Boesch, Maria; Sefidan, Sandra; Ehlert, Ulrike; Annen, Hubert; Wyss, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew; La Marca, Roberto
A group version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-G) was introduced as a standardized, economic and efficient tool to induce a psychobiological stress response simultaneously in a group of subjects. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of the TSST-G to repeatedly induce an affective and autonomic stress response while comparing two alternative protocols for the second examination. Healthy young male recruits participated twice in the TSST-G 10 weeks apart. In the first examination, the TSST-G consisted of a combination of mental arithmetic and a fake job interview (TSST-G-1st; n=294). For the second examination, mental arithmetic was combined with either (a) a defensive speech in response to a false shoplifting accusation (TSST-G-2nd-defence; n=105), or (b) a speech on a more neutral topic selected by the investigators (TSST-G-2nd-presentation; n=100). Affect ratings and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) were determined immediately before and after the stress test, while heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured continuously. TSST-G-1st resulted in a significant increase of negative affect, HR, and sAA, and a significant decrease in positive affect and HRV. TSST-G-2nd, overall, resulted in a significant increase of HR and sAA (the latter only in response to TSST-G-2nd-defence) and a decrease in HRV, while no significant affect alterations were found. When comparing both, TSST-G-2nd-defence and -2nd-presentation, the former resulted in a stronger stress response with regard to HR and HRV. The findings reveal that the TSST-G is a useful protocol to repeatedly evoke an affective and autonomic stress response, while repetition leads to affective but not necessarily autonomic habituation. When interested in examining repeated psychosocial stress reactivity, a task that requires an ego-involving effort, such as a defensive speech, seems to be significantly superior to a task using an impersonal speech. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier
Full Text Available Psychological stress, induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, has repeatedly been shown to alter memory performance. Although factors influencing memory performance such as stimulus nature (verbal /pictorial and emotional valence have been extensively studied, results whether stress impairs or improves memory are still inconsistent. This study aimed at exploring the effect of TSST on item versus associative memory for neutral, verbal, and pictorial stimuli. 48 healthy subjects were recruited, 24 participants were randomly assigned to the TSST group and the remaining 24 participants were assigned to the control group. Stress reactivity was measured by psychological (subjective state anxiety ratings and physiological (Galvanic skin response recording measurements. Subjects performed an item-association memory task for both stimulus types (words, pictures simultaneously, before, and after the stress/non-stress manipulation. The results showed that memory recognition for pictorial stimuli was higher than for verbal stimuli. Memory for both words and pictures was impaired following TSST; while the source for this impairment was specific to associative recognition in pictures, a more general deficit was observed for verbal material, as expressed in decreased recognition for both items and associations following TSST. Response latency analysis indicated that the TSST manipulation decreased response time but at the cost of memory accuracy. We conclude that stress does not uniformly affect memory; rather it interacts with the task’s cognitive load and stimulus type. Applying the current study results to patients diagnosed with disorders associated with traumatic stress, our findings in healthy subjects under acute stress provide further support for our assertion that patients’ impaired memory originates in poor recollection processing following depletion of attentional resources.
Cárdenas Poveda, Diana Carolina; Corporación Universitaria Minuto de Dios-Uniminuto Sede Principal; Ruiz Gallo, William; Corporación Universitaria Minuto de Dios; Rodríguez-Angarita, Óscar; Corporación Universitaria Minuto de Dios; Prado-Rivera, Mayerli A.; Corporación Universitaria Minuto de Dios
The present study examines the effects of listening to music selected by participants or relaxing music chosen by researchers before modified TSST (Trier Social Stress Test) on: 1) TSST tasks, 2) TSST-induced stress responses, and 3) one attention task with both music and TSST before it. Seventy six college students were randomly assigned to one of six groups: listening to relaxing music chosen by researchers, previously selected music by students, or silence, any of them with or without TSST...
Liu, Jenny J W; Ein, Natalie; Peck, Katlyn; Huang, Vivian; Pruessner, Jens C; Vickers, Kristin
Some, but not all studies using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) have demonstrated evidence in support of sex differences in salivary cortisol. The aim of the current meta-analysis is to examine sex differences in salivary cortisol following exposure to the TSST. We further explored the effects of modifications to the TSST protocol and procedural variations as potential moderators. We searched articles published from January, 1993 to February, 2016 in MedLine, PsychINFO, and ProQuest Theses and Dissertations. This meta-analysis is based on 34 studies, with a total sample size of 1350 individuals (640 women and 710 men). Using a random effects model, we found significant heterogeneity in salivary cortisol output across sexes, such that men were observed to have higher cortisol values at peak and recovery following the TSST compared to women. Modifications to the sampling trajectory of cortisol (i.e., duration of acclimation, peak sampling time, and duration of recovery) significantly moderated the heterogeneity across both sexes. Further, there are observed sex differences at various time points of the reactive cortisol following the TSST. Lastly, current results suggest that these sex differences can be, at least in part, attributed to variations in methodological considerations across studies. Future research could advance this line of inquiry by using other methods of analyses (e.g., area under the curve; AUC), in order to better understand the effects of methodological variations and their implications for research design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fich, Lars Brorson; Jönsson, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Wallergård, Mattias; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse
Is has long been established, that views to natural scenes can a have a dampening effect on physiological stress responses. However, as people in Europe, Canada and North America today spent 50-85% of their time indoors, attention might also be paid to how the artificial man-made indoor environment influences these mechanisms. The question that this study attempts to start addressing is therefore whether certain design, characteristics of indoor spaces can make a difference to the physiological stress response as well. Using a virtual version of the Trier Social Stress Test, in which the space is computer generated and properties of the space therefore can be systematically varied, we measured saliva cortisol and heart rate variability in participants in a closed room versus a room with openings. As shown by a significant linear contrast interaction between groups and TSST conditions, participants in the closed room responded with more pronounced cortisol reactivity to stress induction, and continued to show higher levels throughout recovery, compared to participants in the open room. No differences were found regarding any part of the autonomic nervous system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The two main physiological systems involved in the regulation of the stress response are the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS. However, the interaction of these systems on the stress response remains poorly understood. To better understand the cross-regulatory effects of the different systems involved in stress regulation, we developed a new stress paradigm that keeps the activity of the HPA constant when exposing subjects to psychosocial stress. Thirty healthy male participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either a dexamethasone (DEX; n = 15 or placebo (PLC; n = 15 group. All subjects were instructed to take the Dexamethasone (2 mg or Placebo pill the night before coming to the laboratory to undergo the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST. Salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase (sAA, heart rate, blood pressure and subjective stress were assessed throughout the protocol. As expected, the DEX group presented with suppressed cortisol levels. In comparison, their heart rate was elevated by approximately ten base points compared to the PLC group, with increases throughout the protocol and during the TSST. Neither sAA, nor systolic or diastolic blood pressures showed significant group differences. Subjective stress levels significantly increased from baseline, and were found to be higher before and after the TSST after DEX compared to placebo. These results demonstrate a significant interaction between the HPA and the SNS during acute stress. The SNS activity was found to be elevated in the presence of a suppressed HPA axis, with some further effects on subjective levels of stress. The method to suppress the HPA prior to inducing stress was found to completely reliable, without any adverse side effects. Therefore, we propose this paradigm as a new method to investigate the interaction of the two major stress systems in the regulation of the stress response.
Mascret, Nicolas; Ibáñez-Gijón, Jorge; Bréjard, Vincent; Buekers, Martinus; Casanova, Rémy; Marqueste, Tanguy; Montagne, Gilles; Rao, Guillaume; Roux, Yannick; Cury, François
The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between stress and sport performance in a controlled setting. The experimental protocol used to induce stress in a basketball free throw was the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and its control condition (Placebo-TSST). Participants (n = 19), novice basketball players but trained sportspersons, were exposed to two counterbalanced conditions in a crossover design. They were equipped with sensors to measure movement execution, while salivary cortisol and psychological state were also measured. The task consisted of two sequences of 40 free throws, one before either the TSST or Placebo-TSST and one after. Physiological and psychological measures evidenced that the TSST induced significant stress responses, whereas the Placebo-TSST did not. Shooting performance remained stable after the TSST but decreased after the Placebo-TSST. We found no effect of the TSST or Placebo-TSST on movement execution. A multivariate model of free throw performance demonstrated that timing, smoothness and explosiveness of the movements are more relevant to account for beginner’s behavior than stress-related physiological and psychological states. We conclude that the TSST is a suitable protocol to induce stress responses in sport context, even though the effects on beginners’ free throw performance and execution are small and complex. PMID:27309715
Phan, Jenny M; Schneider, Ekaterina; Peres, Jeremy; Miocevic, Olga; Meyer, Vanessa; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A
Laboratory stress tasks such as the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) have provided a key piece to the puzzle for how psychosocial stress impacts the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, other stress-responsive biomarkers, and ultimately wellbeing. These tasks are thought to work through biopsychosocial processes, specifically social evaluative threat and the uncontrollability heighten situational demands. The present study integrated an experimental modification to the design of the TSST to probe whether additional social evaluative threat, via negative verbal feedback about speech performance, can further alter stress reactivity in 63 men and women. This TSST study confirmed previous findings related to stress reactivity and stress recovery but extended this literature in several ways. First, we showed that additional social evaluative threat components, mid-task following the speech portion of the TSST, were still capable of enhancing the psychosocial stressor. Second, we considered stress-reactive hormones beyond cortisol to include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone, and found these hormones were also stress-responsive, and their release was coupled with one another. Third, we explored whether gain- and loss-framing incentive instructions, meant to influence performance motivation by enhancing the personal relevance of task performance, impacted hormonal reactivity. Results showed that each hormone was stress reactive and further had different responses to the modified TSST compared to the original TSST. Beyond the utility of showing how the TSST can be modified with heightened social evaluative threat and incentive-framing instructions, this study informs about how these three stress-responsive hormones have differential responses to the demands of a challenge and a stressor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grace E Giles
Full Text Available Extensive experimental psychology research has attempted to parse the complex relationship between psychosocial stress, mood, cognitive performance, and physiological changes. To do so, it is necessary to have effective, validated methods to experimentally induce psychosocial stress. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST is the most commonly used method of experimentally inducing psychosocial stress, but it is resource intensive. Less resource intense psychosocial stress tasks include the Socially Evaluative Cold Pressor Task (SECPT and a computerized mental arithmetic task (MAT. These tasks effectively produce a physiological and psychological stress response and have the benefits of requiring fewer experimenters and affording data collection from multiple participants simultaneously. The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of these three experimental psychosocial stress induction paradigms. On each of four separate days, participants completed either a control non-stressful task or one of the three experimental stressors: the TSST, SECPT, or MAT. We measured mood, working memory performance, salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (AA, and heart rate. The TSST and SECPT exerted the most robust effects on mood and physiological measures. TSST effects were generally evident immediately post-stress as well as 10- and 20-minutes after stress cessation, whereas SECPT effects were generally limited to the duration of the stressor. The stress duration is a key determinant when planning a study that utilizes an experimental stressor, as researchers may be interested in collecting dependent measures prior to stress cessation. In this way, the TSST would allow the investigator a longer window to administer tasks of interest.
Sage E Hawn
Full Text Available Social stressors that rely on the inclusion of confederates (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST are often used in clinical laboratory research paradigms to elicit a measurable stress response in participants. Although effective, the TSST is labor intensive and may introduce error variance as a function of confederate race, gender, and/or response characteristics. The present study aimed to develop and validate an electronic version of the TSST (e-TSST. The primary aim was to compare the e-TSST to an e-neutral control condition; the exploratory aim was to compare the magnitude of stress response elicited by the e-TSST to that elicited by the traditional TSST. Forty-three healthy adults were randomized to the e-TSST or e-neutral condition. Subjective (participant-rated distress and objective (cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure indices of stress were collected prior to, and multiple times following, the stressor. Using archival data collected from 19 healthy participants exposed to the traditional TSST in a prior study, stress reactivity was compared between the electronic and traditional versions of the TSST. The e-TSST elicited significant increases in all measures of stress reactivity compared to the e-neutral condition, with the exception of heart rate (HR. Results showed that the magnitude of subjective distress, BP, and HR responses elicited by the e-TSST did not differ significantly from that elicited by the traditional TSST. The traditional TSST elicited significantly higher cortisol than the e-TSST. Although these findings provide initial support for the development of electronic versions of the TSST, further refinement of the e-TSST is warranted prior to broad adoption of this technology. A refined, reliable e-TSST could allow for increased utilization of the TSST by enhancing convenience, reducing labor costs, and limiting potential error variance introduced by human confederates.
Quas, Jodi A; Rush, Elizabeth B; Yim, Ilona S; Nikolayev, Mariya
Although a sizeable body of research has examined children's memory for stressful prior experiences, relatively few studies have experimentally manipulated stress during a to-be-remembered event to draw causal inferences about the effects of stress, especially across wide age ranges. We exposed children and adolescents to a more or a less arousing version of the Trier Social Stress Test-Modified (TSST-M), a widely used laboratory stress task. Two weeks later, we tested their memory for what happened. Interviewers behaved in a supportive or non-supportive manner. In adolescents, those who completed the high-arousal TSST-M provided fewer correct responses to recognition questions and fewer incorrect responses to misleading questions for which any answer would have been incorrect, compared to those who completed the lower-arousal TSST-M. Thus, arousal seemed to have reduced the adolescents' willingness to answer questions rather than having influenced their memory per se. In children, across TSST-M conditions, greater physiological arousal during the TSST-M predicted enhanced recall. Finally, interviewer support reduced the amount of factual information provided in free recall but increased correct responses to misleading questions. Results highlight the complex ways in which event stress and interviewer demeanour shape recounting of prior experiences across development.
Childs, Emma; Lutz, Joseph A; de Wit, Harriet
Cannabis smokers often report that they use the drug to relax or to relieve emotional stress. However, few clinical studies have shown evidence of the stress-relieving effects of cannabis or cannabinoid agonists. In this study, we sought to assess the influence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a main active ingredient of cannabis, upon emotional responses to an acute psychosocial stressor among healthy young adults. Healthy volunteers (N=42) participated in two experimental sessions, one with psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) and another with a non-stressful task, after receiving 0 (N=13), 7.5mg (N=14) or 12.5mg (N=15) oral THC. Capsules were administered under randomized, double blind conditions, 2.5h before the tasks began. We measured subjective mood and drug effects, vital signs and salivary cortisol before and at repeated times after the capsule and tasks. Subjects also appraised the tasks, before and after completion. In comparison to placebo, 7.5mg THC significantly reduced self-reported subjective distress after the TSST and attenuated post-task appraisals of the TSST as threatening and challenging. By contrast, 12.5mg THC increased negative mood overall i.e., both before and throughout the tasks, and pre-task ratings of the TSST as threatening and challenging. It also impaired TSST performance and attenuated blood pressure reactivity to the stressor. Our findings suggest that a low dose of THC produces subjective stress-relieving effects in line with those commonly reported among cannabis users, but that higher doses may non-specifically increase negative mood. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Obasi, Ezemenari M; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Cavanagh, Lucia; Ratliff, Kristen L; Pittman, Delishia M; Brooks, Jessica J
Rurally situated African Americans suffer from chronic exposure to stress that may have a deleterious effect on health outcomes. Unfortunately, research on potential mechanisms that underlie health disparities affecting the African American community has received limited focus in the scientific literature. This study investigated the relationship between perceived stress, family resources, and cortisol reactivity to acute stress. A rural sample of African American emerging adults (N = 60) completed a battery of assessments, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and provided four samples of salivary cortisol: prior to receiving TSST instructions, prior to conducting the speech task, immediately following the TSST, and 15-20 min following the TSST. As predicted, cortisol levels increased in response to a controlled laboratory inducement of acute stress. Moreover, diminished levels of family resources were associated with blunted cortisol reactivity to acute stress. Of note, higher levels of perceived stress over the past month and being male were independently associated with lower levels of cortisol at baseline. Lack of family resources had a blunting relationship on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. These findings provide biomarker support for the relationship between family resources-an indicator associated with social determinants of health-and stress physiology within a controlled laboratory experiment. Identifying mechanisms that work toward explanation of within-group differences in African American health disparities is both needed and informative for culturally informed prevention and intervention efforts.
Klopp, Christine; Garcia, Carlos; Schulman, Allan H; Ward, Christopher P; Tartar, Jaime L
Spatial learning is shown to be influenced by acute stress in both human and other animals. However, the intricacies of this relationship are unclear. Based on prior findings we hypothesized that compared to a control condition, a social stress condition would not affect spatial learning performance despite elevated biochemical markers of stress. The present study tested the effects of social stress in human males and females on a subsequent spatial learning task. Social stress induction consisted of evaluative stress (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) compared to a placebo social stress. Compared to the placebo condition, the TSST resulted in significantly elevated cortisol and alpha amylase levels at multiple time points following stress induction. In accord, cognitive appraisal measures also showed that participants in the TSST group experienced greater perceived stress compared to the placebo group. However, there were no group differences in performance on a spatial learning task. Our findings suggest that unlike physiological stress, social stress does not result in alterations in spatial learning in humans. It is possible that moderate social evaluative stress in humans works to prevent acute stress-mediated alterations in hippocampal learning processes..
Pardilla-Delgado, Enmanuelle; Alger, Sara E.; Cunningham, Tony J.; Kinealy, Brian; Payne, Jessica D.
Numerous studies have investigated how stress impacts veridical memory, but how stress influences false memory formation remains poorly understood. In order to target memory consolidation specifically, a psychosocial stress (TSST) or control manipulation was administered following encoding of 15 neutral, semantically related word lists (DRM false memory task) and memory was tested 24 h later. Stress decreased recognition of studied words, while increasing false recognition of semantically rel...
Abbott, Kayleigh A.; Shanahan, Matthew J.; Neufeld, Richard W. J.
Art making has been documented as an effective stress reduction technique. In this between-subjects experimental study, possible mechanisms of stress reduction were examined in a sample of 52 university students randomly assigned to one of four conditions generated by factorially crossing Activity Type (artistic or nonartistic) with Coping…
Full Text Available Upon perception of a stimulus as stressful, the human brain reacts with the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS, to mobilize energy resources to better cope with the stressor. Since the perception of the stressor is the initial stimulus, a synchronicity between the subjective perception of stress and the physiological stress reactivity should be expected. However, according to a recent meta-analysis, these associations are weak and inconsistent. The goal of the current study was to investigate the interaction between the SNS, HPA and subjective stress perceptions, by introducing an experimental manipulation of this interaction. For this purpose, we combined the SNS inhibitor propranolol with the Trier Social Stress Test, and measured endocrinological and psychological responses to the stressor. Thirty healthy male participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either a propranolol (PROP; n = 15 or placebo (PLC; n = 15 group. All subjects were administered 80 mg of propranolol 60 minutes prior to exposure to psychosocial stress. Salivary cortisol and alpha amylase (sAA, heart rate, blood pressure and subjective stress responses were assessed throughout the study. We observed significantly reduced sAA levels and heart rate increases in the PROP group in response to stress, with no effects of the drug on systolic or diastolic blood pressure changes. In line with previous studies, a significant increase in cortisol was seen in response to the stress exposure. Importantly, the cortisol increase was significantly higher in the PROP group. A typical increase in subjective stress could be seen in both groups, with no significant group differences emerging. Complementing previous work, this study further demonstrates a significant interaction between the HPA and the SNS during acute stress. The HPA activity was found to be elevated in the presence of a suppressed SNS in
Zandara, M; Garcia-Lluch, M; Pulopulos, M M; Hidalgo, V; Villada, C; Salvador, A
Sex is considered a moderating factor in the relationship between stress and cognitive performance. However, sex differences and the impact of cognitive stress appraisal on working memory performance have not received much attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of physiological responses (heart rate and salivary cortisol) and cognitive stress appraisal in Working Memory (WM) performance in males and females. For this purpose, we subjected a comparable number of healthy young adult males (N=37) and females (N=45) to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and we evaluated WM performance before and after the stress task. Females performed better on attention and maintenance after the TSST, but males did not. Moreover, we found that attention and maintenance performance presented a negative relationship with cortisol reactivity in females, but not in males. Nevertheless, we observed that only the females who showed a cortisol decrease after the TSST performed better after the stress task, whereas females and males who showed an increase or no change in cortisol levels, and males who showed a cortisol decrease, did not change their performance over time. In females, we also found that the global indexes of cognitive stress appraisal and cognitive threat appraisal were negatively related to attention and maintenance performance, whereas the Self-concept of Own Competence was positively related to it. However, these relationships were not found in males. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lapp, Hannah E; Ahmed, Sarah; Moore, Celia L; Hunter, Richard G
Histories of early life stress (ELS) or social discrimination can reach levels of severity characterized as toxic to mental and physical health. Such toxic social stress during development has been linked to altered acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to social stress in adulthood. However, there are important individual differences in the size and direction of these effects. We explored developmental, genetic, epigenetic, and contextual sources of individual differences in the relationship between ELS, discrimination, and adult responses to acute social stress in a standard laboratory test. Additional measures included perceived status, social support, background activity of HPA axis, and genetic variants in aspects of the stress response system. Participants (n = 90) answered questions about historical and ongoing stress, provided a DNA sample to examine genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic marks, and underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) during which three saliva samples were collected to assess HPA function. Individuals who reported high levels of childhood adversity had a blunted salivary cortisol response to the TSST. Childhood adversity, discrimination experiences, and FKBP5 genotype were found to predict pretest cortisol levels. Following up on recent observations that the glucocorticoid receptor directly interacts with the mitochondrial genome, particularly the NADH dehydrogenase 6 (MT-ND6) gene, individuals who reported high childhood adversity were also found to have higher percent methylation across six CpG sites upstream of MT-ND6. These findings suggest multiple contributions across psychological, genetic, epigenetic, and social domains to vulnerability and resilience in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation. Further study to examine how these multiple contributors affect developmental endpoints through integrated or independent pathways will be of use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fechir, M; Schlereth, T; Purat, T; Kritzmann, S; Geber, C; Eberle, T; Gamer, M; Birklein, F
Stress tasks are used to induce sympathetic nervous system (SNS) arousal. However, the efficacy and the patterns of SNS activation have not been systematically compared between different tasks. Therefore, we analyzed SNS activation during the following stress tasks: Presentation of negative, positive, and – as a control – neutral affective pictures, Color-Word interference test (CWT), mental arithmetic under time limit, singing a song aloud, and giving a spontaneous talk. We examined 11 healthy subjects and recorded the following SNS parameters: Activation of emotional sweating by quantitative sudometry, skin vasoconstriction by laser-Doppler flowmetry, heart rate by ECG, blood pressure by determination of pulse wave transit time (PWTT), and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trapezius muscle. Moreover, subjective stress ratings were acquired for each task using a visual analog scale. All tasks were felt significantly stressful when compared to viewing neutral pictures. However, SNS activation was not reliable: Affective pictures did not induce a significant SNS response; singing, giving a talk and mental arithmetic selectively increased heart rate and emotional sweating. Only the CWT globally activated the SNS. Regarding all tasks, induction of emotional sweating, increase of heart rate and blood pressure significantly correlated with subjective stress ratings, in contrast to EMG and skin vasoconstriction. Our results show that the activation of the SNS widely varies depending on the stress task. Different stress tasks differently activate the SNS, which is an important finding when considering sympathetic reactions - in clinical situations and in research. PMID:19018304
Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Lindsay, Emily K; Brown, Kirk Warren
To test whether a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention buffers self-reported psychological and neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in young adult volunteers. A second objective evaluates whether pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness moderate the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on stress reactivity. Sixty-six (N=66) participants were randomly assigned to either a brief 3-day (25-min per day) mindfulness meditation training or an analytic cognitive training control program. All participants completed a standardized laboratory social-evaluative stress challenge task (the TSST) following the third mindfulness meditation or cognitive training session. Measures of psychological (stress perceptions) and biological (salivary cortisol, blood pressure) stress reactivity were collected during the social evaluative stress-challenge session. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduced self-reported psychological stress reactivity but increased salivary cortisol reactivity to the TSST, relative to the cognitive training comparison program. Participants who were low in pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness and then received mindfulness meditation training had the greatest cortisol reactivity to the TSST. No significant main or interactive effects were observed for systolic or diastolic blood pressure reactivity to the TSST. The present study provides an initial indication that brief mindfulness meditation training buffers self-reported psychological stress reactivity, but also increases cortisol reactivity to social evaluative stress. This pattern may indicate that initially brief mindfulness meditation training fosters greater active coping efforts, resulting in reduced psychological stress appraisals and greater cortisol reactivity during social evaluative stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia
Several studies have shown that acute stress affects working memory (WM) in young adults, but the effect in older people is understudied. As observed in other types of memory, older people may be less sensitive to acute effects of stress on WM. We performed two independent studies with healthy older men and women (from 55 to 77 years old) to investigate the effects of acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and cortisol on WM. In study 1 (n = 63), after the TSST women (but not men) improved their performance on Digit Span Forward (a measure of the memory span component of WM) but not on Digit Span Backward (a measure of both memory span and the executive component of WM). Furthermore, in women, cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing showed a positive association with the memory span component of WM before and after the TSST, and with the executive component of WM only before the stress task. In study 2 (n = 76), although participants showed a cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) response to the TSST, stress did not affect performance on Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS; a task that places a high demand on the executive component of WM). Cortisol and sAA were not associated with WM. The results indicate that circulating cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing, and not the stress response, affect memory span in older women, and that stress and the increase in cortisol levels after stress do not affect the executive component of WM in older men and women. This study provides further evidence that older people may be less sensitive to stress and stress-induced cortisol response effects on memory processes.
Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E; Okerstrom, Katrina L; Bowles Edwards, Angela; Tranel, Daniel
Acute psychological stress affects each of us in our daily lives and is increasingly a topic of discussion for its role in mental illness, aging, cognition, and overall health. A better understanding of how such stress affects the body and mind could contribute to the development of more effective clinical interventions and prevention practices. Over the past 3 decades, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) has been widely used to induce acute stress in a laboratory setting based on the principles of social evaluative threat, namely, a judged speech-making task. A comparable alternative task may expand options for examining acute stress in a controlled laboratory setting. This study uses a within-subjects design to examine healthy adult participants' (n = 20 men, n = 20 women) subjective stress and salivary cortisol responses to the standard TSST (involving public speaking and math) and the newly created Iowa Singing Social Stress Test (I-SSST). The I-SSST is similar to the TSST but with a new twist: public singing. Results indicated that men and women reported similarly high levels of subjective stress in response to both tasks. However, men and women demonstrated different cortisol responses; men showed a robust response to both tasks, and women displayed a lesser response. These findings are in line with previous literature and further underscore the importance of examining possible sex differences throughout various phases of research, including design, analysis, and interpretation of results. Furthermore, this nascent examination of the I-SSST suggests a possible alternative for inducing stress in the laboratory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Diego O Andrey
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen manifesting virulence through diverse disease forms, ranging from acute skin infections to life-threatening bacteremia or systemic toxic shock syndromes. In the latter case, the prototypical superantigen is TSST-1 (Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1, encoded by tst(H, and carried on a mobile genetic element that is not present in all S. aureus strains. Transcriptional regulation of tst is only partially understood. In this study, we dissected the role of sarA, sarS (sarH1, RNAIII, rot, and the alternative stress sigma factor sigB (σB. By examining tst promoter regulation predominantly in the context of its native sequence within the SaPI1 pathogenicity island of strain RN4282, we discovered that σB emerged as a particularly important tst regulator. We did not detect a consensus σB site within the tst promoter, and thus the effect of σB is likely indirect. We found that σB strongly repressed the expression of the toxin via at least two distinct regulatory pathways dependent upon sarA and agr. Furthermore rot, a member of SarA family, was shown to repress tst expression when overexpressed, although its deletion had no consistent measurable effect. We could not find any detectable effect of sarS, either by deletion or overexpression, suggesting that this regulator plays a minimal role in TSST-1 expression except when combined with disruption of sarA. Collectively, our results extend our understanding of complex multifactorial regulation of tst, revealing several layers of negative regulation. In addition to environmental stimuli thought to impact TSST-1 production, these findings support a model whereby sporadic mutation in a few key negative regulators can profoundly affect and enhance TSST-1 expression.
Full Text Available Physical activity has long been considered beneficial to health and regular exercise is purported to relieve stress. However empirical evidence demonstrating these effects is limited. In this study, we compared psychophysiological responses to an acute psychosocial stressor between individuals who did, or did not, report regular physical exercise. Healthy men and women (N=111 participated in two experimental sessions, one with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST and one with a non-stressful control task. We measured heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol and self-reported mood before and at repeated times after the tasks.Individuals who reported physical exercise at least once per week exhibited lower heart rate at rest than non-exercisers, but the groups did not differ in their cardiovascular responses to the TSST. Level of habitual exercise did not influence self-reported mood before the tasks, but non-exercisers reported a greater decline in positive affect after the TSST in comparison to exercisers. These findings provide modest support for claims that regular exercise protects against the negative emotional consequences of stress, and suggest that exercise has beneficial effects in healthy individuals. These findings are limited by their correlational nature, and future prospective controlled studies on the effects of regular exercise on response to acute stress are needed.
Gieseke, Heiner Alexander
In dieser Studie führten 37 adulte Patienten mit einer Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung (ADHS) ein Delay Discounting (DD) - Paradigma aus, während gleichzeitig mittels Funktioneller-Nahinfrarotspektroskopie (fNIRS) die Gehirnaktivität der „Regions of Interest“ (ROIs) des Orbitofrontalen-Kortex (OFC) und des Dorsolateralen-Präfrontalen-Kortex (dlPFC) gemessen wurde. Mittels Fragebögen und eines Delay Discounting Tasks (DDT) wurden zusätzlich Verhaltensparameter erhoben und flosse...
Jong, Trynke R de; Menon, Rohit; Bludau, Anna; Grund, Thomas; Biermeier, Verena; Klampfl, Stefanie M; Jurek, Benjamin; Bosch, Oliver J; Hellhammer, Juliane; Neumann, Inga D
Intranasal oxytocin (OXT) application is emerging as a potential treatment for socio-emotional disorders associated with abnormalities in OXT system (re-) activity. The crucial identification of patients with such abnormalities could be streamlined by the assessment of basal and stimulus-induced OXT concentrations in saliva, using a simple, stress-free sampling procedure (i.e. an OXT challenge test). We therefore established the Regensburg Oxytocin Challenge (ROC) test to further validate salivary OXT concentrations as a practical, reliable and sensitive biomarker. OXT concentrations were quantified by radioimmunoassay in samples collected at home by healthy adult male and female volunteers before and after running ("Run") or sexual self-stimulation ("Sex"). In lactating women, salivary OXT concentrations were quantified before, during and after breastfeeding. Salivary OXT along with salivary cortisol and heart rate were monitored in healthy adult participants undergoing the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The home-based "Run" and "Sex" challenges as well as the laboratory-based TSST caused quantifiable, rapid, and consistent increases in salivary OXT (approximately 2.5-fold after 10-15min), which were similar for men and women. Breastfeeding did not result in measurably increased salivary OXT levels, probably because the short pulses of OXT release characteristic for lactation were missed. Taken together, ROC tests reliably assess the responsiveness of the OXT system (i.e., the increase in salivary OXT concentrations as compared to basal levels) to challenges such as "Run" and "Sex" at home or psychosocial stress (TSST) in the laboratory. Further studies with larger sample numbers are essentially needed in order to reveal individual differences in ROC test outcomes depending on, for example, genetic or environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ruiz Gallo, William; Rodríguez-Angarita, Óscar G; Prado-Rivera, Mayerli A; Cárdenas-Poveda, D. Carolina
El presente estudio evaluó si la escucha de música preferida por los participantes o la música relajante elegida por los investigadores previa al protocolo de estrés social modificado TSST (Trier Social Stress Test) afectaba el desempeño de las actividades realizadas durante el propio test, modulaba la respuesta de estrés que este induce, y en conjunto con el estresor, afectaba el desempeño en una tarea de atención en setenta y seis estudiantes universitarios asignados a uno de seis grupos: m...
Pabst, Stephan; Brand, Matthias; Wolf, Oliver T
Recent studies have shown that acute stress can lead to riskier decision making. Yet, the underlying mechanisms of the stress effects on decisions under risk remain poorly understood. To gain a better understanding of decision-making processes and potential strategy application under stress, we investigated decision making in pure gain and loss domains with unequal expected values (EVs) across alternatives. We conducted an experimental study with a 2 × 2 design (stress vs. no stress and gain domain vs. loss domain). The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was utilized to induce acute stress. Controls performed the placebo-TSST (p-TSST). To validate the stress response we measured salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase concentrations. We used a modified version of the Game of Dice Task (GDT) to assess decision-making performance in a gain and a loss domain. Results showed that non-stressed participants made less risky decisions in the gain domain compared to those of the loss domain. This behavior is in accordance with previous studies and indicates the stability of the framing effect in even more complex tasks with changing EVs across alternatives. Stress did not alter risk taking behavior in the gain domain. Yet, in the loss domain stressed participants made less risky decisions compared to controls. Additionally, the data support earlier findings of longer reaction times in loss compared to gain domains due to higher cognitive effort for loss-framed decisions. It is discussed that stress may lead to reduced amygdala activation, which has been found to reduce riskier decisions in a loss domain. With respect to earlier results of riskier decisions in tasks that unite both gain and loss domains, it is discussed whether stress leads to a stronger evaluation of high gains and a neglect of losses.
Morris, Drew M; Pilcher, June J; Powell, Robert B
This study seeks to understand the degree of body cooling, cold perception and physical discomfort during Antarctic tour excursions. Eight experienced expedition leaders across three Antarctic cruise voyages were monitored during occupational tasks: kayaking, snorkelling and zodiac outings. Subjective cold perception and discomfort were recorded using a thermal comfort assessment and skin temperature was recorded using a portable data logger. Indoor cabin temperature and outdoor temperature with wind velocity were used as measures of environmental stress. Physical activity level and clothing insulation were estimated using previous literature. Tour leaders experienced a 6°C (2°C wind chill) environment for an average of 6 hours each day. Leaders involved in kayaking reported feeling colder and more uncomfortable than other leaders, but zodiac leaders showed greater skin temperature cooling. Occupational experience did not predict body cooling or cold stress perception. These findings indicate that occupational cold stress varies by activity and measurement methodology. The current study effectively used objective and subjective measures of cold-stress to identify factors which can contribute to risk in the Antarctic tourism industry. Results suggest that the type of activity may moderate risk of hypothermia, but not discomfort, potentially putting individuals at risk for cognitive related mistakes and cold injuries.
Full Text Available Objective. Stress-reducing therapies help maintain cognitive performance during stress. Aromatherapy is popular for stress reduction, but its effectiveness and mechanism are unclear. This study examined stress-reducing effects of aromatherapy on cognitive function using the go/no-go (GNG task performance and event related potentials (ERP components sensitive to stress. The study also assessed the importance of expectancy in aromatherapy actions. Methods. 81 adults were randomized to 3 aroma groups (active experimental, detectable, and undetectable placebo and 2 prime subgroups (prime suggesting stress-reducing aroma effects or no-prime. GNG performance, ERPs, subjective expected aroma effects, and stress ratings were assessed at baseline and poststress. Results. No specific aroma effects on stress or cognition were observed. However, regardless of experienced aroma, people receiving a prime displayed faster poststress median reaction times than those receiving no prime. A significant interaction for N200 amplitude indicated divergent ERP patterns between baseline and poststress for go and no-go stimuli depending on the prime subgroup. Furthermore, trends for beneficial prime effects were shown on poststress no-go N200/P300 latencies and N200 amplitude. Conclusion. While there were no aroma-specific effects on stress or cognition, these results highlight the role of expectancy for poststress response inhibition and attention.
Chamine, Irina; Oken, Barry S.
Objective. Stress-reducing therapies help maintain cognitive performance during stress. Aromatherapy is popular for stress reduction, but its effectiveness and mechanism are unclear. This study examined stress-reducing effects of aromatherapy on cognitive function using the go/no-go (GNG) task performance and event related potentials (ERP) components sensitive to stress. The study also assessed the importance of expectancy in aromatherapy actions. Methods. 81 adults were randomized to 3 aroma groups (active experimental, detectable, and undetectable placebo) and 2 prime subgroups (prime suggesting stress-reducing aroma effects or no-prime). GNG performance, ERPs, subjective expected aroma effects, and stress ratings were assessed at baseline and poststress. Results. No specific aroma effects on stress or cognition were observed. However, regardless of experienced aroma, people receiving a prime displayed faster poststress median reaction times than those receiving no prime. A significant interaction for N200 amplitude indicated divergent ERP patterns between baseline and poststress for go and no-go stimuli depending on the prime subgroup. Furthermore, trends for beneficial prime effects were shown on poststress no-go N200/P300 latencies and N200 amplitude. Conclusion. While there were no aroma-specific effects on stress or cognition, these results highlight the role of expectancy for poststress response inhibition and attention. PMID:25802539
Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, Andre; Luo, Yuejia
The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular
Arch, Joanna J; Landy, Lauren N; Brown, Kirk Warren
Arch et al. (2014) demonstrated that brief self-compassion meditation training (SCT) dampened sympathetic (salivary alpha-amylase) and subjective anxiety responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), relative to attention and no-instruction control conditions. The present study examined baseline predictors and moderators of these SCT intervention effects. Baseline characteristics included two stress vulnerability traits (social anxiety and rumination) and two potential resiliency traits (non-attachment and self-compassion). We investigated how these traits moderated the effects of SCT on response to the TSST, relative to the control conditions. We also tested how these individual differences predicted TSST responses across conditions in order to uncover characteristics that confer increased vulnerability and resiliency to social stressors. Trait non-attachment, rumination (for sympathetic TSST response only), and social anxiety (for subjective TSST response only) interacted with training condition to moderate TSST responses such that following SCT, lower attachment and lower social anxiety predicted lower TSST stress responses, relative to those scoring higher on these traits. In contrast, trait self-compassion neither moderated nor predicted responses to the TSST. Thus, although SCT had robust effects on buffering stress across individuals with varying levels of trait self-compassion, other psychological traits enhanced or dampened the effect of SCT on TSST responses. These findings support the importance of examining the role of relevant baseline psychological traits to predict sympathetic and subjective responses to social evaluative threat, particularly in the context of resiliency training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute stress on parallel task performance with the Game of Dice Task (GDT) to measure decision making and the Stroop test. Two previous studies have found that the combination of stress and a parallel task with the GDT and an executive functions task preserved performance on the GDT for a stress group compared to a control group. The purpose of this study was to create and use a new parallel task with the GDT and the stroop test to elu...
Kirkland, Scott W; Smith, Lori K; Metz, Gerlinde A
One reason for the difficulty to develop effective therapies for stroke is that intrinsic factors, such as stress, may critically influence pathological mechanisms and recovery. In cognitive tasks, stress can both exaggerate and alleviate functional loss after focal ischemia in rodents. Using a comprehensive motor assessment in rats, this study examined if chronic stress and corticosterone treatment affect skill recovery and compensation in a task-specific manner. Groups of rats received daily restraint stress or oral corticosterone supplementation for two weeks prior to a focal motor cortex lesion. After lesion, stress and corticosterone treatments continued for three weeks. Motor performance was assessed in two skilled reaching tasks, skilled walking, forelimb inhibition, forelimb asymmetry and open field behavior. The results revealed that persistent stress and elevated corticosterone levels mainly limit motor recovery. Treated animals dropped larger amounts of food in successful reaches and showed exaggerated loss of forelimb inhibition early after lesion. Stress also caused a moderate, but non-significant increase in infarct size. By contrast, stress and corticosterone treatments promoted reaching success and other quantitative measures in the tray reaching task. Comparative analysis revealed that improvements are due to task-specific development of compensatory strategies. These findings suggest that stress and stress hormones may partially facilitate task-specific and adaptive compensatory movement strategies. The observations support the notion that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation may be a key determinant of recovery and motor system plasticity after ischemic stroke.
Kim, Yujin; Woo, Jihwan; Woo, Minjung
This study investigated interactive effects of stress and task difficulty on working memory and cortico-cortical communication during memory encoding. Thirty-eight adolescent participants (mean age of 15.7 ± 1.5 years) completed easy and hard working memory tasks under low- and high-stress conditions. We analyzed the accuracy and reaction time (RT) of working memory performance and inter- and intrahemispheric electroencephalogram coherences during memory encoding. Working memory accuracy was higher, and RT shorter, in the easy versus the hard task. RT was shorter under the high-stress (TENS) versus low-stress (no-TENS) condition, while there was no difference in memory accuracy between the two stress conditions. For electroencephalogram coherence, we found higher interhemispheric coherence in all bands but only at frontal electrode sites in the easy versus the hard task. On the other hand, intrahemispheric coherence was higher in the left hemisphere in the easy (versus hard task) and higher in the right hemisphere (with one exception) in the hard (versus easy task). Inter- and intracoherences were higher in the low- versus high-stress condition. Significant interactions between task difficulty and stress condition were observed in coherences of the beta frequency band. The difference in coherence between low- and high-stress conditions was greater in the hard compared with the easy task, with lower coherence under the high-stress condition relative to the low-stress condition. Stress seemed to cause a decrease in cortical network communications between memory-relevant cortical areas as task difficulty increased.
Carpenter, Linda L; Shattuck, Thaddeus T; Tyrka, Audrey R; Geracioti, Thomas D; Price, Lawrence H
Abuse and neglect are highly prevalent in children and have enduring neurobiological effects. Stressful early life environments perturb the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which in turn may predispose to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. However, studies of childhood maltreatment and adult HPA function have not yet rigorously investigated the differential effects of maltreatment subtypes, including physical abuse. In this study, we sought to replicate our previous finding that childhood maltreatment was associated with attenuated cortisol responses to stress and determine whether the type of maltreatment was a determinant of the stress response. Salivary cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was examined in a non-clinical sample of women (n = 110). Subjects had no acute medical problems and were not seeking psychiatric treatment. Effects of five maltreatment types, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, on cortisol response to the TSST were investigated. To further examine the significant (p < 0.005) effect of one maltreatment type, women with childhood physical abuse (PA) (n = 20) were compared to those without past PA (n = 90). Women reporting childhood PA displayed a significantly blunted cortisol response to the TSST compared with subjects without PA, after controlling for estrogen use, age, other forms of maltreatment, and other potential confounds. There were no differences between PA and control groups with regard to physiological arousal during the stress challenge. In a non-clinical sample of women with minimal or no current psychopathology, physical abuse is associated with a blunted cortisol response to a psychosocial stress task.
Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Almela, Mercedes; Espín, Laura; Gómez-Amor, Jesús; Salvador, Alicia
Social stress affects cognitive processes in general, and memory performance in particular. However, the direction of these effects has not been clearly established, as it depends on several factors. Our aim was to determine the impact of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity to psychosocial stress on short-term non-declarative memory and declarative memory performance. Fifty-two young participants (18 men, 34 women) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. Implicit memory was assessed by a priming test, and explicit memory was assessed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The TSST provoked greater salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) responses than the control task. Men had a higher cortisol response to stress than women, but no sex differences were found for sAA release. Stress was associated with an enhancement of priming but did not affect declarative memory. Additionally, the enhancement on the priming test was higher in those whose sAA levels increased more in response to stress (r(48) = 0.339, p = 0.018). Our results confirm an effect of acute stress on priming, and that this effect is related to SNS activity. In addition, they suggest a different relationship between stress biomarkers and the different memory systems.
Full Text Available The scientific literature has suggested that stress undergirds the development of eating disorders (ED. Therefore, this study explored whether laboratory induced stress increases self-reported drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms measured via self-report. The relationship between control, perfectionism, stress, and cognition related to ED was examined using correlational methodology. 86 participants completed an experimental task using a personal computer. All individuals completed a battery of tests before and after the stressful task. Analyses showed a significant statistical increase in average scores on the drive for thinness and bulimia measured before and after a stressful task, and path analysis revealed two different cognitive models for the mechanism leading to drive for thinness and bulimia. These findings suggest that stress is an important factor in the development of the drive for thinness and bulimia.
Main, Luana C; Wolkow, Alexander; Chambers, Timothy P
The aim of this study was to quantify the stress associated with performing maritime pilotage tasks in a high-fidelity simulator. Eight trainee and 13 maritime pilots completed two simulated pilotage tasks of varying complexity. Salivary cortisol samples were collected pre- and post-simulation for both trials. Heart rate was measured continuously throughout the study. Significant changes in salivary cortisol (P = 0.000, η = 0.139), average (P = 0.006, η = 0.087), and peak heart rate (P = 0.013, η = 0.077) from pre- to postsimulation were found. Varying task complexity did partially influence stress response; average (P = 0.016, η = 0.026) and peak heart rate (P = 0.034, η = 0.020) were higher in the experimental condition. Trainees also recorded higher average (P = 0.000, η = 0.054) and peak heart rates (P = 0.027, η = 0.022). Performing simulated pilotage tasks evoked a measurable stress response in both trainee and expert maritime pilots.
Allen, Andrew P; Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard
Validated biological and psychological markers of acute stress in humans are an important tool in translational research. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), involving public interview and mental arithmetic performance, is among the most popular methods of inducing acute stress in experimental settings, and reliably increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. However, although much research has focused on HPA axis activity, the TSST also affects the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, the immune system, cardiovascular outputs, gastric function and cognition. We critically assess the utility of different biological and psychological markers, with guidance for future research, and discuss factors which can moderate TSST effects. We outline the effects of the TSST in stress-related disorders, and if these responses can be abrogated by pharmacological and psychological treatments. Modified TSST protocols are discussed, and the TSST is compared to alternative methods of inducing acute stress. Our analysis suggests that multiple readouts are necessary to derive maximum information; this strategy will enhance our understanding of the psychobiology of stress and provide the means to assess novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that acute stress can lead to riskier decision making. Yet, the underlying mechanisms of the stress effects on decisions under risk remain poorly understood. To gain a better understanding of decision-making processes and potential strategy application under stress, we investigated decision making in pure gain and loss domains with unequal expected values across alternatives. We conducted an experimental study with a 2 × 2 design (stress vs. no stress and gain domain vs. loss domain. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST was utilized to induce acute stress. Controls performed the placebo-TSST. To validate the stress response we measured salivary cortisol and alpha amylase concentrations. We used a modified version of the Game of Dice Task (GDT to assess decision-making performance in a gain and a loss domain. Results showed that non-stressed participants of the gain domain decided less risky compared to those of the loss domain. This behavior is in accordance with previous studies and indicates the stability of the framing effect in even more complex tasks with changing expected values across alternatives. Stress did not alter risk taking behavior in the gain domain. Yet, in the loss domain stressed participants decided less risky compared to controls. Additionally, the data support earlier findings of longer reaction times in loss compared to gain domains due to higher cognitive effort for loss-framed decisions. It is discussed that stress may lead to reduced amygdala activation, which has been found to reduce riskier decisions in a loss domain. With respect to earlier results of riskier decisions in tasks that unite both gain and loss domains, it is discussed whether stress leads to a stronger evaluation of high gains and a neglect of losses.
Kathleen J. Garrison
Full Text Available Patients treated for methamphetamine (MA dependence have a high rate of relapse, and stress is thought to play a key role. We sought to develop a computerized procedure for experimentally inducing stress in MA users. In a within-subjects design, we compared a computerized subtraction stress task (SST to personalized stress-imagery scripts and a control condition (neutral imagery in 9 former MA users, recruited in San Francisco in 2006–2007. We assessed blood hormone levels, anxiety and craving for MA on visual analog scales, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and made linear mixed-effects models to analyze the results. Both the SST and stress scripts were effective in inducing self-report markers of stress in MA users. Because the SST is easily reproducible and requires less time of staff and participants, it may be a useful alternative for measuring stress reactivity in drug users.
Natasha E. Wade, M.S.
Full Text Available Background: Scant research has been conducted on neural mechanisms underlying stress processing in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD. We examined neural substrates of stress in AD individuals compared with controls using an fMRI task previously shown to induce stress, assessing amygdala functional connectivity to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Materials and methods: For this novel pilot study, 10 abstinent AD individuals and 11 controls completed a modified Trier stress task while undergoing fMRI acquisition. The amygdala was used as a seed region for whole-brain seed-based functional connectivity analysis. Results: After controlling for family-wise error (p = 0.05, there was significantly decreased left and right amygdala connectivity with frontal (specifically mPFC, temporal, parietal, and cerebellar regions. Subjective stress, but not craving, increased from pre-to post-task. Conclusions: This study demonstrated decreased connectivity between the amygdala and regions important for stress and emotional processing in long-term abstinent individuals with AD. These results suggest aberrant stress processing in individuals with AD even after lengthy periods of abstinence. Keywords: Alcohol dependence, fMRI, Stress task, Functional connectivity, Amygdala
Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Lindholm, Harri; Hirvonen, Ari
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the preschool activities challenge the stress regulative system in children. We used a multi-system approach to evaluate the underlying processes of stress responses and measured both cortisol and [alpha]-amylase responses after emotionally and cognitively challenging tasks followed by a recovery…
be benchmarked for validity and reliability. The State-Trait Anxiety Index (or STAI; Spielberger and Sydeman, 1994) is a popular self-report...and human performance. In J.E. Driskell & E. Salas (Eds.), Stress and Human Performance Spielberger , C.D. and Sydeman, S.J. (1994). State-Trait
Starcke, Katrin; Brand, Matthias; Kluge, Annette
The current study examines the effects of acutely induced laboratory stress on a complex decision-making task, the Waste Water Treatment Simulation. Participants are instructed to follow a certain decision rule according to safety guidelines. Violations of this rule are associated with potential high rewards (working faster and earning more money) but also with the risk of a catastrophe (an explosion). Stress was induced with the Trier Social Stress Test while control participants underwent a non-stress condition. In the simulation task, stressed females broke the safety rule more often than unstressed females: χ(2) (1, N=24)=10.36, pbreak the safety rule because stressed female participants focused on the potential high gains while they neglected the risk of potential negative consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sassaroli, Sandra; Fiore, Francesca; Mezzaluna, Clarice; Ruggiero, Giovanni Maria
The scientific literature has suggested that stress undergirds the development of eating disorders (ED). Therefore, this study explored whether laboratory induced stress increases self-reported drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms measured via self-report. The relationship between control, perfectionism, stress, and cognition related to ED was examined using correlational methodology. Eighty-six participants completed an experimental task using a personal computer (PC). All individuals com...
Conelea, Christine A; Woods, Douglas W; Brandt, Bryan C
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics. Tic fluctuations are common and thought to be attributable in part, to contextual variables. Stress is one such variable, but its effects and mechanism of action are poorly understood. The current study measured the effects of a stress induction task on tic frequencies during periods of suppression and non-suppression of tics. Ten youth with TS between the ages of 9 and 17 were exposed to four conditions in random sequence: free-to-tic baseline (BL), reinforced tic suppression (SUP), reinforced tic suppression plus a stress induction task (SUP + STRESS), and a stress induction task alone (STRESS). Tic frequencies did not differ during STRESS and BL. Tic frequencies were greater in SUP + STRESS than SUP. Stress may impact tics through disrupting suppression efforts. Clinically, results suggest that interventions designed to improve tic inhibition in the presence of acute stressors may be beneficial. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shin, Yun Kyoung; Cho, Yang Seok; Lien, Mei-Ching; Proctor, Robert W
It has been argued that the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect is eliminated with two ideomotor compatible tasks when instructions stress fast and simultaneous responding. Three experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. In all experiments, Task 1 required spatially compatible manual responses (left or right) to the direction of an arrow, and Task 2 required saying the name of the auditory letter A or B. In Experiments 1 and 3, the manual responses were keypresses made with the left and right hands, whereas in Experiment 2 they were left-right toggle-switch movements made with the dominant hand. Instructions that stressed response speed reduced reaction time and increased error rate compared to standard instructions to respond fast and accurately, but did not eliminate the PRP effect on Task 2 reaction time. These results imply that, even when response speed is emphasized, ideomotor compatible tasks do not bypass response selection.
Alkjaer, Tine; Pilegaard, Marianne; Bakke, Merete
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of age on performance, muscle activation, and perceived stress during computer tasks with different levels of mental demand. METHODS: Fifteen young and thirteen elderly women performed two computer tasks [color word test and reference task] with different...... levels of mental demand but similar physical demands. The performance (clicking frequency, percentage of correct answers, and response time for correct answers) and electromyography from the forearm, shoulder, and neck muscles were recorded. Visual analogue scales were used to measure the participants......' perception of the stress and difficulty related to the tasks. RESULTS: Performance decreased significantly in both groups during the color word test in comparison with performance on the reference task. However, the performance reduction was more pronounced in the elderly group than in the young group...
Zwissler, Bastian; Koessler, Susanne; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred; Kissler, Johanna
It has been shown that stress affects episodic memory in general, but knowledge about stress effects on memory control processes such as directed forgetting is sparse. Whereas in previous studies item-method directed forgetting was found to be altered in post-traumatic stress disorder patients and abolished for highly arousing negative pictorial stimuli in students, no study so far has investigated the effects of experimentally induced psycho-social stress on this task or examined the role of positive picture stimuli. In the present study, 41 participants performed an item-method directed forgetting experiment while being exposed either to a psychosocial laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), or a cognitively challenging but non-stressful control condition. Neutral and positive pictures were presented as stimuli. As predicted, salivary cortisol level as a biological marker of the human stress response increased only in the TSST group. Still, both groups showed directed forgetting. However, emotional content of the employed stimuli affected memory control: Directed forgetting was intact for neutral pictures whereas it was attenuated for positive ones. This attenuation was primarily due to selective rehearsal improving discrimination accuracy for neutral, but not positive, to-be-remembered items. Results suggest that acute experimentally induced stress does not alter item-method directed forgetting while emotional stimulus content does. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Popek, V; Hönig, K
Relatives are the primary and existential resource of cancer patients, while at the same time experiencing substantial distress themselves. This article presents a description of tasks, roles and distress factors, the prevalence of psychosocial distress, description of risk factors in families contributing to dysfunctional coping, options and empirical evidence for the efficacy of psychosocial support. Evaluation of registry data, analysis of case reports, discussion of basic research findings, meta-analyses and expert judgments. Psychosocial distress in relatives of cancer patients is comparable to the degree of distress experienced by the patients and is sometimes even higher. Distress in relatives is still underrecognized, underreported and undertreated. Hostile interaction patterns, low emotional expression and high conflict tendencies impair coping with cancer and its treatment. Psychosocial support for the family of cancer patients improves coping behavior and the quality of life both in relatives and patients. Professional and lay caregivers need to adopt a social perspective on cancer whereby participation and inclusion of relatives in the treatment, acknowledgment of their engagement and recognition of their distress is beneficial for both patients and their relatives. Screening for psychosocial distress in relatives is recommended, attention should be drawn to psychosocial support services and utilization should be encouraged.
Wade, Natasha E; Padula, Claudia B; Anthenelli, Robert M; Nelson, Erik; Eliassen, James; Lisdahl, Krista M
Scant research has been conducted on neural mechanisms underlying stress processing in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD). We examined neural substrates of stress in AD individuals compared with controls using an fMRI task previously shown to induce stress, assessing amygdala functional connectivity to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). For this novel pilot study, 10 abstinent AD individuals and 11 controls completed a modified Trier stress task while undergoing fMRI acquisition. The amygdala was used as a seed region for whole-brain seed-based functional connectivity analysis. After controlling for family-wise error (p = 0.05), there was significantly decreased left and right amygdala connectivity with frontal (specifically mPFC), temporal, parietal, and cerebellar regions. Subjective stress, but not craving, increased from pre-to post-task. This study demonstrated decreased connectivity between the amygdala and regions important for stress and emotional processing in long-term abstinent individuals with AD. These results suggest aberrant stress processing in individuals with AD even after lengthy periods of abstinence.
Herten, Nadja; Otto, Tobias; Wolf, Oliver T
In a stressful situation, attention is shifted to potentially relevant stimuli. Recent studies from our laboratory revealed that participants stressed perform superior in a recognition task involving objects of the stressful episode. In order to characterize the role of a stress induced alteration in visual exploration, the present study investigated whether participants experiencing a laboratory social stress situation differ in their fixation from participants of a control group. Further, we aimed at shedding light on the relation of fixation behaviour with obtained memory measures. We randomly assigned 32 male and 31 female participants to a control or a stress condition consisting of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a public speaking paradigm causing social evaluative threat. In an established 'friendly' control condition (f-TSST) participants talk to a friendly committee. During both conditions, the committee members used ten office items (central objects) while another ten objects were present without being used (peripheral objects). Participants wore eye tracking glasses recording their fixations. On the next day, participants performed free recall and recognition tasks involving the objects present the day before. Stressed participants showed enhanced memory for central objects, accompanied by longer fixation times and larger fixation amounts on these objects. Contrasting this, fixation towards the committee faces showed the reversed pattern; here, control participants exhibited longer fixations. Fixation indices and memory measures were, however, not correlated with each other. Psychosocial stress is associated with altered fixation behaviour. Longer fixation on objects related to the stressful situation may reflect enhanced encoding, whereas diminished face fixation suggests gaze avoidance of aversive, socially threatening stimuli. Modified visual exploration should be considered in future stress research, in particular when focussing on memory for a
Nonfoux, Louis; Chiaruzzi, Myriam; Badiou, Cédric; Baude, Jessica; Tristan, Anne; Thioulouse, Jean; Muller, Daniel; Prigent Combaret, Claire; Lina, Gérard
Fifteen currently marketed intravaginal protection products (11 types of tampon and four menstrual cups) were tested by the modified tampon sac method to determine their effect on Staphylococcus aureus growth and toxic shock toxin 1 (TSST-1) production. Most tampons reduced S. aureus growth and TSST-1 production, with differences based on brand and composition, and S. aureus growth was higher in de-structured than in unaltered tampons. We observed higher S. aureus growth and toxin production in menstrual cups than in tampons, potentially due to the additional air introduced to the bag by cups, with differences based on cup composition and size. Importance Menstrual toxic shock syndrome is a rare but severe disease. It occurs in healthy women vaginally colonized by Staphylococcus aureus producing toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 using intravaginal protection such as tampons or menstrual cups. Intravaginal protection induces TSS production by collecting catamenial products which act as a growth medium for S. aureus Previous studies have evaluated the impact of tampon composition on S. aureus producing toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, but they are not recent and did not include menstrual cups. This study demonstrates that highly reproducible results for S. aureus growth and TSST-1 production can be obtained using a simple protocol that reproduces the physiological conditions of tampon and cup usage as closely as possible, providing recommendations for tampon or cup use to both manufacturers and consumers. Notably, our results do not show that menstrual cups are safer than tampons and suggest that they require similar precautions. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.
In nonregular forms of employment, such as fixed-term or temporary agency work, 2 sources of stress must be distinguished: task-related stress components (e.g., time pressure) and employment-related stress components (e.g., effort to maintain employment). The present study investigated the relationship between task- and employment-related demands and resources and indicators of strain, well-being, work engagement, and self-rated performance in a sample of nonregular employed workers. Using a 2-wave longitudinal design, the results of autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation models demonstrated that time pressure, as a task-related demand, is positively related to strain and negatively related to well-being and self-rated performance. Autonomy, as a task-related resource, exhibited no significant relationships in the current study. Employment-related demands exhibited negative relationships with well-being and work engagement as well as negative and positive relationships with self-rated performance over time. Employment-related resources were primarily positive predictors of well-being and self-rated performance. Fit indices of comparative models indicated that reciprocal effect models (which enable causal and reverse effects) best fit the data. Accordingly, demands and resources predicted strain, well-being, work engagement, and self-rated performance over time and vice versa. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Atchley, Rachel; Ellingson, Roger; Klee, Daniel; Memmott, Tabatha; Oken, Barry
In this experiment, we developed and evaluated the Portland Arithmetic Stress Task (PAST) as a cognitive stressor to evaluate acute and sustained stress reactivity for event-related potential (ERP) studies. The PAST is a titrated arithmetic task adapted from the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with added experimental control over presentation parameters, improved and synchronized acoustic feedback and generation of timing markers needed for physiological analyzes of real-time brain activity. Thirty-one older adults (M = 60 years) completed the PAST. EEG was recorded to assess feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the magnitude of the stress response through autonomic nervous system activity and salivary cortisol. Physiological measures other than EEG included heart rate, respiration rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure and salivary cortisol. These measures were collected at several time points throughout the task. Feedback-related negativity evoked-potential responses were elicited and they significantly differed depending on whether positive or negative feedback was received. The PAST also increased systolic blood pressure, heart rate variability and respiration rates compared to a control condition attentional task. These preliminary results suggest that the PAST is an effective cognitive stressor. Successful measurement of the feedback-related negativity suggests that the PAST is conducive to EEG and time-sensitive ERP experiments. Moreover, the physiological findings support the PAST as a potent method for inducing stress in older adult participants. Further research is needed to confirm these results, but the PAST shows promise as a tool for cognitive stress induction for time-locked event-related potential experiments.
Full Text Available What do I expect when stating that I am going to be a teacher? Social roles, including professional roles, often become part of people’s identity and thus, of the self. As people typically strive for maintaining a positive sense of self, threats to one’s role identity are likely to induce stress. In line with these considerations, Semmer et al. recently (e.g., 2007, 2015 introduced illegitimate tasks as a new concept of stressors. Illegitimate tasks, which are defined as unnecessary or unreasonable tasks, threaten the self because they signal a lack of appreciation regarding one’s professional role. Teacher training is a phase of role transition in which the occurrence of illegitimate tasks becomes likely. A holistic understanding of these tasks, however, has been missing up to now. Is there already a professional role identity during teacher training that is vulnerable to threats like the illegitimacy of tasks? What are typical illegitimate tasks in the context of teacher training? In order to close this research gap, 39 situations taken from 16 interviews with teaching trainees were analyzed in the present study on the basis of qualitative content analysis. Seminars and standing in to hold lessons for other teachers were identified as most prevalent illegitimate tasks. More specifically, unnecessary tasks could be classified as sub challenging, inefficient and lacking in organization (e.g., writing reports about workshops no one will ever read. Unreasonable tasks appeared overextending, fell outside responsibility, and lacked supervisory support. Training interventions focusing upon task design and supervisory behavior are suggested for improvement.
Faupel, Stefanie; Otto, Kathleen; Krug, Henning; Kottwitz, Maria U
What do I expect when stating that "I am going to be a teacher"? Social roles, including professional roles, often become part of people's identity and thus, of the self. As people typically strive for maintaining a positive sense of self, threats to one's role identity are likely to induce stress. In line with these considerations, Semmer et al. recently (e.g., Semmer et al., 2007, 2015) introduced "illegitimate tasks" as a new concept of stressors. Illegitimate tasks, which are defined as unnecessary or unreasonable tasks, threaten the self because they signal a lack of appreciation regarding one's professional role. Teacher training is a phase of role transition in which the occurrence of illegitimate tasks becomes likely. A holistic understanding of these tasks, however, has been missing up to now. Is there already a professional role identity during teacher training that is vulnerable to threats like the illegitimacy of tasks? What are typical illegitimate tasks in the context of teacher training? In order to close this research gap, 39 situations taken from 16 interviews with teaching trainees were analyzed in the present study on the basis of qualitative content analysis. Seminars and standing in to hold lessons for other teachers were identified as most prevalent illegitimate tasks. More specifically, unnecessary tasks could be classified as sub challenging, inefficient and lacking in organization (e.g., writing reports about workshops no one will ever read). Unreasonable tasks appeared overextending, fell outside responsibility, and lacked supervisory support. Training interventions focusing upon task design and supervisory behavior are suggested for improvement.
Moretta, Tania; Buodo, Giulia
The link between autonomic stress reactivity and subjective urge/craving has been less systematically examined in behavioral addictions (i.e. problematic Internet use) than in substance use disorders. The present study investigated whether problematic Internet users (PU) show enhanced autonomic stress reactivity than non-PU, indexed by lower Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and higher Skin Conductance Level (SCL) reactivity during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), whether greater reactivity is related to stronger Internet craving, and whether problematic Internet usage is associated with some dysfunctional psychological features. Based on their Internet Addiction Test scores, participants were divided into PU (N = 24) and non-PU (N = 21). Their heart rate and skin conductance were continuously recorded during baseline, social stressors, and recovery. Craving for Internet usage were collected using a Likert scale before and after the TSST. The SDNN, an overall measure of HRV, was significantly lower in PU than non-PU during baseline, but not during and after stressful task. Furthermore, only among PU a significant negative correlation emerged between SDNN during recovery and craving ratings after the test. No group differences emerged for SCL. Lastly, PU endorsed more mood, obsessive-compulsive, and alcohol-related problems. Our findings suggest that problems in controlling one's use of the Internet may be related to reduced autonomic balance at rest. Moreover, our results provide new insights into the characterization of craving in PIU, indicating the existence of a relationship between craving for Internet usage and reduced autonomic flexibility.
Full Text Available Stress can impact multiple psychological and physiological human domains. In order to better understand the effect of stress on cognitive performance, and whether this effect is related to an autonomic response to stress, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST was used as a testing platform along with a 2-Choice Reaction Time Task. When considering the nature and importance of Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs work and the fact that they are subjected to high levels of stress, this study was conducted with a sample of ATCs (n = 11. Linear Heart Rate Variability (HRV features were extracted from ATCs electrocardiogram (ECG acquired using a medical-grade wearable ECG device (Vital Jacket® (1-Lead, Biodevices S.A, Matosinhos, Portugal. Visual Analogue Scales (VAS were also used to measure perceived stress. TSST produced statistically significant changes in some HRV parameters (Average of normal-to-normal intervals (AVNN, Standard Deviation of all NN (SDNN, root mean square of differences between successive rhythm-to-rhythm (RR intervals (RMSSD, pNN20, and LF/HF and subjective measures of stress, which recovered after the stress task. Although these short-term changes in HRV showed a tendency to normalize, an impairment on cognitive performance was evident. Despite that participant’s reaction times were lower, the accuracy significantly decreased, presenting more errors after performing the acute stress event. Results can also point to the importance of the development of quantified occupational health (qOHealth devices to allow for the monitoring of stress responses.
Domes, G; Heinrichs, M; Reichwald, U; Hautzinger, M
According to recent studies, elevated cortisol levels are associated with impaired declarative memory performance. This specific effect of cortisol has been shown in several studies using pharmacological doses of cortisol. The present study was designed to determine the effects of endogenously stimulated cortisol secretion on memory performance in healthy middle-aged women. For psychological stress challenging, we employed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Subjects were assigned to either the TSST or a non-stressful control condition. Declarative and non-declarative memory performance was measured by a combined priming-free-recall-task. No significant group differences were found for memory performance. Post hoc analyses of variance indicated that regardless of experimental condition the subjects with remarkably high cortisol increase in response to the experimental procedure (high responders) showed increased memory performance in the declarative task compared to subjects with low cortisol response (low responders). The results suggest that stress-induced cortisol failed to impair memory performance. The results are discussed with respect to gender-specific effects and modulatory effects of the sympathetic nervous system and psychological variables. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Greene, Runyu L; Azari, David P; Hu, Yu Hen; Radwin, Robert G
Patterns of physical stress exposure are often difficult to measure, and the metrics of variation and techniques for identifying them is underdeveloped in the practice of occupational ergonomics. Computer vision has previously been used for evaluating repetitive motion tasks for hand activity level (HAL) utilizing conventional 2D videos. The approach was made practical by relaxing the need for high precision, and by adopting a semi-automatic approach for measuring spatiotemporal characteristics of the repetitive task. In this paper, a new method for visualizing task factors, using this computer vision approach, is demonstrated. After videos are made, the analyst selects a region of interest on the hand to track and the hand location and its associated kinematics are measured for every frame. The visualization method spatially deconstructs and displays the frequency, speed and duty cycle components of tasks that are part of the threshold limit value for hand activity for the purpose of identifying patterns of exposure associated with the specific job factors, as well as for suggesting task improvements. The localized variables are plotted as a heat map superimposed over the video, and displayed in the context of the task being performed. Based on the intensity of the specific variables used to calculate HAL, we can determine which task factors most contribute to HAL, and readily identify those work elements in the task that contribute more to increased risk for an injury. Work simulations and actual industrial examples are described. This method should help practitioners more readily measure and interpret temporal exposure patterns and identify potential task improvements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Meir Drexler, Shira; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Wolf, Oliver T
In extinction learning, the individual learns that a previously acquired association (e.g. between a threat and its predictor) is no longer valid. This learning is the principle underlying many cognitive-behavioral psychotherapeutic treatments, e.g. 'exposure therapy'. However, extinction is often highly-context dependent, leading to renewal (relapse of extinguished conditioned response following context change). We have previously shown that post-extinction stress leads to a more context-dependent extinction memory in a predictive learning task. Yet as stress prior to learning can impair the integration of contextual cues, here we aim to create a more generalized extinction memory by inducing stress prior to extinction. Forty-nine men and women learned the associations between stimuli and outcomes in a predictive learning task (day 1), extinguished them shortly after an exposure to a stress/control condition (day 2), and were tested for renewal (day 3). No group differences were seen in acquisition and extinction learning, and a renewal effect was present in both groups. However, the groups differed in the strength and context-dependency of the extinction memory. Compared to the control group, the stress group showed an overall reduced recovery of responding to the extinguished stimuli, in particular in the acquisition context. These results, together with our previous findings, demonstrate that the effects of stress exposure on extinction memory depend on its timing. While post-extinction stress makes the memory more context-bound, pre-extinction stress strengthens its consolidation for the acquisition context as well, making it potentially more resistant to relapse. These results have implications for the use of glucocorticoids as extinction-enhancers in exposure therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vinkers, Christiaan H; Penning, Renske; Hellhammer, Juliane; Verster, Joris C; Klaessens, John H G M; Olivier, Berend; Kalkman, Cor J
Even though there are indications that stress influences body temperature in humans, no study has systematically investigated the effects of stress on core and peripheral body temperature. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on body temperature using different readout measurements. In two independent studies, male and female participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a non-stressful control task. Core temperature (intestinal and temporal artery) and peripheral temperature (facial and body skin temperature) were measured. Compared to the control condition, stress exposure decreased intestinal temperature but did not affect temporal artery temperature. Stress exposure resulted in changes in skin temperature that followed a gradient-like pattern, with decreases at distal skin locations such as the fingertip and finger base and unchanged skin temperature at proximal regions such as the infra-clavicular area. Stress-induced effects on facial temperature displayed a sex-specific pattern, with decreased nasal skin temperature in females and increased cheek temperature in males. In conclusion, the amplitude and direction of stress-induced temperature changes depend on the site of temperature measurement in humans. This precludes a direct translation of the preclinical stress-induced hyperthermia paradigm, in which core temperature uniformly rises in response to stress to the human situation. Nevertheless, the effects of stress result in consistent temperature changes. Therefore, the present study supports the inclusion of body temperature as a physiological readout parameter of stress in future studies.
Korn, J.; Kleinman, D. L.
Air-to-air tracking experiments were conducted at the Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories using both fixed and moving base dynamic environment simulators. The obtained data, which includes longitudinal error of a simulated air-to-air tracking task as well as other auxiliary variables, was analyzed using an ensemble averaging method. In conjunction with these experiments, the optimal control model is applied to model a human operator under high-G stress.
Bielecki, Maksymilian; Popiel, Agnieszka; Zawadzki, Bogdan; Sedek, Grzegorz
Emotional Stroop task (EST) has been extensively used to investigate attentional processes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Even though aging significantly changes the dynamics of emotion-cognition interactions, very little is known about its role in shaping EST performance in PTSD patients. In the present study we tested a uniquely large sample of motor vehicle accident victims. Data of 194 participants (75.3% female; mean age = 36.64 years, SD = 12.3) were included in the analysis, ...
Lim, Yee Mei; Ayesh, Aladdin, 1972-; Stacey, Martin; Tan, Li Peng
Over the past decades, research in e-learning has begun to take emotions into account, which is also known as affective learning. It advocates an education system that is sentient of learner's cognitive and affective states, as learners' performance could be affected by emotional factors. This exploratory research examines the impacts of task demand and external stimuli on learner's stress perception and job performance. Experiments are conducted on 160 undergraduate students from a higher le...
Maniaci, G; Goudriaan, A E; Cannizzaro, C; van Holst, R J
Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on cortisol and on cardiac interbeat intervals in relation to impulsivity, in a sample of male pathological gamblers compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the TSST, duration of the disorder and impulsivity. A total of 35 pathological gamblers and 30 healthy controls, ranging from 19 to 58 years old and all male, participated in this study. Stress response was measured during and after the TSST by salivary cortisol and cardiac interbeat intervals; impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Exposure to the TSST produced a significant increase in salivary cortisol and interbeat intervals in both groups, without differences between groups. We found a negative correlation between baseline cortisol and duration of pathological gambling indicating that the longer the duration of the disorder the lower the baseline cortisol levels. Additionally, we found a main effect of impulsivity across groups on interbeat interval during the TSST, indicating an association between impulsivity and the intensity of the neurovegetative stress response during the TSST. Involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pathological gambling was confirmed together with evidence of a correlation between length of the disorder and diminished baseline cortisol levels. Impulsivity emerged as a personality trait expressed by pathological gamblers; however the neurovegetative response to the TSST, although associated with impulsivity, appeared to be independent of the presence of pathological gambling.
Mehta, Ranjana K; Rhee, Joohyun
Stress due to cognitive demands and fatigue have shown to impair motor performance in older adults; however, the effect of social stress and its influence on prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning in older adults during upper extremity motor performance tasks is not known. The present study explored the after-effects of an acute social stress bout on neural strategies, measured using PFC and hand/arm muscle activation, and adopted by younger and older adults to maintain handgrip force control. Nine older [74.1 (6.5) years; three men, six women] and ten younger [24.2 (5.0) years, four men, six women] adults performed handgrip force control trials at 30% maximum voluntary contractions before and after the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). PFC activity was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy and muscle activity from the flexor and extensor carpi radialis (FCR/ECR) was measured using electromyography. In general, aging was associated with decreased force steadiness and force complexity with a concomitant increase in bilateral PFC activity. While motor performance remained comparable before and after the TSST stress session in both age groups, the associated neural strategies differed between groups. While the stress condition was associated with lower FCR and ECR activity in younger adults despite no change in the PFC activation, stress was associated with increases in FCR activity in older adults. This stress-related compensatory neural strategy of increasing hand/arm muscle activation, potentially via the additional recruitment of the stress-motor neural circuitry, may have played a role in maintaining motor performance in older adults.
Agustian, Desberini Enestha
Nowadays, employee often face Stress and Task Conflicts, because there will always be people or things that make them uncomfortable; and it includes people with different opinion whether it as at home or workplace. The researcher did this research in PT. Bank Negara Indonesia (BNI Bank) Persero Tbk. Manado. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of Stress and Task Conflicts on Employee Performance. In this research the researcher uses Associative method with Multiple Regression An...
Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Pulopulos, Matias M; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia
Some personality traits have key importance for health because they can affect the maintenance and evolution of different disorders with a high prevalence in older people, including stress pathologies and diseases. In this study we investigated how two relevant personality traits, optimism and pessimism, affect the psychophysiological response of 72 healthy participants (55 to 76 years old) exposed to either a psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a control task; salivary cortisol, heart rate (HR) and situational appraisal were measured. Our results showed that optimism was related to faster cortisol recovery after exposure to stress. Pessimism was not related to the physiological stress response, but it was associated with the perception of the stress task as more difficult. Thus, higher optimism was associated with better physiological adjustment to a stressful situation, while higher pessimism was associated with worse psychological adjustment to stress. These results highlight different patterns of relationships, with optimism playing a more important role in the physiological component of the stress response, and pessimism having a greater effect on situational appraisal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Up to 90% of children with special education needs and about 40% of children in the general population show insecure or disorganized attachment patterns, which are linked to a diminished ability to use social support by others for the regulation of stress. The aim of the study was to investigate if children with insecure-avoidant/disorganized attachment can profit more from social support by a dog compared to a friendly human during a stressful task. We investigated 47 male children (age 7-11 with insecure-avoidant or disorganized attachment. Social stress was elicited via the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C. For one group of children a friendly therapy-dog (N=24 was present, for one control group a friendly human (N=10 and for the other control group a toy dog (N=13. Stress levels were measured via salivary cortisol before, during, and after the TSST-C and subjective reports. The physiological stress response was significantly lower in the dog condition in comparison to the two other support conditions. Cortisol levels correlated negatively with the amount of physical contact between child and dog. We conclude that male children with insecure-avoidant or disorganized attachment profit more from the presence of a therapy-dog than of a friendly human under social stress. Our findings support the assumption that the increasing practice of animal-assisted education is reasonable and that dogs can be helpful assistants in education/special education, since stress interferes with learning and performance in students.
Bernard, Kristin; Dozier, Mary
Cortisol is a hormone involved in mounting a stress response in humans. The evidence of stress reactivity among young children has been mixed, however. In the present study, the order of two laboratory tasks (i.e., Strange Situation and play) was counterbalanced, and home saliva samples were obtained. Saliva samples were also collected upon the…
de Veld, Danielle M J; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina
Knowledge about children's stress reactivity and its correlates is mostly based on one stress task, making it hard to assess the generalizability of the results. The development of an additional stress paradigm for children, that also limits stress exposure and test time, could greatly advance this field of research. Research in adults may provide a starting point for the development of such an additional stress paradigm, as changes in salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) over a 1-h pre-stress period in the laboratory correlated strongly with subsequent reactivity to stress task (Balodis et al., 2010, Psychoneuroendocrinology 35:1363-73). The present study examined whether such strong correlations could be replicated in 9- to 11-year-old children. Cortisol and sAA samples were collected from 158 children (83 girls) during a 2.5-h visit to the laboratory. This visit included a 1-h pre-stress period in which children performed some non-stressful tasks and relaxed before taking part in a psychosocial stress task (TSST-C). A higher cortisol arrival index was significantly and weakly correlated with a higher AUCg but unrelated to cortisol reactivity to the stressor. A higher sAA arrival index was significantly and moderately related to lower stress reactivity and to a lower AUCi. Children's personality and emotion regulation variables were unrelated to the cortisol and sAA arrival indices. The results of this study do not provide a basis for the development of an additional stress paradigm for children. Further replications in children and adults are needed to clarify the potential meaning of an arrival index.
Devilbiss, David M.; Jenison, Rick L.; Berridge, Craig W.
Stress, pervasive in society, contributes to over half of all work place accidents a year and over time can contribute to a variety of psychiatric disorders including depression, schizophrenia, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Stress impairs higher cognitive processes, dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and that involve maintenance and integration of information over extended periods, including working memory and attention. Substantial evidence has demonstrated a relationship between patterns of PFC neuron spiking activity (action-potential discharge) and components of delayed-response tasks used to probe PFC-dependent cognitive function in rats and monkeys. During delay periods of these tasks, persistent spiking activity is posited to be essential for the maintenance of information for working memory and attention. However, the degree to which stress-induced impairment in PFC-dependent cognition involves changes in task-related spiking rates or the ability for PFC neurons to retain information over time remains unknown. In the current study, spiking activity was recorded from the medial PFC of rats performing a delayed-response task of working memory during acute noise stress (93 db). Spike history-predicted discharge (SHPD) for PFC neurons was quantified as a measure of the degree to which ongoing neuronal discharge can be predicted by past spiking activity and reflects the degree to which past information is retained by these neurons over time. We found that PFC neuron discharge is predicted by their past spiking patterns for nearly one second. Acute stress impaired SHPD, selectively during delay intervals of the task, and simultaneously impaired task performance. Despite the reduction in delay-related SHPD, stress increased delay-related spiking rates. These findings suggest that neural codes utilizing SHPD within PFC networks likely reflects an additional important neurophysiological mechanism for maintenance of past information over time. Stress
Tell, Dina; Mathews, Herbert L; Burr, Robert L; Witek Janusek, Linda
Childhood adversity has long-lasting neuro-biological effects that can manifest as exaggerated stress responsivity to environmental challenge. These manifestations include a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis as well as increased levels of inflammatory mediators in response to stress. In this investigation, vagal parasympathetic activity was assessed for its capacity to moderate the relationship between childhood adversity and stress responsivity (cortisol and inflammation) during an acute laboratory challenge (Trier Social Stress Test-TSST). Thirty women recently diagnosed with breast cancer underwent the TSST during which their heart rate was recorded and saliva samples collected for measurement of cortisol and the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-6. Vagal activity during the TSST was calculated as the high-frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability (HRV). Vagal activity during the TSST moderated the effect of childhood adversity on both the cortisol and the IL-6 response. Women who had lower vagal stress-reactivity during the TSST and reported greater childhood adversity showed a larger rise in cortisol and IL-6 when compared to women with lower childhood adversity. The findings demonstrate that women with exposure to childhood adversity and low vagal stress-reactivity (reduced parasympathetic activity) exhibit an elevated stress response characterized by greater cortisol and proinflammatory cytokine release. Inflammatory burden and HPA dysregulation subsequent to stress may impair cancer control.
Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; De La Rosa, Gabriel M; Schmitz, Kimberly J; Vishnyak, Elizabeth J; Raducha, Stephanie C; Roesch, Scott C; Johnston, Scott L
Military personnel deployed to Joint Task Force Guantanamo Bay (JTF-GTMO) faced numerous occupational stressors. As part of a program evaluation, personnel working at JTF-GTMO completed several validated self-report measures. Personnel were at the beginning, middle, or end of their deployment phase. This study presents data regarding symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse, depression, and resilience among 498 U.S. military personnel deployed to JTF-GTMO in 2009. We also investigated individual and organizational correlates of mental health among these personnel. Findings indicated that tenure at JTF-GTMO was positively related to adverse mental health outcomes. Regression models including these variables had R2 values ranging from .02 to .11. Occupation at JTF-GTMO also related to mental health such that guards reported poorer mental health than medical staff. Reluctance to seek out mental health care was also related to mental health outcomes. Those who reported being most reluctant to seek out care tended to report poorer mental health than those who were more willing to seek out care. Results suggested that the JTF-GTMO deployment was associated with significant psychological stress, and that both job-related and attitude-related variables were important to understanding mental health symptoms in this sample. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Full Text Available We investigated (1 the relationship between Type D personality, stress intensity appraisal of a self-selected stressor, coping, and perceived coping effectiveness and (2 the relationship between Type D personality and performance. In study one, 482 athletes completed the Type D personality questionnaire (DS14, stress thermometer and MCOPE in relation to a recently experienced sport stressor. Type D was associated with increased levels of perceived stress and selection of coping strategies (more emotion and avoidance coping as well as perceptions of their effectiveness. In study two, 32 participants completed a rugby league circuit task and were assessed on pre-performance anxiety, post-performance affect and coping. Type D was associated with poorer performance (reduced distance; more errors, decreases in pre-performance self-confidence and more use of maladaptive resignation/withdrawal coping. Findings suggest that Type D is associated with maladaptive coping and reduced performance. Type D individuals would benefit from interventions related to mood modification or enhancing interpersonal functioning.
Rubin, Leah H; Wu, Minjie; Sundermann, Erin E; Meyer, Vanessa J; Smith, Rachael; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Little, Deborah M; Maki, Pauline M
HIV-infected women may be particularly vulnerable to verbal learning and memory deficits. One factor contributing to these deficits is high perceived stress, which is associated with prefrontal cortical (PFC) atrophy and memory outcomes sensitive to PFC function, including retrieval and semantic clustering. We examined the association between stress and PFC activation during a verbal memory task in 36 HIV-infected women from the Chicago Consortium of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) to better understand the role of the PFC in this stress-related impairment. Participants completed standardized measures of verbal learning and memory and stress (perceived stress scale-10). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess brain function while participants completed encoding and recognition phases of a verbal memory task. HIV-infected women with higher stress (scores in top tertile) performed worse on all verbal memory outcomes including strategic encoding (p stress (scores in lower two tertiles). Patterns of brain activation during recognition (but not encoding) differed between women with higher vs. lower stress. During recognition, women with higher stress demonstrated greater deactivation in medial PFC and posterior cingulate cortex compared to women with lower stress (p stress might alter the function of the medial PFC in HIV-infected women resulting in less efficient strategic retrieval and deficits in verbal memory.
Sabine J M de Brouwer
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress management interventions may prove useful in preventing the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study assessed the effects of a stress management intervention on the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. METHODS: Seventy-four patients with RA, who were randomly assigned to either a control group or a group that received short-term stress management training, performed a standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST 1 week after the stress management training and at a 9-week follow-up. Psychological and physical functioning, and the acute psychophysiological response to the stress test were assessed. RESULTS: Patients in the intervention group showed significantly lower psychological distress levels of anxiety after the training than did the controls. While there were no between-group differences in stress-induced tension levels, and autonomic (α-amylase or endocrine (cortisol responses to the stress test 1 week after the intervention, levels of stress-induced tension and cortisol were significantly lower in the intervention group at the 9-week follow-up. Overall, the response to the intervention was particularly evident in a subgroup of patients with a psychological risk profile. CONCLUSION: A relatively short stress management intervention can improve psychological functioning and influences the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with RA, particularly those psychologically at risk. These findings might help understand how stress can affect health and the role of individual differences in stress responsiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: TrialRegister.nl NTR1193.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin–1 (TSST-1 are an important virulence factor of S. aureus. The purpose of this study was to analyze the presence of S. aureus enterotoxin (sea-see and tst genes in the samples that collected from different sources with PCR method. Methods: During 5 months from 150 collected samples, 80 strains were identified as S. aureus. PCR reaction was used for investigation on the presence of genes for staphylococcal enterotoxins (A-E and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1. Results: Fifty three samples (66.25% out of 80 samples were positive for one or more ETs and TSST-1 genes. of these positive strains, 17 (32.07% were positive for sea 39 (73.58% for seb, 30 (56.6% for sec, 2 (3.7% for sed, 21 (39.62% for see, and 14 (26.41% for tst. Enterotoxins and tst in 40 samples (75.47% observed.Conclusion: In this study, high prevalence of S. aureus, its enterotoxin, and tst genes were observed in clinical samples, food samples, and healthy people. This fact emphasizes on the role of human as original source and carrier of S. aureus. Also, use of PCR reaction for detection of these genes in S. aureus that isolated from various sources is recommended.
Full Text Available This study examined the effects of the arousal level of the rat and exposure to a behavioral stressor on acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of a non-aversive hippocampal-dependent learning paradigm, the object location task. Learning was tested under two arousal conditions: no previous habituation to the experimental context (high novelty stress/arousal level or extensive prior habituation (reduced novelty stress/arousal level. Results indicated that in the habituated rats, exposure to an out-of-context stressor (i.e, elevated platform stress impaired consolidation and retrieval, but not acquisition, of the task. Non-habituated animals under both stressed and control conditions did not show retention of the task. In habituated rats, RU-486 (10 ng/side, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR antagonist, or propranolol (0.75 µg/side, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, injected into the basolateral amygdala (BLA, prevented the impairing effects of the stressor on consolidation, but not on retrieval. The CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN, 5 µg/side microinjected into the BLA did not prevent the effects of stress on either consolidation or retrieval. Taken together the results suggest that: (i GR and β-adrenergic receptors in the BLA mediate the impairing effects of stress on the consolidation, but not the retrieval, of a neutral, non-aversive hippocampal-dependent task, (ii the impairing effects of stress on hippocampal consolidation and retrieval are mediated by different neural mechanisms (i.e., different neurotransmitters or different brain areas, and (iii the effects of stress on memory depend on the interaction between several main factors such as the stage of memory processing under investigation, the animal's level of arousal and the nature of the task (neutral or aversive.
Segev, Amir; Ramot, Assaf; Akirav, Irit
This study examined the effects of the arousal level of the rat and exposure to a behavioral stressor on acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of a non-aversive hippocampal-dependent learning paradigm, the object location task. Learning was tested under two arousal conditions: no previous habituation to the experimental context (high novelty stress/arousal level) or extensive prior habituation (reduced novelty stress/arousal level). Results indicated that in the habituated rats, exposure to an out-of-context stressor (i.e, elevated platform stress) impaired consolidation and retrieval, but not acquisition, of the task. Non-habituated animals under both stressed and control conditions did not show retention of the task. In habituated rats, RU-486 (10 ng/side), a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, or propranolol (0.75 µg/side), a beta-adrenergic antagonist, injected into the basolateral amygdala (BLA), prevented the impairing effects of the stressor on consolidation, but not on retrieval. The CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN, 5 µg/side) microinjected into the BLA did not prevent the effects of stress on either consolidation or retrieval. Taken together the results suggest that: (i) GR and β-adrenergic receptors in the BLA mediate the impairing effects of stress on the consolidation, but not the retrieval, of a neutral, non-aversive hippocampal-dependent task, (ii) the impairing effects of stress on hippocampal consolidation and retrieval are mediated by different neural mechanisms (i.e., different neurotransmitters or different brain areas), and (iii) the effects of stress on memory depend on the interaction between several main factors such as the stage of memory processing under investigation, the animal's level of arousal and the nature of the task (neutral or aversive).
Benvenutti, Mateus J; Alves, Eduardo da Sliva; Michael, Scott; Ding, Ding; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Edwards, Kate M
Yoga is promoted as an anti-stress activity, however, little is known about the mechanisms through which it acts. The present study investigated the acute effects of a hatha yoga session, displayed on a video, on the response to and recovery from an acute psychological stressor. Twenty-four healthy young adults took part in a counterbalanced, randomized-crossover trial, with a yoga and a control condition (watching TV). Participants attended the laboratory in the afternoon on two days and each session comprised a baseline, control or yoga task, stress task and recovery. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and salivary cortisol responses were measured. State cognitive- and somatic-anxiety along with self-confidence were assessed before and after the stressor. Although no difference in the BP or HR responses to stress were found between conditions, systolic BP (p=0.047) and diastolic BP (p=0.018) recovery from stress were significantly accelerated and salivary cortisol reactivity was significantly lower (p=0.01) in the yoga condition. A yoga session also increased self-confidence (p=0.006) in preparation for the task and after completion. Moreover, self-confidence reported after the stress task was considered debilitative towards performance in the control condition, but remained facilitative in the yoga condition. Our results show that a single video-instructed session of hatha yoga was able to improve stress reactivity and recovery from an acute stress task in healthy individuals. These positive preliminary findings encourage further investigation in at-risk populations in which the magnitude of effects may be greater, and support the use of yoga for stress reactivity and recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lamprea Rodríguez, Marisol
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to describe the effects of caloric restriction on spatial learning and recovery in the Barnes maze in animals experimentally stressed before recovery of the spatial task. Male Wistar rats were exposed for two months to one of two conditions: ad libitum (AL or intermittent fasting (IF. Both groups were exposed then to an experimental form of acute stress, induced by movement restriction for 4 hours. IF subjects had better performance in learning tasks during the acquisition trials but required more time to complete the task after the stressor was applied. These results are discussed in light of previous data reported in the literature emphasizing differences in the instruments used to evaluate spatial learning and its interaction with experimentally induced stress.
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate if a breathing technique could counteract the effects of hyperventilation due to a sustained attention task on shoulder muscle activity. Background: The trend towards higher levels of automation in industry is increasing. Consequently, manufacturing operators often monitor automated process for long periods of their work shift. Prolonged monitoring work requires sustained attention, which is a cognitive process that humans are typically poor at and find stressful. As sustained attention becomes an increasing requirement of manufacturing operators’ job content, the resulting stress experienced could contribute to the onset of many health problems, including work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. Methods: The SART attention test was completed by a group of participants before and after a breathing intervention exercise. The effects of the abdominal breathing intervention on breathing rate, upper trapezius muscle activity and end-tidal CO2 were evaluated. Results: The breathing intervention reduced the moderation effect of end-tidal CO2 on upper trapezius muscle activity. Conclusions: Abdominal breathing could be a useful technique in reducing the effects of sustained attention work on muscular activity. Application: This research can be applied to highly-automated manufacturing industries, where prolonged monitoring of work is widespread and could, in its role as a stressor, be a potential contributor to WRMSDs.
Wixted, Fiona; O'Riordan, Cliona; O'Sullivan, Leonard
The objective of this study was to investigate if a breathing technique could counteract the effects of hyperventilation due to a sustained attention task on shoulder muscle activity. The trend towards higher levels of automation in industry is increasing. Consequently, manufacturing operators often monitor automated process for long periods of their work shift. Prolonged monitoring work requires sustained attention, which is a cognitive process that humans are typically poor at and find stressful. As sustained attention becomes an increasing requirement of manufacturing operators' job content, the resulting stress experienced could contribute to the onset of many health problems, including work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). The SART attention test was completed by a group of participants before and after a breathing intervention exercise. The effects of the abdominal breathing intervention on breathing rate, upper trapezius muscle activity and end-tidal CO₂ were evaluated. The breathing intervention reduced the moderation effect of end-tidal CO₂ on upper trapezius muscle activity. Abdominal breathing could be a useful technique in reducing the effects of sustained attention work on muscular activity. This research can be applied to highly-automated manufacturing industries, where prolonged monitoring of work is widespread and could, in its role as a stressor, be a potential contributor to WRMSDs.
Guznov, Svyatoslav; Matthews, Gerald; Funke, Gregory; Dukes, Allen
Use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is an increasingly important element of military missions. However, controlling UAVs may impose high stress and workload on the operator. This study evaluated the use of the RoboFlag simulated environment as a means for profiling multiple dimensions of stress and workload response to a task requiring control of multiple vehicles (robots). It tested the effects of two workload manipulations, environmental uncertainty (i.e., UAV's visual view area) and maneuverability, in 64 participants. The findings confirmed that the task produced substantial workload and elevated distress. Dissociations between the stress and performance effects of the manipulations confirmed the utility of a multivariate approach to assessment. Contrary to expectations, distress and some aspects of workload were highest in the low-uncertainty condition, suggesting that overload of information may be an issue for UAV interface designers. The strengths and limitations of RoboFlag as a methodology for investigating stress and workload responses are discussed.
Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K
Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sprajcer, Madeline; Jay, Sarah M; Vincent, Grace E; Vakulin, Andrew; Lack, Leon; Ferguson, Sally A
On-call work is used to manage around the clock working requirements in a variety of industries. Often, tasks that must be performed while on-call are highly important, difficult and/or stressful by nature and, as such, may impact the level of anxiety that is experienced by on-call workers. Heightened anxiety is associated with poor sleep, which affects next-day cognitive performance. Twenty-four male participants (20-35 years old) spent an adaptation, a control and two counterbalanced on-call nights in a time-isolated sleep laboratory. On one of the on-call nights they were told that they would be required to do a speech upon waking (high-stress condition), whereas on the other night they were instructed that they would be required to read to themselves (low-stress condition). Pre-bed anxiety was measured by the State Trait Anxiety Inventory form x-1, and polysomnography and quantitative electroencephalogram analyses were used to investigate sleep. Performance was assessed across each day using the 10-min psychomotor vigilance task (09:30 hours, 12:00 hours, 14:30 hours, 17:00 hours). The results indicated that participants experienced no significant changes in pre-bed anxiety or sleep between conditions. However, performance on the psychomotor vigilance task was best in the high-stress condition, possibly as a result of heightened physiological arousal caused by performing the stressful task that morning. This suggests that performing a high-stress task may be protective of cognitive performance to some degree when sleep is not disrupted. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.
Full Text Available The very low-frequency (VLF band of heart rate variability (HRV has different characteristics compared with other HRV components. Here we investigated differences in HRV changes after a mental stress task. After the task, the high-frequency (HF band and ratio of high- to low-frequency bands (LF/HF immediately returned to baseline. We evaluated the characteristics of VLF band changes after a mental stress task. We hypothesized that the VLF band decreases during the Stroop color word task and there would be a delayed recovery for 2 h after the task (i.e., the VLF change would exhibit a "slow recovery". Nineteen healthy, young subjects were instructed to rest for 10 min, followed by a Stroop color word task for 20 min. After the task, the subjects were instructed to rest for 120 min. For all subjects, R-R interval data were collected; analysis was performed for VLF, HF, and LF/HF ratio. HRV during the rest time and each 15-min interval of the recovery time were compared. An analysis of the covariance was performed to adjust for the HF band and LF/HF ratio as confounding variables of the VLF component. HF and VLF bands significantly decreased and the LF/HF ratio significantly increased during the task compared with those during rest time. During recovery, the VLF band was significantly decreased compared with the rest time. After the task, the HF band and LF/HF ratio immediately returned to baseline and were not significantly different from the resting values. After adjusting for HF and LF/HF ratio, the VLF band had significantly decreased compared with that during rest. The VLF band is the "slow recovery" component and the HF band and LF/HF ratio are the "quick recovery" components of HRV. This VLF characteristic may clarify the unexplained association of the VLF band in cardiovascular disease prevention.
Usui, Harunobu; Nishida, Yusuke
The very low-frequency (VLF) band of heart rate variability (HRV) has different characteristics compared with other HRV components. Here we investigated differences in HRV changes after a mental stress task. After the task, the high-frequency (HF) band and ratio of high- to low-frequency bands (LF/HF) immediately returned to baseline. We evaluated the characteristics of VLF band changes after a mental stress task. We hypothesized that the VLF band decreases during the Stroop color word task and there would be a delayed recovery for 2 h after the task (i.e., the VLF change would exhibit a "slow recovery"). Nineteen healthy, young subjects were instructed to rest for 10 min, followed by a Stroop color word task for 20 min. After the task, the subjects were instructed to rest for 120 min. For all subjects, R-R interval data were collected; analysis was performed for VLF, HF, and LF/HF ratio. HRV during the rest time and each 15-min interval of the recovery time were compared. An analysis of the covariance was performed to adjust for the HF band and LF/HF ratio as confounding variables of the VLF component. HF and VLF bands significantly decreased and the LF/HF ratio significantly increased during the task compared with those during rest time. During recovery, the VLF band was significantly decreased compared with the rest time. After the task, the HF band and LF/HF ratio immediately returned to baseline and were not significantly different from the resting values. After adjusting for HF and LF/HF ratio, the VLF band had significantly decreased compared with that during rest. The VLF band is the "slow recovery" component and the HF band and LF/HF ratio are the "quick recovery" components of HRV. This VLF characteristic may clarify the unexplained association of the VLF band in cardiovascular disease prevention.
Pardilla-Delgado, Enmanuelle; Alger, Sara E.; Cunningham, Tony J.; Kinealy, Brian; Payne, Jessica D.
Numerous studies have investigated how stress impacts veridical memory, but how stress influences false memory formation remains poorly understood. In order to target memory consolidation specifically, a psychosocial stress (TSST) or control manipulation was administered following encoding of 15 neutral, semantically related word lists (DRM false…
Bin Jiang; Chun-Yen Chang; William C. Sullivan
Although it is well established that exposure to nearby nature can help reduce stress in individuals, the shape of the dose-response curve is entirely unclear. To establish this dose-response curve, we recruited 160 individuals for a laboratory experiment. Participants engaged in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to induce psychological stress, and were then randomly...
Cisler, Josh M; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B; Adams, Thomas G; Babson, Kimberly A; Badour, Christal L; Willems, Jeffrey L
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with significant impairment and lowered quality of life. The emotional Stroop task (EST) has been one means of elucidating some of the core deficits in PTSD, but this literature has remained inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of EST studies in PTSD populations in order to synthesize this body of research. Twenty-six studies were included with 538 PTSD participants, 254 non-trauma exposed control participants (NTC), and 276 trauma exposed control participants (TC). PTSD-relevant words impaired EST performance more among PTSD groups and TC groups compared to NTC groups. PTSD groups and TC groups did not differ. When examining within-subject effect sizes, PTSD-relevant words and generally threatening words impaired EST performance relative to neutral words among PTSD groups, and only PTSD-relevant words impaired performance among the TC groups. These patterns were not found among the NTC groups. Moderator analyses suggested that these effects were significantly greater in blocked designs compared to randomized designs, toward unmasked compared to masked stimuli, and among samples exposed to assaultive traumas compared to samples exposed to non-assaultive traumas. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Emotional Stroop task (EST has been extensively used to investigate attentional processes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Even though aging significantly changes the dynamics of emotion-cognition interactions, very little is known about its role in shaping EST performance in PTSD patients. In the present study we tested a uniquely large sample of motor vehicle accident victims. Data of 194 participants (75.3% female; mean age = 36.64 years, SD = 12.3 were included in the analysis, out of which 136 (70.1% were diagnosed with PTSD. Prior to the psychiatric assessment, participants completed the pictorial version of EST (neutral, positive, negative, and accidents photos were presented. Comparison of the PTSD and control groups revealed a specific increase in reaction times (RTs related to the exposure of trauma-related material. At the same time, previously unreported, moderating effects of age were also discovered. Older participants, in contrast to the younger group, showed no increase in RTs and interference scores in trials where accident photos were presented. Our study points to the key role of age as a previously understudied factor modifying EST performance in PTSD patients.
Bielecki, Maksymilian; Popiel, Agnieszka; Zawadzki, Bogdan; Sedek, Grzegorz
Emotional Stroop task (EST) has been extensively used to investigate attentional processes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Even though aging significantly changes the dynamics of emotion-cognition interactions, very little is known about its role in shaping EST performance in PTSD patients. In the present study we tested a uniquely large sample of motor vehicle accident victims. Data of 194 participants (75.3% female; mean age = 36.64 years, SD = 12.3) were included in the analysis, out of which 136 (70.1%) were diagnosed with PTSD. Prior to the psychiatric assessment, participants completed the pictorial version of EST (neutral, positive, negative, and accidents photos were presented). Comparison of the PTSD and control groups revealed a specific increase in reaction times (RTs) related to the exposure of trauma-related material. At the same time, previously unreported, moderating effects of age were also discovered. Older participants, in contrast to the younger group, showed no increase in RTs and interference scores in trials where accident photos were presented. Our study points to the key role of age as a previously understudied factor modifying EST performance in PTSD patients.
Maniaci, G.; Goudriaan, A. E.; Cannizzaro, C.; van Holst, R. J.
Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)
Geronikolou, Styliani A; Chamakou, Aikaterini; Mantzou, Aimilia; Chrousos, George; KanakaGantenbein, Christina
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the main "gate-keeper" of the organism's response to every somatic or mental stress. This prospective study aims to investigate the HPA-axis response to a cellular phone call exposure after mental stress in healthy children and adolescents and to assess the possible predictive role of baseline endocrine markers to this response. Two groups of healthy school-age children aged 11-14 (12.5±1.5) years were included in the study, the one comprising those who are occasional users of a cellular phone (Group A) while the second those who do regularly use one (Group B). Blood samples were obtained from all participants at 8.00 am after a 12-hour overnight fasting for thyroid hormone, glucose, insulin, and cortisol levels determination. The participants performed the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C) (5 minoral task followed by 5 min arithmetic task). Salivary cortisol samples were obtained at baseline, 10' and 20' min after the TSST-C and 10' and 20' after a 5 minute cellular phone call. Significant changes in the salivary cortisol levels were noted between 10' and 20' mins after the cellular phone call with different responses between the two groups. Baseline thyroid hormone levels seem to predict the cortisol response to mental stress mainly in group A, while HOMA had no impact on salivary cortisol response at any phase of the test, in either group. HPA axis response to cellular phone after mental stress in children and adolescents follow a different pattern in frequent users than in occasional users that seems to be influenced by the baseline thyroid hormone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cheetham, Tara J; Turner-Cobb, Julie M
Whilst acute stress paradigms in adults make use of adult panel members, similar paradigms modified for child participants have not manipulated the panel. Most work has utilised an audience of adult confederates, regardless of the age of the population being tested. The aim of this study was to trial a social stress test for children that provided a meaningful environment using age-matched child peers as panel actors. Thirty-three participants (7-11 years) underwent the Bath Experimental Stress Test for Children (BEST-C). Based on the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), it comprises a shortened six-minute public speaking task and four-minute maths challenge. It differs from previous stress tests by using age-matched children on the panel, pre-recorded and presented as a live feed, and includes an expanded manipulation check of subjective experience. Salivary cortisol was assessed at four time points, pre-post stress testing; life events, daily hassles and coping strategies were measured through questionnaires. A simple numerical coding scheme was applied to post-test interview data. The BEST-C generated a typical stress and adaptation response in salivary cortisol (p=.032). Age and gender differences were observed during recovery. Cortisol responses mapped directly onto three distinct subjective response patterns: (i) expected response and recovery; (ii) expected response, no recovery; (iii) no response. The BEST-C, utilising child confederates of participant target age is a meaningful social stress test for children. This is the first social stress test developed specifically for children that manipulates panel characteristics by using child confederates and a pre-recorded sham panel. Greater cortisol responses to the test were also found to match subjective verbal accounts of the experience. It offers a meaningful acute stress paradigm with potential applications to other child and adolescent age groups. Furthermore, it leads the way in the use of panel manipulation
Erickson, Thane M; Mayer, Stefanie E; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Scarsella, Gina M; McGuire, Adam P; Crocker, Jennifer; Abelson, James L
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to mediate the effects of stress on illness. Research has identified a limited number of psychological variables that modulate human HPA responses to stressors (e.g. perceived control and social support). Prosocial goals can reduce subjective stress, but have not been carefully examined in experimental settings where pathways of impact on biological stress markers may be traced. Recent work demonstrated that coaching individuals to strive to help others reduced HPA responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) relative to other cognitive interventions. However, identification of mediational pathways, which were not examined in the original study, is necessary to determine whether the HPA buffering effects were due to helping motivations (compassionate goals; CGs) rather than via previously identified variables such as control or support. In this new analysis, we combined the original cortisol data with novel observer ratings of interpersonal behavior and psychological variables during the stress task, and conducted new, theory-driven analyses to determine psychological mediators for the intervention's effect on cortisol responses (N = 54; 21 females, 33 males; 486 cortisol samples). Control, support, and task ego-threat failed to account for the effects of the intervention. As hypothesized, self and observer-rated CGs, as well as observer-rated perceptions of participants' interpersonal behavior as morally desirable (but not as dominant or affiliative) were significant mediators of neuroendocrine responses. The findings suggest that stress-reduction interventions based on prosocial behavior should target particular motivational and interpersonal features.
Graham, Lauren K.; Yoon, Taejib; Kim, Jeansok J.
Stress is a biologically significant social-environmental factor that plays a pervasive role in influencing human and animal behaviors. While stress effects on various types of memory are well characterized, its effects on other cognitive functions are relatively unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of acute, uncontrollable stress on…
Brkic, Sejla; Söderpalm, Bo; Söderpalm Gordh, Anna
The differentiation between high and low cortisol responders to stress is of interest in determining the risk factors which may, along with genetic vulnerability, influence alcohol intake. Thirty-two healthy volunteers, family history positive to alcoholism (FHP, n = 16) and family history negative (FHN, n = 16) attended two laboratory sessions during which alcohol or placebo was offered. There were no differences in consumption of alcohol or placebo between FHP and FHN subjects. STUDY 2: Fifty-eight healthy social drinkers, FHP (n = 27) and FHN (n = 31) attended two laboratory sessions. They were administered either alcohol or placebo in both sessions they attended. All subjects underwent either a stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a stress-free period, at two separate occasions, before being offered beverage. After the salivary cortisol analysis, subjects in each group were divided into high (HCR) or low (LCR) cortisol responders. After stress, subjects who were FHP-HCR consumed more alcohol than FHN-HCR. There were no differences in the placebo intake between FHP and FHN subjects regardless of their cortisol response. This result indicates that stress promotes alcohol consumption only in subjects with a family history of Type 1 alcoholism who show an increase in cortisol response to stress. This behaviour is similar to that previously observed in alcohol dependent individuals after stress and thus could represent an endophenotype posing a risk for future development of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Yennu, Amarnath; Tian, Fenghua; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; J. Gatchel, Robert; Woon, Fu Lye; Liu, Hanli
Studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) showing attentional deficits have implicated abnormal activities in the frontal lobe. In this study, we utilized multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate selective attention-related hemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex among 15 combat-exposed war-zone veterans with PTSD and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. While performing the incongruent Stroop task, healthy controls showed significant activ...
Herten, Nadja; Pomrehn, Dennis; Wolf, Oliver T
Previously, we observed enhanced long-term memory for objects used (central objects) by committee members in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on the next day. In addition, startle responsivity was increased. However, response specificity to an odour involved in the stressful episode was lacking and recognition memory for the odour was poor. In the current experiments, immediate effects of the stressor on memory and startle responsivity were investigated. We hypothesised memory for central objects of the stressful episode and startle response specificity to an odour ambient during the TSST to be enhanced shortly after it, in contrast to the control condition (friendly TSST). Further, memory for this odour was also assumed to be increased in the stress group. We tested 70 male (35) and female participants using the TSST involving objects and an ambient odour. After stress induction, a startle paradigm including olfactory and visual stimuli was conducted. Indeed, memory for central objects was significantly enhanced in immediate aftermath of the stressor. Startle responsivity increased at a trend level, particularly with regard to the odour involved in the stressful episode. Moreover, the stress group descriptively tended towards a better recognition of the odour involved. The study shows that stress enhances memory for central aspects of a stressful situation before consolidation processes come into play. In addition, results preliminarily suggest that the impact of stress on startle responsivity increases in strength but decreases in specificity during the first 24h after stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina
Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress. Copyright © 2016
Kiessl, Gundula R R; Laessle, Reinhold G
Stress has been supposed to increase appetite. The biological basis of this phenomenon may be a stress-induced alteration of the secretion of GUT peptides such as ghrelin. Stress-induced changes in ghrelin secretion could be a biological basis of overeating and a factor contributing to the development of obesity. Aim of the study was to analyze the effect of acute psychosocial stress on ghrelin secretion in obese and normal weight women. We compared pre- and postprandial plasma ghrelin secretion of 42 obese and 43 normal weight women in a randomized crossover design. Ghrelin and cortisol concentrations were measured and ratings of stress were also recorded in response to a psychological stressor (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). Ghrelin samples were collected in the fasting state one time before participating in the TSST and one time before a control session. After the TSST, respectively, control session participants had a standardized ad libitum meal. 30 and 60 min after the TSST, respectively, control session preprandial ghrelin was measured again. Obese women showed lower pre- and postprandial release of ghrelin than normal weight controls. Moreover, obese women showed inhibited postprandial decrease of ghrelin secretion. Stress did not affect postprandial ghrelin secretion, but inhibited food intake in all subjects. The present data provide further evidence of altered ghrelin release in obesity. Acute stress did not affect postprandial ghrelin secretion, but inhibited food intake in all subjects. Results are discussed with regard to biological and psychological regulation of hunger and satiety in obesity.
Cook, Emily C.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Tebes, Jacob K.; Mayes, Linda C.
Experience with and management of stress has implications for adolescents' behavioral and socioemotional development. This study examined the relationship between adolescents' physiological response to an acute laboratory stressor (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and anger regulation and interpersonal competence in a sample of 175 low-income…
Full Text Available In today’s society, as computers, the Internet, and mobile phones pervade almost every corner of life, the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT on humans is dramatic. The use of ICT, however, may also have a negative side. Human interaction with technology may lead to notable stress perceptions, a phenomenon referred to as technostress. An investigation of the literature reveals that computer users’ gender has largely been ignored in technostress research, treating users as “gender-neutral.” To close this significant research gap, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which we investigated users’ physiological reaction to the malfunctioning of technology. Based on theories which explain that men, in contrast to women, are more sensitive to “achievement stress,” we predicted that male users would exhibit higher levels of stress than women in cases of system breakdown during the execution of a human-computer interaction task under time pressure, if compared to a breakdown situation without time pressure. Using skin conductance as a stress indicator, the hypothesis was confirmed. Thus, this study shows that user gender is crucial to better understanding the influence of stress factors such as computer malfunctions on physiological stress reactions.
Wolf, Oliver T; Schulte, Judith M; Drimalla, Hanna; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Knoch, Daria; Dziobek, Isabel
Empathy is a core prerequisite for human social behavior. Relatively, little is known about how empathy is influenced by social stress and its associated neuroendocrine alterations. The current study was designed to test the impact of acute stress on emotional and cognitive empathy. Healthy male participants were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stressor (trier social stress test, (TSST)) or a well-matched control condition (Placebo-TSST). Afterwards they participated in an empathy test measuring emotional and cognitive empathy (multifaceted empathy test, (MET)). Stress exposure caused an increase in negative affect, a rise in salivary alpha amylase and a rise in cortisol. Participants exposed to stress reported more emotional empathy in response to pictures displaying both positive and negative emotional social scenes. Cognitive empathy (emotion recognition) in contrast did not differ between the stress and the control group. The current findings provide initial evidence for enhanced emotional empathy after acute psychosocial stress.
Qian, Shaowen; Li, Min; Li, Guoying; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Jiang, Qingjun; Li, Li; Yang, Zhen; Sun, Gang
This study was to investigate the potential enhancing effect of heat stress on mental fatigue progression during sustained attention task using arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging. Twenty participants underwent two thermal exposures in an environmental chamber: normothermic (NT) condition (25°C, 1h) and hyperthermic (HT) condition (50°C, 1h). After thermal exposure, they performed a twenty-minute psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) in the scanner. Behavioral analysis revealed progressively increasing subjective fatigue ratings and reaction time as PVT progressed. Moreover, heat stress caused worse performance. Perfusion imaging analyses showed significant resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations after heat exposure. Specifically, increased CBF mainly gathered in thalamic-brainstem area while decreased CBF predominantly located in fronto-parietal areas, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and medial frontal cortex. More importantly, diverse CBF distributions and trend of changes between both conditions were observed as the fatigue level progressed during subsequent PVT task. Specifically, higher CBF and enhanced rising trend were presented in superior parietal lobe, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, while lower CBF or inhibited rising trend was found in dorsolateral frontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, inferior parietal lobe and thalamic-brainstem areas. Furthermore, the decrease of post-heat resting-state CBF in fronto-parietal cortex was correlated with subsequent slower reaction time, suggesting prior disturbed resting-state CBF might be indicator of performance potential and fatigue level in following task. These findings may provide proof for such a view: heat stress has a potential fatigue-enhancing effect when individual is performing highly cognition-demanding attention task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fu, Jiling; Weng, Tingting; Tao, Fangbiao
To compare obese and non-obese adolescents in terms of their salivary cortisol response to the Trier Socia l Stress Test ( TSST). This is a cross - sectional study involving 41 healthy adolescents aged 12-14 years in the city of Shenyang, China. The TSST response was determined using salivary cortisol measurements, and measurements were repeated after the test period. Repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to compare salivary cortisol levels between groups. The male group comprised of 16 individuals (10 obese and 6 non-obese), and the female group comprised 25 individuals ( 13 obese and 12 non-obese). ANOVA with repeated measures demonstrated that weight status (obese or non-obese) had a significant main effect on the measures of salivary cortisol levels during the TSST among females but not males. The finding suggested that weight status is associated with cortisol response to psychological stress among Chinese adolescent girls.
Tadmor, Avia; McNally, Richard J; Engelhard, Iris M
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: People who perform a cognitively demanding secondary task while recalling a distressing memory often experience the memory as less emotional, vivid, or accurate during subsequent recollections. In this experiment, we tested whether the emotional valence (positive versus
Klumbies, Elisabeth; Braeuer, David; Hoyer, Juergen; Kirschbaum, Clemens
Research on the biopsychological background of social phobia (SP) is scarce and inconsistent. We investigated endocrine and autonomic markers along with subjective responses to a standardized stress situation (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) in SP patients and healthy controls (HC). We examined 88 patients with the primary diagnosis of SP as well as 78 age and sex comparable HCs with the TSST. Blood and saliva samples were obtained before and after the TSST for the assessment of salivary cortisol, plasma cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), and prolactin. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded continuously. Scalp-near hair samples were collected for the assessment of long-term cortisol secretion. The self-reported stress response was measured with different state and trait scales. While self-reported anxiety was elevated in SP before, during, immediately after, and one week after the TSST, no significant differences in biological stress responses were observed between SP and HC. There was a trend for SP to show higher baseline stress markers. Also long-term cortisol deposition in hair remained unaltered. Our results suggest that the excessive self-reported stress in SP is not reflected by a respective biological stress response. Patients with SP apparently show neither an extreme form of focused fear reactivity nor excessive defensive impairment.
Ciufolini, Simone; Dazzan, Paola; Kempton, Matthew J; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria
We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the HPA axis response to social stress in studies that used the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), or comparable distressing paradigms, in individuals with either depression or schizophrenia. Sample size-adjusted effect sizes (Hedge's g statistic) were calculated to estimate the HPA axis stress response to social stress. We used a meta-regression model to take into account the moderating effect of the baseline cortisol level. Participants with depression show an activation pattern to social stress similar to that of healthy controls. Despite a normal cortisol production rate, individuals with schizophrenia have lower cortisol levels than controls both in anticipation and after exposure to social stress. Participants with depression and higher cortisol levels before the task have an increased cortisol production and reached higher cortisol levels during the task. This may be explained by the presence of an impaired negative feedback. The activation pattern present in schizophrenia may explain the reduced ability to appropriately contextualize past experiences shown by individuals with psychosis in social stressful situation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yennu, Amarnath; Tian, Fenghua; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; J. Gatchel, Robert; Woon, Fu Lye; Liu, Hanli
Studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) showing attentional deficits have implicated abnormal activities in the frontal lobe. In this study, we utilized multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate selective attention-related hemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex among 15 combat-exposed war-zone veterans with PTSD and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. While performing the incongruent Stroop task, healthy controls showed significant activations in the left lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) compared to baseline readings. This observation is consistent with previously reported results. In comparison, subjects with PTSD failed to activate left LPFC during the same Stroop task. Our observations may implicate that subjects with PTSD experienced difficulty in overcoming Stroop interference. We also observed significant negative correlation between task reaction times and hemodynamic responses from left LPFC during the incongruent Stroop task in the PTSD group. Regarding the methodology used in this study, we have learned that an appropriate design of Stroop paradigms is important for meeting an optimal cognitive load which can lead to better brain image contrasts in response to Stroop interference between healthy versus PTSD subjects. Overall, the feasibility of fNIRS for studying and mapping neural correlates of selective attention and interference in subjects with PTSD is reported.
Kristiansen, Jesper; Mathiesen, Line; Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed
measured. RESULTS: Cognitively demanding work tasks were associated with changes in HRV, systolic blood pressure and EMG that reflects increased sympathetic activity in the autonomic nervous system. No effect of noise was observed, except for a higher rating of perceived exertion in the head and, contrary......OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of cognitively demanding work tasks and office noise on heart rate variability (HRV), cardiovascular responses and electromyography (EMG) activity in the trapezius muscles. METHODS: Ten female volunteers were exposed to simulated open-plan office noise for 35...
Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia
Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
M. R. Monazzam Esmaielpou
Full Text Available Introduction: Heat is one of the hazardous physical agents in the workplace. Exposure to heat and consequent thermal stress influence workers productivity in addition to adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to determine the heat stress induced productivity loss related to different tasks of farmers in Darreh Shahr city, during summer. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in summer, 2014, among farmers in Darreh Shahr city. After determining the sample size, farmers’ activities were determined using hierarchical task analysis (HTA, and WBGT measurements were done according to the ISO7243. Metabolism was estimated by the ISO8996. Following, the type of activities were identified according their required metabolism. Knowing WBGT and workload and using the work capacity model, the productivity loss in different tasks and ultimately total productivity loss were calculated. Result: The mean WBGT activities for plowing, terracing, planting seeds, watering, fertilizing, weeding, spraying, and harvesting were 29.98 °C, 31.28 °C,30.66 °C,31.39 °C,31.99 °C,31.75 °C,31.08 °C, and 30.3 °C, respectively. WBGT values were higher than the permissible level provided by ISO7243 in all farming activities. Maximum value of WBGT was belonged to fertilizing activity (31.99 °C and the lowest value was for plowing (29.98 °C. ANOVA test results did not show a significant difference in WBGT at head, waist, and ankle height. The highest and lowest amount of productivity loss was estimated respectively for weeding and plowing activities. The total productivity loss for farming was calculated 69.3 percent in an hour which is due to high physical activity, working outdoor, with exposure to direct solar radiation, and consequent heat stress imposed to workers. Conclusion: Productivity is a factor which is affected by the workplace heat stress. According to results of the present research, the amount of productivity is reduced
M. R. Monazzam Esmaielpour
Full Text Available Introduction: Heat is one of the hazardous physical agents in the workplace. Exposure to heat and consequent thermal stress influence workers productivity in addition to adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to determine the heat stress induced productivity loss related to different tasks of farmers in Darreh Shahr city, during summer. . Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in summer, 2014, among farmers in Darreh Shahr city. After determining the sample size, farmers’ activities were determined using hierarchical task analysis (HTA, and WBGT measurements were done according to the ISO7243. Metabolism was estimated by the ISO8996. Following, the type of activities were identified according their required metabolism. Knowing WBGT and workload and using the work capacity model, the productivity loss in different tasks and ultimately total productivity loss were calculated. .Result: The mean WBGT activities for plowing, terracing, planting seeds, watering, fertilizing, weeding, spraying, and harvesting were 29.98 °C, 31.28 °C,30.66 °C,31.39 °C,31.99 °C,31.75 °C,31.08 °C, and 30.3 °C, respectively. WBGT values were higher than the permissible level provided by ISO7243 in all farming activities. Maximum value of WBGT was belonged to fertilizing activity (31.99 °C and the lowest value was for plowing (29.98 °C. ANOVA test results did not show a significant difference in WBGT at head, waist, and ankle height. The highest and lowest amount of productivity loss was estimated respectively for weeding and plowing activities. The total productivity loss for farming was calculated 69.3 percent in an hour which is due to high physical activity, working outdoor, with exposure to direct solar radiation, and consequent heat stress imposed to workers. .Conclusion: Productivity is a factor which is affected by the workplace heat stress. According to results of the present research, the amount of productivity is
Zeelenberg, Rene; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Shiffrin, Richard M.
The authors argue that nonword repetition priming in lexical decision is the net result of 2 opposing processes. First, repeating nonwords in the lexical decision task results in the storage of a memory trace containing the interpretation that the letter string is a nonword; retrieval of this trace leads to an increase in performance for repeated…
Full Text Available Extinction is not always permanent, as indicated by several types of recovery effects, such as the renewal effect, which may occur after a context change and points towards the importance of contextual cues. Strengthening the retrieval of extinction memory is a crucial aim of extinction-based psychotherapeutic treatments of anxiety disorders to prevent relapse. Stress is known to modulate learning and memory, with mostly enhancing effects on memory consolidation. However, whether such a consolidation-enhancing effect of acute stress can also be found for extinction memory has not yet been examined in humans. In this study, we investigated the effect of stress after extinction learning on the retrieval of extinction memory in a predictive learning renewal paradigm. Participants took the part of being the doctor of a fictitious patient and learned to predict whether certain food stimuli were associated with ‘stomach trouble’ in two different restaurants (contexts. On the first day, critical stimuli were associated with stomach trouble in context A (acquisition phase. On the second day, these associations were extinguished in context B. Directly after extinction, participants were either exposed to a stressor (socially evaluated cold pressor test; n = 22 or a control condition (n = 24. On the third day, we tested retrieval of critical associations in contexts A and B. Participants exposed to stress after extinction exhibited a reduced recovery of responding at test in context B, suggesting that stress may context-dependently enhance the consolidation of extinction memory. Furthermore, the increase in cortisol in response to the stressor was negatively correlated with the recovery of responding in context A. Our findings suggest that in parallel to the known effects of stress on the consolidation of episodic memory, stress also enhances the consolidation of extinction memory, which might be relevant for potential applications in extinction
Sjøgaard, Gisela; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Kiilerich, Kristian
healthy controls. Those with myalgia performed similar to 7 hrs repetitive stressful work and were subsequently randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training, general fitness training, or reference intervention. Muscles biopsies were taken from the trapezius muscle at baseline, after work and after...... 10 weeks intervention. The main findings are that the capacity of carbohydrate oxidation was reduced in myalgic compared with healthy muscle. Repetitive stressful work increased mRNA content for heat shock proteins and decreased levels of key regulators for growth and oxidative metabolism......The aim was to assess mRNA and/or protein levels of heat shock proteins, cytokines, growth regulating, and metabolic proteins in myalgic muscle at rest and in response to work tasks and prolonged exercise training. A randomized controlled trial included 28 females with trapezius myalgia and 16...
Jönsson, Peter; Wallergård, Mattias; Osterberg, Kai
reactivity and habituation to repeated stress provocations using a virtual reality (VR) version of TSST. The VR system was a CAVE™ system with three rear projected walls (4 m×3 m), and one floor projection. The system also included a head tracking system and passive stereoscopy. The virtual audience...... studies using the real-life TSST. If these results can be replicated with larger samples, VR technology may be used as a simple and standardized tool for social stress induction in experimental settings....
Schoofs, Daniela; Pabst, Stephan; Brand, Matthias; Wolf, Oliver T
Stress has been shown to influence working memory. However, sex differences and the potential impact of stimulus emotionality have not received much attention. In a first experiment the effects of stress on a neutral working memory (WM) paradigm were tested in male and female participants (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 employed the same paradigm but used emotional stimuli. For this purpose, healthy participants were exposed either to a stressful (Trierer Social Stress Test (TSST)) or to a non-stressful control condition. Subsequently, WM performance in an n-back task was assessed. In Experiment 1, single digits were used as stimuli, while in Experiment 2 neutral and negative pictures were additionally employed. Salivary cortisol and Alpha-Amylase (sAA) were measured before and three times after the treatment as a marker of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis- and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. In both experiments, stress caused a substantial cortisol and sAA increase. For WM performance (response time) a stress by sex interaction was apparent. Stress enhanced performance in men, while impairing it in women. In both experiments stress had no effect on response accuracy. No modulating effect of the emotional quality of stimuli on n-back performance was observed (study 2). The results indicate that the effect of acute stress on n-back performance differs between the sexes. In contrast to long-term memory, the influence of stress on WM appears not to be modulated by the emotionality of the employed stimuli if stimuli are potential targets as it is the case in the n-back task. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Geiger, Ashley M; Pitts, Kenneth P; Feldkamp, Joachim; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wolf, Jutta M
Chronic adrenal insufficiency (CAI) is characterized by a lack of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid production due to destroyed adrenal cortex cells. However, elevated cortisol secretion is thought to be a central part in a well-orchestrated immune response to stress. This raises the question to what extent lack of cortisol in CAI affects stress-related changes in immune processes. To address this question, 28 CAI patients (20 females) and 18 healthy individuals (11 females) (age: 44.3 ± 8.4 years) were exposed to a psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Half the patients received a 0.03 mg/kg body weight injection of hydrocortisone (HC) post-TSST to mimic a healthy cortisol stress response. Catecholamines and immune cell composition were assessed in peripheral blood and free cortisol measured in saliva collected before and repeatedly after TSST. CAI patients showed norepinephrine (NE) stress responses similar to healthy participants, however, epinephrine (E) as well as cortisol levels were significantly lower. HC treatment post-TSST resulted in cortisol increases comparable to those observed in healthy participants (interaction effects--NE: F=1.05, p=.41; E: F=2.56, p=.045; cortisol: F=13.28, pcortisol's central involvement in post-stress lymphocyte migration from blood into immune-relevant body compartments. As such, future studies should investigate whether psychosocial stress exposure may put CAI patients at an increased health risk due to attenuated immune responses to pathogens. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
van Stegeren, A.H.; Wolf, O.T.; Kindt, M.
Neuro-endocrine markers such as salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and cortisol (CORT) play an important role in establishing human responses to stressful events. Whereas sAA levels reflect sympathetic system activity, salivary cortisol appears to be a valid measure for HPA axis activity. Although many
Hirokawa, Eri; Ohira, Hideki
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of listening to high-uplifting or low-uplifting music after a stressful task on (a) immune functions, (b) neuroendocrine responses, and (c) emotional states in college students. Musical selections that were evaluated as high-uplifting or low-uplifting by Japanese college students were used as musical stimuli. Eighteen Japanese subjects performed stressful tasks before they experienced each of these experimental conditions: (a) high-uplifting music, (b) low-uplifting music, and (c) silence. Subjects' emotional states, the Secretory IgA (S-IgA) level, active natural killer (NK) cell level, the numbers of T lymphocyte CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine levels were measured before and after each experimental condition. Results indicated low-uplifting music had a trend of increasing a sense of well-being. High-uplifting music showed trends of increasing the norepinephrine level, liveliness, and decreasing depression. Active NK cells were decreased after 20 min of silence. Results of the study were inconclusive, but high-uplifting and low-uplifting music had different effects on immune, neuroendocrine, and psychological responses. Classification of music is important to research that examines the effects of music on these responses. Recommendations for future research are discussed.
Kennedy, P J; Cryan, J F; Quigley, E M M; Dinan, T G; Clarke, G
Despite stress being considered a key factor in the pathophysiology of the functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), there is a paucity of information regarding the ability of IBS patients to respond to acute experimental stress. Insights into the stress response in IBS could open the way to novel therapeutic interventions. To this end, we assessed the response of a range of physiological and psychological parameters to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in IBS. Thirteen female patients with IBS and 15 healthy female age-matched control participants underwent a single exposure to the TSST. Salivary cortisol, salivary C-reactive protein (CRP), skin conductance level (SCL), GI symptoms, mood and self-reported stress were measured pre- and post-exposure to the TSST. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the TSST was sustained in IBS, as shown by a greater total cortisol output throughout (p = 0.035) and higher cortisol levels measured by an area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCG) analysis (p = 0.044). In IBS patients, GI symptoms increased significantly during the recovery period following exposure to the TSST (p = 0.045). Salivary CRP and SCL activity showed significant changes in relation to stress but with no differential effect between experimental groups. Patients with IBS exhibit sustained HPA axis activity, and an increase in problematic GI symptoms in response to acute experimental psychosocial stress. These data pave the way for future interventional studies aimed at identifying novel therapeutic approaches to modulate the HPA axis and GI symptom response to acute psychosocial stress in IBS.
Blasche, Gerhard; Zilic, Jelena; Frischenschlager, Oskar
The aim of this study was to investigate the time course of recovery after an academic exam as a model of high workload and its association with stress-related fatigue. Thirty-six medical students (17 females, 19 males) filled out diaries during an exam phase, starting 2 days prior to the exam, and a control phase 4 weeks after the exam for 14 days, respectively. Fatigue, distress, quality of sleep, and health complaints were assessed. Recovery time was determined for each individual and variable by comparing the 3-day average with the confidence interval of the control phase. Recovery time was predicted by Cox regression analyses. Recovery times of all variables except health complaints were predicted by stress-related fatigue. Half of the individuals had recovered after 6 days, and 80% of the individuals had recovered after 8 days. The time necessary for recovery from work demands is determined by fatigue as a measure of resource depletion.
DragoCrneci; Radu Silaghi-Dumitrescu
Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in conditions ranging from cardiovascular dysfunc-tion, arthritis, cancer, to aging and age-related disorders. The organism developed several path-ways to counteract these effects, with base excision repair being responsible for repairing one of the major base lesions (8-oxoG) in al organisms. Epidemiological evidence suggests that cognitive stimulation makes the brain more resilient to damage or degeneration. Recent studies have linked enriched environment to reduction of oxidative stressin neurons of mice with Alzheimer’s dis-ease-like disease, but given its complexity it is not clear what specific aspect of enriched environ-ment has therapeutic effects. Studies from molecular biology have shown that the protein p300, which is a transcription co-activator required for consolidation of memories during specific learning tasks, is at the same time involved in DNA replication and repair, playing a central role in the long-patch pathway of base excision repair. Based on the evidence, we propose that learning tasks such as novel object recognition could be tested as possible methods of base excision repair faci-litation, hence inducing DNA repair in the hippocampal neurons. If this method proves to be effective, it could be the start for designing similar tasks for humans, as a behavioral therapeutic complement to the classical drug-based therapy in treating neurodegenerative disorders. This review presents the current status of therapeutic methods used in treating neurodegenerative diseases induced by reactive oxygen species and proposes a new approach based on existing data.
Ellenbogen, Mark A; Schwartzman, Alex E
Although it is well established that attentional biases exist in anxious populations, the specific components of visual orienting towards and away from emotional stimuli are not well delineated. The present study was designed to examine these processes. We used a modified spatial cueing task to assess the speed of engagement and disengagement from supraliminal and masked pictorial cues depicting threat, dysphoria, or neutral content in 36 clinically anxious, 41 depressed and 41 control participants. Participants were randomly assigned to a stress or neutral condition. During stress, anxious participants were slow to disengage from masked left hemifield pictures depicting threat or dysphoria, but were quick to disengage from supraliminal threat pictures. Information processing in anxious participants during stress was characterized by early selective attention of emotional stimuli, occurring prior to full conscious awareness, followed by effortful avoidance of threat. Depressed participants were distinct from the anxious group, displaying selective attention for stimuli depicting dysphoria, but not threat, during the neutral condition. In sum, attentional biases in clinical populations are associated with difficulties in the disengagement component of visual orienting. Further, a vigilant-avoidant pattern of attentional bias may represent a strategic attempt to compensate for the early activation of a fear response.
Rosenberg, Noa; Bloch, Miki; Ben Avi, Irit; Rouach, Vanessa; Schreiber, Shaul; Stern, Naftali; Greenman, Yona
While stress and negative affect are known to precede "emotional eating", this relationship is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between induced psychological stress, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and eating behavior in binge eating disorder (BED). The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was applied in obese participants with (n=8) and without BED (n=8), and normal weight controls (n=8). Psychological characteristics, eating-related symptoms, and cortisol secretion were assessed. Baseline stress, anxiety and cortisol measures were similar in all groups. At baseline desire to binge was significantly higher among the BED group. While the TSST induced an increase in cortisol levels, a blunted cortisol response was observed in the BED group. In the BED group, a positive correlation was found between cortisol (area under the curve) levels during the TSST and the change in VAS scores for desire to binge. Post-TSST desire to binge and sweet craving were significantly higher in the BED group and correlated positively with stress, anxiety, and cortisol response in the BED group only. These results suggest chronic down-regulation of the HPA axis in participants with BED, and a relationship between psychological stress, the acute activation of the HPA axis, and food craving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Espín, Laura; Marquina, Mónica; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia; Gómez-Amor, Jesús
Generalized Social Phobia (GSP) is a common anxiety disorder that produces clear social life disruptions. There is no consensus on the specific processes involved in its development, but the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested. This study analyzed the effects of the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on the memory retrieval of pictures with different emotional valences in 45 non-treated young students with GSP and 50 non-anxious (NA) subjects (mean=19.35years, SD=0.18). No differences were found in the cortisol response of GSP and NA subjects to the TSST and control sessions. In addition, psychosocial stress impaired memory retrieval in both the GSP and NA groups, with no differences between them. Regarding the sex factor, no effects were found in the cortisol response to the TSST. However, during the encoding session, GSP men had higher cortisol levels than GSP women and NA subjects. There was also a significant interaction between sex and stress exposure on memory retrieval. Women recognized more unpleasant and neutral pictures than men; however, under stress, the women's advantage disappeared, and the men's performance improved. Sex also interacted with social phobia on positive mood, with GSP women exposed to the TSST showing the lowest positive mood. These results suggest that GSP subjects do not present an HPA axis sensitization to psychosocial stress, and they emphasize the importance of Sex in understanding stress effects on memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mielock, Alyssa S; Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma
Childhood maltreatment can trigger enduring changes in major stress response systems, particularly in the context of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relative impact of maltreatment versus MDD on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system stress reactivity is not well understood. This study examined salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 26 maltreated (15 with current MDD) and 26 non-maltreated (17 with current MDD) women. Maltreated women showed greater anticipatory cortisol reactivity during the TSST protocol compared to non-maltreated women. Maltreated women also showed rapid deceleration in cortisol levels. Whereas non-maltreated women showed initial declines in alpha-amylase levels but rapidly increasing alpha-amylase levels during the TSST protocol, maltreated women did not exhibit changes in alpha-amylase levels during the TSST protocol. Contrary to expectation, MDD did not impact cortisol or alpha-amylase responses. The present study is limited by retrospective report of childhood maltreatment, cross-sectional design, and modest sample sizes. These findings suggest that childhood maltreatment plays a greater role driving alterations in cortisol and alpha-amylase stress reactivity than MDD. Understanding the biological embedding of maltreatment is critical for elucidating mechanisms linking these experiences to risk for negative mental and physical health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Virginia R. Falkenberg
Full Text Available Perforin ( PRF1 is essential for immune surveillance and studies report decreased perforin in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, an illness potentially associated with stress and/or infection. We hypothesize that stress can influence regulation of PRF1 expression, and that this regulation will differ between CFS and non-fatigued (NF controls. We used the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST as a standardized acute psychosocial stress, and evaluated its effect on PRF1 expression and methylation in CFS (n = 34 compared with NF (n = 47 participants. During the TSST, natural killer (NK cells increased significantly in both CFS ( P = <0.0001 and NF subjects ( P = <0.0001. Unlike previous reports, there was no significant difference in PRF1 expression at baseline or during TSST between CFS and NF. However, whole blood PRF1 expression increased 1.6 fold during the TSST in both CFS ( P = 0.0003 and NF ( P = <0.0001. Further, the peak response immediately following the TSST was lower in CFS compared with NF ( P = 0.04. In addition, at 1.5 hours post TSST, PRF1 expression was elevated in CFS compared with NF (whole blood, P = 0.06; PBMC, P = 0.02. Methylation of seven CpG sites in the methylation sensitive region of the PRF1 promoter ranged from 38%-79% with no significant differences between CFS and NF. Although, the average baseline methylation of all seven CpG sites did not differ between CFS and NF groups, it showed a significant negative correlation with PRF1 expression at all TSST time points in both CFS (r = –0.56, P = <0.0001 and NF (r = –0.38, P = <0.0001. Among participants with high average methylation (≥65%, PRF1 expression was significantly lower in CFS than NF subjects immediately following TSST. These findings suggest methylation could be an important epigenetic determinant of inter-individual differences in PRF1 expression and that the differences in PRF1 expression and methylation between CFS and NF in the acute stress response require
Prevalence and Genetic Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus argenteus Isolates Harboring Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Enterotoxins, and TSST-1 Genes from Food Handlers in Myanmar.
Aung, Meiji Soe; San, Thida; Aye, Mya Mya; Mya, San; Maw, Win Win; Zan, Khin Nyein; Htut, Wut Hmone Win; Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Urushibara, Noriko; Kobayashi, Nobumichi
Asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus are potential source of diseases, including food poisoning. Toxigenic potential and genetic traits of colonizing S. aureus were investigated for 563 healthy food handlers in Myanmar. Carriage of S. aureus was found in 110 individuals (19.5%), and a total of 144 S. aureus isolates were recovered from nasal cavities (110 isolates) and hands (34 isolates). Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes ( pvl ) were detected in 18 isolates (12.5%), among which 11 isolates were classified into coa -VIa, agr type III, and ST1930 (CC96) that had been also detected in pvl -positive clinical isolates in Myanmar. A pvl -positive, ST2250 nasal isolate was identified as S. argenteus , a novel coagulase-positive staphylococcus species. Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) gene was detected in five pvl -negative isolates. All of the 144 isolates harbored at least one of the 21 enterotoxin(-like) gene(s). The most prevalent enterotoxin(-like) gene was selw (98%), followed by selx (97%), sei (28%), sely (28%), sem (26%), sel (24%), and sea and sec (22% each). Considerable genetic diversity with five groups was detected for selw . The present study revealed the relatively high rate of pvl , as well as the wide distribution of enterotoxin(-like) genes among colonizing S. aureus in Myanmar.
Dos Santos, Aline Talita; Leyendecker, Dayse Maria D; Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira; de Souza-Talarico, Juliana Nery
To analyze the relationship between memory performance and the neuroendocrine and cardiovascular response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy older people, and the sex and age impact in this relationship. We randomly selected 100 literate older adults, without cognitive or functional impairment. The neuroendocrine stress response was evaluated by measuring the concentration of salivary cortisol, whereas cardiovascular reactions were determined based on blood pressure and heart rate measures taken before, during and after participant exposure to an acute psychosocial stressor (the Trier social stress test [TSST]). Memory performance was evaluated by applying the word pairs test before and after the TSST. A significant reduction in the word pair test scores was observed after the TSST, and a negative correlation between cortisol concentration and immediate and delayed recall of the word pair. Cortisol concentration associated with age, sex and education explained memory performance variability before and after the TSST. The results showed that the influence of acute stress on memory performance during aging might vary according to age and sex, highlighting potential differences in the vulnerability of older individuals to the neurotoxic effects of stress exposure on memory and consequently on the development of cognitive disorders. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 169-176. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Full Text Available Jusen Tsuru,1 Yoshihiro Tanaka,1 Yoshinobu Ishitobi,1 Yoshihiro Maruyama,1 Ayako Inoue,1 Aimi Kawano,1 Rie Ikeda,1 Tomoko Ando,1 Harumi Oshita,2 Saeko Aizawa,1 Koji Masuda,1 Haruka Higuma,1 Masayuki Kanehisa,1 Taiga Ninomiya,1 Jotaro Akiyoshi1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, 2Department of Applied Linguistics, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, Japan Background: Decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is implicated in enhanced stress responses. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with psychological changes; for example, carriers of the Met allele exhibit increased harm avoidance as well as a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder.Methods: To analyze the effects of BDNF Val66Met on stress responses, we tested 226 university students (88 women and 138 men using a social stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test [TSST] and an electrical stimulation stress test. Stress indices were derived from repeated measurements of salivary α-amylase, salivary cortisol, heart rate, and psychological testing during the stress tests. All subjects were genotyped for the Val66Met polymorphism (G196A.Results: A significant three-way interaction (time [3 levels] × BDNF [Val/Val, Val/Met, Met/Met]; P<0.05 was demonstrated that revealed different salivary cortisol responses in the TSST but not in electrical stimulation. Met/Met women had stronger cortisol responses than Val/Met and Val/Val individuals in the TSST. Met/Met men exhibited stronger salivary cortisol responses than Val/Met and Val/Val individuals in the TSST.Conclusion: These results indicate that a common, functionally significant polymorphism in BDNF had different effects on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis reactivity but not on sympathetic adrenomedullary reactivity in TSST and electrical stimulation tests. Keywords: stress, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cortisol, saliva
Chao, Thomas; Radoncic, Vanya; Hien, Denise; Bedi, Gillinder; Haney, Margaret
Stress responding is linked to drug use, but little is known about stress responses in cannabis smokers. We investigated acute stress responding in cannabis smokers as a function of trauma exposure and sex, and relationships between stress responses and cannabis relapse. 125 healthy, non-treatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers (23F, 102 M) completed the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST), a standardized laboratory stressor; subsets also completed a trauma questionnaire (n = 106) and a laboratory cannabis relapse measure (n = 54). Stress responding was assessed with heart rate (HR), salivary cortisol (CORT), and self-rated mood. Cannabis smokers reporting at least one trauma exposure had higher CORT and anxiety overall compared to those reporting no trauma. Stress responding did not differ as a function of binary trauma exposure, although total number of exposures correlated positively with CORT and anxiety during stress. Females reported increased nervousness after stress relative to males matched to the females for cannabis and cigarette use. An interactive effect of sex and trauma on HR suggested that females with trauma exposure have increased cardiovascular stress responding relative to those without such exposure, with no differential effect in males. Stress responding did not predict laboratory cannabis relapse. We report differences in acute stress responding as a function of trauma, sex, and their interaction in a large sample of relatively homogenous cannabis smokers. Further investigation of how trauma impacts stress responding in male and female cannabis smokers, and how this relates to different aspects of cannabis use, is warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wichmann, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Böhme, Carsten; Petrowski, Katja
Previous research has focussed extensively on the distinction of HPA-axis functioning between patient groups and healthy volunteers, with relatively little emphasis on a direct comparison of patient groups. The current study's aim was to analyse differences in the cortisol stress response as a function of primary diagnosis of panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). A total of n=30 PD (mean age±SD: 36.07±12.56), n=23 PTSD (41.22±10.17), n=18 MDD patients (39.00±14.93) and n=47 healthy control (HC) individuals (35.51±13.15) participated in this study. All the study participants were female. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used for reliable laboratory stress induction. Blood sampling accompanied the TSST for cortisol and ACTH assessment. Panic-related, PTSD-specific questionnaires and the Beck Depression Inventory II were handed out for the characterisation of the study groups. Repeated measure ANCOVAs were conducted to test for main effects of time or group and for interaction effects. Regression analyses were conducted to take comorbid depression into account. 26.7% of the PD patients, 43.5% of the PTSD patients, 72.2% of the MDD patients and 80.6% of the HC participants showed a cortisol stress response upon the TSST. ANCOVA revealed a cortisol hypo-responsiveness both in PD and PTSD patients, while no significant group differences were seen in the ACTH concentrations. Additional analyses showed no impact of comorbid depressiveness on the cortisol stress response. MDD patients did not differ in the hormonal stress response neither compared to the HC participants nor to the PD and PTSD patients. Our main findings provide evidence of a dissociation between the cortisol and ACTH concentrations in response to the TSST in PTSD and in PD patients, independent of comorbid depression. Our results further support overall research findings of a cortisol hypo-responsiveness in PD patients. A hypo
Full Text Available Traumatic stress can have severe consequences for both mental and physical health. Furthermore, both psychological and biological traces of trauma increase as a function of accumulating traumatic experiences. Neurobiological research may aid in limiting the impact of traumatic stress, by leading to advances in preventive and treatment interventions. To promote the possibility for clinical implementation of novel research findings, this brief review describes timely conceptual and methodological challenges and directions in neurobiological trauma research on behalf of the Task Force “Neurobiology of Traumatic Stress” of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS. The most important conceptual challenges are the heterogeneity of disorders and existence of subtypes across diagnostic categories: differential latent profiles and trajectories regarding symptom expression and neural correlates are being unraveled; however, similar latent classes’ approaches for treatment response and neurobiological data remain scarce thus far. The key to improving the efficacy of currently available preventive interventions and treatments for trauma-related disorders lies in a better understanding and characterization of individual differences in response to trauma and interventions. This could lead to personalized treatment strategies for trauma-related disorders, based on objective information indicating whether individuals are expected to benefit from them. The most important methodological challenge identified here is the need for large consortia and meta-analyses or, rather, mega-analyses on existent data as a first step. In addition, large multicenter studies, combining novel methods for repeated sampling with more advanced statistical modeling techniques, such as machine learning, should aim to translate identified disease mechanisms into molecular blood-based biomarker combinations to predict disorder vulnerability and treatment responses.
Christov, Nikolai Kirilov; Christova, Petya Koeva; Kato, Hideki; Liu, Yuelin; Sasaki, Kentaro; Imai, Ryozo
A novel cold-inducible GSK3/shaggy-like kinase, TaSK5, was isolated from winter wheat using a macroarray-based differential screening approach. TaSK5 showed high similarity to Arabidopsis subgroup I GSK3/shaggy-like kinases ASK-alpha, AtSK-gamma and ASK-epsilon. RNA gel blot analyses revealed TaSK5 induction by cold and NaCl treatments and to a lesser extent by drought treatment. TaSK5 functionally complemented the cold- and salt-sensitive phenotypes of a yeast GSK3/shaggy-like kinase mutant, △mck1. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaSK5 cDNA showed enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses. By contrast, the tolerance of the transgenic plants to freezing stress was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that a number of abiotic stress-inducible genes were constitutively induced in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting that TaSK5 may function in a novel signal transduction pathway that appears to be unrelated to DREB1/CBF regulon and may involve crosstalk between abiotic and hormonal signals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Therrien, Fanny; Drapeau, Vicky; Lalonde, Josée; Lupien, Sonia J; Beaulieu, Serge; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Richard, Denis
Impact of body weight loss, body fat distribution and the nutritional status on the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was investigated in this study. Fifty-one men (17 non-obese, 20 abdominally obese and 14 reduced obese) and 28 women (12 non-obese, 10 peripherally obese and 6 reduced obese) were subjected to the TSST in fed and fasted states. The TSST response was determined using salivary cortisol measurements. The nutritional status (being fed or fasted) had no effect on the cortisol levels during and following the TSST. Reduced obese men exhibited lower cortisol levels than non-obese men. Cortisol levels in obese men were not different from those of non-obese and reduced obese subjects. In women, there was no significant difference between groups. These finding suggest that weight status in men influences cortisol reactivity to a psychological stress and the different responses seen among genders could be linked to the different fat distributions that characterize men and women. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Karen J. Mathewson PhD
Full Text Available Background. Adults born extremely preterm appear to have more difficulty managing the stresses of early adulthood than their term-born peers. Objective. To examine the effects of being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g versus at full term on cardiovascular responses to stress. Method. Cardiovascular responses were elicited during administration of a widely used laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST. Results. Term-born adults exhibited a larger decrease in total peripheral resistance and larger increase in cardiac output for TSST performance, reflecting greater resilience, than did ELBW adults. Furthermore, in ELBW participants but not controls, cardiovascular responses were correlated with anxiety, suggesting that their responses reflected feelings of stress. Conclusions. Skills-training and practice with relevant stressors may be necessary to increase the personal resources of ELBW participants for managing stress as they transition to adulthood.
Buse, Judith; Enghardt, Stephanie; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Ehrlich, Stefan; Roessner, Veit
It has been suggested that psychosocial stress influences situational fluctuations of tic frequency. However, evidence from experimental studies is lacking. The current study investigated the effects of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-C) on tic frequency in 31 children and adolescents with tic disorders. A relaxation and a concentration situation served as control conditions. Patients were asked either to suppress their tics or to "tic freely." Physiological measures of stress were measured throughout the experiment. The TSST-C elicited a clear stress response with elevated levels of saliva cortisol, increased heart rate, and a larger number of skin conductance responses. During relaxation and concentration, the instruction to suppress tics reduced the number of tics, whereas during stress, the number of tics was low, regardless of the given instruction. Our study suggests that the stress might result in a situational decrease of tic frequency.
O'Connor, Peter; Nguyen, Jessica; Anglim, Jeromy
In this study, we investigated the validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF; Petrides, 2009) in the context of task-induced stress. We used a total sample of 225 volunteers to investigate (a) the incremental validity of the TEIQue-SF over other predictors of coping with task-induced stress, and (b) the construct validity of the TEIQue-SF by examining the mechanisms via which scores from the TEIQue-SF predict coping outcomes. Results demonstrated that the TEIQue-SF possessed incremental validity over the Big Five personality traits in the prediction of emotion-focused coping. Results also provided support for the construct validity of the TEIQue-SF by demonstrating that this measure predicted adaptive coping via emotion-focused channels. Specifically, results showed that, following a task stressor, the TEIQue-SF predicted low negative affect and high task performance via high levels of emotion-focused coping. Consistent with the purported theoretical nature of the trait emotional intelligence (EI) construct, trait EI as assessed by the TEIQue-SF primarily enhances affect and performance in stressful situations by regulating negative emotions.
Khanna, M M; Badura-Brack, A S; McDermott, T J; Embury, C M; Wiesman, A I; Shepherd, A; Ryan, T J; Heinrichs-Graham, E; Wilson, T W
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often associated with attention allocation and emotional regulation difficulties, but the brain dynamics underlying these deficits are unknown. The emotional Stroop task (EST) is an ideal means to monitor these difficulties, because participants are asked to attend to non-emotional aspects of the stimuli. In this study, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) and the EST to monitor attention allocation and emotional regulation during the processing of emotionally charged stimuli in combat veterans with and without PTSD. A total of 31 veterans with PTSD and 20 without PTSD performed the EST during MEG. Three categories of stimuli were used, including combat-related, generally threatening and neutral words. MEG data were imaged in the time-frequency domain and the network dynamics were probed for differences in processing threatening and non-threatening words. Behaviorally, veterans with PTSD were significantly slower in responding to combat-related relative to neutral and generally threatening words. Veterans without PTSD exhibited no significant differences in responding to the three different word types. Neurophysiologically, we found a significant three-way interaction between group, word type and time period across multiple brain regions. Follow-up testing indicated stronger theta-frequency (4-8 Hz) responses in the right ventral prefrontal (0.4-0.8 s) and superior temporal cortices (0.6-0.8 s) of veterans without PTSD compared with those with PTSD during the processing of combat-related words. Our data indicated that veterans with PTSD exhibited deficits in attention allocation and emotional regulation when processing trauma cues, while those without PTSD were able to regulate emotion by directing attention away from threat.
Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Denson, Thomas F; Satyshur, Maureen
Although previous research provides evidence for the role of rewarding activities in reducing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress, no studies have tested whether rewards can buffer cortisol responses in humans undergoing social stressors. This study experimentally investigated whether viewing appetitive rewarding pictures reduces cortisol responses to an acute stress challenge. Fifty-four heterosexual men were randomly assigned to view either mildly erotic (reward) or neutral images (control) of mixed-sex couples before completing the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Participants in the reward condition had significantly lower area-under-the-curve cortisol reactivity to the TSST (mean [M] = 363.46) in comparison with participants in the control group (M = 807.06; F(1,46) = 4.84, p = .033, η(2) = 0.095). Reward participants also had improved cognitive performance on the math portion of the TSST (M = 20.74) in comparison with control participants (M = 13.82; F(44) = 5.44, p = .024, η(2) = 0.11). The stress-buffering effects of reward were specific to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity: the reward and control groups did not differ on psychological perceptions of anticipatory or poststress perceptions, heart rate, or blood pressure responses. This research provides the first evidence linking the experience of reward with reduced stress reactivity in humans and suggests a potential novel reward pathway for coping under stress.
... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...
Thomaes, Kathleen; de Kloet, Carien; Wilker, Sarah; El-Hage, Wissam; Schäfer, Ingo; Kleim, Birgit; Schmahl, Christian; van Zuiden, Mirjam
Traumatic stress can have severe consequences for both mental and physical health. Furthermore, both psychological and biological traces of trauma increase as a function of accumulating traumatic experiences. Neurobiological research may aid in limiting the impact of traumatic stress, by leading to
Sumter, S.R.; Bokhorst, C.L.; Miers, A.C.; van Pelt, J.; Westerberg, P.M.
During adolescence pubertal development is said to lead to an increase in general stress sensitivity which might create a vulnerability for the emergence of psychopathology during this period. However, the empirical evidence for increasing stress sensitivity is scarce and mixed. Biological responses
Stephens, Mary Ann C; Mahon, Pamela B; McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to the
Garafova, A; Penesova, A; Cizmarova, E; Marko, A; Vlcek, M; Jezova, D
Present study was aimed to investigate sympathetic responses to mental stress with hypothesis that the presence of obesity in patients with hypertension has a modifying effect. Young male subjects, 8 with hypertension grade I, with BMI 25 kg/m(2) (HT), 10 with hypertension grade I, and BMI 30 kg/m(2) (HT OB), 14 healthy controls with BMI 30 kg/m(2) (OB), and 13 healthy controls with BMI 25 kg/m(2) (C) underwent the Stroop test. ECG was recorded continuously to evaluate heart rate variability (HRV). Blood pressure (BP) and catecholamine concentrations were measured at baseline, at the end of mental stress test and 15 min thereafter. Patients with HT demonstrated increased adrenaline concentrations and enhanced stress-induced noradrenaline release compared to that in healthy controls. In obese subjects, stress-induced increase of systolicBP was lower compared to lean individuals. Stress exposure induced a significant rise in the low frequency power component of HRV, however the increase was lower in the HT OB group compared to C. Obesity in patients with hypertension did not lead to a different reaction in comparison with lean hypertensive subjects. The present data demonstrate higher sympathoadrenal activity in early-stage of hypertension. Obesity is connected with higher resting systolicBP and modifies the HRV response to mental stress.
Robyn J. McQuaid
Full Text Available Stress responses in humans can be attenuated by exogenous oxytocin administration, and these stress-buffering properties may be moderated by social factors. Yet, the influence of acute stressors on circulating endogenous oxytocin levels have been inconsistent, and limited information is available concerning the influence of social support in moderating this relationship. In the current investigation, undergraduate women (N = 67 were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST with either social support available from a close female friend or no social support being available. An additional set of women served as controls. The TSST elicited marked elevations of state anxiety and negative emotions, which were largely attenuated among women who received social support. Furthermore, baseline oxytocin levels were inversely related to women's general feelings of distrust, as well as basal plasma cortisol levels. Despite these associations, oxytocin levels were unaffected by the TSST, and this was the case irrespective of oral contraceptive use or estrogen levels. In contrast, plasma cortisol elevations were elicited by the psychosocial stressor, but only in women using oral contraceptives, an effect that was prevented when social support was available. Taken together, these data provisionally suggest that changes in plasma oxytocin might not accompany the stress attenuating effects of social support on cortisol levels. Moreover, as plasma oxytocin might not reliably reflect brain oxytocin levels, the linkage between oxytocin and prosocial behaviors remains tenuous.
Montero-López, Eva; Santos-Ruiz, Ana; García-Ríos, M Carmen; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Manuel; Rogers, Heather L; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel
The menstrual cycle involves significant changes in hormone levels, causing physical and psychological changes in women that are further influenced by stress. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and salivary cortisol patterns during the day as well as the salivary cortisol response to the Virtual Reality Version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-VR). Forty two women not taking oral contraceptives (24 in follicular phase and 18 in luteal phase) participated in the study. Five samples of salivary cortisol collected during the day and another five samples of cortisol during the TSST-VR were analyzed. Psychological stress measures and psychopathological symptomatology were also evaluated. A 2 × 4 mixed ANCOVA showed an interaction between the two groups on the TSST-RV invoked cortisol response to the [F(3,42) = 3.681; p = 0.023) where women in luteal phase showed higher cortisol post exposure levels (5.96 ± 3.76 nmol/L) than women in follicular phase (4.31 ± 2.23 nmol/L). No other significant differences were found. Our findings provide evidence that menstrual cycle phase tended to influence cortisol response to laboratory-induced mental stress, with more reactivity observed in the luteal phase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Chaudoir, Stephenie; Bublitz, Margaret; O'Reilly Treter, Maggie; Stroud, Laura
We examined the association between two dimensions of maternal parenting style (care and overprotection) and cortisol response to an acute laboratory-induced stressor in healthy youth. Forty-three participants completed the Parental Bonding Instrument and an adapted version of the Trier Social Stress Test-Child (TSST-C). Nine cortisol samples were collected to investigate heterogeneity in different phases of youth's stress response. Multiphase growth-curve modeling was utilized to create latent factors corresponding to individual differences in cortisol during baseline, reactivity, and recovery to the TSST-C. Youth report of maternal overprotection was associated with lower baseline cortisol levels, and a slower cortisol decline during recovery, controlling for maternal care, puberty, and gender. No additive or interactive effects involving maternal care emerged. These findings suggest that maternal overprotection may exert a unique and important influence on youth's stress response.
Bodie, Graham D
This study sought to investigate the impact of person-centered comfort on cardiovascular reactivity and to test a recently developed dual-process theory of supportive message outcomes proposing that the impact of supportive communication is moderated by the motivation and ability to attend to message content. Participants (n = 179) completed a public speaking task that served to experimentally manipulate stress. During the preparation period, instant messages containing either low or high person-centered messages or containing no imbedded supportive message were sent. Results indicated that, in line with theoretical predictions, message content did influence mean arterial pressure and heart rate for participants exposed to moderate but not to low or high stress. Results are discussed in terms of the dual-process theory of supportive message outcomes, and the discussion offers both theoretical and practical implications of the research.
Chemtob, C M; Roitblat, H L; Hamada, R S; Muraoka, M Y; Carlson, J G; Bauer, G B
We examined the ability of Vietnam veterans with PTSD to focus attention on a primary digit detection task while concurrently viewing neutral or Vietnam-related picture and word distractors. Controlling for combat exposure, military service, and psychopathology, veterans with PTSD took longer to detect the target when Vietnam-related pictures were distractors. There were no reaction time differences when word stimuli were distractors. The latency effect was specific to trials with trauma-related pictures and did not spread to neutral trials interleaved within a mixed block of trauma and neutral pictures. Individuals with PTSD recalled proportionally more Vietnam-related words than other groups, implying differential attention to Vietnam-related words. Attending to trauma-related pictures interferes with performance of a concurrent task by individuals with PTSD.
observer condition) or a member of a dyadic group of UAV monitors (coacting group condition). This was done to enhance the observers’ interest and...responsible for signal detection on the same task, they were not to communicate , collaborate, or strategize. Apart from the direction not to commu...2016 - Human Factors neuroscience, aging, automation, and epigenetics. Raja was also a foremost leader in the human factors community and a
Kezhu, Wang; Pan, Xu; Cong, Lu; Liming, Dong; Beiyue, Zhang; Jingwei, Lu; Yanyan, Yang; Xinmin, Liu
Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the major active ingredients of Panax ginseng and has showed notable improving learning and memory effects in several behavioral tasks, such as water maze, shuttle-box, and step-through, based on avoidance. However, there was no report about the role of Rg1 on the performance of reward-directed instrumental conditioning, which could reflect the adaptive capacity to ever-changing environments. Thus, in this study, the reward devaluation test and conditional visual discrimination task were conducted to study the ameliorating effects of Rg1 on cognitive deficits, especially the loss of adaptation capacity in chronic restraint stress (CRS) rat model. Our results showed that rat subjected to CRS became insensitive to the changes in outcome value, and it significantly harmed the rat's performance in conditional visual discrimination task. Moreover, the levels of BDNF, TrkB, and Erk phosphorylation were decreased in the prefrontal cortex of CRS rats. However, these changes were effectively reversed by Rg1 (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.). Therefore, it demonstrated that Rg1 has a good ability to improve learning and memory and also ameliorate impaired adaptive capacity induced by CRS. This amelioration effect of Rg1 might be mediated partially by BDNF/TrkB/Erk pathway in prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wittekind, Charlotte E; Muhtz, Christoph; Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena
Attentional biases (AB) for trauma-related stimuli have been examined in many studies assessing different trauma samples. In emotional Stroop tasks (EST), blocked and single-trial formats are used almost interchangeably in clinical research. There is reason to believe that different designs yield different results and assess different processes, which, however, has been hardly examined in studies. Furthermore, there is a dearth of information about AB in older trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress symptoms. Older adults with (n = 20) and without PTSD symptoms (n = 26) as well as non-traumatized controls (n = 21) completed an EST, in which words were presented both blocked and randomized. Analyses revealed that individuals with PTSD symptoms showed AB for trauma- and depression-related words; however, mode of administration did not significantly influence reaction times. The emotional Stroop task cannot disentangle the underlying cognitive mechanism (i.e., facilitation, interference, avoidance). PTSD symptoms in older trauma survivors are associated with AB. Overall, participants with PTSD symptoms did not show greater impairment of cognitive control in comparison to both control groups. Results also illustrate that methodological differences between task versions need to be considered more thoroughly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tabassum, Saiqa; Haider, Saida
Stressful and emotionally arousing experiences are remembered, and previous reports show that repeated exposure to stressful condition enhances emotional learning. However, the usefulness of the repeated exposure depends on the intensity and duration. Although repeated training as a strategy to improve memory performance is receiving increased attention from researchers, repeated training may induce stressful effects that have not yet been considered. The present study investigated whether exposure to repetitive learning trials with limited or extensive durations in a passive avoidance task (PAT) would be beneficial or harmful to emotional memory performance in rats. Rats were exposed to repetitive learning trials for two different durations in the limited exposure (exposure to four repetitive trials) and extensive exposure groups (exposure to 16 repetitive trials) in a single day to compare the impact of both conditions on rat emotional memory performance. Alterations in corticosterone content and associated oxidative and neurochemical systems were assessed to explore the underlying mechanism responsible for changes in emotional memory. Following extensive exposure, a negative impact on emotional memory was observed compared with the limited exposure group. A lack of any further improvement in memory function following extensive training exposure was supported by increased corticosterone levels, decreased 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels and abnormal oxidative stress levels, which may induce negative effects on memory consolidation. It is suggested that limited exposure to repetitive learning trials is more useful for studying improvement in emotional memory, whereas extensive exposure may produce chronic stress-like condition that can be detrimental and responsible for compromised memory performance. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...
Jönsson, Peter; Österberg, Kai; Wallergård, Mattias
-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activations in both V-TSST sessions, together with habituation of cortisol and heart rate in the second session, but without any significant group differences. However, the former ED patients showed considerable variation in self-reported signs...... cortisol samples were collected. In addition, high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), heart rate (HR), t-wave amplitude (TWA), and α-amylase were assessed to examine stress reactivity and habituation in the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The initial analyses showed clear hypothalamic...... of exhaustion (SMBQ). This led us to assign former ED patients with lower ratings into the low SMBQ group (LOWS) and those with higher ratings to the high SMBQ group (HIGHS). When repeating the analyses a different picture emerged; the HIGHS showed a lower cortisol response to the V-TSST than did the LOWS. Both...
Cumming, Mark J; Thompson, Madison A; McCormick, Cheryl M
Adolescent social instability stress (SS; daily 1 hr isolation + new cage partners postnatal days 30-45; thereafter with original cage partner, also in the SS condition) and control (CTL) rats competed for access to a preferred food in five sessions against their cage partner. In the first session, SS pairs displayed more aggression (face whacks, p = .02; rear attacks, p = .03), were less likely to relinquish access to the food voluntarily (p = .03), spent more time at the feeder than CTL pairs (p = .06), but did not differ in latency to access the feeder (p = .41). Pairs were considered in dominant-submissive relationships (DSR) if one rat spent significantly more time at the feeder than the other; 8 of 12 SS and 8 of 12 CTL pairs displayed DSRs (remaining: no-DSR). Aggression increased from the 1st to 5th session (p food reward. These results add to evidence that SS in adolescence modifies the adult social repertoire of rats and highlight the importance of adolescent social experiences for adult behavior. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, André; Luo, Yuejia
The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular reactivity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity, and subjective affect (including positive affect, negative affect and subjective controllability) in healthy individuals. The Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) approach was applied to account for the relationship between personality traits and stress responses. Results suggested that higher neuroticism predicted lower heart rate stress reactivity, lower cortisol stress response, more decline of positive affect and lower subjective controllability. Individuals higher in extraversion showed smaller cortisol activation to stress and less increase of negative affect. In addition, higher openness score was associated with lower cortisol stress response. These findings elucidate that neuroticism, extraversion and openness are important variables associated with the stress response and different dimensions of personality trait are associated with different aspects of the stress response.
Spyrka, Jadwiga; Hess, Grzegorz
The consequences of stress depend on characteristics of the stressor, including the duration of exposure, severity, and predictability. Exposure of mice to repeated neck restraint has been shown to bidirectionally modulate the potential for long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus (DG) in a manner dependent on the number of restraint repetitions, but the influence of repeated brief neck restraint on electrophysiology of single DG neurons has not yet been investigated. Here, we aimed at finding the effects of 1, 3, 7, 14, or 21 daily neck restraint sessions lasting 10 min on electrophysiological characteristics of DG granule cells as well as excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to these neurons. While the excitability of DG granule cells and inhibitory synaptic transmission were unchanged, neck restraint decreased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory currents after three repetitions but enhanced it after 14 and 21 repetitions. The consequences of repeated neck restraint on hippocampus-dependent memory were investigated using the object location test (OLT). Neck restraint stress impaired cognitive performance in the OLT after three repetitions but improved it after 14 and 21 repetitions. Mice subjected to three neck restraint sessions displayed an increase in the measures of depressive and anxiety-like behaviors, however, prolongation of the exposure to neck restraint resulted in a gradual decline in the intensity of these measures. These data indicate that stress imposed by an increasing number of repeated neck restraint episodes bidirectionally modulates both excitatory synaptic transmission in the DG and cognitive performance in the object location memory task. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keller, Hanne Dauer
Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....
Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.
Brorson Fich, Lars; Jönsson, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
Is has long been established, that views to natural scenes can a have a dampening effect on physiological stress responses. However, as people in Europe, Canada and North America today spent 50-85% of their time indoors, attention might also be paid to how the artificial man-made indoor environment...... is computer generated and properties of the space therefore can be systematically varied, we measured saliva cortisol and heart rate variability in participants in a closed room versus a room with openings. As shown by a significant linear contrast interaction between groups and TSST conditions, participants...
Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.
Wingenfeld, Katja; Kuehl, Linn K; Boeker, Anita; Schultebraucks, Katharina; Ritter, Kristin; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Otte, Christian; Spitzer, Carsten
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) increase the risk to develop major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity or metabolic syndrome in adulthood. In addition, ACE may be associated with an exaggerated endocrine response to stress, which, in turn, may lead to enhanced food intake resulting in obesity and metabolic problems. We systematically examined the stress response and consecutive food intake in 32 women with MDD and ACE as determined by a clinical interview (Early Trauma Inventory), 52 women with MDD without ACE, 22 women with ACE but no current or lifetime MDD and 37 healthy women without either MDD or ACE. All participants underwent a psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) and a control condition (Placebo-TSST) before they were offered a buffet of snacks. Participants were not aware that the primary outcome variable was the amount of consumed kilocalories (kcal). The four groups did not differ in demographic variables. Stress resulted in higher cortisol release and higher blood pressure compared to the control condition. Patients with MDD without ACE had a significantly lower cortisol response to stress compared to controls. Across groups, we found higher kcal intake after stress compared to the control condition. Comparing high and low cortisol responders to stress, higher kcal intake after stress was only seen in those with low cortisol release. This study provides evidence that blunted rather than enhanced cortisol release to stress might lead to increased food intake, independent from MDD and ACE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy
Alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function are well-established in adults with current depression. HPA alterations may persist into remission and confer increased risk for recurrence. A modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered at baseline to 32 young adults with remitted major depressive disorder and 36 never-depressed controls. Participants were randomly assigned to either a 'high-stress' condition involving social evaluation or a 'low-stress' control condition. Cortisol concentrations were measured in saliva samples throughout the TSST. Participants were assessed again after 6 months for the occurrence of stressful life events and depressive symptoms/disorders during the follow-up period. Participants who exhibited enhanced cortisol reactivity in the low-stress condition showed increases in depressive symptoms over follow-up, after controlling for stressful life events during the follow-up period. Anticipatory stress cortisol and cortisol reactivity each interacted with history of depressive episodes to predict depression trajectories. The single TSST administration limits conclusions about whether alterations of cortisol reactivity represent trait-like vulnerability factors or consequences ("scars') of past depression. These results extend previous findings on stress sensitivity in depression and suggest that altered HPA function during remission could reflect an endophenotype for vulnerability to depression recurrence. Findings support interactive models of risk for depression recurrence implicating HPA function, depression history, and sensitivity to minor stressors. Results may have implications for interventions that match treatment approaches to profiles of HPA function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Leder, Johannes; Häusser, Jan Alexander; Mojzisch, Andreas
Often, economic decisions do not only depend on one's own preferences, but also on the choices of others and therefore require strategizing (i.e., thinking about what others might think). In experimental economics, this has been modeled by the beauty contest game. Another typical feature of economic decisions is that they are often carried out under stress. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to examine the influence of stress on decision-making in the beauty contest game. Participants were randomly assigned to either the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) or a placebo version of the TSST-G (control condition). Then, participants played four rounds of a standard beauty contest game. As a biomarker of stress, salivary cortisol was measured. As predicted, participants under stress chose higher numbers in the beauty contest game than non-stressed participants, indicating less strategizing. This effect was mediated by the stress-induced increase in cortisol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singer, Nina; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Zänkert, Sandra; Wüst, Stefan; Kudielka, Brigitte M
In everyday life, moral decisions must frequently be made under acute stress. Although there is increasing evidence that both stress and cortisol affect moral judgment and behavior as well as decision-making in various domains unrelated to morality, surprisingly few attempts have been made to explore the effects of stress on everyday moral decision-making. Therefore, in the present study, we exposed 50 young healthy men to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or its non-stressful placebo version (PTSST). We investigated the impact of acute stress exposure and stress-related cortisol levels on decision-making, decision certainty, and emotions in 28 everyday moral conflict situations with altruistic versus egoistic response alternatives. Results showed that the TSST-exposed group made more altruistic decisions than the non-stress control group, while groups did not differ in decision certainty and emotion ratings. Moreover, in correlational as well as regression analyses, additionally controlling for confounding variables, we observed significant positive associations between cortisol levels and altruistic decision-making. Further analyses revealed that altruistic decisions came along with significantly higher decision certainty and significantly more positive emotion ratings than egoistic decisions. Notably, our data also raise the idea that the personality trait agreeableness plays an important role in everyday moral decision-making. In sum, our findings provide initial evidence that both acute stress exposure and cortisol levels have prosocial effects on everyday moral decision-making in young healthy men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chambers, David W
We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.
Aleknaviciute, Jurate; Tulen, Joke H M; De Rijke, Yolanda B; Bouwkamp, Christian G; van der Kroeg, Mark; Timmermans, Mirjam; Wester, Vincent L; Bergink, Veerle; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Tiemeier, Henning; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Kooiman, Cornelis G; Kushner, Steven A
The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) is currently recommended as a first-line contraceptive with an exclusively local intrauterine influence. However, recent clinical trials have identified side effects of LNG-IUD that appear to be systemically mediated, including depressed mood and emotional lability. We performed two experimental studies and a cross-sectional study. For each study, women were included from three groups: LNG-IUD (0.02mg/24h), oral ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel (0.03mg/0.15mg; EE30/LNG) and natural cycling (NC). Study 1-Salivary cortisol was measured at baseline and at defined intervals following the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Heart rate was monitored continuously throughout the TSST. Study 2-Salivary cortisol and serum total cortisol were evaluated relative to low-dose (1μg) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration. Study 3-Hair cortisol was measured as a naturalistic index of long-term cortisol exposure. Women using LNG-IUD had an exaggerated salivary cortisol response to the TSST (24.95±13.45 nmol/L, 95% CI 17.49-32.40), compared to EE30/LNG (3.27±2.83 nmol/L, 95% CI 1.71-4.84) and NC (10.85±11.03nmol/L, 95% CI 6.30-15.40) (Pcontraception induces a centrally-mediated sensitization of both autonomic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsivity. LNG-IUD sensitization of HPA axis responsivity was observed acutely under standardized laboratory conditions, as well as chronically under naturalistic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shalev, Idan; Lerer, Elad; Israel, Salomon; Uzefovsky, Florina; Gritsenko, Inga; Mankuta, David; Ebstein, Richard P; Kaitz, Marsha
A key protein in maintaining neuronal integrity throughout the life span is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The BDNF gene is characterized by a functional polymorphism, which has been associated with stress-related disorders such as anxiety-related syndromes and depression, prompting us to examine individual responses by Genotype and Sex to a standardized social stress paradigm. Gender differences in BDNFxstress responses were posited because estrogen induces synthesis of BDNF in several brain regions. 97 university students (51 females and 46 males) participated in a social stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). Indices of stress were derived from repeated measurement of cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate during the TSST. All subjects were genotyped for the Val66Met polymorphism. Tests of within-subject effects showed a significant three-way interaction (SPSS GLM repeated measures: Time (eight levels)xBDNF (val/val, val/met)xSex: p=0.0002), which reflects gender differences in the pattern of cortisol rise and decline during the social challenge. In male subjects, val/val homozygotes showed a greater rise in salivary cortisol than val/met heterozygotes. In female subjects, there was a trend for the opposite response, which is significant when area under the curve increase (AUCi) was calculated for the val/val homozygotes to show the lowest rise. Overall, the same pattern of results was observed for blood pressure and heart rate. These results indicate that a common, functionally significant polymorphism in the BDNF gene modulates HPA axis reactivity and regulation during the TSST differently in men and women. Findings may be related to gender differences in reactivity and vulnerability to social stress.
Chen, Ivy Y; Jarrin, Denise C; Ivers, Hans; Morin, Charles M
Stress and hyperarousal both contribute to insomnia. Elevated stress-related sleep reactivity is associated with hyperarousal, and might constitute a vulnerability to future insomnia. The present study examined acute stress-induced arousal and its association with nocturnal sleep. Participants were 30 healthy adults (66.7% female, M age = 26.7 years): 10 with insomnia (INS) and 20 good sleepers with high vulnerability (HV) or low vulnerability (LV) to insomnia. They underwent two consecutive nights of polysomnography. During the evening preceding the second night, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered, and psychological and physiological arousal indices were assessed. The TSST elicited an increase in psychological and physiological arousal in all three groups. The INS group showed greater acute cortisol response (p stress reactivity and bedtime hyperarousal might represent a trait-like vulnerability in certain good sleepers. More research is warranted to validate and expand these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Frisch, Johanna U.; Häusser, Jan A.; Mojzisch, Andreas
In our lives, we face countless situations in which we are observed and evaluated by our social interaction partners. Social-evaluative threat is frequently associated with strong neurophysiological stress reactions, in particular, an increase in cortisol levels. Yet, social variables do not only cause stress, but they can also buffer the neurophysiological stress response. Furthermore, social variables can themselves be affected by the threat or the threat-induced neurophysiological stress response. In order to study this complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses, a paradigm is needed that (a) reliably induces high levels of social-evaluative threat and (b) is extremely adaptable to the needs of the researcher. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a well-established paradigm in biopsychology that induces social-evaluative threat in the laboratory by subjecting participants to a mock job-interview. In this review, we aim at demonstrating the potential of the TSST for studying the complex interplay of social-evaluative threat, social processes and neurophysiological stress responses. PMID:25698987
Tsuru, Jusen; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Ayako; Kawano, Aimi; Ikeda, Rie; Ando, Tomoko; Oshita, Harumi; Aizawa, Saeko; Masuda, Koji; Higuma, Haruka; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro
Decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in enhanced stress responses. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with psychological changes; for example, carriers of the Met allele exhibit increased harm avoidance as well as a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder. To analyze the effects of BDNF Val66Met on stress responses, we tested 226 university students (88 women and 138 men) using a social stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]) and an electrical stimulation stress test. Stress indices were derived from repeated measurements of salivary α-amylase, salivary cortisol, heart rate, and psychological testing during the stress tests. All subjects were genotyped for the Val66Met polymorphism (G196A). A significant three-way interaction (time [3 levels] × BDNF [Val/Val, Val/Met, Met/Met]; PBDNF had different effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis reactivity but not on sympathetic adrenomedullary reactivity in TSST and electrical stimulation tests.
The significance of sense of coherence for the perceptions of task characteristics and stress during interruptions amongst a sample of public health nurses in Hong Kong: implications for nursing management.
Shiu, A T
The study aimed to investigate the significance of sense of coherence (SOC) for the perceptions of task characteristics and for stress perceptions during interruptions of public health nurses (PHNs) with children in Hong Kong. The research design employed the experience sampling method. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 20 subjects. During stage one of the study a watch was worn that gave a signal at six random times each day for seven days to complete an experience sampling diary. PHNs on average responded to 34 signals (80%) to complete the diaries which collected data on work and family juggling, task characteristics, and their effects on mood states. At stage two respondents completed the SOC scale which measured confidence in life as comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful. Two major findings provide the focus for this paper. First, results indicate that there was positive correlation between SOC and perceived task characteristics. Second, results reveal that when interruptions occurred, PHNs with high SOC had higher positive affect and lower negative affect than PHNs with low SOC. These results suggest that SOC as a salutogenic model helps PHNs to cope with the family and work juggling as well as the occupational stress. Implications for nursing management on strengthening SOC of PHNs are discussed.
Pachter, Lee M; Lieberman, Leslie; Bloom, Sandra L; Fein, Joel A
The Philadelphia ACE Task Force is a community based collaborative of health care providers, researchers, community-based organizations, funders, and public sector representatives. The mission of the task force is to provide a venue to address childhood adversity and its consequences in the Philadelphia metropolitan region. In this article we describe the origins and metamorphosis of the Philadelphia ACE Task Force, which initially was narrowly focused on screening for adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in health care settings but expanded its focus to better represent a true community-based approach to sharing experiences with addressing childhood adversity in multiple sectors of the city and region. The task force has been successful in developing a research agenda and conducting research on ACEs in the urban context, and has identified foci of local activity in the areas of professional training and workforce development, community education, and local practical interventions around adversity, trauma, and resiliency. In this article we also address the lessons learned over the first 5 years of the task force's existence and offers recommendations for future efforts to build a local community-based ACEs collaborative. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Monteleone, Palmiero; Tortorella, Alfonso; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Serino, Ismene; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Maj, Mario
Stress is a precipitating factor for both binge eating and bulimia nervosa (BN); however, the biological mechanisms through which it may trigger binge eating are poorly understood. There is evidence that the adrenal hormone cortisol and the gastric peptide ghrelin might be involved in stress-induced food ingestion. We hypothesized that symptomatic patients with BN might disclose deranged responses of ghrelin and/or cortisol to stressors and that this could be related to their binge-eating behaviour. Here we investigated salivary cortisol and ghrelin responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 10 women with acute BN and 10 age-matched healthy females. Eating-related psychopathology and behaviours were assessed by self-report measures. No significant differences emerged between bulimic patients and healthy controls in the pre-stress salivary levels of both cortisol and ghrelin. The BN patients displayed normal cortisol but enhanced ghrelin responses to TSST. No significant correlations emerged between stress-induced salivary hormone changes and self-report measures of binge eating. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing deranged salivary ghrelin reactivity to a psychosocial stressor in symptomatic patients with BN. The extent to which this could contribute to the binge-eating behaviour of BN subjects awaits clarification. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Hoyer, Juergen; Braeuer, David; Crawcour, Stephen; Klumbies, Elisabeth; Kirschbaum, Clemens
The present study aimed at investigating how frequently and intensely depersonalization/derealization symptoms occur during a stressful performance situation in social phobia patients vs. healthy controls, as well as testing hypotheses about the psychological predictors and consequences of such symptoms. N=54 patients with social phobia and N=34 control participants without mental disorders were examined prior to, during, and after a standardized social performance situation (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). An adapted version of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale was applied along with measures of social anxiety, depression, personality, participants' subjective appraisal, safety behaviours, and post-event processing. Depersonalization symptoms were more frequent in social phobia patients (92%) than in controls (52%). Specifically in patients, they were highly positively correlated with safety behaviours and post-event-processing, even after controlling for social anxiety. The role of depersonalization/derealization in the maintenance of social anxiety should be more thoroughly recognized and explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This research project examined the effects of acute social stress induced experimentally with a modified version of TSST (Trier Social Stress Test on the systemic levels of the cortisol hormone and on the execution of a sustained and divided attention task, in male and female university students. Results showed that the modified TSST protocol caused increases in the systemic levels of cortisol in male participants, but did not affect the execution of the PASAT (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task. The results are discussed in the light of previous studies in which gender differences in the effects of stress are observed.
Chen, Pei-Ju; Liang, Keng-Chen; Lin, Hui-Chen; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Su, Kuan-Pin; Hung, Mei-Chu; Sheen, Lee-Yan
This study adopted the forced-swimming paradigm to induce depressive symptoms in rats and evaluated the effects on learning and memory processing. Furthermore, the effects of the water extract of Gastrodia elata Bl., a well-known Chinese traditional medicine, on amnesia in rats subjected to the forced-swimming procedure were studied. Rats were subjected to the forced-swimming procedure, and the inhibitory avoidance task and Morris water maze were used to assess learning and memory performance. The acquisition of the two tasks was mostly impaired after the 15-minute forced-swimming procedure. Administration of the water extract of G. elata Bl. for 21 consecutive days at a dosage of 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg of body weight significantly improved retention in the inhibitory avoidance test, and the lower dose showed a better effect than the higher one and the antidepressant fluoxetine (18 mg/kg of body weight). In the Morris water maze, the lower dose of the water extract of G. elata Bl. significantly improved retention by shortening escape latency in the first test session and increasing the time in searching the target zone during the probe test. These findings suggest that water extracts of G. elata Bl. ameliorate the learning and memory deficits induced by forced swimming.
Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) have been suggested to play a protective role during acute psychosocial stress, because they act as antagonists to the effects of the stress hormone cortisol. This study aims to investigate whether prolonged psychosocial stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, is related to the capacity to produce DHEA and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. It also aims to investigate whether prolonged perceived stress affects the balance between production of cortisol and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. Thirty-six healthy subjects (19 men and 17 women, mean age 37 years, SD 5 years), were included. Perceived stress at work during the past week was measured by using the Stress-Energy (SE) Questionnaire. The participants were divided into three groups based on their mean scores; Low stress, Medium stress and High stress. The participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. General Linear Models were used to investigate if the Medium stress group and the High stress group differ regarding stress response compared to the Low stress group. Higher perceived stress at work was associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress. Furthermore, the ratio between the cortisol production and the DHEA-S production during the acute stress test were higher in individuals reporting higher perceived stress at work compared to individuals reporting low perceived stress at work. There was no statistical difference in DHEA response between the groups. This study shows that prolonged stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, seems to negatively affect the capacity to produce DHEA-S during acute stress. Given the protective functions of DHEA-S, attenuated DHEA-S production during acute stress may lead to higher risk for adverse
Panjwani, Naaila; Chaplin, Tara M; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C
Gender roles in mainstream U.S. culture suggest that girls express more happiness, sadness, anxiety, and shame/embarrassment than boys, while boys express more anger and externalizing emotions, such as contempt. However, gender roles and emotion expression may be different in low-income and ethnically diverse families, as children and parents are often faced with greater environmental stressors and may have different gender expectations. This study examined gender differences in emotion expression in low-income adolescents, an understudied population. One hundred and seventy nine adolescents (aged 14-17) participated in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Trained coders rated adolescents' expressions of happiness, sadness, anxiety, shame/embarrassment, anger, and contempt during the TSST using a micro-analytic coding system. Analyses showed that, consistent with gender roles, girls expressed higher levels of happiness and shame than boys; however, contrary to traditional gender roles, girls showed higher levels of contempt than boys. Also, in contrast to cultural stereotypes, there were no differences in anger between boys and girls. Findings suggest gender-role inconsistent displays of externalizing emotions in low-income adolescents under acute stress, and may reflect different emotion socialization experiences in this group.
Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.
Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658
Pierce, Meghan E; Pritchard, Laurel M
Female veterans are a growing yet understudied population. Currently, 14.6% of all troops deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq are female. Military service is associated with an increased risk for trauma exposure and subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is frequently associated with PTSD. Few studies have examined females diagnosed with PTSD and only one study, to our knowledge, has examined HPA-axis dysregulation in female veterans. This study examined salivary cortisol in 52 female veterans and civilians both with and without PTSD. We collected saliva samples at bedtime and awakening, as well as in response to the Trier social stress test (TSST). We found that female veterans had blunted cortisol concentrations at all time points during the TSST compared to female civilians, regardless of PTSD status. Even though all groups showed the expected diurnal decline in cortisol, the difference between awakening and bedtime samples were significant only in civilians without PTSD. The results of our study suggest that stressors specific to the military may lead to lower than normal cortisol, which may not be associated with the expressions of PTSD.
Kanehisa, Masayuki; Kawashima, Chiwa; Nakanishi, Mari; Okamoto, Kana; Oshita, Harumi; Masuda, Koji; Takita, Fuku; Izumi, Toshihiko; Inoue, Ayako; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency. The aims of the present study were to explore the relationship between OCPD and psychological stress and psychological tests. We evaluated 63 OCPD patients and 107 healthy controls (HCs). We collected saliva samples from patients and controls before and after a social stress procedure, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), to measure the concentrations of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Profile of Mood State (POMS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale (SASS), and Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS) were administered to patients and HCs. Following TSST exposure, the salivary amylase and cortisol levels were significantly decreased in male patients compared with controls. Additionally, OCPD patients had higher CTQ, POMS, STAI, and BDI scores than HCs and exhibited significantly higher anxiety and depressive states. OCPD patients scored higher on future denial and threat prediction as per the DACS tool. According to a stepwise regression analysis, STAI, POMS, and salivary cortisol responses were independent predictors of OCPD. Our results suggested that attenuated sympathetic and parasympathetic reactivity in male OCPD patients occurs along with attenuated salivary amylase and cortisol responses to the TSST. In addition, there was a significant difference between OCPD patients and HCs in child trauma, mood, anxiety, and cognition. The finding support the modeling role of cortisol (20min) on the relationships between STAI trait and depression among OCPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Madsen, Ida E H; Tripathi, Manisha; Borritz, Marianne
OBJECTIVES: According to the "stress-as-offense-to-self" perspective, work tasks that are considered unnecessary or unreasonable - so-called "illegitimate work tasks" - are likely to elicit stress-reactions. Previous studies, mostly cross-sectional, have shown that illegitimate tasks are associated...... with increased self-reported stress, cortisol, and counterproductive work behavior. In this article, we examine the prospective association between unnecessary work tasks, one type of illegitimate work tasks, and mental health among Danish human service workers. Further, we explore whether this association...... is modified by sex, age, occupational position, and baseline mental health status. METHODS: The data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires from 1351 Danish human service workers in three waves of data-collection during 1999-2005. We measured unnecessary work tasks by a single item, and assessed...
Chaplin, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Tebes, Jacob K.; Mayes, Linda C.
Experience with and management of stress has implications for adolescents’ behavioral and socioemotional development. This study examined the relationship between adolescents’ physiological response to an acute laboratory stressor (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and anger regulation and interpersonal competence in a sample of 175 low-income urban adolescents (51.8% girls). Findings suggested that heightened reactivity as indicated by cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure was associated with increased interpersonal competence and anger regulation. However, these findings were context dependent such that, for youth high in self-reported child maltreatment, heightened reactivity was associated with decreased interpersonal competence and anger regulation. Results highlight the importance of considering how context may condition the effect of stress reactivity on functioning during adolescence. PMID:22359225
Streit, Fabian; Akdeniz, Ceren; Haddad, Leila; Kumsta, Robert; Entringer, Sonja; Frank, Josef; Yim, Ilona S; Zänkert, Sandra; Witt, Stephanie H; Kirsch, Peter; Rietschel, Marcella; Wüst, Stefan
The brain neuropeptide S (NPS) system has recently generated substantial interest and may be of major relevance for central stress regulation. The NPS receptor (NPSR1) is highly expressed in the limbic system, exogenous NPS exerts pronounced anxiolytic and fear-attenuating effects in rodents and extensive close crosstalk between the NPS system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been demonstrated. In humans, associations between NPSR1 variants and anxiety and panic disorder, as well as amygdala responsiveness to fear- relevant faces and prefrontal cortex activity in a fear conditioning paradigm have been reported. Moreover, a NPSR1 sequence variant was found to be associated with cortisol stress responses in males. Here, we performed a haplotype-based analysis covering three functional NPSR1 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter (rs2530547), in exon 3 (rs324981) and exon 6 (rs727162) in 277 healthy subjects who were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). A significant sex-specific association with salivary cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress was detected for the common TTC haplotype 2 (frequency of about 20%). In an additional study using an imaging genetics approach, 65 healthy subjects were exposed to a stress paradigm for scanner environments (“ScanSTRESS”). We found a significant and, again, sex-specific interaction between rs324981 (whose minor T-allele is harbored by haplotype 2) and the neural stress response in a cluster close to the parahippocampal gyrus (whole brain corrected). Moreover, as in the TSST sample, NPSR1 variation was associated with salivary cortisol responses (on a trend level) in a sex-specific way. In summary, our preliminary findings in two independent cohorts exposed to different stress paradigms suggest that the NPS system significantly influences acute stress responses and that sequence variation in NPSR1 may contribute to sex differences in stress regulation. Copyright © 2016
Newton, Tamara L; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Lyle, Keith B; Szabo, Yvette Z; Miller, James J; Warnecke, Ashlee J
Elevated inflammation in the context of stress has been implicated in mental and physical health. Approaching this from an emotion regulation perspective, we tested whether the salivary cytokine response to stress is dampened by using distraction to minimize opportunity for poststressor rumination. Healthy young adults were randomized to an acute stressor: modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, Study 1) or angry memory retrieval (Study 2). Within each study, participants were randomized to poststressor condition-rest or distraction-at a 3:1 ratio. Saliva, collected before and 40 min after the end of each stressor, was assayed for proinflammatory cytokines (PICs): interleukin-1β (IL-1β), TNF-α, and IL-6. Both stressors increased all PICs, and both provoked negative emotion. At 40 min post-TSST, salivary PIC increases did not differ between distraction and rest, but correlated positively with emotional reactivity to stress. At 40 min after memory retrieval, IL-1β increases and intrusive rumination were lower during distraction than rest, but did not correlate with emotional reactivity. Trait rumination and interference control mechanisms, also measured, played little role in PIC increases. Overall, after some stressors, some salivary cytokine responses are lower during distraction than rest. The roles of specific emotions, emotional intensity, and poststressor timing of saliva collection in this finding require clarification. Furthermore, the possibility of two affective paths to inflammation in the context of stress-one sensitive to opportunities for early occurring emotion regulation (as reflected in emotional reactivity), and one sensitive to late-occurring emotion regulation (as reflected in distraction after stress)-deserves attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Tanichi, Masaaki; Toda, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Kunio; Koga, Minori; Saito, Taku; Enomoto, Shingo; Boku, Shuken; Asai, Fumiho; Mitsui, Yumi; Nagamine, Masanori; Fujita, Masanori; Yoshino, Aihide
Life-threatening experiences can result in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. We have developed an animal model for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using a shuttle box in rats. In this paradigm, the rats were exposed to inescapable foot-shock stress (IS) in a shuttle box, and then an avoidance/escape task was performed in the same box 2 weeks after IS. A previous study using this paradigm revealed that environmental enrichment (EE) ameliorated avoidance/numbing-like behaviors, but not hyperarousal-like behaviors, and EE also elevated hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. However, the differential effects of EE components, i.e., running wheel (RW) or toy rotation, on PTSD-like behaviors has remained unclear. In this experiment, we demonstrated that RW, toy rotation, and EE (containing RW and toy rotation) ameliorated avoidance/numbing-like behaviors, induced learning of avoidance responses, and improved depressive-like behaviors in traumatized rats. The RW increased the hippocampal mRNA expression of neurotrophic factors, especially BDNF and glial-cell derived neurotrophic factor. Toy rotation influenced FK506 binding protein 5 mRNA expression, which is believed to be a regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis system, in the hippocampus and amygdala. This is the first report to elucidate the differential mechanistic effects of RW and toy rotation. The former appears to exert its effects via neurotrophic factors, while the latter exerts its effects via the HPA axis. Further studies will lead to a better understanding of the influence of environmental factors on PTSD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dismukes, Andrew R; Meyer, Vanessa J; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Theall, Katherine P; Esteves, Kyle C; Drury, Stacy S
The current investigation examined the association between the aging-related biomarkers dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and telomere length (TL) in community-recruited African-American youth. The examination of DHEA included stress reactive, basal and diurnal sampling, in order to elucidate the underlying physiological process that may overlap with TL. One hundred and two participants completed the Trier Social Stressor Test for children (TSST-C). TL was obtained from all youth from buccal swabs on the same day as the TSST-C. Saliva samples from 83 participants were obtained over the course of two additional days to measure waking and diurnal levels of DHEA. DHEA diurnal slope was a robust predictor of TL (B=0.516, P<0.05), while other DHEA values were not significantly associated with TL. This study is one of the first studies to examine basal, diurnal and reactivity measurements of DHEA in youth. Furthermore, this is the first study, to our knowledge, to demonstrate a positive association between DHEA, a putative anti-aging hormone, and TL, an indicator of cellular aging. © 2016 The authors.
Andrew R Dismukes
Full Text Available The current investigation examined the association between the aging-related biomarkers dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and telomere length (TL in community-recruited African-American youth. The examination of DHEA included stress reactive, basal and diurnal sampling, in order to elucidate the underlying physiological process that may overlap with TL. One hundred and two participants completed the Trier Social Stressor Test for children (TSST-C. TL was obtained from all youth from buccal swabs on the same day as the TSST-C. Saliva samples from 83 participants were obtained over the course of two additional days to measure waking and diurnal levels of DHEA. DHEA diurnal slope was a robust predictor of TL (B=0.516, P<0.05, while other DHEA values were not significantly associated with TL. This study is one of the first studies to examine basal, diurnal and reactivity measurements of DHEA in youth. Furthermore, this is the first study, to our knowledge, to demonstrate a positive association between DHEA, a putative anti-aging hormone, and TL, an indicator of cellular aging.
Inoue, Ayako; Oshita, Harumi; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Aimi; Ikeda, Rie; Ando, Tomoko; Aizawa, Saeko; Masuda, Koji; Higuma, Haruka; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by affective instability, unstable relationships, and identity disturbance. We measured salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol levels in all participants during exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and an electric stimulation stress. Seventy-two BPD patients were compared with 377 age- and gender- matched controls. The State and Trait versions of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory test (STAI-S and STAI-T, respectively), the Profile of Mood State (POMS) tests, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS) were administered to participants before electrical stimulation. Following TSST exposure, salivary cortisol levels significantly decreased in female patients and significantly increased in male patients compared with controls. POMS tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, fatigue, and confusion scores were significantly increased in BPD patients compared with controls. In contrast, vigor scores were significantly decreased in BPD patients relative to controls. Furthermore, STAI-T and STAI-S anxiety scores and BDI scores were significantly increased in BPD patient compared with controls. DACS scores were significantly increased in BPD patient compared with controls. Different stressors (e.g., psychological or physical) induced different responses in the HPA and SAM systems in female or male BPD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Youssef, Farid F; Dookeeram, Karine; Basdeo, Vasant; Francis, Emmanuel; Doman, Mekaeel; Mamed, Danielle; Maloo, Stefan; Degannes, Joel; Dobo, Linda; Ditshotlo, Phatsimo; Legall, George
While early studies of moral decision making highlighted the role of rational, conscious executive processes involving frontal lobe activation more recent work has suggested that emotions and gut reactions have a key part to play in moral reasoning. Given that stress can activate many of the same brain regions that are important for and connected to brain centres involved in emotional processing we sought to evaluate if stress could influence moral decision making. Sixty-five undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to control (n=33) and experimental groups (n=32). The latter underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and induction of stress was assessed by measurement of salivary cortisol levels. Subjects were then required to provide a response to thirty moral dilemmas via a computer interface that recorded both their decision and reaction time. Three types of dilemmas were used: non-moral, impersonal moral and personal moral. Using a binary logistic model there were no significant predicators of utilitarian response in non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas. However the stressed group and females were found to predict utilitarian responses to personal moral dilemmas. When comparing percentage utilitarian responses there were no significant differences noted for the non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas but the stressed group showed significantly less utilitarian responses compared to control subjects. The stress response was significantly negatively correlated with utilitarian responses. Females also showed significantly less utilitarian responses than males. We conclude that activation of the stress response predisposed participants to less utilitarian responses when faced with high conflict personal moral dilemmas and suggest that this offers further support for dual process theory of moral judgment. We also conclude that females tend to make less utilitarian personal moral decisions compared to males, providing further evidence that there are
Oei, Nicole Y L; Both, Stephanie; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen
Stress is thought to alter motivational processes by increasing dopamine (DA) secretion in the brain's "reward system", and its key region, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, stress studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), mainly found evidence for stress-induced decreases in NAcc responsiveness toward reward cues. Results from both animal and human PET studies indicate that the stress hormone cortisol may be crucial in the interaction between stress and dopaminergic actions. In the present study we therefore investigated whether cortisol mediated the effect of stress on DA-related responses to -subliminal-presentation of reward cues using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), which is known to reliably enhance cortisol levels. Young healthy males (n = 37) were randomly assigned to the TSST or control condition. After stress induction, brain activation was assessed using fMRI during a backward-masking paradigm in which potentially rewarding (sexual), emotionally negative and neutral stimuli were presented subliminally, masked by pictures of inanimate objects. A region of interest analysis showed that stress decreased activation in the NAcc in response to masked sexual cues (voxel-corrected, pcortisol levels were related to stronger NAcc activation, showing that cortisol acted as a suppressor variable in the negative relation between stress and NAcc activation. The present findings indicate that cortisol is crucially involved in the relation between stress and the responsiveness of the reward system. Although generally stress decreases activation in the NAcc in response to rewarding stimuli, high stress-induced cortisol levels suppress this relation, and are associated with stronger NAcc activation. Individuals with a high cortisol response to stress might on one hand be protected against reductions in reward sensitivity, which has been linked to anhedonia and depression, but they may ultimately be more vulnerable to increased reward
Böbel, Till S; Hackl, Sascha B; Langgartner, Dominik; Jarczok, Marc N; Rohleder, Nicolas; Rook, Graham A; Lowry, Christopher A; Gündel, Harald; Waller, Christiane; Reber, Stefan O
Urbanization is on the rise, and environments offering a narrow range of microbial exposures are linked to an increased prevalence of both physical and mental disorders. Human and animal studies suggest that an overreactive immune system not only accompanies stress-associated disorders but might even be causally involved in their pathogenesis. Here, we show in young [mean age, years (SD): rural, 25.1 (0.78); urban, 24.5 (0.88)] healthy human volunteers that urban upbringing in the absence of pets ( n = 20), relative to rural upbringing in the presence of farm animals ( n = 20), was associated with a more pronounced increase in the number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentrations following acute psychosocial stress induced by the Trier social stress test (TSST). Moreover, ex vivo-cultured PBMCs from urban participants raised in the absence of animals secreted more IL-6 in response to the T cell-specific mitogen Con A. In turn, antiinflammatory IL-10 secretion was suppressed following TSST in urban participants raised in the absence of animals, suggesting immunoregulatory deficits, relative to rural participants raised in the presence of animals. Questionnaires, plasma cortisol, and salivary α-amylase, however, indicated the experimental protocol was more stressful and anxiogenic for rural participants raised in the presence of animals. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that urban vs. rural upbringing in the absence or presence of animals, respectively, increases vulnerability to stress-associated physical and mental disorders by compromising adequate resolution of systemic immune activation following social stress and, in turn, aggravating stress-associated systemic immune activation. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Muehlhan, Markus; Höcker, Anja; Höfler, Michael; Wiedemann, Klaus; Barnow, Sven; Schäfer, Ingo
Alcohol-dependent (AD) patients with a history of childhood maltreatment (CM) have shown a more severe clinical profile and a higher risk of relapse than those without CM. It was hypothesized that stress responsivity plays an important role in moderating the relationship between CM and AD. Surprisingly, systematic investigations about the stress responsivity in AD patients with CM are rare. This study compared physiological and subjective stress responses in AD patients with and without CM as well as in healthy controls with and without CM. A total of 130 participants performed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Physiological stress reactivity related to the noradrenergic system was assessed by salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity. Subjective ratings of anxiety, nervousness, distress, and mood were rated on visual analogue scales. AD patients showed significantly lower stress-related sAA activity than healthy controls (p ≤ 0.024; z ≥ 1.97). A different pattern was found in the subjective ratings. In particular, anticipatory anxiety revealed a clear effect of CM (p ≤ 0.005; z ≥ 2.43) but no difference between AD patients and healthy controls (p > 0.05). After the TSST, distress ratings differed between AD patients with CM and AD patients without CM (p ≤ 0.009; z ≥ 2.61). The discrepancy between physiological responsivity and subjective stress experiences may account for an increased inability to cope with stressful situations, which in turn might explain the enhanced risk of relapse in AD patients with a history of CM during early abstinence.
Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Sjörs, Anna; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-s) is an anabolic protective hormone. We have previously reported that DHEA-s production capacity is attenuated in stressed individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the DHEA-s response during acute psychosocial stress in patients with clinical burnout. Seventeen patients with clinical burnout were compared to 13 non-chronically stressed healthy controls, aged 31-50 years (mean age 41 years, SD 6 years), as they underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). All patients fulfilled diagnostic criteria for stress-related exhaustion disorder, which is a criteria-based diagnosis that has been used in Sweden since 2005 to define patients seeking health-care for clinical burnout. Blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. DHEA-s levels were measured and delta values (peak levels minus baseline levels) plus area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCI) were calculated. The patients had 43% smaller AUCI DHEA-s (p=0.041) during the stress test. The delta DHEA-s was 34% lower in the patients, however, this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.054). The study indicates that DHEA-s production capacity during acute stress may be attenuated in patients with clinical burnout. Reduced DHEA-s production may constitute one of the links between stress, burnout and the associated adverse health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Spanakis, Elias K; Wand, Gary S; Ji, Nan; Golden, Sherita Hill
Copeptin levels are elevated in severe medical conditions, an effect that is attributed to elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels in response to physiological stress, resulting in activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In the current study, we wanted to determine if copeptin is responsive to psychological stress, correlates with cortisol and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), and if associations differed by sex. In a cross-sectional study that included 100 healthy men (41%) and women (59%) (aged 18-30 years; mean 24.6 ± 3 years), who underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), we examined the association between percent change (peak-baseline/baseline) in copeptin levels and percent change in log ACTH and cortisol. Three baselines samples were drawn followed by blood sampling at 20, 35, 50, 65 and 85 min after TSST. There was a significant positive association between the percent change in copeptin and the percent change in log-transformed salivary cortisol (β-coefficient=0.95; p=0.02). The association between percent change in copeptin and log-transformed serum cortisol was not statistically significant in the overall population. There was a trend for a non-significant association between percent change in copeptin and percent change in log-transformed ACTH (β-coefficient=1.14; p=0.06). In males, there was a significant positive association between the percent change in copeptin levels and log-transformed salivary (β-coefficient=1.33, p=0.016) and serum cortisol (β-coefficient=0.69, p=0.01), whereas in women there was no statistically significant association. We found a significant positive association between percent change in copeptin and percent change in salivary and serum cortisol among males only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quesada, Andrea A; Tristão, Rosana M; Pratesi, Riccardo; Wolf, Oliver T
The prevalence of preterm birth (PTB) is high worldwide, especially in developing countries like Brazil. PTB is marked by a stressful environment in intra- as well as extrauterine life, which can affect neurodevelopment and hormonal and physiological systems and lead to long-term negative outcomes. Nevertheless, little is known about PTB and related outcomes later on in childhood. Thus, the goals of the current study were threefold: (1) comparing cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) profiles, including cortisol awakening response (CAR), between preterm and full-term children; (2) evaluating whether preterm children are more responsive to acute stress and (3) assessing their memory skills and emotional and behavioral profiles. Basal cortisol and sAA profiles, including CAR of 30 preterm children, aged 6 to 10 years, were evaluated. Further, we assessed memory functions using the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and we screened behavior/emotion using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results of preterm children were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group. One week later, participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor [Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C)], in which cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline, 1, 10 and 25 min after stressor exposure. Preterm children had higher cortisol concentrations at awakening, a flattened CAR and an exaggerated response to TSST-C compared to full-term children. These alterations were more pronounced in girls. In addition, preterm children were characterized by more emotional problems and poorer memory performance. Our findings illustrate the long-lasting and in part sex-dependent effects of PTB on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, internalizing behavior and memory. The findings are in line with the idea that early adversity alters the set-point of the HPA axis, thereby creating a more vulnerable phenotype.
Baggett, H. Lane; And Others
Appraisal, coping, task performance, and cardiovascular responses were examined among men high and low in speech anxiety who prepared and performed a speech under evaluative conditions. Speech-anxious men saw the task as more threatening. They were more stressed, anxious, distracted, and aware of their emotions, focused on the passage of time, and…
Overbeek, T.; Boxtel, van Anton; Westerink, J.H.D.M.
Many studies show that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) decreases while performing cognitive tasks. However, there is uncertainty about the role of contaminating factors such as physical activity and stress-inducing task variables. Different methods to quantify RSA may also contribute to variable
Overbeek, T.J.M.; van Boxtel, A.; Westerink, J.H.D.M.
Many studies show that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) decreases while performing cognitive tasks. However, there is uncertainty about the role of contaminating factors such as physical activity and stress-inducing task variables. Different methods to quantify RSA may also contribute to variable
Cognitive task analysis is defined as the extension of traditional task analysis techniques to yield information about the knowledge, thought processes and goal structures that underlie observable task performance. Cognitive task analyses are conducted for a wide variety of purposes, including the
Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Inoue, Ayako; Oshita, Harumi; Okamoto, Kana; Kawashima, Chiwa; Nakanishi, Mari; Aizawa, Saeko; Masuda, Koji; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Higuma, Haruka; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro
Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) has excessive and pervasive anxiety and discomfort in social situations. The aims of this study were to explore the relationship between AVPD and physical and psychological stress and psychological tests. We evaluated 93 AVPD patients and 355 nonpatient controls by salivary amylase and cortisol responses during exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and electrical stimulation stress. Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood State (POMS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were administered. Following electrical stimulation, salivary cortisol levels in female AVPD decreased significantly less than that in female's controls, but salivary cortisol levels did not show a difference between male AVPD patients and controls. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels did not show a difference between females or male AVPD patients and controls. Following TSST exposure, sAA levels did not show a difference between females or male AVPD patients and controls. Salivary cortisol levels did not show a difference between females or male AVPD patients and controls. In the AVPD patients, POMS scores were significantly higher compared with the controls. STAI, BDI, DACS scores, and CTQ significantly increased in the AVPD patients compared with the controls. LF in heart rate variability in AVPD significantly increased more compared with controls. These results suggest that heightened sympathetic reactivity in female AVPD co-occurs with attenuated salivary cortisol responses to electric stimulation stress and there is a significant difference between AVPD and controls in mood, anxiety, social cognition, and automatic nerve systems.
Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia
Stress has been associated with negative changes observed during the aging process. However, very little research has been carried out on the role of age in acute stress effects on memory. We aimed to explore the role of age and sex in the relationship between hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity to psychosocial stress and short-term declarative memory performance. To do so, sixty-seven participants divided into two age groups (each group with a similar number of men and women) were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. Memory performance was assessed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). As expected, worse memory performance was associated with age; but more interestingly, the stressor impaired recall after interference only in the older group. In addition, this effect was negatively correlated with the alpha-amylase over cortisol ratio, which has recently been suggested as a good marker of stress system dysregulation. However, we failed to find sex differences in memory performance. These results show that age moderates stress-induced effects on declarative memory, and they point out the importance of studying both of the physiological systems involved in the stress response together. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Doan, Stacey N.; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W.
The present longitudinal study examined the combined effects of task persistence and negative emotionality (NE) on allostatic load (AL), a physiological indicator of chronic stress. In line with John Henryism theory, we hypothesized that high persistence combined with low NE may be indicative...... persistence was associated with higher physiological stress. Our results have implications for both clinical and intervention contexts....
Braarud, Per Oeivind; Brendryen, Haavar
The current approach to mental workload assessment in process control was evaluated in 3 previous HAMMLAB studies, by analysing the relationship between workload related measures and performance. The results showed that subjective task complexity rating was related to team's control room performance, that mental effort (NASA-TLX) was weakly related to performance, and that overall activity level was unrelated to performance. The results support the argument that general cognitive measures, i.e., mental workload, are weakly related to performance in the process control domain. This implies that other workload concepts than general mental workload are needed for valid assessment of human reliability and for valid assessment of control room configurations. An assessment of task load in process control suggested that how effort is used to handle task demand is more important then the level of effort invested to solve the task. The report suggests two main workload related concepts with a potential as performance predictors in process control: task requirements, and the work style describing how effort is invested to solve the task. The task requirements are seen as composed of individual task demand and team demand. In a similar way work style are seen as composed of individual task management and teamwork style. A framework for the development of the concepts is suggested based on a literature review and experiences from HAMMLAB research. It is suggested that operational definitions of workload concepts should be based on observable control room behaviour, to assure a potential for developing performance-shaping factors. Finally an explorative analysis of teamwork measures and performance in one study indicated that teamwork concepts are related to performance. This lends support to the suggested development of team demand and teamwork style as elements of a framework for the analysis of workload in process control. (Author)
Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik
Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...
An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching from a manager, the junior employee only has information about his past performance. Based on his past performance, a talented junior who has performed a difficult task sometimes decides to leave the...
This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.
An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching
Jung, Won Dae; Park, Jink Yun
It is important to understand the amount of time required to execute an emergency procedural task in a high-stress situation for managing human performance under emergencies in a nuclear power plant. However, the time to execute an emergency procedural task is highly dependent upon expert judgment due to the lack of actual data. This paper proposes an analytical method to estimate the operator's performance time (OPT) of a procedural task, which is based on a measure of the task complexity (TACOM). The proposed method for estimating an OPT is an equation that uses the TACOM as a variable, and the OPT of a procedural task can be calculated if its relevant TACOM score is available. The validity of the proposed equation is demonstrated by comparing the estimated OPTs with the observed OPTs for emergency procedural tasks in a steam generator tube rupture scenario.
Full Text Available Stress-induced acute activation of the cerebral catecholaminergic systems has often been found in rodents. However, little is known regarding the consequences of this activation on higher cognitive functions in humans. Theoretical inferences would suggest increased distractibility in the sense of increased exogenous attention and emotional attention. The present study investigated the influence of acute stress responses on magnetoencephalographic (MEG correlates of visual attention. Healthy male subjects were presented emotional and neutral pictures in three subsequent MEG recording sessions after being exposed to a TSST-like social stressor, intended to trigger a HPA-response. The subjects anticipation of another follow-up stressor was designed to sustain the short-lived central catecholaminergic stress reactions throughout the ongoing MEG recordings. The heart rate indicates a stable level of anticipatory stress during this time span, subsequent cortisol concentrations and self-report measures of stress were increased. With regard to the MEG correlates of attentional functions, we found that the N1m amplitude remained constantly elevated during stressor anticipation. The magnetic early posterior negativity (EPNm was present but, surprisingly, was not at all modulated during stressor anticipation. This suggests that a general increase of the influence of exogenous attention but no specific effect regarding emotional attention in this time interval. Regarding the time course of the effects, an influence of the HPA on these MEG correlates of attention seems less likely. An influence of cerebral catecholaminergic systems is plausible, but not definite.
Elling, Ludger; Schupp, Harald; Bayer, Janine; Bröckelmann, Ann-Kathrin; Steinberg, Christian; Dobel, Christian; Junghofer, Markus
Stress-induced acute activation of the cerebral catecholaminergic systems has often been found in rodents. However, little is known regarding the consequences of this activation on higher cognitive functions in humans. Theoretical inferences would suggest increased distractibility in the sense of increased exogenous attention and emotional attention. The present study investigated the influence of acute stress responses on magnetoencephalographic (MEG) correlates of visual attention. Healthy male subjects were presented emotional and neutral pictures in three subsequent MEG recording sessions after being exposed to a TSST-like social stressor, intended to trigger a HPA-response. The subjects anticipation of another follow-up stressor was designed to sustain the short-lived central catecholaminergic stress reactions throughout the ongoing MEG recordings. The heart rate indicates a stable level of anticipatory stress during this time span, subsequent cortisol concentrations and self-report measures of stress were increased. With regard to the MEG correlates of attentional functions, we found that the N1m amplitude remained constantly elevated during stressor anticipation. The magnetic early posterior negativity (EPNm) was present but, surprisingly, was not at all modulated during stressor anticipation. This suggests that a general increase of the influence of exogenous attention but no specific effect regarding emotional attention in this time interval. Regarding the time course of the effects, an influence of the HPA on these MEG correlates of attention seems less likely. An influence of cerebral catecholaminergic systems is plausible, but not definite.
Juliana N Souza-Talarico
Full Text Available Several studies have emphasized the association between socioeconomic status (SES and inadequate response of the biological stress system. However, other factors related to SES are rarely considered, such as cultural values, social norms, organization, language and communication skills, which raises the need to investigate cross-country differences in stress response. Although some studies have shown differences in cortisol levels between immigrants and natives, there is no cross-country evidence regarding cortisol levels in country-native elders. This is particularly important given the high prevalence of stress-related disorders across nations during aging. The current study examined basal diurnal and reactive cortisol levels in healthy older adults living in two different countries.Salivary cortisol of 260 older adults from Canada and Brazil were analyzed. Diurnal cortisol was measured in saliva samples collected at home throughout two working days at awakening, 30 min after waking, 1400 h, 1600 h and before bedtime. Cortisol reactivity was assessed in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST in both populations.Our results showed that even under similar health status, psychological and cognitive characteristics, Brazilian elders exhibited higher basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion compared to the Canadian participants.These findings suggest that country context may modulate cortisol secretion and could impact the population health.
Souza-Talarico, Juliana N; Plusquellec, Pierrich; Lupien, Sonia J; Fiocco, Alexandra; Suchecki, Deborah
Several studies have emphasized the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and inadequate response of the biological stress system. However, other factors related to SES are rarely considered, such as cultural values, social norms, organization, language and communication skills, which raises the need to investigate cross-country differences in stress response. Although some studies have shown differences in cortisol levels between immigrants and natives, there is no cross-country evidence regarding cortisol levels in country-native elders. This is particularly important given the high prevalence of stress-related disorders across nations during aging. The current study examined basal diurnal and reactive cortisol levels in healthy older adults living in two different countries. Salivary cortisol of 260 older adults from Canada and Brazil were analyzed. Diurnal cortisol was measured in saliva samples collected at home throughout two working days at awakening, 30 min after waking, 1400 h, 1600 h and before bedtime. Cortisol reactivity was assessed in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in both populations. Our results showed that even under similar health status, psychological and cognitive characteristics, Brazilian elders exhibited higher basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion compared to the Canadian participants. These findings suggest that country context may modulate cortisol secretion and could impact the population health.
Li, Shijia; Weerda, Riklef; Guenzel, Friederike; Wolf, Oliver T; Thiel, Christiane M
Previous studies have shown that acute psychosocial stress impairs retrieval of declarative memory with emotional material being especially sensitive to this effect. A functional deletion variant of the ADRA2B gene encoding the α2B-adrenergic receptor has been shown to increase emotional memory and neural activity in the amygdala. We investigated the effects of acute psychosocial stress and the ADRA2B allele on recognition memory for emotional and neutral faces. Fourty-two healthy, non-smoker male volunteers (30 deletion carriers, 12 noncarriers) were tested with a face recognition paradigm. During encoding they were presented with emotional and neutral faces. One hour later, participants underwent either a stress ("Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)") or a control procedure which was followed immediately by the retrieval session where subjects had to indicate whether the presented face was old or new. Stress increased salivary cortisol concentrations, blood pressure and pulse and impaired recognition memory for faces independent of emotional valence and genotype. Participants showed generally slower reaction times to emotional faces. Carriers of the ADRA2B functional deletion variant showed an impaired recognition and slower retrieval of neutral faces under stress. Further, they were significantly slower in retrieving fearful faces in the control condition. The findings indicate that a genetic variation of the noradrenergic system may preserve emotional faces from stress-induced memory impairments seen for neutral faces and heighten reactivity to emotional stimuli under control conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Transport Task Force (TTF) was initiated as a broad-based US magnetic fusion community activity during the fall of 1988 to focus attention on and encourage development of an increased understanding of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The overall TTF goal is to make progress on Characterizing, Understanding and Identifying how to Reduce plasma transport in tokamaks -- to CUIR transport
"Photographing money" is a self-service model under the mobile Internet. The task pricing is reasonable, related to the success of the commodity inspection. First of all, we analyzed the position of the mission and the membership, and introduced the factor of membership density, considering the influence of the number of members around the mission on the pricing. Multivariate regression of task location and membership density using MATLAB to establish the mathematical model of task pricing. At the same time, we can see from the life experience that membership reputation and the intensity of the task will also affect the pricing, and the data of the task success point is more reliable. Therefore, the successful point of the task is selected, and its reputation, task density, membership density and Multiple regression of task positions, according to which a nhew task pricing program. Finally, an objective evaluation is given of the advantages and disadvantages of the established model and solution method, and the improved method is pointed out.
Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina
identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings....... The findings show that: (i) Board processes have a larger potential than demographic variables to explain board task performance; (ii) board task performance differs significantly between boards operating in different contexts; and (iii) national context moderates the relationships between board processes...... and board task performance....
Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo
, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...
Loriaux, E.F.; Jehee, J.N.T.
Report on CRP-OSS Task 4.1.1. ''Survey of existing documentation relevant to this programme's goals'' and report on CRP-OSS Task 4.1.2. ''Survey of existing Operator Support Systems and the experience with them'' are presented. 2 tabs
Overbeek, Thérèse J M; van Boxtel, Anton; Westerink, Joyce H D M
Many studies show that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) decreases while performing cognitive tasks. However, there is uncertainty about the role of contaminating factors such as physical activity and stress-inducing task variables. Different methods to quantify RSA may also contribute to variable results. In 83 healthy subjects, we studied RSA responses to a working memory task requiring varying levels of cognitive control and a perceptual attention task not requiring strong cognitive control. RSA responses were quantified in the time and frequency domain and were additionally corrected for differences in mean interbeat interval and respiration rate, resulting in eight different RSA indices. The two tasks were clearly differentiated by heart rate and facial EMG reference measures. Cognitive control induced inhibition of RSA whereas perceptual attention generally did not. However, the results show several differences between different RSA indices, emphasizing the importance of methodological variables. Age and sex did not influence the results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and ... stress triggers, it's often helpful to improve time management skills — especially if you tend to feel overwhelmed ...
Orasanu, Judith; Tada, Yuri; Kraft, Norbert; Fischer, Ute
Sending astronauts into space, especially on long-durations missions (e.g. three-year missions to Mars), entails enormous risk. Threats include both physical dangers of radiation, bone loss and other consequences of weightlessness, and also those arising from interpersonal problems associated with extended life in a high-risk isolated and confined environment. Before undertaking long-duration missions, NASA seeks to develop technologies to monitor indicators of potentially debilitating stress at both the individual and team level so that countermeasures can be introduced to prevent further deterioration. Doing so requires a better understanding of indicators of team health and performance. To that end, a study of team problem solving in a simulation environment was undertaken to explore effects of team and task stress. Groups of four males (25-45 yrs) engaged in six dynamic computer-based Antarctic search and rescue missions over four days. Both task and team stressors were manipulated. Physiological responses (ECG, respiration rate and amplitude, SCL, EMG, and PPG); communication (voice and email); individual personality and subjective team dynamics responses were collected and related to task performance. Initial analyses found that physiological measures can be used to identify transient stress, predict performance, and reflect subjective workload. Muscle tension and respiration were the most robust predictors. Not only the level of arousal but its variability during engagement in the task is important to consider. In general, less variability was found to be associated with higher levels of performance. Individuals scoring high on specific personality characteristics responded differently to task stress.
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Childhood Stress KidsHealth / For Parents / Childhood Stress What's in this ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...
Cousijn, Helena; Rijpkema, Mark; Qin, Shaozheng; van Wingen, Guido A.; Fernández, Guillén
Demanding cognitive tasks are sometimes carried out under stressful conditions. Several studies indicate that whereas severe stress impairs performance, moderate stress can enhance cognitive performance. In this study, we investigated how moderate stress influences the neural systems supporting
Poljac, E.; Bekkering, H.
The present study investigated how the activation of previous tasks interferes with the execution of future tasks as a result of temporal manipulations. Color and shape matching tasks were organized in runs of two trials each. The tasks were specified by a cue presented before a task run, cueing
Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld
The objectives of this work is to develop a task light for office lighting that fulfils the minimum requirements of the European standard EN12464 - 1 : Light and lighting – Lighting of work places, Part 1: Indoor workplaces and the Danish standard DS 700 : Lys og belysning I arbejdsrum , or more...... specifically the requirements that apply to the work area and the immediate surrounding area. By providing a task light that fulfils the requirements for task lighting and the immediate surrounding area, the general lighting only needs to provide the illuminance levels required for background lighting...... and thereby a reduction in installed power for general lighting of about 40 % compared to the way illuminance levels are designed in an office environment in Denmark today. This lighting strategy is useful when the placement of the task area is not defined in the space before the lighting is design ed...
and in response to injury induced by endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress (Golubinskaya et al., 2015). Their report shed light on the complex regulation of Best3 in podocytes and will help pave the way for future studies on the pathogenesis of kidneys diseases with podocyte injury. This article is protected...... structure appears to be a common finding in acquired proteinuric conditions (Pavenstadt et al., 2003). Identification of genes that are involved in physiological and pathophysiological functions of the podocytes is a major task. Recent studies indicate that Bestrophin (Best) 3 has cell protective functions...... in a number of cell types (Lee et al., 2012, Jiang et al., 2013, Song et al., 2014). In the present issue of Acta Physiologica, Golubinskaya et al. use cultured podocytes, kidneys and isolated glomeruli of the mouse kidney to provide a thorough characterisation of Best3 expression under normal conditions...
A poster presentation for the SHC BOSC review will summarize the research efforts under Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHC) in the Contaminated Sediment Task within the Contaminated Sites Project. For the Task, Problem Summary & Decision Context; Task O...
Full Text Available Background The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a study concerning the relationship between resiliency and appraisal of a stressful situation, anxiety reactions and undertaken methods of coping among sportsmen. Participants and procedure The research concerned 192 competitors who actively train in one of the Olympic disciplines – individual or team. We used the following instruments: Resiliency Assessment Scale (SPP-25; Stress Appraisal Questionnaire A/B; Reactions to Competition Questionnaire; Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Sport Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire (SR3S, self-constructed. Results Athletes most frequently apply positive types of stress appraisal, and they cope with stress through a task-oriented style during competitions. There is a relationship between the level of resiliency and the analysed aspects of the process of stress. The higher the resiliency, the more positive is the appraisal of a stressful situation and the more task-oriented are the strategies applied. Similarly, in everyday situations resilient sportspeople positively appraise difficult situations and undertake mostly task-oriented strategies. Resiliency is connected with less frequently experiencing reactions in the form of anxiety. Conclusions The obtained results, similarly to previous research, suggest that resiliency is connected with experiencing positive emotions. It causes more frequent appraisal of stressful situations as a challenge. More resilient people also choose more effective and situation-appropriate coping strategies. Therefore they are more resistant to stress.
Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric
This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms.…
Hamel, W.R.; Osborn, J.
Many nuclear projects such as environmental restoration and waste management challenges involve radiation or other hazards that will necessitate the use of remote operations that protect human workers from dangerous exposures. Remote work is far more costly to execute than what workers could accomplish directly with conventional tools and practices because task operations are slow and tedious due to difficulties of remote manipulation and viewing. Decades of experience within the nuclear remote operations community show that remote tasks may take hundreds of times longer than hands-on work; even with state-of-the-art force- reflecting manipulators and television viewing, remote task performance execution is five to ten times slower than equivalent direct contact work. Thus the requirement to work remotely is a major cost driver in many projects. Modest improvements in the work efficiency of remote systems can have high payoffs by reducing the completion time of projects. Additional benefits will accrue from improved work quality and enhanced safety
Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt
by shared goals and knowledge as well as mutual respect and frequent, timely, accurate and problem-solving ways of communication with the purpose of dealing with the tasks at hand in an integrated way. We introduce and discuss relational coordination theory through a case-study within public healthcare....... Here cross-professional coordination of work was done by scheduled communication twice a day. When we proposed a way for further integration of tasks through an all-inclusive team organization, we were met with resistance. We use the study to discuss whether relational coordination theory is able to do...... away with differences regarding task definitions and working conditions as well as professional knowledge hierarchies and responsibilities for parts and wholes....
has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...
Healthy Lifestyle Stress management By Mayo Clinic Staff Stress basics Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to the demands of life. ... some people's alarm systems rarely shut off. Stress management gives you a range of tools to reset ...
... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... and Health Effects What are the signs of stress? When people are under stress, they may feel: ...
Stress incontinence Overview Urinary incontinence is the unintentional loss of urine. Stress incontinence happens when physical movement or activity — such ... coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting — puts pressure (stress) on your bladder. Stress incontinence is not related ...
Temares, M. Lewis; Lutheran, Joseph A.
Operations tasking for data center management is discussed. The original and revised organizational structures of the data center at the University of Miami are also described. The organizational strategy addresses the functions that should be performed by the data center, anticipates the specialized skills required, and addresses personnel…
Laenger, C. J., Sr.
The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.
India's Telecom Story is now well known · Indian Operators become an enviable force · At the same time · India Amongst the Leaders · Unfinished Tasks as Operators · LightGSM ON: Innovation for Rural Area from Midas · Broadband Access Options for India · Broadband driven by DSL: still too slow · Is Wireless the answer?
This paper describes a multi-task monitor program for microprocessors. Although written for the Intel 8085, it incorporates features that would be beneficial for implementation in other microprocessors used in controlling and monitoring experiments and accelerators. The monitor places permanent programs (tasks) arbitrarily located throughout ROM in a priority ordered queue. The programmer is provided with the flexibility to add new tasks or modified versions of existing tasks, without having to comply with previously defined task boundaries or having to reprogram all of ROM. Scheduling of tasks is triggered by timers, outside stimuli (interrupts), or inter-task communications. Context switching time is of the order of tenths of a milllisecond
The International Task Force on Prevention of Nuclear Terrorism was formed in 1985 under the auspices of the Nuclear Control Institute. This report is a consensus report of the 26 task force members - all members not necessarily agreeing on every point and all wordings, but in each case a substantial majority did agree. First, the report defines the threat, then establishes the priorities. Short-term recommendations are presented on: (1) protecting nuclear weapons; (2) protecting nuclear materials; (3) protecting nuclear facilities; (4) intelligence programs; (5) civil liberties concerns; (6) controlling nuclear transfers; (7) US - Soviet cooperation; (8) arms control initiatives; (9) convention of physical protection of nuclear material; (10) role of emergency management programs; and (11) role of the media. Brief long-term recommendations are included on (1) international measures, and (2) emerging nuclear technologies. An Appendix, Production of Nuclear Materials Usable in Weapons is presented for further consideration (without recommendations)
Dohn, Anders Høeg
. The rostering process is non-trivial and especially when service is required around the clock, rostering may involve considerable effort from a designated planner. Therefore, in order to minimize costs and overstaffing, to maximize the utilization of available staff, and to ensure a high level of satisfaction...... as possible to the available staff, while respecting various requirements and rules and while including possible transportation time between tasks. This thesis presents a number of industrial applications in rostering and task scheduling. The applications exist within various contexts in health care....... Mathematical and logic-based models are presented for the problems considered. Novel components are added to existing models and the modeling decisions are justified. In one case, the model is solved by a simple, but efficient greedy construction heuristic. In the remaining cases, column generation is applied...
This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way to approach its mandate: To make recommendations on several open-quotes big pictureclose quotes issues, including future use of the site, cleanup levels, waste disposition, and cleanup priorities. This paper presents the approach used at Fernald for establishing and running a focused site-specific advisory board, the key issues that have been faced, and how these issues were resolved. The success of Fernald in establishing a strong and functioning site-specific advisory board serves as a useful model for other DOE facilities, although the Fernald model is just one of many approaches that can be taken. However, the approach presented here has worked extremely well for Fernald
One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...
Clement, Bradley J.; Estlin, Tara A.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.
The Mobile Thread Task Manager (MTTM) is being applied to parallelizing existing flight software to understand the benefits and to develop new techniques and architectural concepts for adapting software to multicore architectures. It allocates and load-balances tasks for a group of threads that migrate across processors to improve cache performance. In order to balance-load across threads, the MTTM augments a basic map-reduce strategy to draw jobs from a global queue. In a multicore processor, memory may be "homed" to the cache of a specific processor and must be accessed from that processor. The MTTB architecture wraps access to data with thread management to move threads to the home processor for that data so that the computation follows the data in an attempt to avoid L2 cache misses. Cache homing is also handled by a memory manager that translates identifiers to processor IDs where the data will be homed (according to rules defined by the user). The user can also specify the number of threads and processors separately, which is important for tuning performance for different patterns of computation and memory access. MTTM efficiently processes tasks in parallel on a multiprocessor computer. It also provides an interface to make it easier to adapt existing software to a multiprocessor environment.
This document describes the computing tasks of the LHCb computing system. It also describes the logistics of the dataflow between the tasks and the detailed requirements for each task, in particular the data sizes and CPU power requirements. All data sizes are calculated assuming that the LHCb experiment will take data about 107 s per year at a frequency of 200 Hz, which gives 2 \\Theta 109 real events per year. The raw event size should not exceed 100 kB (200 TB per year). We will have to generate about 109 MonteCarlo events per year. The current MonteCarlo simulation program based on the GEANT3.21 package requires about 12 s to produce an average event (all CPU times are normalised to a 1000 MIPS processor). The size of an average MonteCarlo event will be about 200 kB (100 TB per year) of simulated data (without the hits). We will start to use the GEANT4 package in 1998. Rejection factors of 8 and 25 are required in the Level-2 and Level-3 triggers respectively, to reduce the frequency of events to 200 Hz. T...
... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...
This paper is concerned with Task Analysis as the basis for ergonomic design to reduce human error rates, rather than for predicting human error rates. Task Analysis techniques usually provide a set of categories for describing sub tasks, and a framework describing the relations between sub-tasks. Both the task type categories and their organisation have implications for optimum interface and training design. In this paper, the framework needed for considering the most complex tasks faced by operators in process industries is discussed such as fault management in unexpected situations, and what is likely to minimise human error in these circumstances. (author)
Orrell, Dean H., II
Previous research had shown the effect of noise on a single communication task. This research has been criticized as not being representative of a real world situation since subjects allocated all of their attention to only one task. In the present study, the effect of adding a loading task to a standard noise-communication paradigm was investigated. Subjects performed both a communication task (Modified Rhyme Test; House et al. 1965) and a short term memory task (Sternberg, 1969) in simulated levels of aircraft noise (95, 105 and 115 dB overall sound pressure level (OASPL)). Task loading was varied with Sternberg's task by requiring subjects to memorize one, four, or six alphanumeric characters. Simulated aircraft noise was varied between levels of 95, 105 and 115 dB OASPL using a pink noise source. Results show that the addition of Sternberg's task and little effect on the intelligibility of the communication task while response time for the communication task increased.
Henderson, Roselinde K.; Snyder, Hannah R.; Gupta, Tina; Banich, Marie T.
The ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite exposure to stress is critical to resilience. Questions of how stress can impair or improve behavioral functioning are important in diverse settings, from athletic competitions to academic testing. Previous research suggests that controllability is a key factor in the impact of stress on behavior: learning how to control stressors buffers people from the negative effects of stress on subsequent cognitively demanding tasks. In addition, r...
Lin Shuzi; Zhang Bingyun; Zhao Weiren
The task-to-task communication is used in the Institute of High Energy Physics. The BES (Beijing Spectrometer) uses the communication mode to take some of the BEPC (Beijing Electron Positron Collider) running parameters needed by BES experiments in a periodic time. The authors describe the principle of transparent task-to-task communication and how to use it in BES on-line data acquisition system
Wang, Feihong; Algina, James; Snyder, Patricia; Cox, Martha
We examined children's task engagement during a challenging puzzle task in the presence of their primary caregivers by using a representative sample of rural children from six high-poverty counties across two states. Weighted longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to identify a task engagement factor…
Geva, Nirit; Defrin, Ruth
The effect of acute stress on pain threshold and intolerance threshold are reported as producing either hypoalgesia or hyperalgesia. Yet, the contribution of individual stress reactivity in this respect has not been established. The aim was to test 2 pain modulation paradigms under acute stress manipulation, to our knowledge, for the first time, to study whether stress differentially affects pain modulation, and whether the effect is related to individual stress response. Participants were 31 healthy subjects. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and pain adaptation were measured before and after inducing an acute stress response using the Montreal Imaging Stress Task. Subjects' stress response was evaluated according to salivary cortisol, autonomic function, and perceived stress and anxiety. The Montreal Imaging Stress Task induced a validated stress response. On a group level, stress induced reduction in CPM magnitude and increase in pain adaptation compared with baseline. These responses correlated with stress reactivity. When the group was subdivided according to stress reactivity, only high stress responders exhibited reduced CPM whereas only low stress responders exhibited increased pain adaptation. The results suggest that acute stress may induce opposite effects on pain modulation, depending on individual stress reactivity magnitude, with an advantage to low stress responders. This study evaluated the effect of acute stress on pain modulation. Pain modulation under stress is affected by individual stress responsiveness; decreased CPM occurs in high stress responders whereas increased pain adaptation occurs in low stress responders. Identification of high stress responders may promote better pain management. Copyright © 2017 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tanaka, Y; Yamaoka, K
This study investigated the relationship between task difficulty and blink activity, which includes blink rate, blink amplitude, and blink duration. Two kinds of tasks established two levels of difficulty. In Exp. 1, a mental arithmetic task was used to examine the relationship. Analysis showed that blink rate for a difficult task was significantly higher than that for an easier one. In Exp. 2, a letter-search task (hiragana Japanese alphabet) was used while the other conditions were the same as those in Exp. 1; however, the results of this experiment were not influenced by the difficulty of the task. As results indicate that blink rate is related to not only difficulty but also the nature of the task, the nature of the task is probably dependent on a mechanism in information processing. The results for blink amplitude and blink duration showed no systematic change during either experiment.
The accomplishments of the task group studies over the past year are reviewed. The purposes of biological investigations, in the context of subseabed disposal, are: an evaluation of the dose to man; an estimation of effects on the ecosystem; and an estimation of the influence of organisms on and as barriers to radionuclide migration. To accomplish these ends, the task group adopted the following research goals: (1) acquire more data on biological accumulation of specific radionuclides, such as those of Tc, Np, Ra, and Sr; (2) acquire more data on transfer coefficients from sediment to organism; (3) Calculate mass transfer rates, construct simple models using them, and estimate collective dose commitment; (4) Identify specific pathways or transfer routes, determine the rates of transfer, and make dose limit calculations with simple models; (5) Calculate dose rates to and estimate irradiation effects on the biota as a result of waste emplacement, by reference to background irradiation calculations. (6) Examine the effect of the biota on altering sediment/water radionuclide exchange; (7) Consider the biological data required to address different accident scenarios; (8) Continue to provide the basic biological information for all of the above, and ensure that the system analysis model is based on the most realistic and up-to-date concepts of marine biologists; and (9) Ensure by way of free exchange of information that the data used in any model are the best currently available
Appelhans, Bradley M.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Peters, Erica N.; Spring, Bonnie J.
Prior research has linked heightened cortisol reactivity to stress with increased food consumption. This pilot study tested corollaries of the hypothesis that cortisol stress reactivity promotes obesity. Thirty-four lean and obese women completed an acute stress task and a non-stressful control task in counterbalanced order. Contrary to expectations, higher post-stress cortisol was associated with decreased post-stress snack intake in obese women but was unrelated to snack intake in lean wome...
Paulmann, Silke; Furnes, Desire; Bøkenes, Anne Ming; Cozzolino, Philip J
We explored how experimentally induced psychological stress affects the production and recognition of vocal emotions. In Study 1a, we demonstrate that sentences spoken by stressed speakers are judged by naïve listeners as sounding more stressed than sentences uttered by non-stressed speakers. In Study 1b, negative emotions produced by stressed speakers are generally less well recognized than the same emotions produced by non-stressed speakers. Multiple mediation analyses suggest this poorer recognition of negative stimuli was due to a mismatch between the variation of volume voiced by speakers and the range of volume expected by listeners. Together, this suggests that the stress level of the speaker affects judgments made by the receiver. In Study 2, we demonstrate that participants who were induced with a feeling of stress before carrying out an emotional prosody recognition task performed worse than non-stressed participants. Overall, findings suggest detrimental effects of induced stress on interpersonal sensitivity.
Paulmann, Silke; Furnes, Desire; Bøkenes, Anne Ming; Cozzolino, Philip J.
We explored how experimentally induced psychological stress affects the production and recognition of vocal emotions. In Study 1a, we demonstrate that sentences spoken by stressed speakers are judged by naïve listeners as sounding more stressed than sentences uttered by non-stressed speakers. In Study 1b, negative emotions produced by stressed speakers are generally less well recognized than the same emotions produced by non-stressed speakers. Multiple mediation analyses suggest this poorer recognition of negative stimuli was due to a mismatch between the variation of volume voiced by speakers and the range of volume expected by listeners. Together, this suggests that the stress level of the speaker affects judgments made by the receiver. In Study 2, we demonstrate that participants who were induced with a feeling of stress before carrying out an emotional prosody recognition task performed worse than non-stressed participants. Overall, findings suggest detrimental effects of induced stress on interpersonal sensitivity. PMID:27802287
Dean, B; Rombos, P [Wardrop (W.L.) and Associates Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada)
Two methodologies for maintenance task selection, Reliability Centre Maintenance (RCM) and Degradation Mode Analysis (DMA), are compared with regard to application in the nuclear industry and potential for application at CANDU nuclear power plants. RCM is the favoured one of the two methodologies. It is more thorough than DMA, is well supported within the US nuclear industry, and - with experience in application - is gaining cost effectiveness. There is interest in the use of RCM in other nations, including France and Japan, and it is already being implemented at Bruce A NGS and Bruce B NGS in Canada. DMA lags behind RCM in development and currently there is little experience to support claims of major benefits at reduced cost. Significant advantages over RCM need to be demonstrated if DMA is to gain acceptance in the nuclear industry. (author). 41 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.
Dean, B.; Rombos, P.
Two methodologies for maintenance task selection, Reliability Centre Maintenance (RCM) and Degradation Mode Analysis (DMA), are compared with regard to application in the nuclear industry and potential for application at CANDU nuclear power plants. RCM is the favoured one of the two methodologies. It is more thorough than DMA, is well supported within the US nuclear industry, and - with experience in application - is gaining cost effectiveness. There is interest in the use of RCM in other nations, including France and Japan, and it is already being implemented at Bruce A NGS and Bruce B NGS in Canada. DMA lags behind RCM in development and currently there is little experience to support claims of major benefits at reduced cost. Significant advantages over RCM need to be demonstrated if DMA is to gain acceptance in the nuclear industry. (author). 41 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs
Romero-Martínez, A; Lila, M; Williams, R K; González-Bono, E; Moya-Albiol, L
Intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators were categorized into 2 groups using Gottman et al.'s (1995) typology depending on their skin conductance (SC) reactivity to stress. Overall, type I perpetrators tend to show autonomic underarousal, whereas type II perpetrators present a preparatory hyperreactivity to confront stress. Moreover, impulsivity traits and testosterone (T) levels may modulate SC responses to increase the risk of proneness to violence. In this study, SC response to stress was assessed by comparing IPV perpetrators with non-violent controls while performing a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Subjects with a history of IPV demonstrated higher non-specific SC responses during the recovery period than the non-violent controls. Nonetheless, there were no differences between groups in the case of mean SC levels. Furthermore, impulsivity and baseline T levels were associated with higher SC level reactivity during a preparation period only in IPV perpetrators, with both relationships being mediated by anger expression. Our results confirm that the IPV perpetrators correspond physiologically to type II and support the validity of SC as a diagnostic indicator for IPV classification. Our findings contribute to the development of effective treatment and prevention programs that could benefit from the use of biological indicators for analyzing the risk of recidivism in IPV perpetrators. © 2013.
Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh
Stress is a state of threatened homeostasis during which a variety of adaptive processes are activated to produce physiological and behavioral changes. Stress induction methods are pivotal for understanding these physiological or pathophysiological changes in the body in response to stress. Furthermore, these methods are also important for the development of novel pharmacological agents for stress management. The well-described methods to induce stress in humans include the cold pressor test, Trier Social Stress Test, Montreal Imaging Stress Task, Maastricht Acute Stress Test, CO2 challenge test, Stroop test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, noise stress, and Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test. Stress assessment in humans is done by measuring biochemical markers such as cortisol, cortisol awakening response, dexamethasone suppression test, salivary α-amylase, plasma/urinary norepinephrine, norepinephrine spillover rate, and interleukins. Physiological and behavioral changes such as galvanic skin response, heart rate variability, pupil size, and muscle and/or skin sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) and cardiovascular parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and self-reported anxiety are also monitored to assess stress response. This present review describes these commonly employed methods to induce stress in humans along with stress assessment methods.
The thesis deals with load, stress and related questions of the working life. Work-related stress brings numerous difficulties not only to affected individuals, but as a result also to organizations. The thesis follows symptoms, impacts, somatic and mental aspects of stress, its types and also types of stressors, which cause this problem. It is concentrated on workload as a specific area of work-related stress, individual resistance to the load, factors of workload and work-related stress and...
Henckens, Marloes J A G; Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C; van Wingen, Guido A; Fernández, Guillén
Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both basal cortisol levels and stress-induced cortisol responses predicts differences in neural vigilance processing during stress exposure. Implementing a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, 120 healthy male participants were exposed to a stress-induction and control procedure, followed by an emotional perception task (viewing fearful and happy faces) during fMRI scanning. Stress sensitivity was assessed using physiological (salivary cortisol levels) and psychological measures (trait questionnaires). High stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with increased stress sensitivity as assessed by psychological questionnaires, a stronger stress-induced increase in medial temporal activity and greater differential amygdala responses to fearful as opposed to happy faces under control conditions. In contrast, high basal cortisol levels were related to relative stress resilience as reflected by higher extraversion scores, a lower stress-induced increase in amygdala activity and enhanced differential processing of fearful compared with happy faces under stress. These findings seem to reflect a critical role for HPA-axis signaling in stress coping; higher basal levels indicate stress resilience, whereas higher cortisol responsivity to stress might facilitate recovery in those individuals prone to react sensitively to stress. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Shi Min Chia; Daisy Mui Hung Kee
Occupational stress has been known as a major cause of safety and health issues among sales people in retail organizations. Despite this, numerous studies have indicated the importance of factors and outcomes of occupational stress in several occupations, a knowledge gap on occupational stress remains a hot topic of interest for academics and practitioners. This study aims to examine the workplace bullying as a factor and task performance as the outcome of occupational stress among salespeopl...
Bos, Marieke G N; Schuijer, Jantien; Lodestijn, Fleur; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel
Retrieval of negative emotional memories is often accompanied by the experience of stress. Upon retrieval, a memory trace can temporarily return into a labile state, where it is vulnerable to change. An unresolved question is whether post-retrieval stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans by modulating the reconsolidation process. Here, we tested in two experiments whether post-reactivation stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans. In both experiments, participants were instructed to learn neutral, positive and negative words. Approximately 24h later, participants received a reminder of the word list followed by exposure to the social evaluative cold pressor task (reactivation/stress group, nexp1=20; nexp2=18) or control task (reactivation/no-stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=18). An additional control group was solely exposed to the stress task, without memory reactivation (no-reactivation/stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=21). The next day, memory performance was tested using a free recall and a recognition task. In the first experiment we showed that participants in the reactivation/stress group recalled more words than participants in the reactivation/no-stress and no-reactivation/stress group, irrespective of valence of the word stimuli. Furthermore, participants in the reactivation/stress group made more false recognition errors. In the second experiment we replicated our observations on the free recall task for a new set of word stimuli, but we did not find any differences in false recognition. The current findings indicate that post-reactivation stress can improve declarative memory performance by modulating the process of reconsolidation. This finding contributes to our understanding why some memories are more persistent than others. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Chrousos, George P
All organisms must maintain a complex dynamic equilibrium, or homeostasis, which is constantly challenged by internal or external adverse forces termed stressors. Stress occurs when homeostasis is threatened or perceived to be so; homeostasis is re-established by various physiological and behavioral adaptive responses. Neuroendocrine hormones have major roles in the regulation of both basal homeostasis and responses to threats, and are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by dyshomeostasis or cacostasis. The stress response is mediated by the stress system, partly located in the central nervous system and partly in peripheral organs. The central, greatly interconnected effectors of this system include the hypothalamic hormones arginine vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone and pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides, and the locus ceruleus and autonomic norepinephrine centers in the brainstem. Targets of these effectors include the executive and/or cognitive, reward and fear systems, the wake-sleep centers of the brain, the growth, reproductive and thyroid hormone axes, and the gastrointestinal, cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and immune systems. Optimal basal activity and responsiveness of the stress system is essential for a sense of well-being, successful performance of tasks, and appropriate social interactions. By contrast, excessive or inadequate basal activity and responsiveness of this system might impair development, growth and body composition, and lead to a host of behavioral and somatic pathological conditions.
Causse, Mickaël; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Démonet, Jean François; Pastor, Josette
The paper deals with the links between physiological measurements and cognitive and emotional functioning. As long as the operator is a key agent in charge of complex systems, the definition of metrics able to predict his performance is a great challenge. The measurement of the physiological state is a very promising way but a very acute comprehension is required; in particular few studies compare autonomous nervous system reactivity according to specific cognitive processes during task performance and task related psychological stress is often ignored. We compared physiological parameters recorded on 24 healthy subjects facing two neuropsychological tasks: a dynamic task that require problem solving in a world that continually evolves over time and a logical task representative of cognitive processes performed by operators facing everyday problem solving. Results showed that the mean pupil diameter change was higher during the dynamic task; conversely, the heart rate was more elevated during the logical task. Finally, the systolic blood pressure seemed to be strongly sensitive to psychological stress. A better taking into account of the precise influence of a given cognitive activity and both workload and related task-induced psychological stress during task performance is a promising way to better monitor operators in complex working situations to detect mental overload or pejorative stress factor of error.
Henrik B Jacobsen
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1 See whether increased or decreased variation relate to subjective reports of common somatic and psychological symptoms for a population on long-term sick leave; and (2 See if this pattern in variation is correlated with autonomic activation and psychological appraisal. METHODS: Our participants (n = 87 were referred to a 3.5-week return-to-work rehabilitation program, and had been on paid sick leave >8 weeks due to musculoskeletal pain, fatigue and/or common mental disorders. An extensive survey was completed, addressing socio-demographics, somatic and psychological complaints. In addition, a physician and a psychologist examined the participants, determining baseline heart rate, medication use and SCID-I diagnoses. During the 3.5-week program, the participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups. Participants wore heart rate monitors and filled out Visual Analogue Scales during the TSST-G. RESULTS: Our participants presented a low cortisol variation, with mixed model analyses showing a maximal increase in free saliva cortisol of 26% (95% CI, 0.21-0.32. Simultaneously, the increase in heart rate and Visual Analogue Scales was substantial, indicating autonomic and psychological activation consistent with intense stress from the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings are the first description of a blunted cortisol response in a heterogeneous group of patients on long-term sick leave. The results suggest lack of cortisol reactivity as a possible biological link involved in the pathway between stress, sustained activation and long-term sick leave.
Aschbacher, Kirstin; O'Donovan, Aoife; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Su, Yali; Epel, Elissa
Chronic psychological stress appears to accelerate biological aging, and oxidative damage is an important potential mediator of this process. However, the mechanisms by which psychological stress promotes oxidative damage are poorly understood. This study investigates the theory that cortisol increases in response to an acutely stressful event have the potential to either enhance or undermine psychobiological resilience to oxidative damage, depending on the body's prior exposure to chronic psychological stress. In order to achieve a range of chronic stress exposure, forty-eight post-menopausal women were recruited in a case-control design that matched women caring for spouses with dementia (a chronic stress model) with similarly aged control women whose spouses were healthy. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived stress over the previous month and provided fasting blood. Three markers of oxidative damage were assessed: 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) (IsoP), lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxoG) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), reflecting oxidative damage to RNA/DNA respectively. Within approximately one week, participants completed a standardized acute laboratory stress task while salivary cortisol responses were measured. The increase from 0 to 30 min was defined as "peak" cortisol reactivity, while the increase from 0 to 15 min was defined as "anticipatory" cortisol reactivity, representing a cortisol response that began while preparing for the stress task. Women under chronic stress had higher 8-oxoG, oxidative damage to RNA (pstress and elevated oxidative stress damage, but only among women under chronic stress. Consistent with this model, bootstrapped path analysis found significant indirect paths from perceived stress to 8-oxoG and IsoP (but not 8-OHdG) via anticipatory cortisol reactivity, showing the expected relations among chronically stressed participants (p≤.01) Intriguingly, among those with low chronic stress
We present a method for Cognitive Task Analysis that guides the early stages of software development, aiming at an optimal cognitive load for operators of process control systems. The method is based on a practical theory of cognitive task load and support. In addition to the classical measure
DiBonaventura, Marco DaCosta; Erblich, Joel; Sloan, Richard P; Bovbjerg, Dana H
Biases in processing information related to sources of stress have widely been demonstrated with the use of Stroop emotional color word tasks. One study reported such biases among women with histories of breast cancer in a first-degree relative (FH+) who were given a Stroop cancer word task. This study aimed to replicate and extend these findings with a computerized version of the task. Response latencies and errors were recorded during administration of the task to FH+ and FH- women. A cancer list and 5 comparison lists were administered. Results indicated that FH+ women exhibited longer response latencies for cancer words than did FH- women (p Stroop cancer word task.
... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...
... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir OSHA-NIOSH ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...
Milgram, N; Marshevsky, S; Sadeh, C
The relationships among five aspects of academic procrastination--behavioral delay, personal upset about the delay, task aversiveness, task capability, and the desire to reduce behavioral delay--were investigated in 10th-grade Israeli students (N = 195). Upset about delay was weakly related to delay itself, and--unlike delay--was strongly related to perceived capability to perform academic tasks and to the desire to change delaying behavior. Students delayed more on academic tasks labeled unpleasant than pleasant, were neutral in between, and were correspondingly more upset about the former than the latter. They more frequently acknowledged reasons for academic procrastination that were less threatening to their self-image (e.g., problems in time management) than reasons that were more threatening (e.g., lack of ability). Interest in reducing delay is related more to self-perceived ability to handle tasks than to time spent procrastinating or reasons given for procrastinating.
Keating, Norah C.
Questioned 753 farm men and women to identify factors associated with stress in farm families. Results suggest that high mastery provides the best buffer against stress for both farm men and women. The task of family life educators is to help farm families augment their personal and social resources while managing high financial and work demands.…
White, Timothy P.; Kern, Marialice
Discusses exercise-induced stress that results from motor unit recruitment, the impact of recruitment on selected systemic support systems, and some of the environmental overlays that affect the degree of physiological stress. Adaptations to sustained changes in physical activity and muscle and myotendinous injury induced by stress are examined.…
Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...
Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.
Dongen, van K.; Maanen, van P.P.
Future platforms are envisioned in which human-machine teams are able to share and trade tasks as demands in situations change. It seems that human-machine coordination has not received the attention it deserves by past and present approaches to task allocation. In this paper a simple way to make
Korst, J.H.M.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Lenstra, J.K.
We consider the problem of nonpreemptively scheduling periodic tasks on a minimum number of identical processors, assuming that some slack is allowed in the time between successive executions of a periodic task. We prove that the problem is NP-hard in the strong sense. Necessary and sufficient
Karolina M. Lempert
Full Text Available Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual perceptions of stress and whether the stressful situation is future-focused or present-focused. Half of the participants experienced acute stress by anticipating giving a videotaped speech. This stress was either future-oriented (speech about future job or present-oriented (speech about physical appearance. They then performed a delay discounting task, in which they chose between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed rewards. Their scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were also collected. The way in which one appraises a stressful situation interacts with acute stress to influence choices; under stressful conditions, delay discounting rate was highest in individuals with low perceived stress and lowest for individuals with high perceived stress. This result might be related to individual variation in reward responsiveness under stress. Furthermore, the time orientation of the task interacted with its stressfulness to affect the individual’s propensity to choose immediate rewards. These findings add to our understanding of the intermediary factors between stress and decision making.
Wiemers, Uta S; Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wolf, Oliver T
The present study explored the motivational characteristics of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993). Seventy-two participants either completed the public-speaking component of the TSST or, as a control condition, the friendly TSST (Wiemers, Schoofs, & Wolf, 2013) and wrote picture stories both before and after treatment. Stories were coded for motivational imagery related to power, achievement, and affiliation as well as for activity inhibition, a marker of functional brain lateralization during stress. The TSST had a specific arousing effect on power motivation, but not on other motivational needs, on activity inhibition, or on story length. TSST-elicited increases in power imagery, but not in achievement or affiliation imagery, were associated with a relatively greater salivary alpha-amylase response and with a relatively lesser salivary cortisol response. These findings suggest that the TSST specifically induces power-related stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tieges, Zoe; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard
We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials
Clewett, David; Schoeke, Andrej; Mather, Mara
The amygdala forms a crucial link between central pain and stress systems. There is much evidence that psychological stress affects amygdala activity, but it is less clear how painful stressors influence subsequent amygdala functional connectivity. In the present study, we used pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) to investigate differences in healthy male adults’ resting-state amygdala functional connectivity following a cold pressor versus control task, with the stressor and control conditions conducted on different days. During the period of peak cortisol response to acute stress (approximately fifteen to thirty minutes after stressor onset), participants were asked to rest for six minutes with their eyes closed during a PASL scanning sequence. The cold pressor task led to reduced resting-state functional connectivity between the amygdalae and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), which occurred irrespective of cortisol release. The stressor also induced greater inverse connectivity between the left amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), a brain region implicated in the down-regulation of amygdala responsivity. Furthermore, the degree of post-stressor left amygdala decoupling with the lateral OFC varied according to self-reported pain intensity during the cold pressor task. These findings indicate that the cold pressor task alters amygdala interactions with prefrontal and ACC regions 15–30 minutes after the stressor, and that these altered functional connectivity patterns are related to pain perception rather than cortisol feedback. PMID:23645370
Intranasal oxytocin reduces provoked symptoms in female patients with posttraumatic stress disorder despite exerting sympathomimetic and positive chronotropic effects in a randomized controlled trial.
Sack, M; Spieler, D; Wizelman, L; Epple, G; Stich, J; Zaba, M; Schmidt, U
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe psychiatric disease accompanied by neuroendocrine changes such as adrenergic overdrive and hence an elevated cardiovascular morbidity. Current pharmacotherapeutic options for PTSD are less than suboptimal, necessitating the development of PTSD-specific drugs. Although the neuropeptide oxytocin has been repeatedly suggested to be effective in PTSD treatment, there are, to our knowledge, only three studies that have assessed its efficacy on the intensity of PTSD symptoms in PTSD patients - among them one symptom provocation study in male veterans. To evaluate for the first time how oxytocin influences the intensity of provoked PTSD symptoms and, furthermore, cardiac control in female PTSD patients, we assessed their psychic and cardiac response to trauma-script exposure with and without oxytocin pretreatment in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. We used a within-subject design to study 35 female PTSD patients who received oxytocin and placebo in a 2-week interval. Furthermore, we performed a small pilot study to get an idea of the relation of the stress-modulated endogenous oxytocin levels and heart rate - we correlated oxytocin serum levels with the heart rate of 10 healthy individuals before and after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Intranasal oxytocin treatment was followed by a reduction of provoked total PTSD symptoms, in particular of avoidance, and by an elevation in baseline and maximum heart rate together with a drop in the pre-ejection period, a marker for sympathetic cardiac control. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between endogenous oxytocin levels and heart rate both before and after TSST challenge in healthy control subjects. This study provides the first evidence that oxytocin treatment reduces the intensity of provoked PTSD symptoms in female PTSD patients. The small size of both samples and the heterogeneity of the patient sample restrict the
Rao, Jakkula V.; Chandraiah, K.
Backround: Experience of occupational stress is inevitably involved in the execution of any type of work. Stress has an adaptive value. It motivates the individual to attend to the task and get rid of the tension or demand the unattended task produced. Materials and Methods : The study was planned to investigate the differences between executives and shop floor workers on occupational stress, mental health, job satisfaction and coping. A random sample of 200 executives and shop floor employee...
Kogler, Lydia; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Metzler, Hannah; Thaler, Hanna; Boubela, Roland N; Pruessner, Jens C; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Gur, Ruben C; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Habel, Ute; Derntl, Birgit
Positive self-evaluation is a major psychological resource modulating stress coping behavior. Sex differences have been reported in self-esteem as well as stress reactions, but so far their interactions have not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated sex-specific associations of self-esteem and stress reaction on behavioral, hormonal and neural levels. We applied a commonly used fMRI-stress task in 80 healthy participants. Men compared to women showed higher activation during stress in hippocampus, precuneus, superior temporal gyrus (STG) and insula. Furthermore, men outperformed women in the stress task and had higher cortisol and testosterone levels than women after stress. Self-esteem had an impact on precuneus, insula and STG activation during stress across the whole group. During stress, men recruit regions associated with emotion and stress regulation, self-referential processing and cognitive control more strongly than women. Self-esteem affects stress processing, however in a sex-independent fashion: participants with lower self-esteem show higher activation of regions involved in emotion and stress regulation, self-referential processing and cognitive control. Taken together, our data suggest that men are more engaged during the applied stress task. Across women and men, lower self-esteem increases the effort in emotion and stress processing and cognitive control, possibly leading to self-related thoughts in stressful situations.
Full Text Available This study describes the methodology used for designing a database of speech under real stress. Based on limits of existing stress databases, we used a communication task via a computer game to collect speech data. To validate the presence of stress, known psychophysiological indicators such as heart rate and electrodermal activity, as well as subjective self-assessment were used. This paper presents the data from first 5 speakers (3 men, 2 women who participated in initial tests of the proposed design. In 4 out of 5 speakers increases in fundamental frequency and intensity of speech were registered. Similarly, in 4 out of 5 speakers heart rate was significantly increased during the task, when compared with reference measurement from before the task. These first results show that proposed design might be appropriate for building a speech under stress database. However, there are still considerations that need to be addressed.
Lü, Wei; Xing, Wanying; Hughes, Brian M; Wang, Zhenhong
The present study sought to establish whether the effects of extraversion on cardiovascular responses to recurrent social stress are contingent on stress intensity. A 2×5×1 mixed-factorial experiment was conducted, with social stress intensity as a between-subject variable, study phase as a within-subject variable, extraversion as a continuous independent variable, and cardiovascular parameter (HR, SBP, DBP, or RSA) as a dependent variable. Extraversion (NEO-FFI), subjective stress, and physiological stress were measured in 166 undergraduate students randomly assigned to undergo moderate (n=82) or high-intensity (n=84) social stress (a public speaking task with different levels of social evaluation). All participants underwent continuous physiological monitoring while facing two consecutive stress exposures distributed across five laboratory phases: baseline, stress exposure 1, post-stress 1, stress exposure 2, post-stress 2. Results indicated that under moderate-intensity social stress, participants higher on extraversion exhibited lesser HR reactivity to stress than participants lower on extraversion, while under high-intensity social stress, they exhibited greater HR, SBP, DBP and RSA reactivity. Under both moderate- and high-intensity social stress, participants higher on extraversion exhibited pronounced SBP and DBP response adaptation to repeated stress, and showed either better degree of HR recovery or greater amount of SBP and DBP recovery after stress. These findings suggest that individuals higher on extraversion exhibit physiological flexibility to cope with social challenges and benefit from adaptive cardiovascular responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)
Sarri, Margarita; Greenwood, Richard; Kalra, Lalit; Driver, Jon
Unilateral neglect involves deficits of spatial exploration and awareness that do not always affect a fixed portion of extrapersonal space, but may vary with current stimulation and possibly with task demands. Here, we assessed any ‘top-down’, task-related influences on visual neglect, with novel experimental variants of the cancellation test. Many different versions of the cancellation test are used clinically, and can differ in the extent of neglect revealed, though the exact factors determ...
This document contains information relating to Category B, C, and D generic technical activities. The specific information provided for each task includes the reactor type to which the generic issue applies, the NRC division with lead responsibility and a description of the problem to be addressed by the task. Also provided in this document is a listing of Category A generic technical activities and definitions of Priority Categories A, B, C, and D
Kramer, A. F.; Wickens, C. D.; Donchin, E.
Research on dual-task performance has been concerned with delineating the antecedent conditions which lead to dual-task decrements. Capacity models of attention, which propose that a hypothetical resource structure underlies performance, have been employed as predictive devices. These models predict that tasks which require different processing resources can be more successfully time shared than tasks which require common resources. The conditions under which such dual-task integrality can be fostered were assessed in a study in which three factors likely to influence the integrality between tasks were manipulated: inter-task redundancy, the physical proximity of tasks and the task relevant objects. Twelve subjects participated in three experimental sessions in which they performed both single and dual-tasks. The primary task was a pursuit step tracking task. The secondary tasks required the discrimination between different intensities or different spatial positions of a stimulus. The results are discussed in terms of a model of dual-task integrality.
Kim, Eun Joo; Pellman, Blake; Kim, Jeansok J.
Uncontrollable stress has been recognized to influence the hippocampus at various levels of analysis. Behaviorally, human and animal studies have found that stress generally impairs various hippocampal-dependent memory tasks. Neurally, animal studies have revealed that stress alters ensuing synaptic plasticity and firing properties of hippocampal…
Full Text Available The human organism is exposed to the influence of various forms of stress, either physical, psychological or chemical, which all have in common that they may adversely affect our body. A certain amount of stress is always present and somehow directs, promotes or inhibits the functioning of the human body. Unfortunately, we are now too many and too often exposed to excessive stress, which certainly has adverse consequences. This is especially true for a particular type of stress, called oxidative stress. All aerobic organisms are exposed to this type of stress because they produce energy by using oxygen. For this type of stress you could say that it is rather imperceptibly involved in our lives, as it becomes apparent only at the outbreak of certain diseases. Today we are well aware of the adverse impact of radicals, whose surplus is the main cause of oxidative stress. However, the key problem remains the detection of oxidative stress, which would allow us to undertake timely action and prevent outbreak of many diseases of our time. There are many factors that promote oxidative stress, among them are certainly a fast lifestyle and environmental pollution. The increase in oxidative stress can also trigger intense physical activity that is directly associated with an increased oxygen consumption and the resulting formation of free radicals. Considering generally positive attitude to physical activity, this fact may seem at first glance contradictory, but the finding has been confimed by several studies in active athletes. Training of a top athlete daily demands great physical effort, which is also reflected in the oxidative state of the organism. However, it should be noted that the top athletes in comparison with normal individuals have a different defense system, which can counteract the negative effects of oxidative stress. Quite the opposite is true for irregular or excessive physical activity to which the body is not adapted.
The fundamental properties of quantum information and its applications to computing and cryptography have been greatly illuminated by considering information-theoretic tasks that are provably possible or impossible within non-relativistic quantum mechanics. I describe here a general framework for defining tasks within (special) relativistic quantum theory and illustrate it with examples from relativistic quantum cryptography and relativistic distributed quantum computation. The framework gives a unified description of all tasks previously considered and also defines a large class of new questions about the properties of quantum information in relation to Minkowski causality. It offers a way of exploring interesting new fundamental tasks and applications, and also highlights the scope for a more systematic understanding of the fundamental information-theoretic properties of relativistic quantum theory. (paper)
Guenter, Hannes; van Emmerik, Hetty; Schreurs, Bert; Kuypers, Tom; van Iterson, Ad; Notelaers, Guy
Although potentially beneficial, task conflict may threaten teams because it often leads to relationship conflict. Prior research has identified a set of interpersonal factors (e.g., team communication, team trust) that help attenuate this association. The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative perspective that focuses on the moderating role of performance-related factors (i.e., perceived team performance). Using social identity theory, we build a model that predicts how task conflict associates with growth in relationship conflict and how perceived team performance influences this association. We test a three-wave longitudinal model by means of random coefficient growth modeling, using data from 60 ongoing teams working in a health care organization. Results provide partial support for our hypotheses. Only when perceived team performance is low, do task conflicts relate with growth in relationship conflict. We conclude that perceived team performance seems to enable teams to uncouple task from relationship conflict. PMID:28190944
Most of us agree that stress is a growing problem within organizations. We hear about the postal workers who had killed fellow employees and supervisors, and then hear that a major cause of tension is at work. Friends tell us that they are stressed due to increased workload and he has to work overtime because the company is restructured. We read the polls that employees complain about the stress in trying to balance family life with the work. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individu...
This report provides a summary of progress for the project open-quotes Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).close quotes A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks
sociological factors pertaining to social structures and values. For example, telecommuting , job-sharing, and families’ attempts to decrease the amount...achievement strivings (actively working hard to achieve goals), and poly- chronicity ( the preference for working on more than one task at a time) with MT...Joslyn note (2000), this description of ADM makes it sound exceedingly easy. However, nothing could be farther from the truth . The task qualifies as an MT
Waters, Andrew J; Sayette, Michael A; Franken, Ingmar H A; Schwartz, Joseph E
The emotional Stroop task has been the most widely used task to examine attentional bias to emotionally salient stimuli. In one format of this task, words are presented to participants in a mixed randomized or quasi-randomized sequence. Using a mixed smoking Stroop task, we have previously demonstrated that smokers are slower to respond to words which follow smoking-related words than words which follow neutral words. Here we show that this carry-over effect is present in heroin addicts-but not control subjects-in a heroin Stroop task, and in normal subjects in a stress Stroop task. Thus, the effect generalizes to other populations. In addition, an examination of the studies that have collected data from both mixed and blocked formats provides converging evidence for the presence of carry-over effects. We discuss the implications of the carry-over effect for research using the emotional Stroop task.
Bock, Otmar; Weigelt, Cornelia; Bloomberg, Jacob J
Two previous single-case studies found that the dual-task costs of manual tracking plus memory search increased during a space mission, and concluded that sensorimotor deficits during spaceflight may be related to cognitive overload. Since dual-task costs were insensitive to the difficulty of memory search, the authors argued that the overload may reflect stress-related problems of multitasking, rather than a scarcity of specific cognitive resources. Here we expand the available database and compare different types of concurrent task. Three subjects were repeatedly tested before, during, and after an extended mission on the International Space Station (ISS). They performed an unstable tracking task and four reaction-time tasks, both separately and concurrently. Inflight data could only be obtained during later parts of the mission. The tracking error increased from pre- to in flight by a factor of about 2, both under single- and dual-task conditions. The dual-task costs with a reaction-time task requiring rhythm production was 2.4 times higher than with a reaction-time task requiring visuo-spatial transformations, and 8 times higher than with a regular choice reaction-time task. Long-term sensorimotor deficits during spaceflight may reflect not only stress, but also a scarcity of resources related to complex motor programming; possibly those resources are tied up by sensorimotor adaptation to the space environment.
Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Eack, Shaun M.
This study examined differences between adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 40) and typical community volunteers (N = 25) on measures of stressful life events, perceived stress, and biological stress response (cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity) during a novel social stress task. Additional analyses examined the relationship between…
Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de
Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar los efectos del estrés social agudo inducido experimentalmente con una versión modificada del TSST (Trier Social Stress Test, en los niveles sistémicos de la hormona cortisol y en la ejecución de una tarea de atención sostenida y dividida, en estudiantes universitarios de ambos sexos. Los resultados mostraron que el protocolo modificado del TSST produjo incrementos en los niveles sistémicos de cortisol en los participantes de sexo masculino, pero no afectó la ejecución en la prueba PASAT (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task. Se discuten estos resultados a la luz de trabajos previos en los que se observan diferencias por género en los efectos del estrés.
Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.
Density heterogeneity in the Earth’s lithosphere causes lateral pressure variations. Horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated lithostatic pressure, the Geopotential Energy (GPE), are a source of stresses (Geopotential Stress) that contribute to the Earth’s Stress Field. In theory the GPE...... is linearly related to the lithospheric part of the Geoid. The Geopotential Stress can be calculated if either the density structure and as a consequence the GPE or the lithospheric contribution to the Geoid is known. The lithospheric Geoid is usually obtained by short pass filtering of satellite Geoid...... are not entirely suitable for the stress calculations but can be compiled and adjusted. We present an approach in which a global lithospheric density model based on CRUST2.0 is obtained by simultaneously fitting topography and surface heat flow in the presence of isostatic compensation and long-wavelength lateral...
Cathcart, S; Petkov, J; Winefield, A H; Lushington, K; Rolan, P
Stress is the most commonly reported trigger of an episode of chronic tension-type headache (CTTH); however, the causal significance has not been experimentally demonstrated to date. Stress may trigger CTTH through hyperalgesic effects on already sensitized pain pathways in CTTH sufferers. This hypothesis could be partially tested by examining pain sensitivity in an experimental model of stress-induced headache in CTTH sufferers. Such examinations have not been reported to date. We measured pericranial muscle tenderness and pain thresholds at the finger, head and shoulder in 23 CTTH sufferers (CTH-S) and 25 healthy control subjects (CNT) exposed to an hour-long stressful mental task, and in 23 CTTH sufferers exposed to an hour-long neutral condition (CTH-N). Headache developed in 91% of CTH-S, 4% of CNT, and 17% of CTH-N subjects. Headache sufferers had increased muscle tenderness and reduced pain thresholds compared with healthy controls. During the task, muscle tenderness increased and pain thresholds decreased in the CTH-S group compared with CTH-N and CNT groups. Pre-task muscle tenderness and reduction in pain threshold during task were predictive of the development and intensity of headache following task. The main findings are that stress induced a headache in CTTH sufferers, and this was associated with pre-task muscle tenderness and stress-induced reduction in pain thresholds. The results support the hypothesis that stress triggers CTTH through hyperalgesic effects on already increased pain sensitivity in CTTH sufferers, reducing the threshold to noxious input from pericranial structures.
Madsen, Ida E H; Tripathi, Manisha; Borritz, Marianne; Rugulies, Reiner
According to the "stress-as-offense-to-self" perspective, work tasks that are considered unnecessary or unreasonable - so-called "illegitimate work tasks" - are likely to elicit stress-reactions. Previous studies, mostly cross-sectional, have shown that illegitimate tasks are associated with increased self-reported stress, cortisol, and counterproductive work behavior. In this article, we examine the prospective association between unnecessary work tasks, one type of illegitimate work tasks, and mental health among Danish human service workers. Further, we explore whether this association is modified by sex, age, occupational position, and baseline mental health status. The data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires from 1351 Danish human service workers in three waves of data-collection during 1999-2005. We measured unnecessary work tasks by a single item, and assessed mental health using the 5-item mental health inventory from the Short form 36 questionnaire. We analyzed data using multi-level modeling, adjusting for potential confounding by sex, age, cohabitation, occupational position, and baseline mental health. Unnecessary work tasks were prospectively associated with a decreased level of mental health. This association was stronger for employees with poor baseline mental health and tended to be more pronounced among older employees. Among participants with poor baseline mental health, the association was explained by neither psychological demands nor decision latitude. Our findings suggest that the prevention of unnecessary work tasks may benefit employee mental health, particularly among employees with pre-existing mental health problems.
Shi Min Chia
Full Text Available Occupational stress has been known as a major cause of safety and health issues among sales people in retail organizations. Despite this, numerous studies have indicated the importance of factors and outcomes of occupational stress in several occupations, a knowledge gap on occupational stress remains a hot topic of interest for academics and practitioners. This study aims to examine the workplace bullying as a factor and task performance as the outcome of occupational stress among salespeople in the retail industry in Malaysia. Questionnaires were distributed to salespeople in the large-scale retail organization. Data from 222 salespeople suggest that workplace bullying was positively related to occupational stress and in turn, it affects employee performance. These findings contribute to understanding how workplace bullying affects the occupational stress and how stress may affect the performance of salespeople. Implications were presented for employers and employees who should be viewed with caution, in turn, to reduce the occupational stress at the workplace.
Velikanov, N. L.; Koryagin, S. I.; Sharkov, O. V.
Calculations of residual stress fields are carried out by numerical and static methods, using the flat cross-section hypothesis. The failure of metal when exposed to residual stresses is, in most cases, brittle. The presence in the engineering structures of rigid elements often leads to the crack initiation and structure failure. This is due to the fact that rigid elements under the influence of external stresses are stress concentrators. In addition, if these elements are fixed by welding, the residual welding stresses can lead to an increase in stress concentration and, ultimately, to failure. The development of design schemes for such structures is a very urgent task for complex technical systems. To determine the stresses in a circular plate with a welded circular rigid insert under the influence of an external load, one can use the solution of the plane stress problem for annular plates in polar coordinates. The polar coordinates of the points are the polar radius and the polar angle, and the stress state is determined by normal radial stresses, tangential and shearing stresses. The use of the above mentioned design schemes, formulas, will allow more accurate determination of residual stresses in annular welded structures. This will help to establish the most likely directions of failure and take measures at the stages of designing, manufacturing and repairing engineering structures to prevent these failures. However, it must be taken into account that the external load, the presence of insulation can lead to a change in the residual stress field.
Stress - managing; Stress - recognizing; Stress - relaxation techniques ... LEARN TO RECOGNIZE STRESS The first step in managing stress is recognizing it in your life. Everyone feels stress in a different way. ...
Small, D.E.; McDonald, M.J.
With a goal of producing faster, safer, and cheaper technologies for nuclear waste cleanup, Sandia is actively developing and extending intelligent systems technologies. Graphical Programming is a key technology for robotic waste cleanup that Sandia is developing for this goal. This paper describes Sancho, Sandia most advanced Graphical Programming supervisory software. Sancho, now operational on several robot systems, incorporates all of Sandia's recent advances in supervisory control. Sancho, developed to rapidly apply Graphical Programming on a diverse set of robot systems, uses a general set of tools to implement task and operational behavior. Sancho can be rapidly reconfigured for new tasks and operations without modifying the supervisory code. Other innovations include task-based interfaces, event-based sequencing, and sophisticated GUI design. These innovations have resulted in robot control programs and approaches that are easier and safer to use than teleoperation, off-line programming, or full automation
Longstreet, Phil; Xiao, Xiao; Sarker, Saonee
The existing information system (IS) literature has acknowledged computer self-efficacy (CSE) as an important factor contributing to enhancements in computer-related task performance. However, the empirical results of CSE on performance have not always been consistent, and increasing an individual......'s CSE is often a cumbersome process. Thus, we introduce the theoretical concept of self-prophecy (SP) and examine how this social influence strategy can be used to improve computer-related task performance. Two experiments are conducted to examine the influence of SP on task performance. Results show...... that SP and CSE interact to influence performance. Implications are then discussed in terms of organizations’ ability to increase performance....
Lim, Hayoung A; Watson, Angela L
Music is widely recognized as a motivating stimulus. Investigators have examined the use of music to improve a variety of motivation-related outcomes; however, these studies have focused primarily on passive music listening rather than active participation in musical activities. To examine the influence of participation in musical tasks and unique participant characteristics on energetic arousal. We used a one-way Welch's ANOVA to examine the influence of musical participation (i.e., a non-musical control and four different musical task conditions) upon energetic arousal. In addition, ancillary analyses of participant characteristics including personality, age, gender, sleep, musical training, caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol revealed their possible influence upon pretest and posttest energetic arousal scores. Musical participation yielded a significant relationship with energetic arousal, F(4, 55.62) = 44.38, p = .000, estimated ω2 = 0.60. Games-Howell post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed statistically significant differences between five conditions. Descriptive statistics revealed expected differences between introverts' and extraverts' energetic arousal scores at the pretest, F(1, 115) = 6.80, p = .010, partial η2= .06; however, mean differences failed to reach significance at the posttest following musical task participation. No other measured participant characteristics yielded meaningful results. Passive tasks (i.e., listening to a story or song) were related to decreased energetic arousal, while active musical tasks (i.e., singing, rhythm tapping, and keyboard playing) were related to increased energetic arousal. Musical task participation appeared to have a differential effect for individuals with certain personality traits (i.e., extroverts and introverts).
Schubert, C; Lambertz, M; Nelesen, R A; Bardwell, W; Choi, J-B; Dimsdale, J E
This study examined chronic and short-term stress effects on heart rate variability (HRV), comparing time, frequency and phase domain (complexity) measures in 50 healthy adults. The hassles frequency subscale of the combined hassles and uplifts scale (CHUS) was used to measure chronic stress. Short-term stressor reactivity was assessed with a speech task. HRV measures were determined via surface electrocardiogram (ECG). Because respiration rate decreased during the speech task (pshort-term stress decreased HR D2 (calculated via the pointwise correlation dimension PD2) (pshort-term stress. Partial correlation adjusting for respiration rate showed that HR D2 was associated with chronic stress (r=-.35, p=.019). Differential effects of chronic and short-term stress were observed on several HRV measures. HR D2 decreased under both stress conditions reflecting lowered functionality of the cardiac pacemaker. The results confirm the importance of complexity metrics in modern stress research on HRV.
Berkowitz, Evan; Jansen, Gustav R.; McElvain, Kenneth; Walker-Loud, André
High Performance Computing is often performed on scarce and shared computing resources. To ensure computers are used to their full capacity, administrators often incentivize large workloads that are not possible on smaller systems. Measurements in Lattice QCD frequently do not scale to machine-size workloads. By bundling tasks together we can create large jobs suitable for gigantic partitions. We discuss METAQ and mpi_jm, software developed to dynamically group computational tasks together, that can intelligently backfill to consume idle time without substantial changes to users' current workflows or executables.
Full Text Available High Performance Computing is often performed on scarce and shared computing resources. To ensure computers are used to their full capacity, administrators often incentivize large workloads that are not possible on smaller systems. Measurements in Lattice QCD frequently do not scale to machine-size workloads. By bundling tasks together we can create large jobs suitable for gigantic partitions. We discuss METAQ and mpi_jm, software developed to dynamically group computational tasks together, that can intelligently backfill to consume idle time without substantial changes to users’ current workflows or executables.
Nielsen, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Mathiesen, Birgit Bork
were confronted with complicated jobs, e.g., group, internal and interdisciplinary supervision, but were not prepared, i.e. trained, prior to these tasks. These findings imply that more training is needed for novice supervisors. Preferably, this training should be introduced before, or at least...... Questionnaire covering a wide range of items on professional development, experience, and practice. In this paper we focus on background data (experience, training and practice), specifically the tasks and training of the respondents as novice supervisors. The results show, that a majority of novice supervisors...
Raffington, Laurel; Schmiedek, Florian; Heim, Christine; Shing, Yee Lee
This study investigated associations between parenting stress in parents and self-reported stress in children with children's diurnal cortisol secretion and whether these associations are moderated by known stress-regulating capacities, namely child cognitive control. Salivary cortisol concentrations were assessed from awakening to evening on two weekend days from 53 6-to-7-year-old children. Children completed a cognitive control task and a self-report stress questionnaire with an experiment...
Lighthall, Nichole R.; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Schoeke, Andrej; Frank, Michael J.; Mather, Mara
Animal research and human neuroimaging studies indicate that stress increases dopamine levels in brain regions involved in reward processing and stress also appears to increase the attractiveness of addictive drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that stress increases reward salience, leading to more effective learning about positive than negative outcomes in a probabilistic selection task. Changes to dopamine pathways with age raise the question of whether stress effects on incentiv...
Thompson, Ross A
Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability to succeed in school and in life. For example, when children are born into a world where resources are scarce and violence is a constant possibility, neurobiological changes may make them wary and vigilant, and they are likely to have a hard time controlling their emotions, focusing on tasks, and forming healthy relationships. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses to chronic stress serve them poorly in situations, such as school and work, where they must concentrate and cooperate to do well. But thanks to the plasticity of the developing brain and other biological systems, the neurobiological response to chronic stress can be buffered and even reversed, Thompson writes, especially when we intervene early in children's lives. In particular, warm and nurturing relationships between children and adults can serve as a powerful bulwark against the neurobiological changes that accompany stress, and interventions that help build such relationships have shown particular promise. These programs have targeted biological parents, of course, but also foster parents, teachers and other caregivers, and more distant relatives, such as grandparents. For this reason, Thompson suggests that the concept of two-generation programs may need to be expanded, and that we should consider a "multigenerational" approach to helping children living in poverty cope and thrive in the face of chronic stress.
... with regions of your brain that control mood, motivation and fear. The body's stress-response system is ... problems Headaches Heart disease Sleep problems Weight gain Memory and concentration impairment That's why it's so important ...
Opstrup, Niels; Pihl-Thingvad, Signe
Incongruences between the individual and the organizational work context are potential stressors. The present study focuses on the relationship between a complementary need-supply fit and Danish researchers’ self-perceived job stress. Strain is expected to increase as organizational supplies fall...... hand, the fit on “hard” dimensions as salary, financial rewards and career opportunities is found to be unrelated to the researchers’ self-perceived stress-level. The fit with regard to job security is an important exception, however....... to “soft” dimensions as freedom and independence in the job, personal and professional development at work, and receiving peer recognition is highly significant for the researchers’ self-perceived stress-level. The better the fit is the lower stress-levels the researchers’ on average report. On the other...
... of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and... Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force). The in-person Task Force meeting is being replaced by... CDC's ability to complete the necessary scientific and logistical support for the meeting. The Task...
... Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... Services Task Force (Task Force). The Task Force is independent and nonfederal. Its members are nationally.... The Task Force was convened in 1996 by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to assess the...
... Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... Services Task Force (Task Force). The Task Force is independent and nonfederal. Its members are nationally.... The Task Force was convened in 1996 by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to assess the...
... Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... Services Task Force (Task Force). The Task Force is independent and nonfederal. Its members are nationally.... The Task Force was convened in 1996 by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to assess the...
Prof.Univ. Dr. Paul Marinescu
Full Text Available In the post-modern management organizational leaders have the obligation of protecting their employees against factors that could cause damages to their potentially wealthy lives. Stress is such a factor. We shall attempt by means of the present article to draw attention on certain general aspects that should be taken into account in drafting plans for fighting against and diminishing the stress faced by the employees
Berquist, T.H.; Cooper, K.L.; Pritchard, D.J.
The diagnosis of a stress fracture should be considered in patients presented with pain after a change in activity, especially if the activity is strenuous and the pain is in the lower extremities. Since evidence of the stress fracture may not be apparent for weeks on routine radiographs, proper use of other imaging techniques will allow an earlier diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis is especially important in the femur, where displacement may occur
Snyder, Kevin P; Barry, Mark; Valentino, Rita J
Stress experience during adolescence has been linked to the development of psychiatric disorders in adulthood, many of which are associated with impairments in prefrontal cortex function. The current study was designed to determine the immediate and enduring effects of repeated social stress on a prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive task. Early adolescent (P28), mid-adolescent (P42), and adult (P70) rats were exposed to resident-intruder stress for 5 days and tested in an operant strategy-shifting task (OSST) during the following week or several weeks later during adulthood. Engagement of prefrontal cortical neurons during the task was assessed by expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos. Social stress during adolescence had no immediate effects on task performance, but impaired strategy-shifting in adulthood, whereas social stress that occurred during adulthood had no effect. The cognitive impairment produced by adolescent social stress was most pronounced in rats with a passive coping strategy. Notably, strategy-shifting performance was positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortical c-fos in adulthood but not in adolescence, suggesting that the task engages different brain regions in adolescents compared to adults. Adolescent social stress produces a protracted impairment in prefrontal cortex-mediated cognition that is related to coping strategy. This impairment may be selectively expressed in adulthood because prefrontal cortical activity is integral to task performance at this age but not during adolescence.
Geelhood, Kenneth J.; Beyer, Carl E.; Luscher, Walter G.
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked with incorporating cladding mechanical property data into the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fuel codes, FRAPCON-31 and FRAPTRAN2, by the NRC Office of Nuclear Reactor Research. The objective of that task was to create a mechanical model that can calculate true stress, true strain, and the possible failure of the fuel rod cladding based on uniaxial test data.
T. Tsikrika (Theodora); J. Kludas
htmlabstractThe wikipedia image retrieval task at ImageCLEF provides a testbed for the system-oriented evaluation of visual information retrieval from a collection of Wikipedia images. The aim is to investigate the effectiveness of retrieval approaches that exploit textual and visual evidence in the
Daro, Phil; Burkhardt, Hugh
We propose the development of a "population" of high-quality assessment tasks that cover the performance goals set out in the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics." The population will be published. Tests are drawn from this population as a structured random sample guided by a "balancing algorithm."
Holmes, C. P.; Kinter, J. L.; Beebe, R. F.; Feigelson, E.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Mentzel, C.; Smith, G.; Tino, C.; Walker, R. J.
Two years ago NASA established the Ad Hoc Big Data Task Force (BDTF - https://science.nasa.gov/science-committee/subcommittees/big-data-task-force), an advisory working group with the NASA Advisory Council system. The scope of the Task Force included all NASA Big Data programs, projects, missions, and activities. The Task Force focused on such topics as exploring the existing and planned evolution of NASA's science data cyber-infrastructure that supports broad access to data repositories for NASA Science Mission Directorate missions; best practices within NASA, other Federal agencies, private industry and research institutions; and Federal initiatives related to big data and data access. The BDTF has completed its two-year term and produced several recommendations plus four white papers for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. This presentation will discuss the activities and results of the TF including summaries of key points from its focused study topics. The paper serves as an introduction to the papers following in this ESSI session.
Full Text Available With the advent of specialized television channels offering 24-hour coverage, Internet and smart phones, the possibility to be constantly in contact with the media has increased dramatically in the last decades. Despite this higher access to knowledge, the impact media exposure has on healthy individuals remains poorly studied. Given that most information conveyed in the media is negative and that upon perception of threat, the brain activates the stress system, which leads to cortisol secretion, we decided to determine how healthy individuals react to media information. Accordingly, we investigated whether reading real negative news (1 is physiologically stressful, (2 modulates one's propensity to be stress reactive to a subsequent stressor and (3 modulates remembrance for these news. Sixty participants (30 women, 30 men were randomly assigned to either twenty-four real neutral news excerpts or to twenty-four real negative excerpts for 10 minutes. They were then all exposed to a well-validated psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, which consists of an anticipation phase of 10 minutes and a test phase of 10 minutes. A total of eight salivary cortisol samples were collected, at 10-minutes intervals, throughout the experimental procedure. One day later, a free recall of the news was performed. Results showed that although reading negative news did not lead to change in cortisol levels (p>0.05, it led to a significant increase in cortisol to a subsequent stressor in women only (p<0.001. Also, women in the negative news condition experienced better memory for these news excerpts compared to men (p<0.01. These results suggest a potential mechanism by which media exposure could increase stress reactivity and memory for negative news in women.
Marin, Marie-France; Morin-Major, Julie-Katia; Schramek, Tania E; Beaupré, Annick; Perna, Andrea; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J
With the advent of specialized television channels offering 24-hour coverage, Internet and smart phones, the possibility to be constantly in contact with the media has increased dramatically in the last decades. Despite this higher access to knowledge, the impact media exposure has on healthy individuals remains poorly studied. Given that most information conveyed in the media is negative and that upon perception of threat, the brain activates the stress system, which leads to cortisol secretion, we decided to determine how healthy individuals react to media information. Accordingly, we investigated whether reading real negative news (1) is physiologically stressful, (2) modulates one's propensity to be stress reactive to a subsequent stressor and (3) modulates remembrance for these news. Sixty participants (30 women, 30 men) were randomly assigned to either twenty-four real neutral news excerpts or to twenty-four real negative excerpts for 10 minutes. They were then all exposed to a well-validated psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), which consists of an anticipation phase of 10 minutes and a test phase of 10 minutes. A total of eight salivary cortisol samples were collected, at 10-minutes intervals, throughout the experimental procedure. One day later, a free recall of the news was performed. Results showed that although reading negative news did not lead to change in cortisol levels (p>0.05), it led to a significant increase in cortisol to a subsequent stressor in women only (pnegative news condition experienced better memory for these news excerpts compared to men (pmedia exposure could increase stress reactivity and memory for negative news in women.
Norton, Gary S.; Romlein, John R.; Lyche, David K.; Richardson, Ronald R., Jr.
Medical imaging's technological evolution in the next century will continue to include Picture Archive and Communication Systems (PACS) and teleradiology. It is difficult to predict radiology's future in the new millennium with both computed radiography and direct digital capture competing as the primary image acquisition methods for routine radiography. Changes in Computed Axial Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) continue to amaze the healthcare community. No matter how the acquisition, display, and archive functions change, Quality Control (QC) of the radiographic imaging chain will remain an important step in the imaging process. The Task Allocation Chart (TAC) is a tool that can be used in a medical facility's QC process to indicate the testing responsibilities of the image stakeholders and the medical informatics department. The TAC shows a grid of equipment to be serviced, tasks to be performed, and the organization assigned to perform each task. Additionally, skills, tasks, time, and references for each task can be provided. QC of the PACS must be stressed as a primary element of a PACS' implementation. The TAC can be used to clarify responsibilities during warranty and paid maintenance periods. Establishing a TAC a part of a PACS implementation has a positive affect on patient care and clinical acceptance.
Wintermann, Gloria-Beatrice; Donix, Markus; Joraschky, Peter; Gerber, Johannes; Petrowski, Katja
Patients with Panic Disorder (PD) direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD. A sample of 13 patients with PD with/ without agoraphobia and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent an fMRI investigation during olfactory stimulation with their stress-related sweat odors (TSST, ergometry) as well as artificial odors (peach, artificial sweat) as non-fearful non-body odors. The two groups did not differ with respect to their olfactory identification ability. Independent of the kind of odor, the patients with PD showed activations in fronto-cortical areas in contrast to the healthy controls who showed activations in olfaction-related areas such as the amygdalae and the hippocampus. For artificial odors, the patients with PD showed a decreased neuronal activation of the thalamus, the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Under the presentation of sweat odor caused by ergometric exercise, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. For the sweat odor from the anxiety condition, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the gyrus frontalis inferior, which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. The results suggest altered neuronal processing of olfactory stimuli in PD. Both artificial odors and stress-related body odors activate specific parts of a fear-network which is associated with an increased severity of the psychopathology.
Full Text Available Patients with Panic Disorder (PD direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD.A sample of 13 patients with PD with/ without agoraphobia and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent an fMRI investigation during olfactory stimulation with their stress-related sweat odors (TSST, ergometry as well as artificial odors (peach, artificial sweat as non-fearful non-body odors.The two groups did not differ with respect to their olfactory identification ability. Independent of the kind of odor, the patients with PD showed activations in fronto-cortical areas in contrast to the healthy controls who showed activations in olfaction-related areas such as the amygdalae and the hippocampus. For artificial odors, the patients with PD showed a decreased neuronal activation of the thalamus, the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Under the presentation of sweat odor caused by ergometric exercise, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. For the sweat odor from the anxiety condition, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the gyrus frontalis inferior, which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology.The results suggest altered neuronal processing of olfactory stimuli in PD. Both artificial odors and stress-related body odors activate specific parts of a fear-network which is associated with an increased severity of the
Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.
The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are ...
The study is divided into three tasks. Task I is concerned with predicting and understanding the effects of residual stresses due to weld repairs of pressure vessels. Task II examines residual stresses due to an electron beam weld. Task III addresses the problem of residual stresses produced by weld cladding at a nozzle vessel intersection. The objective of Task I is to develop a computational model for predicting residual stress states due to a weld repair of pressure vessel and thereby gain an understanding of the mechanisms involved in the creation of the residual stresses. Experimental data from the Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) is used to validate the computational model. In Task II, the residual stress model is applied to the case of an electron beam weld of a compact tension freacture specimen. The results in the form of residual stresses near the weld are then used to explain unexpected fracture behavior which is observed in the testing of the specimen. For Task III, the residual stress model is applied to the cladding process used in nozzle regions of nuclear pressure vessels. The residual stresses obtained from this analysis are evaluated to determine their effect on the phenomena of under-clad cracking
Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M
The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants' perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation--high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking--reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control--low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity--tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity.
David M Sanbonmatsu
Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants' perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation--high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking--reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control--low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity--tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity.
Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.
The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants’ perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation – high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking – reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control - low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity - tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity. PMID:23372720
Gurrin, Cathal; Joho, Hideo; Hopfgartner, Frank; Zhou, Liting; Albatal, Rami
In this paper we review the NTCIR12-Lifelog pilot task,\\ud which ran at NTCIR-12. We outline the test collection employed,\\ud along with the tasks, the eight submissions and the\\ud findings from this pilot task. We finish by suggesting future\\ud plans for the task.
Na, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, E. S.; Cho, S. B.; Kang, J. S.
This report describes task analysis methodology for advanced HSI designs. Task analyses was performed by using procedure-based hierarchical task analysis and task decomposition methods. The results from the task analysis were recorded in a database. Using the TA results, we developed static prototype of advanced HSI and human factors engineering verification and validation methods for an evaluation of the prototype. In addition to the procedure-based task analysis methods, workload estimation based on the analysis of task performance time and analyses for the design of information structure and interaction structures will be necessary
The Life Sciences Payload Definition and Integration Study was composed of four major tasks. Tasks A and B, the laboratory definition phase, were the subject of prior NASA study. The laboratory definition phase included the establishment of research functions, equipment definitions, and conceptual baseline laboratory designs. These baseline laboratories were designated as Maxi-Nom, Mini-30, and Mini-7. The outputs of Tasks A and B were used by the NASA Life Sciences Payload Integration Team to establish guidelines for Tasks C and D, the laboratory integration phase of the study. A brief review of Tasks A and B is presented provide background continuity. The tasks C and D effort is the subject of this report. The Task C effort stressed the integration of the NASA selected laboratory designs with the shuttle sortie module. The Task D effort updated and developed costs that could be used by NASA for preliminary program planning.
Stanojević Dragana Z.
Full Text Available Job stress is a line, for the person at work hired adverse physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions to situations in which job requirements are not in accordance with its capabilities, abilities and needs. Sources of stress at work are numerous. Personal factors: personality types have been most studied so far, environmental changes and demographic characteristics as well. Interpersonal stress inducing factors act and influence to the occurrence of many psychosomatic diseases. Psychosocial climate and relationships which are prevented or encouraged such as: cooperation and competition, trust and suspicion certainly affect to the appearance of professional stress. The way of leadership is very important. Organizational factors are the type of work, work time, noncompliance of the job, the introduction of new ethnologies, the conflict of personal roles, fear of job loss, bad physical conditions of working environment. The consequences of stress at work are numerous: at the cognitive level, the emotional level, the production plan, the health, plan reduces the immune system that cause a variety of psychosomatic illnesses and accidents at work.
Hirokawa, Kumi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Nagayoshi, Mako; Kajiura, Mitsugu; Imano, Hironori; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Okada, Takeo; Iso, Hiroyasu
This study aimed to investigate the effects of occupational status and job stress factors on cardiovascular stress reactivity in Japanese workers. In this baseline assessment between 2001 and 2009 in Osaka, Japan, we examined 928 healthy Japanese employees (330 men, 598 women) from two occupational statuses: managers/professionals and general workers. A brief job stress questionnaire was used to evaluate job stress levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate, heart rate variability (high-frequency [HF], low-frequency [LF], LF/HF], and peripheral blood flow were measured at rest and during two stressful tasks. Changes in stress reactivity were calculated as the difference between the measured variables during the tasks and the rest period. Men showed inverse associations between quantitative job overload and DBP, heart rate, and LF/HF, between physical demands and blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and between a poor physical environment and HF. Men also had positive associations between qualitative job overload and heart rate, and between physical demands and peripheral blood flow (all p occupational status, significant associations between job stress and changes in stress reactivity were observed in male managers/professionals and female general workers (p stress levels are associated with changes in cardiovascular stress reactivity in men and women. Occupational status may modify these associations.
Starcke, Katrin; Wolf, Oliver T; Markowitsch, Hans J; Brand, Matthias
Recent research has suggested that stress may affect memory, executive functioning, and decision making on the basis of emotional feedback processing. The current study examined whether anticipatory stress affects decision making measured with the Game of Dice Task (GDT), a decision-making task with explicit and stable rules that taps both executive functioning and feedback learning. The authors induced stress in 20 participants by having them anticipate giving a public speech and also examined 20 comparison subjects. The authors assessed the level of stress with questionnaires and endocrine markers (salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase), both revealing that speech anticipation led to increased stress. Results of the GDT showed that participants under stress scored significantly lower than the comparison group and that GDT performance was negatively correlated with the increase of cortisol. Our results indicate that stress can lead to disadvantageous decision making even when explicit and stable information about outcome contingencies is provided.
NATO Task Group HFM-081/RTG on "Stress and Psychological Support in Modern Military Operations" has produced, in the form of a Military Leaders Guide, a series of guidelines for psychological support...
Stephanie A. Kazanas; Kendra M. Van Valkenburg; Jeanette Altarriba
This study was designed to investigate the impact of survival processing with a novel task for this paradigm: the Stroop color-naming task. As the literature is mixed with regard to task generalizability, with survival processing promoting better memory for words, but not better memory for faces or paired associates, these types of task investigations are important to a growing field of research. Using the Stroop task provides a unique contribution, as identifying items by color is an importa...
Saslow, Laura R; McCoy, Shannon; van der Löwe, Ilmo; Cosley, Brandon; Vartan, Arbi; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher; Moskowitz, Judith T; Epel, Elissa S
What can a speech reveal about someone's state? We tested the idea that greater stress reactivity would relate to lower linguistic cognitive complexity while speaking. In Study 1, we tested whether heart rate and emotional stress reactivity to a stressful discussion would relate to lower linguistic complexity. In Studies 2 and 3, we tested whether a greater cortisol response to a standardized stressful task including a speech (Trier Social Stress Test) would be linked to speaking with less linguistic complexity during the task. We found evidence that measures of stress responsivity (emotional and physiological) and chronic stress are tied to variability in the cognitive complexity of speech. Taken together, these results provide evidence that our individual experiences of stress or "stress signatures"-how our body and mind react to stress both in the moment and over the longer term-are linked to how complex our speech under stress. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
interruption. A cognitive model we discuss below explains this effect in terms of increases in performance speed having the effect of compressing memory for...performance, and pilot data suggest that the task can distinguish between cognitive processes that are impaired by sleep deprivation and those that are...David Z. Hambrick Technical contact: Erik M. Altmann Michigan State University Department of Psychology 316 Physics Rd, Room 298A East Lansing
Johnston, Derek; Bell, Cheryl; Jones, Martyn; Farquharson, Barbara; Allan, Julia; Schofield, Patricia; Ricketts, Ian; Johnston, Marie
Stress in health care professionals may reflect both the work and appraisal of work and impacts on the individuals, their patients, colleagues and managers. The purpose of the present study is to examine physiological and psychological effects of stressors (tasks) and theory-based perceptions of work stressors within and between nurses in real time. During two work shifts, 100 nurses rated experienced stress, affect, fatigue, theory-based measures of work stress and nursing tasks on electronic diaries every 90 min, whereas heart rate and activity were measured continuously. Heart rate was associated with both demand and effort. Experienced stress was related to demand, control, effort and reward. Effort and reward interacted as predicted (but only within people). Results were unchanged when allowance was made for work tasks. Real-time appraisals were more important than actual tasks in predicting both psychological and physiological correlates of stress. At times when effort was high, perceived reward reduced stress.
Burcharth, Hans F.
The following types of forces contribute to the stresses in a Dolos in a pack exposed to waves: 1)Gravity forces Compaction forces (mainly due to settlements, gravity and flow forces) 2) Flow forces 3) Impact forces (impacts between moving concrete blocks)......The following types of forces contribute to the stresses in a Dolos in a pack exposed to waves: 1)Gravity forces Compaction forces (mainly due to settlements, gravity and flow forces) 2) Flow forces 3) Impact forces (impacts between moving concrete blocks)...
Poirier, J.; Barbe, B.; Jolly, N.
The aim is to show how internal stresses are generated and to fix the orders of magnitude. A realistic case, the vertical welding of thick plates free to move one against the other, is described and the deformations and stresses are analyzed. The mathematical model UEDA, which accounts for the elastic modulus, the yield strength and the expansion coefficient of the metal with temperature, is presented. The hypotheses and results given apply only to the instantaneous welding of a welded plate and to a plate welded by a moving electrode [fr
de Veld, Danielle M J; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina
We investigated whether children's performance on working memory (WM) and delayed retrieval (DR) tasks decreased after stress exposure, and how physiological stress responses related to performance under stress. About 158 children (83 girls; Mage = 10.61 years, SD = 0.52) performed two WM tasks (WM forward and WM backward) and a DR memory task first during a control condition, and 1 week later during a stress challenge. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol were assessed during the challenge. Only WM backward performance declined over conditions. Correlations between physiological stress responses and performance within the stress challenge were present only for WM forward and DR. For WM forward, higher cortisol responses were related to better performance. For DR, there was an inverted U-shape relation between cortisol responses and performance, as well as a cortisol × sAA interaction, with concurrent high or low responses related to optimal performance. This emphasizes the importance of including curvilinear and interaction effects when relating physiology to memory.
Schubert, C.; Lambertz, M.; Nelesen, R.A.; Bardwell, W.; Choi, J.-B.; Dimsdale, J.E.
This study examined chronic and short-term stress effects on heart rate variability (HRV), comparing time, frequency and phase domain (complexity) measures in 50 healthy adults. The hassles frequency subscale of the combined hassles and uplifts scale (CHUS) was used to measure chronic stress. Short-term stressor reactivity was assessed with a speech task. HRV measures were determined via surface electrocardiogram (ECG). Because respiration rate decreased during the speech task (p < .001), thi...
Yoto, Ai; Fukui, Natsuki; Kaneda, Chisa; Torita, Shoko; Goto, Keiichi; Nanjo, Fumio; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko
Growing attention has been paid to the effects of food flavor components on alleviating negative brain functions caused by stressful lifestyles. In this study, we investigated the alleviating effect of two kinds of black tea aromas on physical and psychological stress induced by the Uchida-Kraepelin test, based on salivary chromogranin-A (CgA) levels as a stress marker and subjective evaluations (Profile of Mood States). Compared with the water exposure control, inhaling black tea aroma (Darjeeling and Assam in this study) induced lower salivary CgA concentration levels after 30 min of mental stress load tasks. This anti-stress effect of black tea aroma did not differ between the two tea types even though the concentration of the anti-stress components in the Darjeeling tea aroma was higher than that in the Assam aroma. However, Darjeeling tea aroma tended to decrease the tension and/or anxiety score immediately after the first exposure. Inhaling black tea aroma may diminish stress levels caused by arithmetic mental stress tasks, and Darjeeling tea aroma tended to improve mood before mental stress load.
scratch test for TiN on stainless steel with better substrate mechanical properties. This present study was focused on the study of stress distribution...AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2010-4189 COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (CR&D) Task Order 0049: Tribological Modeling Young Sup Kang Universal...SUBTITLE COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (CR&D) Task Order 0049: Tribological Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F33615-03-D-5801-0049 5b
Pluyter, J.R.; Buzink, S.N.; Rutkowski, A.F.; Jakimowicz, J.J.
Background. Surgeons perform complex tasks while exposed to multiple distracting sources that may increase stress in the operating room (e.g., music, conversation, and unadapted use of sophisticated technologies). This study aimed to examine whether such realistic social and technological distracting conditions may influence surgical performance. Methods. Twelve medical interns performed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy task with the Xitact LC 3.0 virtual reality simulator under distracting con...
Edwards, Harold C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ibanez, Daniel Alejandro [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
This report documents the ASC/ATDM Kokkos deliverable "Production Portable Dy- namic Task DAG Capability." This capability enables applications to create and execute a dynamic task DAG ; a collection of heterogeneous computational tasks with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) of "execute after" dependencies where tasks and their dependencies are dynamically created and destroyed as tasks execute. The Kokkos task scheduler executes the dynamic task DAG on the target execution resource; e.g. a multicore CPU, a manycore CPU such as Intel's Knights Landing (KNL), or an NVIDIA GPU. Several major technical challenges had to be addressed during development of Kokkos' Task DAG capability: (1) portability to a GPU with it's simplified hardware and micro- runtime, (2) thread-scalable memory allocation and deallocation from a bounded pool of memory, (3) thread-scalable scheduler for dynamic task DAG, (4) usability by applications.
Schaffer, Bryan S.; Manegold, Jennifer G.
The authors investigated the antecedents of team task cohesiveness in service learning classroom environments. Focusing on task commitment and task attraction as key dependent variables representing cohesiveness, and task interdependence as the primary independent variable, the authors position three important task action phase processes as…
Halvorson, Kimberly M.; Ebner, Herschel; Hazeltine, Eliot
Why are dual-task costs reduced with ideomotor (IM) compatible tasks (Greenwald & Shulman, 1973; Lien, Proctor & Allen, 2002)? In the present experiments, we first examine three different measures of single-task performance (pure single-task blocks, mixed blocks, and long stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] trials in dual-task blocks) and two…
... Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... September 17, 2013, announcing the next meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force... the Task Force to consider the findings of systematic reviews and issue findings and recommendations...
First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...
However, maximal HR was significantly higher in all groups during their sporting activities than during stress testing in the laboratory (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Maximal HR in veteran athletes during specific sporting activities was significantly higher than that attained during a routine sECG. This finding was not sport-specific, ...
Goossens, Lien; Van Durme, Kim; Van Beveren, Marie-Lotte; Claes, Laurence
Previous studies have already found a positive association between attachment and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in children and adolescents. However, to our knowledge, no experimental studies have examined whether changes in negative and/or positive affect moderate the association between attachment anxiety and body dissatisfaction in children. A controlled laboratory setting was used to investigate whether changes in state negative and/or positive affect moderate the association between attachment anxiety and body satisfaction in a sample of 81 children (M age =11.74). The changes in state affect were caused by the exposure to a performance-related stressor using the Trier Social Stress Test for Children. Children with high levels of attachment anxiety reported a decrease in body satisfaction, but only if the TSST-C led to a decrease in their positive affect. Early detection and intervention programs may benefit from addressing insecure attachment and maladaptive emotion regulation in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hart, S. G.; Shively, R. J.; Vidulich, M. A.; Miller, R. C.
The influence of stimulus modality and task difficulty on workload and performance was investigated. The goal was to quantify the cost (in terms of response time and experienced workload) incurred when essentially serial task components shared common elements (e.g., the response to one initiated the other) which could be accomplished in parallel. The experimental tasks were based on the Fittsberg paradigm; the solution to a SternBERG-type memory task determines which of two identical FITTS targets are acquired. Previous research suggested that such functionally integrated dual tasks are performed with substantially less workload and faster response times than would be predicted by suming single-task components when both are presented in the same stimulus modality (visual). The physical integration of task elements was varied (although their functional relationship remained the same) to determine whether dual-task facilitation would persist if task components were presented in different sensory modalities. Again, it was found that the cost of performing the two-stage task was considerably less than the sum of component single-task levels when both were presented visually. Less facilitation was found when task elements were presented in different sensory modalities. These results suggest the importance of distinguishing between concurrent tasks that complete for limited resources from those that beneficially share common resources when selecting the stimulus modalities for information displays.
Brown, Kirk Warren; Weinstein, Netta; Creswell, J David
Individual differences in mindfulness have been associated with numerous self-report indicators of stress, but research has not examined how mindfulness may buffer neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses under controlled laboratory conditions. The present study investigated the role of trait mindfulness in buffering cortisol and affective responses to a social evaluative stress challenge versus a control task. Participants completed measures of trait mindfulness, perceived stress, anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation before being randomized to complete the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum et al., 1993) or a control task. At points throughout the session, participants provided five saliva samples to assess cortisol response patterns, and completed four self-report measures of anxiety and negative affect to assess psychological responses. In accord with hypotheses, higher trait mindfulness predicted lower cortisol responses to the TSST, relative to the control task, as well as lower anxiety and negative affect. These relations remained significant when controlling for the role of other variables that predicted cortisol and affective responses. The findings suggest that trait mindfulness modulates cortisol and affective responses to an acute social stressor. Further research is needed to understand the neural pathways through which mindfulness impacts these responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cochran, Justinn R; Consedine, Nathan S; Lee, John M J; Pandit, Chinmay; Sollers, John J; Kydd, Robert R
Craving among smokers is increased by stress and exposure to smoking-related visual cues. However, few experimental studies have tested both elicitors concurrently and considered how exposures may interact to influence craving. The current study examined craving in response to stress and visual cue exposure, separately and in succession, in order to better understand the relationship between craving elicitation and the elicitor. Thirty-nine smokers (21 males) who forwent smoking for 30 minutes were randomized to complete a stress task and a visual cue task in counterbalanced orders (creating the experimental groups); for the cue task, counterbalanced blocks of neutral, motivational control, and smoking images were presented. Self-reported craving was assessed after each block of visual stimuli and stress task, and after a recovery period following each task. As expected, the stress and smoking images generated greater craving than neutral or motivational control images (p smokers are stressed, visual cues have little additive effect on craving, and different types of visual cues elicit comparable craving. These findings may imply that once stressed, smokers will crave cigarettes comparably notwithstanding whether they are exposed to smoking image cues.
Gallagher, Stephen; Meaney, Sarah; Muldoon, Orla T
This study tested a recent theoretical development in stress research to see whether group membership influenced cardiovascular reactions following exposure to acute stress. Participants (N = 104) were exposed to a message in which a maths test was described as stressful or challenging by an ingroup member (a student) or outgroup member (a stress disorder sufferer). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored throughout a standard reactivity study. As expected, a significant interaction was found; relative to those who were told that the task was challenging, ingroup members reported more stress and had higher DBP and HR reactivity when told by an ingroup member that the maths task was stressful; task information did not have the same effect for outgroup members. These results indicate that informational support is not constant but varies as a function of group membership. Finally, this recent development in stress research may prove useful for those interested in investigating the interactions between social, psychological and physiological processes underlying health disparities. What is already known on this subject? Stress is a common risk factor for hypertension and coronary heart disease. Social support has been found to reduce cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. The influence of social support on stress varies as a consequence of social identity. What does this study add? The social group that one belongs to influences how one appraises and responds to stress. Social identity provides a useful framework for understanding how social processes are associated with health disparities. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Recent research indicates that external manipulations, such as stress or mood induction, can affect decision-making abilities. In the current study, we investigated whether the exposure to an unsolvable task affected subsequent performance on the Iowa Gambling Task. Participants were randomly assigned to a condition in which they were exposed to unsolvable anagrams (n = 20, or a condition in which they worked on solvable anagrams (n = 22. Afterwards, all participants played the Iowa Gambling Task, a prominent task that measures decision making under uncertain conditions with no explicit rules for gains and losses. In this task, it is essential to process feedback from previous decisions. The results demonstrated that participants who worked on unsolvable anagrams made more disadvantageous decisions on the Iowa Gambling Task than the other participants. In addition, a significant gender effect was observed: Males who worked on unsolvable anagrams made a more disadvantageous decisions than the other male participants. Females who worked on unsolvable anagrams also made more disadvantageous decision than the other female participants, but differences were small and not significant. We conclude that the exposure to unsolvable anagrams induced the experience of uncontrollability which can elicit stress and learned helplessness. Stress and learned helplessness might have reduced the ability to learn from the given feedback, particularly in male participants. We assume that in real life, uncontrollable challenges that last longer than a single experimental manipulation can affect decision making severely, at least in males.
Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.
Leicht-Deobald, Ulrich; Bruch, Heike; Bönke, Luisa; Stevense, Amie; Fan, Yan; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone
Early life stress (ELS) affects stress- reactivity via limbic brain regions implicated such as hippocampus and amygdala. Social support is a major protective factor against ELS effects, while subjects with ELS experience reportedly perceive less of it in their daily life. The workplace, where most adults spend a substantial amount of time in their daily lives, might serve as a major resource for social support. Since previous data demonstrated that social support attenuates stress reactivity, we here used a psychosocial stress task to test the hypothesis that work-related social support modulates the effects of ELS. Results show decreased amygdala reactivity during stress in ELS subjects who report high levels of work- related social support, thereby indicating a signature for reduced stress reactivity. However, this effect was only observable on the neural, but not on the behavioral level, since social support had no buffering effect regarding the subjective experience of stress in daily life as well as regarding feelings of uncontrollability induced by the stress task. Accordingly, our data suggest that subjects with ELS experiences might benefit from interventions targeted at lowering their subjective stress levels by helping them to better perceive the availability of social support in their daily lives.
Younes, Jessica A.; Reid, Gregor; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.
Staphylococcus aureus biofilms can be found on vaginal epithelia, secreting toxins and causing inflammation. The co-vaginal species Lactobacillus can alter staphylococcal-induced epithelial secretion of inflammatory cytokines and quench staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 secretion. It is
Younes, Jessica A; Reid, Gregor; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J
ITALIC! Staphylococcus aureusbiofilms can be found on vaginal epithelia, secreting toxins and causing inflammation. The co-vaginal species ITALIC! Lactobacilluscan alter staphylococcal-induced epithelial secretion of inflammatory cytokines and quench staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 secretion. It is hypothesized that these effects of lactobacilli require direct physical contact between lactobacilli, staphylococci and the epithelium. Indeed, lactobacilli only reduced ITALIC! S. aureus-induced inflammatory cytokine expression when allowed physical contact with vaginal epithelial cells. Furthermore, a reduction in toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 secretion only occurred when a probiotic ITALIC! Lactobacillusstrain was allowed contact, but not when being physically separated from ITALIC! S. aureus Bacterial-probe atomic force microscopy demonstrated that lactobacilli and staphylococci strongly adhere to epithelial cells, while lactobacilli adhere stronger to staphylococci than staphylococci to each other, giving lactobacilli opportunity to penetrate and reside in staphylococcal biofilms, as visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy with fluorescence ITALIC! in situhybridization probes. These results identify that physical contact and biochemical signaling by lactobacilli are intrinsically linked mechanisms that reduce virulence of ITALIC! S. aureusbiofilm. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or simple (speaker-gender or font-shade discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley’s model modality atypical, that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks.
Ell, Shawn W; Cosley, Brandon; McCoy, Shannon K
The way in which we respond to everyday stressors can have a profound impact on cognitive functioning. Maladaptive stress responses in particular are generally associated with impaired cognitive performance. We argue, however, that the cognitive system mediating task performance is also a critical determinant of the stress-cognition relationship. Consistent with this prediction, we observed that stress reactivity consistent with a maladaptive, threat response differentially predicted performance on two categorization tasks. Increased threat reactivity predicted enhanced performance on an information-integration task (i.e., learning is thought to depend upon a procedural-based memory system), and a (nonsignificant) trend for impaired performance on a rule-based task (i.e., learning is thought to depend upon a hypothesis-testing system). These data suggest that it is critical to consider both variability in the stress response and variability in the cognitive system mediating task performance in order to fully understand the stress-cognition relationship.
Wirtz, Petra H; Ehlert, Ulrike; Kottwitz, Maria U; La Marca, Roberto; Semmer, Norbert K
We investigated whether occupational role stress is associated with differential levels of the stress hormone cortisol in response to acute psychosocial stress. Forty-three medication-free nonsmoking men aged between 22 and 65 years (mean ± SEM: 44.5 ± 2) underwent an acute standardized psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic in front of an audience. We assessed occupational role stress in terms of role conflict and role ambiguity (combined into a measure of role uncertainty) as well as further work characteristics and psychological control variables including time pressure, overcommitment, perfectionism, and stress appraisal. Moreover, we repeatedly measured salivary cortisol and blood pressure levels before and after stress exposure, and several times up to 60 min thereafter. Higher role uncertainty was associated with a more pronounced cortisol stress reactivity (p = .016), even when controlling for the full set of potential confounders (p stress reactivity was not associated with role uncertainty. Our findings suggest that occupational role stress in terms of role uncertainty acts as a background stressor that is associated with increased HPA-axis reactivity to acute stress. This finding may represent a potential mechanism regarding how occupational role stress may precipitate adverse health outcomes.
the hypothalamic- pituitary -adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic- pituitary -thyroid (HPT) axes across multiple matrices. APPROACH Task 1 – Natural...performance. Hair samples will be collected from the anterior back region of seals for determination of cortisol as a measure of chronic stress (Davenport...and 5 juveniles. Task 3 – TSH challenges Thyroid hormones (thyroxin, T4 and triiodothyronine, T3) are released from the thyroid gland and are
The main functions and tasks for Civil Emergency Planning Directorate of NATO are presented. As a support and complement of United Nations Europ-Atlantic Partnership Council established a regional arrangement - a Europ-Atlantic Disaster Response capability with Coordination Center at NATO headquarters. Responsibility for disaster response is with the stricken nation while Europ-Atlantic Partnership Council role is one of coordination rather than direction. Europ-Atlantic Disaster Response Coordination Center act as focal point for information sharing on disaster assistance request among Europ-Atlantic Partnership Council countries. NATO Civil Emergency Planning Directorate consists of representatives from Europ-Atlantic Partnership Council countries and United Nations liaison officer
van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Wauschkuhn, Bernd; Verleger, Rolf
Examined the influence of strategy for a simple response task, a choice-by-location task, and the Simon task by varying time pressure in 11 Ss (mean age 28 yrs). Besides reaction time (RT) and accuracy, we measured response force and derived two measures from the event-related EEG potential to form
Mitchell, Rachel L. C.
Previous studies of the Stroop task propose two key mediators: the prefrontal and cingulate cortices but hints exist of functional specialization within these regions. This study aimed to examine the effect of task modality upon the prefrontal and cingulate response by examining the response to colour, number, and shape Stroop tasks whilst BOLD…
Wekenborg, Magdalena Katharina; Hill, LaBarron K; Miller, Robert; Stalder, Tobias; Thayer, Julian Francis; Sophie Penz, Marlene; Kirschbaum, Clemens
Burnout, a pathological consequence of chronic work stress, shows an increasing incidence rate in industrialized countries. Previous findings indicate that burnout may be linked to a detachment of the negative association between subjectively appraised task demand and cognitive performance, which is typically seen in healthy individuals. The present study sought to confirm this relationship and to investigate whether this dissociation is mirrored in a biological marker of self-regulation, i.e., resting vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV). A heterogeneous sample (N = 65) of working adults (M age = 43.3, SD = 10; 23.1 % male) with varying degrees of burnout symptomatology completed three cognitive tasks (2-back, number-letter, and go/nogo) to assess different domains of executive functioning (updating, set-shifting, and inhibition), and respective demand ratings. Additionally, vagally mediated HRV at rest, operationalized as the root-mean square differences of successive R-R intervals (RMSSD), was recorded. Burnout symptomatology moderated the association between subjective task difficulty and performance parameters of the go/nogo task, such that higher burnout scores were associated with reductions in the naturally occurring negative association between self-rated task demand and response inhibition. Intriguingly, this pattern was mirrored when replacing burnout with HRV. These findings suggest that burnout symptomatology, and individual differences in self-regulatory capacities (indexed by resting HRV), may alter one's capacity for accurate task evaluation, a mechanism which could potentially underlie the dissociation between self-rated cognitive function and actual performance among individuals experiencing burnout.
Van Den Berg, Agnes E.; Custers, Mariette H. G.
Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and
Berg, van den A.E.; Custers, M.H.G.
Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and
Wilson, Mark R; Poolton, Jamie M; Malhotra, Neha; Ngo, Karen; Bright, Elizabeth; Masters, Rich S W
The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a multidimensional, surgery-specific workload measure (the SURG-TLX), and to determine its utility in providing diagnostic information about the impact of various sources of stress on the perceived demands of trained surgical operators. As a wide range of stressors have been identified for surgeons in the operating room, the current approach of considering stress as a unidimensional construct may not only limit the degree to which underlying mechanisms may be understood but also the degree to which training interventions may be successfully matched to particular sources of stress. The dimensions of the SURG-TLX were based on two current multidimensional workload measures and developed via focus group discussion. The six dimensions were defined as mental demands, physical demands, temporal demands, task complexity, situational stress, and distractions. Thirty novices were trained on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) peg transfer task and then completed the task under various conditions designed to manipulate the degree and source of stress experienced: task novelty, physical fatigue, time pressure, evaluation apprehension, multitasking, and distraction. The results were supportive of the discriminant sensitivity of the SURG-TLX to different sources of stress. The sub-factors loaded on the relevant stressors as hypothesized, although the evaluation pressure manipulation was not strong enough to cause a significant rise in situational stress. The present study provides support for the validity of the SURG-TLX instrument and also highlights the importance of considering how different stressors may load surgeons. Implications for categorizing the difficulty of certain procedures, the implementation of new technology in the operating room (man-machine interface issues), and the targeting of stress training strategies to the sources of demand are discussed. Modifications to the scale to enhance
Ehlers, M R; Todd, R M
Addiction is increasingly discussed asa disorder of associative learning processes, with both operant and classical conditioning contributing to the development of maladaptive habits. Stress has long been known to promote drug taking and relapse and has further been shown to shift behavior from goal-directed actions towards more habitual ones. However, it remains to be investigated how acute stress may influence simple associative learning processes that occur before a habit can be established. In the present study, healthy young adults were exposed to either acute stress or a control condition half an hour before performing simple classical and operant conditioning tasks. Psychophysiological measures confirmed successful stress induction. Results of the operant conditioning task revealed reduced instrumental responding under delayed acute stress that resembled behavioral responses to lower levels of reward. The classical conditioning experiment revealed successful conditioning in both experimental groups; however, explicit knowledge of conditioning as indicated by stimulus ratings differentiated the stress and control groups. These findings suggest that operant and classical conditioning are differentially influenced by the delayed effects of acute stress with important implications for the understanding of how new habitual behaviors are initially established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schulz, Hans-Jörg; Nocke, Thomas; Heitzler, Magnus; Schumann, Heidrun
Knowledge about visualization tasks plays an important role in choosing or building suitable visual representations to pursue them. Yet, tasks are a multi-faceted concept and it is thus not surprising that the many existing task taxonomies and models all describe different aspects of tasks, depending on what these task descriptions aim to capture. This results in a clear need to bring these different aspects together under the common hood of a general design space of visualization tasks, which we propose in this paper. Our design space consists of five design dimensions that characterize the main aspects of tasks and that have so far been distributed across different task descriptions. We exemplify its concrete use by applying our design space in the domain of climate impact research. To this end, we propose interfaces to our design space for different user roles (developers, authors, and end users) that allow users of different levels of expertise to work with it.
... USPSTF Our Members Conflict of Interest Disclosures Task Force Resources Our Partners Reports to Congress Contact Us ... effort to make the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations clearer and its processes more transparent, ...
Smirmaul, B P; Dos Santos, R V; Da Silva Neto, L V
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-task music on swimming performance and other psychological variables. A randomized counterbalanced within-subjects (experimental and control condition) design was employed. Eighteen regional level male swimmers performed two 200-m freestyle swimming time trials. Participants were exposed to either 5 minutes of self-selected music (pre-task music condition) or 5 minutes of silence (control condition) and, after 1 minute, performed the swimming task. Swimming time was significantly shorter (-1.44%) in the pre-task music condition. Listening to pre-task music increased motivation to perform the swimming task, while arousal remained unchanged. While fatigue increased after the swimming task in both conditions, vigor, ratings of perceived exertion and affective valence were unaltered. It is concluded, for the first time, that pre-task music improves swimming performance.
Simpson, C. A.
In the present study of the responses of pairs of pilots to aircraft warning classification tasks using an isolated word, speaker-dependent speech recognition system, the induced stress was manipulated by means of different scoring procedures for the classification task and by the inclusion of a competitive manual control task. Both speech patterns and recognition accuracy were analyzed, and recognition errors were recorded by type for an isolated word speaker-dependent system and by an offline technique for a connected word speaker-dependent system. While errors increased with task loading for the isolated word system, there was no such effect for task loading in the case of the connected word system.
Warming, S.; Precht, D.H.; Suadicani, P.
The aims were to evaluate the inter-method reliability of a registration sheet for patient handling tasks, to study the day-to-day variation of musculoskeletal complaints (MSC) and to examine whether patient handling tasks and psychosocial factors were associated with MSC. Nurses (n = 148...... transfer and care tasks. The numbers of nurses reporting MSC and the level of pain increased significantly during the three working days (15%-30% and 17%-37%, respectively) and decreased on the day off. Stress and transfer task were associated with LPB and transfer tasks were associated with KP. Our...... results confirm a relationship between work factors and MSC and indicate that logs could be one way to obtain a better understanding of the complex interaction of various nursing working conditions in relation to MSC. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2009/7...
Rousculp, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory
Task Order 10 formalizes a collaboration in high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) experiments between LANL and VNIIEF. The focus is the VNIIEF disk explosive magnetic generator (DEMG) technology. The task order outlines a sequence of tasks and deliverables culminating in an experiment which takes place in the US utilizing US explosives and a Russian DEMG. This talk summarizes task order 10. It gives a brief history and present status in terms of the proposed high pressure EOS experiment (ALT-3).
Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Naulin, V.
The so-called Reynolds stress may give a measure of the self-consistent flow generation in turbulent fluids and plasmas by the small-scale turbulent fluctuations. A measurement of the Reynolds stress can thus help to predict flows, e.g. shear flows in plasmas. This may assist the understanding...... of improved confinement scenarios such as H-mode confinement regimes. However, the determination of the Reynolds stress requires measurements of the plasma potential, a task that is difficult in general and nearly impossible in hot plasmas in large devices. In this work we investigate an alternative method......, based on density measurements, to estimate the Reynolds stress, and demonstrate the validity range of this quantity, which we term the pseudo-Reynolds stress. The advantage of such a quantity is that accurate measurements of density fluctuations are much easier to obtain experimentally. Prior...
Lawson, Anton E.; Nordland, Floyd H.
Investigated was the hypothesis that conservation tasks are unifactor by administering eight different conservation tasks to 96 seventh-grade science students and performing a principal component analysis on the data. Results indicated that conservation tasks may measure up to three different components of cognitive thought. (SL)
A nucleus of multi-tasking operating systems has been implemented on a Motorola 6800 microprocessor. This control structure, called a Task Manager, is appropriate for those real-time systems which are required to handle several different asynchronous events. The general concept of a Task Manager is described. A specific implementation for a Motorola 6800 microprocessor is given and its usage defined
Rusch, Frank R.; And Others
Verbal sequence training was used to teach a moderately mentally retarded woman to sequence job-related tasks. Learning to say the tasks in the proper sequence resulted in the employee performing her tasks in that sequence, and the employee was capable of mediating her own work behavior when scheduled changes occurred. (Author/JDD)
The study addresses the question of what makes a mathematical task interesting to the 9th year students. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 15 students of purposive selection of the 9th year. The students were asked to recall a task they found interesting and engaging during the past three years. An analysis of the tasks was made…
Buelow, Melissa T; Barnhart, Wesley R
Multiple studies have shown that performance on behavioral decision-making tasks, such as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), is influenced by external factors, such as mood. However, the research regarding the influence of worry is mixed, and no research has examined the effect of math or test anxiety on these tasks. The present study investigated the effects of anxiety (including math anxiety) and math performance on the IGT and BART in a sample of 137 undergraduate students. Math performance and worry were not correlated with performance on the IGT, and no variables were correlated with BART performance. Linear regressions indicated math anxiety, physiological anxiety, social concerns/stress, and test anxiety significantly predicted disadvantageous selections on the IGT during the transition from decision making under ambiguity to decision making under risk. Implications for clinical evaluation of decision making are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Different methods of language teaching have tried to help EFL learners to develop good language skills based on their various perspectives. Research findings have underscored the effect of using task types in promoting language skills in terms of accuracy in written discourse. Therefore, this study set out to investigate whether there is an evidence of correct use of simple past tense (Accuracy based on Task Complexity (Task type :Here-and now & There-and-then,Task Conditions (Gender: Male & Female, and Task Difficulty (Proficiency: Lower-intermediate & Intermediate. Sixty Iranian English learners in a language institute participated in the study and were assigned to four groups of lower-intermediate male, lower-intermediate female, intermediate male and intermediate female. Initial homogeneity of the groups was verified using two general proficiency tests; KET for lower-intermediate and PET for intermediate. All groups in here-and-now task type were asked to write a story using simple past based on a picture strip while for there-and-then task type the participants were supposed to write about their last birthday. The results from paired samples t-test, independent samples t-test and two-way ANOVA analysis of the written data revealed significant differences in performing task types, at different proficiency levels and interaction between them. The findings have significant pedagogical implications for EFL learners to understand the relationship among Task Complexity,Task Conditions, Task Difficulty and L2 written production leading to various degrees of Accuracy.
Mackersie, Carol L; Cones, Heather
The effects of noise and other competing backgrounds on speech recognition performance are well documented. There is less information, however, on listening effort and stress experienced by listeners during a speech-recognition task that requires inhibition of competing sounds. The purpose was (a) to determine if psychophysiological indexes of listening effort were more sensitive than performance measures (percentage correct) obtained near ceiling level during a competing speech task, (b) to determine the relative sensitivity of four psychophysiological measures to changes in task demand, and (c) to determine the relationships between changes in psychophysiological measures and changes in subjective ratings of stress and workload. A repeated-measures experimental design was used to examine changes in performance, psychophysiological measures, and subjective ratings in response to increasing task demand. Fifteen adults with normal hearing participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 27 (range: 24-54). Psychophysiological recordings of heart rate, skin conductance, skin temperature, and electromyographic (EMG) activity were obtained during listening tasks of varying demand. Materials from the Dichotic Digits Test were used to modulate task demand. The three levels of task demand were single digits presented to one ear (low-demand reference condition), single digits presented simultaneously to both ears (medium demand), and a series of two digits presented simultaneously to both ears (high demand). Participants were asked to repeat all the digits they heard, while psychophysiological activity was recorded simultaneously. Subjective ratings of task load were obtained after each condition using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index questionnaire. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were completed for each measure using task demand and session as factors. Mean performance was higher than 96% for all listening tasks. There
Meiran, Nachshon; Hsieh, Shulan; Dimov, Eduard
Task switching requires maintaining readiness to execute any task of a given set of tasks. However, when tasks switch, the readiness to execute the now-irrelevant task generates interference, as seen in the task rule incongruence effect. Overcoming such interference requires fine-tuned inhibition that impairs task readiness only minimally. In an experiment involving 2 object classification tasks and 2 location classification tasks, the authors show that irrelevant task rules that generate response conflicts are inhibited. This competitor rule suppression (CRS) is seen in response slowing in subsequent trials, when the competing rules become relevant. CRS is shown to operate on specific rules without affecting similar rules. CRS and backward inhibition, which is another inhibitory phenomenon, produced additive effects on reaction time, suggesting their mutual independence. Implications for current formal theories of task switching as well as for conflict monitoring theories are discussed. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Kimura, Takehide; Kaneko, Fuminari; Nagahata, Keita; Shibata, Eriko; Aoki, Nobuhiro
The authors investigated whether working memory training improves motor-motor dual-task performance consisted of upper and lower limb tasks. The upper limb task was a simple reaction task and the lower limb task was an isometric knee extension task. 45 participants (age = 21.8 ± 1.6 years) were classified into a working memory training group (WM-TRG), dual-task training group, or control group. The training duration was 2 weeks (15 min, 4 times/week). Our results indicated that working memory capacity increased significantly only in the WM-TRG. Dual-task performance improved in the WM-TRG and dual-task training group. Our study provides the novel insight that working memory training improves dual-task performance without specific training on the target motor task.
When the Government decided to shutdown one of the two Barsebaeck reactors in February of 1998, it presented SKI with a task that came much earlier than expected; the supervision of the decommissioning of a reactor. As a result of proposals presented in Parliament, SKI began the formulation of a long-term strategy in 1997 for the inspection of a nuclear plant during the decommissioning process. As a preliminary task, SKI started a research programme dealing with the potential risks associated with the transition from normal operations through shutdown to final deconstruction of the power plant. Emphasis was laid on safety culture issues and on questions of organization, as opposed to an earlier stress on the purely technical aspects of decommissioning. After a long period of uncertainty, following much discussion, in July 1998 a Government decision was finally reached to shutdown the first reactor at Barsebaeck. This was carried out in November 1999. It is still uncertain as to when the other reactor will be decommissioned; a decision is expected at the earliest in 2004. This uncertainty, resulting from the prolonged decision making process, could be detrimental to the safety culture on the site; motivation could diminish, and key personnel could be lost. Decommissioning is a new phase in the life cycle of a plant, giving rise to new inspection issues of supervision. During the period of uncertainty, while awaiting SKI has identified ten key areas, dealing with the safety culture of the organization, in connection with the decommissioning of Barsebaeck 1. 1. Obtaining and retaining staff competence during decommissioning; 2. Sustaining organizational memory; 3. Identifying key organizational functions and management skills that are critical during the transition from operations to decommissioning. 4. Sustaining organizational viability and accountability for decommissioning; 5. Sustaining motivation and trust in management of dismantlement; 6. Overseeing
interest for the second subject is the upturn in the GSR response before the start of the Stroop test, possibly indicating some anticipatory stress ...Framework for Assessing Stress Resiliency (March 1-31, 2013) From: Ajay Divakaran, Technical Leader Jeffrey Lubin, Senior Research Scientist Joe...Period 15 (March 2013): Task 3.1: Capture Behavioral Stress Markers in Real-Time in Lab Environment with graded exposure to ICT’s scenarios MAC 1-6
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Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Positive thinking helps with stress management and can even improve your health. Practice overcoming negative self-talk ... with optimism is a key part of effective stress management. And effective stress management is associated with ...
Coronary heart disease - stress; Coronary artery disease - stress ... Your body responds to stress on many levels. First, it releases stress hormones that make you breathe faster. Your blood pressure goes up. Your muscles ...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...
The National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recently established a Task Group on Soil Contamination to describe and evaluate the migration pathways and modes of radiation exposure that can potentially arise due to radioactive contamination of soil. The purpose of this paper is to describe the scientific principles for evaluation of soil contamination which can be used as a basis for derivation of soil contamination limits for specific situations. This paper describes scenarios that can lead to soil contamination, important characteristics of soil contamination, the subsequent migration pathways and exposure modes, and the application of principles in the report in deriving soil contamination limits. The migration pathways and exposure modes discussed in this paper include: direct radiation exposure; and exhalation of gases
Full Text Available The unceasing need for oxygen is in contradiction to the fact that it is in fact toxic to mammals. Namely, its monovalent reduction can have as a consequence the production of short-living, chemically very active free radicals and certain non-radical agents (nitrogen-oxide, superoxide-anion-radicals, hydroxyl radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and others. There is no doubt that they have numerous positive roles, but when their production is stepped up to such an extent that the organism cannot eliminate them with its antioxidants (superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase, catalase, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, reduced glutathion, and others, a series of disorders is developed that are jointly called „oxidative stress.“ The reactive oxygen species which characterize oxidative stress are capable of attacking all main classes of biological macromolecules, actually proteins, DNA and RNA molecules, and in particular lipids. The free radicals influence lipid peroxidation in cellular membranes, oxidative damage to DNA and RNA molecules, the development of genetic mutations, fragmentation, and the altered function of various protein molecules. All of this results in the following consequences: disrupted permeability of cellular membranes, disrupted cellular signalization and ion homeostasis, reduced or loss of function of damaged proteins, and similar. That is why the free radicals that are released during oxidative stress are considered pathogenic agents of numerous diseases and ageing. The type of damage that will occur, and when it will take place, depends on the nature of the free radicals, their site of action and their source. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173034, br. 175061 i br. 31085
Andrews, Chelsea Joy
Although engineering education has been practiced at the undergraduate level for over a century, only fairly recently has the field broadened to include the elementary level; the pre-college division of the American Society of Engineering Education was established in 2003. As a result, while recent education standards require engineering in elementary schools, current studies are still filling in basic research on how best to design and implement elementary engineering activities. One area in need of investigation is how students engage with physical failure in design tasks. In this dissertation, I explore how upper elementary students engage in failure-prone engineering design tasks in an out-of-school environment. In a series of three empirical case studies, I look closely at how students evaluate failed tests and decide on changes to their design constructions, how their reasoning evolves as they repeatedly encounter physical failure, and how students and facilitators co-construct testing norms where repetitive failure is manageable. I also briefly investigate how students' engagement differs in a task that features near-immediate success. By closely examining student groups' discourse and their interactions with their design constructions, I found that these students: are able to engage in iteration and see failure-as-feedback with minimal externally-imposed structure; seem to be designing in a more sophisticated manner, attending to multiple causal factors, after experiencing repetitive failure; and are able to manage the stress and frustration of repetitive failure, provided the co-constructed testing norms of the workshop environment are supportive of failure management. These results have both pedagogical implications, in terms of how to create and facilitate design tasks, and methodological implications--namely, I highlight the particular insights afforded by a case study approach for analyzing engagement in design tasks.
Steptoe, A; Cropley, M; Joekes, K
Associations between cardiovascular stress reactivity and blood pressure and heart rate recorded in everyday life were hypothesized to depend on the stressfulness of the ambulatory monitoring period relative to standardized tasks and on activity levels at the time of measurement. One hundred two female and 60 male school teachers carried out high- and low-demand tasks under standardized conditions and ambulatory monitoring during the working day. Stress ratings during the day were close to those recorded during the low-demand task. Reactions to the low-demand task were significant predictors of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate independent of baseline, age, gender, and body mass. Associations were more consistent for ambulatory recordings taken when participants were seated than when they were standing and when the ambulatory monitoring day was considered to be as stressful as usual or more stressful than usual, and not less stressful than usual. Laboratory-field associations of cardiovascular activity depend in part on the congruence of stressfulness and physical activity level in the 2 situations.
Broekkamp, H.; Dijk, van E.; Brekelmans, J.M.G.; Mainhard, T.; Brok, den P.J.
Students who perceive assigned academic tasks as more clear perform better on these tasks. Moreover, it has been shown that "task clarity" (as experienced by students) varies across teachers. Apparently, some teachers are more effective than other teachers in communicating tasks. There is, however,
Forrest, Charlotte L. D.; Monsell, Stephen; McLaren, Ian P. L.
Task-cuing experiments are usually intended to explore control of task set. But when small stimulus sets are used, they plausibly afford learning of the response associated with a combination of cue and stimulus, without reference to tasks. In 3 experiments we presented the typical trials of a task-cuing experiment: a cue (colored shape) followed,…
In research on task-based learning and teaching, it has traditionally been assumed that differing degrees of cognitive task complexity can be inferred through task design and/or observations of differing qualities in linguistic production elicited by second language (L2) communication tasks. Without validating this assumption, however, it is…
With increased volume and sophistication of cyber attacks in recent years, maintaining situation awareness and effective task-prioritization strategy is critical to the task of cybersecurity analysts. However, high levels of mental-workload associated with the task of cybersecurity analyst's limits their ability to prioritize tasks.…
Full Text Available In this paper, we study how stress affects risk taking in three tasks: individual lotteries, Stag Hunt (coordination games, and Hawk-Dove (anti-coordination games. Both control and stressed subjects take more risks in all three tasks when the value of the safe option is decreased and in lotteries when the expected gain is increased. Also, subjects take longer to take decisions when stakes are high, when the safe option is less attractive and in the conceptually more difficult Hawk-Dove game. Stress (weakly increases reaction times in those cases. Finally, our main result is that the behavior of stressed subjects in lotteries, Stag Hunt and Hawk-Dove are all highly predictive of each other (p-value < 0.001 for all three pairwise correlations. Such strong relationship is not present in our control group. Our results illustrate a “contextual blindness” caused by stress. The mathematical and behavioral tensions of Stag Hunt and Hawk-Dove games are axiomatically different, and we should expect different behavior across these games, and also with respect to the individual task. A possible explanation for the highly significant connection across tasks in the stress condition is that stressed subjects habitually rely on one mechanism to make a decision in all contexts whereas unstressed subjects utilize a more cognitively flexible approach.
Pluyter, J.R.; Buzink, S.N.; Rutkowski, A.F.; Jakimowicz, J.J.
Background. Surgeons perform complex tasks while exposed to multiple distracting sources that may increase stress in the operating room (e.g., music, conversation, and unadapted use of sophisticated technologies). This study aimed to examine whether such realistic social and technological
Kang, Seok Hoon; Shin, Jwa-Seop; Hwang, Young-il
Cadaver dissection is a key component of anatomy education. Unfortunately, students sometimes regard the process of dissection as uninteresting or stressful. To make laboratory time more interesting and to encourage discussion and collaborative learning among medical students, specially designed tasks were assigned to students throughout…
Roselinde Kaiser Henderson
Full Text Available The ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite exposure to stress is critical to resilience. Questions of how stress can impair or improve behavioral functioning are important in diverse settings, from athletic competitions to academic testing to clinical therapy. Previous research suggests that controllability is a key factor in the impact of stress on behavior: learning how to control stressors buffers people from the negative effects of stress on subsequent cognitively demanding tasks. In addition, research suggests that the impact of stress on cognitive functioning depends on an individual’s response to stressors: moderate responses to stress can lead to improved performance while extreme (high or low responses can lead to impaired performance. The present studies tested the hypothesis that 1 learning to behaviorally control stressors leads to improved performance on a test of general executive functioning, the color-word Stroop, and that 2 this improvement emerges specifically for people who report moderate (subjective responses to stress. Experiment 1: Stroop performance, measured before and after a stress manipulation, was compared across groups of undergraduate participants (n=109. People who learned to control a noise stressor and received accurate performance feedback demonstrated reduced Stroop interference compared with people exposed to uncontrollable noise stress and feedback indicating an exaggerated rate of failure. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest reduction in Stroop interference. In contrast, in the group exposed to uncontrollable events, self-reported stress failed to predict performance. Experiment 2: In a second sample (n=90, we specifically investigated the role of controllability by keeping the rate of failure feedback constant across groups. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress
Pulopulos, Matias M; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Raedt, Rudi
Vagal activity - reflecting the activation of stress regulatory mechanisms and prefrontal cortex activation - is thought to play an inhibitory role in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, most studies investigating the association between stress-induced changes in heart rate variability (HRV, an index of cardiac vagal tone) and cortisol have shown a non-significant relationship. It has been proposed that physiological changes observed during anticipation of a stressor allow individuals to make behavioral, cognitive, and physiological adjustments that are necessary to deal with the upcoming actual stressor. In this study, in a large sample of 171 healthy adults (96 men and 75 women; mean age = 29.98, SD = 11.07), we investigated whether the cortisol response to a laboratory-based stress task was related to anticipation-induced or stress task-induced changes in HRV. As expected, regression analyses showed that a larger decrease in HRV during the anticipation of a stress task was related to higher stress task-induced cortisol increase, but not cortisol recovery. In line with prior research, the stress task-induced change in HRV was not significantly related to cortisol increase or recovery. Our results show for the first time that anticipatory HRV (reflecting differences in stress regulation and prefrontal activity before the encounter with the stressor) is important to understand the stress-induced cortisol increase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mackersie, Carol L.; Cones, Heather
Background The effects of noise and other competing backgrounds on speech recognition performance are well documented. There is less information, however, on listening effort and stress experienced by listeners during a speech recognition task that requires inhibition of competing sounds. Purpose The purpose was a) to determine if psychophysiological indices of listening effort were more sensitive than performance measures (percentage correct) obtained near ceiling level during a competing speech task b) to determine the relative sensitivity of four psychophysiological measures to changes in task demand and c) to determine the relationships between changes in psychophysiological measures and changes in subjective ratings of stress and workload. Research Design A repeated-measures experimental design was used to examine changes in performance, psychophysiological measures, and subjective ratings in response to increasing task demand. Study Sample Fifteen adults with normal hearing participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 27 (range: 24–54). Data Collection and Analysis Psychophysiological recordings of heart rate, skin conductance, skin temperature, and electromyographic activity (EMG) were obtained during listening tasks of varying demand. Materials from the Dichotic Digits Test were used to modulate task demand. The three levels of tasks demand were: single digits presented to one ear (low-demand reference condition), single digits presented simultaneously to both ears (medium demand), and a series of two digits presented simultaneously to both ears (high demand). Participants were asked to repeat all the digits they heard while psychophysiological activity was recorded simultaneously. Subjective ratings of task load were obtained after each condition using the NASA-TLX questionnaire. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were completed for each measure using task demand and session as factors. Results Mean performance was higher than 96
Hasenfratz, M; Bättig, K
In earlier studies, the predominantly beta-adrenergic effects of mental tasks and the alpha-adrenergic effects of caffeine on cardiovascular functions were observed to be simply additive without interaction. In the present study, annoying electrical shocks were superimposed on a mental task affording either active coping, which specifically raises beta-adrenergic activation, or passive coping, and the 40 female subjects were preselected so as to differ in subjective stress susceptibility. Caffeine as well as the type of coping and the considered personality dimension produced significant effects, but almost no interactions were obtained. The stress resistant subjects, who tended toward more extraversion, emotional stability and more masculinity, had lower anxiety scores, rated their performance higher and had a greater cardiac output than the stress non-resistant subjects, who represented a rather normal population according to the FPI personality dimensions. Caffeine increased EEG alpha and beta frequency and delta power and decreased beta power, raised blood pressure and enhanced stress reactions in respiration amplitude and pre-ejection period. Active stress coping induced greater stress reactions in heart rate (increase), left ventricular ejection time (decrease) and ear pulse arrival time (decrease) than passive coping.
The notion of control room operator performance being detrimentally affected by stress has long been the focus of considerable conjecture. It is important to gain a better understanding of the validity of this concern for the development of effective severe-accident management approaches. This paper illustrates the undeniable negative impact of stress on a wide variety of tasks. A computer-controlled simulated work environment was designed in which both male and female operators were closely monitored during the course of the study for both stress level (using the excretion of the urine catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine as an index) and job performance. The experimental parameters employed by the study when coupled with the subsequent statistical analyses of the results allow one to make some rather striking comments with respect to how a given operator might respond to a situation that he or she perceives to be psychologically stressful (whether the stress be externally or internally generated). The findings of this study clearly indicated that stress does impact operator performance on tasks similar in nature to those conducted by control room operators and hence should be seriously considered in the development of severe-accident management strategies
Kohn, N.; Hermans, E.J.; Fernandez, G.
Acute stress is associated with beneficial as well as detrimental effects on cognition in different individuals. However, it is not yet known how stress can have such opposing effects. Stroop-like tasks typically show this dissociation: stress diminishes speed, but improves accuracy. We investigated
Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten
The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects. PMID:25904890
Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten
The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.
Soo Ji Kim
Full Text Available Given the interplay between cognitive and motor functions during walking, cognitive demands required during gait have been investigated with regard to dual task performance. Along with the needs to understand how the type of concurrent task while walking affects gait performance, there are calls for diversified dual tasks that can be applied to older adults with varying levels of cognitive decline. Therefore, this study aimed to examine how rhythm-motor tasks affect dual task performance and gait control, compared to a traditional cognitive-motor task. Also, it examined whether rhythm-motor tasks are correlated with traditional cognitive-motor task performance and cognitive measures. Eighteen older adults without cognitive impairment participated in this study. Each participant was instructed to walk at self-paced tempo without performing a concurrent task (single walking task and walk while separately performing two types of concurrent tasks: rhythm-motor and cognitive-motor tasks. Rhythm-motor tasks included instrument playing (WalkIP, matching to rhythmic cueing (WalkRC, and instrument playing while matching to rhythmic cueing (WalkIP+RC. The cognitive-motor task involved counting forward by 3s (WalkCount.f3. In each condition, dual task costs (DTC, a measure for how dual tasks affect gait parameters, were measured in terms of walking speed and stride length. The ratio of stride length to walking speed, a measure for dynamic control of gait, was also examined. The results of this study demonstrated that the task type was found to significantly influence these measures. Rhythm-motor tasks were found to interfere with gait parameters to a lesser extent than the cognitive-motor task (WalkCount.f3. In terms of ratio measures, stride length remained at a similar level, walking speed greatly decreased in the WalkCount.f3 condition. Significant correlations between dual task-related measures during rhythm-motor and cognitive-motor tasks support the
Iseland, Tobias; Johansson, Emma; Skoog, Siri; Dåderman, Anna M
Research on drivers has shown how certain visual-manual secondary tasks, unrelated to driving, increase the risk of being involved in crashes. The purpose of the study was to investigate (1) if long-haul truck drivers in Sweden engage in secondary tasks while driving, what tasks are performed and how frequently, (2) the drivers' self-perceived reason/s for performing them, and (3) if psychological factors might reveal reasons for their engaging in secondary tasks. The study comprised 13 long-haul truck drivers and was conducted through observations, interviews, and questionnaires. The drivers performed secondary tasks, such as work environment related "necessities" (e.g., getting food and/or beverages from the refrigerator/bag, eating, drinking, removing a jacket, face rubbing, and adjusting the seat), interacting with a mobile phone/in-truck technology, and doing administrative tasks. The long-haul truck drivers feel bored and use secondary tasks as a coping strategy to alleviate boredom/drowsiness, and for social interaction. The higher number of performed secondary tasks could be explained by lower age, shorter driver experience, less openness to experience, lower honesty-humility, lower perceived stress, lower workload, and by higher health-related quality of life. These explanatory results may serve as a starting point for further studies on large samples to develop a safer and healthier environment for long-haul truck drivers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Laumann, Karin; Braarud, Per Oeivind; Svengren, Haakan
The purpose of this experiment was to explore how additional tasks added to base case scenarios affected the operators' performance of the main tasks. These additional tasks were in different scenario variants intended to cause high time pressure, high information load, and high masking. The experiment was run in Halden Man-Machine Laboratory's BWR simulator. Seven crews participated, each for one week. There were three operators in each crew. Five main types of scenarios and 20 scenario variants were run. The data from the experiment were analysed by completion time for important actions and by in-depth qualitative analyses of the crews' communications. The results showed that high time pressure decreased some of the crews' performance in the scenarios. When a crew had problems in solving a task for which the time pressure was high, they had even more problems in solving other important tasks. High information load did not affect the operators' performance much and in general the crews were very good at selecting the most important tasks in the scenarios. The scenarios that included both high time pressure and high information load resulted in more reduced performance for the crews compared to the scenarios that only included high time pressure. The total amount of tasks to do and information load to attend to seemed to affect the crews' performance. To solve the scenarios with high time pressure well, it was important to have good communication and good allocation of tasks within the crew. Furthermore, the results showed that scenarios with an added complex, masked task created problems for some crews when solving a relatively simple main task. Overall, the results confirmed that complicating, but secondary tasks, that are not normally taken into account when modelling the primary tasks in a PRA scenario can adversely affect the performance of the main tasks modelled in the PRA scenario. (Author)
Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D
Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Axelsson, Emil K; Yeganeh, Adine; Vogel, Heike; Broman, Jan-Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian
This study sought to investigate the role of nocturnal sleep duration for the retrieval of oversleep consolidated memories, both prior to and after being cognitively stressed for ∼30 minutes the next morning. Participants learned object locations (declarative memory task comprising 15 card pairs) and a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory task comprising 5 digits) in the evening. After learning, participants either had a sleep opportunity of 8 hours (between ∼23:00 and ∼07:00, full sleep condition) or they could sleep between ∼03:00 and ∼07:00 (short sleep condition). Retrieval of both memory tasks was tested in the morning after each sleep condition, both before (∼08:30) and after being stressed (∼09:50). Sleep laboratory. 15 healthy young men. The analyses demonstrated that oversleep memory changes did not differ between sleep conditions. However, in their short sleep condition, following stress hallmarked by increased subjective stress feelings, the men were unable to maintain their pre-stress performance on the declarative memory task, whereas their performance on the procedural memory task remained unchanged. While men felt comparably subjectively stressed by the stress intervention, overall no differences between pre- and post-stress recalls were observed following a full night of sleep. The findings suggest that 8-h sleep duration, within the range recommended by the US National Sleep Foundation, may not only help consolidate newly learned procedural and declarative memories, but also ensure full access to both during periods of subjective stress. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Hall, E. J.; Topp, D. A.; Delaney, R. A.
The overall objective of this study was to develop a 3-D numerical analysis for compressor casing treatment flowfields. The current version of the computer code resulting from this study is referred to as ADPAC (Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes-Version 7). This report is intended to serve as a computer program user's manual for the ADPAC code developed under Tasks 6 and 7 of the NASA Contract. The ADPAC program is based on a flexible multiple- block grid discretization scheme permitting coupled 2-D/3-D mesh block solutions with application to a wide variety of geometries. Aerodynamic calculations are based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. Steady flow predictions are accelerated by a multigrid procedure. An iterative implicit algorithm is available for rapid time-dependent flow calculations, and an advanced two equation turbulence model is incorporated to predict complex turbulent flows. The consolidated code generated during this study is capable of executing in either a serial or parallel computing mode from a single source code. Numerous examples are given in the form of test cases to demonstrate the utility of this approach for predicting the aerodynamics of modem turbomachinery configurations.
Full Text Available The Psychological Refractory Period (PRP paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and 2 are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e. decreasing SOAs do not increase RTs and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/ or error rates in Task 1. This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.
Mehta, Vineet; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman
It is now evident that chronic stress is associated with anxiety, depression and cognitive dysfunction and very few studies have focused on identifying possible methods to prevent these stress-induced disorders. Previously, we identified abundance of quercetin in Urtica dioica extract, which efficiently attenuated stress related complications. Therefore, current study was designed to investigate the effect of quercetin on chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) induced behavioral dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the mouse hippocampus. Animals were subjected to unpredicted stress for 21days, during which 30mg/kg quercetin was orally administered to them. Effect of CUS and quercetin treatment on animal behavior was assessed between day 22-26. Afterward, the hippocampus was processed to evaluate neuronal damage, oxidative and inflammatory stress. Results revealed that stressed animals were highly anxious (Elevated Plus Maze and Open Field), showed depressive-like behavior (sucrose preference task), performed poorly in short-term and long-term associative memory task (passive avoidance step-through task) and displayed reduced locomotion (open field). Quercetin alleviated behavioral dysfunction in chronically stressed animals. Compared to CUS, quercetin treatment significantly reduced anxiety, attenuated depression, improved cognitive dysfunction and normalized locomotor activity. Further, CUS elevated the levels of oxidative stress markers (TBARS, nitric oxide), lowered antioxidants (total thiol, catalase), enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and COX-2) in the hippocampus and damaged hippocampal neurons. Quercetin treatment significantly lowered oxidative and inflammatory stress and prevented neural damage. In conclusion, quercetin can efficiently prevent stress induced neurological complications by rescuing brain from oxidative and inflammatory stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Henderson, Roselinde K; Snyder, Hannah R; Gupta, Tina; Banich, Marie T
The ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite exposure to stress is critical to resilience. Questions of how stress can impair or improve behavioral functioning are important in diverse settings, from athletic competitions to academic testing. Previous research suggests that controllability is a key factor in the impact of stress on behavior: learning how to control stressors buffers people from the negative effects of stress on subsequent cognitively demanding tasks. In addition, research suggests that the impact of stress on cognitive functioning depends on an individual's response to stressors: moderate responses to stress can lead to improved performance while extreme (high or low) responses can lead to impaired performance. The present studies tested the hypothesis that (1) learning to behaviorally control stressors leads to improved performance on a test of general executive functioning, the color-word Stroop, and that (2) this improvement emerges specifically for people who report moderate (subjective) responses to stress. Experiment 1: Stroop performance, measured before and after a stress manipulation, was compared across groups of undergraduate participants (n = 109). People who learned to control a noise stressor and received accurate performance feedback demonstrated reduced Stroop interference compared with people exposed to uncontrollable noise stress and feedback indicating an exaggerated rate of failure. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest reduction in Stroop interference. In contrast, in the group exposed to uncontrollable events, self-reported stress failed to predict performance. Experiment 2: In a second sample (n = 90), we specifically investigated the role of controllability by keeping the rate of failure feedback constant across groups. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest Stroop
Vriesenga, Mark R.; Peleg, K.; Sklansky, Jack
Machine vision systems analyze image data to carry out automation tasks. Our interest is in machine vision systems that rely on models to achieve their designed task. When the model is interrogated from an a priori menu of questions, the model need not be complete. Instead, the machine vision system can use a partial model that contains a large amount of information in regions of interest and less information elsewhere. We propose an adaptive modeling scheme for machine vision, called task-focused modeling, which constructs a model having just sufficient detail to carry out the specified task. The model is detailed in regions of interest to the task and is less detailed elsewhere. This focusing effect saves time and reduces the computational effort expended by the machine vision system. We illustrate task-focused modeling by an example involving real-time micropropagation of plants in automated agriculture.
During the past few years the nuclear industry has become concerned with predicting human performance in nuclear power plants. One of the best means available at the present time to make sure that training, procedures, job performance aids and plant hardware match the capabilities and limitations of personnel is by performing a detailed analysis of the tasks required in each job position. The approved method for this type of analysis is referred to as job or task analysis. Job analysis is a broader type of analysis and is usually thought of in terms of establishing overall performance objectives, and in establishing a basis for position descriptions. Task analysis focuses on the building blocks of task performance, task elements, and places them within the context of specific performance requirements including time to perform, feedback required, special tools used, and required systems knowledge. The use of task analysis in the nuclear industry has included training validation, preliminary risk screening, and procedures development
Rao, Jakkula V; Chandraiah, K
Experience of occupational stress is inevitably involved in the execution of any type of work. Stress has an adaptive value. It motivates the individual to attend to the task and get rid of the tension or demand the unattended task produced. The study was planned to investigate the differences between executives and shop floor workers on occupational stress, mental health, job satisfaction and coping. A random sample of 200 executives and shop floor employees collected from Nuclear Fuel Complex of Hyderabad City. A well developed sub-scales of Occupational Stress indicator like Mental Health, and Coping behavior were used in the present study. The shop floor workers experiencing more job stress and lower mental health. But these two groups did not differ in their coping behaviour. The executives are better with work home balance.
Wickens, Christopher D.; Larish, Inge; Contorer, Aaron
Five models that predict how performance of multiple tasks will interact in complex task scenarios are discussed. The models are shown in terms of the assumptions they make about human operator divided attention. The different assumptions about attention are then empirically validated in a multitask helicopter flight simulation. It is concluded from this simulation that the most important assumption relates to the coding of demand level of different component tasks.
Epling, Samantha L; Russell, Paul N; Helton, William S
Cognitive resource theory is a common explanation for both the performance decline in vigilance tasks, known as the vigilance decrement, and the limited ability to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. The limited supply of cognitive resources may be utilized faster than they are replenished resulting in a performance decrement, or may need to be allocated among multiple tasks with some performance cost. Researchers have proposed both domain-specific, for example spatial versus verbal processing resources, and domain general cognitive resources. One challenge in testing the domain specificity of cognitive resources in vigilance is the current lack of difficult semantic vigilance tasks which reliably produce a decrement. In the present research, we investigated whether the vigilance decrement was found in a new abbreviated semantic discrimination vigilance task, and whether there was a performance decrement in said vigilance task when paired with a word recall task, as opposed to performed individually. As hypothesized, a vigilance decrement in the semantic vigilance task was found in both the single-task and dual-task conditions, along with reduced vigilance performance in the dual-task condition and reduced word recall in the dual-task condition. This is consistent with cognitive resource theory. The abbreviated semantic vigilance task will be a useful tool for researchers interested in determining the specificity of cognitive resources utilized in vigilance tasks.
Wrightson, J G; Smeeton, N J
During dual-task gait, changes in the stride-to-stride variability of stride time (STV) are suggested to represent the allocation of cognitive control to walking . However, contrasting effects have been reported for overground and treadmill walking, which may be due to differences in the relative difficulty of the dual task. Here we compared the effect of overground and treadmill dual-task walking on STV in 18 healthy adults. Participants walked overground and on a treadmill for 120s during single-task (walking only) and dual-task (walking whilst performing serial subtractions in sevens) conditions. Dual-task effects on STV, cognitive task (serial subtraction) performance and perceived task difficulty were compared between walking modalities. STV was increased during overground dual-task walking, but was unchanged during treadmill dual-task walking. There were no differences in cognitive task performance or perceived task difficulty. These results show that gait is controlled differently during overground and treadmill dual-task walking. However, these differences are not solely due to differences in task difficulty, and may instead represent modality dependent control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Asame, Hajime; Endo, Isao; Kotosaka, Shin-ya; Takata, Shozo; Hiraoka, Hiroyuki; Kohda, Takehisa; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Yamagishi, Kiichiro.
The adaptability evaluation of maintenance robots to autonomous plants has been discussed. In this paper, a new concept of autonomous plant with maintenance robots are introduced, and a framework of autonomous maintenance system is proposed. Then, task-oriented evaluation of robot arms is discussed for evaluating their adaptability to maintenance tasks, and a new criterion called operability is proposed for adaptability evaluation. The task-oriented evaluation system is implemented and applied to structural design of robot arms. Using genetic algorithm, an optimal structure adaptable to a pump disassembly task is obtained. (author)
Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B
We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.
Balzan, Ryan P; Ephraums, Rachel; Delfabbro, Paul; Andreou, Christina
Previous research involving the probabilistic reasoning 'beads task' has consistently demonstrated a jumping-to-conclusions (JTC) bias, where individuals with delusions make decisions based on limited evidence. However, recent studies have suggested that miscomprehension may be confounding the beads task. The current study aimed to test the conventional beads task against a conceptually simpler probabilistic reasoning "box task" METHODS: One hundred non-clinical participants completed both the beads task and the box task, and the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI) to assess for delusion-proneness. The number of 'draws to decision' was assessed for both tasks. Additionally, the total amount of on-screen evidence was manipulated for the box task, and two new box task measures were assessed (i.e., 'proportion of evidence requested' and 'deviation from optimal solution'). Despite being conceptually similar, the two tasks did not correlate, and participants requested significantly less information on the beads task relative to the box task. High-delusion-prone participants did not demonstrate hastier decisions on either task; in fact, for box task, this group was observed to be significantly more conservative than low-delusion-prone group. Neither task was incentivized; results need replication with a clinical sample. Participants, and particularly those identified as high-delusion-prone, displayed a more conservative style of responding on the novel box task, relative to the beads task. The two tasks, whilst conceptually similar, appear to be tapping different cognitive processes. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to the JTC bias and the theoretical mechanisms thought to underlie it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deprez, Sabine; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Peeters, Ron; Emsell, Louise; Amant, Frederic; Sunaert, Stefan
Insight into the neural architecture of multitasking is crucial when investigating the pathophysiology of multitasking deficits in clinical populations. Presently, little is known about how the brain combines dual-tasking with a concurrent short-term memory task, despite the relevance of this mental operation in daily life and the frequency of complaints related to this process, in disease. In this study we aimed to examine how the brain responds when a memory task is added to dual-tasking. Thirty-three right-handed healthy volunteers (20 females, mean age 39.9 ± 5.8) were examined with functional brain imaging (fMRI). The paradigm consisted of two cross-modal single tasks (a visual and auditory temporal same-different task with short delay), a dual-task combining both single tasks simultaneously and a multi-task condition, combining the dual-task with an additional short-term memory task (temporal same-different visual task with long delay). Dual-tasking compared to both individual visual and auditory single tasks activated a predominantly right-sided fronto-parietal network and the cerebellum. When adding the additional short-term memory task, a larger and more bilateral frontoparietal network was recruited. We found enhanced activity during multitasking in components of the network that were already involved in dual-tasking, suggesting increased working memory demands, as well as recruitment of multitask-specific components including areas that are likely to be involved in online holding of visual stimuli in short-term memory such as occipito-temporal cortex. These results confirm concurrent neural processing of a visual short-term memory task during dual-tasking and provide evidence for an effective fMRI multitasking paradigm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gordey, T [ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sunstrum, M [Enform, Calgary, AB (Canada)
Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs.
Gordey, T.; Sunstrum, M.
Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs
Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual
Beard, D.S.; Klose, W.; Shimamoto, S.; Vecsey, G.
A multinational program of cooperative research, development, demonstrations, and exchanges of information on superconducting magnets for fusion was initiated in 1977 under an IEA agreement. The first major step in the development of TF magnets was called the Large Coil Task. Participants in LCT were the U.S. DOE, EURATOM, JAERI, and the Departement Federal de l'Interieur of Switzerland. The goals of LCT were to obtain experimental data, to demonstrate reliable operation of large superconducting coils, and to prove design principles and fabrication techniques being considered for the toroidal magnets of thermonuclear reactors. These goals were to be accomplished through coordinated but largely independent design, development, and construction of six test coils, followed by collaborative testing in a compact toroidal test array at fields of 8 T and higher. Under the terms of the IEA Agreement, the United States built and operated the test facility at Oak Ridge and provided three test coils. The other participants provided one coil each. Information on design and manufacturing and all test data were shared by all. The LCT team of each participant included a government laboratory and industrial partners or contractors. The last coil was completed in 1985, and the test assembly was completed in October of that year. Over the next 23 months, the six-coil array was cooled down and extensive testing was performed. Results were gratifying, as tests achieved design-point performance and well beyond. (Each coil reached a peak field of 9 T.) Experiments elucidated coil behavior, delineated limits of operability, and demonstrated coil safety. (orig./KP)
Bal, Vidula; McDowell-Larsen, Sharon
Everyone experiences stress, and leaders face the additional stress brought about by the unique demands of leadership: having to make decisions with limited information, to manage conflict, to do more with less . . . and faster! The consequences of stress can include health problems and deteriorating relationships. Knowing what signs of stress to look for and having a strategy for increasing your resources will help you manage leadership stress and be more effective over a long career.Table of ContentsThe Stress of Leadership 7Why Is Leadership Stressful? 8Stress Assessment 13When Stress Is Wh
Wu, Xiaoli; Lowyck, Joost; Sercu, Lies; Elen, Jan
The present study aimed for better understanding of the interactions between task complexity and students' self-efficacy beliefs and students' use of learning strategies, and finally their interacting effects on task performance. This investigation was carried out in the context of Chinese students learning English as a foreign language in a…
Schwerdtfeger, Andreas; Gaisbachgrabner, Kerstin; Traunmüller, Claudia
Satisfaction with life has been considered a health-protective variable, which could impact cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have examined the physiological pathways involved in the potentially salutary effect of life satisfaction. It was hypothesized that life satisfaction should be associated with a cardiovascular response profile that signals challenge (i.e., higher cardiac output, lower peripheral resistance), rather than threat during a mental stress task. A sample of 75 healthy, medication-free men without clinical signs of psychological disorders who worked full-time and occupied highly demanding positions participated in this study. They performed two mental stress tasks (n-back) with varying degrees of difficulty. The tasks were embedded between a baseline and a recovery period. Cardiovascular and hemodynamic variables (heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance) were recorded by means of impedance cardiography. Individuals who were more satisfied with their life displayed higher cardiac output and lower peripheral resistance levels during the stress tasks, indicating a challenge rather than a threat profile. Findings were robust when controlled for physical activity, smoking, age, and depressive symptoms. Life satisfaction could be positively correlated with beneficial hemodynamic stress reactivity, indicating that individuals with higher levels of life satisfaction can more adaptively cope with stress. Increased cardiac output and decreased peripheral resistance during stress may constitute one route through which life satisfaction can benefit health.
Childs, Emma; White, Tara L; de Wit, Harriet
An individual's susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure, for example, cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined the relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardized laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease.
Spingath, Elsie Y.; Kang, Hyun Sug; Plummer, Thane; Blake, David T.
Adult learning-induced sensory cortex plasticity results in enhanced action potential rates in neurons that have the most relevant information for the task, or those that respond strongly to one sensory stimulus but weakly to its comparison stimulus. Current theories suggest this plasticity is caused when target stimulus evoked activity is enhanced by reward signals from neuromodulatory nuclei. Prior work has found evidence suggestive of nonselective enhancement of neural responses, and suppression of responses to task distractors, but the differences in these effects between detection and discrimination have not been directly tested. Using cortical implants, we defined physiological responses in macaque somatosensory cortex during serial, matched, detection and discrimination tasks. Nonselective increases in neural responsiveness were observed during detection learning. Suppression of responses to task distractors was observed during discrimination learning, and this suppression was specific to cortical locations that sampled responses to the task distractor before learning. Changes in receptive field size were measured as the area of skin that had a significant response to a constant magnitude stimulus, and these areal changes paralleled changes in responsiveness. From before detection learning until after discrimination learning, the enduring changes were selective suppression of cortical locations responsive to task distractors, and nonselective enhancement of responsiveness at cortical locations selective for target and control skin sites. A comparison of observations in prior studies with the observed plasticity effects suggests that the non-selective response enhancement and selective suppression suffice to explain known plasticity phenomena in simple spatial tasks. This work suggests that differential responsiveness to task targets and distractors in primary sensory cortex for a simple spatial detection and discrimination task arise from nonselective
Elsie Y Spingath
Full Text Available Adult learning-induced sensory cortex plasticity results in enhanced action potential rates in neurons that have the most relevant information for the task, or those that respond strongly to one sensory stimulus but weakly to its comparison stimulus. Current theories suggest this plasticity is caused when target stimulus evoked activity is enhanced by reward signals from neuromodulatory nuclei. Prior work has found evidence suggestive of nonselective enhancement of neural responses, and suppression of responses to task distractors, but the differences in these effects between detection and discrimination have not been directly tested. Using cortical implants, we defined physiological responses in macaque somatosensory cortex during serial, matched, detection and discrimination tasks. Nonselective increases in neural responsiveness were observed during detection learning. Suppression of responses to task distractors was observed during discrimination learning, and this suppression was specific to cortical locations that sampled responses to the task distractor before learning. Changes in receptive field size were measured as the area of skin that had a significant response to a constant magnitude stimulus, and these areal changes paralleled changes in responsiveness. From before detection learning until after discrimination learning, the enduring changes were selective suppression of cortical locations responsive to task distractors, and nonselective enhancement of responsiveness at cortical locations selective for target and control skin sites. A comparison of observations in prior studies with the observed plasticity effects suggests that the non-selective response enhancement and selective suppression suffice to explain known plasticity phenomena in simple spatial tasks. This work suggests that differential responsiveness to task targets and distractors in primary sensory cortex for a simple spatial detection and discrimination task arise from
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of occupational status and job stress factors on cardiovascular stress reactivity in Japanese workers. In this baseline assessment between 2001 and 2009 in Osaka, Japan, we examined 928 healthy Japanese employees (330 men, 598 women from two occupational statuses: managers/professionals and general workers. A brief job stress questionnaire was used to evaluate job stress levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP, heart rate, heart rate variability (high-frequency [HF], low-frequency [LF], LF/HF], and peripheral blood flow were measured at rest and during two stressful tasks. Changes in stress reactivity were calculated as the difference between the measured variables during the tasks and the rest period. Men showed inverse associations between quantitative job overload and DBP, heart rate, and LF/HF, between physical demands and blood pressure (SBP, DBP, and between a poor physical environment and HF. Men also had positive associations between qualitative job overload and heart rate, and between physical demands and peripheral blood flow (all p < 0.05. Women showed inverse associations between qualitative job overload and SBP, and showed positive associations between qualitative job overload and peripheral blood flow, and between a poor physical environment and SBP (all p < 0.05. When stratified by occupational status, significant associations between job stress and changes in stress reactivity were observed in male managers/professionals and female general workers (p < 0.05. Job stress levels are associated with changes in cardiovascular stress reactivity in men and women. Occupational status may modify these associations.
Fragkaki, Iro; Stins, John; Roelofs, Karin; Jongedijk, Ruud A; Hagenaars, Muriel A
Tonic immobility (TI) is a state of physical immobility associated with extreme stress and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether TI is associated with a distinct actual stress response, i.e., objective immobility measured by a stabilometric platform. This study made a first step in exploring this as well as differences in body sway responses between PTSD patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that PTSD would be related to increased body sway under stress, whereas TI would be related to decreased body sway under stress. Eye closure was selected as a PTSD-relevant stress induction procedure. Body sway and heart rate (HR) were measured in 12 PTSD patients and 12 healthy controls in four conditions: (1) maintaining a stable stance with eyes open, (2) with eyes closed, (3) during a mental arithmetic task with eyes open, and (4) with eyes closed. As predicted, PTSD patients showed increased body sway from eyes open to eyes closed compared to controls and this effect was eliminated by executing the arithmetic task. Most importantly, retrospective self-reported TI was associated with lower body sway increases in PTSD and higher body sway decreases in controls from eyes-open to eyes-closed conditions. These preliminary findings suggest that eye closure has a different effect on PTSD patients than controls and that high self-reported TI might indicate a distinct stress response pattern, i.e., a proneness for immobility. It may be relevant to take such individual differences in stress-response into account in PTSD treatment.
Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.
... individual task order, accounting and appropriation data. (e) The Contractor shall provide acknowledgement of... conflict between the requirements of the task order and the Contractor's approved task plan, the task order...
Full Text Available Why is the human brain fundamentally limited when attempting to execute two tasks at the same time or in close succession? Two classical paradigms, psychological refractory period (PRP and task switching, have independently approached this issue, making significant advances in our understanding of the architecture of cognition. Yet, there is an apparent contradiction between the conclusions derived from these two paradigms. The PRP paradigm, on the one hand, suggests that the simultaneous execution of two tasks is limited solely by a passive structural bottleneck in which the tasks are executed on a first-come, first-served basis. The task-switching paradigm, on the other hand, argues that switching back and forth between task configurations must be actively controlled by a central executive system (the system controlling voluntary, planned, and flexible action. Here we have explicitly designed an experiment mixing the essential ingredients of both paradigms: task uncertainty and task simultaneity. In addition to a central bottleneck, we obtain evidence for active processes of task setting (planning of the appropriate sequence of actions and task disengaging (suppression of the plan set for the first task in order to proceed with the next one. Our results clarify the chronometric relations between these central components of dual-task processing, and in particular whether they operate serially or in parallel. On this basis, we propose a hierarchical model of cognitive architecture that provides a synthesis of task-switching and PRP paradigms.
Koch, Iring; Rumiati, Raffaella I
Three dual-task experiments examined the influence of processing a briefly presented visual object for deferred verbal report on performance in an unrelated auditory-manual reaction time (RT) task. RT was increased at short stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) relative to long SOAs, showing that memory consolidation processes can produce a functional processing bottleneck in dual-task performance. In addition, the experiments manipulated the spatial compatibility of the orientation of the visual object and the side of the speeded manual response. This cross-task compatibility produced relative RT benefits only when the instruction for the visual task emphasized overlap at the level of response codes across the task sets (Experiment 1). However, once the effective task set was in place, it continued to produce cross-task compatibility effects even in single-task situations ("ignore" trials in Experiment 2) and when instructions for the visual task did not explicitly require spatial coding of object orientation (Experiment 3). Taken together, the data suggest a considerable degree of task-set inertia in dual-task performance, which is also reinforced by finding costs of switching task sequences (e.g., AC --> BC vs. BC --> BC) in Experiment 3.
Full Text Available The aim of the present contribution was to examine the factors influencing the prosodic processing in a language with predictable word stress. For Polish, a language with fixed penultimate stress but several well-defined exceptions, difficulties in the processing and representation of prosodic information have been reported (e.g., Peperkamp & Dupoux, 2002. The present study utilized event-related potentials (ERPs to investigate the factors influencing prosodic processing in Polish. These factors are i the predictability of stress and ii the prosodic structure in terms of metrical feet. Polish native speakers were presented with correctly and incorrectly stressed Polish words and instructed to judge the correctness of the perceived stress patterns. For each stress violation an early negativity was found which was interpreted as reflection of an error-detection mechanism, and in addition exceptional stress patterns (= antepenultimate stress and post-lexical (= initial stress evoked a task-related positivity effect (P300 whose amplitude and latency is correlated with the degree of anomaly and deviation from an expectation. Violations involving the default (= penultimate stress in contrast did not produce such an effect. This asymmetrical result is interpreted to reflect that Polish native speakers are less sensitive to the default pattern than to the exceptional or post-lexical patterns. Behavioral results are orthogonal to the electrophysiological results showing that Polish speakers had difficulties to reject any kind of stress violation. Thus, on a meta-linguistic level Polish speakers appeared to be stress-‘deaf’ for any kind of stress manipulation, whereas the neural reactions differentiate between the default and lexicalized patterns.
Gordon, Jennifer L; Johnson, Jacqueline; Nau, Samantha; Mechlin, Beth; Girdler, Susan S
To examine the role of psychosocial factors in mediating the relationship between African American (AA) race and both increased pain sensitivity and blunted stress reactivity. Participants included 133 AA and non-Hispanic white (nHW) individuals (mean [SD] age, 37 ) matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Participants underwent mental stress testing (Trier Social Stress Test) while cardiovascular, hemodynamic, and neuroendocrine reactivity were measured. Participants completed questionnaires assessing potential sources of psychosocial stress and were tested for pain responses to cold pain and the temporal summation of heat pulses. Mediation analyses were used to determine the extent to which exposure to psychosocial stress accounted for the observed racial differences in stress reactivity and pain. Chronic stress exposure and reactivity to mental stress was largely similar among AAs and nHWs; however, AAs exhibited heightened pain to both cold (p = .012) and heat (p = .004). Racial differences in the relationship between stress reactivity and pain were also observed: while greater stress reactivity was associated with decreased pain among nHWs, reactivity was either unrelated to or even positively associated with pain among AAs (e.g., r = -.21 among nHWs and r = .41 among AAs for stroke volume reactivity and cold pressor intensity). Adjusting for minor racial differences in chronic psychosocial stress did not change these findings. Accounting for psychosocial factors eliminated racial differences in stress reactivity but not racial differences in sensitivity to experimental pain tasks. Increased exposure to chronic stress may not explain AAs' increased pain sensitivity in laboratory settings.
de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Fischer, A.H.; van Ginkel, W.P.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine: gender differences in the choice to perform challenging tasks, gender differences in the actual performance of challenging tasks, and the impact of challenging experiences on supervisors' evaluations of individuals' potential for career advancement.
DeAcetis, Louis A.; Schmidt, Oron; Krishen, Kumar
A method of simulating equipment using ADA tasks is discussed. Individual units of equipment are coded as concurrently running tasks that monitor and respond to input signals. This technique has been used in a simulation of the space-to-ground Communications and Tracking subsystem of Space Station Freedom.
Full Text Available Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified.
The result of the study revealed that head teachers' decision-making strategy and head teachers' leadership style have significant influence on teachers' task performance in the sampled schools. And that head teachers' communication skills significantly relates to teachers' task performance in the area. Based on this result, ...
Erkan, D.; Derksen, R.; Levy, R.; Machin, S.; Ortel, T.; Pierangeli, S.; Roubey, R.; Lockshin, M.
The Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) Clinical Research Task Force (CRTF) was one of six Task Forces developed by the 13(th) International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (aPL) organization committee with the purpose of: a) evaluating the limitations of APS clinical research and developing
Bos, J; Mulder, LJM; van Ouwerkerk, RJ; Maarse, FJ; Akkerman, AE; Brand, AN; Mulder, LJM
In current research on mental workload and task performance a large gap exists between laboratory based studies and research projects in real life working practice. Tasks conducted within a laboratory environment often lack a strong resemblance with real life working situations. This paper presents
Crump, Matthew J C; Logan, Gordon D
Contextual cues signaling task likelihood or the likelihood of task repetition are known to modulate the size of switch costs. We follow up on the finding by Leboe, Wong, Crump, and Stobbe (2008) that location cues predictive of the proportion of switch or repeat trials modulate switch costs. Their design employed one cue per task, whereas our experiment employed two cues per task, which allowed separate assessment of modulations to the cue-repetition benefit, a measure of lower level cue-encoding processes, and to the task-alternation cost, a measure of higher level processes representing task-set information. We demonstrate that location information predictive of switch proportion modulates performance at the level of task-set representations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that contextual control occurs even when subjects are unaware of the associations between context and switch likelihood. We discuss the notion that contextual information provides rapid, unconscious control over the extent to which prior task-set representations are retrieved in the service of guiding online performance.
Belkin, Nicholas J.; Bogers, Toine; Kamps, Jaap; Kelly, Diane; Koolen, Marijn; Yilmaz, Emine
There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks, is
Programming education and contests have introduced software to help evaluation by executing submitted taskwork. We present the notion of a task package as a unit for collecting, storing, archiving, and exchanging all information concerning a programming task. We also describe a specific format for
Pannebakker, Merel Mathilde
In this thesis, the effect of information-processing overload on working-memory dependent information processing was examined using dual-task paradigms. The experiments described strengthen the importance of a functional explanation for dual-task limitations. First, it showed evidence for a unified
The work plan and objectives of this task are designed to support the acceleration of safe implementation of hydrogen infrastructure through coordinated international collaborations and hydrogen safety knowledge dissemination.......The work plan and objectives of this task are designed to support the acceleration of safe implementation of hydrogen infrastructure through coordinated international collaborations and hydrogen safety knowledge dissemination....
Zenasni, Franck; Lubart, Todd
To examine the impact of emotion on creative potential, experimental studies have typically focused on the impact of induced or spontaneous mood states on creative performance. In this report the relationship between the perceived pleasantness of tasks (using divergent thinking and story writing tasks) and creative performance was examined.…
Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.
The duties and tasks found in these task lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs for industrial occupations. The industrial occupations are divided into eight clusters. The clusters and occupations are: construction cluster (bricklayer, carpenter, building maintenance…
Lin, Binbin; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Chiyuan; Ye, Jieping; He, Xiaofei
Multi-task learning (MTL) aims to improve generalization performance by learning multiple related tasks simultaneously and identifying the shared information among tasks. Most of existing MTL methods focus on learning linear models under the supervised setting. We propose a novel semi-supervised and nonlinear approach for MTL using vector fields. A vector field is a smooth mapping from the manifold to the tangent spaces which can be viewed as a directional derivative of functions on the manifold. We argue that vector fields provide a natural way to exploit the geometric structure of data as well as the shared differential structure of tasks, both of which are crucial for semi-supervised multi-task learning. In this paper, we develop multi-task vector field learning (MTVFL) which learns the predictor functions and the vector fields simultaneously. MTVFL has the following key properties. (1) The vector fields MTVFL learns are close to the gradient fields of the predictor functions. (2) Within each task, the vector field is required to be as parallel as possible which is expected to span a low dimensional subspace. (3) The vector fields from all tasks share a low dimensional subspace. We formalize our idea in a regularization framework and also provide a convex relaxation method to solve the original non-convex problem. The experimental results on synthetic and real data demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.
Delis, Ioannis; Berret, Bastien; Pozzo, Thierry; Panzeri, Stefano
Muscle synergies, i.e., invariant coordinated activations of groups of muscles, have been proposed as building blocks that the central nervous system (CNS) uses to construct the patterns of muscle activity utilized for executing movements. Several efficient dimensionality reduction algorithms that extract putative synergies from electromyographic (EMG) signals have been developed. Typically, the quality of synergy decompositions is assessed by computing the Variance Accounted For (VAF). Yet, little is known about the extent to which the combination of those synergies encodes task-discriminating variations of muscle activity in individual trials. To address this question, here we conceive and develop a novel computational framework to evaluate muscle synergy decompositions in task space. Unlike previous methods considering the total variance of muscle patterns (VAF based metrics), our approach focuses on variance discriminating execution of different tasks. The procedure is based on single-trial task decoding from muscle synergy activation features. The task decoding based metric evaluates quantitatively the mapping between synergy recruitment and task identification and automatically determines the minimal number of synergies that captures all the task-discriminating variability in the synergy activations. In this paper, we first validate the method on plausibly simulated EMG datasets. We then show that it can be applied to different types of muscle synergy decomposition and illustrate its applicability to real data by using it for the analysis of EMG recordings during an arm pointing task. We find that time-varying and synchronous synergies with similar number of parameters are equally efficient in task decoding, suggesting that in this experimental paradigm they are equally valid representations of muscle synergies. Overall, these findings stress the effectiveness of the decoding metric in systematically assessing muscle synergy decompositions in task space.
Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Is yoga right for you? It is if you want to fight stress, get fit and stay healthy. By ... particular, may be a good choice for stress management. Hatha is one of the most common styles ...