (18.6%), Class two Preoccupied (34.5%), and Class three Secure (46.9%). The secure class evidenced significantly lower mean scores on PTSD, depression, and anxiety measures compared to other classes, whereas the fearful class evidenced significantly higher mean scores compared to other classes. Conclusions The results demonstrated evidence of three discrete classes of attachment styles, which were labelled secure, preoccupied, and fearful. This is in contrast to previous cluster analytic techniques which have identified four and two attachment styles based on the RAAS.In addition, Securely attached individuals display

  17. Attachment typologies and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety: a latent profile analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie Armour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bartholomew (1990 proposed a four category adult attachment model based on Bowlby's (1973 proposal that attachment is underpinned by an individual's view of the self and others. Previous cluster analytic techniques have identified four and two attachment styles based on the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS. In addition, attachment styles have been proposed to meditate the association between stressful life events and subsequent psychiatric status. The current study aimed to empirically test the attachment typology proposed by Collins and Read (1990. Specifically, LPA was used to determine if the proposed four styles can be derived from scores on the dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, we aimed to test if the resultant attachment styles predicted the severity of psychopathology in response to a whiplash trauma. A large sample of Danish trauma victims (N=1577 participated. A Latent Profile Analysis was conducted, using Mplus 5.1, on scores from the RAAS scale to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes/subgroups. Class membership was used in a series of one-way ANOVA tests to determine if classes were significantly different in terms of mean scores on measures of psychopathology. The three class solution was considered optimal. Class one was termed Fearful (18.6%, Class two Preoccupied (34.5%, and Class three Secure (46.9%. The secure class evidenced significantly lower mean scores on PTSD, depression, and anxiety measures compared to other classes, whereas the fearful class evidenced significantly higher mean scores compared to other classes. The results demonstrated evidence of three discrete classes of attachment styles, which were labelled secure, preoccupied, and fearful. This is in contrast to previous cluster analytic techniques which have identified four and two attachment styles based on the RAAS.In addition, Securely attached individuals display lower levels of psychopathology post

  18. Attachment typologies and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety: a latent profile analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Bartholomew (1990) proposed a four category adult attachment model based on Bowlby's (1973) proposal that attachment is underpinned by an individual's view of the self and others. Previous cluster analytic techniques have identified four and two attachment styles based on the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS). In addition, attachment styles have been proposed to meditate the association between stressful life events and subsequent psychiatric status. The current study aimed to empirically test the attachment typology proposed by Collins and Read (1990). Specifically, LPA was used to determine if the proposed four styles can be derived from scores on the dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, we aimed to test if the resultant attachment styles predicted the severity of psychopathology in response to a whiplash trauma. A large sample of Danish trauma victims (N=1577) participated. A Latent Profile Analysis was conducted, using Mplus 5.1, on scores from the RAAS scale to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes/subgroups. Class membership was used in a series of one-way ANOVA tests to determine if classes were significantly different in terms of mean scores on measures of psychopathology. The three class solution was considered optimal. Class one was termed Fearful (18.6%), Class two Preoccupied (34.5%), and Class three Secure (46.9%). The secure class evidenced significantly lower mean scores on PTSD, depression, and anxiety measures compared to other classes, whereas the fearful class evidenced significantly higher mean scores compared to other classes. The results demonstrated evidence of three discrete classes of attachment styles, which were labelled secure, preoccupied, and fearful. This is in contrast to previous cluster analytic techniques which have identified four and two attachment styles based on the RAAS.In addition, Securely attached individuals display lower levels of psychopathology post whiplash

  19. Interpersonal trauma moderates the relationship between personality factors and suicidality of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yongjoon; Park, Hyeon-Ju; Park, Soowon; Cho, Maeng Je; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Jun-Young

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more prone to suicidal ideation and behavior. While those who have experienced interpersonal trauma exhibit more suicidality than those who have experienced non-interpersonal trauma, it is unclear how the traumatic effects are related to an individual's personality characteristics. This study examined the association between interpersonal trauma and personality factors with suicidality, and elucidated the moderating role of interpersonal trauma in individuals with PTSD. The study included 6,022 participants from the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study 2011. The Korean Version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used for the survey, including the participants' history of suicidality, the traumas they have experienced, and their PTSD symptoms. The 11-item version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-11) was used to assess the participants' personality factors. 76 individuals were diagnosed with PTSD, while 810 had been exposed to trauma but were not diagnosed with any DSM-IV mental disorder. Among the individuals with PTSD, those who had experienced interpersonal trauma were more likely to have suicidal ideation than those who had experienced non-interpersonal trauma (p = .020; odds ratio [OR] = 3.643; 95% confidence interval of OR = [1.226, 10.825]). High agreeableness and conscientiousness predicted less suicidality in those exposed to non-interpersonal trauma, while predicting more suicidality in those exposed to interpersonal trauma. Clinicians examining individuals with PTSD should pay closer attention to the trauma that they have experienced, as well as their personality factors, to provide appropriate treatment.

  20. EARLY PROGNOSTIC SCREENING FOR POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER WITH THE DAVIDSON TRAUMA SCALE AND THE SPAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbrandij, Marit; Olff, Miranda; Opmeer, Brent C.; Carlier, Ingrid V. E.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined the accuracy of the 17-item. Dutch version of the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) and the four-item SPAN (Startle, Physiological Arousal, Anger and Numbness) to detect survivors at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within the first 2 weeks after the trauma.

  1. Early Intervention for Families Exposed to Chronic Stress and Trauma: The Attachment Vitamins Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulette, Annmarie C.; Dunham, Mackenzie; Davis, Mindy; Gortney, Jason; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the Attachment Vitamins program, a trauma-informed parent group intervention for families with young children. Attachment Vitamins is a relational psychoeducational intervention based on the principles of Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP). Its goal is to repair the impact of chronic stress and trauma through strengthening the…

  2. Childhood trauma, psychosis liability and social stress reactivity : a virtual reality study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, W.; Counotte, J.; Pot-Kolder, R.; van Os, J.; van der Gaag, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Childhood trauma is associated with higher risk for mental disorders, including psychosis. Heightened sensitivity to social stress may be a mechanism. This virtual reality study tested the effect of childhood trauma on level of paranoid ideations and distress in response to social

  3. Specificity and generalization of attentional bias in sexual trauma victims suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleurkens, P.F.T.; Rinck, M.; Minnen, A. van

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated specificity of attentional biases for trauma-related stimuli using an Emotional Stroop Task. Participants were 14 women suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who had experienced a sexual trauma and 24 healthy non-traumatized women. They were asked to name

  4. Relationship between Type of Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Urban Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Rohini; Abramovitz, Robert; Greenberg, Rick; Schoor, Alan; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Schmeidler, James; Levine, Paul; Nomura, Yoko; Chemtob, Claude M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the association between trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 157 help-seeking children (aged 8-17). Structured clinical interviews are carried out, and linear and logistic regression analyses are conducted to examine the relationship between PTSD and type of trauma exposure controlling for age, gender,…

  5. [Depression, anxiety, and stress in patients with coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belialov, F I

    The analytical paper summarized the results of recent studies of an association of depression, anxiety, and stress with coronary heart disease (CHD). Mental disorders are shown to be associated with increased risk of CHD and to worsen the course of coronary disease. Antidepressants and psychotherapy improve the control of mental disorders, quality of life, and, in some cases, have a positive impact on the course of coronary disease.

  6. Stress, trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder in migrants: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineth H.U. Bustamante

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is growing evidence supporting the association between migration and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Considering the growing population of migrants and the particularities of providing culturally sensitive mental health care for these persons, clinicians should be kept up to date with the latest information regarding this topic. The objective of this study was to critically review the literature regarding migration, trauma and PTSD, and mental health services. Methods: The PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, and ISI Web of Science databases were searched for articles published in Portuguese, English, Spanish, or French, and indexed from inception to 2017. The following keywords were used: migration, mental health, mental health services, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder, and trauma. Results: Migration is associated with specific stressors, mainly related to the migratory experience and to the necessary process of acculturation occurring in adaptation to the host country. These major stressors have potential consequences in many areas, including mental health. The prevalence of PTSD among migrants is very high (47%, especially among refugees, who experience it at nearly twice the rate of migrant workers. Conclusions: Mental health professionals must be trained to recognize and provide appropriate care for posttraumatic and/or stress-related disorders among migrants.

  7. [Effect of mindfulness on symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjorback, Lone Overby; Rasmussen, Benita Holt; Preuss, Tua

    2014-04-14

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a manualised group intervention using mindfulness training as a means of reducing the suffering associated with physical, psychosomatic and psychiatric illness. A review of the literature includes 31 randomised studies. Results indicate that MBSR may improve mental health and reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression in both clinical and non-clinical populations. Implementation in the health-care system is recommended to take place over time to secure sufficient education of MBSR teachers in Denmark.

  8. Childhood trauma and emotional reactivity to daily life stress in adult frequent attenders of general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Jean-Paul; van Os, Jim; Portegijs, Piet J M; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2006-08-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) has consistently been associated with neuroticism--a personality trait reflecting vulnerability to stress. However, not much is known about the impact of a history of trauma on moment-to-moment emotions and experiences in the flow of daily life. The relationship between CT and emotional reactivity to daily life stress was investigated. Ninety frequent attenders of general practitioners, of which 29 fulfilled criteria for CT (sexual and/or physical trauma before the age of 19 years), were studied with the Experience Sampling Method (a structured diary technique assessing current context and mood in daily life) to assess: (a) appraised subjective stress related to daily events and activities, and (b) emotional reactivity conceptualized as changes in negative affect (NA). Multilevel regression analysis revealed that subjects with a history of CT reported significantly increased emotional reactivity to daily life stress, as reflected in an increase in NA. This effect was significantly stronger for subjects who experienced trauma before the age of 10 years. These results confirm that CT may have long-lasting and enduring effects on adult psychological functioning, as exposed individuals continually react more strongly to small stressors occurring in the natural flow of everyday life. The finding that emotional stress reactivity is most pronounced for subjects who experienced trauma early in life confirms prior evidence suggesting that the effects of trauma are more detrimental when trauma occurs at a younger age.

  9. Neuropsychology of trauma-exposure: emotional learning, stress responsivity and the glucocorticoid receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Liebscher, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    In the present dissertation the aim was to identify correlates of trauma-exposure in persons who developed symptoms of a posttraumatic stress disorder and in those who were trauma-exposed but do not suffer from PTSD as well as in persons without trauma-exposure. In the first part of the dissertation, mechanisms of context conditioning and the release of glucocorticoids by the Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis were investigated in trauma-exposed and non-exposed persons. In the second ...

  10. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety as predictors of suicidal ideation among South African university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason R; Kagee, Ashraf; McGowan, Taryn; Steel, Henry

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the 2-week prevalence of suicidal ideations and their associations to symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety among South African university students. Data were collected from 1,337 students between May and August 2013. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between suicidal ideation and symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety. Rates of suicidal ideation are higher among university students in South Africa than among the general population of the country and student populations in other parts of the world. Symptoms of depression and exposure to trauma predict suicidal ideation Conclusions: Findings bring into focus the high rates of suicidal ideation among a sample of university students in South African and the need for more research to investigate the psychosocial correlates of this phenomena within the cultural context of the country, especially given the correlation between suicidal ideation and other poor health outcomes.

  11. Verbal Ability, Social Stress, and Anxiety in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanni, Kimberly E.; Schupp, Clayton W.; Simon, David; Corbett, Blythe A.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the physiological stress and anxiety responses in children with autism following completion of a standardized, social-evaluative stressor (Trier Social Stress Test-Child version), document the relationship between verbal ability, stress, and anxiety, and determine the association between stress and anxiety…

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder and exposure to trauma reminders after a terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glad, Kristin A; Jensen, Tine K; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Dyb, Grete

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: (a) to systematically describe the type and frequency of trauma reminders reported after a terrorist attack and (b) to examine whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with frequency of exposure to trauma reminders. A total of 285 survivors (M age = 22.2, SD = 4.3, 53% males) of the 2011 massacre on Utøya Island, Norway, were interviewed face to face 14-15 months after the terror. Participants were asked how often they had experienced a range of different trauma reminders in the past month and which was most distressing. Current posttraumatic stress reactions were measured using the University of California at Los Angeles PTSD Reaction Index. In all, 33.3% of the survivors reported having experienced 1 or more trauma reminders often/very often in the past month. Auditory reminders were most frequently encountered and were reported to be the most distressing, especially sudden and sharp noises. Meeting the diagnostic criteria for PTSD was significantly associated with frequency of exposure to trauma reminders. The findings suggest that trauma reminders are common among survivors of a terrorist attack almost 1.5 years after the trauma and that PTSD is strongly related to the frequency of exposure to reminders. It is important that clinicians are aware of the significant role trauma reminders may play in maintaining PTSD and help trauma survivors recognize and manage reminders.

  13. Influence of 5-HTT variation, childhood trauma and self-efficacy on anxiety traits: a gene-environment-coping interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Miriam A; Ziegler, Christiane; Holitschke, Karoline; Schartner, Christoph; Schmidt, Brigitte; Weber, Heike; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Pauli, Paul; Zwanzger, Peter; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina

    2016-08-01

    Environmental vulnerability factors such as adverse childhood experiences in interaction with genetic risk variants, e.g., the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), are assumed to play a role in the development of anxiety and affective disorders. However, positive influences such as general self-efficacy (GSE) may exert a compensatory effect on genetic disposition, environmental adversity, and anxiety traits. We, thus, assessed childhood trauma (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, CTQ) and GSE in 678 adults genotyped for 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 and their interaction on agoraphobic cognitions (Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire, ACQ), social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, LSAS), and trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI-T). The relationship between anxiety traits and childhood trauma was moderated by self-efficacy in 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 LALA genotype carriers: LALA probands maltreated as children showed high anxiety scores when self-efficacy was low, but low anxiety scores in the presence of high self-efficacy despite childhood maltreatment. Our results extend previous findings regarding anxiety-related traits showing an interactive relationship between 5-HTT genotype and adverse childhood experiences by suggesting coping-related measures to function as an additional dimension buffering the effects of a gene-environment risk constellation. Given that anxiety disorders manifest already early in childhood, this insight could contribute to the improvement of psychotherapeutic interventions by including measures strengthening self-efficacy and inform early targeted preventive interventions in at-risk populations, particularly within the crucial time window of childhood and adolescence.

  14. Specificity and generalization of attentional bias in sexual trauma victims suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurkens, Pascal; Rinck, Mike; van Minnen, Agnes

    2011-08-01

    The present study investigated specificity of attentional biases for trauma-related stimuli using an Emotional Stroop Task. Participants were 14 women suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who had experienced a sexual trauma and 24 healthy non-traumatized women. They were asked to name print colors of 4 different word types: threatening sexual violence words and non-threatening sexual words, threatening accident trauma words, and positive words. Compared to control participants, PTSD patients displayed increased interference by threatening trauma-related, but not by accident trauma and positive words. Interference by non-threatening sexual words occurred as well, but only in those patients who suffered from more severe PTSD arousal symptoms. These findings suggest graded generalization of the attentional bias across stimuli of varying emotional valence, but specificity regarding the trauma topic. Results are discussed in light of current cognitive models of PTSD, and clinical implications are suggested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual revictimization: the impact of attachment anxiety, accumulated trauma, and response to childhood sexual abuse disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Inbal; Ben-Amitay, Galit

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that a complexity of personal, interpersonal, and environmental factors is related to sexual revictimization among childhood sexual abuse survivors. In this study, we investigated the relations between attachment dimensions, exposure to accumulated childhood traumas, reaction to childhood sexual abuse disclosure, and adult sexual revictimization. Participants were 60 Israeli women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Seventy percent of the women reported adult sexual revictimization. Revictimization was related to higher attachment anxiety but not to higher attachment avoidance. Revictimization was also related to emotional and physical child abuse but not to emotional and physical child neglect. Revictimization rates were higher among women who had received negative environmental responses following childhood sexual abuse disclosure than among women who had received supportive reactions and those who had not disclosed childhood sexual abuse at all. Findings were significant even after controlling for severity of childhood sexual abuse. The findings emphasize the role of various contextual-interpersonal factors on revictimization vulnerability among the survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

  16. The sequential pathway between trauma-related symptom severity and cognitive-based smoking processes through perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies among trauma exposed smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garey, Lorra; Cheema, Mina K; Otal, Tanveer K; Schmidt, Norman B; Neighbors, Clayton; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Smoking rates are markedly higher among trauma-exposed individuals relative to non-trauma-exposed individuals. Extant work suggests that both perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies are independent mechanisms that link trauma-related symptoms and smoking. Yet, no work has examined perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies as potential explanatory variables for the relation between trauma-related symptom severity and smoking in a sequential pathway model. Methods The present study utilized a sample of treatment-seeking, trauma-exposed smokers (n = 363; 49.0% female) to examine perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies for smoking as potential sequential explanatory variables linking trauma-related symptom severity and nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of withdrawal-related problems and symptoms during past quit attempts. As hypothesized, perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies had a significant sequential indirect effect on trauma-related symptom severity and criterion variables. Findings further elucidate the complex pathways through which trauma-related symptoms contribute to smoking behavior and cognitions, and highlight the importance of addressing perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies in smoking cessation programs among trauma-exposed individuals. (Am J Addict 2016;25:565-572). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  17. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during “traumatic stressors.” 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exp...

  18. Stress, depression, and anxiety among undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomas, Wanda M; Shapiro, Carla

    2013-11-07

    Admission to a professional program marks the beginning of fulfilling a career goal. However, the rigors of professional education can be demanding. Stress, depression, and anxiety (SDA) can interfere with learning, affect academic performance, and impair clinical practice performance. Studies report a general increase in the severity of and extent of mental health problems among college/university students. The literature regarding nursing students' mental health distress identifies academic and personal sources of stress and coping efforts, with emphasis on the stress and anxiety associated with clinical practice. This cross-sectional descriptive exploratory study investigated levels of SDA among nursing students in 3 years of a university-based program. The association between quality of life indicators including known stressors, such as financial concerns and balance between school and personal life, and SDA was also investigated. Through an online survey, 437 participants from one mid-western Canadian undergraduate nursing program completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and provided data on quality of life indicators and demographic information. Participants also were invited to provide narrative data about their experiences with SDA. This article will present significant findings including: levels of SDA; comparisons between our sample and a normative sample on the dimensions of SDA; and the results of multiple regression analysis identifying significant predictors of each dimension. Themes from the qualitative comments from 251 of the participants were identified and added depth and clarity to the quantitative findings. The predominant themes represented were: perceptions of clinical practice, coping, personal issues, and balancing school, work, and personal life. Implications and recommendations for curriculum design, ensuring students understand program expectations prior to admission, and enhancing accessibility to mental health/support services

  19. 3, 4-methylenedioximethamphetamin reverses anxiety induced by chronic mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrea León A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the effects of subchronic 3, 4 methylenedioximethamphetamine (MDMA on the elevated plusmaze, a widely used animal model of anxiety. Rats exposed to a mild chronic stress (MCS protocol received intracerebroventricular microinjections of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI – fluoxetine (2.0 ug/ul or MDMA, (2.0 ug/ul for seven days. On the eighth day rats were tested in the elevated plus-maze. Our results showed that sub chronic MDMA interacted with MCS leading to a decrease in anxiety related behaviors including: percentage of open arms entries (F [2, 26] = 4.00; p = 0.031, time spent in the open arms (F [2, 26] = 3.656; p = 0.040 and time spent in the open arms extremities (F [2, 26] = 5.842; p = 0.008. These results suggest a potential effect of MDMA in the reversion of the emotional significance of aversive stimuli.

  20. Role and clinical implications of atypical antipsychotics in anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, trauma-related, and somatic symptom disorders: a systematized review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Umberto; Carmassi, Claudia; Cosci, Fiammetta; De Cori, David; Di Nicola, Marco; Ferrari, Silvia; Poloni, Nicola; Tarricone, Ilaria; Fiorillo, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Atypical antipsychotics (AAs) may play a role in the treatment of anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and trauma-related disorders. No reviews on their differential use in these different disorders have been performed recently. The aim of this systematized review was to obtain data on efficacy and comparative effectiveness of AAs as a treatment of anxiety disorders, OCD, and trauma-related disorders to provide guidance for clinicians on when and which AA to use. We searched on PubMed, Psychnet, and Cochrane Libraries from inception to July 2015. Search results were limited to randomized, placebo-controlled trials of adult patients. Evidence of efficacy was considered the presence of positive results in two or more double-blind placebo-controlled studies. Our systematized search identified 1298 papers, of which 191 were subjected to a full-text review and 56 were included. Quetiapine extended-release showed a role in both acute and maintenance treatment of uncomplicated generalized anxiety disorder, whereas more studies are needed before drawing practical recommendations on the use of olanzapine and risperidone; aripiprazole and risperidone are effective in resistant OCD as augmentation treatments. Risperidone and olanzapine add-on may have a role in resistant or chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients, although only risperidone addition can be recommended on the basis of the criterion of two or more positive placebo-controlled trials. This systematized review supports the evidence that only a few AAs are effective in only a minority of the off-label conditions in which they are currently used and confirms that AAs are not all the same. Their use should be on the basis of a balance between efficacy and side effects, and the characteristics as well as the preference of the patient.

  1. Examination of the interrelations between the factors of PTSD, major depression, and generalized anxiety disorder in a heterogeneous trauma-exposed sample using DSM 5 criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; van Stolk-Cooke, Katherine

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to traumatic events places individuals at high risk for multiple psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The high rates of comorbidity among these conditions merit evaluation in order to improve diagnosis and treatment approaches. The current study evaluated the association between PTSD, MDD, and GAD factors as presented in the DSM 5. 602 trauma-exposed individuals who experienced an event that met Criterion A for the DSM 5 PTSD diagnosis were recruited through Amazon.com, Inc.'s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to complete an assessment of the impact of stressful events on their lives. High interrelations were detected among the 4 PTSD factors, 2 MDD factors that corresponded to somatic and affective symptoms, and the single GAD factor. The affective factor of MDD was most strongly related to the emotional numbing factor of PTSD, whereas the somatic factor of MDD was most strongly related to the hyperarousal factor of PTSD. The GAD factor was most strongly related to the hyperarousal factor of PTSD, relative to the other PTSD factors. The strength of the interrelations between factors of the three disorders is largely a function of the overlap in symptoms and calls into question the uniqueness of negative affective symptoms of PTSD, MDD and GAD. Results suggest that improved understanding of the trauma reaction requires a focus on the unique presentation of each individual and assessment of multiple disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Indirect exposure to client trauma and the impact on trainee clinical psychologists: Secondary traumatic stress or vicarious traumatization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makadia, Rakhee; Sabin-Farrell, Rachel; Turpin, Graham

    2017-09-01

    The study investigated the relationship between exposure to trauma work and well-being (general psychological distress, trauma symptoms, and disrupted beliefs) in trainee clinical psychologists. It also assessed the contribution of individual and situational factors to well-being. A Web-based survey was employed. The survey comprised the General Health Questionnaire, Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale, Trauma and Attachment Belief Scale, Trauma Screening Questionnaire, and specific questions about exposure to trauma work and other individual and situational factors. The link to the online survey was sent via email to trainee clinical psychologists attending courses throughout the UK RESULTS: Five hundred sixty-four trainee clinical psychologists participated. Most trainees had a caseload of one to two trauma cases in the previous 6 months; the most common trauma being sexual abuse. Exposure to trauma work was not related to general psychological distress or disrupted beliefs but was a significant predictor of trauma symptoms. Situational factors contributed to the variance in trauma symptoms; level of stress of clinical work and quality of trauma training were significant predictors of trauma symptoms. Individual and situational factors were also found to be significant predictors of general psychological distress and disrupted beliefs. This study provides support for secondary traumatic stress but lacks evidence to support belief changes in vicarious traumatization or a relationship between exposure to trauma work and general psychological distress. The measurement and validity of vicarious traumatization is discussed along with clinical, theoretical implications, and suggestions for future research. Secondary traumatic stress is a potential risk for trainee clinical psychologists. Training courses should (a) focus on quality of trauma training as it may be protective; (b) advocate coping strategies to reduce stress of clinical work, as the level of stress of

  3. Trauma Exposures and Posttraumatic Stress among Zimbabwean refugees in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idemudia, Erhabor S; Williams, John K; Madu, Sylvester N; Wyatt, Gail E

    2013-09-25

    Zimbabwean refugees can be considered a vulnerable group in terms of how they are displaced with many of them having lived through hardships on their way to South Africa and other African countries. Zimbabwe is known to be Africa's most extraordinary producer of migrants and the biggest producer of refugees in Southern Africa. It is estimated that 3.4 million Zimbabweans, a quarter of the country's population, have fled the country. Economic collapse, hunger and political repression have been blamed for the mass exodus. The present study examines the impact of trauma exposures (pre- and post-migration stressors and poor mental health) on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among homeless Zimbabwean refugees living in South Africa. Through a guided convenient sampling, in-depth interviews using questionnaires were collected from 125 homeless Zimbabwean refugees in Polokwane, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study was anchored on the hypothesis that predictor variables (pre- and post- migration stressors, poor mental health) would significantly affect outcomes (PTSD). Participants were assessed on demographic variables, pre- and post-migration difficulties checklists, mental health using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the PTSD Checklist (Civilian Version (PCL). Participants ranged from 18 to 48 years with a mean age of 28.3 years (SD = 6.27). The majority of the sample had at least a secondary education (76.8%) and were employed as unskilled labourers (61.6%) in South Africa. Being married was reported by 54.4% in Zimbabwe but changed to only 19.2% in South Africa. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the overall model significantly predicted PTSD among homeless Zimbabweans (R 2 = 0.17, adjusted R 2 = 0.11, F (6, 124) = 2.960, p migration variables (Post total stress, PreThreat to life, Presexabuse, PrePoverty, Postsexabuse, Postpoverty and two mental health symptoms (Anxiety and Insomnia, and Social dysfunction) explained 41

  4. Prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression in with Alzheimer caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Vito Elisabetta

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease presents a social and public health problem affecting millions of Italians. Those affected receive home care from caregivers, subjected to risk of stress. The present investigation focuses on stress, anxiety and depression in caregivers. Methods Data on 200 caregivers and their patients were collected using a specific form to assess cognitive, behavioural, functional patient (MMSE, and ADL-IAD and caregiver stress (CBI. The relationship between stress, depression and disease has been assessed by means of a linear regression, logistic analysis which reveals the relationship between anxiety, stress and depression and cognitive problems, age, the patient's income. Results The caregivers are usually female (64%, mean age of 56.1 years, daughters (70.5%, pensioners and housewives (30%, who care for the sick at home (79%. Of these, 53% had little time for themselves, 55% observed worsening of health, 56% are tired, 51% are not getting enough sleep. Overall, 55% have problems with the patient's family and/or their own family, 57% at work. Furthermore, 29% feel they are failing to cope with the situation as they wish to move away from home. The increase in the degree of anxiety and depression is directly proportional to the severity of the illness, affecting the patient (r = 0.3 stress and depression r = 0.4 related to CBI score. The memory disorders (OR = 8.4, engine problems (OR = 2.6, perception disorders (OR = 1.9 sick of the patient with Alzheimer's disease are predictive of caregiver stress, depression is associated with the presence of other disorders, mainly behavioural (OR = 5.2, low income (OR = 3.4, patients Conclusion The quality of life of caregivers is correlated with the severity of behavioural disorders and duration of the Alzheimer's disease. The severity of the disease plays an important role in reorganization of the family environment in families caring for patients not institutionalised. It is

  5. Meta-analysis of risk factors for secondary traumatic stress in therapeutic work with trauma victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Jennifer M; Ruiz, Carlos; Finney, Caitlin; Dewa, Carolyn S

    2015-04-01

    Revisions to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) clarify that secondary exposure can lead to the development of impairing symptoms requiring treatment. Historically known as secondary traumatic stress (STS), this reaction occurs through repeatedly hearing the details of traumatic events experienced by others. Professionals who work therapeutically with trauma victims may be at particular risk for this exposure. This meta-analysis of 38 published studies examines 17 risk factors for STS among professionals indirectly exposed to trauma through their therapeutic work with trauma victims. Small significant effect sizes were found for trauma caseload volume (r = .16), caseload frequency (r = .12), caseload ratio (r = .19), and having a personal trauma history (r = .19). Small negative effect sizes were found for work support (r = -.17) and social support (r = -.26). Demographic variables appear to be less implicated although more work is needed that examines the role of gender in the context of particular personal traumas. Caseload frequency and personal trauma effect sizes were moderated by year of publication. Future work should examine the measurement of STS and associated impairment, understudied risk factors, and effective interventions. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  6. TRAUMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blunt trauma. (n = 17). 3 (17.6%). 2. 14 (82.4%). 0. Table 2. Types of complications according to Clavien-Dindo classification. Clavien-Dindo Grading. Postoperative Complications (number). I. Wound Sepsis (3), Ileus (1). II. Pneumonia (2). III a. Nil. III b. Empyema of chest (1)*. IV a. Acute Kidney Injury (1), Respiratory Failure ...

  7. TRAUMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-04

    Nov 4, 2017 ... and via a password protected mobile application program within 6 hours. The alcohol levels were reported in grams. TRAUMA. Serum alcohol levels ..... restricts advertising on alcohol consumption.22 In addition, the South African Department of Health has published the. MiniDrug MasterPlan 23 which ...

  8. In search of the trauma memory: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sartory

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding some discrepancy between results from neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, there is broad agreement as to the neural circuit underlying this disorder. It is thought to be characterized by an exaggerated amygdalar and decreased medial prefrontal activation to which the elevated anxiety state and concomitant inadequate emotional regulation are attributed. However, the proposed circuit falls short of accounting for the main symptom, unique among anxiety disorders to PTSD, namely, reexperiencing the precipitating event in the form of recurrent, distressing images and recollections. Owing to the technical demands, neuroimaging studies are usually carried out with small sample sizes. A meta-analysis of their findings is more likely to cast light on the involved cortical areas. Coordinate-based meta-analyses employing ES-SDM (Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping were carried out on 19 studies with 274 PTSD patients. Thirteen of the studies included 145 trauma-exposed control participants. Comparisons between reactions to trauma-related stimuli and a control condition and group comparison of reactions to the trauma-related stimuli were submitted to meta-analysis. Compared to controls and the neutral condition, PTSD patients showed significant activation of the mid-line retrosplenial cortex and precuneus in response to trauma-related stimuli. These midline areas have been implicated in self-referential processing and salient autobiographical memory. PTSD patients also evidenced hyperactivation of the pregenual/anterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral amygdala to trauma-relevant, compared to neutral, stimuli. Patients showed significantly less activation than controls in sensory association areas such as the bilateral temporal gyri and extrastriate area which may indicate that the patients' attention was diverted from the presented stimuli by being focused on the elicited trauma memory. Being

  9. RATIO FEATURES OF STRESS TOLERANCE AND ANXIETY IN MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Mikheeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the ratio of stress tolerance to the level of personal anxiety. It provides a definition of the term “stress tolerance”, analyzes the concept of the “disquietude” and the “anxiety”: how different authors define these phenomena, what is different and what is in common. The concepts of “personal anxiety” and “situational anxiety” are given consideration. The views of foreign and domestic authors on anxiety as a factor that contributes to stress, as well as its components are discussed. An overview of the methods of measuring stress and anxiety is provided: a stress questionnaire of S.V. Subbotin, anxiety scale of Spielberger - Hanin. The results of domestic and foreign research on the identification of correlations between the variables of stress tolerance and anxiety are analyzed. We also consider the results of our own research, conducted on a sample of 149 men and 142 women in 2015-2016 years in Moscow. The results of four subgroups of the respondents are reviewed: men with high stress tolerance, men with low stress tolerance, women with high stress tolerance, and women with low stress tolerance. In each of the subgroups the variables of reactive and personal anxiety and connections between indicators of anxiety and indicators of stress tolerance are analyzed; the conclusions about the relationship of stress and anxiety in each subgroup are drawn.

  10. Associations of adult separation anxiety disorder with conflict-related trauma, ongoing adversity, and the psychosocial disruptions of mass conflict among West Papuan refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2016-03-01

    Refugees commonly experience traumatic events that threaten the self and close others, suggesting the possibility that they may experience overlapping symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD). We examine this possibility among West Papua refugees (n = 230) displaced to Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. We also examine associations between the combined PTSD-SAD construct and indices of past trauma exposure, ongoing adversity, and the psychosocial disruptions caused by mass conflict and displacement. We applied culturally adapted interview modules to assess symptoms of PTSD, SAD, traumatic events (TEs), ongoing adversity, and 5 psychosocial dimensions. Latent class analysis identified a PTSD class (23%), a posttraumatic (PT) SAD class (22%), and a low-symptom class (55%). Compared with the low-symptom class, both the PTSD and PT-SAD classes endorsed higher levels of exposure to all domains of TEs (conflict-related trauma, witnessing murder, childhood related adversities, traumatic losses, and health stress) and ongoing adversity (access to health care, displacement/separation, safety in the community, and access to basic needs), but the 2 comorbid groups did not differ on these indices. The PT-SAD class alone scored higher than the low-symptom reference class in relation to disruptions to the psychosocial domains (safety/security, bonds/network, access to justice, roles/identities, existential meaning) and higher than the PTSD class on safety/security, justice and roles/identities. Our findings suggest that the PT-SAD pattern may represent a response to the most severe forms of psychosocial disruptions of mass conflict among refugees. A focus on separation anxiety may enhance psychotherapies designed to treat PTSD in refugees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Trauma memory characteristics and the development of acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, A; Brewer, N; Meiser-Stedman, R; Nixon, R D V

    2017-03-01

    The present study addresses gaps in knowledge regarding the association between trauma memory processes and posttraumatic stress responses in youth. Our primary goal was to explore the relative contribution of perceptions of trauma memory quality versus narrative trauma memory characteristics to explain overall adjustment. Children (N = 67) were interviewed within four weeks (T1) of an injury leading to hospital treatment and then again eight weeks later (T2). In each interview, the child told a trauma narrative (which were later coded), and answered the Trauma Memory Quality Questionnaire (Meiser-Stedman, Smith, Yule, & Dalgleish, 2007a), a self-report measure indexing the sensory, fragmented, and disorganised characteristics of trauma memory. They then completed measures of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) symptoms and associated psychopathology at T1 and measures of Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms and associated psychopathology at T2. Self-reported trauma memory characteristics predicted ASD symptoms cross-sectionally at T1 and PTS symptoms prospectively over time. At both time points, self-reported trauma memory characteristics accounted for all of the unique variance in symptoms initially explained by narrative characteristics. A reduction in self-report ratings, but not the hypothesised narrative features (e.g., disorganised or lexical elements of the narrative), significantly predicted a reduction in PTS symptoms over time. The small sample size and the absence of a within-subjects narrative control were the main limitations of the study. These findings underscore the importance of self-reported trauma memory characteristics to the aetiology of PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychophysiologic responsivity in posttraumatic stress disorder: generalized hyperresponsiveness versus trauma specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casada, J H; Amdur, R; Larsen, R; Liberzon, I

    1998-11-15

    Clinically, subjects with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are viewed as hyperresponsive to a variety of stimuli. Psychophysiologic studies, however, have demonstrated hyperresponsiveness only to stimuli that are closely related to the original trauma. This set of experiments uses a variety of stimuli that vary in trauma-relatedness, arousal level, sensory modality stimulated, and degree of cognitive processing demanded to assess the extent of generalization of physiologic responses. Heart rate (HR), frontal electromyogram (EMG), and skin conductance (EDG) responses were measured during presentation of each stimulus. PTSD subjects (n = 15) had an elevated baseline EDG and increased HR and EMG responses to the trauma-related stimulus (combat sounds) compared to normal control subjects (n = 11) and combat control subjects (n = 10). No significant differences were noted between PTSD and control groups in response to non-trauma-related arousing stimuli. These results suggest that the physiologic hyperresponsivity of PTSD subjects is limited to stimuli closely associated with the inciting trauma.

  13. Effects of acculturative stress on PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms among refugees resettled in Australia and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzenana Kartal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research indicates that exposure to war-related traumatic events impacts on the mental health of refugees and leads to higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, stress associated with the migration process has also been shown to impact negatively on refugees’ mental health, but the extent of these experiences is highly debatable as the relationships between traumatic events, migration, and mental health outcomes are complex and poorly understood. Objective: This study aimed to examine the influence of trauma-related and post-migratory factors on symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety in two samples of Bosnian refugees that have resettled in two different host nations—Austria and Australia. Method: Using multiple recruitment methods, 138 participants were recruited to complete self-report measures assessing acculturative stress, PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms. Results: Hierarchical regressions indicated that after controlling for age, sex, and exposure to traumatic events, acculturative stress associated with post-migratory experiences predicted severity of PTSD and anxiety symptoms, while depressive symptoms were only predicted by exposure to traumatic events. This model, however, was only significant for Bosnian refugees resettled in Austria, as PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms were only predicted by traumatic exposure in the Bosnian refugees resettled in Australia. Conclusion: These findings point toward the importance of assessing both psychological and social stressors when assessing mental health of refugees. Furthermore, these results draw attention to the influence of the host society on post-migratory adaptation and mental health of refugees. Further research is needed to replicate these findings among other refugee samples in other host nations.

  14. MATERNAL TRAUMA AFFECTS PRENATAL MENTAL HEALTH AND INFANT STRESS REGULATION AMONG PALESTINIAN DYADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosävi, Sanna; Diab, Safwat Y; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Kankaanpää, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-09-01

    We examined how diverse and cumulated traumatic experiences predicted maternal prenatal mental health and infant stress regulation in war conditions and whether maternal mental health mediated the association between trauma and infant stress regulation. Participants were 511 Palestinian mothers from the Gaza Strip who reported exposure to current war trauma (WT), past childhood emotional (CEA) and physical abuse, socioeconomic status (SES), prenatal mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms), and perceived stress during their secondtrimester of pregnancy as well as infant stress regulation at 4 months. While all trauma types were associated with high levels of prenatal symptoms, CEA had the most wide-ranging effects and was uniquely associated with depression symptoms. Concerning infant stress regulation, mothers' CEA predicted negative affectivity, but only among mothers with low WT. Against hypothesis, the effects of maternal trauma on infant stress regulation were not mediated by mental health symptoms. Mothers' higher SES was associated with better infant stress regulation whereas infant prematurity and male sex predisposed for difficulties. Our findings suggest that maternal childhood abuse, especially CEA, should be a central treatment target among war-exposed families. Cumulated psychosocial stressors might increase the risk for transgenerational problems. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in UK therapists who work with adult trauma clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodeke-Gregson, Ekundayo A; Holttum, Sue; Billings, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Therapists who work with trauma clients are impacted both positively and negatively. However, most studies have tended to focus on the negative impact of the work, the quantitative evidence has been inconsistent, and the research has primarily been conducted outside the United Kingdom. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of, and identify predictor variables for, compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in a group of UK therapists (N=253) working with adult trauma clients. An online questionnaire was developed which used The Professional Quality of Life Scale (Version 5) to assess compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress and collect demographics and other pertinent information. Whilst the majority of therapists scored within the average range for compassion satisfaction and burnout, 70% of scores indicated that therapists were at high risk of secondary traumatic stress. Maturity, time spent engaging in research and development activities, a higher perceived supportiveness of management, and supervision predicted higher potential for compassion satisfaction. Youth and a lower perceived supportiveness of management predicted higher risk of burnout. A higher risk of secondary traumatic stress was predicted in therapists engaging in more individual supervision and self-care activities, as well as those who had a personal trauma history. UK therapists working with trauma clients are at high risk of being negatively impacted by their work, obtaining scores which suggest a risk of developing secondary traumatic stress. Of particular note was that exposure to trauma stories did not significantly predict secondary traumatic stress scores as suggested by theory. However, the negative impact of working with trauma clients was balanced by the potential for a positive outcome from trauma work as a majority indicated an average potential for compassion satisfaction.

  16. The endocannabinoid system in guarding against fear, anxiety and stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Beat; Marsicano, Giovanni; Maldonado, Rafael; Hillard, Cecilia J.

    2018-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system has emerged as a central integrator linking the perception of external and internal stimuli to distinct neurophysiological and behavioural outcomes (such as fear reaction, anxiety and stress-coping), thus allowing an organism to adapt to its changing environment. eCB signalling seems to determine the value of fear-evoking stimuli and to tune appropriate behavioural responses, which are essential for the organism’s long-term viability, homeostasis and stress resilience; and dysregulation of eCB signalling can lead to psychiatric disorders. An understanding of the underlying neural cell populations and cellular processes enables the development of therapeutic strategies to mitigate behavioural maladaptation. PMID:26585799

  17. Cannabis Use and Anxiety: Is Stress the Missing Piece of the Puzzle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Clare Temple

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comorbidity between anxiety and cannabis use is common yet the nature of the association between these conditions is not clear. Four theories were assessed, and a fifth hypothesis tested to determine if the misattribution of stress symptomology plays a role in the association between state-anxiety and cannabis. Methods: Three-hundred-sixteen participants ranging in age from 18-71 years completed a short online questionnaire asking about their history of cannabis use and symptoms of stress and anxiety. Results: Past and current cannabis users reported higher incidence of lifetime anxiety than participants who had never used cannabis, however these groups did not differ in state-anxiety, stress or age of onset of anxiety. State-anxiety and stress were not associated with frequency of cannabis use, but reported use to self-medicate for anxiety was positively associated with all three. Path analyses indicated two different associations between anxiety and cannabis use, pre-existing and high state-anxiety was associated with i higher average levels of intoxication and, in turn, acute anxiety responses to cannabis use; ii frequency of cannabis use via the mediating effects of stress and self-medication. Conclusions: None of the theories was fully supported by the findings. However, as cannabis users reporting self-medication for anxiety were found to be self-medicating stress symptomology, there was some support for the stress misattribution hypothesis. With reported self-medication for anxiety being the strongest predictor of frequency of use, it is suggested that researchers, clinicians and cannabis users pay greater attention to the overlap between stress and anxiety symptomology and the possible misinterpretation of these related but distinct conditions.

  18. Cannabis use and anxiety: is stress the missing piece of the puzzle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Elizabeth C; Driver, Matthew; Brown, Rhonda F

    2014-01-01

    Comorbidity between anxiety and cannabis use is common yet the nature of the association between these conditions is not clear. Four theories were assessed, and a fifth hypothesis tested to determine if the misattribution of stress symptomology plays a role in the association between state-anxiety and cannabis. Three-hundred-sixteen participants ranging in age from 18 to 71 years completed a short online questionnaire asking about their history of cannabis use and symptoms of stress and anxiety. Past and current cannabis users reported higher incidence of lifetime anxiety than participants who had never used cannabis; however, these groups did not differ in state-anxiety, stress, or age of onset of anxiety. State-anxiety and stress were not associated with frequency of cannabis use, but reported use to self-medicate for anxiety was positively associated with all three. Path analyses indicated two different associations between anxiety and cannabis use, pre-existing and high state-anxiety was associated with (i) higher average levels of intoxication and, in turn, acute anxiety responses to cannabis use; (ii) frequency of cannabis use via the mediating effects of stress and self-medication. None of the theories was fully supported by the findings. However, as cannabis users reporting self-medication for anxiety were found to be self-medicating stress symptomology, there was some support for the stress-misattribution hypothesis. With reported self-medication for anxiety being the strongest predictor of frequency of use, it is suggested that researchers, clinicians, and cannabis users pay greater attention to the overlap between stress and anxiety symptomology and the possible misinterpretation of these related but distinct conditions.

  19. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analogue trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna eLass-Hennemann; Peter ePeyk; Markus eStreb; Elena eHolz; Tanja eMichael

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for PTSD patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during traumatic stressors. 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 conditions. They were exposed to a traumatic film clip (...

  20. Interpersonal trauma moderates the relationship between personality factors and suicidality of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjoon Yoo

    Full Text Available Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are more prone to suicidal ideation and behavior. While those who have experienced interpersonal trauma exhibit more suicidality than those who have experienced non-interpersonal trauma, it is unclear how the traumatic effects are related to an individual's personality characteristics. This study examined the association between interpersonal trauma and personality factors with suicidality, and elucidated the moderating role of interpersonal trauma in individuals with PTSD. The study included 6,022 participants from the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study 2011. The Korean Version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used for the survey, including the participants' history of suicidality, the traumas they have experienced, and their PTSD symptoms. The 11-item version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-11 was used to assess the participants' personality factors. 76 individuals were diagnosed with PTSD, while 810 had been exposed to trauma but were not diagnosed with any DSM-IV mental disorder. Among the individuals with PTSD, those who had experienced interpersonal trauma were more likely to have suicidal ideation than those who had experienced non-interpersonal trauma (p = .020; odds ratio [OR] = 3.643; 95% confidence interval of OR = [1.226, 10.825]. High agreeableness and conscientiousness predicted less suicidality in those exposed to non-interpersonal trauma, while predicting more suicidality in those exposed to interpersonal trauma. Clinicians examining individuals with PTSD should pay closer attention to the trauma that they have experienced, as well as their personality factors, to provide appropriate treatment.

  1. Interpersonal trauma moderates the relationship between personality factors and suicidality of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yongjoon; Park, Hyeon-Ju; Park, Soowon; Cho, Maeng Je; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more prone to suicidal ideation and behavior. While those who have experienced interpersonal trauma exhibit more suicidality than those who have experienced non-interpersonal trauma, it is unclear how the traumatic effects are related to an individual’s personality characteristics. This study examined the association between interpersonal trauma and personality factors with suicidality, and elucidated the moderating role of interpersonal trauma in individuals with PTSD. The study included 6,022 participants from the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study 2011. The Korean Version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used for the survey, including the participants’ history of suicidality, the traumas they have experienced, and their PTSD symptoms. The 11-item version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-11) was used to assess the participants’ personality factors. 76 individuals were diagnosed with PTSD, while 810 had been exposed to trauma but were not diagnosed with any DSM-IV mental disorder. Among the individuals with PTSD, those who had experienced interpersonal trauma were more likely to have suicidal ideation than those who had experienced non-interpersonal trauma (p = .020; odds ratio [OR] = 3.643; 95% confidence interval of OR = [1.226, 10.825]). High agreeableness and conscientiousness predicted less suicidality in those exposed to non-interpersonal trauma, while predicting more suicidality in those exposed to interpersonal trauma. Clinicians examining individuals with PTSD should pay closer attention to the trauma that they have experienced, as well as their personality factors, to provide appropriate treatment. PMID:29329352

  2. Secondary traumatic stress in trauma nurses: prevalence and exposure, coping, and personal/environmental characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Rueden, Kathryn T; Hinderer, Katherine A; McQuillan, Karen A; Murray, Mary; Logan, Theresa; Kramer, Betsy; Gilmore, Rebecca; Friedmann, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) in nurses who primarily care for trauma patients. A demographic/behavioral survey and Penn Inventory to measure the presence of STS were distributed to 262 nurses in a level I trauma center. Relationships between STS and years of experience, coping strategies, and personal and environmental characteristics were examined. Response rate was 49%. The median Penn Inventory score was 17.5. Nine nurses (7%) scored 35 or more, reflecting STS. Those with STS had fewer years of nursing experience and in trauma nursing, were more likely to use medicinals, and had fewer and weaker support systems.

  3. Gender Differences in Sleep During the Aftermath of Trauma and the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Mellman, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Women have a greater risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after exposure to trauma. Although sleep abnormalities have been implicated in the development of PTSD, gender differences in sleep soon after a traumatic event have not been investigated. This secondary analysis examined sleep characteristics using polysomnography in 13 female and 22 male trauma patients within a month of their traumatic injuries and assessed PTSD symptoms at 2-months post-injury. Results revealed m...

  4. Traumatic stress and psychopathology: experiences of a trauma clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate the profile of individuals referred to the psychiatrist for assessment in terms of their demographic features, trauma experienced, diagnosis according to the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV), and recommendations made by ...

  5. Expression of the PPM1F Gene Is Regulated by Stress and Associated With Anxiety and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Aliza P; Velasco, Eric R; Florido, Antonio; Lori, Adriana; Choi, Dennis C; Jovanovic, Tanja; Ressler, Kerry J; Andero, Raül

    2018-02-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying psychological sequelae of exposure to stressful experiences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, are not well understood. Using convergent evidence from animal and human transcriptomic and genomic studies, we aimed to identify genetic mechanisms underlying depression and anxiety after traumatic experiences. From a transcriptome-wide analysis in mice, we found the Ppm1f gene to be differentially expressed in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) a week after immobilization stress. Next, we found that PPM1F messenger RNA levels in human blood were downregulated in cases with symptoms of comorbid PTSD and depression and consistently in cases with anxiety symptoms in a separate human dataset. Furthermore, we showed that a genetic variant of PPM1F, rs17759843, was associated with comorbid PTSD and depression and with PPM1F expression in both human brain and blood. Given prior reported mechanistic links between PPM1F and CAMK2 (CAMKII), we examined blood messenger RNA level of CAMK2G in humans and found it to be lower in cases with comorbid PTSD and depression. We also found that PPM1F protein levels and colocalization with CAMK2G were altered in amygdala and mPFC of male mice. Additionally, we found that a systemic dose of corticosterone blocked the depressive-like phenotype elicited by stress in female mice. Lastly, corticosterone rescued the anxiety-like phenotype and messenger RNA levels of Ppm1f in amygdala and mPFC in male mice and in mPFC of female mice. Taken together, our data suggest a mechanistic pathway involving PPM1F and CAMK2G in stress- and trauma-related manifestation of anxiety and depression across species. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Childhood trauma in the lives of substance-dependent patients: The relationship between depression, anxiety and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Suat; Kandemir, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    High levels of childhood traumatic experiences have been observed among substance abusers. There has been insufficient study of the effects of childhood trauma in adulthood. The aim of this study is to research the relationship between childhood trauma, self-esteem, and levels of depression and anxiety in substance-dependent (SD) people. This study took place between March 2012 and April 2013, at Balıklı Rum Hospital (Istanbul) substance dependency clinic. It included 50 patients diagnosed as substance dependent according to the criteria of DSM-IV as compared with 45 healthy controls. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Diagnosis (SCID-I) was used to identify Axis I disorders. All other data was collected using a semi-structured socio-demographic questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The total scores of the SD group on the CTQ and on its Emotional Abuse/Emotional Neglect (EA/EN), Physical Abuse (PA) and Sexual Abuse (SA) subscales were statistically significant. In relation to the healthy controls, the SD group scored higher on the RSES, BDI and BAI. A correlation was observed between the total scores of SD individuals on the CTQ and their scores on the RSES, BDI and BAI. This study showed high levels of childhood traumatic experiences for SD people and indicates that there may be a relationship between these experiences and their levels of self-esteem, depression and anxiety.

  7. Berberine alleviates symptoms of anxiety by enhancing dopamine expression in rats with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bombi; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2018-03-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma-induced psychiatric disorder characterized by impaired fear extermination, hyperarousal, anxiety, depression, and amnesic symptoms that may involve the release of monoamines in the fear circuit. The present study measured several anxiety-related behavioral responses to examine the effects of berberine (BER) on symptoms of anxiety in rats after single prolonged stress (SPS) exposure, and to determine if BER reversed the dopamine (DA) dysfunction. Rats received BER (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, once daily) for 14 days after SPS exposure. BER administration significantly increased the time spent in the open arms and reduced grooming behavior during the elevated plus maze test, and increased the time spent in the central zone and the number of central zone crossings in the open field test. BER restored neurochemical abnormalities and the SPS-induced decrease in DA tissue levels in the hippocampus and striatum. The increased DA concentration during BER treatment may partly be attributed to mRNA expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and the DA transporter in the hippocampus, while BER exerted no significant effects on vesicular monoamine transporter mRNA expression in the hippocampus of rats with PTSD. These results suggest that BER had anxiolytic-like effects on behavioral and biochemical measures associated with anxiety. These findings support a role for reduced anxiety altered DAergic transmission and reduced anxiety in rats with PTSD. Thus, BER may be a useful agent to treat or alleviate psychiatric disorders like those observed in patients with PTSD.

  8. Trauma histories among justice-involved youth: findings from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly B. Dierkhising

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Up to 90% of justice-involved youth report exposure to some type of traumatic event. On average, 70% of youth meet criteria for a mental health disorder with approximately 30% of youth meeting criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Justice-involved youth are also at risk for substance use and academic problems, and child welfare involvement. Yet, less is known about the details of their trauma histories, and associations among trauma details, mental health problems, and associated risk factors. Objective: This study describes detailed trauma histories, mental health problems, and associated risk factors (i.e., academic problems, substance/alcohol use, and concurrent child welfare involvement among adolescents with recent involvement in the juvenile justice system. Method: The National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set (NCTSN-CDS is used to address these aims, among which 658 adolescents report recent involvement in the juvenile justice system as indexed by being detained or under community supervision by the juvenile court. Results: Age of onset of trauma exposure was within the first 5 years of life for 62% of youth and approximately one-third of youth report exposure to multiple or co-occurring trauma types each year into adolescence. Mental health problems are prevalent with 23.6% of youth meeting criteria for PTSD, 66.1% in the clinical range for externalizing problems, and 45.5% in the clinical range for internalizing problems. Early age of onset of trauma exposure was differentially associated with mental health problems and related risk factors among males and females. Conclusions: The results indicate that justice-involved youth report high rates of trauma exposure and that this trauma typically begins early in life, is often in multiple contexts, and persists over time. Findings provide support for establishing trauma-informed juvenile justice systems that can respond to the needs of traumatized youth.

  9. The therapeutic effect of high-dose esomeprazole on stress ulcer bleeding in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-Hong; Li, Chao; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Zhi-Hui; He, Xing; Gong, San-Dong

    2015-01-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects of different doses of intravenous esomeprazole on treating trauma patients with stress ulcer bleeding. A total of 102 trauma patients with stress ulcer bleeding were randomly divided into 2 groups: 52 patients were assigned to the high-dose group who received 80 mg intravenous esomeprazole, and then 8 mg/h continuous infusion for 3 days; 50 patients were assigned to the conventional dose group who received 40 mg intravenous esomeprazole sodium once every 12 h for 72 h. Compared with the conventional dose group, the total efficiency of the high-dose group and conventional dose group was 98.08% and 86.00%, respectively (p esomeprazole have good hemostatic effects on stress ulcer bleeding in trauma patients. The high-dose esomeprazole is better for hemostasis.

  10. Childhood trauma increases the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder in response to first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendall, Sarah; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Hulbert, Carol A; McGorry, Patrick D; Jackson, Henry J

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between childhood trauma, post-traumatic stress symptoms due to the experience of childhood trauma, and post-traumatic stress symptoms due to the experience of psychosis. The current study assessed childhood trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a result of both childhood trauma and psychosis using the Impact of Events Scale - Revised, in a group of 36 people with first-episode psychosis. Reported rates of clinical level post-psychotic PTSD symptoms, childhood trauma and childhood trauma-related clinical level PTSD symptoms were 47% (95% CI 31-64%), 64% (95% CI 48-80%) and 39% (95% CI 23-55%), respectively. Reporting childhood trauma increased the risk of developing post-psychosis PTSD 27-fold (95% CI 2.96-253.80, p = 0.01). Having childhood trauma-related PTSD increased the risk of developing post-psychosis PTSD 20-fold (95% CI 3.38-123.25, p = 0.01). These risks were not explained by illness factors such as duration of untreated psychosis, age of onset or severity of psychotic symptoms. Those without post-psychotic PTSD symptoms at clinical levels were unlikely to report childhood trauma (6%; 95% CI 3-8%). These results suggest the cognitive, social and biological consequences of childhood trauma can prevent effective recovery from the trauma of acute first-episode psychosis resulting in post-psychotic PTSD. Treatment strategies for post-psychotic PTSD must address childhood trauma and related PTSD.

  11. The Psychological Consequences of Pre-Emigration Trauma and Post-Migration Stress in Refugees and Immigrants from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Jennifer L; Dunlavy, Andrea C; Harding, Collette E; Theorell, Töres

    2017-06-01

    Over 50 million people have been displaced, some as a result of conflict, which exposure can lead to psychiatric sequelae. The aims of this study were to provide estimates of pre-emigration trauma, post-migration stress, and psychological sequelae of immigrants and refugees from predominantly Sub-Saharan Africa who immigrated to Sweden. We also examined the predictors of the psychiatric sequelae as well as acculturation within the host country. A total of 420 refugees and immigrants were enrolled using stratified quota sampling. A battery of questionnaires including the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, Post-Migration Living Difficulties Scale, the Cultural Lifestyle Questionnaire; and the Hopkins Checklist were administered. Descriptive statistics, Chi square analyses, Pearson correlations, analysis of variance, and logistic and linear regression were performed to test the aims of the study. Eighty-nine percent of participants reported at least one traumatic experience prior to emigration. Forty-seven percent of refugees reported clinically significant PTSD and 20 % reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Males reported a significantly greater number of traumatic events [F(1, 198) = 14.5, p < 0.001] and post-migration stress than females [F(1, 414) = 5.3, p = 0.02], particularly on the financial, discrimination, and healthcare subscales. Females reported a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms when compared to males [F(1, 419) = 3.9, p = 0.05]. Those with a shorter duration in Sweden reported higher rates of PTSD [F(63, 419) = 1.7, p < 0.001]. The greater number of traumatic events was found to be significantly associated with the severity of PTSD symptoms [F(34, 419) = 9.6, p < 0.001]. Using regression analysis, 82 and 83 % of the variances associated with anxiety and depression, respectively, was explained by gender, education, religion, PTSD and post-migration stress. Sixty-nine percent of the variance associated with PTSD

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder, trauma, and reconciliation in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lauren C; López, Belkys; Pritchard, Matthew; Deng, David

    2017-06-01

    South Sudan is embroiled in a conflict that erupted in December 2013. This study examines what people in South Sudan think is necessary to achieve reconciliation and how trauma exposure and PTSD are associated with those beliefs. 1525 participants (51.0% female) were selected using random and purposive sampling in six states and Abyei. Participants reported on traumatic events, PTSD symptoms, and attitudes towards reconciliation mechanisms. Results indicated that 40.7% met symptom criteria for probable PTSD. Most participants thought reconciliation was not possible without prosecuting perpetrators or compensating victims and did not support amnesty. Participants with probable PTSD were more likely to endorse confessions (OR 2.42 [1.75, 3.35]), apologies (OR 2.04 [1.46, 2.83]), and amnesty (OR 1.58 [1.21, 2.08]), and to report that compensation (OR 2.32 [1.80, 3.00]) and prosecution (OR 1.47 [1.15, 1.89]) were not necessary for reconciliation. The more traumatic events people experienced, the more they endorsed criminal punishment for perpetrators (OR 1.07 [1.04, 1.10]) and the less they endorsed confessions (OR 0.97 [0.95, 0.99]). People with PTSD may prioritize ending violence via opportunities for reconciliation, while those with more trauma exposure may support more punitive mechanisms. Policy makers should take mental health treatment and trauma into account when designing conflict mitigation, peace building, and justice mechanisms.

  13. Does perfectionism in bipolar disorder pedigrees mediate associations between anxiety/stress and mood symptoms?

    OpenAIRE

    Corry, Justine; Green, Melissa; Roberts, Gloria; Fullerton, Janice M.; Schofield, Peter R.; Mitchell, Philip B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) and the anxiety disorders are highly comorbid. The present study sought to examine perfectionism and goal attainment values as potential mechanisms of known associations between anxiety, stress and BD symptomatology. Measures of perfectionism and goal attainment values were administered to 269 members of BD pedigrees, alongside measures of anxiety and stress, and BD mood symptoms. Regression analyses were used to determine whether perfectionism and goal attain...

  14. Examining the Relationship Between Trauma Centrality and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: A Moderated Mediation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L.; Chaudoir, Stephenie R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The degree to which a traumatic event is seen as central to one's sense of self (trauma centrality) has been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Based on cognitive models of PTSD that highlight the role that maladaptive appraisals play in generating PTSD symptoms, we hypothesized that appraising a trauma as violating one's core beliefs and goals mediates the link between trauma centrality and PTSD symptoms. Further, we reasoned that coping ability moderates the direct and indirect link as those with better coping ability will have more adaptive appraisals. Design Hypotheses were examined in a cross-sectional sample of 367 undergraduates who have experienced a traumatic event. Methods Data were collected via an online survey. Results Overall, results of the moderated mediation analysis were consistent with the hypothesized mediating role for appraised violations and moderating role for coping ability. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of considering individual differences and trauma appraisals in understanding the relationship between trauma centrality and PTSD — trauma centrality may be related to PTSD symptoms more so among people with poorer coping ability who appraise a trauma as violating their core beliefs and goals. PMID:27458331

  15. Vegans report less stress and anxiety than omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, Bonnie; Radnitz, Cynthia; Rinne, Amy; DiMatteo, Julie

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating mood in vegetarian diets have yielded conflicting results, either demonstrating risk for mental disorders or mood protection. Our objective was to investigate mood, as well as factors that potentially impact mood in vegans (VG), vegetarians (VEG), and omnivores (OMN). We surveyed mood, diet, and lifestyle factors in a broad geographic online sample of adult VG (n = 283), VEG (n = 109), and OMN (n = 228) who were recruited via diet-related social networks. Mood was measured with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). The sample was mostly female (78.5%), and age was inversely correlated with all DASS scores (p vegan diet and daily fruit and vegetable intake. Mean stress scores were different in females only (F(2,476) = 3.82, p = 0.023, η(p)(2) = 0.016) and lower stress in females was related to a vegan diet and lower daily intake of sweets. A strict plant-based diet does not appear to negatively impact mood, in fact, reduction of animal food intake may have mood benefits. The improved mood domains were not consistent with those found in other studies, which may be due to methodological differences.

  16. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness in Korean nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeoungsuk; Lindquist, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Nursing students often experience depression, anxiety, stress and decreased mindfulness which may decrease their patient care effectiveness. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) effectively reduced depression, anxiety and stress, and increased mindfulness in previous research with other populations, but there is sparse evidence regarding its effectiveness for nursing students in Korea. To examine the effects of MBSR on depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness in Korean nursing students. A randomized controlled trial. Fifty (50) nursing students at KN University College of Nursing in South Korea were randomly assigned to two groups. Data from 44 students, MBSR (n=21) and a wait list (WL) control (n=23) were analyzed. The MBSR group practiced mindfulness meditation for 2 h every week for 8 weeks. The WL group did not receive MBSR intervention. Standardized self-administered questionnaires of depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness were administered at the baseline prior to the MBSR program and at completion (at 8 weeks). Compared with WL participants, MBSR participants reported significantly greater decreases in depression, anxiety and stress, and greater increase in mindfulness. A program of MBSR was effective when it was used with nursing students in reducing measures of depression, anxiety and stress, and increasing their mindful awareness. MBSR shows promise for use with nursing students to address their experience of mild depression, anxiety and stress, and to increase mindfulness in academic and clinical work, warranting further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Beyond the physical injuries: child and parent coping with medical traumatic stress after pediatric trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzucidlo, Susan E; Campbell, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Experiencing a traumatic event and then the required care for the physical injuries can elicit stress symptoms in the injured child and parents. Stress-related symptoms affect a significant number of injured children and can have an impact on emotional and physical health outcomes after injury. Yet the majority of children who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder postinjury go undiagnosed and untreated. Medical traumatic stress symptoms that occur often as adaptive responses initially can persist. Acute stress disorder is diagnosed when the stress symptoms persist less than 1 month postinjury and affect normal functioning. Inclusion of screening for acute stress and the development of models and guidelines are needed to systematically incorporate the care for the emotional trauma as an integral part of pediatric trauma care. Pediatric trauma nurses with knowledge and resources are in a position to minimize potentially traumatic aspects of the care they deliver, recognize traumatic stress symptoms, and help parents to support their child's coping and promote appropriate help seeking.

  18. Depression, anxiety and loss of resilience after multiple traumas: an illustration of a mediated moderation model of sensitization in a group of children who survived the Nazi Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossion, Pierre; Leys, Christophe; Kempenaers, Chantal; Braun, Stephanie; Verbanck, Paul; Linkowski, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders (DAD) have become a major public health problem. Multiple trauma is known to increase the risk of DAD through a sensitization mechanism. We investigate the hypothesis that resilience is a mediator of this mechanism. Former Hidden Children (FHC), the Jewish youths who spent World War II in various hideaway shelters across Nazi-occupied Europe, were compared with a control group. In each group, we measured the presence of multiple traumas, the resilience with the Resilience Scale for Adults, which has a six factors solution, and the DAD with the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist. We test a mediated moderation model with childhood trauma as the predictor; Later trauma as the moderator; Resilience as the mediator; and DAD as the outcome variable. Results are consistent with a sensitization model of DAD mediated by resilience: confrontation with a primary trauma during childhood followed by secondary trauma(s) after childhood damages resilience, which, in turn, results in higher level of DAD. We are unable to differentiate if the sensitization process is a consequence of the nature of the trauma endured by FHC (long-standing exposure to extreme external events) or a consequence of the fact that this first trauma occurred during childhood. Resilience construct is multi-factorial and a limited damaging of some of the factors is sufficient to lead to DAD even if other factors remain unaltered. Resilience can be altered by multiple traumas and, therefore, needs to be bolstered in therapy sessions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder among homeless adults in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn M; Sharpe, Louise

    2008-03-01

    International studies indicate high prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder within homeless populations. In Australia, studies indicate high rates of trauma among homeless adults, yet post-traumatic stress disorder has not been investigated in homeless Australian adults. The primary aim of this project was to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among homeless adults in Sydney. Further, another aim of the study was to determine whether the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder preceded the first episode of homelessness or was a consequence of homelessness. The sample consisted of 70 homeless men and women aged 18-73 years, who were randomly sampled through eight homeless services. A computer-assisted face-to-face structured clinical interview was conducted with each participant. Lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was determined via the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The majority of the sample had experienced at least one traumatic event in their lifetime (98%). Indeed, the mean number of traumas per person was six. The 12 month prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was higher among homeless adults in Sydney in comparison to the Australian general population (41% vs 1.5%). But 79% of the sample had a lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress. In 59% of cases, the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder preceded the age of the first reported homeless episode. Homeless adults in Sydney frequently experience trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder. The study found that trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder more often precede homelessness, but re-victimization is common. These findings highlight the high mental health needs among homeless people and have implications for services for homeless people.

  20. Performance Enhancement with Low Stress and Anxiety Modulated by Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Woo; Kee, Baik Seok; Na, Churl; Na, Do-Hyun E.; Zaichkowsky, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare cognitive flexibility abilities, stress, and anxiety between starters and non-starter athletes. Methods A total of 30 male professional-soccer and 40 professional-baseball athletes were recruited. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Trail Making Test A & B (TMT A & B) were administered to assess cognitive flexibility during competition. The Korean version of the STAI form Y (STAI-KY) and Visual analogue scale for anxiety and stress were used to assess the anxiety and stress. Results The starter group had better cognitive function (fewer perseverative errors and rapid TMTB times) (Z=3.32, panxiety (F=4.34, p=0.01; F=6.61, pcognitive performances were negatively correlated with stress and anxiety. Current results suggested that cognitive flexibility would enhance human performance by modulation of the anxiety and stress during competition. PMID:21994509

  1. Developing Specific Self-Efficacy and Resilience as First Responders among Students of Social Work and Stress and Trauma Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farchi, Moshe; Cohen, Ayala; Mosek, Atalia

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the challenging task of preparing baccalaureate social work students to master proficiency as first responders in stress and trauma situations. We begin with a brief description of the context, goals, admission procedure, structure, and process of a stress and trauma studies (STS) program. We then compare the development of…

  2. Depression, anxiety and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal, Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sathish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a stressful period due to physical, psychological, sexual changes, and the presence of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress at this stage of life is a matter of concern. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal and to determine the association between depression, anxiety, and stress and selected variables such as gender, standard, and religion. Materials and methods: From September 2014 to October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among higher secondary school students of Imphal. The sample size was calculated to be 750. Seven schools were randomly selected, and all the students in that school were enrolled in the study. The study tool used was a questionnaire containing DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among 830 valid respondents were 19.5%, 24.4%, and 21.1%, respectively. In total, 81.6% of the respondents had at least one of the studied disorders and 34.7% of the respondents had all the three negative states. The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high among females and were significant for anxiety (P = 0.00 and stress (P = 0.04. The prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students with P-values of 0.00 and 0.02. Conclusion: The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high with anxiety and stress significantly higher among females, whereas prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students. More studies are recommended to determine the factors leading to these mental disorders.

  3. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Among Higher Secondary School Students of Imphal, Manipur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Sathish; Akoijam, Brogen Singh

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a stressful period due to physical, psychological, sexual changes, and the presence of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress at this stage of life is a matter of concern. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal and to determine the association between depression, anxiety, and stress and selected variables such as gender, standard, and religion. From September 2014 to October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among higher secondary school students of Imphal. The sample size was calculated to be 750. Seven schools were randomly selected, and all the students in that school were enrolled in the study. The study tool used was a questionnaire containing DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale) and sociodemographic characteristics. The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among 830 valid respondents were 19.5%, 24.4%, and 21.1%, respectively. In total, 81.6% of the respondents had at least one of the studied disorders and 34.7% of the respondents had all the three negative states. The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high among females and were significant for anxiety ( P = 0.00) and stress ( P = 0.04). The prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students with P-values of 0.00 and 0.02. The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high with anxiety and stress significantly higher among females, whereas prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students. More studies are recommended to determine the factors leading to these mental disorders.

  4. Role of 5-HT in stress, anxiety, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, F G; Guimarães, F S; De Andrade, T G; Deakin, J F

    1996-05-01

    There are conflicting results on the function of 5-HT in anxiety and depression. To reconcile this evidence, Deakin and Graeff have suggested that the ascending 5-HT pathway that originates in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and innervates the amygdala and frontal cortex facilitates conditioned fear, while the DRN-periventricular pathway innervating the periventricular and periaqueductal gray matter inhibits inborn fight/flight reactions to impending danger, pain, or asphyxia. To study the role of the DRN 5-HT system in anxiety, we microinjected 8-OH-DPAT into the DRN to inhibit 5-HT release. This treatment impaired inhibitory avoidance (conditioned fear) without affecting one-way escape (unconditioned fear) in the elevated T-maze, a new animal model of anxiety. We also applied three drug treatments that increase 5-HT release from DRN terminals: 1) intra-DRN microinjection of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist FG 4172, 2) intra-DRN microinjection of the excitatory amino acid kainic acid, and 3) intraperitoneal injection of the 5-HT releaser and uptake blocker D-fenfluramine. All treatments enhanced inhibitory avoidance in T-maze. D-Fenfluramine and intra-DRN kainate also decreased one-way escape. In healthy volunteers, D-fenfluramine and the 5-HT agonist mCPP (mainly 5-HT2C) increased, while the antagonists ritanserin (5-HT2A/2C) and SR 46349B (5-HT2A) decreased skin conductance responses to an aversively conditioned stimulus (tone). In addition, D-fenfluramine decreased, whereas ritanserin increased subjective anxiety induced by simulated public speaking, thought to represent unconditioned anxiety. Overall, these results are compatible with the above hypothesis. Deakin and Graeff have suggested that the pathway connecting the median raphe nucleus (MRN) to the dorsal hippocampus promotes resistance to chronic, unavoidable stress. In the present study, we found that 24 h after electrolytic lesion of the rat MRN glandular gastric ulcers occurred, and the immune

  5. Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress predict test anxiety in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Augner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify predictors of test anxiety in nursing students. Design: Cross sectional pilot study. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 112 students of an Austrian nursing school (mean age = 21.42, SD = 5.21. Test anxiety (measured by the standardized PAF Test Anxiety Questionnaire, perceived chronic stress, depressive symptoms, pathological eating and further psychological and health parameters were measured. Results: We found highly significant correlations between test anxiety and working hours (0.25, depression score (0.52, emotional stability (-0.31, and perceived chronic stress (0.65 (p < 0.01, for all. Regression analysis revealed chronic stress and emotional instability as best predictors for test anxiety. Furthermore, path analysis revealed that past negative academic performance outcomes contribute to test anxiety via depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress are strongly related to test anxiety. Therefore therapy and training methods that address depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress, and thereby aim to modify appraisal of potential stressful situations, may be successful in addressing test anxiety.

  6. Testing the dimensional structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in a nonclinical trauma-exposed adolescent sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyong; Wang, Li; Cao, Chengqi; Qing, Yulan; Armour, Cherie

    2016-02-01

    The current study investigated the underlying dimensionality of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a trauma-exposed Chinese adolescent sample using a confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) alternative model approach. The sample consisted of 559 students (242 females and 314 males) ranging in age from 12 to 18 years (M = 15.8, SD = 1.3). Participants completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, the Major Depression Disorder and Panic Disorder subscales of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Aggressive Behavior subscale of the Youth Self-Report. Confirmatory factor analytic results indicated that a seven-factor model comprised of intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behavior, anxious arousal, and dysphoric arousal factors emerged as the best-fitting model. Further analyses showed that the external measures of psychopathological variables including major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and aggressive behavior were differentially associated with the resultant factors. These findings support and extend previous findings for the newly refined seven-factor hybrid model, and carry clinical and research implications for trauma-related psychopathology. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. Bullying Victimization, Parenting Stress, and Anxiety among Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Cappadocia, M Catherine; Tint, Ami; Pepler, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Bullying victimization is commonly associated with anxiety among individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and both bullying victimization and anxiety are more prevalent among youth with ASD than in the general population. We explored individual and contextual factors that relate to anxiety in adolescents and young adults with ASD who also experience bullying victimization. Participants included 101 mothers of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with ASD. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between bullying victimization and anxiety in children with ASD, as well as parenting stress as a potential moderator of that relationship. Findings indicate that parenting stress moderates the association between bullying victimization and anxiety. The severity of anxiety was most strongly associated with bullying victimization when mothers reported high levels of stress. Implications for interventions that assist parents with coping and address bullying victimization are discussed. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Suppression of negative affect in cancer patients. Trauma and defensiveness of self-esteem as predictors of depression and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fila-Jankowska Aleksandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the work show that the relatively small differences in declared, negative emotional states (such as depression or anxiety between people suffering and not suffering from cancer can be explained by the suppression of negative affect in the former. It was assumed that the suppression is related to a compensation of an automatic, affective self-assessment - i.e. implicit self-esteem, lower in cancer patients. The results confirmed that the connection of cancer and depression (similarly cancer and anxiety became significantly stronger while the self-esteem defensiveness and past stress are statistically controlled.

  9. The metabolic stress response to burn trauma: current understanding and therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Craig; Tompkins, Ronald G; Finnerty, Celeste C; Sidossis, Labros S; Suman, Oscar E; Herndon, David N

    2016-10-01

    Major burns provoke a profound stress response, which is unrivalled in terms of its magnitude and duration. Evidence suggests that the pathophysiological stress response to severe burn trauma persists for several years after injury. Thus, there is a pressing need for novel strategies that mitigate this response and restore normal metabolic function in patients with burns. This is the first in a Series of three papers about the care of people with burns. In this paper, we review the current knowledge of the stress response to burn trauma, with a focus on hypermetabolism, muscle wasting, and stress-induced diabetes. We highlight recent developments and important knowledge gaps that need to be pursued to develop novel therapeutic strategies to improve outcomes in burn survivors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pre-trauma individual differences in extinction learning predict posttraumatic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, M.J.J.; Engelhard, I.M.; Sijbrandij, M.; van Hout, M.A.; Hermans, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of a traumatic event, many people suffer from psychological distress, but only a minority develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pre-trauma individual differences in fear conditioning, most notably reduced extinction learning, have been proposed as playing an important role

  11. Understanding the Impact of Trauma Exposure on Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xing-Li; Shi, Jian-Nong

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of trauma exposure on the posttraumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) of children who resided near the epicenter of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The mechanisms of this impact were explored via structural equation models with self-esteem and coping strategies included as mediators. The…

  12. Screening and Predicting Posttraumatic Stress and Depression in Children Following Single-Incident Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Reginald D. V.; Ellis, Alicia A.; Nehmy, Thomas J.; Ball, Shelley-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Three screening methods to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms in children following single-incident trauma were tested. Children and adolescents (N = 90; aged 7-17 years) were assessed within 4 weeks of an injury that led to hospital treatment and followed up 3 and 6 months later. Screening methods were adapted…

  13. Childhood trauma and social stress reactivity in psychosis: A virtual reality study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Counotte, Jacqueline; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Van Os, Jim; Van Der Gaag, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Childhood trauma may be related to risk for psychosis by the mechanism of sensitization to social stress. Virtual Reality (VR) provides the opportunity to test this mechanism by controlled experimental exposure to different social environments. Methods: Fifty-five patients with recent

  14. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Secondary Traumatic Stress, Vicarious Trauma, and the Supervisory Working Alliance in Counselor Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sara LaRose

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between secondary traumatic stress (STS), vicarious trauma (VT), and the supervisory working alliance (SWA) with the faculty supervisor among counselor trainees (N = 86). The primary purpose of this study was to determine if the SWA and demographic influence STS and VT. Two correlations were conducted to assess…

  16. Haiti and the Earthquake: Examining the Experience of Psychological Stress and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risler, Ed; Kintzle, Sara; Nackerud, Larry

    2015-01-01

    For approximately 35 seconds on January 10, 2010, an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale struck the small Caribbean nation of Haiti. This research used a preexperimental one-shot posttest to examine the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated trauma symptomatology from the earthquake experienced by a sample of…

  17. Working Memory Impairments in Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: The Roles of Anxiety and Stress Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ashley F.; Hobbs, Diana A.; Stephenson, David D.; Laird, Robert D.; Beaton, Elliott A.

    2017-01-01

    Stress and anxiety have a negative impact on working memory systems by competing for executive resources and attention. Broad memory deficits, anxiety, and elevated stress have been reported in individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). We investigated anxiety and physiological stress reactivity in relation to visuospatial…

  18. Post-traumatic stress disorder moderates the relationship between trauma exposure and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqveland, J; Ruud, T; Hauff, E

    2017-01-01

    Background : Trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are risk factors for chronic pain. Objective: This study investigated how exposure to intentional and non-intentional traumatic events and PTSD are related to pain severity and outcome of treatment in chronic pain patients. Methods : We assessed exposure to potentially traumatizing events, psychiatric diagnosis with structured clinical interview, and pain severity in 63 patients at a secondary multidisciplinary pain clinic at the beginning of treatment, and assessed level of pain at follow up. Exposure to potentially traumatizing events and PTSD were regressed on pain severity at the initial session and at follow up in a set of multiple regression analysis. Results : The participants reported exposure to an average of four potentially traumatizing events, and 32% had PTSD. Exposure to intentional traumatic events and PTSD were significantly associated with more severe pain, and PTSD significantly moderated the relationship between trauma exposure and pain (all p < .05). The treatment programme reduced pain moderately, an effect that was unrelated to trauma exposure and PTSD. Conclusions : Trauma exposure is related to chronic pain in the same pattern as to mental disorders, with intentional trauma being most strongly related to pain severity. PTSD moderated the relationship between trauma exposure and pain. While pain patients with PTSD initially report more pain, they responded equally to specialist pain treatment as persons without PTSD.

  19. Collective trauma processing: dissociation as a way of processing postwar traumatic stress in Guinea Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Joop de; Reis, Ria

    2013-10-01

    Guidelines on psychosocial interventions in postconflict areas commonly mention that interventions should be based on local needs and be built on culture-specific expertise. This paper is based on a dissociative cult, the Kiyang-yang (KYY), in Guinea Bissau. In a previous article, we used a refined definition of the concept of idiom of distress to analyze the dissociative behavior displayed in KYY as a symbolic language addressing politically dangerous truths. This paper uses the concept of "collective trauma processing" to analyze how the idiom offered the local population a pathway to mitigate the consequences of protracted and widespread political violence. The paper first argues that the field of psychotraumatology lacks a comprehensive ecological theory on trauma. Moreover, within clinical psychology and psychiatry, little attention is paid to local cultural healing mechanisms addressing traumatic stress. This paper is an effort to study such mechanisms in their own right. To compare trauma processing mechanisms across the globe, we propose to analyze trauma processing mechanisms with the help of a comprehensive model discerning five ontological dimensions that are considered to be involved in suffering and are addressed in healing approaches. Our paper describes similarities and differences between psychological healing traditions and collective trauma processing within the West African context of Guinea Bissau. We will illustrate how the KYY movement uses the idiom of dissociation as both a collective expression of distress and as a vehicle to process social suffering and traumatic stress as a circular phenomenon.

  20. Reducing Stress and Anxiety in Caregivers of Lung Transplant Patients: Benefits of Mindfulness Meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, J.; Spadaro, K. C.; Choi, J.; Hoffman, L. A.; Blazeck, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Caregivers are a vital resource in the care of transplant candidates or recipients. However, few strategies have been tested that attempt to decrease the stress and anxiety they commonly encounter. Objective: To test the feasibility of using mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) techniques to decrease stress and anxiety in caregivers of lung transplant candidates/recipients who required admission to an acute care facility. Methods: 30 caregivers of lung transplant candidates/r...

  1. Debating war-trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in an interdisciplinary arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzler, Hanna

    2008-07-01

    Researchers have tried to determine and verify the effects of violent conflicts on the mental health of those affected by focusing on war trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other trauma-related disorders. This, in turn, led to the development of different kinds of theories and aid programs that aim at preventing and treating the consequences of violence and mental health. Until now, there is no agreement on the public health value of the concept of PTSD and no agreement on the appropriate type of mental-health care. Instead, psychiatrists have engaged in sometimes fierce discussions over the universality of war trauma, PTSD, and other trauma-related disorders. The two most polar positions are those who try to validate PTSD as a universal and cross-culturally valid psychopathological response to traumatic distress which may be cured or ameliorated with (Western) clinical and psychosocial therapeutic measures, and those who argue that the Western discourse on trauma only makes sense in the context of a particular cultural and moral framework and, therefore, becomes problematic in the context of other cultural and social settings. Although these positions seem mutually exclusive, their debates have led to the development of less radical approaches toward war-trauma and PTSD. The purpose of this literature review is to analyse the discourses on and debates over war-trauma and PTSD in the psychiatric literature in order to establish a better understanding for the diverse conceptualizations, interpretations and proposed healing strategies. Moreover, I discuss the cultural construction and conceptualization of war-trauma and PTSD from an anthropological perspective and show how anthropologists contribute to psychiatric debates so as to ensure more sophisticated diagnoses and healing strategies in culturally diverse contexts.

  2. Posttraumatic stress disorder in infants and young children exposed to war-related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Vengrober, Adva

    2011-07-01

    Although millions of the world's children are growing up amidst armed conflict, little research has described the specific symptom manifestations and relational behavior in young children exposed to wartime trauma or assessed factors that chart pathways of risk and resilience. Participants included 232 Israeli children 1.5 to 5 years of age, 148 living near the Gaza Strip and exposed to daily war-related trauma and 84 controls. Children's symptoms were diagnosed, maternal and child attachment-related behaviors observed during the evocation of traumatic memories, and maternal psychological symptoms and social support were self-reported. PTSD was diagnosed in 37.8% of war-exposed children (n = 56). Children with PTSD exhibited multiple posttraumatic symptoms and substantial developmental regression. Symptoms observed in more than 60% of diagnosed children included nonverbal representation of trauma in play; frequent crying, night waking, and mood shifts; and social withdrawal and object focus. Mothers of children with PTSD reported the highest depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic symptoms and the lowest social support, and displayed the least sensitivity during trauma evocation. Attachment behavior of children in the Exposed-No-PTSD group was characterized by use of secure-base behavior, whereas children with PTSD showed increased behavioral avoidance. Mother's, but not child's, degree of trauma exposure and maternal PTSD correlated with child avoidance. Large proportions of young children exposed to repeated wartime trauma exhibit a severe posttraumatic profile that places their future adaptation at significant risk. Although more resilient children actively seek maternal support, avoidance signals high risk. Maternal well-being, sensitive behavior, and support networks serve as resilience factors and should be the focus of interventions for families of war-exposed infants and children. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

  3. Rates of trauma spectrum disorders and risks of posttraumatic stress disorder in a sample of orphaned and widowed genocide survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Susanne; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Jacob, Nadja; Elbert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    During the Rwandan genocide of 1994, nearly one million people were killed within a period of 3 months. The objectives of this study were to investigate the levels of trauma exposure and the rates of mental health disorders and to describe risk factors of posttraumatic stress reactions in Rwandan widows and orphans who had been exposed to the genocide. Trained local psychologists interviewed orphans (n=206) and widows (n=194). We used the PSS-I to assess posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the Hopkins Symptom Checklist to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, and the M.I.N.I. to assess risk of suicidality. Subjects reported having been exposed to a high number of different types of traumatic events with a mean of 11 for both groups. Widows displayed more severe mental health problems than orphans: 41% of the widows (compared to 29% of the orphans) met symptom criteria for PTSD and a substantial proportion of widows suffered from clinically significant depression (48% versus 34%) and anxiety symptoms (59% versus 42%) even 13 years after the genocide. Over one-third of respondents of both groups were classified as suicidal (38% versus 39%). Regression analysis indicated that PTSD severity was predicted mainly by cumulative exposure to traumatic stressors and by poor physical health status. In contrast, the importance given to religious/spiritual beliefs and economic variables did not correlate with symptoms of PTSD. While a significant portion of widows and orphans continues to display severe posttraumatic stress reactions, widows seem to constitute a particularly vulnerable survivor group. Our results point to the chronicity of mental health problems in this population and show that PTSD may endure over time if not addressed by clinical intervention. Possible implications of poor mental health and the need for psychological intervention are discussed.

  4. Rates of trauma spectrum disorders and risks of posttraumatic stress disorder in a sample of orphaned and widowed genocide survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schaal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Rwandan genocide of 1994, nearly one million people were killed within a period of 3 months.The objectives of this study were to investigate the levels of trauma exposure and the rates of mental health disorders and to describe risk factors of posttraumatic stress reactions in Rwandan widows and orphans who had been exposed to the genocide.Trained local psychologists interviewed orphans (n=206 and widows (n=194. We used the PSS-I to assess posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, and the M.I.N.I. to assess risk of suicidality.Subjects reported having been exposed to a high number of different types of traumatic events with a mean of 11 for both groups. Widows displayed more severe mental health problems than orphans: 41% of the widows (compared to 29% of the orphans met symptom criteria for PTSD and a substantial proportion of widows suffered from clinically significant depression (48% versus 34% and anxiety symptoms (59% versus 42% even 13 years after the genocide. Over one-third of respondents of both groups were classified as suicidal (38% versus 39%. Regression analysis indicated that PTSD severity was predicted mainly by cumulative exposure to traumatic stressors and by poor physical health status. In contrast, the importance given to religious/spiritual beliefs and economic variables did not correlate with symptoms of PTSD.While a significant portion of widows and orphans continues to display severe posttraumatic stress reactions, widows seem to constitute a particularly vulnerable survivor group. Our results point to the chronicity of mental health problems in this population and show that PTSD may endure over time if not addressed by clinical intervention. Possible implications of poor mental health and the need for psychological intervention are discussed.

  5. The influence of alexithymia on mobile phone addiction: The role of depression, anxiety and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tingting; Li, Jiaomeng; Zhang, Han; Gao, Jinglei; Kong, Yixi; Hu, Yueyang; Mei, Songli

    2018-01-01

    Alexithymia is an important predictor of mobile phone addiction. Enhancing and improving college students' mental health can reduce the rate of mobile phone addiction. However, it is not clear about the role of depression, anxiety and stress in the relationship between college students' alexithymia and mobile phone addiction. A total of 1105 college students were tested with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and the Mobile Phone Addiction Index. An individual's level of alexithymia was significantly correlated with depression, anxiety, stress and mobile phone addiction. Alexithymia had a significantly positive prediction effect on mobile phone addiction, and depression, anxiety, and stress on mobile phone are positive predictors. Depression, anxiety or stress had partially mediating effects between alexithymia and mobile phone addiction. Alexithymia not only directly had a positively impact on mobile phone addiction, but both also had an indirect effect on mobile phone addiction through depression, anxiety or stress. Limitations included sampling method and modest sample size, self-report measures, and unmeasured potential confounders. Alexithymia is an important correlate of mobile phone addiction, and depression, anxiety or stress is an important mediator in this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pediatric seizure-related posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms treated with EMDR: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmedina Dautovic

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the potential effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR in children with epilepsy-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms, using a case series design. Methods: Five children (aged 8–18 with epilepsy identified for seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms were treated with EMDR. To examine potential treatment effects, posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed (CRTI and SCARED pre- and post-EMDR and at 3-month follow-up. Normative deviation scores were calculated to examine the severity of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms over time. The reliable change index was calculated for pre- to posttreatment change of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms. Results: Before EMDR, overall or subscale scores indicated that all children had (subclinical seizure-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms. Directly after EMDR, most children showed significant and/or clinical individual improvement, and these beneficial effects were maintained or reached at follow-up. The mean number of sessions was 2 (range 1–3, 45 min per session. Conclusions: In case of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety, this study indicates that EMDR is a potentially successful quick and safe psychological treatment for children with epilepsy.

  7. The relationship among young adult college students' depression, anxiety, stress, demographics, life satisfaction, and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Jihan Saber Raja; Staten, Ruth; Hall, Lynne A; Lennie, Terry A

    2012-03-01

    Recent research indicates that young adult college students experience increased levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. It is less clear what strategies college health care providers might use to assist students in decreasing these mental health concerns. In this paper, we examine the relative importance of coping style, life satisfaction, and selected demographics in predicting undergraduates' depression, anxiety, and stress. A total of 508 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed the study measures and a short demographics information questionnaire. Coping strategies and life satisfaction were assessed using the Brief COPE Inventory and an adapted version of the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relative influence of each of the independent variables on depression, anxiety, and stress. Maladaptive coping was the main predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress. Adaptive coping was not a significant predictor of any of the three outcome variables. Reducing maladaptive coping behaviors may have the most positive impact on reducing depression, anxiety, and stress in this population.

  8. Prevalence of psychological stress, depression and anxiety among medical students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Mohamed; Hamed, Sherifa A

    2017-09-01

    Poor psychological health in medical students has been reported nationwide. This study estimated the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among medical students who were enrolled in a public university in Upper Egypt and determine the association of these morbidities with the students' basic socio-demographic variables. This cross-sectional study included 700 students. A self-administered, questionnaire for the socio-demographic characteristics, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 21) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire were used for assessment. High frequencies of depression (65%), anxiety (73%) and stress (59.9%) were reported. Stress scores were significantly higher than depression and anxiety (P=0.001). 55.7% were poor sleepers. In univarate analysis, females, those living in the University campus/students' residence facility, in the preclinical years and with lower academic achievement had higher scores of DASS and PSQI compared to their comparative partners. Significant correlations were reported between stress with depression, anxiety and PQSI scores (P=0.0001). In multivariate analysis, stress scores were significantly associated with female sex, depression and anxiety scores. We conclude that depression, anxiety and stress symptoms are common in medical students of Assiut University relative to other schools and female gender was significantly correlated with these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of trait anxiety and situational stress on attentional shifting are buffered by working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark S; Moore, Philippa; Champion, James C; Edwards, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Attentional Control Theory (ACT) predicts that trait anxiety and situation stress combine to reduce performance efficiency on tasks requiring rapid shifts in attention. Recent evidence has also suggested that working memory capacity (WMC) might moderate this relationship. We controlled for methodological difficulties in the existing literature to investigate the relationships between trait anxiety, situational stress, and WMC on attentional shifting. Seventy undergraduate students participated in the study. Trait anxiety was operationalized using questionnaire scores, situational stress was manipulated through a pressured counting task, and WMC was based on performance on the Automated Operation Span Task (AOSPAN). The shifting task involved a modified version of the Sternberg paradigm as the primary task and an oddball tone-discrimination task as the secondary task. Dependent variables were performance effectiveness (accuracy) and processing efficiency (accuracy divided by response time) on the secondary task. There was no effect of anxiety, stress, or WMC in predicting performance effectiveness; however, a significant three-way interaction on processing efficiency was observed. At higher WMC, anxiety and situational stress were not associated with processing efficiency. Conversely, at lower WMC, higher trait anxiety was associated with poorer efficiency but only for those who reported higher situational stress; for those who reported lower situational stress higher trait anxiety predicted facilitated efficiency. Results are interpreted with respect to ACT and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. [Effects of delivery nursing care using essential oils on delivery stress response, anxiety during labor, and postpartum status anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Myung-Haeng; Cheong, NamYoun; Yun, HyeSung; Lee, MiKyoung; Song, Youngshin

    2005-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of delivery nursing care using essential oils on labor stress response, labor anxiety and postpartum status anxiety for primipara. This study used nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The subjects of this experiment consisted of forty eight primipara with single gestation, full term, & uncomplicated pregnancies. Twenty four primipra were in the experimental and control group each. Their mean age was 27.9 years old, their mean gestation period 279.9 days. As a treatment, delivery nursing care using essential oils was applied by nurses. Data collected epinephrine, norepinephrine, anxiety during labor. In the 24 hours after birth, the data for the postpartum mother's status anxiety was collected. Data was analyzed by t-test, repeated measures ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, & Wilcoxon signed ranks test with SPSS Program. Plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine were significantly low in the experimental group (P=0.001, P=0.033, respectively). There was no significant difference between the two groups in anxiety during labor and postpartum mother's status anxiety. These findings indicate that delivery nursing care using essential oils could be effective in decreasing plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine. But, that could not be verified in decreasing mother's anxiety.

  11. The impact of self-efficacy, alexithymia and multiple traumas on posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity following epileptic seizures: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Allen, Rachel D; Dennis, Ian

    2013-12-30

    This study investigated the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity following epileptic seizure, whether alexithymia mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and psychiatric outcomes, and whether the mediational effect was moderated by the severity of PTSD from other traumas. Seventy-one (M=31, F=40) people with a diagnosis of epilepsy recruited from support groups in the United Kingdom completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 and the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. They were compared with 71 people (M=29, F=42) without epilepsy. For people with epilepsy, 51% and 22% met the diagnostic criteria for post-epileptic seizure PTSD and for PTSD following one other traumatic life event respectively. For the control group, 24% met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD following other traumatic life events. The epilepsy group reported significantly more anxiety and depression than the control. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis showed that self-efficacy was significantly correlated with alexithymia, post-epileptic seizure PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Alexithymia was also significantly correlated with post-epileptic seizure PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Mediation analyses confirmed that alexithymia mediated the path between self-efficacy and post-epileptic seizure PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Moderated mediation also confirmed that self-efficacy and PTSD from one other trauma moderated the effect of alexithymia on outcomes. To conclude, people can develop posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and psychiatric co-morbidity following epileptic seizure. These psychiatric outcomes are closely linked with their belief in personal competence to deal with stressful situations and regulate their own functioning, to process rather than defend against distressing emotions, and with the degree of PTSD from other traumas. © 2013 Elsevier

  12. Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Müller

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a widespread condition, that affects near 20% of individuals, exposed to traumatic event. Moreover, recent studies suggest, that it has a tendency for chronic course and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. According to clinical guidelines as first line therapy for PTSD trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy must be used. In this educational course are presented highlights of 2-day trauma-focused cognitive therapy training, including PTSD symptoms, overall CBT methods overview, theoretical and practical implications.

  13. Psychoneuroimmunology of Early-Life Stress: The Hidden Wounds of Childhood Trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; J Lewis, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    The brain and the immune system are not fully formed at birth, but rather continue to mature in response to the postnatal environment. The two-way interaction between the brain and the immune system makes it possible for childhood psychosocial stressors to affect immune system development, which in turn can affect brain development and its long-term functioning. Drawing from experimental animal models and observational human studies, we propose that the psychoneuroimmunology of early-life stress can offer an innovative framework to understand and treat psychopathology linked to childhood trauma. Early-life stress predicts later inflammation, and there are striking analogies between the neurobiological correlates of early-life stress and of inflammation. Furthermore, there are overlapping trans-diagnostic patterns of association of childhood trauma and inflammation with clinical outcomes. These findings suggest new strategies to remediate the effect of childhood trauma before the onset of clinical symptoms, such as anti-inflammatory interventions and potentiation of adaptive immunity. Similar strategies might be used to ameliorate the unfavorable treatment response described in psychiatric patients with a history of childhood trauma. PMID:27629365

  14. Development of Anxiety Disorders in a Traumatized Pediatric Population: A Preliminary Longitudinal Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Adriana M.; Saltzman, Kassey M.; Weems, Carl F.; Regnault, Heather P.; Reiss, Allan L.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The current study was conducted to determine if post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology predicted later development of non-PTSD anxiety disorders in children and adolescents victimized by interpersonal trauma. Methods: Thirty-four children with a history of interpersonal trauma and no initial diagnosis of anxiety disorder…

  15. Biological underpinnings of trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder: focusing on genetics and epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joanne; Chaudieu, Isabelle; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Saffery, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Certain individuals are more susceptible to stress and trauma, as well as the physical and mental health consequences following such exposure, including risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This differing vulnerability is likely to be influenced by genetic predisposition and specific characteristics of the stress itself (nature, intensity and duration), as well as epigenetic mechanisms. In this review we provide an overview of research findings in this field. We highlight some of the key genetic risk factors identified for PTSD, and the evidence that epigenetic processes might play a role in the biological response to trauma, as well as being potential biomarkers of PTSD risk. We also discuss important considerations for future research in this area.

  16. Evaluation of a Spiritually Focused Intervention with Older Trauma Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowland, Sharon; Edmond, Tonya; Fallot, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an 11-session, spiritually focused group intervention with older women survivors (age 55 years and older) of interpersonal trauma (child abuse, sexual assault, or domestic violence) in reducing trauma-related depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress, and anxiety. Forty-three community-dwelling women…

  17. Reliability and preliminary evidence of validity of a Farsi version of the depression anxiety stress scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Ali Asghar

    2010-08-01

    The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were examined, with a sample of 306 undergraduate students (123 men, 183 women) ranging from 18 to 51 years of age (M age = 25.4, SD = 6.1). Participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. The findings confirmed the preliminary reliabilities and preliminary construct validity of the Farsi translation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales.

  18. Medical students' experience of and reaction to stress: the role of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Wilks, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Medical school is recognized as a stressful environment that often has a negative effect on students' academic performance, physical health, and psychosocial well-being. Previous studies have not identified differences between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious medical students' experiences of stress or their reactions to stressors. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of depression and anxiety among a sample of 358 medical students attending a private university in Malaysia and to examine differences according to participants' gender, year of study, and stage of training (preclinical and clinical). Additionally, this study examined the extent to which stress predicts depression and anxiety, differences between depressed and nondepressed medical students' experiences of and reactions to stressors, and differences between anxious and nonanxious medical students' experiences of and reactions to stressors. The Student Life Stress Inventory was used to measure stress and reaction to stressors and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale was used to measure depression and anxiety. The results showed that 44% (n = 158) of the students were anxious and 34.9% (n = 125) were depressed. More female students exhibited anxiety compared to male students. Stress is a predictor for depression and anxiety. A significant difference was found between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious students' experience of stressors due to frustration, change, and their emotional reaction to stressors. Overall, depressed and anxious students were found to experience more stress and react differently to stressors compared to nondepressed and nonanxious students.

  19. Medical Students' Experience of and Reaction to Stress: The Role of Depression and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Medical school is recognized as a stressful environment that often has a negative effect on students' academic performance, physical health, and psychosocial well-being. Previous studies have not identified differences between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious medical students' experiences of stress or their reactions to stressors. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of depression and anxiety among a sample of 358 medical students attending a private university in Malaysia and to examine differences according to participants' gender, year of study, and stage of training (preclinical and clinical). Additionally, this study examined the extent to which stress predicts depression and anxiety, differences between depressed and nondepressed medical students' experiences of and reactions to stressors, and differences between anxious and nonanxious medical students' experiences of and reactions to stressors. Methods. The Student Life Stress Inventory was used to measure stress and reaction to stressors and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale was used to measure depression and anxiety. Results. The results showed that 44% (n = 158) of the students were anxious and 34.9% (n = 125) were depressed. More female students exhibited anxiety compared to male students. Stress is a predictor for depression and anxiety. A significant difference was found between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious students' experience of stressors due to frustration, change, and their emotional reaction to stressors. Conclusion. Overall, depressed and anxious students were found to experience more stress and react differently to stressors compared to nondepressed and nonanxious students. PMID:24688425

  20. Medical Students’ Experience of and Reaction to Stress: The Role of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coumaravelou Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medical school is recognized as a stressful environment that often has a negative effect on students’ academic performance, physical health, and psychosocial well-being. Previous studies have not identified differences between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious medical students’ experiences of stress or their reactions to stressors. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of depression and anxiety among a sample of 358 medical students attending a private university in Malaysia and to examine differences according to participants’ gender, year of study, and stage of training (preclinical and clinical. Additionally, this study examined the extent to which stress predicts depression and anxiety, differences between depressed and nondepressed medical students’ experiences of and reactions to stressors, and differences between anxious and nonanxious medical students’ experiences of and reactions to stressors. Methods. The Student Life Stress Inventory was used to measure stress and reaction to stressors and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale was used to measure depression and anxiety. Results. The results showed that 44% (n=158 of the students were anxious and 34.9% (n=125 were depressed. More female students exhibited anxiety compared to male students. Stress is a predictor for depression and anxiety. A significant difference was found between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious students’ experience of stressors due to frustration, change, and their emotional reaction to stressors. Conclusion. Overall, depressed and anxious students were found to experience more stress and react differently to stressors compared to nondepressed and nonanxious students.

  1. Pediatric seizure-related posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms treated with EMDR: a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautovic, Elmedina; de Roos, Carlijn; van Rood, Yanda; Dommerholt, Agnes; Rodenburg, Roos

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the potential effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in children with epilepsy-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms, using a case series design. Methods Five children (aged 8–18) with epilepsy identified for seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms were treated with EMDR. To examine potential treatment effects, posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed (CRTI and SCARED) pre- and post-EMDR and at 3-month follow-up. Normative deviation scores were calculated to examine the severity of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms over time. The reliable change index was calculated for pre- to posttreatment change of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms. Results Before EMDR, overall or subscale scores indicated that all children had (sub)clinical seizure-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms. Directly after EMDR, most children showed significant and/or clinical individual improvement, and these beneficial effects were maintained or reached at follow-up. The mean number of sessions was 2 (range 1–3, 45 min per session). Conclusions In case of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety, this study indicates that EMDR is a potentially successful quick and safe psychological treatment for children with epilepsy. Highlights of the article The first study to examine the potential effects of EMDR to reduce clinical seizure-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms in children with epilepsy. After 1–3 EMDR (45 min) sessions, positive treatment effects were found on a range of seizure-related PTSD symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms. During treatment, no seizures, absences, or any other adverse events were observed; the seizure diaries showed that none of the children experienced more seizures (or an unusual pattern) after treatment. At the reevaluation of EMDR, all children and parents

  2. Anxiety response and restraint-induced stress differentially affect ethanol intake in female adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, María Belén; Fabio, Maria Carolina; Fernández, Macarena Soledad; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2016-10-15

    Anxiety disorders are more likely to occur in women than in men, usually emerge during adolescence and exhibit high comorbidity with alcohol use disorders (AUD). Adolescents with high levels of anxiety or heightened reactivity to stress may be at-risk for developing AUD. An approach to analyze if high levels of inborn anxiety predict greater ethanol drinking is to assess the latter variable in subjects classified as high- or low-anxiety responders. The present study assessed ethanol drinking in adolescent, female Wistar, rats classified as high-, low- or average-anxiety responders and exposed or not to restraint stress (RS, Exp. 1). Classification was made through a multivariate index derived from testing anxiety responses in an elevated plus maze and a light-dark box tests. RS was applied after animals had been initiated to ethanol drinking. Intake of sweetened ethanol was unaffected by level of anxiety response. Adolescents with high levels of inborn anxiety exhibited significantly higher intake of unsweetened ethanol than counterparts with standard levels of anxiety, yet this effect was inhibited by RS exposure. Experiment 2 assessed FOS immunoreactivity after RS. Stress induced a significant increase in FOS immunoreactivity at the paraventricular nucleus, yet this effect was unaffected by level of anxiety response. Female adolescents with high levels of basal anxiety may be at-risk for exhibiting increased predisposition for ethanol intake and preference. The study also indicates that stress may exert differential effects on adolescent ethanol intake as a function of the level of anxiety response. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Burnout, compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and secondary traumatic stress in trauma nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, Katherine A; VonRueden, Kathryn T; Friedmann, Erika; McQuillan, Karen A; Gilmore, Rebecca; Kramer, Betsy; Murray, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The relationship of burnout (BO), compassion fatigue (CF), compassion satisfaction (CS), and secondary traumatic stress (STS) to personal/environmental characteristics, coping mechanisms, and exposure to traumatic events was explored in 128 trauma nurses. Of this sample, 35.9% had scores consistent with BO, 27.3% reported CF, 7% reported STS, and 78.9% had high CS scores. High BO and high CF scores predicted STS. Common characteristics correlating with BO, CF, and STS were negative coworker relationships, use of medicinals, and higher number of hours worked per shift. High CS correlated with greater strength of supports, higher participation in exercise, use of meditation, and positive coworker relationships. Caring for trauma patients may lead to BO, CF, and STS; identifying predictors of these can inform the development of interventions to mitigate or minimize BO, CF, and STS in trauma nurses.

  4. Self-worth as a mediator between attachment and posttraumatic stress in interpersonal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ban Hong Phylice; Adams, Lauren A; Lilly, Michelle M

    2012-07-01

    It is well documented that most trauma survivors recover from adversity and only a number of them go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In addition, survivors of interpersonal trauma (IPT) appear to be at heightened risk for developing PTSD in comparison to survivors of noninterpersonal trauma (NIPT). Despite a robust association between IPT exposure and attachment disruptions, there is a dearth of research examining the role of attachment-related processes implicated in predicting PTSD. Using a sample of college undergraduates exposed to IPT and NIPT, this study explores the mediating effect of self-worth in the relationship between attachment and PTSD. It is hypothesized that insecure attachment will be related to posttraumatic symptomatology via a reduced sense of self-worth in IPT survivors but not in NIPT survivors. Mediation analyses provide support for this hypothesis, suggesting the importance of considering negative cognitions about the self in therapeutic interventions, particularly those offered to IPT survivors.

  5. Could spirituality and religion promote stress resilience in survivors of childhood trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Koenig, Harold G

    2014-04-01

    Trauma is a precursor to many mental health conditions that greatly impact victims, their loved ones, and society. Studies indicate that neurobiological associations with adverse childhood experiences are mediated by interpersonal relationships and play a role in adult behavior, often leading to cycles of intergenerational trauma. There is a critical need to identify cost effective community resources that optimize stress resilience. Faith-based communities may promote forgiveness rather than retaliation, opportunities for cathartic emotional release, and social support, all of which have been related to neurobiology, behavior, and health outcomes. While spirituality and religion can be related to guilt, neurotic, and psychotic disorders, they also can be powerful sources of hope, meaning, peace, comfort, and forgiveness for the self and others. This article provides an overview of religion and spirituality as they relate to the neurobiology of resilience in victims of childhood trauma.

  6. Stress moderates the effect of childhood trauma and adversity on recent drinking in treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, Sarah F; Businelle, Michael S; Suris, Alina; Walker, Robrina; Rao, Uma; North, Carol S; Xiao, Hong; Adinoff, Bryon

    2014-06-01

    This study sought to clarify the relationship between childhood trauma and adversity with later alcohol consumption and the moderating effects of adult psychosocial stress. Seventy-seven recently abstinent alcohol-dependent men attending residential treatment programs were assessed. Childhood trauma/adversity was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), drinks per drinking day (DDD) with the Timeline Follow Back, and chronic psychosocial stress with the UCLA Stress Interview. Drinking and stress were retrospectively assessed for 6 months prior to the present treatment episode. Direct associations between childhood trauma/adversity and alcohol consumption and the moderating effects of recent psychosocial stress were assessed. All measures were considered as continuous variables. Pretreatment drinking severity (DDD) was associated with CTQ Total score (p = .009) and the Emotional Abuse (p effects of CTQ Total score on drinking severity (p = .04). Whereas higher CTQ scores were significantly associated with a greater amount of pretreatment drinking in participants with high UCLA stress scores (p = .01), CTQ scores were not associated with the amount of drinking in those with low UCLA stress scores (p = .63). Childhood trauma predicts drinking severity in alcohol-dependent men, and this effect is stronger in participants with ongoing stress in adult life. These findings suggest that early childhood trauma/adversity may sensitize stress-response systems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Psychobiology of cumulative trauma: hair cortisol as a risk marker for stress exposure in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Abelson, James L; Mielock, Alyssa S; Rao, Uma

    2017-07-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with long-lasting alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and elevated risk for stress exposure in adulthood. Although HPA alterations are present in the early aftermath of trauma, it remains unclear how initial HPA activity is associated with subsequent stress exposure and whether CT exposure influences the strength and direction of this association. The present study examined prospective associations between hair cortisol content (HCC) and stress exposure from baseline to 3-month follow-up in young adult women with recent (i.e. past 3 months) exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV; i.e. physical or sexual assault) and non-traumatized controls. History of significant CT abuse or neglect was determined based on clinical cutoffs for a self-report CT measure: 12 women had abuse or neglect and recent IPV exposure (CT + IPV); 7 women had abuse or neglect but no IPV exposure (CT); 15 women had no history of trauma (NTC). HCC was computed for 3 cm sections reflecting cortisol secretion during the 3 months preceding the baseline assessment. The interaction of cumulative trauma and HCC predicted stress exposure over 3-month follow-up, controlling for baseline stress exposure and depressive symptoms. Simple slopes analyses revealed that lower baseline HCC predicted greater stress exposure in the CT + IPV group compared to the CT group; HCC was not associated with stress exposure in the NTC group. The present findings highlight the potential utility of HCC as a predictor of stress exposure for women with a history of childhood abuse or neglect, particularly in the context of recent IPV. Lay summary Adults with a history of CT show long-lasting alterations in major stress response systems, including the HPA axis. They are also more likely to experience stressful life events in adulthood. However, it is not clear how altered HPA activity influences risk for stress exposure and whether CT affects their

  8. Study Of The Effect Of Stress Management Skills On Anxiety Status Among Teachers In Meybod District High Schools On 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Servat

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: regarding the high level of anxiety among teachers and necessity of doing interventional program, planned stress management educations are successful in reducing anxiety. That programs which are presented to persons step by step, provide a cognition of the environment and it's stressful factors to individuals and finally reduces the stress and then the anxiety level. Determining the efficacy of the programs on personality anxiety requires studies with longer follow up.

  9. Behavioral Interventions for Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassija, Christina M.; Gray, Matt J.

    2007-01-01

    Optimal therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) follows logically from an understanding of etiological models describing the development and maintenance of the disorder. Accordingly, the present article provides a brief overview of PTSD with particular attention paid to etiology. Exposure-based interventions have consistently been shown…

  10. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predict post-traumatic stress disorder in postpartum African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Nancy J; Fry-McComish, Judith; Chiodo, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    To describe relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and post-traumatic stress in African-American postpartum women. Cumulative trauma exposure estimates for women in the USA range from 51-69%. During pregnancy, most trauma research has focused on physical injury to the mother. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with trauma and more prevalent in African-American women than women of other groups. Knowledge about both the rate and impact of cumulative trauma on pregnancy may contribute to our understanding of women seeking prenatal care, and disparities in infant morbidity and mortality. This retrospective, correlational, cross-sectional study took place on postpartum units of two Detroit hospitals. Participants were 150 African-American women aged between 18-45 who had given birth. Mothers completed the Cumulative Trauma Scale, Conflict Tactics Scale, Clinician Administered Post-traumatic Stress Scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and a Demographic Data form. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple regressions were used for data analysis. All participants reported at least one traumatic event in their lifetime. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predicted PTSD, with the trauma of a life-threatening event for a loved one reported by 60% of the sample. Nearly, one-fourth of the women screened were at risk for PTSD. Increased cumulative trauma, increased partner conflict and lower level of education were related to higher rates of PTSD symptoms. Both cumulative trauma and partner conflict in the past year predict PTSD. Reasoning was used most often for partner conflict resolution. The results of this study offer additional knowledge regarding relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and PTSD in African-American women. Healthcare providers need to be sensitive to patient life-threatening events, personal failures, abuse and other types of trauma. Current evidence supports the need to assess for

  11. Sexual problems and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual trauma: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Ciarán; Flanagan, Esther

    2016-09-01

    Difficulties with sex often develop following sexual trauma, yet are rarely targeted within treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Where outcomes of sexual function are included, they are secondary to other measures. This review aimed to assess whether psychological treatment for PTSD (from sexual trauma) has an effect on sexual functioning. Systematic searches of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and trial registers were performed. Five studies met inclusion criteria. Pre-post treatment effect sizes were also calculated. Data from four good-quality RCTs were included in the meta-analyses. These examined females (n = 799) who had experienced adult sexual trauma or child sexual abuse. Studies compared psychological treatment to control conditions, but no effect on outcomes of sexual concerns, standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.03 and dysfunctional sexual behaviour, SMD = 0.02, was found. Pre-post treatment effect sizes were small to medium (SMD = 0.36 and 0.47, respectively). While firm conclusions cannot be drawn, the available evidence suggests that psychological treatment for PTSD has no effect on sexual problems. Pre-post effects indicate some improvement over the course of treatment, which may be strengthened if treatment actively targeted sexual problems. The paucity of evidence in this area suggests that there is substantial need for further research in order to establish a set of evidence-based guidelines for practitioners implementing treatment in this area. The measurement of sexual problems is overlooked in psychological treatment RCTs for sexual trauma. Current treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from sexual trauma do not appear to be addressing sexual problems. Integrated treatments for comorbid sexual problems and PTSD treatment may be warranted. It is imperative that in future, RCTs that examine people with PTSD from sexual trauma use outcomes of sexual problems. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Amygdala Reactivity and Anterior Cingulate Habituation Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Maintenance After Acute Civilian Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer S; Kim, Ye Ji; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Reddy, Renuka; Ely, Timothy D; Nemeroff, Charles B; Hudak, Lauren A; Jovanovic, Tanja; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Ressler, Kerry J

    2017-06-15

    Studies suggest that exaggerated amygdala reactivity is a vulnerability factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, our understanding is limited by a paucity of prospective, longitudinal studies. Recent studies in healthy samples indicate that, relative to reactivity, habituation is a more reliable biomarker of individual differences in amygdala function. We investigated reactivity of the amygdala and cortical areas to repeated threat presentations in a prospective study of PTSD. Participants were recruited from the emergency department of a large level I trauma center within 24 hours of trauma. PTSD symptoms were assessed at baseline and approximately 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after trauma. Growth curve modeling was used to estimate symptom recovery trajectories. Thirty-one individuals participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging around the 1-month assessment, passively viewing fearful and neutral face stimuli. Reactivity (fearful > neutral) and habituation to fearful faces was examined. Amygdala reactivity, but not habituation, 5 to 12 weeks after trauma was positively associated with the PTSD symptom intercept and predicted symptoms at 12 months after trauma. Habituation in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex was positively associated with the slope of PTSD symptoms, such that decreases in ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation over repeated presentations of fearful stimuli predicted increasing symptoms. Findings point to neural signatures of risk for maintaining PTSD symptoms after trauma exposure. Specifically, chronic symptoms were predicted by amygdala hyperreactivity, and poor recovery was predicted by a failure to maintain ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to fearful stimuli. The importance of identifying patients at risk after trauma exposure is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Childhood trauma among individuals with co-morbid substance use and post traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Philippa L; Mills, Katherine L; Barrett, Emma; Back, Sudie E; Teesson, Maree; Baker, Amanda; Sannibale, Claudia; Hopwood, Sally; Rosenfeld, Julia; Merz, Sabine; Brady, Kathleen T

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the impact of childhood trauma (CT) on the clinical profile of individuals with co-occurring substance use disorder (SUD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Aims To compare the clinical characteristics of individuals with SUD+PTSD who have a history of CT with SUD+PTSD individuals who have experienced trauma during adulthood only. Method Data were collected on 103 individuals as part of a randomised controlled trial examining the efficacy of an integrated psychosocial treatment for SUD+PTSD. Participants were recruited from substance use treatment services, community referrals and advertising. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, substance use and treatment histories, lifetime trauma exposure, and current physical and mental health functioning. Results The vast majority (77%) of the sample had experienced at least one trauma before the age of 16, with 55% of those endorsing childhood sexual abuse. As expected individuals with a CT history, as compared to without, evidenced significantly longer duration of PTSD. Those with a CT history also had more extensive lifetime trauma exposure, an earlier age of first intoxication, and reported more severe substance use (e.g., a greater number of drug classes used in their lifetime, higher severity of dependence scores and greater number of drug treatment episodes). Conclusion Individuals with co-morbid SUD+PTSD who have experienced CT present with a more severe and chronic clinical profile in relation to a number of trauma and substance use characteristics, when compared to individuals with adulthood only trauma histories. It is therefore important for SUD+PTSD treatment planning that CT be carefully assessed. PMID:21984884

  14. The severity of Internet addiction risk and its relationship with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Evren, Bilge

    2014-11-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) risk with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The rates of students were 19.9% (n=54) in the high IA risk group, 38.7% (n=105) in the mild IA risk group and 41.3% (n=112) in the group without IA risk. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of IA risk was related with BPI, DES, emotional abuse, CTQ-28, depression and anxiety scores. Univariate covariance analysis (ANCOVA) indicated that the severity of borderline personality features, emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms were the predictors of IAS score, while gender had no effect on IAS score. Among childhood trauma types, emotional abuse seems to be the main predictor of IA risk severity. Borderline personality features predicted the severity of IA risk together with emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Relationship Between Second Language Anxiety and International Nursing Students Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Khawaja, Nigar G; Chan, Sabrina; Stein, Georgia

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between second language anxiety and international nursing student stress after taking into account the demographic, cognitive, and acculturative factors. International nursing students (N=152) completed an online questionnaire battery. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that spoken second language anxiety and the acculturative factors of marginalization and separation were significantly related to academic-related and placement-related str...

  16. Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction for Academic Evaluation Anxiety: A Naturalistic Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Ingrid; Thorsheim, Torbjørn; Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per Einar

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) for academic evaluation anxiety and self-confidence in 70 help-seeking bachelor's and master's students was examined. A repeated measures analysis of covariance on the 46 students who completed pretreatment and posttreatment measures (median age = 24 years, 83% women) showed that evaluation anxiety and…

  17. The Relationship Between Second Language Anxiety and International Nursing Students Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Chan, Sabrina; Stein, Georgia

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between second language anxiety and international nursing student stress after taking into account the demographic, cognitive, and acculturative factors. International nursing students (N = 152) completed an online questionnaire battery. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that spoken second language anxiety and…

  18. Stress, Depression, and Anxiety among Transitioning College Students: The Family as a Protective Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Kasky-Hernández, Lynda M.; Ambrose, Pamm; French, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Stress associated with the college transition can bring about depression and anxiety symptoms, but family relationships can reduce the impact of stress. We hypothesized that secure attachment to parents, comfort with talking about stressors, and family support would reduce the strength of the relationships between transition-related stress and…

  19. Posttraumatic stress disorder in eating disorder patients: The roles of psychological distress and timing of trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomaa, Rasmus; Backholm, Klas; Birgegård, Andreas

    2015-12-15

    Exposure to traumatic events may be a risk factor for subsequent development of an eating disorder (ED). In a previous study, we showed that trauma exposure impacted symptom load in ED patients. We also saw an effect of trauma on general psychological distress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and ED severity, to focus on the mediating role of psychological distress for the association, and to assess the role of timing of trauma in relation to emergence of ED. Participants were Swedish adult ED patients with a history of traumatic exposure (N=843, Mean age 27.2, 97.3% female). One fourth (24.1%) of the participants had a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD. PTSD had an impact on ED severity, but the impact was mediated by psychological distress. When stratifying the sample based on timing of trauma a significant effect was present only in those with trauma within a year of emergence of ED. The results suggest emotion regulation as a possible underlying factor of interest in future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression and Anxiety among North Korean Refugees: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin Eric; Chekaluk, Eugene; Bennett, Joanne

    2017-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is common among North Korean refugees who have fled their country for economic, financial and humanitarian reasons. Co-morbid depression and anxiety are also common among North Korean refugees, due to the difficulties they have faced within their country and during their escape journey. Depression and anxiety complicate treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder, and lead to poorer outcomes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a meta-analysis of studies investigating post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among North Korean refugees. Selected articles were published in English, and included measures of post-traumatic stress, and/or depression and anxiety. 10 studies were included in the depression meta-analysis, and 6 in the anxiety meta-analysis. A random-effects model revealed strong, significant associations between post-traumatic stress and depression, r=0.63, 95% CI (0.51, 0.72), ppost-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety were higher among adults and those with more than five years outside of North Korea. Depression appears to be an important treatment focus for North Korean refugees with post-traumatic stress.

  1. Prevalence of mental ill health, traumas and postmigration stress among refugees from Syria resettled in Sweden after 2011: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinghög, Petter; Malm, Andreas; Arwidson, Charlotta; Sigvardsdotter, Erika; Lundin, Andreas; Saboonchi, Fredrik

    2017-12-29

    To estimate the prevalence of and associations between anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), low subjective well-being (SWB), potential traumas and postmigration stress among refugees from Syria resettled in Sweden. A cross-sectional and population-based questionnaire study based on a known and complete sample frame. The survey included multiple measures of mental ill health and factors of particular relevance for refugees. Weighted analyses were conducted to calculate representative prevalence rates and associations. Associations were investigated through a series of logistic regression analyses. All analyses were supplemented with robust 95% CIs. Sweden. A random sample of 1215 individuals (response rate 30.4%) from Syria aged 18-64 years that were granted residency in Sweden on grounds of asylum between 2011 and 2013. Anxiety, depression, PTSD and low SWB were assessed through Hopkins Symptom Checklist, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and WHO-5 Well-being Index, using established cut-offs. A majority of the participants met the criteria for at least one of the studied types of mental ill health, and the comorbidity was high. Depression was the most the common type with 40.2% (95% CI 36.9% to 43.3%), followed by low SWB with 37.7% (95% CI 34.8% to 40.1%), anxiety with 31.8% (95% CI 29.2% to 34.7%) and PTSD with 29.9% (95% CI 27.2% to 32.6%). Refugee-related potentially traumatic events (PTEs) experienced before or during migration was common as was substantial levels of postmigration stress. Most types of refugee-related PTEs, especially being exposed to interpersonal violence, and postmigration stress were associated with increased risks for anxiety, depression, low SWB and PTSD. Mental ill health, in terms of anxiety, depression, low SWB and PTSD, are highly elevated and comorbid among refugees from Syria. Increased attention from multiple societal sectors to adequately support Syrian refugees' mental health needs, promoting recovery and

  2. Relationships among Childhood Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Dissociation in Men Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Koopman, Cheryl; Lee, Susanne; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among dissociation, childhood trauma and sexual abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in HIV-positive men. Data was collected from 167 men enrolled in a randomized clinical trial (Project RISE) that examined a group therapy intervention to decrease HIV-related risk behavior and trauma-related stress symptoms. Participants completed the Trauma History Questionnaire, the Impact of Event Scale - Revised, and the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire. Overall, 35.3% of the participants reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A total of 55.7% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The intensity of dissociative symptoms that participants endorsed was positively associated with experience of childhood sexual abuse (r = .20, p Dissociative symptoms were also positively associated with specific PTSD symptoms, notably hyperarousal (r = .69, p dissociation than childhood sexual abuse. These results suggest that childhood sexual abuse may be involved in the development of dissociative symptoms in the context of adulthood stress reactions. Furthermore, the pattern of the association between dissociation and PTSD is consistent with the possibility of a dissociative PTSD subtype among HIV-positive men. PMID:22211444

  3. The preparatory set: A novel approach to understanding "stress", trauma, and the bodymind therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter ePayne

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Basic to all motile life is a differential approach/avoid response to perceived features of environment. The stages of response are initial reflexive noticing and orienting to the stimulus, preparation, and execution of response. Preparation involves a coordination of many aspects of the organism: muscle tone, posture, breathing, autonomic functions, motivational/emotional state, attentional orientation and expectations. The organism organizes itself in relation to the challenge. We propose to call this the preparatory set (PS. We suggest that the concept of the PS can offer a more nuanced and flexible perspective on the stress response than do current theories. We also hypothesize that the mechanisms of bodymind therapeutic and educational systems (BTES can be understood through the PS framework. We suggest that the BTES, including meditative movement, meditation, somatic education, and the body-oriented psychotherapies, are approaches that use interventions on the PS to remedy stress and trauma. We discuss how the PS can be adaptive or maladaptive, how BTES interventions may restore adaptive PS, and how these concepts offer a broader and more flexible view of the phenomena of stress and trauma. We offer supportive evidence for our hypotheses, and suggest directions for future research. We believe that the PS framework will point to ways of improving the management of stress and trauma, and that it will suggest directions of research into the mechanisms of action of BTES.

  4. Pre-treatment Social Anxiety Severity Moderates the Impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Aerobic Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or Aerobic Exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity.

  5. Effect of music on anxiety, stress, and depression levels in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradipanah, F; Mohammadi, E; Mohammadil, A Z

    2009-01-01

    Control of stress and anxiety and the promotion of comfort are challenges facing health practitioners involved in catheterization. The aim of this case-control study was to examine the effect of music on the levels of anxiety, stress, and depression experienced by patients undergoing coronary angiography, as measured by the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. Differences in pre- and post-intervention scores demonstrated that there were significant decreases in mean scores of state anxiety (P = 0.006), stress (P = 0.001) and depression P = 0.02) in the intervention group, who listened to 20 minutes of relaxing music, as compared with the control group who had 20 minutes of bed rest.

  6. Depression, anxiety and stress as negative predictors of life satisfaction in university students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, S.R.; Saba, F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of depression, anxiety and stress in prediction of life satisfaction in male and female university students. Methodology: The study involved 200 students, 100 males and 100 females selected by using purposive sampling technique from different universities of Islamabad. Age range of participants was 19-30 years (mean 21.79+-2.970). Depression anxiety stress scale-21 (DASS-21 and Life Satisfaction scale were administered. Data were analyzed on SPSS version 19. Results: The result of present study indicated that depression anxiety and stress significantly predict life satisfaction among male and female university students. Conclusion: University students who are facing depression, anxiety and stress are more vulnerable to low levels of life satisfaction. (author)

  7. Stress and Anxiety Management in Nursing Students: Biofeedback and Mindfulness Meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Park, Janet F; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Kathalae, Duangrat

    2015-09-01

    The current study investigated the efficacy of two brief intervention programs-biofeedback and mindfulness meditation-on levels of state anxiety and perceived stress in second-year Thai nursing students as they began clinical training. Eighty-nine participants from a public nursing college in Thailand were randomly assigned to one of three groups: biofeedback group, mindfulness meditation group, or a control group. All participants were given pre- and postintervention surveys, which included demographic information; the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (State Anxiety Scale); and the Perceived Stress Scale. Findings indicated that biofeedback significantly reduced anxiety and maintained stress levels in nursing students. Mindfulness meditation similarly decreased anxiety levels, while also significantly lowering stress levels. The biofeedback group exhibited significant reduction in anxiety levels among the three groups at postintervention. Despite stressors and demands nursing students experience as they begin clinical practice, study findings support the use of biofeedback and mindfulness meditation interventions to assist nursing students in managing stress and anxiety. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. [Anxiety, depression, somatoform symptoms and posttraumatic stress in the offspring of political detainees in Eastern Germany (1945-1989)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinitzke, Grit; Böhm, Maya; Brähler, Elmar; Weissflog, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1989, approximately 300 000 persons were imprisoned because of political reasons in Eastern Germany. There is that evidence the detainees' offspring are affected by the trauma of their parents. In a study with cross-sectional design, depressive (PHQ-9), somatoform (PHQ-15) and anxiety symptomatology (GAD-7), and Posttraumatic Stress (IES-R) were assessed with self-rating measures in 43 children of former political prisoners. In comparison to 2 representative gender education and age matched samples from the general population, offspring of former political detainees show higher levels of psychopathological symptoms. The life-time prevalence for PTSD was 9.1%. Regarding the psychopathology, children who were born after their parents' imprisonment did not differ from those who were already born when the imprisonment happened. First evidence for the transgenerational transmission of traumatisation and the methods will be discussed critically. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Posttyphoon prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder in a Vietnamese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstadter, Ananda B; Acierno, Ron; Richardson, Lisa K; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Gros, Daniel F; Gaboury, Mario T; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Galea, Sandro

    2009-06-01

    In 2006, typhoon Xangsane disrupted a multiagency health needs study of 4,982 individuals in Vietnam. Following this disaster, 798 of the original participants were reinterviewed to determine prevalence and risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), panic disorder (PD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Posttyphoon prevalences were PTSD 2.6%, MDD 5.9%, PD 9.3%, and GAD 2.2%. Of those meeting criteria for a disorder, 70% reported only one disorder, 15% had two, 14% had three, and 1% met criteria for all four disorders. Risk factors for posttyphoon psychopathology differed among disorders, but generally were related to high typhoon exposure, prior trauma exposure, and in contrast to Western populations, higher age, but not gender.

  10. Executive function as a mediator in the link between single or complex trauma and posttraumatic stress in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Kelder, R.; Ensink, J.B.M.; Overbeek, G.; Maric, M.; Lindauer, R.J.L.

    Purpose: In this study, we examined whether there is a mediating role of executive function (EF) in the relationship between trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress in youth. Methods: Children and adolescents exposed to trauma were recruited at an academic center for child psychiatry in The

  11. Executive function as a mediator in the link between single or complex trauma and posttraumatic stress in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Op den Kelder, Rosanne; Ensink, Judith B. M.; Overbeek, Geertjan; Maric, Marija; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether there is a mediating role of executive function (EF) in the relationship between trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress in youth. Children and adolescents exposed to trauma were recruited at an academic center for child psychiatry in The Netherlands. The total

  12. The association between depression and anxiety disorders following facial trauma--a comparative study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Islam, Shofiq

    2010-01-01

    Although the surgical care provided for patients who have sustained a maxillofacial injury has advanced in recent years, psychological disorders may develop. Anxiety and depression may be a cause of significant morbidity in these patients. Such problems are often unrecognised and untreated.

  13. What Kind of Stress Is Associated with Depression, Anxiety and Suicidal Ideation in Korean Employees?

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Young-Chul; Lee, Daeun; Seol, Jinmi; Lim, Se-Won

    2017-01-01

    Various types of stress affect mental health in the form of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidal ideation. Recently, the increasing suicide rate in the working-age population has become a major mental health concern in Korea. Thus, we investigated what kind of stress influence depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation in Korean employees. The study participants were 189,965 employees who attended health screenings and responded to the Center for Epidemiologic Study-Depression Scal...

  14. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among nursing personnel and its association with occupational stress, anxiety and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Renata Perfeito; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Martins, Julia Trevisan; Ribeiro, Patrícia Helena Vivan; Robazzi, Maria Lucia do Carmo Cruz; Dalmas, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among nursing personnel, and its association with occupational stress, anxiety and depression.METHOD: a descriptive correlational study undertaken with 226 nursing personnel from a teaching hospital. Data collection was undertaken through application of the Job Stress Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a sociodemographic questionnaire, with variables of Metabolic Syndrome. Univariate analyses and Chi-squared and Pea...

  15. Depression, Anxiety, Stress and Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Temporal and Case Controlled Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Peng Chiong; Zaidi, Syeda Nureena; Azmi, Noor; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Khong, Su Yen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the temporal and case-controlled correlations of anxiety, depression and stress with hyperemesis gravidarum. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a longitudinal cohort study of women with hyperemesis gravidarum using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to evaluate psychological distress at hospitalization and in the third trimester of pregnancy (from 28 weeks gestation). Third pregnancy trimester controls were recruited from routine antenatal clinic attendees who w...

  16. Stress, anxiety & depression among medical undergraduate students & their socio-demographic correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Shawaz; Gupta, Sandhya; Venkatarao, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Presence of psychological morbidity in medical undergraduate students has been reported from various countries across the world. Indian studies to document this burden are very few. Therefore, the presence of depression, anxiety and stress among medical undergraduate students was assessed using a previously validated and standardized instrument, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 42) and the associations with their socio-demographic and personal characteristics wer...

  17. Severity of anxiety- but not depression- is associated with oxidative stress in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Lisa R; Hough, Christina M; Reus, Victor I; Jain, Felipe A; Epel, Elissa S; James, S Jill; Morford, Alexandra E; Mellon, Synthia H; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Lindqvist, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in both depression and anxiety, but it is currently unclear whether this relates to syndromal diagnoses or trans-diagnostic dimensional symptoms. We examined the relationship between oxidative stress and severity of depression and anxiety symptoms in individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Plasma oxidative stress markers F2-isoprostanes and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH), were assessed in 69 physically healthy, medication-free MDD subjects. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A) and Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) Rating Scales. Total HAM-A and HAM-D scores, along with "core" anxiety and depression subscales, and individual HAM-D items "psychic anxiety" and "depressed mood," were related to oxidative stress markers. Analyses controlled for age, sex, BMI, and smoking. Total HAM-A ratings were positively associated with F2-isoprostanes (β=.26, p=.042) and GSSG (β=.25, p=.049), but not GSH (β=.05, p=.711). Core anxiety severity was positively associated with F2-isoprostanes (β=.34, p=.012) and GSSG, although this did not reach significance (β=.24, p=.074). None of the biological markers were significantly associated with total HAM-D or core depression ratings (all p>.13). Subjects scoring high on "psychic anxiety" had elevated F2-isoprostanes (p=.030) and GSSG (p=.020). This was not seen with "depressed mood" scores (all p>.12). We assessed peripheral oxidative markers, but their relationship to the brain is unclear. Oxidative stress is more closely related to anxiety than depression symptoms in MDD. This highlights the importance of relating oxidative stress to specific symptoms and could provide new insights into the biological correlates of affective disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. CRH engagement of the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system mediates stress-induced anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Jordan G.; Al-Hasani, Ream; Siuda, Edward R.; Hong, Daniel Y.; Norris, Aaron J.; Ford, Christopher P.; Bruchas, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The locus coeruleus noradrenergic (LC-NE) system is one of the first systems engaged following a stressful event. While numerous groups have demonstrated that LC-NE neurons are activated by many different stressors, the underlying neural circuitry and the role of this activity in generating stress-induced anxiety has not been elucidated. Using a combination of in vivo chemogenetics, optogenetics, and retrograde tracing we determine that increased tonic activity of the LC-NE system is necessary and sufficient for stress-induced anxiety and aversion. Selective inhibition of LC-NE neurons during stress prevents subsequent anxiety-like behavior. Exogenously increasing tonic, but not phasic, activity of LC-NE neurons is alone sufficient for anxiety-like and aversive behavior. Furthermore, endogenous corticotropin releasing hormone+ (CRH+) LC inputs from the amygdala increase tonic LC activity, inducing anxiety-like behaviors. These studies position the LC-NE system as a critical mediator of acute stress-induced anxiety and offer a potential intervention for preventing stress-related affective disorders. PMID:26212712

  19. Effects of video information on anxiety, stress and depression of patients undergoing coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamshidi, N.; Abbaszadeh, A.; Kalyani, M.N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Anxiety and stress are common in patients undergoing invasive procedures. Coronary angiography is a definitive diagnostic evaluation for coronary artery disease and valvular disease. It is necessary to give information to the patients in order to minimize levels of anxiety and stress to this invasive procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of patients education by video on levels of anxiety, stress and depression of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methodology: In a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design, 128 patients were randomly assigned to either control or experimental group. Control group received verbal routine education by nurses and experimental group received an informative video about coronary angiography procedure as well as pre and post angiography interventions. Using Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-21) levels of these variables were measured before and after education. Results: Seventy eight (60.9%) males and fifty (39.1%) females participated in the study. There was a statistically significant reduction in the Anxiety, stress and depression levels of experimental group after video information (P = .000). There was a statistically significant correlation between sex with anxiety (P = .000) and stress (P = .04). Conclusions: The use of patients education by informative video is a useful method for decreasing psychological parameters of patients undergoing coronary angiography procedure. Results of the study confirm the usefulness of video information prior to an Invasive angiography procedure. (author)

  20. Reducing stress and anxiety in caregivers of lung transplant patients: benefits of mindfulness meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, J; Spadaro, K C; Choi, J; Hoffman, L A; Blazeck, A M

    2014-01-01

    Caregivers are a vital resource in the care of transplant candidates or recipients. However, few strategies have been tested that attempt to decrease the stress and anxiety they commonly encounter. To test the feasibility of using mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) techniques to decrease stress and anxiety in caregivers of lung transplant candidates/recipients who required admission to an acute care facility. 30 caregivers of lung transplant candidates/recipients were recruited during hospitalization of their significant other. Each completed the perceived stress scale (PSS) and state trait anxiety inventory (STAI) before and 4 weeks after receiving a DVD that demonstrated MBSR techniques. Participants were asked to practice MBSR techniques for 5-15 min a day for 4 weeks. The participants had a mean±SD age of 55.6±13.6 years; 77% of participants were female and 93% Caucasian. The mean PSS and STAI (trait and anxiety) scores of caregivers were higher than population norms pre- and post-intervention. Scores for caregivers who stated they watched the entire DVD and practiced MBSR techniques as requested (n=15) decreased significantly from pre- to post-testing for perceived stress (p=0.001), state anxiety (p=0.003) and trait anxiety (p=0.006). Scores for those who watched some or none of the DVD (n=15) did not change significantly. Caregivers can benefit from stress reduction techniques using MBSR.

  1. A study on level of physical activity, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Esra; Abd Latiff, Latiffah; Adznam, Siti N; Awang, Hamidin; Yit Siew, Chin; Abu Bakar, Azrin S

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate physical activity has adverse health consequences among adolescents. Mental health problem can be developed by lack of physical activity however it is controversial. The current study aimed to examine the association between level of physical activity with depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents. A representative sample of 1747 adolescents (13-14 years) was randomly selected from 6 schools in a south part of Malaysia. Respondents were asked to fill consent form, and questionnaires including Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Majority of respondents (71.9%) was Malay and more than half of the adolescents had low physical activity. About 40% had depression symptoms, followed by anxiety symptoms (65.9%) and stress symptoms (38.5%). Level of physical activity was significantly associated with gender, anxiety and stress (P<0.001). There were no associations with race, religion and depression symptom. This study provides some evidence among school-going adolescents related to anxiety and stress symptoms and low physical activities. Further studies are needed to show the protection effects of higher physical activity for depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in adolescents.

  2. Pathways from Trauma to Psychotic Experiences: A Theoretically Informed Model of Posttraumatic Stress in Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Hardy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, empirical data and theoretical accounts relating to the relationship between childhood victimization and psychotic experiences have accumulated. Much of this work has focused on co-occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder or putative causal mechanisms in isolation from each other. The complexity of posttraumatic stress reactions experienced in psychosis remains poorly understood. This paper therefore attempts to synthesize the current evidence base into a theoretically informed, multifactorial model of posttraumatic stress in psychosis. Three trauma-related vulnerability factors are proposed to give rise to intrusions and to affect how people appraise and cope with them. First, understandable attempts to survive trauma become habitual ways of regulating emotion, manifesting in cognitive-affective, behavioral and interpersonal responses. Second, event memories, consisting of perceptual and episodic representations, are impacted by emotion experienced during trauma. Third, personal semantic memory, specifically appraisals of the self and others, are shaped by event memories. It is proposed these vulnerability factors have the potential to lead to two types of intrusions. The first type is anomalous experiences arising from emotion regulation and/or the generation of novel images derived from trauma memory. The second type is trauma memory intrusions reflecting, to varying degrees, the retrieval of perceptual, episodic and personal semantic representations. It is speculated trauma memory intrusions may be experienced on a continuum from contextualized to fragmented, depending on memory encoding and retrieval. Personal semantic memory will then impact on how intrusions are appraised, with habitual emotion regulation strategies influencing people’s coping responses to these. Three vignettes are outlined to illustrate how the model accounts for different pathways between victimization and psychosis, and implications for therapy are

  3. Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, H

    1990-03-01

    The analysis is a study of the nature of anxiety in human experience. The author reviews the work of theologian Paul Tillich and psychologist Rollo May and clarifies the role of anxiety in life. The article reflects the need for a basic religious affirmation as one faces the anxiety of life which comes from the many threats to human existence.

  4. [Post-traumatic stress reaction in a sample of bank employees victims of robbery in the workplace: the role of pre-trauma and peri-trauma factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converso, Daniela; Viotti, Sara

    2014-07-24

    Robberies are traumatizing events for workers. Consequently, a number of health problems can arise. In the short term, a common reaction is post-traumatic stress (including intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms). The aim of the present study was to identify, among pre-trauma factors (personal characteristics: gender, age, educational level, and prior exposure to robberies) and peri-trauma factors (kind of weapon, duration of the event, number of robbers, and numbers of colleagues and clients involved), those that were most likely to cause post-traumatic symptoms in a sample of bank employees who were victims of a robbery. One-hundred-seventy-two employees at two banks in northwest Italy were involved in the research. A month after a robbery, the employees completed a self-report questionnaire including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) by Weiss and Marmar (39). Analyses found one pre-trauma factor (prior exposure to robbery/ies, and one peri-trauma factor, number of robbers) as significant predictors of intrusion. Two peri-trauma factors (number of robbers and duration of robbery) were identified as predictors of avoidance. Finally, one pre-trauma factor (prior exposure to robbery/ies) and two peri-trauma factors (number of robbers and number of colleagues involved in the robbery) were found to be predictors of hyperarousal. The results showed that several peri-trauma factors can increase the risk of workers developing post-traumatic stress reaction and suggest that these factors should be kept in mind when planning intervention programmes aimed at preventing and contrasting psychological consequences of robbery.

  5. Melatonin attenuates oxidative stress and modulates inflammatory response after experimental burn trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minka Hristova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thermal injury activates an inflammatory response. Melatonin possesses anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The objective of the present work was to study melatonin effects on the inflammatory response under conditions of oxidative stress during the early stage of thermal injury. Materials and methods. We used 24 white male rats of Wistar breed, randomly divided into three experimental groups. Group one was the control, group two was inflicted with burn trauma, and group three was inflicted with burn trauma, with melatonin application following the thermal injury. Melatonin was applied twice in doses of 10 g/kg b.m. immediately after the burn trauma and again at 12 hours. Plasma levels of tumor necrosis-factor-α (TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory mediator, and of interleukin-10 (Il-10, an anti-inflammatory mediator, were examined and their ratio was calculated. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, an oxidative stress marker, were also estimated. Results. Thermal trauma significantly increased plasma TNF-α levels (ð<0.01 and TNF-α /IL10 ratio but did not change IL-10 ones. Plasma MDA concentrations were significantly elevated as well (ð<0.0001. Melatonin application significantly reduced TNF-α (ð<0.05, increased IL-10 (ð<0.05, down-regulated TNF-α/IL-10 ratio and changed MDA concentrations (ð<0.01. In conclusion, our results show that local alteration induces oxidative stress and inflammatory response with TNF-α /IL-10 disbalance. Melatonin modulates this response and attenuates oxidative stress in experimental burn injury.

  6. Preschool anxiety disorders: comprehensive assessment of clinical, demographic, temperamental, familial, and life stress correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R; Tolep, Marissa R; Bufferd, Sara J; Olino, Thomas M; Dyson, Margaret; Traditi, Jennifer; Rose, Suzanne; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N

    2013-01-01

    This study examined correlates of preschoolers' anxiety disorders using a comprehensive, multimethod design. Participants included a community sample of 541 three-year-old children, of whom 106 (19.6%) met criteria for at least 1 anxiety disorder. Child and parental psychopathology and life stress were assessed with clinical interviews. Child temperament and parenting behavior were assessed with laboratory observations. Mothers and fathers reported on their parenting styles. Compared to preschoolers with no anxiety disorder, preschoolers with an anxiety disorder were more likely to meet criteria for comorbid depressive and oppositional defiant disorders and to exhibit greater temperamental behavioral inhibition and lower positive affectivity, and more sleep problems. Children with anxiety disorders also experienced more stressful life events in the previous 6 months, and their mothers had a higher rate of current anxiety disorders. Compared to children with other anxiety disorders, children with only specific phobia exhibited a somewhat different pattern of associations than children with other anxiety disorders. Overall, the findings suggest that many of the correlates observed in older youth with anxiety disorders are also observed in preschoolers.

  7. What Kind of Stress Is Associated with Depression, Anxiety and Suicidal Ideation in Korean Employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Chul; Lee, Daeun; Seol, Jinmi; Lim, Se Won

    2017-05-01

    Various types of stress affect mental health in the form of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidal ideation. Recently, the increasing suicide rate in the working-age population has become a major mental health concern in Korea. Thus, we investigated what kind of stress influence depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation in Korean employees. The study participants were 189,965 employees who attended health screenings and responded to the Center for Epidemiologic Study-Depression Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and a questionnaire on the major causes of stress and suicidal ideation. We investigated the major causes of stress by gender and age categories and used binary logistic regression to determine the impact of the causes of stress on depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation. Of several stress causes, work-related stress was the most prevalent, regardless of age category and gender, followed by interpersonal relationships. However, interpersonal relationships and financial problems were the predominant causes of stress related to depression or suicidal ideation. This research suggests that despite the fact that work is the most common cause of stress for Korean employees, stress related to life problems other than work has a greater influence on the mental health of Korean employees. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  8. Effect of lavender scent inhalation on prevention of stress, anxiety and depression in the postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kianpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression are the most common problems among women in their childbearing age. Research has shown that aromatherapy administered during labor reduces anxiety in mothers. With regard to the specific biological conditions in postpartum period and the subsequent drop in hormone levels, this study investigated the effect of lavender on prevention of stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression in women. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial, 140 women admitted to the obstetric and gynecological unit were randomly divided into aromatherapy and non-aromatherapy groups immediately after delivery. Intervention with aromatherapy consisted of inhaling three drops of lavender essential oil every 8 h with for 4 weeks. The control group received routine care after discharge and was followed up by telephone only. After 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months of delivery, women were assessed by the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale and the Edinburgh stress, anxiety, and depression scale in the two groups. Data analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and post hoc tests. Level of significance was set as 0.05 for all tests. Results: The results showed that the mean stress, anxiety, and depression at time point of 2 weeks (P = 0.012, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.003, respectively and stress, anxiety, and depression scores at time points of 1 month (P < 0.0001 and 3 months after delivery (P < 0.0001 were significantly lower in the study group compared with the control group. Conclusions: Inhaling the scent of lavender for 4 weeks can prevent stress, anxiety, and depression after childbirth.

  9. Cognitive trait anxiety, stress and effort interact to predict inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark S; Edwards, Elizabeth J; Lyvers, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Few studies have focussed on the link between anxiety and inhibitory control in the absence of stimulus-driven external threat. This two-part experiment examined the interactions between (1) somatic trait anxiety, somatic situational stress (i.e. threat of electric shock), and effort, and (2) cognitive trait anxiety, cognitive situational stress (i.e. ego-threat instructions), and effort, on inhibitory processes using a Go-No-Go paradigm. Trait anxiety was operationalised using questionnaire scores and effort was operationalised using a visual analogue scale. Performance effectiveness was measured using the d' parameter from signal detection theory and processing efficiency was indexed by the ratio of d' to response time on correct trials. Results indicated that somatic trait anxiety and stress did not predict effectiveness or efficiency. Cognitive trait anxiety and stress were associated with both inhibitory effectiveness and efficiency deficits; however, contrary to expectations these deficits were evident at higher rather than lower mental effort. Results suggest a distinction between how somatic and cognitive anxiety manifest on tasks involving inhibitory control.

  10. Posttraumatic stress disorder and prolonged grief in refugees exposed to trauma and loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Angela; Liddell, Belinda J; Maccallum, Fiona; Steel, Zachary; Silove, Derrick; Bryant, Richard A

    2014-04-09

    While a large proportion of conflict-affected populations have been dually exposed to trauma and loss, there is inadequate research identifying differential symptom profiles related to bereavement and trauma exposure in these groups. The objective of this study were to (1) determine whether there are distinct classes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and prolonged grief disorder (PGD) symptoms in bereaved trauma survivors exposed to conflict and persecution, and (2) examine whether particular types of refugee experiences and stressors differentially predict symptom profiles. Participants were 248 Mandaean adult refugees who were assessed at an average of 4.3 years since entering Australia following persecution in Iraq. PTSD, PGD, trauma exposure, adjustment difficulties since relocation, and English proficiency were measured. Latent class analysis was used to elucidate symptom profiles of PTSD and PGD in this sample. Latent class analysis revealed four classes of participants: a combined PTSD/PGD class (16%), a predominantly PTSD class (25%), a predominantly PGD class (16%), and a resilient class (43%). Whereas membership in the PTSD/PGD class was predicted by exposure to traumatic loss, those in the PGD class were more likely to have experienced adaptation difficulties since relocation, and individuals in the PTSD class were more likely to have experienced difficulties related to loss of culture and support. This study provides evidence that specific symptom patterns emerge following exposure to mass trauma and loss. These profiles are associated with distinct types of traumatic experiences and post-migration living difficulties. These results have substantial public health implications for assessment and intervention following mass trauma.

  11. Reaching and Teaching Stressed and Anxious Learners in Grades 4-8: Strategies for Relieving Distress and Trauma in Schools and Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlberg, Barbara E.

    2006-01-01

    Not all children cope equally well with the stresses and traumas life throws their way, and every educator recognizes that "deer in the headlights" look some children get when current events and past traumas combine to trigger a fight-or-flight stress response. No matter how safe the classroom may be in reality, trauma deactivates cognitive…

  12. Early intra-intensive care unit psychological intervention promotes recovery from post traumatic stress disorders, anxiety and depression symptoms in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Adriano; Bonizzoli, Manuela; Iozzelli, Dario; Migliaccio, Maria Luisa; Zagli, Giovanni; Bacchereti, Alberto; Debolini, Marta; Vannini, Elisetta; Solaro, Massimo; Balzi, Ilaria; Bendoni, Elisa; Bacchi, Ilaria; Trevisan, Monica; Giovannini, Valtere; Belloni, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Critically ill patients who require intensive care unit (ICU) treatment may experience psychological distress with increasing development of psychological disorders and related morbidity. Our aim was to determine whether intra-ICU clinical psychologist interventions decrease the prevalence of anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after 12 months from ICU discharge. Our observational study included critical patients admitted before clinical psychologist intervention (control group) and patients who were involved in a clinical psychologist program (intervention group). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Impact of Event Scale-Revised questionnaires were used to assess the level of posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression symptoms. The control and intervention groups showed similar demographic and clinical characteristics. Patients in the intervention group showed lower rates of anxiety (8.9% vs. 17.4%) and depression (6.5% vs. 12.8%) than the control group on the basis of HADS scores, even if the differences were not statistically significant. High risk for PTSD was significantly lower in patients receiving early clinical psychologist support than in the control group (21.1% vs. 57%; P < 0.0001). The percentage of patients who needed psychiatric medications at 12 months was significantly higher in the control group than in the patient group (41.7% vs. 8.1%; P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that that early intra-ICU clinical psychologist intervention may help critically ill trauma patients recover from this stressful experience.

  13. The contribution of gender-based violence and network trauma to gender differences in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Silove

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD occurs twice as commonly amongst women as men. Two common domains of trauma, network trauma and gender based violence (GBV, may contribute to this gender difference in PTSD rates. We examined data from a nationally representative sample of the Australian population to clarify the characteristics of these two trauma domains in their contributions to PTSD rates in men and women.We drew on data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being to assess gender differences across a comprehensive range of trauma domains, including (1 prevalence of lifetime exposure; (2 identification of an index trauma or DSM-IV Criterion A event; and (3 the likelihood of developing full DSM-IV PTSD symptoms once an index trauma was identified.Men reported more traumatic events (TEs overall but women reported twice the prevalence of lifetime PTSD (women, 13.4%; men, 6.3%. Women reported a threefold higher level of exposure to GBV and were seven times more likely to nominate GBV as the index trauma as compared to men. Women were twice more likely than men to identify a network trauma as the index trauma and more likely to meet full PTSD symptoms in relation to that event (women, 20.6%; men, 14.6%.Women are more likely to identify GBV and network trauma as an index trauma. Women's far greater exposure to GBV contributes to their higher prevalence of PTSD. Women are markedly more likely to develop PTSD when network trauma is identified as the index trauma. Preventing exposure to GBV and providing timely interventions for acute psychological reactions following network trauma may assist in reducing PTSD rates amongst women.

  14. The contribution of gender-based violence and network trauma to gender differences in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Baker, Jess R.; Mohsin, Mohammed; Teesson, Maree; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Forbes, David; Carragher, Natacha; Slade, Tim; Mills, Katherine; Bryant, Richard; McFarlane, Alexander; Steel, Zachary; Felmingham, Kim; Rees, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs twice as commonly amongst women as men. Two common domains of trauma, network trauma and gender based violence (GBV), may contribute to this gender difference in PTSD rates. We examined data from a nationally representative sample of the Australian population to clarify the characteristics of these two trauma domains in their contributions to PTSD rates in men and women. Methods We drew on data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being to assess gender differences across a comprehensive range of trauma domains, including (1) prevalence of lifetime exposure; (2) identification of an index trauma or DSM-IV Criterion A event; and (3) the likelihood of developing full DSM-IV PTSD symptoms once an index trauma was identified. Results Men reported more traumatic events (TEs) overall but women reported twice the prevalence of lifetime PTSD (women, 13.4%; men, 6.3%). Women reported a threefold higher level of exposure to GBV and were seven times more likely to nominate GBV as the index trauma as compared to men. Women were twice more likely than men to identify a network trauma as the index trauma and more likely to meet full PTSD symptoms in relation to that event (women, 20.6%; men, 14.6%). Conclusion Women are more likely to identify GBV and network trauma as an index trauma. Women’s far greater exposure to GBV contributes to their higher prevalence of PTSD. Women are markedly more likely to develop PTSD when network trauma is identified as the index trauma. Preventing exposure to GBV and providing timely interventions for acute psychological reactions following network trauma may assist in reducing PTSD rates amongst women. PMID:28207775

  15. Trauma, stress, and self-care in clinical training: Predictors of burnout, decline in health status, secondary traumatic stress symptoms, and compassion satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lisa D; Carello, Janice; Maguin, Eugene

    2017-07-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 9(4) of Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy (see record 2016-54155-001). In the article, there was an error in Table 4 of the Results. The Outcomes and Predictors columns were not clearly categorized from one another. The corrected table is present in the erratum.] Objective: Courtois and Gold (2009) have called for the inclusion of trauma in the curriculum for all mental health training programs. The present study investigated the impact of trauma-related content, stress, and self-care (SC) on trainees in such a program. Method: The study examined potential risk factors (trauma exposures in training [being faced with or reacting to trauma-related field work experiences and course content] and perceptions of stress in field and coursework) and protective factors (SC effort and importance) in relation to burnout (BO), health status (HS), secondary traumatic stress symptoms (STSS), and compassion satisfaction (CS) among 195 students in a graduate social work training program. Results: All students reported trauma exposures in their field placements and/or coursework, including retraumatization experiences that were associated with higher STSS and BO. Field stress and SC effort were both consistent predictors across outcomes. Higher field stress levels predicted higher BO and STSS, a greater likelihood of decline in HS, and lower CS. Lower SC effort was also associated with higher BO and STSS, and a greater likelihood of decline in HS, while higher SC effort predicted higher CS. Older students, those with traumatized field clients, and those whose field work addressed trauma, also reported higher CS. Conclusions: These findings suggest that clinical training involving trauma content can be both rewarding and stressful, and may evoke distress in some trainees. Given that learning about and working with trauma are essential to adequate clinical training, the authors suggest

  16. Stressors in secondary boarding school students: association with stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Suzaily; Rahman, Fairuz Nazri Abdul; Wan Hasan, Wan Muhammad Hafiz; Zamani, Intan Zulaikha; Arbaiei, Nabilah Che; Khor, Siew Ling; Nawi, Azmawati Mohammed

    2013-04-01

    Chronic stress in adolescents may cause physical, mental and emotional health issues which lead to poor outcomes if left untreated. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, and their association with stressors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 350 students in a selected boarding school. Two validated Malay version questionnaires were used as instruments, which comprised the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale to assess depression, anxiety and stress level, and Soalselidik Stressor Sekolah Menengah to assess stressors. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress were 39.7%, 67.1% and 44.9%, respectively. The highest mean score was 2.3 (±0.80) for the academic-related stressor. All stressors (academic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, teacher, learning/teaching and social group) had significant association with depression, anxiety and stress (P stress (adjusted OR = 2.7 [P < 0.001] and OR = 2.5 [P = 0.001], respectively). The possibility of introducing screening for mental health problems among boarding school students needs to be considered and investigated. Addressing the possible stressors and employing healthy coping may help in reducing negative emotional outcomes in these students. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. The role of anxiety in cortisol stress response and cortisol recovery in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, S.; de Wied, M.; van Goozen, S.H.M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Children with antisocial and aggressive behaviors have been found to show abnormal neurobiological responses to stress, specifically impaired cortisol stress reactivity. The role of individual characteristics, such as comorbid anxiety, in the stress response is far less studied. Furthermore, this

  18. Music reduces stress and anxiety of patients in the surgical holding area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, M J; Paskin, S; Baker, T

    1994-12-01

    Many patients in the Surgical Holding Area become stressed and anxious. In a hospital setting music reduces patients' anxiety. This study determined that music can reduce the anxiety and stress of patients in the Surgical Holding Area. In this study, one group of subjects listed to music while a second group did not. Subjects who listened to music while in the Surgical Holding Area had significantly less stress and anxiety than did those who did not listen to music. Both groups spent similar lengths of time in the Surgical Holding Area. The results strongly suggest that if music were available to all patients in the Surgical Holding Area, most would select this option, and they would experience less anxiety.

  19. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediate the relationship between trauma exposure and smoking status in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabert-Quillen, Crystal A; Selya, Arielle; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2015-02-01

    The present study examined the relationship between trauma exposure and smoking status and the extent to which post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated this relationship in a sample of 329 college students who experienced a prior traumatic event. Participants experienced an average of 2.2 prior traumas, and approximately 15% (n = 49) were smokers. Bootstrapping analyses revealed that after controlling for age, gender and time since trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms served as a pathway through which trauma exposure increased the risk of smoking [BC 95% CI (0.02, 0.18)]. Results appeared to be due largely to the influence of hyperarousal symptoms [BC 95% CI (0.05, 0.22)]. Comprehensive interventions for undergraduate smokers may be improved by attending to the impact of prior trauma and mental health needs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Social anxiety and disordered eating: The influence of stress reactivity and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarma, Jessica Lyn; Mathew, Jaya Miriam

    2017-08-01

    While previous research indicates a strong link between social anxiety and disordered eating, more research is needed in order to understand the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. Given that stress is often implicated in disordered eating, it was hypothesised that ones reaction to stress (i.e. stress reactivity) would mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. Similarly, given that low self-esteem is commonly reported in both those with social anxiety and eating disorders, it was hypothesised that self-esteem would also mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. In order to test this, an online survey measuring social anxiety, disordered eating, stress reactivity and self-esteem, was administered to 282 participants in the community, aged between 18 and 35years. Results showed that self-esteem and a reactivity to stress during social conflict - but not during negative social evaluations - partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. These findings demonstrate that low self-esteem and interpersonal conflict are powerful mechanisms that can maintain eating disorder psychopathology in those who are socially anxious. This highlights the importance of ensuring that these mechanisms are sufficiently addressed in eating disorder prevention and treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sexual Functioning After Childhood Abuse: The Influence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Trauma Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornefeld-Ettmann, Pia; Steil, Regina; Lieberz, Klara A; Bohus, Martin; Rausch, Sophie; Herzog, Julia; Priebe, Kathlen; Fydrich, Thomas; Müller-Engelmann, Meike

    2018-04-01

    Impairments in sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction are very common in women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A growing body of literature suggests a high prevalence of sexual distress in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the influence of sexual trauma exposure per se and the influence of PTSD symptoms on impairments in sexual functioning remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sexual trauma exposure and PTSD on sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction by comparing 3 groups of women. Women with PTSD after CSA (N = 32), women with a history of CSA and/or physical abuse but without PTSD (trauma controls [TC]; N = 32), and healthy women (N = 32) were compared with regards to self-reported sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction. Trauma exposure was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and PTSD was assessed with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Sexual functioning was assessed with the Sexual Experience and Behavior Questionnaire, and sexual satisfaction was assessed with the questionnaire Resources in Sexuality and Relationship. PTSD patients had significantly lower sexual functioning in some aspects of sexual experience (sexual aversion, sexual pain, and sexual satisfaction) but did not significantly differ in sexual arousal and orgasm from the other 2 groups. TC and healthy women did not significantly differ from each other on the measures of sexual functioning or sexual satisfaction. Results suggest that the development of PTSD has a greater impact on sexual functioning than does the experience of a traumatic event. This emphasizes the importance to address possible sexual distress and sexual satisfaction in women with PTSD by administering specific diagnostic instruments and by integrating specific interventions targeting sexual problems into a trauma-specific treatment. The study

  2. Phase-based treatment versus immediate trauma-focused treatment in patients with childhood trauma-related posttraumatic stress disorder : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Noortje I.; Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.; van Dijk, Maarten K.; de Jongh, Ad

    2018-01-01

    Background: The treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to a history of sexual and/or physical abuse in childhood is the subject of international debate, with some favouring a phase-based approach as their preferred treatment, while others argue for immediate trauma-focused

  3. Phase-based treatment versus immediate trauma-focused treatment in patients with childhood trauma-related posttraumatic stress disorder : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Noortje I; Huntjens, Rafaele J C; van Dijk, Maarten K; de Jongh, Ad

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to a history of sexual and/or physical abuse in childhood is the subject of international debate, with some favouring a phase-based approach as their preferred treatment, while others argue for immediate trauma-focused

  4. Nonclinical Depression and Anxiety as Predictor of Academic Stress in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Masood

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To measure the role of anxiety and non-clinical depression as predictors of academic stress. In this study, supplementary objective had been gauging the prevalence of anxiety and depression among medical students of first year and final year, sought from six major medical colleges of Punjab. Almost all health professionals, no matter to which part of the world they belong to, face anxiety, depression and stress due to the nature of services they have to extend in medical profession such as time-pressures, workload, multiple roles and emotional issues. Quantitative research designed was employed; and cross sectional research design was used to lay out the research. The data was collected from first year and final year medical students. The duration of data collection was from Sep, 2014 to Sep, 2015. In Faculty of Medicine of five leading medical colleges, with total number of 650 students, the prevalence of anxiety and depression was found to be 83.9% and 67.9%, from first year to fourth year respectively, based on the cut-off points of both questionnaires. There was significant association among anxiety, depression and academic stress as computed through Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The regression analyses revealed that depression was significant predictor of academic stress but this was not the same for anxiety. Females were more anxiety and depression prone and reported greater academic stress than males. The study revealed significant distress among medical students, in terms of both anxiety and depression. It was inferred that the depression acts as pertinent predictor of academic stress. Furthermore, it was noticed that the prevalence of symptoms was higher among females. The findings carry significant implications for highlighting the addressing the need for psychological wellbeing of medical students in order to establish conducive environment of learning for medical professionals.

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Stillbirth: Trauma Characteristics, Locus of Control, Posttraumatic Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Reed, Jacqueline

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the incidence of PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity among women who experienced stillbirth and investigated the relationship between locus of control, trauma characteristics of stillbirth, posttraumatic cognitions, PTSD and co-morbid psychiatric symptoms following stillbirth. Fifty women recorded information on stillbirth experiences, and completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, General Health Questionnaire-28, Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale, Rotter's Locus of Control Scale and the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory. 60, 28 and 12 % met the diagnostic criteria for probable full-PTSD, partial and no-PTSD respectively. Sixty-two percent and 54 % scored at or above the cutoff of the General Health Questionnaire-28 and postnatal depression respectively. Women who experienced stillbirth reported significantly more psychiatric co-morbid and post-natal depressive symptoms than the comparison group. Both groups were similar in locus of control. Women who experienced stillbirth reported negative cognitions about the self the most. After adjusting for postnatal depression, trauma characteristics were significantly correlated with Posttraumatic cognitions which, in turn, were significantly correlated with PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Locus of control was not significantly correlated with psychological outcomes. Mediational analyses showed that negative cognitions about self mediated the relationship between trauma characteristics and psychiatric co-morbidity only. Women reported a high incidence of probable PTSD and co-morbid psychiatric symptoms following stillbirth. Stillbirth trauma characteristics influenced how they negatively perceived themselves. This then specifically influenced general psychological problems rather than PTSD symptoms.

  6. Impact of military trauma exposures on posttraumatic stress and depression in female veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lizabeth A; Dinh, Julie; Donalson, Rosemary; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Maguen, Shira

    2017-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the deleterious effects of traumatic military experiences on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in female veterans. However, more research is needed to identify the unique predictors of distressing psychological symptoms when both combat-related and sexual trauma are considered, particularly as women's combat exposure in the military increases. Female veterans who had attended at least one appointment at a large Veterans Health Administration medical center were invited to complete questionnaires about traumatic military exposures and psychiatric symptoms. A total of 403 veterans responded, with 383 respondents' data used in analyses. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with trauma exposure items entered simultaneously to determine their association with symptoms of (1) PTSD and (2) depression. Sexual assault had the strongest relationship with both posttraumatic and depressive symptoms. Sexual assault, sexual harassment, feeling in danger of being killed, and seeing others killed/injured were associated with symptoms of PTSD, but only sexual assault and sexual harassment were associated with symptoms of depression, even when accounting for several aspects of combat exposure. Improving assessment for trauma exposure and developing treatments personalized to type of trauma experienced are important clinical research priorities as female service members' roles in the military expand. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Mediating effect of stress on the association between early trauma and psychological distress in Korean college students: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Noh, D; Park, S I

    2015-12-01

    What is known on the subject? Despite the increase of studies into the predictors of psychological distress, few have attempted to address the mediation of stress in the relationship between early trauma and psychological distress. What does this paper add to existing knowledge? In this study, college students with trauma exposure before the age of 18 years reported high levels of college life stress and psychological distress. In addition, of the subcategories of early trauma, emotional abuse was most highly correlated with current stress and psychological distress. This paper confirmed the partial mediating effect of stress between early trauma and psychological distress among Korean college students. In other words, this study found a direct effect of early trauma on current psychological distress and an indirect effect of early trauma on psychological distress mediated through life stress. What are the implications for practice? Early trauma and stress should be considered when developing interventions for college students' mental health, although individuals with trauma exposure have difficulties disclosing their traumatic event. Therefore, we suggest that stress management may be easier to apply and more effective in promoting college students' mental health than trauma-focused interventions. Research has shown that early trauma and stress may affect current psychological distress. However, few studies have attempted to address the mediation of stress between early trauma and psychological distress. This cross-sectional observational study aimed to examine the mediating effects of stress on the association between early trauma and psychological distress in Korean college students. Participants included 216 college students (51.4% male) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing early trauma, college life stress, and psychological distress. Early trauma, stress, and psychological distress were significantly correlated. Of the subcategories of early

  8. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Therapist Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Helping Kids Cope With Stress Helping Kids Handle Worry Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress Anxiety Disorders Special Needs Factsheet Social Phobia Special Needs Factsheet Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) ...

  9. Stress, Anxiety, and Weight Gain among University and College Students: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Suzan A; de Vries, N K; Karavetian, Mirey; El-Rassi, Rola

    2018-02-01

    Stress and anxiety levels are elevated among university and college students. Although high stress levels can lead to an increase in adiposity, it is not clear whether stress and anxiety experienced when in university or college have an influence on students' weight. The aim of this systemic review was to investigate whether stress and anxiety levels encountered during university and college enrollment were associated with higher adiposity or weight changes among students. A search strategy was used to identify peer-reviewed studies published between 1985 and March 2017 using the following databases: Medline using Ovid; PubMed, CINAHL using EBSCO, Embase using Ovid, PSYCHINFO, and Open Access Theses and Dissertation. Two reviewers independently assessed the title, abstract, and then the full article of the studies that met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and quality assessment was conducted for the included studies. Twenty-five observational studies were identified in this review (23 cross-sectional and two longitudinal); 11 found that there was no association between stress and body mass index or weight change. In addition, five studies did not find a significant association between anxiety and body mass index. A few studies revealed stress and anxiety might be associated with higher or lower weight status, thus there is a possibility that stress can increase or decrease weight, demonstrating that a bidirectional influence on body mass index may exist. The current data in this review are inadequate to draw firm conclusions about the role of stress on weight change in university and college students. The inconsistency of results in the literature reviewed for this article suggest that a focus on longitudinal studies with adequate sample size would better evaluate the relationship between stress or anxiety and its influence on weight status or weight change among college and university students. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

  10. Music interventions to reduce stress and anxiety in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbijn van Willenswaard, Kyrsten; Lynn, Fiona; McNeill, Jenny; McQueen, Karen; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Lobel, Marci; Alderdice, Fiona

    2017-07-27

    Stress and anxiety are common in pregnancy and shown to have adverse effects on maternal and infant health outcomes. The aim of this review and meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of music-based interventions in reducing levels of stress or anxiety among pregnant women. Six databases were searched using key terms relating to pregnancy, psychological stress, anxiety and music. Inclusion criteria were randomised controlled or quasi-experimental trials that assessed the effect of music during pregnancy and measured levels of psychological stress or anxiety as a primary or secondary outcome. Two authors independently assessed and extracted data. Quality assessment was performed using The Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias criteria. Meta-analyses were conducted to assess stress and anxiety reduction following a music-based intervention compared to a control group that received routine antenatal care. Five studies with 1261 women were included. Music interventions significantly reduced levels of maternal anxiety (Standardised Mean Difference (SMD): -0.21; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) -0.39, -0.03; p = 0.02). There was no significant effect on general stress (SMD: -0.08; 95% CI -0.25, 0.09; p = 0.35) or pregnancy-specific stress (SMD: -0.02; 95% CI -0.19, 0.15; p = 0.80). The methodological quality of included studies was moderate to weak, all studies having a high or unclear risk of bias in allocation concealment, blinding and selective outcome reporting. There is evidence that music-based interventions may reduce anxiety in pregnancy; however, the methodological quality of the studies was moderate to weak. Additional research is warranted focusing on rigour of assessment, intensity of interventions delivered and methodological limitations.

  11. Management of Stress and Anxiety Among PhD Students During Thesis Writing: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafkan, Leila; Shokrpour, Nasrin; Yousefi, Alireza; Yamani, Nikoo

    2016-01-01

    Today, postgraduate students experience a variety of stresses and anxiety in different situations of academic cycle. Stress and anxiety have been defined as a syndrome shown by emotional exhaustion and reduced personal goal achievement. This article addresses the causes and different strategies of coping with this phenomena by PhD students at Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences. The study was conducted by a qualitative method using conventional content analysis approach. Through purposive sampling, 16 postgraduate medical sciences PhD students were selected on the basis of theoretical sampling. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews and field observations. Six hundred fifty-four initial codes were summarized and classified into 4 main categories and 11 subcategories on the thematic coding stage dependent on conceptual similarities and differences. The obtained codes were categorized under 4 themes including "thesis as a major source of stress," "supervisor relationship," "socioeconomic problem," and "coping with stress and anxiety." It was concluded that PhD students experience stress and anxiety from a variety of sources and apply different methods of coping in effective and ineffective ways. Purposeful supervision and guidance can reduce the cause of stress and anxiety; in addition, coping strategy must be in a thoughtful approach, as recommended in this study.

  12. FAKTOR RESIKO GANGGUAN STRESS PASCA TRAUMA PADA ANAK KORBAN PELECEHAN SEKSUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hera Wahyuni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to research deeply on Risk Factors For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD in children Sexual Abuse. The method used to conduct this study from including a variety of sources: 1 results abstract of scientific writing, 2 review journals. Selection of the article focuses on children sexual abuse who experience PTSD, review articles carried in the last 11 years ranging from 2005 to 2015, consists of 35 articles that analyzed the risk factors for PTSD in cases traumatic as sexual abuse. PTSD is an ongoing maladaptive reaction to a traumatic event that involves death or threat of death or serious physical harm or threats to the safety of themselves or others. Individuals who experience PTSD can be seen from three of the following symptoms: 1 re-experiencing of events traumatic , 2 avoidance, 3 hyperarousal, have difference in symptoms between children and adults, symptoms in children is usually characterized by bedwetting, speech disorders, poor attachment, etc. As for the risk factors associated with PTSD in children sexual abuse have two (2 factors : 1 vulnerability factors in children and 2 environmental factors (family and social. These two factors, will be broken down into three phases trigger PTSD in children are : 1 Pre-Trauma, 2. Peri-Trauma, and 3. Post-Trauma. Kata Kunci : Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, Children, Sexual Abused.

  13. Stress, Anxiety, and Social Emotional Learning in Education: Perceptions of Undergraduate, Pre Service, and Practicing Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Lynne W.

    2017-01-01

    Stress and anxiety are pervasive in education and society. Schools are initiating policy and programs aimed at addressing resiliency and wellbeing of students; yet, research and practice are lagging. This phenomenological study sought to explore social emotional teaching and learning with a specific focus on the potential impact on stress and…

  14. Anxiety sensitivity in adolescence and young adulthood: the role of stressful life events, 5HTTLPR and their interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavos, Helena M S; Wong, Chloe C Y; Barclay, Nicola L; Keers, Robert; Mill, Jonathan; Rijsdijk, Frühling V; Gregory, Alice M; Eley, Thalia C

    2012-05-01

    Cognitive biases have long been hypothesized to influence the development and maintenance of symptoms of internalizing problems. Anxiety sensitivity represents one such bias and refers to sensitivity to the physical and emotional symptoms of anxiety and the belief that these are harmful. Twin studies indicate a role for both environmental and genetic influences on anxiety sensitivity. However, little work has been done specifying environments or genes involved in this phenotype. In light of this, we looked at the association between stressful life events, the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5HTTLPR), and anxiety sensitivity in a longitudinal sample of adolescents. Stressful life events and anxiety sensitivity were measured in over 1,500 individuals at three time points (mean ages 15, 17, and 20 years). 5HTTLPR was genotyped in 1,109 participants. There was consistent evidence for an association between stressful life events and both anxiety sensitivity and change in anxiety sensitivity over time. Although the effect of independent stressful life events was relatively short lived, dependent stressful life events were associated with anxiety sensitivity over time. There was no evidence for a main effect of 5HTTLPR on anxiety sensitivity. 5HTTLPR genotype did not moderate the effect of stressful life events on anxiety sensitivity. The current study extends previous work by showing that stressful life events, independent of the individual, explained change in cognitions associated with anxiety and depression. This effect does not, however, appear to be moderated by genotype. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The effect of emotional freedom technique on stress and anxiety in nursing students: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Susan Librizzi

    2016-05-01

    Stress and anxiety have been identified as significant issues experienced by student nurses during their education. Some studies have suggested that the stress experienced by nursing students is greater than that experienced by medical students, other non-nursing healthcare students, degreed nurses, and the female population in general. A recently introduced energy type therapy, emotional freedom technique (EFT), has shown some success in reducing symptoms of anxiety, stress, and fear in a variety of settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of EFT in decreasing anxiety and stress as a potential intervention to assist students in stress management. The study used a mixed method design of both qualitative and quantitative measures. Quantitatively, in a one group pretest-posttest design, participants received group instruction in the technique and were encouraged to repeat it daily. Self-reported anxiety was measured at baseline, and then weekly for four weeks using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The qualitative survey was completed by participants at the end of the study in order to capture a more subjective experience. The pilot study was conducted in a two-year college in the southeastern region of the United States. All enrolled nursing students in an associate degree nursing program were invited to participate. Participation was voluntary, resulting in an original convenience sample of thirty-nine nursing students (N=39). Data collection instruments included a demographic questionnaire, pretest State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). A qualitative questionnaire was also administered at the end of the four weeks. STAI and PSS were administered weekly. Data analysis using RMANOVA was performed at the second, third and the fourth week. Decreases in anxiety as measured on both the STAI and PSS were statistically significant (p=.05). For PSS, STAI state and trait

  16. Stress and the level of perceived anxiety among mariners: the mediating role of marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplińska, Aleksandra; Jeżewska, Maria; Leszczyńska, Irena; Połomski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The challenges of professional life are becoming more and more demanding on people's private life, especially if a given profession requires many sacrifices and has negative consequences for one's physical and psychological health, as is the case of professional mariners. The purpose of this study is to attempt to verify the correlation between the quality of emotional bonds, manifested in marital satisfaction, and the level of stress and anxiety perceived by mariners. The study encompasses 210 mariners working on seagoing ships. The following research tools were employed for the purpose of the study: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Stress Experience Questionnaire (PS) and Well-matched Marriage Questionnaire (KDM). The results indicate that marital satisfaction is correlated with the level of stress and anxiety among mariners, constituting a stress inhibitor.

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use Among College Students With Trauma Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Lindsay S; Wiersma-Mosley, Jacquelyn D; Feldner, Matthew T; Melkonian, Alexander J; Milner, Lauren A; Lewis, Sarah F

    2016-01-01

    Nonmedical prescription drug use, defined as using the drug without a prescription or in ways for which it is not prescribed, and traumatic event exposure are highly prevalent among college students. Despite evidence that posttraumatic stress symptoms could place college students at risk for nonmedical prescription drug problems, no studies have examined this relationship. This study was a preliminary examination of posttraumatic stress symptoms, lifetime nonmedical prescription drug use, hazardous use, and dependence symptoms among college students with trauma exposure. Participants were students attending a rural college in Virginia, recruited through psychology classes, flyers, LISTSERVs, and announcements at student events. All students who reported experiencing at least one traumatic event were included (N = 119); participants' mean age was 19.7 years (SD = 1.90), about half were women (n = 63, 53%), and most were Caucasian (n = 103, 87%). Nearly 60% of participants (n = 71) reported using nonmedical prescription drugs at least once during their lifetime and were more likely than those with no use to report hazardous alcohol use (p college student is experiencing related to nonmedical prescription drug use may be more relevant to posttraumatic stress symptom frequency than dichotomous measures of nonmedical prescription drug use alone. Further, the association between the frequency of posttraumatic stress symptoms and both hazardous nonmedical prescription drug use and dependence symptoms among college students with a trauma history deserves further investigation due to the resulting vulnerability to increasingly negative outcomes.

  18. The role of intelligence in posttraumatic stress disorder: does it vary by trauma severity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Breslau

    Full Text Available Only a small minority of trauma victims develops post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, suggesting that victims vary in their predispositions to the PTSD response to stressors. It is assumed that the role of predispositions in PTSD varies by trauma severity: when stressors are less severe, predispositions play a bigger role. In this study, we test whether the role of intelligence in PTSD varies by trauma severity. Specifically, does low intelligence plays a bigger part among victims of lower magnitude stressors than among victims of extreme stressors?Data come from a longitudinal study of randomly selected sample in Southeast Michigan (n = 713. IQ was measured at age 6. PTSD was measured at age 17, using the NIMH-DIS for DSM-IV. Stressors were classified as extreme if they involved assaultive violence (e.g. rape, sexual assault, threatened with a weapon; other stressors in the list (e.g. disaster, accidents were classified as lower magnitude. Assaultive violence victims had experienced assaultive violence plus other event types or only assaultive violence. Victims of other stressors were participants who had never experienced assaultive violence. We compared the influence of age 6 IQ on PTSD among persons exposed to assaultive violence vs. other stressors, using multinomial logistic regression.Relative risk ratio (RRR for PTSD associated with a one point drop in age 6 IQ among victims of assaultive violence was 1.04 (95% CI 1.01, 1.06; among victims of other stressors, it was 1.03 (95% CI 0.99, 1.06. A comparison of the two RRRs indicates no significant difference between the two estimates (p = 0.652. IQ does not play a bigger role in PTSD among victims of other stressors than it does among victims of assaultive violence.Lower IQ exerts an adverse PTSD effect on trauma victims, with no evidence of variability by the severity of trauma they have experienced.

  19. Subjectively and objectively measured sleep with and without posttraumatic stress disorder and trauma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Huntley, Edward; Lavela, Joseph; Mellman, Thomas A

    2012-07-01

    Although reports of sleep disturbances are common among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), results of polysomnographic (PSG) studies have inconsistently documented abnormalities and have therefore suggested "sleep state misperception." The authors' study objectives were to compare sleep parameters measured objectively and subjectively in the laboratory and at home in civilians with and without trauma exposure and PTSD. Cross-sectional study. PSG recordings in a sleep laboratory and actigraphic recordings in participants' homes. One hundred three urban-residing African Americans with and without trauma exposure and PTSD who participated in a larger study. N/A. Sleep parameters (total sleep time [TST], sleep onset latency [SOL], and wake after sleep onset [WASO]) were assessed using laboratory PSG and home actigraphy. A sleep diary was completed in the morning after PSG and actigraphy recordings. Habitual TST, SOL, and WASO were assessed using a sleep questionnaire. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale was administered to assess participants' trauma exposure and PTSD diagnostic status. Participants, regardless of their trauma exposure/PTSD status, underestimated WASO in the diary and questionnaire relative to actigraphy and overestimated SOL in the diary relative to PSG. Among participants with current PTSD, TST diary estimates did not differ from the actigraphy measure in contrast with those without current PTSD who overestimated TST. No other significant group differences in discrepancies between subjective and objective sleep measures were found. Discrepancies between subjectively and objectively measured sleep parameters were not associated with trauma exposure or PTSD. This challenges prior assertions that individuals with PTSD overreport their sleep disturbances.

  20. Are Trauma Memories Disjointed from other Autobiographical Memories in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder? An Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, Birgit; Wallott, Franziska; Ehlers, Anke

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that trauma memories are disjointed from other autobiographical material in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Assault survivors with (n = 25) and without PTSD (n = 49) completed an autobiographical memory retrieval task during script-driven imagery of (a) the assault and (b) an unrelated negative event. When listening to a taped imagery script of the worst moment of their assault, survivors with PTSD took longer to retrieve unrelated non-traumatic autobiographical information than those without PTSD, but not when listening to a taped script of the worst moment of another negative life event. The groups also did not differ in general retrieval latencies, neither at baseline nor after the imagery tasks. The findings are in line with suggestions that traumatic memories are less integrated with other autobiographical information in trauma survivors with PTSD than in those without PTSD. PMID:21241538

  1. Measuring trauma and stressful events in childhood and adolescence among patients with first-episode psychosis: initial factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Trauma Experiences Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofaro, Sarah L; Cleary, Sean D; Ramsay Wan, Claire; Broussard, Beth; Chapman, Colby; Haggard, Patrick J; Jananeh, Sara; Myers, Neely L; Compton, Michael T

    2013-12-15

    Past trauma and stressful events, especially in childhood and adolescence, are common among individuals with serious mental illnesses like schizophrenia. Traumatic experiences are thought to be a socio-environmental risk factor not only for poorer outcomes, but also potentially for the onset of these disorders. Because improved measurement tools are needed, we developed and studied, among 205 first-episode psychosis patients, the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and initial validity of the Trauma Experiences Checklist (TEC), our measure of trauma and stressful events during childhood/adolescence. We assessed validity of subscales using correlations with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, Parental Harsh Discipline, Violence Exposure, and TEC-Informant Version scores. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in two internally consistent subscales (Cronbach's α=0.79 and 0.80, respectively), interpersonal abuse and family stress, and violence, death, and legal involvement. Scores from the former subscale were substantially associated with CTQ-SF physical, emotional, and sexual abuse (r=0.42-0.57, all pchildhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity moderates the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction and aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or aerobic exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise (AE) are effective in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity can be used to inform treatment recommendations. Both MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly levels of social anxiety symptoms. MBSR appears to be most effective for patients with lower pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. AE appears to be most effective for patients with higher pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Life stress and symptoms of anxiety and depression in women after cancer: The mediating effect of stress appraisal and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Porter-Steele, Janine; Ng, Shu-Kay; Turner, Jane; McGuire, Amanda; McDonald, Nicole; Balaam, Sarah; Yates, Patsy; McCarthy, Alexandra; Anderson, Debra

    2018-04-06

    This paper examines the direct and intermediary relationships between life stress, stress appraisal, and resilience, and increased anxiety and depressive symptoms in Australian women after cancer treatment. Data examined from 278 women aged 18 years and older previously treated for breast, gynaecological, or blood cancer, participating in the Australian Women's Wellness after Cancer Program. Serial mediation models interrogated the effect of stressful life events (List of Threatening Experiences-Modified) mediated by appraisal and coping (Perceived Stress Scale and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale), on symptoms of anxiety and depression (Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Over one-quarter (30.2%) of participants reported 1 or more stressful life events, other than their cancer, in the previous 6 months. Results indicate that perceived stress fully mediated the relationships between life stress, anxiety (indirect effect = 0.09, Bias-corrected bootstrap 95% CI 0.02-0.18, Percent mediation = 0.51), and depressive symptoms (indirect effect = 0.11, Bias-corrected bootstrap 95% CI 0.02-0.23, Percent mediation = 0.71) and accounted for more than half of the relationship between predictor and outcome. Findings indicate that stress appraisal mediated the relationship between past life stressors and anxiety and depressive symptoms. This analysis also highlights the need to consider wellness within a broader care context to identify potentially vulnerable patients to possibly avert future health concerns. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Decreased dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels in adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder after single sexual trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Mirac Baris; Tuncel, Ozgur Korhan; Akbas, Seher; Aydin, Berna; Say, Gokce Nur

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated in chronic sexual abuse victims with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We hypothesized that PTSD in adolescents exposed to a single sexual trauma may function as a chronic stressor leading to HPA-axis dysregulation. The objective of this study was to assess dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) and cortisol levels in female adolescents |with single sexual trauma-related PTSD compared to healthy controls. We assessed 20 female adolescent (age 12-18) single sexual trauma victims with PTSD from the Ondokuz Mayis University Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry between December 2013 and December 2014. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPSRI). Blood cortisol and DHEA-S were measured in 20 female adolescent sexual abuse victims with PTSD and 20 healthy adolescents after 12-h fasting using the chemiluminescence method. Compared to age-matched controls, female adolescent sexual abuse victims with PTSD had significantly lower DHEA-S levels (U = 70.00, Z = - 3.517, p = 0.01, r = 0.55). There was also a significant negative correlation between DHEA-S and CDI scores (Spearman r = - 0.522, p < 0.01). Decreased DHEA-S levels and correlation with depressive symptoms are evidence for a dysregulated HPA-axis in female adolescent single sexual trauma victims with PTSD. Further research is now recommended with large patient groups in order to maximize generalizations.

  5. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take a test or walk down a dark street. This kind of anxiety is useful - it can make you more alert or careful. It usually ends soon after you are out of the situation that caused it. But for millions of people in the United States, the anxiety does not ...

  6. Social anxiety and problematic cannabis use: evaluating the moderating role of stress reactivity and perceived coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Schmidt, Norman B; Bobadilla, Leonardo; Taylor, Jeanette

    2006-07-01

    Despite epidemiological reports indicating an association between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and cannabis use disorders (CUD), there is a paucity of research exploring the nature of this relationship. The present investigation examined potential moderators of this relationship that are consistent with a tension-reduction model of addiction. Specifically, physiological reactivity to stress and perceived coping with stress were evaluated as moderators of the relation between symptoms of SAD and CUD. Physiological (SCR) and subjective (perceived coping) responses to unpredictable white noise bursts were collected from non-clinical participants (n=123). Lifetime symptoms of CUD and anxiety disorders were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. CUD symptomatology was associated with symptoms of SAD but not with symptoms of any other anxiety disorder. Only perceived coping to unpredictable stimuli moderated the relationship between SAD and CUD symptoms. Findings are discussed in the context of tension-reduction models of co-occurring social anxiety and problematic cannabis use.

  7. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teris Cheung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Chronic past-year illness and poor self-perceived mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. It confirmed further positive correlations between depression and divorce, widowhood and separation, job dissatisfaction, disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity levels and sleep problems. Marital status; general medicine; sleep problems, and a lack of leisure significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with younger age, clinical inexperience, past-year disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity, no leisure and drinking alcohol. Nurses were more depressed, anxious and stressed than the local general population, with over one-third of our respondents classified as subject to these disorders.

  8. Stressful Life Events and Child Anxiety: Examining Parent and Child Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Rheanna; Williams, Sarah R.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2015-01-01

    While a number of factors have been linked with excessive anxiety (e.g., parenting, child temperament), the impact of stressful life events remains under-studied. Moreover, much of this literature has examined bivariate associations rather than testing more complex theoretical models. The current study extends the literature on life events and child anxiety by testing a theory-driven meditational model. Specifically, one child factor (child cognitions/locus of control), two parent factors (parent psychopathology and parenting stress), and two parent-child relationship factors (parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parenting style) were examined as mediators in the relationship between stressful life events and severity of child anxiety. One hundred and thirty anxious parents and their nonanxious, high-risk children (ages ranged from 7 to 13 years) participated in this study. Results indicated that levels of parenting stress, parental anxious rearing, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction mediated the association between stressful life events and severity of anxiety symptoms. Child cognition and parent psychopathology factors failed to emerge as mediators. Findings provide support for more complex theoretical models linking life events and child anxiety and suggest potential targets of intervention. PMID:25772523

  9. Short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21: is it valid for Brazilian adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Hítalo Andrade; dos Passos, Muana Hiandra Pereira; de Oliveira, Valéria Mayaly Alves; Palmeira, Aline Cabral; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the interday reproducibility, agreement and validity of the construct of short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 applied to adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of adolescents of both sexes, aged between 10 and 19 years, who were recruited from schools and sports centers. The validity of the construct was performed by exploratory factor analysis, and reliability was calculated for each construct using the intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement and the minimum detectable change. Results The factor analysis combining the items corresponding to anxiety and stress in a single factor, and depression in a second factor, showed a better match of all 21 items, with higher factor loadings in their respective constructs. The reproducibility values for depression were intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.86, standard error of measurement with 0.80, and minimum detectable change with 2.22; and, for anxiety/stress: intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.82, standard error of measurement with 1.80, and minimum detectable change with 4.99. Conclusion The short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 showed excellent values of reliability, and strong internal consistency. The two-factor model with condensation of the constructs anxiety and stress in a single factor was the most acceptable for the adolescent population. PMID:28076595

  10. Interrelationships between trait anxiety, situational stress and mental effort predict phonological processing efficiency, but not effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Mark S; Lyvers, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) describes the mechanisms associated with the relationship between anxiety and cognitive performance. We investigated the relationship between cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress and mental effort on phonological performance using a simple (forward-) and complex (backward-) word span task. Ninety undergraduate students participated in the study. Predictor variables were cognitive trait anxiety, indexed using questionnaire scores; situational stress, manipulated using ego threat instructions; and perceived level of mental effort, measured using a visual analogue scale. Criterion variables (a) performance effectiveness (accuracy) and (b) processing efficiency (accuracy divided by response time) were analyzed in separate multiple moderated-regression analyses. The results revealed (a) no relationship between the predictors and performance effectiveness, and (b) a significant 3-way interaction on processing efficiency for both the simple and complex tasks, such that at higher effort, trait anxiety and situational stress did not predict processing efficiency, whereas at lower effort, higher trait anxiety was associated with lower efficiency at high situational stress, but not at low situational stress. Our results were in full support of the assumptions of ACT and implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Interpersonal Stress Regulation and the Development of Anxiety Disorders: An Attachment-Based Developmental Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Tobias; Guiney, Jo; Fonagy, Peter; Mayes, Linda C.; Luyten, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the etiology and maintenance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework. The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety, and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social–cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualized as the key organizer of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and epigenetic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial etiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterized by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety. The cumulative allostatic load and subsequent “wear and tear” effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments are outlined. PMID

  12. Cannabis Use and Anxiety: Is Stress the Missing Piece of the Puzzle?

    OpenAIRE

    Temple, Elizabeth C.; Driver, Matthew; Brown, Rhonda F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Comorbidity between anxiety and cannabis use is common yet the nature of the association between these conditions is not clear. Four theories were assessed, and a fifth hypothesis tested to determine if the misattribution of stress symptomology plays a role in the association between state-anxiety and cannabis. Methods: Three-hundred-sixteen participants ranging in age from 18 to 71 years completed a short online questionnaire asking about their history of cannabis use and sympt...

  13. Interpersonal stress regulation and the development of anxiety disorders: an attachment-based developmental framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eNolte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the aetiology and maintainance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework.The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualised as the key organiser of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental and epigentic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial aetiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterised by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety.In the model, the cumulative allostatic load and subsequent wear and tear effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments

  14. Effects of paternal and peripubertal stress on aggression, anxiety, and metabolic alterations in the lateral septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, M I; Just, N; Poirier, G L; Sandi, C

    2016-02-01

    Early-life stress and biological predispositions are linked to mood and personality disorders related to aggressive behavior. We previously showed that exposure to peripubertal stress leads to increased anxiety-like behaviors and aggression against males and females, as well as increased aggression against females in their male offspring. Here, we investigated whether paternal (pS) and individual (iS) exposure to peripubertal stress may exert additive effects on the long-term programming of anxiety-like and aggressive behaviors in rats. Given the key role of the lateral septum (LS) in the regulation of anxiety and aggressive behaviors and the hypothesized alterations in balance between neural excitation and inhibition in aggression-related disorders, markers for these processes were examined in the LS. Peripubertal stress was applied both in naïve male rats and in the offspring of peripubertally stressed males, and anxiety-like and aggressive behaviors were assessed at adulthood. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 6-months, and post-mortem analysis of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) at 12-months were conducted in LS. We confirmed that aggressive behavior was increased by pS and iS, while only iS increased anxiety-like behavior. Individual stress led to reduced GABA, confirmed by reduced GAD67 immunolabelling, and increased glutamate, N-acetyl-aspartate, phosphocholine and creatine; while pS specifically led to reduced phosphocreatine. pS and iS do not interact and exert a differential impact on the analyzed aspects of brain function and anxiety-like behaviors. These data support the view that early-life stress can affect the behavioral and neurodevelopmental trajectories of individuals and their offspring, which may involve different neurobiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  15. Posttraumatic stress following acute medical trauma in children: A proposed model of bio-psycho-social processes during the peri-trauma period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Meghan L.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Widaman, Keith; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of children worldwide experience acute medical events. Children’s responses to these events range from transient distress to significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS). While many models suggest explanations for the development and maintenance of PTSS in adults, very few have focused on children. Current models of child PTSS are primarily restricted to the post-trauma period, thus neglecting the critical peri-trauma period when screening and preventive interventions may be most easily implemented. Research on PTSS in response to pediatric medical trauma typically examines predictors in isolation, often overlooking potentially important interactions. This paper proposes a new model utilizing the bio-psycho-social framework and focusing on peri-trauma processes of acute medical events. Understanding the relationships among bio-psycho-social factors during peri-trauma can inform early identification of at-risk children, preventive interventions, and clinical care. Recommendations for future research, including the need to examine PTSS in the context of multiple influences, are discussed. PMID:25217001

  16. Predictors in Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy and behavioral stress management for severe health anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2015-01-01

    Severe health anxiety can be effectively treated with exposure-based Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT), but information about which factors that predict outcome is scarce. Using data from a recently conducted RCT comparing ICBT (n = 79) with Internet-delivered behavioral stress management (IBSM) (n = 79) the presented study investigated predictors of treatment outcome. Analyses were conducted using a two-step linear regression approach and the dependent variable was operationalized both as end state health anxiety at post-treatment and as baseline-to post-treatment improvement. A hypothesis driven approach was used where predictors expected to influence outcome were based on a previous predictor study by our research group. As hypothesized, the results showed that baseline health anxiety and treatment adherence predicted both end state health anxiety and improvement. In addition, anxiety sensitivity, treatment credibility, and working alliance were significant predictors of health anxiety improvement. Demographic variables, i.e. age, gender, marital status, computer skills, educational level, and having children, had no significant predictive value. We conclude that it is possible to predict a substantial proportion of the outcome variance in ICBT and IBSM for severe health anxiety. The findings of the present study can be of high clinical value as they provide information about factors of importance for outcome in the treatment of severe health anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prognostic Role of Spiritual Intelligence Components in Pregnant Women’s Depression, Anxiety, and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batul Khodakarami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Physiological changes and psychological adaptations during pregnancy period expose pregnant mothers to increased risk of depression, anxiety, and stress. Presently, spiritual intelligence is addressed as one of the most influential issues in mental and emotional health of individuals. This study was conducted aimed at examination of the relationship between spiritual intelligence, on the one hand, and depression, anxiety, and stress, on the other, among pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive-correlative study was performed on 182 pregnant women using Stratified Random Sampling method. Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21 and King Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory were used to evaluate and compare research’s variables. SPSS, version 16, and descriptive-analytical statistical methods were employed to analyze data. Results: Results indicated that there was a negative, significant relationship between all scales of spiritual intelligence components and subscales of depression and stress during pregnancy period (P<0.05. There was a negative, significant relationship between critical existential thinking and personal meaning production, on the one hand, and stress, on the other, in pregnancy period (P<0.05. Multiple regressions analysis indicated that predictor variables explain criterion variables in a significant way. Conclusion: Pregnant women with higher degrees of spiritual intelligence tend to have lower degrees of depression, anxiety, and stress during their pregnancy period.

  18. Anxiety, Affect, Self-Esteem, and Stress: Mediation and Moderation Effects on Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Ali Al; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Background Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression. Methods Two hundred and two university students (males  = 93, females  = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses. Main Findings The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression. Conclusion The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators. PMID:24039896

  19. Sex differences in the neuro-immune consequences of stress: Focus on depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhbat, Mandakh; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2018-01-01

    Women appear to be more vulnerable to the depressogenic effects of inflammation than men. Chronic stress, one of the most pertinent risk factors of depression and anxiety, is known to induce behavioral and affective-like deficits via neuroimmune alterations including activation of the brain's immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and subsequent changes in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity within stress-related neural circuitry. Despite well-established sexual dimorphisms in the stress response, immunity, and prevalence of stress-linked psychiatric illnesses, much of current research investigating the neuroimmune impact of stress remains exclusively focused on male subjects. We summarize and evaluate here the available data regarding sex differences in the neuro-immune consequences of stress, and some of the physiological factors contributing to these differences. Furthermore, we discuss the extent to which sex differences in stress-related neuroinflammation can account for the overall female bias in stress-linked psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. The currently available evidence from rodent studies does not unequivocally support the peripheral inflammatory changes seen in women following stress. Replication of many recent findings in stress-related neuroinflammation in female subjects is necessary in order to build a framework in which we can assess the extent to which sex differences in stress-related inflammation contribute to the overall female bias in stress-related affective disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Implicit and explicit avoidance in sexual trauma victims suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study

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    Pascal Fleurkens

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Avoidance of stimuli that are associated with the traumatic event is a key feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Thus far, studies on the role of avoidance in the development and maintenance of PTSD focused primarily on strategic or explicit avoidance. However, patients may also show implicit avoidance behavior, which may remain even when explicit avoidance is reduced. Objectives: The present pilot study was designed to test the hypothesis that PTSD patients show implicit avoidance of threatening, trauma-related stimuli. In addition, it was tested whether this avoidance behavior also occurs for other stimuli. Methods: The Approach-Avoidance Task was used as an indirect measure of avoidance. Participants were 16 women suffering from PTSD who had experienced a sexual trauma, and 23 healthy non-traumatized women. Using a joystick, they pulled pictures closer to themselves or pushed them away. The pictures varied in content, being either high-threat sexual, non-threat sexual, high-threat accident, or positive. Results: Compared to control participants, PTSD patients avoided high-threat sexual pictures, and the degree of avoidance was predicted by self-reported arousal level. Moreover, PTSD patients with high levels of self-reported explicit avoidance, depressive symptoms, and PTSD symptom severity also avoided high-threat accident pictures. Conclusions: These findings point to the possible importance of threat value instead of trauma-relatedness in explaining implicit avoidance. The results are discussed in light of cognitive-behavioral models of PTSD, and clinical implications are suggested.

  1. Validation of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD using the International Trauma Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, P; Shevlin, M; Brewin, C R; Cloitre, M; Downes, A J; Jumbe, S; Karatzias, T; Bisson, J I; Roberts, N P

    2017-09-01

    The 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) has proposed two related trauma diagnoses: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). Using a newly developed, disorder-specific measure of PTSD and CPTSD called the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) the current study will (i) assess the factorial validity of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD; (ii) provide the first test of the discriminant validity of these constructs; and (iii) provide the first comparison of ICD-11, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), PTSD diagnostic rates using disorder-specific measures. ICD-11 and DSM-5 PTSD-specific measures were completed by a British clinical sample of trauma-exposed patients (N = 171). The structure and validity of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD were assessed by means of factor analysis and assessing relationships with criterion variables. Diagnostic rates under ICD-11 were significantly lower than those under DSM-5. A two-factor second-order model reflecting the distinction between PTSD and CPTSD best represented the data from the ITQ; and the PTSD and CPTSD factors differentially predicted multiple psychological variables. The factorial and discriminant validity of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD was supported, and ICD-11 produces fewer diagnostic cases than DSM-5. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Music Therapy on Anxiety, Stress and Maternal-fetal Attachment in Pregnant Women During Transvaginal Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye Sook; Kim, Ju Hee

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music therapy on anxiety, stress and maternal-fetal attachment in pregnant women during a transvaginal ultrasound. This study was a nonequivalent control group nonsynchronized design. Pregnant women (n =232) were assigned to experimental (n= 117) and control (n =116) groups respectively. The data were collected from August 2 to 27, 2010. The experimental group received general prenatal care and single 30-minute session of music therapy, while the control group received only general prenatal care. Anxiety, stress, and maternal-fetal attachment was assessed using three self-report measures by State scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (1976), Pregnant women's stress scale of Ahn (1984) and Cranley's (1981) maternal-fetal attachment scale. The music therapy group showed statistically significant decrease in anxiety compared to control group but no significant difference was identified in stress and maternal-fetal attachment. The finding provides evidence for use of nursing intervention in prenatal care unit to reduce pregnant women's anxiety. Further research is necessary to test the benefits of music therapy with different frequency and duration. Copyright © 2011 Korean Society of Nursing Science. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Personality traits and childhood trauma as correlates of metabolic risk factors : The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Personality and childhood trauma may affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, evidence for an association with metabolic risk factors for CVD is limited and ambiguous. Moreover, despite their interrelatedness, personality and childhood trauma were not yet studied simultaneously.

  4. Personality traits and childhood trauma as correlates of metabolic risk factors: The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reedt Dortland, A.K.B.; Giltay, E.J.; van Veen, T.; Zitman, F.G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Personality and childhood trauma may affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, evidence for an association with metabolic risk factors for CVD is limited and ambiguous. Moreover, despite their interrelatedness, personality and childhood trauma were not yet studied simultaneously.

  5. Stress, anxiety, and depression among medical students in a multiethnic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsoom, Bibi; Afsar, Nasir Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Contemporary literature suggests that medical education might adversely affect students’ mental health. Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia is a developing institution; hence, there has been a concern regarding the mental well-being of the students. Objectives This study was designed to assess the traits of depression, anxiety, and stress among students in relation to potential underlying reasons. Methods All 575 medical students across the 5 years of study participated by filling out the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) questionnaire anonymously twice. Firstly, 2–3 weeks before a major examination (pre-examination), and secondly, during regular classes (post-examination). Correlation was sought regarding sex, year of scholarship, attendance of a premedical university preparatory program (UPP), housing, and smoking. Subjective comments from students were also obtained. Results A total of 76.8% and 74.9% of students participated in pre-and post-examination groups, respectively. The majority were the children of expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia, and included Arabs, South Asians, and North Americans. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was high (43%, 63%, and 41%, respectively) which reduced (to 30%, 47%, and 30%, respectively) to some extent after examinations. Saudis and those who had attended UPP had higher DASS-21 scores. Smoking and female sex predicted higher levels of “baseline” depression, anxiety, or stress. The students perceived the curriculum and schedule to be the primary causes of their high DASS-21 scores. Conclusion The students had high “baseline” traits of depression, anxiety, and stress, and these were higher if an examination was near, especially among Saudis and those who had attended UPP. Smoking and female sex predicted higher levels of “baseline” depression, anxiety, or stress. Students suggested that study burden and a busy schedule were the major reasons for their high DASS-21

  6. Depression, anxiety, stress and substance use in medical students in a 5-year curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Maria van Zyl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The mental health of medical students is a global concern, and medical training has been described by some as being detrimental to the health of medical students, affecting both their student experience and professional life. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and substance use among preclinical students in a 5-year outcomes-based medical curriculum. The study also investigated the association of selected demographic factors with these outcomes. Methods. All University of the Free State medical students in semesters 3 (n=164 and 5 (n=131 during 2015 were included in this cross-sectional study. Depression, anxiety and stress levels were measured by means of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21. Demographic questions were included in an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Lifetime and past month substance use were determined. Results. A prevalence of 26.5% for moderate to extremely severe depression, 26.5% for moderate to extremely severe anxiety, and 29.5% for moderate to extremely severe stress was recorded. Female students had significantly higher stress levels, but not increased anxiety. Relationship status and accommodation were not associated with these outcomes. Lifetime use of methylphenidate, lifetime use of alcohol, and past month use of alcohol were associated with depression. Conclusion. The study revealed high levels of depression, anxiety and stress in 2nd- and 3rd-year medical students compared with the general population, but the levels were comparable to those of medical students elsewhere in the world. Past month substance use of alcohol and cannabis was lower than in international studies, but nicotine use was higher.

  7. The Structured Trauma-Related Experiences and Symptoms Screener (STRESS): Development and Preliminary Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J; Felton, Julia W; Reid-Quiñones, Kathryn

    2015-08-01

    The Structured Trauma-Related Experiences and Symptoms Screener (STRESS) is a self-report instrument for youth of age 7-18 that inventories 25 adverse childhood experiences and potentially traumatic events and assesses symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder using the revised criteria published in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). The STRESS can be administered by computer such that questions are read aloud and automatic scoring and feedback are provided. Data were collected on a sample of 229 children and adolescents of age 7-17 undergoing a forensic child abuse and neglect evaluation. The purpose of the current study was to examine preliminary psychometric characteristics of the computer-administered STRESS as well as its underlying factor structure in relation to the four-factor DSM-5 model. Results provide initial support for the use of the STRESS in assessing adverse and potentially traumatic experiences and traumatic stress in children and adolescents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Developmental differences in stress responding after repeated underwater trauma exposures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Daniel E; Simmons, Laurence P; Vuong, Chau T; Taylor, Rachel M; Sousa, Jason C; Marcsisin, Sean R; Zottig, Victor E; Moore, Nicole L T

    2018-05-01

    Adolescence is a distinct developmental period characterized by behavioral and physiological maturation. Rapid ongoing changes during neurodevelopment in particular present potential opportunities for stress to have lasting effects on longitudinal outcomes of behavioral and neuroendocrine function. While adult stress effects on outcomes during adulthood have been characterized, little is known about the lasting effects of adolescent repeated stressor exposure on outcomes during adolescence. We have previously reported different stress responses in adolescent rats relative to adult rats, including a blunted fear response outcome in adulthood in rats stressed during adolescence. The present study characterized the ontogeny of behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to eight underwater trauma (UWT) exposures in rats over a two week poststress time period during adolescence (P34) or adulthood (P83) relative to age-matched control groups that underwent eight swimming episodes without UWT. Repeated UWT exposures starting in adolescence, but not adulthood, resulted in adverse behavioral responses on the elevated plus maze 1 day post-stress. Corticosterone responses did not differ between UWT-exposed and controls for either age group at 1 day or at 7 days poststress, although there was an effect of age on corticosterone levels. We conclude that repeated UWT stress events have a lasting, negative behavioral effect on adolescent rats that is not observed in adult rats after the two-week exposure window. These results suggest that neurophysiological mechanisms underlying recovery from a repeated stressor are immature in adolescence relative to adulthood in rats.

  9. Prevention and public health approaches to trauma and traumatic stress: a rationale and a call to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. Magruder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The field of trauma and traumatic stress is dominated by studies on treatments for those who experience adversity from traumatic experiences. While this is important, we should not neglect the opportunity to consider trauma in a public health perspective. Such a perspective will help to develop prevention approaches as well as extend the reach of early interventions and treatments. The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction to a public health approach to trauma and traumatic stress and identify key opportunities for trauma professionals and our professional societies (such as the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies [ISTSS] and the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies [ESTSS] to increase our societal impact by adopting such an approach. Method: This paper reviews and summarizes key findings related to the public health impact of trauma. The special case of children is explored, and a case example of the Norwegian terrorist attacks in 2011 illustrates the potential for improving our response to community level traumatic events. We also discuss how professional organizations such as ESTSS and ISTSS, as well as individual trauma professionals, can and should play an important role in promoting a public health approach. Results: Trauma is pervasive throughout the world and has negative impacts at the personal, family, community, and societal levels. A public health perspective may help to develop prevention approaches at all of these levels, as well as extend the reach of early interventions and treatments. Conclusions: Professional organizations such as ESTSS and ISTSS can and should play an important role in promoting a public health approach. They should promote the inclusion of trauma in the global public health agenda and include public health in their activities.

  10. Childhood trauma and neighborhood-level crime interact in predicting adult posttraumatic stress and major depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Quinn, James W; Richards, Catherine A; Pothen, John; Rundle, Andrew; Galea, Sandro; Ressler, Kerry J; Koenen, Karestan C; Bradley, Bekh

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has identified several individual-level factors that modify the risk of childhood trauma on adult psychiatric symptoms, including symptoms of major depression (MD) and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Neighborhood-level factors also influence the impact of individual-level exposures on adult psychopathology. However, no prior studies to our knowledge have explored cross-level interactions between childhood trauma and neighborhood-level factors on MD and PTS symptoms. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore cross-level interactions between a neighborhood-level factor - neighborhood-level crime - and childhood trauma on MD and PTS symptoms. Participants in this study (N=3192) were recruited from a large public hospital, and completed self-report inventories of childhood trauma and MD and PTS symptoms. Participant addresses were mapped onto 2010 census tracts, and data on crime within each tract were collected. Multilevel models found a significant cross-level interaction between childhood trauma and neighborhood crime on MD symptoms, such that the influence of high levels of childhood trauma on MD symptoms was enhanced for participants living in high-crime neighborhoods. Supplementary analyses found variation in the strength of cross-level interaction terms by types of childhood trauma and crime, with the strongest associations including emotional neglect paired with personal and property crime. The results provide preliminary support for interventions that help childhood trauma survivors find housing in less vulnerable neighborhoods and build skills to cope with neighborhood crime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in children and adolescents: from Sigmund Freud's "trauma" to psychopathology and the (Dys)metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervanidou, P; Chrousos, G P

    2007-06-01

    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety syndrome that develops after exposure to traumatic life events. Symptoms include re-experience of the initial trauma, avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and symptoms of excessive arousal. Neuroendocrine studies in adults with PTSD have demonstrated that basal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CRH levels are elevated and urinary cortisol levels are variable--low in the majority of cases--whereas other studies demonstrate no differences in urinary and plasma cortisol concentrations. Urinary catecholamine excretion is higher in PTSD patients than those of control subjects and other psychiatric disorders. Children may differ from adults in their psychologic and physiologic responses to severe stressors. Also, exposure to stress during critical periods of development may have irreversible effects on behavioral maturation and may affect specific vulnerable brain areas, altering CNS development. Similar to findings in adult studies, PTSD in children is characterized by increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, as indicated by elevated norepinephrine levels in the periphery. High cortisol levels in urine or saliva have been reported in most studies of childhood PTSD, while prospective longitudinal studies concerning the natural history of neuroendocrine changes in pediatric PTSD after an acute stressor are limited. The identification of neurobiologic changes in response to early adverse experiences is of major importance for the prognosis, prevention, management, and treatment of children and adolescents at risk for or suffering from PTSD.

  12. Computer Anxiety, Academic Stress, and Academic Procrastination on College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyu Rahardjo; Juneman Juneman; Yeni Setiani

    2013-01-01

    Academic procrastination is fairly and commonly found among college students. The lack of understanding in making the best use of computer technology may lead to anxiety in terms of operating computer hence cause postponement in completing course assignments related to computer operation. On the other hand, failure in achieving certain academic targets as expected by parents and/or the students themselves also makes students less focused and leads to tendency of postponing many completions of...

  13. A Randomized Trial of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and Cognitive Therapy for Children with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder following Single-Incident Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Reginald David Vandervord; Sterk, Jisca; Pearce, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared the efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with trauma-focused cognitive therapy (without exposure; CT) for children and youth with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Children and youth who had experienced single-incident trauma (N = 33; 7-17 years old) were randomly assigned to receive 9 weeks of…

  14. Early life stress is associated with anxiety, increased stress responsivity and preference for "comfort foods" in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Tania Diniz; Dalle Molle, Roberta; Laureano, Daniela Pereira; Portella, André Krumel; Werlang, Isabel Cristina Ribas; Benetti, Carla da Silva; Noschang, Cristie; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2013-09-01

    Chronic stress increases anxiety and encourages intake of palatable foods as "comfort foods". This effect seems to be mediated by altered function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the current study, litters of Wistar rats were subjected to limited access to nesting material (Early-Life Stress group - ELS) or standard care (Control group) from postnatal day 2 to 9. In adult life, anxiety was assessed using the novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT), and acute stress responsivity by measurement of plasma corticosterone and ACTH levels. Preference for palatable foods was monitored by a computerized system (BioDAQ, Research Diets(®)) in rats receiving only regular chow or given the choice of regular and palatable diet for 30 days. ELS-augmented adulthood anxiety in the NSFT (increased latency to eat in a new environment; decreased chow intake upon return to the home cage) and increased corticosterone (but not ACTH) secretion in response to stress. Despite being lighter and consuming less rat chow, ELS animals ate more palatable foods during chronic exposure compared with controls. During preference testing, controls receiving long-term access to palatable diet exhibited reduced preference for the diet relative to controls exposed to regular chow only, whereas ELS rats demonstrated no such reduction in preference after prolonged palatable diet exposure. The increased preference for palatable foods showed by ELS animals may result from a habit of using this type of food to ameliorate anxiety.

  15. Early life trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, and allostatic load in a sample of American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Zaneta; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; McDonell, Michael; Nelson, Lonnie; Buchwald, Dedra; Manson, Spero

    2017-05-06

    Among American Indians, prior research has found associations between early life trauma and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Given the physiological changes associated with PTSD, early life trauma could indirectly contribute to chronic disease risk. However, the impact of early life trauma on adult physical health in this population has not been previously investigated. We evaluated associations among early life trauma, PTSD, and 13 physiological biomarkers that index cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine, anthropometric, and immune function in adulthood by conducting correlation and structural equation modeling path analyses (N = 197). Physiological systems were analyzed individually as well as in a composite measure of allostatic load. We found early life trauma was related to PTSD, which in turn was related to elevated allostatic load in adulthood. Among the various components of allostatic load, the neuroendocrine system was the only one significantly related to early life stress and subsequent PTSD development. Changes in allostatic load might reflect adaptive adjustments that maximize short-term survival by enhancing stress reactivity, but at a cost to later health. Interventions should focus on improving access to resources for children who experience early life trauma in order to avoid PTSD and other harmful sequelae. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Measurement invariance of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 across medical student genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Peyman; Nozari, Farnoosh; Ahrari, Forooghosadat; Bagheri, Zahra

    2017-03-30

    This study aimed to assess whether male and female Iranian medical students perceived the meaning of the items in the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 consistently. A convenience sample of 783 preclinical medical students from the first to sixth semester was invited to this cross-sectional study. Of the 477 respondents, 238 were male and 239 were female. All participants completed the Persian version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. The graded response model was used to assess measurement invariance of the instrument across the gender groups. Categorical confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the construct validity of the measure. Moreover, internal consistency was assessed via Cronbach's Alpha. Statistically significant differential item functioning was flagged for just item 6 in the depression subscales (c 2 =6.5, df=1, p=0.011). However, removing or retaining the item 6 in the stress subscale did not change our findings significantly, when we compared stress scores across two genders. The results of categorical confirmatory factor analysis supported the fit of the three-factor model of Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. Moreover, Cronbach's alpha was greater than 0.7 in depression, anxiety and stress subscales. This study revealed that Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 is an invariant measure across male and female medical students. Hence, this reliable and valid instrument can be used for meaningful comparison of distress scores between medical student genders. Gender comparisons of medical students' psychological profiles provide a better insight into gender influences on the outcome of medical education and medical practice.

  17. Effects of listening to music on postpartum stress and anxiety levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ying-Fen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Lee, ChihChen S

    2010-04-01

    This Taiwan study investigated what effect listening to specially selected, relaxing music at home, on a self-regulated basis, had on the perceived stress and state anxiety of postpartum women. Listening to music has been increasingly used in the perinatal period, but few studies have been undertaken to provide evidence of its effectiveness. A randomised clinical trial. Seventy-seven postpartum women were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 40). The experimental group listened to music at home for at least 30 minutes a day over two weeks and received regular postpartum care. The women in the control group received regular postpartum care only. The Perceived Stress Scale and State Anxiety Inventory were used to measure outcomes. After controlling the pretest scores and educational level of mothers, which was a significant covariate, there were no significant differences in the posttest levels of perceived stress and state anxiety between the two groups. This study does not provide evidence that preselected designer music reduced stress and anxiety levels among postpartum women. Despite the absence of significant findings, there are lessons that professionals may find useful. It is recommended that future studies take more account of the stress factors that postpartum women are unable to control when they are listening to music at home.

  18. Why is everyone so anxious?: an exploration of stress and anxiety in genetic counseling graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, Chelsy; Macfarlane, Ian M; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Leroy, Bonnie S

    2011-06-01

    Stress is an inevitable part of daily life. Studies of graduate student stress exist, but none include genetic counseling students. The present mixed-methods study investigated 225 genetic counseling students' stress and anxiety levels using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; Spielberger et al. 1983), frequency and intensity of stressors associated with their graduate experience, positive and challenging aspects of their experience, and their stress management advice for prospective students. Principal axis factor analysis yielded five conceptual factors underlying the stressors: Professional Uncertainty, Personal Life Events, Interpersonal Demands, Academic Demands, and Isolating Circumstances. Exploratory model fitting using regression yielded four significant predictors accounting for 19% of the variance in state anxiety: (1) trait anxiety, (2) the Interpersonal Demands factor, (3) the Isolating Circumstances factor, and (4) the interaction between the Professional Uncertainty factor and advanced student status. Content analysis of open-ended responses identified several themes. For instance, most students enjoyed what they were learning, interactions with colleagues, and affirmation of their career choice, while certain academic and professional challenges were particularly stressful (e.g., workload, time constraints, clinical rotations). Additional findings, program implications, and research recommendations are provided.

  19. Effect of a mindfulness program on stress, anxiety and depression in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, José; Aguilar-Parra, José M; Cangas, Adolfo J; Langer, Álvaro I; Mañas, Israel

    2015-01-13

    Two of the problems that currently affect a large proportion of university students are high levels of anxiety and stress experienced in different situations, which are particularly high during the first years of their degree and during exam periods. The present study aims to investigate whether mindfulness training can bring about significant changes in the manifestations of depression, anxiety, and stress of students when compared to another group undergoing a physical activity program and a control group. The sample consisted of 125 students from the Bachelor of Education Program. The measuring instrument used was the Abbreviated Scale of Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS-21). The results indicate that the effects of reducing the identified variables were higher for the mindfulness group than for the physical education group and for the control group F(2) = 5.91, p = .004, η2 = .106. The total scores for all variables related to the mindfulness group decreased significantly, including an important stress reduction t(29) = 2.95, p = .006, d = .667. Mindfulness exercises and some individual relaxing exercises involving Physical Education could help to reduce manifestations of stress and anxiety caused by exams in students.

  20. Anxiety and physiological responses to the Trier Social Stress Test for Children in adolescents with cyclic vomiting syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbell, Sally E; Millar, Amanda; Laudenslager, Mark; Palmer, Claire; Fortunato, John E

    2017-01-01

    This study compared anxiety and physiological responses during the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C) in adolescents. 38 subjects (26 females) were enrolled: 11 cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS), 11 anxiety, and 16 controls. Salivary cortisol, α-amylase and heart rate variability (HRV) were assessed during the TSST-C. Anxiety was measured by the Screen for Childhood Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C). 11 anxiety and 7 CVS subjects had ≥1 anxiety disorder. 82% in the anxiety and CVS groups met criteria for an anxiety disorder on the SCARED. Combining groups, cortisol increased from baseline to recovery during the TSST-C (p=0.0004) and the stressor to recovery (p=0.005). α-amylase did not differ during the TSST-C for the total sample, but increased for anxiety compared to controls from baseline to recovery (p=0.01). HRV decreased during the stressor (p=0.0001) and increased at recovery (p=0.004). No associations were found between biomarkers and trait anxiety. Associations were found between baseline HRV and pre-test state anxiety (r=-0.406, p=0.012) and between recovery HRV and post-test state anxiety (r=-0.501, p=0.002) for the total sample. Anxiety is prevalent in CVS warranting screening. HRV may serve as a biomarker for evaluating stress as a potential trigger for CVS episodes. State but not trait anxiety was associated with changes in HRV, suggesting acute anxiety may be more relevant in linking stress and CVS episodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER HANDLING THROUGH THE TRAUMA HEALING FOR SCOUT CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jufri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this activity is (1 to improve the knowledge of Scouting Care in Post Traumatic Stress Disordet overcome through Trauma Healing, (2 To improve the technical skills of Trauma Healing. The method used in this activity are: the percentage method, lecture and question and answer, discussion methods, methods of practice. The results of these activities are (1 there is an increased knowledge of participants in following the activities, especially in implementing and applying the theory and practice of PTSD to handling, from the data worksheet that was analyzed contained 94.5% of the questions as an evaluation materials may be answered by the participants. This indicates that the participant understands and is able to apply the techniques of PTSD very well in dealing with post-disaster stress. (2 Participants skillfully PTSD through psychotherapy techniques such as: deepbreating, relaxation techniques, storytelling / story telling, play therapy / role playing and games-games. From a practice several times, through observation through direct observation, illustrating that the participants could perform well in groups or individually

  2. Maternal Exposure to Childhood Trauma Is Associated During Pregnancy With Placental-Fetal Stress Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Nora K; Buss, Claudia; Entringer, Sonja; Shahbaba, Babak; Gillen, Daniel L; Hobel, Calvin J; Wadhwa, Pathik D

    2016-05-15

    The effects of exposure to childhood trauma (CT) may be transmitted across generations; however, the time period(s) and mechanism(s) have yet to be clarified. We address the hypothesis that intergenerational transmission may begin during intrauterine life via the effect of maternal CT exposure on placental-fetal stress physiology, specifically placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (pCRH). The study was conducted in a sociodemographically diverse cohort of 295 pregnant women. CT exposure was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Placental CRH concentrations were quantified in maternal blood collected serially over the course of gestation. Linear mixed effects and Bayesian piece-wise linear models were employed to test hypothesized relationships. Maternal CT exposure (CT+) was significantly associated with pCRH production. Compared with nonexposed women, CT+ was associated with an almost 25% increase in pCRH toward the end of gestation, and the pCRH trajectory of CT+ women exhibited an approximately twofold steeper increase after the pCRH inflection point at 19 weeks gestation. To the best of our knowledge, this finding represents the first report linking maternal CT exposure with placental-fetal stress physiology, thus identifying a potential novel biological pathway of intergenerational transmission that may operate as early as during intrauterine life. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Separation from parents during childhood trauma predicts adult attachment security and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, R A; Creamer, M; O'Donnell, M; Forbes, D; Felmingham, K L; Silove, D; Malhi, G; van Hoof, M; McFarlane, A C; Nickerson, A

    2017-08-01

    Prolonged separation from parental support is a risk factor for psychopathology. This study assessed the impact of brief separation from parents during childhood trauma on adult attachment tendencies and post-traumatic stress. Children (n = 806) exposed to a major Australian bushfire disaster in 1983 and matched controls (n = 725) were assessed in the aftermath of the fires (mean age 7-8 years) via parent reports of trauma exposure and separation from parents during the fires. Participants (n = 500) were subsequently assessed 28 years after initial assessment on the Experiences in Close Relationships scale to assess attachment security, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was assessed using the PTSD checklist. Being separated from parents was significantly related to having an avoidant attachment style as an adult (B = -3.69, s.e. = 1.48, β = -0.23, p = 0.013). Avoidant attachment was associated with re-experiencing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.31, p = 0.045), avoidance (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.30, p = 0.001) and numbing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.30, p post-traumatic psychopathology.

  4. Self-perceived depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with psychosocial job factors in male automotive assembly workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Rusli, Bin Nordin; Naing, Lin; Mohamed Rusli, Bin Abdullah; Winn, Than; Tengku Mohamed Ariff, Bin Raja Hussin

    2008-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress have been recognized as important mental outcome measures in stressful working settings. The present study explores the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress; and their relationships with psychosocial job factors. A cross-sectional study involving 728 male automotive assembly workers was conducted in two major automotive assembly plants in Malaysia using the validated Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Based on the DASS cut-off of > or =78 percentile scores, the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Four (0.5%), 29 (4.0%) and 2 (0.3%) workers, respectively, reported extremely severe self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress. Multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for age, education, salary, duration of work and marital status, revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition were positively associated with DASS-Depression, DASS-Anxiety and DASS-Stress; supervisor support was inversely associated with DASS-Depression and DASS-Stress. We suggest that reducing psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition factors may improve the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers. Supervisor support is protective for self-perceived depression and stress.

  5. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for the management of anxiety, posttraumatic stress and obsessive-compulsive disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Anxiety and related disorders are among the most common mental disorders, with lifetime prevalence reportedly as high as 31%. Unfortunately, anxiety disorders are under-diagnosed and under-treated. Methods These guidelines were developed by Canadian experts in anxiety and related disorders through a consensus process. Data on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment (psychological and pharmacological) were obtained through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and manual searches (1980–2012). Treatment strategies were rated on strength of evidence, and a clinical recommendation for each intervention was made, based on global impression of efficacy, effectiveness, and side effects, using a modified version of the periodic health examination guidelines. Results These guidelines are presented in 10 sections, including an introduction, principles of diagnosis and management, six sections (Sections 3 through 8) on the specific anxiety-related disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder), and two additional sections on special populations (children/adolescents, pregnant/lactating women, and the elderly) and clinical issues in patients with comorbid conditions. Conclusions Anxiety and related disorders are very common in clinical practice, and frequently comorbid with other psychiatric and medical conditions. Optimal management requires a good understanding of the efficacy and side effect profiles of pharmacological and psychological treatments. PMID:25081580

  6. Social Self-Efficacy and Its Relationship with Both Depression and Anxiety, Stress among a Sample of Jadara University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    rababah, Mahdi mohamme saied

    2016-01-01

    Counsellors need to be able to understand students' social self-efficacy, in order to provide them appropriate counselling services. This study investigated social gender self-efficacy differences, and depression, anxiety and stress, and examined the relationship of social self-efficacy to depression, anxiety and stress among a sample of 573…

  7. Modulation of Inhibitory Processing by Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Anxiety in a Subclinical Sample of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindt, Morgane; Chanquoy, Lucile; Garcia, René

    2016-12-01

    In adults, pathologies of anxiety such as posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) involve deficits in information processing that may reflect hypervigilance and deficient inhibitory control, specifically for negative information. However, little is known about inhibitory processing in children, particularly regarding the inhibition of emotional information. This study investigated whether children with PTSS or anxiety show impairments in executive control in an inhibition task. A total of 45 children (M age = 9.2 year, SD = 0.7, range: 8-11) completed an inhibition task involving emotional-happy, angry, and fearful-and neutral stimuli and clinical scales for PTSS and anxiety. The results indicated that the percentage of correct answers was modulated by PTSS status, particularly in the happiness task. PTSS and anxiety altered the inhibition of fearful information in children. These data suggest different types of inhibitory deficits depending on clinical symptoms, and implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. The relationship between processing style, trauma memory processes, and the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Anna; Brewer, Neil; Cameron, Kate; Nixon, Reginald D V

    2017-12-01

    Data-driven processing, peri-event fear, and trauma memory characteristics are hypothesised to play a core role in the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. We assessed the relationships between these characteristics and Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms in a sample of youth. Study 1 (N = 36, 7-16 years), involved a sample of children who had undergone a stressful orthopaedic procedure. One week later they answered a series of probed recall questions about the trauma (assessed for accuracy by comparison to a video) and reported on their PTS symptoms. They also rated confidence in their probed recall answers to assess meta-cognitive monitoring of their memory for the trauma. In Study 2, a sample of injured children (N = 57, 7-16 years) were assessed within 1-month of a visit to an Emergency Department, and then at 3-month follow-up. They answered probed recall questions, made confidence ratings, and completed measures of data-driven processing, peri-event fear, PTS and associated psychopathology. Memories were verified using witness accounts. Studies 1 and 2 did not find an association between PTS symptoms and trauma memory accuracy or confidence. In Studies 1 and 2 data-driven processing predicted PTS symptoms. The studies had modest samples sizes and there were ceiling effects for some accuracy and confidence items. Data-driven processing at the time of a trauma was associated with PTS symptoms after accounting for fear at the time of the trauma. Accuracy of recall for trauma memories was not significantly related to PTS symptoms. No decisive conclusion could be drawn regarding the relation between confidence in trauma memories and PTS symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Depression and anxiety: Associations with biological and perceived stress reactivity to a psychological stress protocol in a middle-aged population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Susanne R.; Schene, Aart H.; Phillips, David I.; Roseboom, Tessa J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Depression and anxiety have been linked to higher as well as lower reactivity to stressful circumstances. Large, population-based studies investigating the association between depression and anxiety, perceived and physiological stress responses are lacking. Methods: We studied 725 men

  10. Relationship of coping ways and anxiety with Pregnancy Specific-stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Amiri, Fatemeh Nasiri; Rezaee, Razieh

    2016-01-01

    To explore whether coping strategies and general anxiety are associated with pregnancy-specific stress (PSS) and how much of variance of PSS is explained with these variables. A cross sectional study was conducted at two teaching hospitals between November 2013 and December 2015. Total 190 pregnant women (60 women at 6-13-weeks of gestation, 60 at 13-26 weeks, and 70 at 27-40 weeks of gestation) completed the study. The participants completed three questionnaires including; Pregnancy experience scale (PES-41), Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ), and State-Trait anxiety inventory (SATI). Pearson coefficients and analysis of regression was done to assess the correlations between variables. Pregnant women who experienced higher mean level of pregnancy specific-stress had significantly higher mean level of occult anxiety, overt anxiety, and total anxiety than women who did not experience PSS. Although there was a positive and significant relationship between intensity of hassles and uplifts and ways of coping, the correlation between PSS and ways of coping was not significant. The results of analysis regression showed that general anxiety during pregnancy predicted 25% of the variance of PSS (F=4.480, β=0.159). Also, ways of coping predicted 38% of the variance in pregnancy Hassles (F=7.033, β=0.194). The ways of coping predicted the variance of pregnancy hassles, but does not evaluate pregnancy specific-stress. To think about PSS in terms of general anxiety may help to clarify past findings and to guide future research and interventions.

  11. Depression, anxiety and stress levels in industrial workers: A pilot study in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health disorders affect around 500 million people worldwide. In India, around 10-12% of people are affected by a mental disorder either due to stress, depression, anxiety, or any other cause. Mental health of workers affects the productivity of the workplace, with estimates putting these losses to be over 100 million dollars annually. Aims: The study aims to measure depression, anxiety, and stress levels of workers in an industry and to investigate if it has any effect on productivity of the firm. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a cross-sectional design and was conducted among workmen of the firm. A sociodemographic based questionnaire and a mental health screening tool -Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21 were used for the same. A total of 90 completed questionnaires were analyzed for the study. The data was analyzed for central tendencies as well as for any associations and correlations. Results: The study showed that none of the workers had a positive score for depression. It also showed that around 36% of the workers had a positive score for anxiety and 18% of the workers had a positive score for stress on DASS-21 scale. The odds ratio between stress and number of leaves taken by a worker in the last 3 months suggested a dose-response relationship, but was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The study found a prevalence rate of around 18-36% for anxiety and stress amongst the workers at the factory. Large-scale studies will help understand the effect mental health status has on the Indian workplace.

  12. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ratanasiripong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation.

  13. Anxiety, stress, and quality of life among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala Fawzi; Alshraifeen, Ali; Gougazeh, Yazeed Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify the predictors, levels, and prevalence of anxiety and stress and to assess the relationship between these factors and quality of life in recently displaced Iraqis. A cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 171 Iraqi refugees was recruited. The results indicated that more than half of the sample suffered from high anxiety levels, while 42.8% reported high stress. The regression model explained 46.3% of the variance in levels of quality of life. Unemployment, fewer than three family members, and high anxiety significantly predicted low-level quality of life. These three predictors need to be taken into consideration when developing health-related interventions to improve the quality of life of Iraqi refugees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and body mass index among World Trade Center disaster-exposed smokers: A preliminary examination of the role of anxiety sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Paulus, Daniel J; Gonzalez, Adam; Mahaffey, Brittain L; Bromet, Evelyn J; Luft, Benjamin J; Kotov, Roman; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-07-30

    Among individuals exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptoms are both common and associated with increased cigarette smoking and body mass. However, there is little information on the specific processes underlying the relationship of PTSD symptoms with body mass. The current study is an initial exploratory test of anxiety sensitivity, the fear of internal bodily sensations, as a possible mechanism linking PTSD symptom severity and body mass index (BMI). Participants were 147 adult daily smokers (34.0% female) exposed to the WTC disaster (via rescue/recovery work or direct witness). The direct and indirect associations between PTSD symptom severity and BMI via anxiety sensitivity (total score and subscales of physical, cognitive, and social concerns) were examined. PTSD symptom severity was related to BMI indirectly via anxiety sensitivity; this effect was specific to physical concerns about the meaning of bodily sensations. Interventions focusing on anxiety sensitivity reduction (specifically addressing physical concerns about bodily sensations) may be useful in addressing elevated BMI among trauma-exposed persons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictive behaviors for anxiety and depression in female Wistar rats subjected to cafeteria diet and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Estrela, Dieferson; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; da Silva Castro, André Luis; da Silva Torres, Iraci Lucena; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2015-11-01

    Obesity and chronic stress have been considered important public health problems that affect millions of people worldwide. Our aim was to analyze the effect of obesity associated with chronic stress on neurobehavioral parameters in female rats, considering that the association of these syndromes can enhance the negative effects on homeostasis. The animals were distributed into standard diet (Std), standard diet+stress (Std+stress), cafeteria diet (Cafe), and cafeteria diet+stress (Cafe+stress) groups. The animals of groups Std and Std+stress were fed with rodent standard feed. Groups Cafe and Cafe+stress, additionally to the standard feed, were offered palatable and calorie-rich processed food and cola-type soft drink ad libitum. From the eighth experimental week, groups Std+stress and Cafe+stress were subjected to restraint chronic stress model (50 days). After the stress protocol, predictive anxiety (open-field and elevated plus-maze tests) and depression (forced swim) were applied. The cafeteria diet was effective in inducing obesity. The ratio locomotion in the central quadrants/total locomotion evaluated during the open field test was not indicative of anxiogenic or anxiolytic effect in the animal's behavior. However, the elevated plus maze test showed that obese and stressed animals were prone to higher anxiety levels. In addition, the obese and stressed animals display less climbing behavior than all the other groups, which can be considered an indicator of depression-like behavior. Nevertheless, it is suggested that the mechanisms involved in effects of obesity associated with chronic stress be better investigated in female rats, considering the organic complexity related to these modern illnesses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stress and Anxiety in Children After the Use of Computerized Dental Anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Alexandra M.; Carvalho, Ariany B.; Censi, Laís L.; Cardoso, Carmen L.; Leite-Panissi, Christie R.; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Carvalho, Fabricio Kitazono de; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the transitory stress levels and the anxiety state in children submitted to conventional and computerized dental anesthesia. Twenty children (7 to 12 years) were randomly assigned to receive conventional and computerized dental anesthesia. To investigate the hypothesis that transitory stress could be lower after using computerized anesthesia compared to conventional anesthesia, cortisol levels in saliva were measured before and after each technique. Anxie...

  17. Medical Students' Experience of and Reaction to Stress: The Role of Depression and Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Wilks, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Background. Medical school is recognized as a stressful environment that often has a negative effect on students' academic performance, physical health, and psychosocial well-being. Previous studies have not identified differences between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious medical students' experiences of stress or their reactions to stressors. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of depression and anxiety among a sample of 358 medical students attending a pri...

  18. Anxiety and perceived psychological stress play an important role in the immune response after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jason P; Walsh, Neil P; Diment, Philip C; Roberts, Ross

    2018-01-01

    There are common pathways by which psychological stress and exercise stress alter immunity. However, it remains unknown whether psychological stress plays a role in the in vivo immune response to exercise. We examined the relationship between anxiety and perceived psychological stress reported before exercise and in vivo immunity after exercise using skin sensitisation with Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP). In a randomised design, sixty four, thoroughly familiarised, males completed widely used psychological instruments to assess state-anxiety and perceived psychological stress before exercise, and ran either 30 minutes at 60% (30MI) or 80% (30HI) V . O2peak, 120 minutes at 60% (120MI) V . O2peak or rested (CON) before DPCP sensitisation. Cutaneous recall to DPCP was measured as the dermal thickening response to a low-dose series DPCP challenge 4-weeks after sensitisation. After accounting for exercise (R2 = 0.20; P psychological stress (ΔR2 = 0.13; P psychological stress on in vivo immunity after exercise. Moreover, correlations were of comparable strength for the relationship between physiological stress (heart rate training impulse) and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = -0.37; 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.62; P = 0.01), and state-anxiety and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.63; P psychological stress levels before exercise play animportant role in determining the strength of the in vivo immune response after exercise. These findings indicate a similar strength relationship for the level of state-anxiety prior to exercise and the level of physiological stress during exercise with the in vivo immune response after exercise. Future research is required to investigate exercise-immune responses in athletes, military personnel and others in physically demanding occupations experiencing higher levels of psychological stress than those reported in this study e.g. related to important competition, military operations and major life events

  19. Investigation of stress, anxiety and depression in women with fibromyalgia: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro, Fernanda de Souza; Lombardi Júnior, Império; da Silva, Regina Claudia Barbosa; Montesano, Fábio Tadeu; de Oliveira, Nara Rejane Cruz; Diniz, Ricardo Edésio Amorim Santos; Alambert, Paulo Augusto; Padovani, Ricardo da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Depression has emerged as the most prevalent mental disorder in patients with fibromyalgia. Stress, whose stages are alarm, resistance, near-exhaustion and exhaustion, constitutes a physical reaction to a threatening situation. To investigate the levels of stress, anxiety and depression in women with fibromyalgia, comparing them with those of healthy women. Participants were 50 women, 25 with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia according to the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology, and 25 without this diagnosis, matched for age. Instruments used: Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults (LISS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean age was 49.36 years for the group with fibromyalgia (FM) and 49.20 years for the group without fibromyalgia (non-FM). FM showed a higher incidence of stress (96%) compared with non-FM (5%). The resistance phase was predominant in both groups, FM (42%) and non-FM (100%). In FM there was distribution of the four stages (alarm, resistance, near-exhaustion and exhaustion). The differences between phases in the analyzed groups were significant (p anxiety and of depression in FM were significantly higher, when compared with non-FM (p anxiety (over 50) and clinically relevant depression (greater than 20) in FM were relevant. The understanding of the emotional variables involved in fibromyalgia is important to define the therapeutic strategy.

  20. [The effects of hatha yoga exercises on stress and anxiety levels in mastectomized women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Marina Lima Daleprane; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa; Zandonade, Eliana; Santaella, Danilo Forghieri; Barbosa, Juliana de Assis Novais

    2013-12-01

    This article seeks to evaluate the effects of hatha yoga on stress and anxiety levels in mastectomized women. It also investigates the relationship between these levels with the following variables: age; marital status; religion; instruction; profession; smoke addiction; elitism; staging of the disease; and treatment phase. This involved controlled random clinical trial sampling of 45 mastectomized women treated at the Ilza Bianco outpatient service of Santa Rita de Cássia Hospital in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo from March to November 2010. The experimental group participated in 6 individually-applied sessions with incentive for ongoing home practice and was re-evaluated after the period, whereas the control group was re-evaluated after a proportional period. For the study of the variables, the interview and recording on a form technique was used, along with the Anxiety Trait and State Test, and the Stress Symptoms and Signs Test. For statistical treatment, the Statistical Pack for Social Sciences was used. The data are statistically significant and have shown that hatha yoga exercises decrease stress and anxiety in the experimental group. No connection between confounding variables and anxiety and stress levels was found.

  1. Anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms following wisdom tooth removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, Ad; Olff, Miranda; van Hoolwerff, Hans; Aartman, Irene H. A.; Broekman, Birit; Lindauer, Ramón; Boer, Frits

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the psychological impact of wisdom teeth removal and to identify the psychological risk factors for the development of dental anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Participants were 34 consecutive elective patients referred for surgical removal

  2. Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Adjustments among Malaysian Gifted Learners: Implication towards School Counseling Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Abu Yazid; Ishak, Noriah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Gifted learners have special characteristics which make them unique individuals. However, just like their normative group, gifted learners experience some psychological issues that hinder their ability to adjust in new environments. This study aims to examine levels of depression, anxiety, stress, and adjustments (psychological, social and…

  3. Using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales-21 with U.S. Adolescents: An Alternate Models Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephanie A.; Dowdy, Erin; Furlong, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    As part of universal screening efforts in schools, validated measures that identify internalizing distress are needed. One promising available measure, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21), has yet to be thoroughly investigated with adolescents in the United States. This study investigated the underlying factor structure of the…

  4. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Ertan; Kaya, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine validity and reliability of the Albanian version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), which is developed by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995). The sample of this study is consisted of 555 subjects who were living in Kosovo. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated 42 items loaded on…

  5. Psychometric Properties of an Arabic Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Miriam Taouk; Lovibond, Peter; Laube, Roy; Megahead, Hamido A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To translate and evaluate the psychometric properties of an Arabic-language version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS). Method: The items were translated, back translated, refined, and tested in an Australian immigrant sample (N = 220). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Arabic DASS discriminates between…

  6. Stressful Life Events and the Tripartite Model: Relations to Anxiety and Depression in Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Halpern, Leslie F.; Ryan, Julie L.; Lowe, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the tripartite model reliably distinguishes anxiety and depression in adolescents, it remains unclear how negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA) influence developmental pathways to internalizing problems. Based on models which propose that affectivity shapes how youth react to stress, the present study attempted to…

  7. Have University Sport Students Higher Scores Depression, Anxiety and Psychological Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Havva

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have now shown that people who maintain appropriate body fitness, using judicious regimens of exercise and weight control, have the additional benefit of prolonged life. In fact, sport or exercise may be also expected to be helpful for psychological health. In the present study, depression, anxiety and psychological stress points…

  8. Acculturative stress and experiential avoidance: relations to depression, suicide, and anxiety symptoms among minority college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Robles, Zuzuky; Sharp, Carla

    2016-11-01

    Although college campuses represent strategic locations to address mental health disparity among minorities in the US, there has been strikingly little empirical work on risk processes for anxiety/depression among this population. The present investigation examined the interactive effects of acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms among minority college students (n = 1,095; 78.1% female; Mage = 21.92, SD = 4.23; 15.1% African-American (non-Hispanic), 45.3% Hispanic, 32.5% Asian, and 7.1% other races/ethnicities. Results provided empirical evidence of an interaction between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance for suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms among the studied sample. Inspection of the significant interactions revealed that acculturative stress was related to greater levels of suicidal symptoms, social anxiety, and anxious arousal among minority college students with higher, but not lower, levels of experiential avoidance. However, in contrast to prediction, there was no significant interaction for depressive symptoms. Together, these data provide novel empirical evidence for the clinically-relevant interplay between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in regard to a relatively wide array of negative emotional states among minority college students.

  9. The Perfect Storm: Stress, Anxiety, and Burnout in the Secondary School Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates teacher stress, anxiety, and burnout through my experience teaching music in a suburban Toronto secondary school between 2002 and 2008. Primary data sources include a rich collection of journal entries I have written over a six-year period, which were retrospectively analyzed in this study. Hence, this study is principally…

  10. Associations between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Susanne; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Jacob, Nadja; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) represent a symptom cluster distinct from bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend these findings using the most recent criteria defining PGD. The authors interviewed…

  11. The Effect of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy on Anxiety, Depression and Stress in Women with Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Elahe; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Mohammmadi, Arsalan Khan

    2016-11-01

    Stress induced by preeclampsia in pregnancy may have a detrimental effect on both the mother and child. Risk of anxiety, depression and stress during pregnancy is, therefore, commonly associated with preeclampsia. To determine the effect of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) on anxiety, depression and stress in pregnant women with preeclampsia. In a clinical trial, 60 women with preeclampsia were selected by the convenience sampling method from the Imam-Ali Hospital of Amol city (North of Iran). The subjects were randomly divided into two groups; the study group (n=30) and the control (n=30). All participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and a Pregnancy Distress Questionnaire (PDQ) at the beginning and end of the study. The intervention group received 12 CBT sessions lasting for 90 minutes over 4 weeks (3 sessions in a week) and the control group received no treatment. A MANCOVA test showed that CBT significantly reduced the mean scores of anxiety (5.5 ± 3.2 vs. 9.7 ± 3.8) and depression (6.4±2.6 vs 9.3±4.0) in preeclamptic women (F: 19.933, p-value preeclampsia (F: 10.214, p-value depression and specific-stress pregnancy in pregnant women with preeclampsia.

  12. Relations of low frustration tolerance beliefs with stress, depression, and anxiety in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Adela; Yarcheski, Thomas J; Hanks, Michele M

    2007-02-01

    Young adolescents (N=144; 66 boys, 78 girls), ages 12 to 14 years (M=12.2, SD=.8), who reported lower scores on the Low Frustration Tolerance Beliefs Instrument had higher scores on the Perceived Stress Scale and the Profile of Mood States Subscales of Depression and Anxiety.

  13. The Factors Predicting Stress, Anxiety and Depression in the Parents of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Nicholas Henry; Norris, Kimberley; Quinn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The factors predicting stress, anxiety and depression in the parents of children with autism remain poorly understood. In this study, a cohort of 250 mothers and 229 fathers of one or more children with autism completed a questionnaire assessing reported parental mental health problems, locus of control, social support, perceived parent-child…

  14. Stress, anxiety, and depression among medical students in a multiethnic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulsoom B

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bibi Kulsoom,1 Nasir Ali Afsar2 1Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Contemporary literature suggests that medical education might adversely affect students’ mental health. Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia is a developing institution; hence, there has been a concern regarding the mental well-being of the students.Objectives: This study was designed to assess the traits of depression, anxiety, and stress among students in relation to potential underlying reasons.Methods: All 575 medical students across the 5 years of study participated by filling out the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21 questionnaire anonymously twice. Firstly, 2–3 weeks before a major examination (pre-examination, and secondly, during regular classes (post-examination. Correlation was sought regarding sex, year of scholarship, attendance of a premedical university preparatory program (UPP, housing, and smoking. Subjective comments from students were also obtained.Results: A total of 76.8% and 74.9% of students participated in pre- and post-examination groups, respectively. The majority were the children of expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia, and included Arabs, South Asians, and North Americans. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was high (43%, 63%, and 41%, respectively which reduced (to 30%, 47%, and 30%, respectively to some extent after examinations. Saudis and those who had attended UPP had higher DASS-21 scores. Smoking and female sex predicted higher levels of “baseline” depression, anxiety, or stress. The students perceived the curriculum and schedule to be the primary causes of their high DASS-21 scores.Conclusion: The students had high “baseline” traits of depression, anxiety, and stress, and these were higher if an examination was near, especially among Saudis and those who had attended UPP. Smoking and female sex

  15. Post-traumatic stress and age variation in amygdala volumes among youth exposed to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F; Klabunde, Megan; Russell, Justin D; Reiss, Allan L; Carrión, Victor G

    2015-12-01

    Theoretically, normal developmental variation in amygdala volumes may be altered under conditions of severe stress. The purpose of this article was to examine whether posttraumatic stress moderates the association between age and amygdala volumes in youth exposed to traumatic events who are experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Volumetric imaging was conducted on two groups of youth aged 9-17 years: 28 with exposure to trauma and PTSD symptoms (boys = 15, girls = 13) and 26 matched (age, IQ) comparison youth (Controls; boys = 12, girls = 14). There was a significant group by age interaction in predicting right amygdala volumes. A positive association between age and right amygdala volumes was observed, but only in PTSD youth. These associations with age remained when controlling for IQ, total brain volumes and sex. Moreover, older youth with PTSD symptoms had relatively larger right amygdala volumes than controls. Findings provide evidence that severe stress may influence age-related variation in amygdala volumes. Results further highlight the importance of utilizing age as an interactive variable in pediatric neuroimaging research, in so far as age may act as an important moderator of group differences. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Among Dental Students: Prevalence and Related Factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta Vergara, Katherine; Cárdenas, Shyrley Díaz; Martínez, Farith González

    2013-06-01

    To estimate the relationship between depressive symptoms, anxiety and stress and socio-demographic, academic and social factors among dental students. A cross-sectional study was carried out on dental students from a university in Cartagena, selected by simple random sampling. Students answered a self-report anonymous questionnaire of 20 questions that included demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms (DASS scale 21), family function (APGAR family) and other factors associated with the academic, economic and social context. Data were analyzed computing odds ratios by binomial logistic regression. The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress were 37.4%, 56.6% and 45.4%, respectively. Factors associated with depressive symptoms were lack of support from friends (OR=6.2; 95%CI, 2.6-14.5), family dysfunction (OR=3.6; 95%CI, 1.9-6.6) and economic hardship (OR=2.2; 95%CI, 1.2-3.9). The anxiety symptoms were associated with family dysfunction (OR=3.1; 95%CI, 1.8-5.3) and lack of support from friends (OR=2.1; 95%CI, 1.1-5.8). Also for symptoms of stress factors family dysfunction (OR=2.3; 95%CI, 1.4-4.1), income (OR=2.4; 95%CI, 1.2-4.9) and time to rest (OR=2.3; 95%CI, 1.4-4.0). Dental students report a high prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress. Associated factors are economic resources, family function, lack of time for rest, and social support. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Suicidal Ideation, Depression, Anxiety, Stress, And Life Satisfaction Of Medical, Engineering, And Social Sciences Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Sabahat; Munaf, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Pursuing higher education is not an easy task as it requires hard work, dedication, and motivation. Although there are many rewards involved in growing up academically, nevertheless, it contains a few hazards too. For instance, suicidal ideation is associated with presence of depression, anxiety, and stress with low level of satisfaction with life in students finding difficulty in handling educational demands of higher education. Therefore, the present study focused on the query that whether there is any difference or not among medical, engineering, and social sciences students of city of Karachi, Pakistan in the level of suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, stress, and life satisfaction. Using comparative group design, total 300 students (150 males and 150 females) with age range of 19-26 were selected from faculties of medical, engineering, and social sciences of different universities of Karachi, Pakistan, through purposive sampling. Respondent Profile Form, The Suicide Behaviours Questionnaire-Revised, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, and Satisfaction with Life Scale were administered to assess suicidal ideation; depression, anxiety, stress; and life satisfaction, respectively, of the students. Scores were analysed through ANOVA and Post Hoc (Tukey's HSD) test using SPSS. Social sciences and engineering students were significantly higher on depression, anxiety, and stress than medical students [F (2, 297) =8.701, p=.000] whereas insignificant differences in the level of suicidal ideation [F (2, 297) =1.914, p=.149] and life satisfaction [F (2, 297) = .726, p = .485] among these students were found. With the help of these findings, it would be easier to counsel students of different disciplines in time on the lines of suggested preventive measures.

  18. Study of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among the Medical Students in two Medical Colleges of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, D; Risal, A; Koirala, S

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical education is intended to prepare graduates for a promoting health and caring for the sick. Medical students are confronted with significant academic, psychological and existential stressors. There is insufficient information regarding psychological morbidity among Nepalese medical students. Objective To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, among the medical students in Nepal, and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. Method A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted including all students from first to fifth year of student using convenience method of sampling from Kathmandu University Medical School (KUSMS), Dhulikhel and Manipal College of Medical Sciences (MCOMS), Pokhara, Nepal. Depression, Anxiety and stress were assessed using Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Additional questions regarding demographic variables were also included in the survey. Data analysis was done on Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS version 16. Result A total of 538 students participated in the study giving a response rate of 89.6%. Aamong them 56.5% were from age group 21-25 years, 42.2% were below 20 years and only 1.3% were above 25 years of age. Among them 52% were female and 48% were male. Our study found that the overall prevalence of depression was 29.9%, anxiety was 41.1% and stress was 27% among all participated medical students. Depression was significantly associated (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.43-3.47, panxiety 41.1% and stress 27% among undergraduate medical students warrants needs for strategic plans to alleviate depression anxiety and the stressors right from the time they join medical school and has to be continued till they finish the course.

  19. ASSESSING THE SLEEP QUALITY AND DEPRESSION-ANXIETY-STRESS IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadieh BANIASADI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders with chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habit without any organic reason. Sleep disorders may be associated to IBS. OBJECTIVE We aimed to assess sleep disturbances and depression-anxiety-stress in IBS patients. METHODS In this analytical cross sectional study from November 2013 to May 2014, A total of 123 IBS patients were recruited by simple random sampling. IBS was diagnosed using ROME-III criteria. Demographic and basic data were driven from all patients then Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was utilized to estimate sleep quality and DASS (depression anxiety stress scale questionnaire was filled out for depression, anxiety and stress. RESULTS The mean age of patients was 29±9, where 48 cases (39% were male. Twelve cases (10% had a background disease. Types of IBS in patients were included 38% diarrhea, 42% constipation and 20% mixed. From all IBS patients 87 (71% cases had depression, 97 (79% patients stress, 94 (76% patients had anxiety. Seventy-six (62% cases of IBS patients had poor sleep quality. Simultaneously employing predictors demonstrate that gender, background disease, and type of IBS did not statistically significant. On the other hand, depression (P=0.034, OR=2.35, anxiety (P=0.011, OR=3.022, and stress (P=0.029, OR=2.77 were significantly effect on sleep quality in poor sleepers. CONCLUSION Many of IBS patients is suffering from poor sleep quality. It seems that sleep disorder should be considered and treated in this patients.

  20. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) reduces anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation in veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, J Greg; Taylor, Stephanie L; Tillisch, Kirsten

    2014-12-01

    Anxiety, depression, and pain are major problems among veterans, despite the availability of standard medical options within the Veterans Health Administration. Complementary and alternative approaches for these symptoms have been shown to be appealing to veterans. One such complementary and alternative approach is mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), a brief course that teaches mindfulness meditation with demonstrated benefits for mood disorders and pain. We prospectively collected data on MBSR's effectiveness among 79 veterans at an urban Veterans Health Administration medical facility. The MBSR course had 9 weekly sessions that included seated and walking meditations, gentle yoga, body scans, and discussions of pain, stress, and mindfulness. Pre-MBSR and post-MBSR questionnaires investigating pain, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and physical and mental health functioning were obtained and compared for individuals. We also conducted a mediation analysis to determine whether changes in mindfulness were related to changes in the other outcomes. Significant reductions in anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation were observed after MBSR training. Mental health functioning scores were improved. Also, mindfulness interacted with other outcomes such that increases in mindfulness were related to improvements in anxiety, depression, and mental health functionality. Pain intensity and physical health functionality did not show improvements. This naturalistic study in veterans shows that completing an MBSR program can improve symptoms of anxiety and depression, in addition to reducing suicidal ideations, all of which are of critical importance to the overall health of the patients.

  1. The Role of Trauma and Stressful Life Events among Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danessa Mayo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The experience of childhood trauma (CT and stressful life events (SLEs is associated with subsequent development of a variety of mental health conditions, including psychotic illness. Recent research identifying adolescents and young adults at clinical high risk (CHR for psychosis allows for prospective evaluation of the impact of trauma and adverse life events on psychosis onset and other outcomes, addressing etiological questions that cannot be answered in studies of fully psychotic or non-clinical populations. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current emerging literature on trauma and adverse life events in the CHR population. Up to 80% of CHR youth endorse a lifetime history of childhood traumatic events and victimization (e.g., bullying. Several studies have shown that the experience of CT predicts psychosis onset among CHR individuals, while the literature on the influence of recent SLEs (e.g., death of a loved one remains inconclusive. Multiple models have been proposed to explain the link between trauma and psychosis, including the stress-vulnerability and stress-sensitivity hypotheses, with emphases on both cognitive processes and neurobiological mechanisms (e.g., the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Despite the preponderance of CHR individuals who endorse either CT or SLEs, no clinical trials have been conducted evaluating interventions for trauma in CHR youth to date. Furthermore, the current process of formal identification and assessment of trauma, SLEs, and their impact on CHR youth is inconsistent in research and clinical practice. Recommendations for improving trauma assessment, treatment, and future research directions in the CHR field are provided.

  2. Emergence of delayed posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms related to sexual trauma: patient-centered and trauma-cognizant management by physical therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, Kim; Kubo Slowik, Amy

    2012-02-01

    Sexual violence has been identified as one of the most common predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This case report describes the emergence of delayed PTSD symptoms, disclosure of history of sexual trauma, and the influence of re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms on physical therapy treatment. A 60-year-old woman was seen for treatment of low back pain. of a discord between fear of falling and no balance impairments led to disclosure of sexual assault by a physician at 19 years of age. The patient's PTSD symptoms emerged after 10 weeks of physical therapy. The physical therapists monitored somatic responses and body language closely and modified and planned treatment techniques to avoid PTSD triggers and limit hyperarousal. Collaborative communication approaches included reinforcement of cognitive-behavioral strategies introduced by her psychotherapists. Trauma-cognizant approaches supported the patient's efforts to manage PTSD symptoms sufficiently to tolerate physical therapy and participate in a back care class. Nonlinear psychological healing is illustrated. Symptoms of PTSD may emerge during physical therapy treatment, and patient-sensitive responses to disclosure are important. The trauma-cognizant approach (2-way communication, patient-centered management, and integration of psychological elements into clinical decision making) helped identify and respond to triggers. The physical therapists reinforced cognitive-behavioral strategies introduced by psychotherapists to manage PTSD symptoms. Patient-centered care with further refinement to a trauma-cognizant approach may play an important role in assisting patients with PTSD or a history of sexual trauma to manage symptoms while addressing rehabilitation needs.

  3. Researching Academic Stress and Anxiety in Students: Some Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David

    2007-01-01

    Despite a long history of interest in North American and Western European literature, researchers in the UK are only now beginning to turn attention to the issue of academic stress in schoolchildren and how it may affect emotional well-being, health and performance on school assessments. Based on the author's experiences of designing an extensive…

  4. Relationship between resilience to stress, depression, anxiety, and diabetes control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva; Hrachovinová, T.; Fejfarová, V.; Csémy, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 45, - (2002), s. 19 ISSN 0012-186X. [Diabetologia. 01.09.2002-05.09.2002, Budapest] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : stress-buffering personality factors * diabetes Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  5. Relationship of severity of depression, anxiety and stress with severity of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alok, R; Das, S K; Agarwal, G G; Salwahan, L; Srivastava, R

    2011-01-01

    Negative affects like depression, anxiety and stress are frequently observed in patients with fibromyalgia (FMS). Understanding the association between FMS and negative affects is likely to help in deciding the choice of treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the severity of FMS with the severity of depression, anxiety and stress. Sixty patients with fibromyalgia and 60 healthy controls were included in the study. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised (FIQR), and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21) were administered to both the groups. The mean age of study population was 40.4±9.9 and 36±8.7 for FMS and control groups respectively. Most of the patients were females (93.3%). In subjects without FMS, depression was seen in 5% and was significantly associated with all three components of FIQR (panxiety and stress were found significantly associated with the severity of all three components of FIQR, namely pain, function and symptoms (panxiety and stress and in FMS magnitude of negative affects is significantly correlated with FIQR. However, depression alone in absence of FMS can also give rise to all three components of FIQR.

  6. Examining temporal alterations in Social Anxiety Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The relation between autobiographical memory, future goals, and current self-views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krans, Julie; Peeters, Manon; Näring, Gérard; Brown, Adam D; de Bree, June; van Minnen, Agnes

    2017-12-01

    The self is a multi-faceted and temporally dynamic construct reflecting representations and beliefs about identity in the past, present, and future. Clinical studies have shown that individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) exhibit alterations in self-related processing but these studies have focused primarily on memory. Few studies in PTSD and SAD have examined self-related processing for the present and future, and no studies have directly compared these processes across these two disorders. Individuals diagnosed with PTSD (n=21), SAD (n=21), and healthy controls (n=21) completed cognitive tasks related to the past, present, and future. Disorder congruent temporal alterations were found across both disorders. Further, regression analyses revealed that trauma-related memories were significantly predicted by future goals related to the trauma, whereas social anxiety-related recall was predicted by current socially anxious self-views. Thus, although self-related processing may be common in PTSD and SAD, those aspects of the self most strongly associated with disorder-congruent recall differ by disorder. Self-alterations may be modifiable and developing a better understanding of past, present, and future self-processing might aid in the development of interventions that target these process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The oasis project, exploring the concept of reducing anxiety & stress in a hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Comments written in a prayer book in a hospital Chaplaincy Centre, about the area being a 'quiet oasis' in the middle of a busy hospital amid lots of anxiety and stress led to a focus group forming to explore ideas on how this could be addressed; a short term vision was the creation of an area (Oasis) in the Chaplaincy centre and longer term in other areas across the whole hospital. These areas would have an ambience of calm and relaxation where the use of colour, sound, aroma's and touch would be used to help in the reduction of stress and anxiety, this may be from forthcoming surgery, procedures or life in general from traumatic circumstances. The potential impact of this would be to aid recovery, potentially reduce other stress related illness and improve general well-being using strategies to include relaxation, breathing and visualisation techniques and aromatherapy hand massage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A study on regional cerebral blood flow at rest and stress state in anxiety disorder patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Li; Liu Jian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate he characteristics of rest and stress regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in naive anxiety disorder patients. Methods: Twenty naive anxiety disorder patients were enrolled in the study with twenty healthy volunteers as controls. The rest and stress 99 Tc m -ethylene cystein dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed separately at 2 consecutive days, Raven reasoning test was used as a stressor. Results: 1) Compared to the healthy controls, the patients' rest rCBF of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia were significantly lower (P<0.05 and 0.01). 2)The patients' stress rCBF of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, part occipital lobe, part parietal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia were significantly lower compared to the healthy controls' (P<0.05 and 0.01). 3) Opposite to the healthy controls, the rCBF of patients increased significantly after stressor simulating. Conclusions: The hypofunction of frontal lobe, temporal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia may exist in naive anxiety disorder patients. The abnormal rCBF of patients after simulating may be one of the characteristics of anxiety disorder

  9. Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Saudi Arabian Dermatology Patients; Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar E. Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among Saudi Arabian dermatology patients and to assess associations with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 consecutive dermatology patients visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in August 2015. The Arabic version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale was used to screen for symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. Quality of life (QOL was assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index. Results: A total of 254 dermatology patients participated in the study (response rate: 84.7%. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress was 12.6%, 22.1% and 7.5%, respectively. The presence of at least one of these negative emotional states was noted among 24.4% of the cohort (95% confidence interval: 19.3–30.2%. Depression was significantly higher among subjects who lacked family support (26.5% versus 10.7%; P = 0.006 while anxiety was less common among patients who engaged in physical exercise (14.5% versus 29.4%; P = 0.005. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, poor QOL and a lack of family support were significant predictors of a negative emotional state. Conclusion: Almost a quarter of the studied Saudi Arabian dermatology patients were found to suffer from at least one negative emotional state. A lack of family support and poor QOL were the primary factors associated with a negative emotional state. Interventional studies are needed to examine the effects of social and family support on psychological conditions among Saudi Arabian dermatology patients.

  10. Depression, anxiety, stress, and motivation over the course of smoking cessation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlina, Maritza Muzzi Cardozo; Rondina, Regina de Cássia; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Botelho, Clóvis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Methods: This cohort study involved patients enrolled in a smoking cessation program in Cuiabá, Brazil. We selected patients who completed the program in six months or less (n = 142). Patient evaluations were conducted at enrollment (evaluation 1 [E1]); after 45 days of treatment with medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy (E2); and at the end of the six-month study period (E3). Patients were evaluated with a standardized questionnaire (to collect sociodemographic data and determine smoking status), as well as with the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults. The data were analyzed with the nonparametric Wilcoxon test for paired comparisons. To compare treatment success (smoking cessation) with treatment failure, the test for two proportions was used. Results: Among the 142 patients evaluated, there were improvements, in terms of the levels of anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress, between E1 and E2, as well as between E1 and E3. In addition, treatment success correlated significantly with the levels of motivation and anxiety throughout the study period, whereas it correlated significantly with the level of depression only at E2 and E3. Conclusions: We conclude that there are in fact changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Those changes appear to be more pronounced in patients in whom the treatment succeeded. PMID:26578135

  11. Poverty and involuntary engagement stress responses: examining the link to anxiety and aggression within low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Brian C; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E

    2009-05-01

    Families living with the burdens of poverty-related stress are at risk for developing a range of psychopathology. The present study examines the year-long prospective relationships among poverty-related stress, involuntary engagement stress response (IESR) levels, and anxiety symptoms and aggression in an ethnically diverse sample of 98 families (300 individual family members) living at or below 150% of the US federal poverty line. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) moderator model analyses provided strong evidence that IESR levels moderated the influence of poverty-related stress on anxiety symptoms and provided mixed evidence for the same interaction effect on aggression. Higher IESR levels, a proxy for physiological stress reactivity, worsened the impact of stress on symptoms. Understanding how poverty-related stress and involuntary stress responses affect psychological functioning has implications for efforts to prevent or reduce psychopathology, particularly anxiety, among individuals and families living in poverty.

  12. Dimensional structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress symptoms in Spanish trauma victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberón, Carmen; Crespo, María; Del Mar Gómez-Gutiérrez, María; Fernández-Lansac, Violeta; Armour, Cherie

    2016-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analytic studies have shown that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Disorders (DSM-5) may be better explained by two 6-factor models (the Externalizing Behaviours model and the Anhedonia model) and a 7-factor Hybrid model. The latter model comprises the symptom clusters of intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviours, and anxious and dysphoric arousal. This model has received empirical support mainly in American samples. Of note, there have been a limited number of studies conducted on samples from other countries. This study aimed to examine the underlying dimensionality of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in a Spanish clinical sample exposed to a range of traumatic events. Participants included 165 adults (78.8% females) seeking treatment in trauma services in the Madrid area (Spain). PTSD was assessed using the Global Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Scale 5, a Spanish self-report instrument assessing posttraumatic symptoms according to the DSM-5 criteria. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted in Mplus. Both the 7-factor Hybrid model and the 6-factor Anhedonia model demonstrated good and equivalent fit to the data. The findings of this study replicate and extend previous research by providing support for both the 7-factor Hybrid model and the 6-factor Anhedonia model in a clinical sample of Spanish trauma survivors. Given equivalent fit for these two models and the fewer number of latent factors in the Anhedonia model, it was selected as optimal in a traumatized Spanish sample. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  13. Dimensional structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress symptoms in Spanish trauma victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Soberón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Confirmatory factor analytic studies have shown that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Disorders (DSM-5 may be better explained by two 6-factor models (the Externalizing Behaviours model and the Anhedonia model and a 7-factor Hybrid model. The latter model comprises the symptom clusters of intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviours, and anxious and dysphoric arousal. This model has received empirical support mainly in American samples. Of note, there have been a limited number of studies conducted on samples from other countries. Objective: This study aimed to examine the underlying dimensionality of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in a Spanish clinical sample exposed to a range of traumatic events. Method: Participants included 165 adults (78.8% females seeking treatment in trauma services in the Madrid area (Spain. PTSD was assessed using the Global Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Scale 5, a Spanish self-report instrument assessing posttraumatic symptoms according to the DSM-5 criteria. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted in Mplus. Results: Both the 7-factor Hybrid model and the 6-factor Anhedonia model demonstrated good and equivalent fit to the data. Conclusions: The findings of this study replicate and extend previous research by providing support for both the 7-factor Hybrid model and the 6-factor Anhedonia model in a clinical sample of Spanish trauma survivors. Given equivalent fit for these two models and the fewer number of latent factors in the Anhedonia model, it was selected as optimal in a traumatized Spanish sample. Implications and future research directions are discussed. Highlights of the article:

  14. Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Predict Alcohol and Other Drug Consequence Trajectories in the First Year of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jennifer P.; Colder, Craig R.; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Ouimette, Paige; White, Jacquelyn; Swartout, Ashlyn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: College matriculation begins a period of transition into adulthood, one that is marked by new freedoms and responsibilities. This transition also is marked by an escalation in heavy drinking and other drug use as well as a variety of use-related negative consequences. Trauma and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may…

  15. Relationships between interpersonal trauma, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, and other mental health problems in girls in compulsory residential care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Lodewijks, Henny P. B.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationships (using structural equation modeling) between exposure to early-onset interpersonal trauma, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), symptoms of complex PTSD, and other mental health problems. The participants were 92 girls recruited from

  16. Rumination and posttraumatic stress symptoms in trauma-exposed adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Yvette Z; Warnecke, Ashlee J; Newton, Tamara L; Valentine, Jeffrey C

    2017-07-01

    Rumination is a correlate of increased posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. This study quantitatively reviewed the literature on rumination and PTS symptoms in trauma-exposed adults, extending prior research by using an inclusive definition of trauma, addressing PTS symptom clusters, and conducting moderator analyses. Searches were conducted in PsycINFO, PubMed, PILOTS, EBSCO Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Google Scholar, and Dissertation Abstracts. Sixty-four unique samples from 59 articles were included. Results showed a moderate, positive relationship between rumination and PTS symptoms (r = .50, p < .001). This was not moderated by time since trauma, gender, prior trauma history, Criterion A congruence of events, type of rumination or PTS symptom measure, or sample setting. However, trauma-focused rumination yielded smaller effect sizes than trait rumination. The association between rumination and intrusive re-experiencing was stronger than that between rumination and avoidance (t (13) = 9.18, p < .001), or rumination and hyperarousal (t (9) = 2.70, p = .022). Results confirm that rumination is associated with increased PTS symptoms. Future research should identify mechanisms underlying this association and their potential specificity by symptoms cluster, as well as further examine the potential moderating roles of gender and prior trauma history.

  17. Personality traits as predictors of depression, anxiety, and stress with secondary school students of final years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujičić Milena M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to examine the predictive power of personality traits, as defined by the Big five model of personality in expressing depression, anxiety, and stress with secondary school students of final years. The research was conducted on a sample of 977 secondary school students in the third and fourth grade from ten secondary schools in Niš. The gender structure of the sample was as follows: 397 boys and 607 girls. The following instruments were used in the research: Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond and Lovibond, 1995, Big Five Inventory - BFI (John, Donahue and Kentle, 1991. The results showed that the regression model constructed by personal traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to experience explain 26% of the criterion variable of Anxiety. The largest individual contribution to the prediction of this variable is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β=.34, p<0.01 . Other personal traits that contribute to the prediction of this variable at a statistically significant level are Extraversion (β =-.17, p<0.01, Agreeableness (β =-.14, p<0.01 and Conscientiousness (β =-.17, p<0.01. The same model explains 37% of the criterion variable Stress. The largest individual contribution to Stress prediction is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β =.57, p<0.01. The same model explains 27% of the criterion variable Anxiety as well. The largest individual contribution to the prediction of this variable is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β =.45, p<0.01, whereas a statistically significant correlation between personal traits Agreeableness (β =-.06, p<0.05 and Conscientious (β =-.12, p<0.01 exists. Results show that the difference between boys and girls in expressing Anxiety (t=-2.96, p<0.01 and Stress (t=-5.01, p<0.01 exists. These emotional states are more expressive with girls. However, there are no differences in expressing Depression

  18. Depression, anxiety, stress and hyperemesis gravidarum: temporal and case controlled correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chiong Tan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the temporal and case-controlled correlations of anxiety, depression and stress with hyperemesis gravidarum. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a longitudinal cohort study of women with hyperemesis gravidarum using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21 to evaluate psychological distress at hospitalization and in the third trimester of pregnancy (from 28 weeks gestation. Third pregnancy trimester controls were recruited from routine antenatal clinic attendees who were matched to gestational age at the second DASS-21 assessment in the HG cohort. RESULTS: The prevalences of nausea and vomiting, depression, anxiety and stress caseness in newly hospitalised hyperemesis gravidarum women were 100% and 100%, 19%, 69% and 21% which by the third trimester had fallen to 15.7% and 9.9%, 4%, 19% and 3% and in third trimester controls were 15.9% and 14.2%, 14%, 61% and 20% respectively. Within the hyperemesis gravidarum cohort, nausea, vomiting depression, anxiety and stress reduced significantly by an absolute 84.3% (95% CI 76.2%-89.8%, 90.1% (82.8%-94.2%, 14.9% (7.2%-23.0%, 49.6% (38.6%-58.7% and 18.2% (10.4%-26.4% respectively between hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum and at the third trimester. In the third trimester, when comparing the hyperemesis gravidarum cohort to controls, the risk of nausea or vomiting was similar but depression, anxiety and stress were significantly lower: adjusted odds ratio AOR 0.10 (95% CI 0.03-0.5, 0.11 (0.05-0.23 and 0.08 (0.02-0.33 respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed a reassuring pattern of a strong rebound from depression, anxiety and stress in women with hyperemesis gravidarum such that by the third pregnancy trimester the level of psychological distress was even lower than in controls. This observation imply that much of the psychological distress in acute hyperemesis gravidarum is self-limiting and probably in the causal pathway of hyperemesis gravidarum. Care in women with

  19. Depression, anxiety, stress and hyperemesis gravidarum: temporal and case controlled correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng Chiong; Zaidi, Syeda Nureena; Azmi, Noor; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Khong, Su Yen

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the temporal and case-controlled correlations of anxiety, depression and stress with hyperemesis gravidarum. We performed a longitudinal cohort study of women with hyperemesis gravidarum using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to evaluate psychological distress at hospitalization and in the third trimester of pregnancy (from 28 weeks gestation). Third pregnancy trimester controls were recruited from routine antenatal clinic attendees who were matched to gestational age at the second DASS-21 assessment in the HG cohort. The prevalences of nausea and vomiting, depression, anxiety and stress caseness in newly hospitalised hyperemesis gravidarum women were 100% and 100%, 19%, 69% and 21% which by the third trimester had fallen to 15.7% and 9.9%, 4%, 19% and 3% and in third trimester controls were 15.9% and 14.2%, 14%, 61% and 20% respectively. Within the hyperemesis gravidarum cohort, nausea, vomiting depression, anxiety and stress reduced significantly by an absolute 84.3% (95% CI 76.2%-89.8%), 90.1% (82.8%-94.2%), 14.9% (7.2%-23.0%), 49.6% (38.6%-58.7%) and 18.2% (10.4%-26.4%) respectively between hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum and at the third trimester. In the third trimester, when comparing the hyperemesis gravidarum cohort to controls, the risk of nausea or vomiting was similar but depression, anxiety and stress were significantly lower: adjusted odds ratio AOR 0.10 (95% CI 0.03-0.5), 0.11 (0.05-0.23) and 0.08 (0.02-0.33) respectively. Our study revealed a reassuring pattern of a strong rebound from depression, anxiety and stress in women with hyperemesis gravidarum such that by the third pregnancy trimester the level of psychological distress was even lower than in controls. This observation imply that much of the psychological distress in acute hyperemesis gravidarum is self-limiting and probably in the causal pathway of hyperemesis gravidarum. Care in women with hyperemesis gravidarum should focus on the relief of

  20. [The relationship among depression, anxiety, stress and addictive substance use behavior in 5 935 secondary vocational students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X D; Yu, J C; Wu, Q F; Chen, J Y; Wang, Y C; Yan, D; Teng, S W; Zhao, Y T; Cao, J P; Li, S Q; Yan, Y Q; Gong, J; Yao, K; Zhou, H; Wang, Z Z

    2017-03-06

    Objective: To investigate the relationship among depression, anxiety, stress and addictive substance use behavior in secondary vocational students. Methods: Cluster sampling method and the Adolescent Health-related Behaviors Questionnaire were used to collect demographic characteristics, psychological symptoms, and addictive substance usage among 5 935 students in nine vocational schools in Chongqing, Zhaoqing, Ningbo, and Taiyuan. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the addictive substance use behavior and psychological factors. Results: The detection rates of depression, anxiety and stress were 46.5% ( n= 2 762), 58.7% ( n= 3 483), and 29.8% ( n= 1 770), respectively. The prevalence of addictive substances was 74.8% ( n =4 440), traditional drugs was 0.8% ( n= 50), new drugs was 2.8% ( n= 166), other addictive drugs was 4.1% ( n= 241). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with the normal psychological states of secondary vocational students, the OR value of mild depression tendency alcohol and tobacco use behavior of secondary vocational students was 1.45; the OR values of mild anxiety, moderate anxiety, severe anxiety and very serious anxiety were 1.46, 1.46, 1.71, and 1.83, respectively; the traditional drugs use behaviors were 5.51, and 2.61, respectively, for the severe anxiety and very serious anxiety. Compared with the normal psychological state of secondary vocational students, the OR values of the severe anxiety and very severe anxiety were 2.56, and 2.66, respectively, for severe anxiety and very serious anxiety. Compared with normal psychological status of secondary vocational students, the OR values of mild, moderate, severe, and very severe anxiety were 2.14, 2.47, 2.39, and 3.45, respectively; all P values students; severe and above anxiety were the risk factors of drug use in secondary vocational students; anxiety was the risk factor for other addictive drug use in

  1. Basic psychological need satisfaction, stress-related appraisals, and dancers' cortisol and anxiety responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quested, Eleanor; Bosch, Jos A; Burns, Victoria E; Cumming, Jennifer; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan L

    2011-12-01

    Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) posits basic psychological need satisfaction (BPNS) as essential for optimal functioning and health. Grounded in this framework, the current study examined the role of BPNS in dancers' cognitive appraisals and hormonal and emotional responses to performance stress. Dancers reported their degree of BPNS 1 month before a solo performance. Threat and challenge appraisals of the solo were recorded 2 hr before the performance. Salivary cortisol and anxiety were measured 15 min before, and 15, 30, 45, and 60 min postperformance. Higher BPNS was associated with lower cortisol responses and anxiety intensity. Challenge appraisals mediated the association between BPNS and cortisol. Threat appraisals mediated the BPNS-anxiety intensity relationship. These findings point to the potential importance of performers' BPNS for optimal emotional and hormonal homeostasis in performance conditions.

  2. Child anxiety symptoms related to longitudinal cortisol trajectories and acute stress responses: evidence of developmental stress sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gilliam, Kathryn S; Wright, Dorianne B; Fisher, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children's (n = 107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9-10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress-reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure-may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Peripheral and central effects of repeated social defeat stress: monocyte trafficking, microglial activation, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, B F; Jarrett, B L; McKim, D B; Wohleb, E S; Godbout, J P; Sheridan, J F

    2015-03-19

    The development and exacerbation of depression and anxiety are associated with exposure to repeated psychosocial stress. Stress is known to affect the bidirectional communication between the nervous and immune systems leading to elevated levels of stress mediators including glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines and increased trafficking of proinflammatory immune cells. Animal models, like the repeated social defeat (RSD) paradigm, were developed to explore this connection between stress and affective disorders. RSD induces activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, increases bone marrow production and egress of primed, GC-insensitive monocytes, and stimulates the trafficking of these cells to tissues including the spleen, lung, and brain. Recently, the observation that these monocytes have the ability to traffic to the brain perivascular spaces and parenchyma have provided mechanisms by which these peripheral cells may contribute to the prolonged anxiety-like behavior associated with RSD. The data that have been amassed from the RSD paradigm and others recapitulate many of the behavioral and immunological phenotypes associated with human anxiety disorders and may serve to elucidate potential avenues of treatment for these disorders. Here, we will discuss novel and key data that will present an overview of the neuroendocrine, immunological and behavioral responses to social stressors. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interaction of the ADRB2 gene polymorphism with childhood trauma in predicting adult symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberzon, Israel; King, Anthony P; Ressler, Kerry J; Almli, Lynn M; Zhang, Peng; Ma, Sean T; Cohen, Gregory H; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Calabrese, Joseph R; Galea, Sandro

    2014-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while highly prevalent (7.6% over a lifetime), develops only in a subset of trauma-exposed individuals. Genetic risk factors in interaction with trauma exposure have been implicated in PTSD vulnerability. To examine the association of 3755 candidate gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms with PTSD development in interaction with a history of childhood trauma. Genetic association study in an Ohio National Guard longitudinal cohort (n = 810) of predominantly male soldiers of European ancestry, with replication in an independent Grady Trauma Project (Atlanta, Georgia) cohort (n = 2083) of predominantly female African American civilians. Continuous measures of PTSD severity, with a modified (interview) PTSD checklist in the discovery cohort and the PTSD Symptom Scale in the replication cohort. Controlling for the level of lifetime adult trauma exposure, we identified the novel association of a single-nucleotide polymorphism within the promoter region of the ADRB2 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man 109690) gene with PTSD symptoms in interaction with childhood trauma (rs2400707, P = 1.02 × 10-5, significant after correction for multiple comparisons). The rs2400707 A allele was associated with relative resilience to childhood adversity. An rs2400707 × childhood trauma interaction predicting adult PTSD symptoms was replicated in the independent predominantly female African American cohort. Altered adrenergic and noradrenergic function has been long believed to have a key etiologic role in PTSD development; however, direct evidence of this link has been missing. The rs2400707 polymorphism has been linked to function of the adrenergic system, but, to our knowledge, this is the first study to date linking the ADRB2 gene to PTSD or any psychiatric disorders. These findings have important implications for PTSD etiology, chronic pain, and stress-related comorbidity, as well as for both primary prevention and treatment

  5. Parenting stress and child physical health among a low-income sample: The moderating role of child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Timothy D; Van Dyk, Tori

    2015-11-01

    This study examined child anxiety as a potential moderator of the relationship between parenting stress and child physical health. Low-income youth (N = 109, M = 9.51 years old) and their parents completed measures of anxiety, health-related quality of life, and parenting stress in an outpatient clinic. As an objective measure of physical health, medical service utilization was extracted from medical records. Parenting stress was associated significantly with worse health-related quality of life and higher service utilization. Child anxiety moderated the relationship between stress and health. Health psychologists should target both family stress and child anxiety in promoting better health outcomes among low-income families. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Coping with workplace minority stress: Associations between dyadic coping and anxiety among women in same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Ashley K; Totenhagen, Casey J; Walsh, Kelsey J; Adams, Caroline; Tao, Chun

    2017-01-02

    Sexual minorities are exposed to stressors in the workplace (workplace minority stress), which can be detrimental for well-being (e.g., levels of anxiety). The present study examined whether a particular set of relationship processes, dyadic coping, served to moderate the association between workplace minority stress and symptoms of anxiety. Using a dyadic sample of 64 female same-sex couples, we found that partner problem-focused supportive dyadic coping (DC) and emotion-focused supportive DC (marginally) buffered, whereas partner delegated DC and negative DC did not moderate, the association between workplace minority stress and symptoms of anxiety. Implications for relationship researchers and mental health practitioners are discussed.

  7. The roles of social support in helping chinese women with antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms cope with perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Wang, Yuqiong; Kwong, Dennis Ho Keung; Wang, Ying

    2014-10-01

    A community-based sample of 755 pregnant Chinese women were recruited to test the direct and moderating effects of social support in mitigating perceived stress associated with antenatal depressive or anxiety symptoms. The Social Support Rating Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Edinburgh Depressive Postnatal Scale and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale were used. Social support was found to have direct effects and moderating effects on the women's perceived stress on antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms in multiple linear regression models. This knowledge of the separate effects of social support on behavioral health is important to psychiatric nurse in planning preventive interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Trauma-related emotions and radical acceptance in dialectical behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder after childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görg, Nora; Priebe, Kathlen; Böhnke, Jan R; Steil, Regina; Dyer, Anne S; Kleindienst, Nikolaus

    2017-01-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is often associated with a wide range of trauma-related aversive emotions such as fear, disgust, sadness, shame, guilt, and anger. Intense experience of aversive emotions in particular has been linked to higher psychopathology in trauma survivors. Most established psychosocial treatments aim to reduce avoidance of trauma-related memories and associated emotions. Interventions based on Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) also foster radical acceptance of the traumatic event. This study compares individual ratings of trauma-related emotions and radical acceptance between the start and the end of DBT for PTSD (DBT-PTSD) related to CSA. We expected a decrease in trauma-related emotions and an increase in acceptance. In addition, we tested whether therapy response according to the Clinician Administered PTSD-Scale (CAPS) for the DSM-IV was associated with changes in trauma-related emotions and acceptance. The data was collected within a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of DBT-PTSD, and a subsample of 23 women was included in this secondary data analysis. In a multilevel model, shame, guilt, disgust, distress, and fear decreased significantly from the start to the end of the therapy whereas radical acceptance increased. Therapy response measured with the CAPS was associated with change in trauma-related emotions. Trauma-related emotions and radical acceptance showed significant changes from the start to the end of DBT-PTSD. Future studies with larger sample sizes and control group designs are needed to test whether these changes are due to the treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00481000.

  9. Heightened reward learning under stress in generalized anxiety disorder: a predictor of depression resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bethany H; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    Stress-induced anhedonia is associated with depression vulnerability (Bogdan & Pizzagalli, 2006). We investigated stress-induced deficits in reward learning in a depression-vulnerable group with analogue generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, n = 34), and never-depressed healthy controls (n = 41). Utilizing a computerized signal detection task, reward learning was assessed under stressor and neutral conditions. Controls displayed intact reward learning in the neutral condition, and the expected stress-induced blunting. The GAD group as a whole also showed intact reward learning in the neutral condition. When GAD subjects were analyzed as a function of prior depression history, never-depressed GAD subjects showed heightened reward learning in the stressor condition. Better reward learning under stress among GAD subjects predicted lower depression symptoms 1 month later. Robust reward learning under stress may indicate depression resistance among anxious individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Evaluation of stress, anxiety and depression in parents of children with leukemia: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farhangi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer diagnosis is the biggest stress for the child and his family. Diagnosis and treatment of cancer in children can cause stress, which often has a negative effect on the health of parents. Psychological reactions such as anxiety, depression, denial and loss of confidence in parents observed that because of the fear of recurrence and future of children. This study aimed to determine the level of stress and anxiety and depression in parents of children with leukemia who were in the maintenance phase of treatment. Methods: This cross-sectional study has been conducted on 48 parents have referred to the clinic of Dr. Sheikh Hospital of Mashhad City, Iran, whom selected using easy sampling method. DASS-21 questionnaire was used for data collection. Another questionnaire containing demographic information such as age, sex, income, educational level and duration of illness was filled under supervision of the psychologist and pediatric physician. Data with SPSS software, ver. 20 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA, descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis was performed. Results: The results showed that in this study, 37% had abnormal stress levels (33% and 2% of mild stress, moderate stress and severe stress 2% and 79% had abnormal anxiety level (mild 19%, moderate 31% and severe 29% and 67% had abnormal depression level (mild 33%, moderate depression 33% tests, respectively. In our study, there was no relationship between age, sex and duration of illness with these variables. Conclusion: According to this study, in addition to the classic treatment of patients, parent’s mental performance should be paid attention.

  11. Mother-Infant Emotion Regulation at Three Months: The Role of Maternal Anxiety, Depression and Parenting Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Ferro, Valentino; Gallucci, Marcello; Parodi, Cinzia; Astengo, Marina

    While the association between anxiety and postpartum depression is well known, few studies have investigated the relationship between these two states and parenting stress. Furthermore, a number of studies have found that postpartum depression affects mother-infant emotion regulation, but there has been only one study on anxiety and emotion regulation and no studies at all on parenting stress and emotion regulation. Therefore, the primary aim of our study is to identify, in a community sample of 71 mothers, the relationship between maternal depression, anxiety, and parenting stress. The second aim is to examine the relationship between anxiety, postpartum depression, and parenting stress and mother-infant emotion regulation assessed at 3 months. Mother-infant interaction was coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver and Engagement Phases (ICEP) using a microanalytic approach. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) were administered to the mothers to assess depression, anxiety, and parenting stress, respectively. Analysis revealed correlations between anxiety and depression, showing that parenting stress is associated with both states. In a laboratory observation, depression was correlated with both negative maternal states and negative dyadic matches as well as infant positive/mother negative mismatches; anxiety was correlated with both negative maternal states and infant negative states as well as mismatches involving one of the partners having a negative state. Multiple regression analysis showed that anxiety is a greater predictor than depression of less adequate styles of mother-infant emotion regulation. Parenting stress was not shown to predict such regulation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Effects of Music Listening on Pre-treatment Anxiety and Stress Levels in a Dental Hygiene Recall Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Myriam V; Zemp, Martina; Kreienbühl, Lea; Hofer, Deborah; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Attin, Thomas; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M

    2015-08-01

    Waiting for a medical procedure can exert significant feelings of state anxiety in patients. Music listening has been shown to be effective in decreasing anxiety levels. No study so far examined the potential anxiety and stress-reducing effect of a music intervention on pre-treatment anxiety and stress in patients waiting for dental hygiene treatment. Knowing whether the anxiety-reducing effect of music would also be detectible in the context of preventive routine medical procedures in healthy individuals would widen the area of application of music from the hospital or clinical environment to medical offices in general. Waiting for a medical treatment can induce anxiety and may lead to the experience of stress. We set out to examine the effect of music on pre-treatment anxiety in a healthy patient sample waiting for a dental treatment. In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 92 consecutive volunteer patients (mean age, 57 years) waiting for their scheduled dental hygiene treatment were randomly allocated to either an experimental (n = 46, listening to music for 10 min) or a control group (n = 46, waiting in silence). State and habitual anxiety, subjective stress, and mood measures were assessed before and after music listening or silence, respectively. State anxiety levels in the music group decreased significantly after intervention as compared to the control group (F(1/90) = 8.06; p = 0.006). Participants' trait anxiety and dental anxiety were not found to moderate this effect. Listening to music prior to dental hygiene treatment decreases anxiety levels to a greater extent than waiting in silence.

  13. Effects of natural stress relief meditation on trait anxiety: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Fabrizio

    2007-08-01

    Natural Stress Relief meditation, a mental technique which is practiced for 15 minutes twice a day, aims to reduce stress and anxiety by eliciting a specific state of physiological rest along with mental alertness. The meditation is taught in a self-administered program, requiring one hour of training during the first three days, followed by the regular twice daily practice. Each 15-min. session consists in sitting quietly with closed eyes while applying a specific mental procedure. To test the effectiveness of meditation in reducing trait anxiety, Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered to 25 participants four times over a 3-wk. period: one week before starting to practice the meditation, a few hours before starting, 1 wk. after, and 2 wk. after. The difference in Trait Anxiety score between pretreatment and before starting the practice was not significant, while it was significant both after the first week of practice (Cohen d=.46) and after the first 2 wk. of practice (d=.67).

  14. Protective effect of Nardostachys jatamansi on radiation induced anxiety and oxidative stress in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandary, Satheesh; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Madhu, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Nardostachys jatamansi (family Valerianaceae), an indigenous medicinal plant induces in organism a state of resistance against stress. It helps to promote physical and mental health augment resistance of the body against disease and has shown potent antioxidant activity. To study the anxiolytic and protective effect of 100 mg of ethanolic extract of Nardostachys jatamansi was studied on the mice exposed to 6 Gy Electron beam radiation (EBR). The animals were treated with 100 mg of Nardostachys jatamansi extract (NJE) for 15 days before radiation exposure. The anxiety status of animals observed once for every 3 days during experiment period. The level of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) was estimated 15 days after irradiation. The irradiation of animals resulted in an elevation in anxiety, lipid peroxidation and reduction in GSH. Treatment of mice with NJE before irradiation caused a significant depletion in anxiety, lipid peroxidation followed by significant elevation in GSH. Our results indicate that the protective activity of NJE on radiation induced anxiety and oxidative stress may be due to free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant level in mice. (author)

  15. Stress resilience: a low-anxiety genotype protects male mice from the consequences of chronic psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füchsl, Andrea M; Neumann, Inga D; Reber, Stefan O

    2014-01-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress is a risk factor for the development of affective as well as somatic disorders. However, vulnerability to adverse stress effects varies between individuals, with previous negative life events along with genetic predisposition playing a major role. In support, we previously showed that the consequences of chronic psychosocial stress induced by chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC, 19 days) can be amplified by pre-exposing mice to repeated maternal separation during early life. To test the significance of the genetic predisposition on the effects of CSC, mice selectively bred for high (mHAB) and low (mLAB) anxiety-related behavior and nonselected CD1 mice (mNAB) were exposed to CSC in the present study. In confirmation of our previous results, CSC mice of both mHAB and mNAB lines displayed chronic stress-related symptoms including increased adrenal weight, decreased adrenal in vitro ACTH sensitivity, lower plasma corticosterone to ACTH ratio, and increased interferon-γ secretion from isolated mesenteric lymph node cells compared with single-housed controls of the respective line. However, the CSC-induced anxiogenic effect found in mNAB was not confirmed in mHAB mice, possibly due to a ceiling effect in these highly anxious mice. Interestingly, mHAB were not more vulnerable to CSC than mNAB mice, whereas mLAB mice were resilient to CSC as indicated by all of the above mentioned parameters assessed. Taken together, our findings indicate that the genetic predisposition, in this case the innate anxiety of an individual, affects vulnerability to chronic psychosocial stress, with a low-anxiety phenotype mediating resilience to both affective and somatic consequences of CSC.

  16. Do post-trauma symptoms mediate the relation between neurobiological stress parameters and conduct problems in girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Kimberly A; Jambroes, Tijs; Oostermeijer, Sanne; van de Ven, Peter M; Popma, Arne; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Jansen, Lucres M C

    2016-01-01

    Attenuated activity of stress-regulating systems has consistently been reported in boys with conduct problems. Results in studies of girls are inconsistent, which may result from the high prevalence of comorbid post-trauma symptoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate post-trauma symptoms as a potential mediator in the relation between stress-regulation systems functioning and conduct problems in female adolescents. The sample consisted of 78 female adolescents (mean age 15.4; SD 1.1) admitted to a closed treatment institution. The diagnosis of disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD) was assessed by a structured interview-the diagnostic interview schedule for children version IV (DISC-IV). To assess post-trauma symptoms and externalizing behaviour problems, self-report questionnaires, youth self report (YSR) and the trauma symptom checklist for Children (TSCC) were used. The cortisol awakenings response (CAR) measured hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, whereas autonomous nervous system (ANS) activity was assessed by heart rate (HR), pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Independent t-tests were used to compare girls with and without DBD, while path analyses tested for the mediating role of post- trauma symptoms in the relation between stress regulating systems and externalizing behaviour. Females with DBD (n = 37) reported significantly higher rates of post-trauma symptoms and externalizing behaviour problems than girls without DBD (n = 39). Path analysis found no relation between CAR and externalizing behaviour problems. With regard to ANS activity, positive direct effects on externalizing behaviour problems were present for HR (standardized β = 0.306, p = 0.020) and PEP (standardized β = -0.323, p = 0.031), though not for RSA. Furthermore, no relation-whether direct or indirect-could be determined from post-trauma symptoms. Present findings demonstrate that the neurobiological

  17. The impact of childhood traumas, depressive and anxiety symptoms on the relationship between borderline personality features and symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported that there is a significant association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adulthood. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of borderline personality features (BPF) and ADHD symptoms while controlling the effect of childhood traumas, symptoms of depression and anxiety in adulthood on this relationship in Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Turkish version of the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Correlation analyses have revealed that severity of BPF is related with adult ADHD symptoms, emotional, physical abuse and depression scores. Hierarchical regression analysis has indicated that depressive symptoms, emotional and physical abuse and the severity of ADHD symptoms are the predictors for severity of BPF. Findings of the present study suggests that clinicians must carefully evaluate these variables and the relationship between them to understand BPF and ADHD symptoms in university students better. Together with depressive symptoms, emotional and physical abuse may play a mediator role on this relationship. Further studies are needed to evaluate causal relationship between these variables in both clinical and non-clinical populations.

  18. Acute Stress Suppresses Synaptic Inhibition and Increases Anxiety via Endocannabinoid Release in the Basolateral Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Shi; Itoga, Christy A; Fisher, Marc O; Solomonow, Jonathan; Roltsch, Emily A; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Tasker, Jeffrey G

    2016-08-10

    Stress and glucocorticoids stimulate the rapid mobilization of endocannabinoids in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Cannabinoid receptors in the BLA contribute to anxiogenesis and fear-memory formation. We tested for rapid glucocorticoid-induced endocannabinoid regulation of synaptic inhibition in the rat BLA. Glucocorticoid application to amygdala slices elicited a rapid, nonreversible suppression of spontaneous, but not evoked, GABAergic synaptic currents in BLA principal neurons; the effect was also seen with a membrane-impermeant glucocorticoid, but not with intracellular glucocorticoid application, implicating a membrane-associated glucocorticoid receptor. The glucocorticoid suppression of GABA currents was not blocked by antagonists of nuclear corticosteroid receptors, or by inhibitors of gene transcription or protein synthesis, but was blocked by inhibiting postsynaptic G-protein activity, suggesting a postsynaptic nongenomic steroid signaling mechanism that stimulates the release of a retrograde messenger. The rapid glucocorticoid-induced suppression of inhibition was prevented by blocking CB1 receptors and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) synthesis, and it was mimicked and occluded by CB1 receptor agonists, indicating it was mediated by the retrograde release of the endocannabinoid 2-AG. The rapid glucocorticoid effect in BLA neurons in vitro was occluded by prior in vivo acute stress-induced, or prior in vitro glucocorticoid-induced, release of endocannabinoid. Acute stress also caused an increase in anxiety-like behavior that was attenuated by blocking CB1 receptor activation and inhibiting 2-AG synthesis in the BLA. Together, these findings suggest that acute stress causes a long-lasting suppression of synaptic inhibition in BLA neurons via a membrane glucocorticoid receptor-induced release of 2-AG at GABA synapses, which contributes to stress-induced anxiogenesis. We provide a cellular mechanism in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) for the rapid stress

  19. The Efficacy of the Training of Stress Management by Cognitive-Behavior Method on Addicts’ Anxiety of with Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Lak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive–behavioral stress management on reduction of anxiety among addicts with GAD. Method: The design of the study is experimental with pretest -posttest and control group. The population of the study was all addicts with GAD in Tehran self-referred centers that scored the most points in GAD-7 test. 24 addicts were allocated into experimental group (N=12 and control group (N=12. The cognitive-behavioral stress management was demonstrated in 10 weekly sessions on the experimental group while there was no psychological treatment for the control group. DASS-21 questionnaire and GAD-7 questionnaire were completed by both groups before and after program. The data was analyzed using covariance. Results: There were no significant differences in anxiety between two groups before intervention. Results of this study demonstrated that cognitive –behavioral stress management led to significant decrease in anxiety in experimental group. Conclusion: Regarding to effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral stress management on anxiety, it may also be used as a supplement method decreasing generalized anxiety disorder among addicts.

  20. Anxiety, stress and depression in family members of patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Marianna Sobral; Cirelli, Melissa Alves; Barros, Alba Lúcia Bottura Leite de; Lopes, Juliana de Lima

    2017-03-20

    Identifying the level of anxiety, stress and depression symptoms in family members of patients with heart failure; identifying the relationship between these feelings with sociodemographic and clinical variables. A cross-sectional study carried out with 100 family members. Depression, anxiety, and stress were evaluated by the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories and the Perceived Stress Scale - 10. The relationship between feelings and variables was performed through the t-test, Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis. Mean depression was 8.24, anxiety was 77.95, and stress was 17.43. The correlation coefficient between depression and anxiety and depression and stress was 0.53, and it was 0.66 between anxiety and stress. Females (p=0.002, p=0.031), smoking (p=0.05, p=0.011) and sedentary lifestyle (p=0.023, p=0.001) were related to anxiety and stress, respectively. Family income lower than five minimum wages (p=0.012) was related to depression, and regular/poor self-perceived health status related to the three feelings. Family members did not present high levels of these feelings. The scales were directly correlated with each one another and some variables were related to stress, anxiety and depression. Identificar o nível de ansiedade, estresse e sintomas de depressão de familiares de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca; identificar a relação entre esses sentimentos com as variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas. Estudo transversal composto por 100 familiares. A depressão, a ansiedade e o estresse foram avaliados pelos Inventários de Depressão e Ansiedade de Beck e pela Escala de Estresse Percebido ‒ 10. A relação dos sentimentos com as variáveis foi realizada pelo teste t, Mann-Whitney ou Kruskal-Wallis. A média de depressão foi de 8,24, ansiedade, 7,95 e estresse, 17,43. O coeficiente de correlação entre depressão e ansiedade e depressão e estresse foi de 0,53 e de 0,66 entre ansiedade e estresse. Sexo feminino (p=0,002; p=0,031), tabagismo (p=0

  1. Effects of Classical Background Music on Stress, Anxiety, and Knowledge of Filipino Baccalaureate Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Kevin; Macabasag, Romeo Luis A; Capili, Brylle; Castro, Timothy; Danque, Marilee; Evangelista, Hanzel; Rivero, Jenica Ana; Gonong, Michell Katrina; Diño, Michael Joseph; Cajayon, Sharon

    2017-10-28

    Previous work on the use of background music suggests conflicting results in various psychological, behavioral, and educational measures. This quasi-experiment examined the effect of integrating classical background music during a lecture on stress, anxiety, and knowledge. A total of 42 nursing students participated this study. We utilized independent sample t-test and multivariate analysis of variance to examine the effect of classical background music. Our findings suggest that the presence or absence of classical background music do not affect stress, anxiety, and knowledge scores (Λ = 0.999 F(3, 78) = 0.029, p = 0.993). We provided literature to explain the non-significant result. Although classical music failed to establish a significant influence on the dependent variables, classical background music during lecture hours can be considered a non-threatening stimulus. We recommend follow up studies regarding the role of classical background music in regulating attention control of nursing students during lecture hours.

  2. Gene × Environment Determinants of Stress- and Anxiety-Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumeet; Powers, Abigail; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J

    2016-01-01

    The burgeoning field of gene-by-environment (G×E) interactions has revealed fascinating biological insights, particularly in the realm of stress-, anxiety-, and depression-related disorders. In this review we present an integrated view of the study of G×E interactions in stress and anxiety disorders, including the evolution of genetic association studies from genetic epidemiology to contemporary large-scale genome-wide association studies and G×E studies. We convey the importance of consortia efforts and collaboration to gain the large sample sizes needed to move the field forward. Finally, we discuss several robust and well-reproduced G×E interactions and demonstrate how epidemiological identification of G×E interactions has naturally led to a plethora of basic research elucidating the mechanisms of high-impact genetic variants.

  3. The Femininity Ideology Scale (FIS): dimensions and its relationship to anxiety and feminine gender role stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Katherine; Levant, Ronald; Smalley, Bryant; Cook, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a confirmatory factor analytic investigation of the Femininity Ideology Scale (FIS) and to assess whether feminine gender role stress mediated the relationship between femininity ideology and anxiety. During the 2010-2011 academic year, a convenience sample of 606 college women were recruited from three universities and one college. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four- versus the hypothesized five-factor model, resulting in the elimination of the Dependency/Deference factor. Mediation analysis using structural equation modeling indicated no direct relationship between Femininity Ideology and Anxiety, although an indirect one was observed, mediated through Feminine Gender Role Stress. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes in contemporary notions of femininity, and the utility of using the FIS in applied therapeutic settings.

  4. Depression, anxiety and stress among patients with dialysis and the association with quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujang, Mohamad A; Musa, Ramli; Liu, Wen J; Chew, Thian F; Lim, Christopher T S; Morad, Zaki

    2015-12-01

    Studies addressing the nature of relationship between psychological symptoms and quality of life among dialysis patients in Malaysia are scarce. Hence, this study is intended to investigate the association between psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety and stress on the quality of life in dialysis patients. A cross sectional multicentre study was conducted from May to October 2012 at 15 centres that provide haemodialysis and/or peritoneal dialysis. Apart from socio-demographic profile data collection, WHOQOL-BREF and DASS21 questionnaires were administered to study subjects. All three psychological symptoms had significant impact on quality of life domains of physical health, psychological health, social impact, perceived environment and overall quality of life. These findings suggest that subjects with symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress had poorer quality of life than those without, highlighting the negative impact of psychological symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cumulative childhood interpersonal trauma is associated with reduced cortical differentiation between threat and non-threat faces in posttraumatic stress disorder adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Denise A; Bryant, Richard A; Gatt, Justine M; Harris, Anthony Wf

    2018-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and childhood trauma frequently co-occur. Both are associated with abnormal neural responses to salient emotion stimuli. As childhood trauma is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder, differentiating between their neurophysiological effects is necessary to elucidate the neural pathways by which childhood trauma exposure contributes to increased posttraumatic stress disorder risks. Face-specific N170 evoked response potentials for backward-masked (non-conscious) and conscious threat (fear, angry) and non-threat (happy) faces were measured in 77 adults (18-64 years old, 64% women, 78% right-handed) symptomatic for posttraumatic stress disorder. Differences in N170 peak amplitudes for fear-versus-happy and angry-versus-happy faces at bilateral temporo-occipital (T5, T6) sites were computed. The effect of cumulative exposure to childhood interpersonal trauma, other childhood trauma, adult trauma, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity on the N170 response was assessed using hierarchical multiple regression analyses. T5 N170 peak amplitudes for non-conscious fear-versus-happy faces were inversely related to cumulative childhood interpersonal trauma after accounting for socio-demographic, clinical symptom and other trauma factors. Posttraumatic stress disorder Avoidance was positively associated with N170 peak amplitudes for non-conscious fear-versus-happy faces, primarily due to reduced N170 responsivity to happy faces. Childhood interpersonal trauma exposure is associated with reduced discrimination between fear and happy faces, while avoidance symptom severity is associated with dampened responsivity to automatically processed happy faces in posttraumatic stress disorder adults. Results are discussed in terms of the likely contributions of impaired threat discrimination and deficient reward processing during neural processing of salient emotion stimuli, to increased risks of posttraumatic stress disorder

  6. Racial Differences in the Associations of Posttraumatic Stress and Insomnia With Body Mass Index Among Trauma-Exposed Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aaron A; Gabriele, Jeanne M

    2017-03-21

    Posttraumatic stress is associated with increased body mass index (BMI) and rates of obesity. Black adults are at greater risk for obesity, trauma exposure, development of posttraumatic stress disorder, and comorbid sleep problems compared to White adults. Accordingly, Black adults with a history of trauma exposure may be at greater risk for elevated BMI associated with posttraumatic stress and insomnia. Multiple linear regression was used to examine race as a moderator of the relationship between posttraumatic symptoms and insomnia with BMI in a sample of Black and White trauma-exposed Veterans (N = 171), controlling for age and sex. There was a significant interaction of race with PTSD (p = 0.042) and insomnia symptoms (p = 0.045) on BMI. Simple slopes showed a significant positive association of posttraumatic stress and BMI among Black (p = 0.003), but not White Veterans (p = 0.590). Similarly, insomnia was significantly associated with greater BMI for Black (p = 0.023), but not White Veterans (p = 0.496). Posttraumatic stress and insomnia may play a particularly important role in the development of weight related health problems among Black Veterans. Early identification and treatment of these symptoms may reduce the risk of obesity among this vulnerable population.

  7. ANXIETY, STRESS-RELATED FACTORS AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Mucci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension (HT is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arterial vessels is persistently elevated. Though HT initially presents itself as an asymptomatic condition, it chronically evolves into a major risk factor for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal diseases that, in turn, represent crucial causes of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. HT is a complex disorder that it is estimated to afflict more than a quarter of the world's adult population. It is classified both on the basis of its patophisyology (primary and secondary HT both on the resting blood pressure values (elevated systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure. It originates from a complicated interaction of genes and several environmental risk factors that include aging, smoking, lack of exercise, overweight and obesity, elevated salt intake, stress, depression and anxiety. Anxiety and depressive disorders are the most commonly diagnosed mental disorders, affecting millions of people each year and impairing every aspect of everyday life, both of them characterized by affective, cognitive, psychomotor and neuro-vegetative symptoms. Moreover, work-related stress has been implied as an important risk-factor for HT and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Although different authors have intensively studied and found out possible relations between HT, stress, anxiety and depression during the last decades, a full understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms has not been satisfactorily achieved, especially in young adults. The aim of this study is to investigate the contribute of anxiety and work-related stress in the development of HT in young healthcare profession students and the possible related consequences of early CVDs.

  8. [Relaxation treatments and biofeedback for anxiety and somatic stress-related disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Massimo; Valentini, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Relaxation techniques (TR) and biofeedback (BFB) are widely used in psychiatric and psychological practice for the treatment for anxiety and stress-related disorders. An examination of studies focusing on the correlates of psychophysiology of relaxation and biofeedback has been done, in addiction to controlled therapeutic studies that describes clinical aspects, efficacy and limits. There are different TR and BFB procedures, but they have the same goal and same physiological modifications, resulting in stress and anxiety reduction. There is a proven action to musculoskeletal, neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system, showing similar results. Very few data on immune changes are available. Meta-Analysis show superior efficacy to no treatment or placebo in anxiety disorders, tension headache, bruxism, temporomandibular pain syndrome, rehabilitation and prevention of ischemic heart disease. Moderate efficacy is shown for chronic low back pain, cancer-related pain, rheumatoid arthritis and gastrointestinal disorders; data for essential hypertension are controversial. Variability of techniques, procedures, sampling problems, non-systematic make definitive conclusions difficult. TR and BFB are often used in combination with cognitive-behavioral and educational techniques. The association of the active relaxation technique facilitates generalization and self-control during stress situation and outside the training session. TR and BFB are effective for anxiety and somatic stress-related disorders, associated with coping and quality of life improvement and affordable costs; they are minimally invasive but needing an active participation in the treatment process. Some limits are responders' prediction, continuity of practice and limited effectiveness for depression disorders. Finally, it is shown that they are real psychosomatic therapies that are able to produce somatic peripheral changes (neuroendocrine, neurovegetative and muscular systems) generated by the mind and

  9. Central neuropeptide Y (NPH) expression and function : role in stress, experimental anxiety, and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsell, Annika

    2000-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36 amino acid peptide abundantly expressed throughout the mammalian nervous system, has been implicated in experimental anxiety and stress related responses, feeding, and learning and memory. These functions are mediated via different receptor subtype populations (Y1-Y6), all belonging to the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. The Y1 -subtype has been shown to mediate the anxiolytic effects of NPY, while the Y2 subtype is involved in regulation o...

  10. Effect of Mindfulness Based Stress Management on Reduction of Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Asmaee Majid, S; Seghatoleslam, T; Homan, HA; Akhvast, A; Habil, H

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an eight-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program would be an acceptable and effective treatment for patients suffering from GAD. Methods: Eligible subjects with generalized anxiety disorder were recruited to Parsa Hospital and Shahid Rajaee Counseling and Social Work Center from June 2009 to October 2011. An experienced psychiatrist diagnosed these patients with a structured clinical interview for axis I disorders and a c...

  11. ASSESSING THE SLEEP QUALITY AND DEPRESSION-ANXIETY-STRESS IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Nadieh BANIASADI; Mohammad Moein DEHESH; Elham MOHEBBI; Mahdy HAYATBAKHSH ABBASI; Zohreh OGHABIAN

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders with chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habit without any organic reason. Sleep disorders may be associated to IBS. OBJECTIVE We aimed to assess sleep disturbances and depression-anxiety-stress in IBS patients. METHODS In this analytical cross sectional study from November 2013 to May 2014, A total of 123 IBS patients were recruited by simple random sampling. IBS was dia...

  12. Surgical stress induced depressive and anxiety like behavior are improved by dapsone via modulating NADPH oxidase level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Tian, Xiaosheng; Wang, Qiudian; Tong, Yawei; Wang, Hecheng; Li, Zhengqian; Li, Lunxu; Zhou, Ting; Zhan, Rui; Zhao, Lei; Sun, Yang; Fan, Dongsheng; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Jing; Jin, Yinglan; Xiao, Weizhong; Guo, Xiangyang; Chui, Dehua

    2015-01-12

    Surgical stress induced depression and anxiety like behavior are common complications among aged individuals suffering from surgery. Recent studies proposed that accumulation of oxidative stress is involved in the etiology of stress induced depression and anxiety. Dapsone possesses antioxidant properties, however, whether dapsone is effective in modulating surgical stress induced brain oxidative damage remains uncertain. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dapsone on surgical stress induced depressive and anxiety like behavior, and brain oxidative stress in a well-established surgical stress model. Depressive and anxiety like behavior accompanied by elevated brain oxidative stress were observed in aged mice underwent abdominal surgery. Pretreatment with 5 mg/kg dapsone significantly improved the behavioral disorder and ameliorated brain oxidative stress in this model. Further investigation, revealed that surgical stress increased brain NADPH oxidase level, while pretreatment with dapsone abrogated the elevation of NADPH oxidase triggered by surgical stress. These findings suggest that dapsone is effective in improving surgical stress induced brain oxidative damage via down-regulating NADPH oxidase level in aged mice. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Re-experiencing phenomena following a disaster: The long-term predictive role of intrusion symptoms in the development of post-trauma depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence-Wood, Ellie; Van Hooff, Miranda; Baur, Jenelle; McFarlane, Alexander C

    2016-01-15

    Contention in the literature regarding the diagnostic utility of intrusion symptoms highlights that they have high sensitivity but low specificity in predicting PTSD. They are highly prevalent following a range of traumatic events, and across a range of disorders. The prevalence of intrusion symptoms in the absence of PTSD suggests their relevance to the development of other psychopathology. Therefore, the predictive role of intrusion symptoms for other post-trauma psychopathology was examined using data from an epidemiological, longitudinal sample of adults recruited in childhood. From 5 phases of data collection for this sample, these analyses focused on the 20 year and 28 year follow-ups (n=583). Lifetime exposure to trauma was assessed using a modified set of 10 Criterion-A events from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), with PTSD assessed in reference to a self-nominated worst lifetime event, and other DSM-IV disorder also assessed using the CIDI. Results showed that the presence of intrusion symptoms without PTSD at the 20 year follow-up was predictive of increased risk at 28 years for depressive but not anxiety disorders. There was limited psychopathology in the sample, reducing the power to examine many individual disorders. Furthermore, trauma history and psychiatric symptoms were retrospectively reported, introducing the possibility of recall bias. Together the findings suggest that intrusion symptoms may play an aetiological role in the development and/or maintenance of disorders other than PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Transgenerational transmission of trauma in families of Holocaust survivors: the consequences of extreme family functioning on resilience, sense of coherence, anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossion, Pierre; Leys, Christophe; Vandeleur, Caroline; Kempenaers, Chantal; Braun, Stéphanie; Verbanck, Paul; Linkowski, Paul

    2015-01-15

    The psychological transmission of the noxious effects of a major trauma from one generation to the next remains unclear. The present study aims to identify possible mechanisms explaining this transmission among families of Holocaust Survivors (HS). We hypothesized that the high level of depressive and anxiety disorders (DAD) among HS impairs family systems, which results in damaging coping strategies of their children (CHS) yielding a higher level of DAD. 49 CHS completed the Resilience Scale for Adults, the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the 13-Item Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale, and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale. We test a mediation model with Family types as the predictor; coping strategies (i.e. Resilience or SOC) as the mediator; and DAD as the outcome variable. Results confirm that the CHS׳ family types are more often damaged than in general population. Moreover, growing in a damaged family seems to impede development of coping strategies and, therefore, enhances the occurrence of DAD. The present investigation is correlational and should be confirmed by other prospective investigations. At a theoretical level we propose a mechanism of transmission of the noxious effects of a major trauma from one generation to the next through family structure and coping strategies. At a clinical level, our results suggest to investigate the occurrence of trauma among parents of patients consulting for DAD and to reinforce their coping strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between chronic whiplash-associated disorder and post-traumatic stress: attachment-anxiety may be a vulnerability factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny Elmose Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In more than 90% of whiplash accidents a good explanation regarding the association between trauma mechanism, organic pathology, and persistent symptoms has failed to be provided. Objective: We predicted that the severity of chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD, measured as number of whiplash symptoms, pain duration, pain-related disability, and degree of somatisation would be associated with the number of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD. Secondly, we expected attachment-anxiety to be a vulnerability factor in relation to both PTSD and WAD. Design: Data were collected from 1,349 women and 360 men suffering from WAD from the Danish Society for Polio, Traffic, and Accident Victims. The PTSD symptoms were measured by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. All three core PTSD clusters were included: re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal. Attachment security was measured along the two dimensions, attachment-anxiety and attachment-avoidance, by the Revised Adult Attachment Scale. Results: PTSD symptoms were significantly related to the severity of WAD. In particular, the PTSD clusters of avoidance and hyperarousal were associated with the number of whiplash symptoms, disability, and somatisation. Attachment-anxiety was significantly related to PTSD symptoms and somatisation but not to pain and disability. A co-morbidity of 38.8% was found between the PTSD diagnosis and WAD, and about 20% of the sample could be characterised as securely attached. Conclusions: The PTSD clusters of avoidance and hyperarousal were significantly associated with severity of WAD. The study emphasises the importance of assessing PTSD symptomatology after whiplash injury. Furthermore, it highlights that attachment theory may facilitate the understanding of why some people are more prone to develop PTSD and WAD than others.For abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  16. Early life trauma and attachment: Immediate and enduring effects on neurobehavioral and stress axis development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millie eRincón-Cortés

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups’ sensory systems (i.e. olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory embedded in mother-infant interactions. This stimulation provides hidden regulators of pups’ behavioral, physiological and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology and increase risk for later life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant attachment relationships program later life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups’ immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning and rearing with an abusive mother, that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups’ immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver.

  17. Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and dissociative experiences during men's intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Adam D; Murphy, Christopher M

    2017-09-01

    Research with partner-violent men has found that a subset of this population reports dissociative experiences during their violence (e.g., inability to remember violence [despite admission that it had occurred]; flashbacks during violence). However, the literature examining this phenomenon has been primarily limited to clinical observations and case studies, and there is a need for more thorough empirical investigation regarding the prevalence and correlates of dissociative violence among individuals in intimate partner violence (IPV) intervention programs. The primary goals of this study were to provide descriptive information about the rates of endorsement of dissociative experiences during IPV perpetration and to examine their associations with trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 302 men presenting for services at a community-based IPV intervention program. All variables were assessed via self-report and clinician interview at program intake. Results indicated that 22.2% of participants reported 1 or more dissociative experiences during partner violence perpetration. Additionally, frequency of dissociative IPV perpetration showed significant positive correlations with the total number of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) reported and PTSD symptoms, with effect sizes in the small and medium ranges of magnitude, respectively. Finally, PTSD symptoms significantly mediated the relationship between total number of PTEs and dissociative IPV perpetration. Findings indicate a potentially meaningful relationship between trauma, PTSD symptoms, and dissociative experiences during IPV perpetration. Further qualitative and quantitative investigation is needed to better understand this phenomenon and how it can be addressed in IPV treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Treatment utilisation and trauma characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Traut

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Few empirical studies have addressed the impact of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on treatment utilisation and outcome in South African youth. This study was undertaken to document demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with PTSD. Design. A retrospective chart study of all patients presenting to a child and adolescent inpatient unit was conducted between 1994-1996. For children and adolescents diagnosed with PTSD; demographic, diagnostic and treatment variables, including trauma type, family history, and delays in treatment seeking, were documented. Setting. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatient Unit, Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town. Subjects. Children and adolescents (2 to 18 years presenting to an inpatient unit (n=737. Results. 10.3% (n=76 met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Gender differences were clearly evident: PTSD was six times more prevalent in girls (65 with PTSD were female and 11 were male; girls were most likely to have experienced rape or sexual abuse while boys were most likely to have witnessed a killing. Psychotherapy was the most common intervention for PTSD, followed by treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant. 97.4% of children and adolescents who were treated demonstrated significant improvement. Delays in seeking treatment and problems with the primary support group were highly prevalent. Conclusion. PTSD is a common disorder that is responsive to treatment with psychotherapy and/or tricyclic antidepressants in child and adolescent inpatients. These findings underscore the importance of early identification and treatment of childhood PTSD in mental health settings, in particular tertiary service institutions.

  19. Differential Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity in Depression and Anxiety During Stress Depending on Type of Stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mandy X; Lamers, Femke; de Geus, Eco J C; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2016-06-01

    It remains unclear whether depressive and anxiety disorders are associated with hyporeactivity or hyperreactivity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and whether deviant reactivity occurs in all types of stressors. This study compared ANS reactivity in people with current or remitted depression/anxiety with reactivity in healthy controls during two stress conditions. From the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, data of 804 individuals with current depression/anxiety, 913 individuals with remitted depression/anxiety, and 466 healthy controls (mean age = 44.1 years; 66.4% female) were available. Two conditions were used to evoke stress: a) an n-back task, a cognitively challenging stressor, and 2) a psychiatric interview, evoking personal-emotional stress related to the occurrence of symptoms of depression/anxiety. Indicators of ANS activity were heart rate (HR), root mean square of differences between successive interbeat intervals (RMSSD), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and preejection period. As compared with controls, participants with psychopathology had significant hyporeactivity of HR (controls = 4.1 ± 4.2 beats/min; remitted = 3.5 ± 3.5 beats/min; current psychopathology = 3.1 ± 3.4 beats/min), RMSSD (controls = -6.2 ± 14.5 milliseconds; remitted = -5.4 ± 17.8 milliseconds; current psychopathology = -3.5 ± 15.4 milliseconds), and RSA (controls = -9.3 ± 17.0 milliseconds; remitted = -7.4 ± 16.5 milliseconds; current psychopathology = -6.9 ± 15.0 milliseconds) during the n-back task. In contrast, during the psychiatric interview, they showed significant hyperreactivity of HR (controls = 2.7 ± 3.4 beats/min; remitted = 3.5 ± 3.4 beats/min; current psychopathology = 4.0 ± 3.3 beats/min), RMSSD (controls = -3.4 ± 12.2 milliseconds; remitted = -4.1 ± 12.1 milliseconds; current psychopathology = -5.6 ± 11.8 milliseconds), and RSA (controls = -3.8 ± 8.1 milliseconds; remitted = -4.3 ± 7.9 milliseconds; current psychopathology = -5.0

  20. Hair cortisol concentrations and cortisol stress reactivity predict PTSD symptom increase after trauma exposure during military deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Schönfeld, Sabine; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Trautmann, Sebastian; Alexander, Nina; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-09-01

    Previous evidence on endocrine risk markers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been inconclusive. Here, we report results of the first prospective study to investigate whether long-term hair cortisol levels and experimentally-induced cortisol stress reactivity are predictive of the development of PTSD symptomatology in response to trauma during military deployment. Male soldiers were examined before deployment to Afghanistan and at a 12-month post-deployment follow-up using dimensional measures for psychopathological symptoms. The predictive value of baseline (i) hair cortisol concentrations (HCC, N=90) and (ii) salivary cortisol stress reactivity (measured by the Trier Social Stress Test, N=80) for the development of PTSD symptomatology after being exposed to new-onset traumatic events was analyzed. Baseline cortisol activity significantly predicted PTSD symptom change from baseline to follow-up upon trauma exposure. Specifically, our results consistently revealed that lower HCC and lower cortisol stress reactivity were predictive of a greater increase in PTSD symptomatology in soldiers who had experienced new-onset traumatic events (explaining 5% and 10.3% of variance, respectively). Longitudinal analyses revealed an increase in HCC from baseline to follow-up and a trend for a negative relationship between HCC changes and the number of new-onset traumatic events. Additional pre-deployment analyses revealed that trauma history was reflected in lower HCC (at trend level) and that HCC were negatively related to stressful load. Our data indicate that attenuated cortisol secretion is a risk marker for subsequent development of PTSD symptomatology upon trauma exposure. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings in other samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Emotion regulation's relationships with depression, anxiety and stress due to imagined smartphone and social media loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhai, Jon D; Hall, Brian J; Erwin, Meredith Claycomb

    2018-03-01

    A sample of 359 students participated in a web survey, administered the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) as a pre-test. We subsequently randomly assigned subjects to either 1) a smart phone loss group or 2) social media accounts loss group. We asked them to imagine losing two days' access to the technology in their respective group, and rate associated symptoms using the DASS-21. Compared to subjects in the smartphone loss group, social media loss subjects evidenced stronger relations between suppressive emotion regulation with depression, anxiety and stress from imagined loss. Controlling for age and gender, social media loss subjects' increased use of suppression, and decreased use of cognitive reappraisal in emotion regulation, were related to depression, stress and (for suppression only) anxiety due to imagined lost social media. Emotion regulation was not related to psychopathology for subjects in the smartphone loss scenario. Results suggest that emotion dysregulation may be associated with psychopathology from social media loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Group Reality Therapy in Addicts Rehabilitation Process to Reduce Depression, Anxiety and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Massah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Substance abuse is one of the most outstanding socio-psychological hazards that can easily wreck one’s personal, family and social life. Reality Therapy is a type of Cognitive rehabilitation (known as psychosocial rehabilitation, and the application of this method in the treatment of different disorders has recently been the topic of research. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of group reality therapy on the reduction of stress, anxiety and depression in addicts. Methods: A quasi-experimental study of pretest-posttest design, with a control group was conducted. The study population consisted of all addicts attending Tehran’s ‘Neda’ Rehab Clinic. First, the DASS-21 questionnaire was administered and then 40 people were selected from those who had scored average and higher. They were then randomly assigned to two test and control groups of 20 each. Analysis of co-variance was used to analyze the data, with which pretest scores were controlled, and the effect of the independent variable on posttest scores was evaluated. Results: Following the intervention, there were significant decreases in the mean scores of all three variables, i.e. stress, anxiety and depression in the test group (P<0.05. Discussion: Psychosocial rehabilitation based on reality therapy can be considered as an effective method for reducing stress, anxiety and depression in addicts and also as an adjunctive therapy in treating other ailments.

  3. Massage and Reiki used to reduce stress and anxiety: Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonice Fumiko Sato Kurebayashi

    Full Text Available ABTRACT Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of massage and reiki in the reduction of stress and anxiety in clients at the Institute for Integrated and Oriental Therapy in Sao Paulo (Brazil. Method: clinical tests randomly done in parallel with an initial sample of 122 people divided into three groups: Massage + Rest (G1, Massage + Reiki (G2 and a Control group without intervention (G3. The Stress Systems list and the Trace State Anxiety Inventory were used to evaluate the groups at the start and after 8 sessions (1 month, during 2015. Results: there were statistical differences (p = 0.000 according to the ANOVA (Analysis of Variance for the stress amongst the groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.014 with a 33% reductions and a Cohen of 0.78. In relation to anxiety-state, there was a reduction in the intervention groups compared with the control group (p < 0.01 with a 21% reduction in group 2 (Cohen of 1.18 and a 16% reduction for group 1 (Cohen of 1.14. Conclusion: Massage + Reiki produced better results amongst the groups and the conclusion is for further studies to be done with the use of a placebo group to evaluate the impact of the technique separate from other techniques. RBR-42c8wp

  4. The Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Techniques Training on Procrastination, Stress, Anxiety and Depression of High School Female Students

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    sA hasar

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: training of cognitive-behavioral techniques reduced procrastination, anxiety and stress in experimental group in comparison with control group but it did not have meaningful effect on control group depression

  5. Prevalence of Internet Addiction and its relationship with anxiety, stress, and depression in intermediate students in Birjand city in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Turi

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated a high prevalence of internet addiction in the students and had significant relationships with anxiety, stress , and depression.This is something that necessitates . interventions aiming at preventing various harms to them.

  6. Effects of ginseng on stress-related depression, anxiety, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungyeop Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng effectively regulates the immune response and the hormonal changes due to stress, thus maintaining homeostasis. In addition to suppressing the occurrence of psychological diseases such as anxiety and depression, ginseng also prevents stress-associated physiological diseases. Recent findings have revealed that ginseng is involved in adjusting the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and controlling hormones, thus producing beneficial effects on the heart and brain, and in cases of bone diseases, as well as alleviating erectile dysfunction. Recent studies have highlighted the potential use of ginseng in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and allergic asthma. However, the mechanism underlying the effects of ginseng on these stress-related diseases has not been completely established. In this review, we focus on the disease pathways caused by stress in order to determine how ginseng acts to improve health. Central to our discussion is how this effective and stable therapeutic agent alleviates the anxiety and depression caused by stress and ameliorates inflammatory diseases.

  7. Does the stress generation hypothesis apply to eating disorders?: an examination of stress generation in eating, depressive, and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodell, Lindsay P; Hames, Jennifer L; Holm-Denoma, Jill M; Smith, April R; Gordon, Kathryn H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2012-12-15

    The stress generation hypothesis posits that individuals actively contribute to stress in their lives. Although stress generation has been studied frequently in the context of depression, few studies have examined whether this stress generation process is unique to depression or whether it occurs in other disorders. Although evidence suggests that stress contributes to the development of eating disorders, it is unclear whether eating disorders contribute to subsequent stress. A prospective design was used to examine the influence of eating disorder symptoms on negative life stressors. Two hundred and ninety female undergraduates completed questionnaires at two time points that examined eating disorder, depressive and anxiety symptoms and the presence of negative life events. Regression analyses found that while eating disorder symptoms (i.e. bulimic symptoms and drive for thinness) were independent, significant predictors of negative life events, they did not predict negative life events above and beyond symptoms of depression. Limitations include the use of self-report measures and a college-based sample, which may limit generalizability of the results. Findings suggest that if stress generation is present in individuals with symptoms of eating disorders, it is likely attributable to symptoms of depression. Thus, it may be important for clinicians to target depressive symptoms in order to reduce the frequency of negative life stressors among individuals with eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running exercise effectively prevent anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and memory impairment in restraint stressed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Lapmanee

    Full Text Available Several severe stressful situations, e.g., natural disaster, infectious disease out break, and mass casualty, are known to cause anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment, and preventive intervention for these stress complications is worth exploring. We have previously reported that the serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine, as well as voluntary wheel running are effective in the treatment of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed rats. But whether they are able to prevent deleterious consequences of restraint stress in rats, such as anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment that occur afterward, was not known. Herein, male Wistar rats were pre-treated for 4 weeks with anti-anxiety/anti-depressive drugs, agomelatine and venlafaxine, or voluntary wheel running, followed by 4 weeks of restraint-induced stress. During the stress period, rats received neither drug nor exercise intervention. Our results showed that restraint stress induced mixed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and memory impairment as determined by elevated plus-maze, elevated T-maze, open field test (OFT, forced swimming test (FST, and Morris water maze (MWM. Both pharmacological pre-treatments and running successfully prevented the anxiety-like behavior, especially learned fear, in stressed rats. MWM test suggested that agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running could prevent stress-induced memory impairment, but only pharmacological treatments led to better novel object recognition behavior and positive outcome in FST. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that venlafaxine and running exercise upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, agomelatine, venlafaxine as well as voluntary wheel running had beneficial effects, i.e., preventing the restraint stress-induced anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment.

  9. Agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running exercise effectively prevent anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and memory impairment in restraint stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapmanee, Sarawut; Charoenphandhu, Jantarima; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2017-01-01

    Several severe stressful situations, e.g., natural disaster, infectious disease out break, and mass casualty, are known to cause anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment, and preventive intervention for these stress complications is worth exploring. We have previously reported that the serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine, as well as voluntary wheel running are effective in the treatment of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed rats. But whether they are able to prevent deleterious consequences of restraint stress in rats, such as anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment that occur afterward, was not known. Herein, male Wistar rats were pre-treated for 4 weeks with anti-anxiety/anti-depressive drugs, agomelatine and venlafaxine, or voluntary wheel running, followed by 4 weeks of restraint-induced stress. During the stress period, rats received neither drug nor exercise intervention. Our results showed that restraint stress induced mixed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and memory impairment as determined by elevated plus-maze, elevated T-maze, open field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST), and Morris water maze (MWM). Both pharmacological pre-treatments and running successfully prevented the anxiety-like behavior, especially learned fear, in stressed rats. MWM test suggested that agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running could prevent stress-induced memory impairment, but only pharmacological treatments led to better novel object recognition behavior and positive outcome in FST. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that venlafaxine and running exercise upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, agomelatine, venlafaxine as well as voluntary wheel running had beneficial effects, i.e., preventing the restraint stress-induced anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment.

  10. The Impact of Trauma Exposure and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder on Healthcare Utilization Among Primary Care Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartha, Anand; Brower, Victoria; Saitz, Richard; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Keane, Terence M.; Liebschutz, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Background Trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increase healthcare utilization in veterans, but their impact on utilization in other populations is uncertain. Objectives To examine the association of trauma exposure and PTSD with healthcare utilization, in civilian primary care patients. Research Design Cross-sectional study. Subjects English speaking patients at an academic, urban primary care clinic. Measures Trauma exposure and current PTSD diagnoses were obtained from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Outcomes were nonmental health outpatient and emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and mental health outpatient visits in the prior year from an electronic medical record. Analyses included bivariate unadjusted and multivariable Poisson regressions adjusted for age, gender, income, substance dependence, depression, and comorbidities. Results Among 592 subjects, 80% had ≥1 trauma exposure and 22% had current PTSD. In adjusted regressions, subjects with trauma exposure had more mental health visits [incidence rate ratio (IRR), 3.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1–14.1] but no other increased utilization. After adjusting for PTSD, this effect of trauma exposure was attenuated (IRR, 3.2; 95% CI, 0.9–11.7). Subjects with PTSD had more hospitalizations (IRR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4–3.7), more hospital nights (IRR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4–5.0), and more mental health visits (IRR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1–4.1) but no increase in outpatient and emergency department visits. Conclusions PTSD is associated with more hospitalizations, longer hospitalizations, and greater mental healthcare utilization in urban primary care patients. Although trauma exposure is independently associated with greater mental healthcare utilization, PTSD mediates a portion of this association. PMID:18362818

  11. Psycho-Trauma, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Symptomatic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Internally Displaced Persons in Kaduna, Northwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Agunbiade, Samuel; Ike, Joseph; Ebiti, William N; Adekeye, Oluwatosin

    2014-01-01

    In April 2011, a post election violent conflict in Northern Nigeria led to resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in a camp in Kaduna, the worst affected state. We set out to determine prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among IDPs. We also determined types of psycho-trauma experienced by the IDPs and their psychosocial adjustment. Cross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 258 adults IDPs. We used Harvard trauma questionnaire to diagnose "symptomatic PTSD," composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI) for diagnosis of depression, and communal trauma event inventory to determine exposure to psycho-trauma. We assessed social adjustment using social provision scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of PTSD. Of the 258 IDPs, 109 (42.2%) had a diagnosis of PTSD, 204 (79.1%) had poor living conditions, and only 12 (4.7%) had poor social provision. The most frequent psycho-traumas were destruction of personal property (96.1%), been evacuated from their town (96%) and witnessing violence (88%). More than half (58%) of IDPs had experienced 11-15 of the 19 traumatic events. Independent predictors of PTSD among respondents were having a CIDI diagnosis of depression (adjusted odds ratios 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.7-7.5; p = 0.001) and witnessing death of a family member (3.7, 1.2-11.5; p = 0.0259). We concluded that exposure to psycho-trauma among IDPs in Kaduna led to post conflict PTSD. Death of a family member and co-morbid depression were independent predictors of PTSD among IDPs. Though their living condition was poor, the IDPs had good psychosocial adjustment. We recommended a structured psychosocial intervention among the IDP targeted at improving living condition and dealing with the psychological consequences of psycho-trauma.

  12. Environmental enrichment reduces chronic psychosocial stress-induced anxiety and ethanol-related behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine

    2017-07-03

    Previous research from our laboratory has shown that exposure to chronic psychosocial stress increased voluntary ethanol consumption and preference as well as acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. This study was done to determine whether an enriched environment could have "curative" effects on chronic psychosocial stress-induced ethanol intake and CPP. For this purpose, experimental mice "intruders" were exposed to the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) housing for 19 consecutive days in the presence of an aggressive "resident" mouse. At the end of that period, mice were tested for their anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM) test then housed in a standard or enriched environment (SE or EE respectively). Anxiety and ethanol-related behaviors were investigated using the open field (OF) test, a standard two-bottle choice drinking paradigm, and the CPP procedure. As expected, CSC exposure increased anxiety-like behavior and reduced weight gain as compared to single housed colony (SHC) controls. In addition, CSC exposure increased voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-CPP. Interestingly, we found that EE significantly and consistently reduced anxiety and ethanol consumption and preference. However, neither tastants' (saccharin and quinine) intake nor blood ethanol metabolism were affected by EE. Finally, and most importantly, EE reduced the acquisition of CPP induced by 1.5g/kg ethanol. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that EE can reduce voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned reward and seems to be one of the strategies to reduce the behavioral deficits and the risk of anxiety-induced alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Somatic syndromes, insomnia, anxiety, and stress among sleep disordered breathing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdo, Tshering; Hasaneen, Nadia; Gold, Morris S; Gold, Avram R

    2016-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of somatic syndromes, anxiety, and insomnia among sleep disordered breathing (SDB) patients is correlated with their levels of somatic arousal, the symptoms of increased sympathetic nervous system tone under conditions of stress. We administered the Body Sensation Questionnaire (BSQ; a 17-item questionnaire with increasing levels of somatic arousal scored 17-85) to 152 consecutive upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) patients and 150 consecutive obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea (OSA/H) patients. From medical records, we characterized each patient in terms of the presence of syndromes and symptoms into three categories: somatic syndromes (six syndromes), anxiety (anxiety disorders, nightmares, use of benzodiazepines), and insomnia (sleep onset, sleep maintenance, and use of hypnotics). For the pooled sample of SDB patients, we modeled the correlation of the BSQ score with the presence of each syndrome/symptom parameter within each of the three categories, with adjustment for male vs. female. Mean BSQ scores in females were significantly higher than those in males (32.5 ± 11.1 vs. 26.9 ± 8.2; mean ± SD). Increasing BSQ scores significantly correlated with increasing prevalence rates of somatic syndromes (p insomnia (p ≤ 0.0001). In general, females had higher prevalence rates of somatic syndromes and symptoms of anxiety than males at any BSQ score while rates of insomnia were similar. In patients with SDB, there is a strong association between the level of somatic arousal and the presence of stress-related disorders like somatic syndromes, anxiety, and insomnia.

  14. Ghrelin-reactive immunoglobulins and anxiety, depression and stress-induced cortisol response in adolescents. The TRAILS study

    OpenAIRE

    François, Marie; Schäfer, Johanna; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Déchelotte, Pierre; Verhulst, Frank; Fetissov, Serguei

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, has been implicated in the regulation of stress-response, anxiety and depression. Ghrelin-reactive immunoglobulins (Ig) were recently identified in healthy and obese humans showing abilities to increase ghrelin's stability and orexigenic effects. Here we studied if ghrelin-reactive Ig are associated with anxiety and depression and with the stress-induced cortisol response in a general population of adolescents. Furthermore, to test the possib...

  15. Psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: risk factors and associations with birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja Koen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal and peripartum trauma may be associated with poor maternal–fetal outcomes. However, relatively few data on these associations exist from low-middle income countries, and populations in transition. Objective: We investigated the prevalence and risk factors for maternal trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and their association with adverse birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a South African birth cohort study. Methods: Pregnant women were recruited from two clinics in a peri-urban community outside Cape Town. Trauma exposure and PTSD were assessed using diagnostic interviews; validated self-report questionnaires measured other psychosocial characteristics. Gestational age at delivery was calculated and birth outcomes were assessed by trained staff. Multiple logistic regression explored risk factors for trauma and PTSD; associations with birth outcomes were investigated using linear regression. Potential confounders included study site, socioeconomic status (SES, and depression. Results: A total of 544 mother–infant dyads were included. Lifetime trauma was reported in approximately two-thirds of mothers, with about a third exposed to past-year intimate partner violence (IPV. The prevalence of current/lifetime PTSD was 19%. In multiple logistic regression, recent life stressors were significantly associated with lifetime trauma, when controlling for SES, study site, and recent IPV. Childhood trauma and recent stressors were significantly associated with PTSD, controlling for SES and study site. While no association was observed between maternal PTSD and birth outcomes, maternal trauma was significantly associated with a 0.3 unit reduction (95% CI: 0.1; 0.5 in infant head-circumference-for-age z-scores (HCAZ scores at birth in crude analysis, which remained significant when adjusted for study site and recent stressors in a multivariate regression model. Conclusions: In this exploratory study

  16. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and dissociation between childhood trauma and two different types of psychosis-like experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the roles of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and dissociation in the relationship between childhood trauma and two different types of psychosis-like experience, including persecutory ideation and aberrant experience, in non-psychotic psychiatric patients. From August 2015 to August 2016, among psychiatric out patients seeking treatment at the Department of Psychiatry at a major teaching medical hospital in Seoul, Korea, 169 patients who had never been diagnosed with a psychotic disorder, including schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, and/or depressive disorder with psychotic features, completed the Korean Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Korean version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the modified Korean version of the Peritraumatic Dissociation Experiences Questionnaire, and the Korean Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). The RC 6 (Ideas of Persecution) and RC 8 (Aberrant Experiences) of the restructured scales of the MMPI-2 were used as a measure of persecutory ideation and aberrant experience. Structural equation modeling analyses confirmed a partial mediation model in which PTS symptoms partially mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and persecutory ideation, and dissociation partially mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and aberrant experience. This implies that there are distinct mechanisms depending on the type of psychosis-like experience in relation to childhood trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Is it Trauma- or Fantasy-based? Comparing dissociative identity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, simulators, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissia, E M; Giesen, M E; Chalavi, S; Nijenhuis, E R S; Draijer, N; Brand, B L; Reinders, A A T S

    2016-08-01

    The Trauma Model of dissociative identity disorder (DID) posits that DID is etiologically related to chronic neglect and physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood. In contrast, the Fantasy Model posits that DID can be simulated and is mediated by high suggestibility, fantasy proneness, and sociocultural influences. To date, these two models have not been jointly tested in individuals with DID in an empirical manner. This study included matched groups [patients (n = 33) and controls (n = 32)] that were compared on psychological Trauma and Fantasy measures: diagnosed genuine DID (DID-G, n = 17), DID-simulating healthy controls (DID-S, n = 16), individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, n = 16), and healthy controls (HC, n = 16). Additionally, personality-state-dependent measures were obtained for DID-G and DID-S; both neutral personality states (NPS) and trauma-related personality states (TPS) were tested. For Trauma measures, the DID-G group had the highest scores, with TPS higher than NPS, followed by the PTSD, DID-S, and HC groups. The DID-G group was not more fantasy-prone or suggestible and did not generate more false memories. Malingering measures were inconclusive. Evidence consistently supported the Trauma Model of DID and challenges the core hypothesis of the Fantasy Model. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder as a Mediator Between Trauma Exposure and Comorbid Mental Health Conditions in North Korean Refugee Youth Resettled in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeunhee J

    2016-02-01

    A structural equation model was used to investigate the relationship between trauma exposure and comorbid mental health problems and the mediation effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) between trauma and mental health variables. The research model is based on the stress-vulnerability conceptual framework in which PTSD as a comorbid disorder mediates the relationship between trauma exposure and mental health problems. A self-administered survey was administered to 144 North Korean refugee youth residing in South Korea. Trauma exposure, both interpersonal and noninterpersonal, had no direct relationship with comorbid mental health problems. However, interpersonal trauma contributed to comorbid mental health problems through PTSD, demonstrating the mediation effect of PTSD and supporting the stress-vulnerability hypothesis of the current research model. Clinical implications of the study and future direction for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. A multi-factor model of panic disorder: results of a preliminary study integrating the role of perfectionism, stress, physiological anxiety and anxiety sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Wood

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Panic disorder (PD is a highly prevalent and disabling mental health problem associated with different factors including perfectionism, stress, physiological anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity regarding physical concerns; however, no studies have analyzed the joint relationship between these factors and PD in a multi-factor model using structural equation modeling. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect data on these factors and self-reported DSM-IV past-year PD symptoms in a large sample of the general population (N=936. Results: Perceived stress had a significant effect in increasing physiological anxiety, which in turn had an important association with physical concerns. Perfectionism and perceived stress had an indirect relation with past year PD via the mediator role of physiological anxiety and physical concerns. Physical concerns, on one hand, seemed to mediate the impact between perfectionism and PD and, on the other, partially mediated the role between physiological anxiety and PD. Conclusions: Although there is considerable evidence on the association between each of these factors and PD, this model can be considered a broader and productive framework of research on the nature and treatment of PD.

  20. Survey of stress, anxiety, depression and self-concept of students of Fasa University of medical sciences, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Najafi Kalyani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Studying periods in university is very important for students. Because of the problems, this period is usually accompanied with mental status changes of students. The aim of this study was the assessment of psychological variables (stress, anxiety and depression and self-concept of students. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all the students studying at Fasa University of Medical Sciences in the academic year 89-88 were selected through census sampling method. The DASS-21 was used to assess stress, anxiety and depression of students and in order to evaluate the status of their self-concept; the Carl Rogers questionnaire was used. Data analysis was performed with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics (t test, ANOVA, Chi square and Pearson correlation. Results: The results of this study showed that 76% of students had stress, 56.4% anxiety and 53.1% depression, and 69/3% had weak or negative self-concepts. There was a statistically significant correlation between high stress, anxiety and depression with negative self-concept (P<0.001.Conclusion: High stress, anxiety and depression and also a significant correlation between increased stress, anxiety and depression with negative and weak self-concept of students were found. It is necessary to devote more careful attention to mental health issues of students and have appropriate interventions.

  1. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Baccalaureate Nursing Students in Hong Kong: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Wong, Siu Yi; Wong, Kit Yi; Law, Lap Yan; Ng, Karen; Tong, Man Tik; Wong, Ka Yu; Ng, Man Ying; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress among baccalaureate nursing students in Hong Kong. Recent epidemiological data suggest that the prevalence of mild to severe depression, anxiety and stress among qualified nurses in Hong Kong stands at 35.8%, 37.3% and 41.1%, respectively. A total of 661 nursing students were recruited to participate in our cross-sectional mental health survey using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Working in general medicine, being in financial difficulty, having sleep problems, not having leisure activity and perceiving oneself in poor mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. Year of study, physical inactivity and family crisis in the past year correlated significantly with depression. Imbalanced diets significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with a lack of alone time. This is the first study to confirm empirically that clinical specialty, financial difficulties and lifestyle factors can increase nursing students’ levels of depression and anxiety and symptoms of stress. Prevention, including the early detection and treatment of mental disorder, promises to reduce the prevalence of these indicators among this group. PMID:27527192

  2. Progress in Using Mouse Inbred Strains, Consomics, and Mutants to Identify Genes Related to Stress, Anxiety, and Alcohol Phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldowitz, Daniel [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Matthews, Douglas B. [University of Memphis; Hamre, Kristin M. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Mittleman, Guy [University of Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Becker, Howard C. [Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston; Lopez, Marcelo F. [Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston; Jones, Sara R. [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC; Mathews, Tiffany A [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC; Miles, Michael F. [Medical College of Virginia, Richmond; Kerns, Robnet [Medical College of Virginia, Richmond; Grant, Kathleen A. [Oregon Health and Science University, Portland

    2006-01-01

    ALCOHOL ABUSE AND alcoholism result from the complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Stress is a factor that is widely thought to contribute to excessive drinking and alcoholism. One consequence of stressful experiences is anxiety, and there is a rich literature on the interactions between alcohol and anxiety. Less is known about brain mechanisms at the molecular, cellular, and system levels that mediate stress effects that contribute to excessive drinking and alcoholism. In addition, it is not clear whether and/or how genetic factors that contribute to excessive drinking interact with neural stress mechanisms.

  3. Short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21: is it valid for Brazilian adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hítalo Andrade da; Passos, Muana Hiandra Pereira Dos; Oliveira, Valéria Mayaly Alves de; Palmeira, Aline Cabral; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato de

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the interday reproducibility, agreement and validity of the construct of short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 applied to adolescents. The sample consisted of adolescents of both sexes, aged between 10 and 19 years, who were recruited from schools and sports centers. The validity of the construct was performed by exploratory factor analysis, and reliability was calculated for each construct using the intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement and the minimum detectable change. The factor analysis combining the items corresponding to anxiety and stress in a single factor, and depression in a second factor, showed a better match of all 21 items, with higher factor loadings in their respective constructs. The reproducibility values for depression were intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.86, standard error of measurement with 0.80, and minimum detectable change with 2.22; and, for anxiety/stress: intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.82, standard error of measurement with 1.80, and minimum detectable change with 4.99. The short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 showed excellent values of reliability, and strong internal consistency. The two-factor model with condensation of the constructs anxiety and stress in a single factor was the most acceptable for the adolescent population. Avaliar a reprodutibilidade interdias, a concordância e a validade do construto da versão reduzida da Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 aplicada a adolescentes. A amostra foi composta por adolescentes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 10 e 19 anos, recrutados de escolas e centros esportivos. A validade de construto foi realizada por análise fatorial exploratória, e a confiabilidade foi calculada para cada construto, por meio de coeficiente de correlação intraclasse, erro padrão de medida e mudança mínima detectável. A análise fatorial combinando os itens correspondentes a ansiedade e estresse em um

  4. Is the advanced trauma life support simulation exam more stressful for the surgeon than emergency department trauma care? O stress afeta cirurgiões durante o aprendizado tanto quanto na sua carreira profissional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Quilici

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress affects surgeons both during training and during professional activity. OBJECTIVE: To compare stress levels affecting surgical residents during the simulated initial assessment and management in the Advanced Trauma Life Support practical exam vs initial assessment and management of trauma patients in the emergency room. METHOD: Eighteen surgical residents were evaluated under basal conditions, during the Advanced Trauma Life Support simulation, and during emergency room initial care. Heart rate, systolic arterial pressure, and diastolic arterial pressure were measured. The Student t test was used to test for differences between means, with statistical significance declared when P OBJETIVO: Comparar os níveis de stress que afetam os residentes de cirurgia durante a avaliação inicial simulada nos cursos Advanced Trauma Life Support versus a avaliação do trauma do paciente na sala de emergência. MÉTODO: Dezoito residentes em cirurgia foram avaliados em condições basais no curso de Advanced Trauma Life Support e na sala de emergência. Foram medidas a freqüência cardíaca, pressões arterial sistólica e diastólica. ESTATÍSTICAS: Teste t do Estudante. Significantemente p<0.05. RESULTADOS: No início da avaliação no Advanced Trauma Life Support, a freqüência cardíaca e pressão arterial sistólica foram mais altas do que (e pressão arterial diastólica foi similar a os valores basais respectivos; no começo da avaliação na sala de emergência foram observadas respostas similares. No fim da avaliação no Advanced Trauma Life Support e na sala de emergência, os valores de freqüência cardíaca, pressão arterial sistólica e pressão arterial diastólica foram maiores do que no começo, exceto que a pressão arterial diastólica não variou significantemente durante a avaliação inicial na sala de emergência. Comparando os dois procedimentos, observa-se que o Advanced Trauma Life Support produziu eleva

  5. Specificity in mediated pathways by anxiety symptoms linking adolescent stress profiles to depressive symptoms: Results of a moderated mediation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Frederick; Bizumic, Boris; Hjemdal, Odin

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the specificity in mediated pathways that separately link specific stress dimensions through anxiety to depressive symptoms and the protective utility of resilience. Thus, this study goes beyond lumping together potential mediating and moderating processes that can explain the relations between stress and (symptoms of) psychopathology and the buffering effect of resilience. Ghanaian adolescents between 13 and 17 years (female = 285; male = 244) completed the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ), Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire (SMFQ) and the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ). Independent samples t-test, multivariate analysis of covariance with follow-up tests and moderated mediation analyses were performed. Evidences were found for specificity in the associations between dimensions of adolescent stressors and depressive symptoms independent of transient anxiety. Transient anxiety partly accounted for the indirect effects of eight stress dimensions on depressive symptoms. Except stress of school attendance and school/leisure conflict, resilience moderated the indirect effects of specific stress dimensions on depressive symptoms. Results suggested differences in how Ghanaian adolescents view the various stress dimensions, and mediated pathways associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Use of cross-sectional data does not show causal process and temporal changes over time. Findings support and clarify the specificity in the interrelations and mediated pathways among dimensions of adolescent stress, transient anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Conditional process analyses shows that resilience does not only buffer direct, but also indirect psychological adversities. Interventions for good mental health may focus on low resilience subgroups in specific stress dimensions while minimizing transient anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pretreatment with curcumin attenuates anxiety while strengthens memory performance after one short stress experience in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Saida; Naqvi, Fizza; Batool, Zehra; Tabassum, Saiqa; Sadir, Sadia; Liaquat, Laraib; Naqvi, Faizan; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwer; Shakeel, Hina; Perveen, Tahira

    2015-06-01

    It is observed that memories are more strengthened in a stressful condition. Studies have also demonstrated an association between stressful events and the onset of depression and anxiety. Considering the nootropic, anxiolytic and antidepressant-like properties of curcumin in various experimental approaches, we appraised the beneficial effects of this herb on acute immobilization stress-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations. Rats in test group were administrated with curcumin (200mg/kg/day), dissolved in neutral oil, for 1 week. Both control and curcumin-treated rats were divided into unstressed and stressed groups. Rats in the stressed group were subjected to immobilization stress for 2h. After stress, the animals were subjected to behavioral tests. Immobilization stress induced an anxiogenic behavior in rats subjected to elevated plus maze test (EPM). Locomotor activity was also significantly increased following the acute immobilization stress. Pre-administration of curcumin prevented the stress-induced behavioral deficits. Highest memory performance was observed in stressed rats that were pre-treated with curcumin in Morris water maze (MWM). Brain malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were also estimated. Present study suggests a role of antioxidant enzymes in the attenuation of acute stress induced anxiety by curcumin. The findings therefore suggest that supplementation of curcumin may be beneficial in the treatment of acute stress induced anxiety and enhancement of memory function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Caffeine consumption and self-assessed stress, anxiety, and depression in secondary school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that effects of caffeine on behaviour are positive unless one is investigating sensitive groups or ingestion of large amounts. Children are a potentially sensitive subgroup, and especially so considering the high levels of caffeine currently found in energy drinks. The present study used data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate associations between caffeine (both its total consumption, and that derived separately from energy drinks, cola, tea, and coffee) and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression, in a large cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. After adjusting for additional dietary, demographic, and lifestyle covariates, positive associations between total weekly caffeine intake and anxiety and depression remained significant, and the effects differed between males and females. Initially, effects were also observed in relation to caffeine consumed specifically from coffee. However, coffee was found to be the major contributor to high overall caffeine intake, providing explanation as to why effects relating to this source were also apparent. Findings from the current study increase our knowledge regarding associations between caffeine intake and stress, anxiety, and depression in secondary school children, though the cross-sectional nature of the research made it impossible to infer causality. PMID:26508718

  8. Caffeine consumption and self-assessed stress, anxiety, and depression in secondary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Previous research suggests that effects of caffeine on behaviour are positive unless one is investigating sensitive groups or ingestion of large amounts. Children are a potentially sensitive subgroup, and especially so considering the high levels of caffeine currently found in energy drinks. The present study used data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate associations between caffeine (both its total consumption, and that derived separately from energy drinks, cola, tea, and coffee) and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression, in a large cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. After adjusting for additional dietary, demographic, and lifestyle covariates, positive associations between total weekly caffeine intake and anxiety and depression remained significant, and the effects differed between males and females. Initially, effects were also observed in relation to caffeine consumed specifically from coffee. However, coffee was found to be the major contributor to high overall caffeine intake, providing explanation as to why effects relating to