WorldWideScience

Sample records for stress systems observed

  1. Stress Erythropoiesis Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Laura F; Liao, Chang; Paulson, Robert F

    2018-01-01

    Bone marrow steady-state erythropoiesis maintains erythroid homeostasis throughout life. This process constantly generates new erythrocytes to replace the senescent erythrocytes that are removed by macrophages in the spleen. In contrast, anemic or hypoxic stress induces a physiological response designed to increase oxygen delivery to the tissues. Stress erythropoiesis is a key component of this response. It is best understood in mice where it is extramedullary occurring in the adult spleen and liver and in the fetal liver during development. Stress erythropoiesis utilizes progenitor cells and signals that are distinct from bone marrow steady-state erythropoiesis. Because of that observation many genes may play a role in stress erythropoiesis despite having no effect on steady-state erythropoiesis. In this chapter, we will discuss in vivo and in vitro techniques to study stress erythropoiesis in mice and how the in vitro culture system can be extended to study human stress erythropoiesis.

  2. Wind Stress Variability Observed Over Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Laxague, N.; Williams, N. J.; Graber, H. C.

    2016-02-01

    The wind stress on the ocean surface generates waves, drives currents, and enhances gas exchange; and a significant amount of work has been done to characterize the air-sea momentum flux in terms of bulk oceanographic and atmospheric parameters. However, the majority of this work to develop operational algorithms has been focused on the deep ocean and the suitability of these methods in the coastal regime has not been evaluated. The findings from a two-part field campaign will be presented which highlight the divergence of nearshore wind stress observations from conventional, deep water results. The first set of data comes from a coastal region near a relatively small, natural tidal inlet. A high degree of spatial variability was observed in both the wind stress magnitude and direction, suggestive of coastal processes (e.g., depth-limited wave affects and horizontal current shear) modulating the momentum flux from the atmosphere to the ocean surface. These shallow-water processes are typically not accounted for in conventional parameterizations. Across the experimental domain and for a given wind speed, the stress magnitude was found to be nearly 2.5 times that predicted by conventional methods; also, a high propensity for stress steering off the mean azimuthal wind direction (up to ±70 degrees) was observed and linked to horizontal current gradients produced by the tidal inlet. The preliminary findings from a second data set taken in the vicinity of the macrotidal Columbia River Mouth will also be presented. Compared to the first data set, a similar degree of variability is observed here, but the processes responsible for this are present at a much larger scale. Specifically, the Columbia River Mouth observations were made in the presence of significant swell wave energy and during periods of very high estuarine discharge. The relative angle between the wind and swell direction is expected to be significant with regards to the observed momentum flux. Also, these

  3. Impact of osmotic stress on seedling growth observations, membrane characteristics and antioxidant defense system of different wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardees M. Mickky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to find out a straightforward technique for screening the tolerance of ten wheat genotypes to two levels of osmotic stress at early seedling stage. Data revealed that polyethylene glycol-induced drought had general negative effect on seedling morphological characters indicated by plumule and radicle length, number of adventitious roots as well as seedling biomass and water content. Water deficit could also suppress membrane integrity by stimulating lipid peroxidation with marked increase in membrane leakage and subsequent decrease in its stability index. For all the addressed germination parameters and seedling membrane features, the impact of severe drought was more pronounced than that of moderate drought. Simultaneously, moderate stress could activate peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and ascorbic peroxidase of the studied genotypes; but these enzymes were inhibited by severe stress. The activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase was conversely retarded by drought whether at moderate or severe level. More interestingly, a novel function “Stress Impact Index; SII” was introduced to rank the estimated morpho-physiological traits (SIItrait as well as the considered genotypes (SIIgenotype according to their sensitivity to stress. Values of SIItrait implied that germination parameters were generally affected by drought more intensively than membrane characteristics and finally came the antioxidant enzymes with the least degree of suppression when applying stress. Based on the magnitudes of SIIgenotype, Sids 13 seemed to be the most drought-tolerant wheat cultivar while Shandawel 1 could be the most sensitive one at their juvenile growth stage.

  4. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly...

  5. Longline Observer Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LODS, the Hawaii Longline Observer Data System, is a complete suite of tools designed to collect, process, and manage quality fisheries data and information. Guided...

  6. Observation of a Distinct Transition in Transport Response to Injection Stress in the Floridan Aquifer System, Southeastern Florida, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J. N.; Cunningham, K. J.; Foster, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (MDWASD) injects effluent approximately one km below land surface into the Boulder Zone (BZ) at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant (NDWWTP). The BZ is highly conductive and composed of fractured dolomite. MDWASD monitors upward effluent migration 450 m below land surface in the Avon Park Permeable Zone (APPZ). The BZ and APPZ---units within the Floridan aquifer system---are separated by a series of inter-bedded aquifers and leaky confining units with hydraulic conductivities that are orders of magnitude smaller than the BZ. MDWASD injected effluent at the NDWWTP during two distinct periods: (1) July 1997 to September 1999, and (2) August 2004 to January 2011. No effluent was injected between October 1999 and July 2004. A few months after the July 1997 injection, MDWASD observed effluent constituents in the APPZ (Figure 1). Some confinement bypass feature permits effluent constituents to be transported from the BZ to the APPZ. Bypass features may include poorly-cased wells, or natural conduits such as fractures, faults, or karst collapse systems. It is possible to describe confinement bypass features with conductance KA/L, where K is hydraulic conductivity, A is cross-sectional area, and L is length. MDWASD observed a distinct transition in the transport response to injection stress of total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration in the APPZ. The conductance required to describe early system response (1997-1999) is one order-of-magnitude larger than the conductance required to describe late system response (2004-2011). Hypotheses to explain transient conductance include clogging of bypass features by some geochemical or biological process that results from the mixing of effluent with groundwater; dissolution or precipitation; or changes in bypass-feature geometry forced by cyclical changes in aquifer-fluid pressure associated with injection. Hypotheses may be tested with geochemical analyses, tracer tests, hydraulic

  7. Stress and disorders of the stress system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrousos, George P

    2009-07-01

    All organisms must maintain a complex dynamic equilibrium, or homeostasis, which is constantly challenged by internal or external adverse forces termed stressors. Stress occurs when homeostasis is threatened or perceived to be so; homeostasis is re-established by various physiological and behavioral adaptive responses. Neuroendocrine hormones have major roles in the regulation of both basal homeostasis and responses to threats, and are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by dyshomeostasis or cacostasis. The stress response is mediated by the stress system, partly located in the central nervous system and partly in peripheral organs. The central, greatly interconnected effectors of this system include the hypothalamic hormones arginine vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone and pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides, and the locus ceruleus and autonomic norepinephrine centers in the brainstem. Targets of these effectors include the executive and/or cognitive, reward and fear systems, the wake-sleep centers of the brain, the growth, reproductive and thyroid hormone axes, and the gastrointestinal, cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and immune systems. Optimal basal activity and responsiveness of the stress system is essential for a sense of well-being, successful performance of tasks, and appropriate social interactions. By contrast, excessive or inadequate basal activity and responsiveness of this system might impair development, growth and body composition, and lead to a host of behavioral and somatic pathological conditions.

  8. OBSCAN Observer Scanning System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Paper logs are the primary data collection tool used by observers of the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program deployed on commercial fishing vessels. After the data...

  9. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  10. Observing Children's Stress Behaviors in a Kindergarten Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    This study used qualitative methods to determine whether kindergarten children exhibited stress behaviors during the academic work period of the day. Sixteen children (8 male, 8 female) ages 5-6 years were observed. The data consisted of classroom observations by the researcher, open-ended interviews with teachers, artifacts collected from the…

  11. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  12. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  13. Stress Effects on Multiple Memory System Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Deborah; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Extensive behavioural, pharmacological, and neurological research reports stress effects on mammalian memory processes. While stress effects on memory quantity have been known for decades, the influence of stress on multiple memory systems and their distinct contributions to the learning process have only recently been described. In this paper, after summarizing the fundamental biological aspects of stress/emotional arousal and recapitulating functionally and anatomically distinct memory systems, we review recent animal and human studies exploring the effects of stress on multiple memory systems. Apart from discussing the interaction between distinct memory systems in stressful situations, we will also outline the fundamental role of the amygdala in mediating such stress effects. Additionally, based on the methods applied in the herein discussed studies, we will discuss how memory translates into behaviour. PMID:27034845

  14. Stress Effects on Multiple Memory System Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Ness

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive behavioural, pharmacological, and neurological research reports stress effects on mammalian memory processes. While stress effects on memory quantity have been known for decades, the influence of stress on multiple memory systems and their distinct contributions to the learning process have only recently been described. In this paper, after summarizing the fundamental biological aspects of stress/emotional arousal and recapitulating functionally and anatomically distinct memory systems, we review recent animal and human studies exploring the effects of stress on multiple memory systems. Apart from discussing the interaction between distinct memory systems in stressful situations, we will also outline the fundamental role of the amygdala in mediating such stress effects. Additionally, based on the methods applied in the herein discussed studies, we will discuss how memory translates into behaviour.

  15. Stress Effects on Multiple Memory System Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Deborah; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Extensive behavioural, pharmacological, and neurological research reports stress effects on mammalian memory processes. While stress effects on memory quantity have been known for decades, the influence of stress on multiple memory systems and their distinct contributions to the learning process have only recently been described. In this paper, after summarizing the fundamental biological aspects of stress/emotional arousal and recapitulating functionally and anatomically distinct memory systems, we review recent animal and human studies exploring the effects of stress on multiple memory systems. Apart from discussing the interaction between distinct memory systems in stressful situations, we will also outline the fundamental role of the amygdala in mediating such stress effects. Additionally, based on the methods applied in the herein discussed studies, we will discuss how memory translates into behaviour.

  16. OBPRELIM Observer Preliminary Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Paper logs are the primary data collection tool used by observers of the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program and Industry Funded Scallop Program deployed on...

  17. Polyamine biosynthesis in rice cultivars under salt stress and comparison with observations under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Thi Do

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity affects a large proportion of rural area and limits agricultural productivity. To investigate differential adaptation to soil salinity, we studied salt tolerance of 18 varieties of Oryza sativa using a hydroponic culture system. Based on visual inspection and photosynthetic parameters, cultivars were classified according to their tolerance level. Additionally, biomass parameters were correlated with salt tolerance. Polyamines have frequently been demonstrated to be involved in plant stress responses and therefore soluble leaf polyamines were measured. Under salinity, putrescine (Put content was unchanged or increased in tolerant, while dropped in sensitive cultivars. Spermidine (Spd content was unchanged at lower NaCl concentrations in all, while reduced at 100 mM NaCl in sensitive cultivars. Spermine (Spm content was increased in all cultivars. A comparison with data from 21 cultivars under long-term, moderate drought stress revealed an increase of Spm under both stress conditions. While Spm became the most prominent polyamine under drought, levels of all three polyamines were relatively similar under salt stress. Put levels were reduced under both, drought and salt stress, while changes in Spd were different under drought (decrease or salt (unchanged conditions. Regulation of polyamine metabolism at the transcript level during exposure to salinity was studied for genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines and compared to expression under drought stress. Based on expression profiles, investigated genes were divided into generally stress-induced genes (ADC2, SPD/SPM2, SPD/SPM3, one generally stress-repressed gene (ADC1, constitutively expressed genes (CPA1, CPA2, CPA4, SAMDC1, SPD/SPM1, specifically drought-induced genes (SAMDC2, AIH, one specifically drought-repressed gene (CPA3 and one specifically salt-stress repressed gene (SAMDC4, revealing both overlapping and specific stress responses under these

  18. Supervising System Stress in Multiple Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Oet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an extended financial stress measure that considers the supervisory objective of identifying risks to the stability of the financial system. The measure provides a continuous and bounded signal of financial stress using daily public market data. Broad coverage of material financial system markets over time is achieved by leveraging dynamic credit weights. We consider how this measure can be used to monitor, analyze, and alert financial system stress.

  19. Stress Effects on Multiple Memory System Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ness, Deborah; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Extensive behavioural, pharmacological, and neurological research reports stress effects on mammalian memory processes. While stress effects on memory quantity have been known for decades, the influence of stress on multiple memory systems and their distinct contributions to the learning process have only recently been described. In this paper, after summarizing the fundamental biological aspects of stress/emotional arousal and recapitulating functionally and anatomically distinct memory syst...

  20. Stress, catecholaminergic system and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizanova, O; Babula, P; Pacak, K

    2016-07-01

    Stress as a modern civilization factor significantly affects our lives. While acute stress might have a positive effect on the organism, chronic stress is usually detrimental and might lead to serious health complications. It is known that stress induced by the physical environment (temperature-induced cold stress) can significantly impair the efficacy of cytotoxic chemotherapies and the anti-tumor immune response. On the other hand, epidemiological evidence has shown that patients taking drugs known as β-adrenergic antagonists ("β-blockers"), which are commonly prescribed to treat arrhythmia, hypertension, and anxiety, have significantly lower rates of several cancers. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about catecholamines as important stress hormones in tumorigenesis and discuss the use of β-blockers as the potential therapeutic agents.

  1. System Identification with Quantized Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Le Yi; Zhang, Jifeng; Zhao, Yanlong

    2010-01-01

    This book presents recently developed methodologies that utilize quantized information in system identification and explores their potential in extending control capabilities for systems with limited sensor information or networked systems. The results of these methodologies can be applied to signal processing and control design of communication and computer networks, sensor networks, mobile agents, coordinated data fusion, remote sensing, telemedicine, and other fields in which noise-corrupted quantized data need to be processed. Providing a comprehensive coverage of quantized identification,

  2. In situ observation of stress relaxation in epitaxial graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N'Diaye, Alpha T; Coraux, Johann; Busse, Carsten; Michely, Thomas; Gastel, Raoul van; Poelsema, Bene; MartInez-Galera, Antonio J; Gomez-RodrIguez, Jose M; Hattab, Hichem; Wall, Dirk; Heringdorf, Frank-J Meyer zu; Hoegen, Michael Horn-von

    2009-01-01

    Upon cooling, branched line defects develop in epitaxial graphene grown at high temperature on Pt(111) and Ir(111). Using atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy, we demonstrate that these defects are wrinkles in the graphene layer, i.e. stripes of partially delaminated graphene. With low energy electron microscopy (LEEM), we investigate the wrinkling phenomenon in situ. Upon temperature cycling, we observe hysteresis in the appearance and disappearance of the wrinkles. Simultaneously with wrinkle formation a change in bright field imaging intensity of adjacent areas and a shift in the moire spot positions for micro diffraction of such areas takes place. The stress relieved by wrinkle formation results from the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients of graphene and the substrate. A simple one-dimensional model taking into account the energies related to strain, delamination and bending of graphene is in qualitative agreement with our observations.

  3. Evaluation of the Stress Resilience Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    burnout were assessed before and after an eight week training period. Significant improvement in overall stress was observed; however, there were no...significantly based on location, role, and mission. Regardless of cause, the accumulation of stress over time can lead to burnout (Taris, LeBlanc, Schaufeli...such as hospital floor nurses (28%). 5.4 Post-Traumatic Stress The PTSD Checklist, military version (PCL-M) results indicated that 1 participant (4

  4. Communication Patterns and Stress in the Preschool: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, Fredrik; Neely, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The study included 12 preschool departments, with two teachers in six departments characterised by high levels of stress and burnout and two teachers in six departments characterised by low levels of stress and burnout. A total of 24 females with a mean age of 43.5 years participated in the study. The teachers rated stress, fatigue, work demands…

  5. Stress Biomarkers in Vanaraja Chicken Maintained Under Various Rearing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan K. Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is of major concern for poultry industry because it exerts deleterious effects on different parameters like feed intake, feed conversion ratio, weight gain, etc. In present study various enzymatic viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and non-enzymatic components like reduced glutathione (GSH, hemoglobin and stress induced cellular damage i.e. lipid peroxidation was estimated to access the stress level in Vanaraja chickens reared under various rearing systems during summer. Significantly (p<0.05 increased activities of CAT and SOD was observed in deep litter system as compared to cage and semi-intensive rearing system. However, non-significant change in CAT and significantly increased activity of SOD was observed as the age progress. GSH-Px activity significantly lower (p<0.05 in the deep litter as compared to other systems, however, the activity increases significantly (p<0.05 at 8th wks as compared to 4th wks. GSH level was found maximum in cage system compared to deep litter and semi-intensive system. Non-significant changes were observed in hemoglobin concentration during study both between age groups as well as the age progresses. Observations of the study suggested that cage system is better than deep litter and semi-intensive system in handling the stress induced by different environmental factors.

  6. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System in Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Andrukhov, Oleh; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease, which is initiated by bacterial infection and subsequently progressed by aberrant host response. It can result in the destruction of teeth supporting tissues and have an influence on systemic health. When periodontitis occurs, reactive oxygen species, which are overproduced mostly by hyperactive neutrophils, could not be balanced by antioxidant defense system and cause tissues damage. This is characterized by increased metabolites of lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and protein damage. Local and systemic activities of antioxidants can also be influenced by periodontitis. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index have been used to evaluate the oxidative stress associated with periodontitis. Studies have confirmed that inflammatory response in periodontitis is associated with an increased local and systemic oxidative stress and compromised antioxidant capacity. Our review focuses on increased oxidative stress in periodontal disease, specifically, on the relationship between the local and systemic biomarkers of oxidative stress and periodontitis and their association with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Also, the relationship between periodontitis and systemic inflammation, and the effects of periodontal therapy on oxidative stress parameters will be discussed. PMID:29180965

  7. Observability of linear systems with saturated outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koplon, R.; Sontag, E.D.; Hautus, M.L.J.

    1994-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions for observability of the class of output-saturated systems. These are linear systems whose output passes through a saturation function before it can be measured.

  8. Microbial stress tolerance for biofuels. Systems biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zonglin Lewis (ed.) [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA-ARS, Peoria, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The development of sustainable and renewable biofuels is attracting growing interest. It is vital to develop robust microbial strains for biocatalysts that are able to function under multiple stress conditions. This Microbiology Monograph provides an overview of methods for studying microbial stress tolerance for biofuels applications using a systems biology approach. Topics covered range from mechanisms to methodology for yeast and bacteria, including the genomics of yeast tolerance and detoxification; genetics and regulation of glycogen and trehalose metabolism; programmed cell death; high gravity fermentations; ethanol tolerance; improving biomass sugar utilization by engineered Saccharomyces; the genomics on tolerance of Zymomonas mobilis; microbial solvent tolerance; control of stress tolerance in bacterial host organisms; metabolomics for ethanologenic yeast; automated proteomics work cell systems for strain improvement; and unification of gene expression data for comparable analyses under stress conditions. (orig.)

  9. Stress, eating and the reward system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Tanja C; Epel, Elissa S

    2007-07-24

    An increasing number of people report concerns about the amount of stress in their life. At the same time obesity is an escalating health problem worldwide. Evidence is accumulating rapidly that stress related chronic stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and resulting excess glucocorticoid exposure may play a potential role in the development of visceral obesity. Since adequate regulation of energy and food intake under stress is important for survival, it is not surprising that the HPA axis is not only the 'conductor' of an appropriate stress response, but is also tightly intertwined with the endocrine regulation of appetite. Here we attempt to link animal and human literatures to tease apart how different types of psychological stress affect eating. We propose a theoretical model of Reward Based Stress Eating. This model emphasizes the role of cortisol and reward circuitry on motivating calorically dense food intake, and elucidating potential neuroendocrine mediators in the relationship between stress and eating. The addiction literature suggests that the brain reward circuitry may be a key player in stress-induced food intake. Stress as well as palatable food can stimulate endogenous opioid release. In turn, opioid release appears to be part of an organisms' powerful defense mechanism protecting from the detrimental effects of stress by decreasing activity of the HPA axis and thus attenuating the stress response. Repeated stimulation of the reward pathways through either stress induced HPA stimulation, intake of highly palatable food or both, may lead to neurobiological adaptations that promote the compulsive nature of overeating. Cortisol may influence the reward value of food via neuroendocrine/peptide mediators such as leptin, insulin and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Whereas glucocorticoids are antagonized by insulin and leptin acutely, under chronic stress, that finely balanced system is dysregulated, possibly contributing to increased food

  10. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.

  11. Sensorless magnetically levitated system with reduced observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, T [Inst. fuer Elektrische Maschinen, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Henneberger, G [Inst. fuer Elektrische Maschinen, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Ress, C [Inst. fuer Elektrische Maschinen, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper describes the use of a reduced observer for a hybrid excited magnetic levitation system. The latter is part of a contactless and energy saving driven conveyance system. Thereby one has to select the working point of the system in such a way, that the force due to the weight of the vehicle including its load will be compensated only by the permanent magnets. The linearized model is observable even if only the current in the coils is measured. Therefore it seems reasonable to evaluate the other variables of the state vector by an observer. Thus the sensors for the airgap can be omitted. Using an observer has another advantage as well. It will tune the airgap automatically to the value which is necessary in order to operate the system in the most energy saving way. The whole design was simulated. (orig.)

  12. Earth Observing System Covariance Realism Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda Romero, Juan A.; Miguel, Fred

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meetings June 13-15, 2017 to discuss the Earth Observing System Covariance Realism updates.

  13. Improvement of seismic observation systems in JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumino, Kozo; Suto, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    In the experimental fast reactor 'Joyo' in order to perform the seismic observation in and around the building block and ground, SMAC type seismographs had continuously been used for about 38 years. However, this equipment aged, and the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake on Mach 11, 2011 increased the importance of seismic data of the reactor facilities from the viewpoint of earthquake-proof safety. For these reasons, Joyo updated the system to the seismic observation system reflecting the latest technology/information, while keeping consistency with the observation data of the former seismographs (SMAC type seismograph). This updating improved various problems on the former observation seismographs. In addition, the installation of now observation points in the locations that are important in seismic safety evaluation expanded the data, and further improved the reliability of the seismic observation and evaluation on 'Joyo'. (A.O.)

  14. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed

  15. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  16. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach; and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  17. Low stress drops observed for aftershocks of the 2011 Mw 5.7 Prague, Oklahoma, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumy, Danielle F.; Neighbors, Corrie J.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Keranen, Katie M.

    2017-01-01

    In November 2011, three Mw ≥ 4.8 earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks occurred along the structurally complex Wilzetta fault system near Prague, Oklahoma. Previous studies suggest that wastewater injection induced a Mw 4.8 foreshock, which subsequently triggered a Mw 5.7 mainshock. We examine source properties of aftershocks with a standard Brune-type spectral model and jointly solve for seismic moment (M0), corner frequency (f0), and kappa (κ) with an iterative Gauss-Newton global downhill optimization method. We examine 934 earthquakes with initial moment magnitudes (Mw) between 0.33 and 4.99 based on the pseudospectral acceleration and recover reasonable M0, f0, and κ for 87 earthquakes with Mw 1.83–3.51 determined by spectral fit. We use M0 and f0 to estimate the Brune-type stress drop, assuming a circular fault and shear-wave velocity at the hypocentral depth of the event. Our observations suggest that stress drops range between 0.005 and 4.8 MPa with a median of 0.2 MPa (0.03–26.4 MPa with a median of 1.1 MPa for Madariaga-type), which is significantly lower than typical eastern United States intraplate events (>10 MPa). We find that stress drops correlate weakly with hypocentral depth and magnitude. Additionally, we find the stress drops increase with time after the mainshock, although temporal variation in stress drop is difficult to separate from spatial heterogeneity and changing event locations. The overall low median stress drop suggests that the fault segments may have been primed to fail as a result of high pore fluid pressures, likely related to nearby wastewater injection.

  18. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systemssystems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  19. Observation of SASE in LEBRA FEL system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T. E-mail: tanaka@lebra.nihon-u.ac.jp; Hayakawa, K.; Sato, I.; Hayakawa, Y.; Yokoyama, K

    2004-08-01

    A large enhancement of spontaneous undulator radiation has been observed during FEL lasing experiments at LEBRA. The enhancement has been observed only with the detector for the infrared fundamental radiation. The detector output signal showed spikes during the electron beam pulse, yet no apparent enhancement was observed with a CCD camera monitoring the visible harmonic radiations. An enhancement factor greater than 10 has been obtained with a 2.4 m long undulator with a completely detuned FEL optical cavity length and depends strongly on the parameters of the linac RF system. This implies that the SASE operation is possible even with a conventional electron beam by achieving suitable bunch compression.

  20. Dysfunctional Neurotransmitter Systems in Fibromyalgia, Their Role in Central Stress Circuitry and Pharmacological Actions on These Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Becker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is considered a stress-related disorder, and hypo- as well as hyperactive stress systems (sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis have been found. Some observations raise doubts on the view that alterations in these stress systems are solely responsible for fibromyalgia symptoms. Cumulative evidence points at dysfunctional transmitter systems that may underlie the major symptoms of the condition. In addition, all transmitter systems found to be altered in fibromyalgia influence the body's stress systems. Since both transmitter and stress systems change during chronic stress, it is conceivable that both systems change in parallel, interact, and contribute to the phenotype of fibromyalgia. As we outline in this paper, subgroups of patients might exhibit varying degrees and types of transmitter dysfunction, explaining differences in symptomatoloy and contributing to the heterogeneity of fibromyalgia. The finding that not all fibromyalgia patients respond to the same medications, targeting dysfunctional transmitter systems, further supports this hypothesis.

  1. TRICLOBS portable triband color lowlight observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    We present the design and first test results of the TRICLOBS (TRI-band Color Low-light OBServation) system The TRICLOBS is an all-day all-weather surveillance and navigation tool. Its sensor suite consists of two digital image intensifiers (Photonis ICU's) and an uncooled longwave infrared

  2. Earth observing system - Concepts and implementation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    The concepts of an Earth Observing System (EOS), an information system being developed by the EOS Science and Mission Requirements Working Group for international use and planned to begin in the 1990s, are discussed. The EOS is designed to study the factors that control the earth's hydrologic cycle, biochemical cycles, and climatologic processes by combining the measurements from remote sensing instruments, in situ measurement devices, and a data and information system. Three EOS platforms are planned to be launched into low, polar, sun-synchronous orbits during the Space Station's Initial Operating Configuration, one to be provided by ESA and two by the United States.

  3. Earth Observing System, Conclusions and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The following Earth Observing Systems (E.O.S.) recommendations were suggested: (1) a program must be initiated to ensure that present time series of Earth science data are maintained and continued. (2) A data system that provides easy, integrated, and complete access to past, present, and future data must be developed as soon as possible. (3) A long term research effort must be sustained to study and understand these time series of Earth observations. (4) The E.O.S. should be established as an information system to carry out those aspects of the above recommendations which go beyond existing and currently planned activities. (5) The scientific direction of the E.O.S. should be established and continued through an international scientific steering committee.

  4. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Behnke, Jeanne; Lowe, Dawn; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for determining

  5. Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) surface observation data.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — GMOS global surface elemental mercury (Hg0) observations from 2013 & 2014. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sprovieri, F., N. Pirrone,...

  6. Boundary stress tensors for spherically-symmetric conformal Rindler observers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culetu, Hristu [Ovidius University, Constanta (Romania)

    2010-06-15

    The boundary energy-momentum tensors for a static observer in the conformally flat Rindler geometry are considered. We find that the surface energy density is positive far from the Planck world, but that the transversal pressures are negative. The kinematical parameters associated with the nongeodesic congruence of static observers are computed. The entropy S corresponding to the degrees of freedom on the 2-surface of constant {rho} and t equals the horizon entropy of a black hole with a time-dependent mass, and the Padmanabhan expression E = 2ST is obeyed. The 2-surface shear tensor is vanishing, and the coefficient of the bulk viscosity {zeta} is 1/16 {pi}, so the negative pressure due to it acts as a surface tension.

  7. GENERAL EARTHQUAKE-OBSERVATION SYSTEM (GEOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Fletcher, Joe B.; Jensen, E.G.; Maxwell, G.L.; VanSchaack, J.R.; Warrick, R.E.; Cranswick, E.; Johnston, M.J.S.; McClearn, R.

    1985-01-01

    Microprocessor technology has permitted the development of a General Earthquake-Observation System (GEOS) useful for most seismic applications. Central-processing-unit control via robust software of system functions that are isolated on hardware modules permits field adaptability of the system to a wide variety of active and passive seismic experiments and straightforward modification for incorporation of improvements in technology. Various laboratory tests and numerous deployments of a set of the systems in the field have confirmed design goals, including: wide linear dynamic range (16 bit/96 dB); broad bandwidth (36 hr to 600 Hz; greater than 36 hr available); selectable sensor-type (accelerometer, seismometer, dilatometer); selectable channels (1 to 6); selectable record mode (continuous, preset, trigger); large data capacity (1. 4 to 60 Mbytes); selectable time standard (WWVB, master, manual); automatic self-calibration; simple field operation; full capability to adapt system in the field to a wide variety of experiments; low power; portability; and modest costs. System design goals for a microcomputer-controlled system with modular software and hardware components as implemented on the GEOS are presented. The systems have been deployed for 15 experiments, including: studies of near-source strong motion; high-frequency microearthquakes; crustal structure; down-hole wave propagation; teleseismicity; and earth-tidal strains.

  8. Observed benefits from product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of the benefits obtained from applying product configuration systems based on a case study in four industry companies. The impacts are described according to main objectives in literature for imple-menting product configuration systems: lead time in the specification...... affected by the use of product configu-ration systems e.g. increased sales, decrease in the number of SKU's, improved ability to introduce new products, and cost reductions.......This article presents a study of the benefits obtained from applying product configuration systems based on a case study in four industry companies. The impacts are described according to main objectives in literature for imple-menting product configuration systems: lead time in the specification...... processes, on-time delivery of the specifica-tions, and resource consumption for making specifications, quality of specifications, optimization of products and services, and other observations. The purpose of the study is partly to identify specific impacts observed from implementing product configuration...

  9. A systematic review of observational studies on oxidative/nitrosative stress involvement in dengue pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Raimundo; Pinzón, Hernando Samuel; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to systematically review the published observational research related to the role of oxidative-nitrosative stress in pathogenesis of dengue. Methods: We searched electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, The COCHRANE library, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS via Virtual Health Library, Google Scholar) using the term: dengue, dengue virus, severe dengue, oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, antioxidants, oxidants, free radicals, oxidized lipid products, lipid per...

  10. The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal

  11. Reconstructing a Network of Stress-Response Regulators via Dynamic System Modeling of Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Sheng Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unicellular organisms such as yeasts have evolved mechanisms to respond to environmental stresses by rapidly reorganizing the gene expression program. Although many stress-response genes in yeast have been discovered by DNA microarrays, the stress-response transcription factors (TFs that regulate these stress-response genes remain to be investigated. In this study, we use a dynamic system model of gene regulation to describe the mechanism of how TFs may control a gene’s expression. Then, based on the dynamic system model, we develop the Stress Regulator Identification Algorithm (SRIA to identify stress-response TFs for six kinds of stresses. We identified some general stress-response TFs that respond to various stresses and some specific stress-response TFs that respond to one specifi c stress. The biological significance of our findings is validated by the literature. We found that a small number of TFs is probably suffi cient to control a wide variety of expression patterns in yeast under different stresses. Two implications can be inferred from this observation. First, the response mechanisms to different stresses may have a bow-tie structure. Second, there may be regulatory cross-talks among different stress responses. In conclusion, this study proposes a network of stress-response regulators and the details of their actions.

  12. The role of oxidative stress in nervous system aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims-Robinson, Catrina; Hur, Junguk; Hayes, John M; Dauch, Jacqueline R; Keller, Peter J; Brooks, Susan V; Feldman, Eva L

    2013-01-01

    While oxidative stress is implicated in aging, the impact of oxidative stress on aging in the peripheral nervous system is not well understood. To determine a potential mechanism for age-related deficits in the peripheral nervous system, we examined both functional and morphological changes and utilized microarray technology to compare normal aging in wild-type mice to effects in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1(-/-)) mice, a mouse model of increased oxidative stress. Sod1(-/-) mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy phenotype with normal sensory nerve function and deficits in motor nerve function. Our data indicate that a decrease in the synthesis of cholesterol, which is vital to myelin formation, correlates with the structural deficits in axons, myelin, and the cell body of motor neurons in the Sod1(+/+) mice at 30 months and the Sod1(-/-) mice at 20 months compared with mice at 2 months. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the functional and morphological changes within the peripheral nervous system in our model of increased oxidative stress are manifested earlier and resemble the deficits observed during normal aging.

  13. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Nervous System Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims-Robinson, Catrina; Hur, Junguk; Hayes, John M.; Dauch, Jacqueline R.; Keller, Peter J.; Brooks, Susan V.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2013-01-01

    While oxidative stress is implicated in aging, the impact of oxidative stress on aging in the peripheral nervous system is not well understood. To determine a potential mechanism for age-related deficits in the peripheral nervous system, we examined both functional and morphological changes and utilized microarray technology to compare normal aging in wild-type mice to effects in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1−/−) mice, a mouse model of increased oxidative stress. Sod1−/− mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy phenotype with normal sensory nerve function and deficits in motor nerve function. Our data indicate that a decrease in the synthesis of cholesterol, which is vital to myelin formation, correlates with the structural deficits in axons, myelin, and the cell body of motor neurons in the Sod1+/+ mice at 30 months and the Sod1−/− mice at 20 months compared with mice at 2 months. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the functional and morphological changes within the peripheral nervous system in our model of increased oxidative stress are manifested earlier and resemble the deficits observed during normal aging. PMID:23844146

  14. The role of oxidative stress in nervous system aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrina Sims-Robinson

    Full Text Available While oxidative stress is implicated in aging, the impact of oxidative stress on aging in the peripheral nervous system is not well understood. To determine a potential mechanism for age-related deficits in the peripheral nervous system, we examined both functional and morphological changes and utilized microarray technology to compare normal aging in wild-type mice to effects in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1(-/- mice, a mouse model of increased oxidative stress. Sod1(-/- mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy phenotype with normal sensory nerve function and deficits in motor nerve function. Our data indicate that a decrease in the synthesis of cholesterol, which is vital to myelin formation, correlates with the structural deficits in axons, myelin, and the cell body of motor neurons in the Sod1(+/+ mice at 30 months and the Sod1(-/- mice at 20 months compared with mice at 2 months. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the functional and morphological changes within the peripheral nervous system in our model of increased oxidative stress are manifested earlier and resemble the deficits observed during normal aging.

  15. Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested

  16. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A. E.; Behnke, J.; Lowe, D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-12-01

    NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA’s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA’s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO’s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO’s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA’s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for

  17. On computing stress in polymer systems involving multi-body potentials from molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Song, Jeong-Hoon

    2014-08-01

    Hardy stress definition has been restricted to pair potentials and embedded-atom method potentials due to the basic assumptions in the derivation of a symmetric microscopic stress tensor. Force decomposition required in the Hardy stress expression becomes obscure for multi-body potentials. In this work, we demonstrate the invariance of the Hardy stress expression for a polymer system modeled with multi-body interatomic potentials including up to four atoms interaction, by applying central force decomposition of the atomic force. The balance of momentum has been demonstrated to be valid theoretically and tested under various numerical simulation conditions. The validity of momentum conservation justifies the extension of Hardy stress expression to multi-body potential systems. Computed Hardy stress has been observed to converge to the virial stress of the system with increasing spatial averaging volume. This work provides a feasible and reliable linkage between the atomistic and continuum scales for multi-body potential systems.

  18. Real-time observations of stressful events in the operating room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlNassar Sami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify and quantify factors causing stress in the operating room (OR and evaluate the relationship between these factors and surgeons′ stress level. Methods: This is a prospective observational study from 32 elective surgical procedures conducted in the OR of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Before each operation, each surgeon was asked of stressors. Two interns observed 16 surgeries each, separately. The interns watched and took notes during the entire surgical procedure. During each operation, the observer recorded anxiety-inducing activities and events that occurred in real time by means of a checklist of 8 potential stressors: technical, patient problems, teamwork problems, time and management issues, distractions and interruptions, equipment problems, personal problems, and teaching. After each operation, surgeons were asked to answer the validated State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire and self-report on their stress level from the 8 sources using a scale of 1-8 (1: stress free, 8: extremely stressful. The observer also recorded perceived stress levels experienced by the surgeons during the operation. Results: One hundred ten stressors were identified. Technical problems most frequently caused stress (16.4% and personal issues the least often (6.4%. Frequently encountered stressors (teaching and distractions/interruptions caused less stress to the surgeons. Technical factors, teamwork, and equipment problems occurred frequently and were also a major contributor to OR stress. All patients were discharged in good health and within 1 week of surgery. Conclusion: Certain stressful factors do occur among surgeons in the OR and can increase the potential for errors. Further research is required to determine the impact of stress on performance and the outcome of surgery.

  19. Penn State Radar Systems: Implementation and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, J. V.; Seal, R.; Sorbello, R.; Kuyeng, K.; Dyrud, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    Software Defined Radio/Radar (SDR) platforms have become increasingly popular as researchers, hobbyists, and military seek more efficient and cost-effective means for radar construction and operation. SDR platforms, by definition, utilize a software-based interface for configuration in contrast to traditional, hard-wired platforms. In an effort to provide new and improved radar sensing capabilities, Penn State has been developing advanced instruments and technologies for future radars, with primary objectives of making such instruments more capable, portable, and more cost effective. This paper will describe the design and implementation of two low-cost radar systems and their deployment in ionospheric research at both low and mid-latitudes. One radar has been installed near Penn State campus, University Park, Pennsylvania (77.97°W, 40.70°N), to make continuous meteor observations and mid-latitude plasma irregularities. The second radar is being installed in Huancayo (12.05°S, -75.33°E), Peru, which is capable of detecting E and F region plasma irregularities as well as meteor reflections. In this paper, we examine and compare the diurnal and seasonal variability of specular, non- specular, and head-echoes collected with these two new radar systems and discuss sampling biases of each meteor observation technique. We report our current efforts to validate and calibrate these radar systems with other VHF radars such as Jicamarca and SOUSY. We also present the general characteristics of continuous measurements of E-region and F-region coherent echoes using these modern radar systems and compare them with coherent radar events observed at other geographic mid-latitude radar stations.

  20. North American water availability under stress and duress: building understanding from simulations, observations and data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, R. M.; Condon, L. E.; Atchley, A. L.; Hector, B.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying the available freshwater for human use and ecological function depends on fluxes and stores that are hard to observe. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the largest terrestrial flux of water behind precipitation but is observed with low spatial density. Likewise, groundwater is the largest freshwater store, yet is equally uncertain. The ability to upscale observations of these variables is an additional complication; point measurements are made at scales orders of magnitude smaller than remote sensing data products. Integrated hydrologic models that simulate continental extents at fine spatial resolution are now becoming an additional tool to constrain fluxes and address interconnections. For example, recent work has shown connections between water table depth and transpiration partitioning, and demonstrated the ability to reconcile point observations and large-scale inferences. Here we explore the dynamics of large hydrologic systems experiencing change and stress across continental North America using integrated model simulations, observations and data products. Simulations of aquifer depletion due to pervasive groundwater pumping diagnose both stream depletion and changes in ET. Simulations of systematic increases in temperature are used to understand the relationship between snowpack dynamics, surface and groundwater flow, ET and a changing climate. Remotely sensed products including the GRACE estimates of total storage change are downscaled using model simulations to better understand human impacts to the hydrologic cycle. These example applications motivate a path forward to better use simulations to understand water availability.

  1. Stress factors for the deformation systems of zirconium under multiaxial stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    Calculation of the resolved shear stresses (rss) that act on various deformation systems in metals and, in particular, the determination of those systems subjected to the highest rss by a given set of multiaxial stresses is of importance in the study of texture development, yielding and plastic flow. This study examines the geometrical influences of any stress state on the deformation modes of zirconium. One slip mode and three twinning modes, comprising twenty-one deformation systems, are considered. Stress factors computed for these systems are shown on a coordinate system that allows specimen orientation, most highly stressed deformation system, and stress factor to be shown without ambiguity. The information in this report allows the determination of the rss that results from any multiaxial stress state; this information also allows the prediction of the deformation modes that might operate for any specimen orientation in that strss state

  2. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution better than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra 5 instruments: MODIS - 1.37 micron cirrus cloud channel; 250m daily coverage for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol studies; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - first 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - first global CO maps and C114 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  3. Stress corrosion cracking countermeasure observed on Ni-based alloy welds of BWR core support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Wataru; Aoki, Takayuki; Itou, Takashi; Enomoto, Kunio; Hayashi, Eisaku; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2009-01-01

    The effect of hydrostatic test on the residual stress re-distribution was simulated by experiment to confirm the residual stress behavior of the cone-shaped shroud support to reactor pressure vessel (RPV) weld, where a number of cracks due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) were observed on the inner side only. Test specimen with tensile residual stress was loaded and unloaded with axial plus bending load, which simulates the hydrostatic test load, and the strain change was measured during the test to observe the residual stress behavior. The results verify that the residual stresses of the shroud support to the RPV weld were reduced and the stresses on inner and outer sides were reversed by the hydrostatic test. As the SCC countermeasure, the shot peening (SP) technology was applied. Residual stress reduction by SP on the complicated configuration, and improvement of SCC resistance and endurance of the compressive residual stress were experimentally confirmed. Then, SP treatment procedures on the actual structure were confirmed and a field application technique was established

  4. Observed ices in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Grundy, Will; Carlson, Robert R.; Noll, Keith; Gudipati, Murthy; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Ices have been detected and mapped on the Earth and all planets and/or their satellites further from the sun. Water ice is the most common frozen volatile observed and is also unambiguously detected or inferred in every planet and/or their moon(s) except Venus. Carbon dioxide is also extensively found in all systems beyond the Earth except Pluto although it sometimes appears to be trapped rather than as an ice on some objects. The largest deposits of carbon dioxide ice is on Mars. Sulfur dioxide ice is found in the Jupiter system. Nitrogen and methane ices are common beyond the Uranian system. Saturn’s moon Titan probably has the most complex active chemistry involving ices, with benzene (C6H6) and many tentative or inferred compounds including ices of Cyanoacetylene (HC3N), Toluene (C7H8), Cyanogen (C2N2), Acetonitrile (CH3CN), H2O, CO2, and NH3. Confirming compounds on Titan is hampered by its thick smoggy atmosphere. Ammonia was predicted on many icy moons but is notably absent among the definitively detected ices with the possible exception of Enceladus. Comets, storehouses of many compounds that could exist as ices in their nuclei, have only had small amounts of water ice definitively detected on their surfaces. Only one asteroid has had a direct detection of surface water ice, although its presence can be inferred in others. This chapter reviews some of the properties of ices that lead to their detection, and surveys the ices that have been observed on solid surfaces throughout the Solar System.

  5. The NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Stephen; Maier, Mark; Di Pietro, David

    2016-01-01

    NOAA is beginning a study, the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture (NSOSA) study, to plan for the future operational environmental satellite system that will follow GOES and JPSS, beginning about 2030. This is an opportunity to design a modern architecture with no pre-conceived notions regarding instruments, platforms, orbits, etc. The NSOSA study will develop and evaluate architecture alternatives to include partner and commercial alternatives that are likely to become available. The objectives will include both functional needs and strategic characteristics (e.g., flexibility, responsiveness, sustainability). Part of this study is the Space Platform Requirements Working Group (SPRWG), which is being commissioned by NESDIS. The SPRWG is charged to assess new or existing user needs and to provide relative priorities for observational needs in the context of the future architecture. SPRWG results will serve as input to the process for new foundational (Level 0 and Level 1) requirements for the next generation of NOAA satellites that follow the GOES-R, JPSS, DSCOVR, Jason-3, and COSMIC-2 missions.

  6. Glutamatergic system abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Kenji; Noguchi, Hiroko; Hamazaki, Kei; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests involvement of the glutamatergic system in the biological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies have demonstrated an association between glutamatergic system abnormalities and PTSD diagnosis or severity. We aimed to examine whether abnormalities in serum glutamate and in the glutamine/glutamate ratio were associated with PTSD diagnosis and severity in severely injured patients at risk for PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD). This is a nested case-control study in TPOP (Tachikawa project for prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with polyunsaturated fatty acid) trial. Diagnosis and severity of PTSD were assessed 3 months after the accidents using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. The associations of glutamate levels and the glutamine/glutamate ratio with diagnosis and severity of PTSD and MDD were investigated by univariate and multiple linear regression analyses. Ninety-seven of 110 participants (88 %) completed assessments at 3 months. Serum glutamate levels were significantly higher for participants with full or partial PTSD than for participants without PTSD (p = 0.049) and for participants with MDD than for participants without MDD (p = 0.048). Multiple linear regression analyses showed serum glutamate levels were significantly positively associated with PTSD severity (p = 0.02) and MDD severity (p = 0.03). The glutamine/glutamate ratio was also significantly inversely associated with PTSD severity (p = 0.03), but not with MDD severity (p = 0.07). These findings suggest that the glutamatergic system may play a major role in the pathogenesis of PTSD and the need for new treatments targeting the glutamatergic system to be developed for PTSD.

  7. Observing Arctic Ecology using Networked Infomechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, N. C.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Hollister, R. D.; Tweedie, C. E.; Welker, J. M.; Gould, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding ecological dynamics is important for investigation into the potential impacts of climate change in the Arctic. Established in the early 1990's, the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) began observational inquiry of plant phenology, plant growth, community composition, and ecosystem properties as part of a greater effort to study changes across the Arctic. Unfortunately, these observations are labor intensive and time consuming, greatly limiting their frequency and spatial coverage. We have expanded the capability of ITEX to analyze ecological phenomenon with improved spatial and temporal resolution through the use of Networked Infomechanical Systems (NIMS) as part of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) program. The systems exhibit customizable infrastructure that supports a high level of versatility in sensor arrays in combination with information technology that allows for adaptable configurations to numerous environmental observation applications. We observe stereo and static time-lapse photography, air and surface temperature, incoming and outgoing long and short wave radiation, net radiation, and hyperspectral reflectance that provides critical information to understanding how vegetation in the Arctic is responding to ambient climate conditions. These measurements are conducted concurrent with ongoing manual measurements using ITEX protocols. Our NIMS travels at a rate of three centimeters per second while suspended on steel cables that are ~1 m from the surface spanning transects ~50 m in length. The transects are located to span soil moisture gradients across a variety of land cover types including dry heath, moist acidic tussock tundra, shrub tundra, wet meadows, dry meadows, and water tracks. We have deployed NIMS at four locations on the North Slope of Alaska, USA associated with 1 km2 ARCSS vegetation study grids including Barrow, Atqasuk, Toolik Lake, and Imnavait Creek. A fifth system has been deployed in Thule, Greenland beginning in

  8. Predictors of stress among parents in pediatric intensive care unit: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Mohd; Mittal, Kundan; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Kashyap, Haripal; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2014-11-01

    To determine the sociodemographic and clinical factors leading to stress among parents whose children are admitted in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). A prospective observational study was conducted in PICU of a tertiary care hospital of north India. Parents of children admitted to PICU for at least 48 h duration were eligible for participation. At the end of 48 h, parental stress was assessed using parental stress scale (PSS:PICU) questionnaire which was administered to the parents. Baseline demographic and clinical parameters of children admitted to PICU were recorded. The parental stress was compared with demographic and clinical characteristics of children using appropriate statistical methods. A total of 49 parents were finally eligible for participation. Mean (SD) parental stress scores was highest in domains of procedures [1.52 (0.66)] and behavior and emotional [1.32 (0.42)] subscales. Mean (SD) total parental stress score among intubated children [1.31 (0.25)] was significantly more than among non intubated children [0.97 (0.26)] (p parental stress score were comparable in terms of gender (p = 0.15) and socioeconomic status (p = 0.32). On subscale analysis, it was found that professional communication is a significant stressor in age groups 0-12 mo [0.61(0.41)] (p = 0.02). It was observed that parents of intubated children were significantly stressed by the physical appearance of their children (p parental role (p = 0.002). Total parental stress score had a positive correlation with PRISM score (r = 0.308). Indian parents are stressed maximally with environment of PICU. Factor leading to parental stress was intubation status of the child and was not affected by gender or socio demographic profile of the parents.

  9. Conference on Earth Observation and Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    The NATO Science Committee and its subsidiary Programme Panels provide support for Advanced Research Institutes (ARI) in various fields. The idea is to bring together scientists of a chosen field with the hope that they will achieve a consensus on research direc­ tions for the future, and make recommendations for the benefit of a wider scientific community. Attendance is therefore limited to those whose experience and expertise make the conclusions significant and acceptable to the wider community. Participants are selected on the basis of substantial track records in research or in the synthesis of research results to serve mankind. The proposal for a one-week ARIon Earth Observation and In­ formation Systems was initiated by the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science (SPPOSS). In approving the ARI, the senior NATO Science Committee identified the subject as one of universal impor­ tance, requiring a broad perspective on the development of opera­ tional systems based on successful experimental s...

  10. Observation of the Earth system from space

    CERN Document Server

    Flury, Jakob; Reigber, Christoph; Rothacher, Markus; Boedecker, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    In the recent years, space-based observation methods have led to a subst- tially improved understanding of Earth system. Geodesy and geophysics are contributing to this development by measuring the temporal and spatial va- ations of the Earth's shape, gravity ?eld, and magnetic ?eld, as well as at- sphere density. In the frame of the GermanR&D programmeGEOTECHNO- LOGIEN,researchprojectshavebeen launchedin2002relatedto the satellite missions CHAMP, GRACE and ESA's planned mission GOCE, to comp- mentary terrestrial and airborne sensor systems and to consistent and stable high-precision global reference systems for satellite and other techniques. In the initial 3-year phase of the research programme (2002-2004), new gravity ?eld models have been computed from CHAMP and GRACE data which outperform previous models in accuracy by up to two orders of m- nitude for the long and medium wavelengths. A special highlight is the - termination of seasonal gravity variations caused by changes in continental water masses...

  11. Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Choukèr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A substantial number of individuals are at risk for the development of motion sickness induced nausea and vomiting (N&V during road, air or sea travel. Motion sickness can be extremely stressful but the neurobiologic mechanisms leading to motion sickness are not clear. The endocannabinoid system (ECS represents an important neuromodulator of stress and N&V. Inhibitory effects of the ECS on N&V are mediated by endocannabinoid-receptor activation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the activity of the ECS in human volunteers (n = 21 during parabolic flight maneuvers (PFs. During PFs, microgravity conditions (<10(-2 g are generated for approximately 22 s which results in a profound kinetic stimulus. Blood endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG were measured from blood samples taken in-flight before start of the parabolic maneuvers, after 10, 20, and 30 parabolas, in-flight after termination of PFs and 24 h later. Volunteers who developed acute motion sickness (n = 7 showed significantly higher stress scores but lower endocannabinoid levels during PFs. After 20 parabolas, blood anandamide levels had dropped significantly in volunteers with motion sickness (from 0.39+/-0.40 to 0.22+/-0.25 ng/ml but increased in participants without the condition (from 0.43+/-0.23 to 0.60+/-0.38 ng/ml resulting in significantly higher anandamide levels in participants without motion sickness (p = 0.02. 2-AG levels in individuals with motion sickness were low and almost unchanged throughout the experiment but showed a robust increase in participants without motion sickness. Cannabinoid-receptor 1 (CB1 but not cannabinoid-receptor 2 (CB2 mRNA expression in leucocytes 4 h after the experiment was significantly lower in volunteers with motion sickness than in participants without N&V. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that stress and motion sickness in humans are associated with impaired endocannabinoid

  12. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - EOSDIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research. The Earth Science Data Systems provide end-to-end capabilities to deliver data and information products to users in support of understanding the Earth system. The presentation contains photographs from space of recent events, (i.e., the effects of the tsunami in Japan, and the wildfires in Australia.) It also includes details of the Data Centers that provide the data to EOSDIS and Science Investigator-led Processing Systems. Information about the Land, Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and some of the uses that the system has made possible are reviewed. Also included is information about how to access the data, and evolutionary plans for the future of the system.

  13. Observation of ultraslow stress release in silicon nitride films on CaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Tianyi; Deen, M. Jamal; Xu, Changqing; Fang, Qiyin; Selvaganapathy, P. Ravi; Zhang, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Silicon nitride thin films are deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on (100) and (111) CaF 2 crystalline substrates. Delaminated wavy buckles formed during the release of internal compressive stress in the films and the stress releasing processes are observed macroscopically and microscopically. The stress release patterns start from the substrate edges and propagate to the center along defined directions aligned with the crystallographic orientations of the substrate. The stress releasing velocity of SiN x film on (111) CaF 2 is larger than that of SiN x film with the same thickness on (100) CaF 2 . The velocities of SiN x film on both (100) and (111) CaF 2 increase with the film thickness. The stress releasing process is initiated when the films are exposed to atmosphere, but it is not a chemical change from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  14. Observation of ultraslow stress release in silicon nitride films on CaF{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Tianyi [School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St W, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada and Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100029 (China); Deen, M. Jamal, E-mail: jamal@mcmaster.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St W, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada and School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St W, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada); Xu, Changqing; Fang, Qiyin [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main St W, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Selvaganapathy, P. Ravi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St W, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Zhang, Haiying [Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Silicon nitride thin films are deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on (100) and (111) CaF{sub 2} crystalline substrates. Delaminated wavy buckles formed during the release of internal compressive stress in the films and the stress releasing processes are observed macroscopically and microscopically. The stress release patterns start from the substrate edges and propagate to the center along defined directions aligned with the crystallographic orientations of the substrate. The stress releasing velocity of SiN{sub x} film on (111) CaF{sub 2} is larger than that of SiN{sub x} film with the same thickness on (100) CaF{sub 2}. The velocities of SiN{sub x} film on both (100) and (111) CaF{sub 2} increase with the film thickness. The stress releasing process is initiated when the films are exposed to atmosphere, but it is not a chemical change from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  15. Residual stresses in plastic random systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alava, M.J.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Niskanen, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    We show that yielding in elastic plastic materials creates residual stresses when local disorder is present. The intensity of these stresses grows with the external stress and degree of initial disorder. The one-dimensional model we employ also yields a discontinuous transition to perfect plasticity

  16. Studying prepulse inhibition in a stressed system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, T.N.

    2013-01-01

    Onset and course of psychotic disorders are thought to be influenced by stress, although there is no consistent evidence that experience of elevated levels of stress triggers disease onset in healthy individuals. In order to better understand the relation between stress and psychosis, these complex

  17. Telemetry System Utilization for Stress Monitoring of Pilots During Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Socha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Air transport development brings an increased focus on the safety of piloting. The safety conditions can be assessed by mental workload. Psychic discomfort or excessive stress on pilots can negatively influence the course of flights. Therefore it appears convenient to monitor such parameters, which represent the mental wellbeing, or discomfort of a pilot. Since physiological measurements can provide a good information about mental workload or stress, this work primarily focuses on the observation of the change in heart rate, as it is an indicator of stress during the training of pilots, using the designed modular telemetry system. Another aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of a change in the avionic data visualization. This can have an unfavorable effect on the piloting of an airplane. This work, based on the evaluation of heart rate shows, that the switch from analog visualization to glass cockpit creates increased levels of stress in pilots, which was proved for all examined subjects except one. Significant level of correlation in the heart beat rate change in subjects in the course of training was also discovered.

  18. Heat stress monitoring system. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program involves the need to decontaminate and decommission buildings expeditiously and cost-effectively. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. Often, D and D workers must perform duties in inclement weather, and because they also frequently work in contaminated areas, they must wear personal protective clothing and/or respirators. Monitoring the health status of workers under these conditions is an important component of ensuring their safety. The MiniMitter VitalSense Telemetry System's heat stress monitoring system (HSMS) is designed to monitor the vital signs of individual workers as they perform work in conditions that might be conducive to heat exhaustion or heat stress. The HSMS provides real-time data on the physiological condition of workers which can be monitored to prevent heat stress or other adverse health situations. This system is particularly useful when workers are wearing personal protective clothing or respirators that make visual observation of their condition more difficult. The MiniMitter VitalSense Telemetry System can monitor up to four channels (e.g., heart rate, body activity, ear canal, and skin temperature) and ten workers from a single supervisory station. The monitors are interfaced with a portable computer that updates and records information on individual workers. This innovative technology, even though it costs more, is an attractive alternative to the traditional (baseline) technology, which measures environmental statistics and predicts the average worker's reaction to those environmental conditions without taking the physical condition of the individual worker into consideration. Although use of the improved technology might be justified purely on the basis of improved safety, it has the potential to pay for itself by reducing worker time lost caused by heat

  19. Earth Observing Data System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klene, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) acquires and distributes an abundance of Earth science data on a daily basis to a diverse user community worldwide. The NASA Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) is an effort to make the acquired science data more discoverable, accessible, and usable. This presentation will provide a brief introduction to the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) project and the nature of advances that have been made by BEDI to other Federal Users.

  20. Earth Observation System Flight Dynamics System Covariance Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Waqar H.; Tracewell, David

    2016-01-01

    This presentation applies a covariance realism technique to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observation System (EOS) Aqua and Aura spacecraft based on inferential statistics. The technique consists of three parts: collection calculation of definitive state estimates through orbit determination, calculation of covariance realism test statistics at each covariance propagation point, and proper assessment of those test statistics.

  1. Quality of Financial Policies and Financial System Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Udaibir S Das; Plamen Yossifov; Richard Podpiera; Dmitriy L Rozhkov

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we develop multi-country indices of financial system stress and quality of financial policies and use them in regression analysis of the determinants of financial stress. We find that countries with higher quality of financial policies are better able to contain the effects of macroeconomic pressures on the overall level of stress in the financial system. They are also in a better position to ensure sustainable development of the financial system.

  2. Depression and oxidative stress: results from a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Samuel, Laura J; Miller, Edgar R; Szanton, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis that quantitatively tests and summarizes the hypothesis that depression results in elevated oxidative stress and lower antioxidant levels. We performed a meta-analysis of studies that reported an association between depression and oxidative stress and/or antioxidant status markers. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1980 through December 2012. A random-effects model, weighted by inverse variance, was performed to pool standard deviation (Cohen's d) effect size estimates across studies for oxidative stress and antioxidant status measures, separately. Twenty-three studies with 4980 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Depression was most commonly measured using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. A Cohen's d effect size of 0.55 (95% confidence interval = 0.47-0.63) was found for the association between depression and oxidative stress, indicating a roughly 0.55 of 1-standard-deviation increase in oxidative stress among individuals with depression compared with those without depression. The results of the studies displayed significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 80.0%, p < .001). A statistically significant effect was also observed for the association between depression and antioxidant status markers (Cohen's d = -0.24, 95% confidence interval = -0.33 to -0.15). This meta-analysis observed an association between depression and oxidative stress and antioxidant status across many different studies. Differences in measures of depression and markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status markers could account for the observed heterogeneity. These findings suggest that well-established associations between depression and poor heath outcomes may be mediated by high oxidative stress.

  3. Neurobiological Interactions Between Stress and the Endocannabinoid System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morena, Maria; Patel, Sachin; Bains, Jaideep S; Hill, Matthew N

    2016-01-01

    Stress affects a constellation of physiological systems in the body and evokes a rapid shift in many neurobehavioral processes. A growing body of work indicates that the endocannabinoid (eCB) system is an integral regulator of the stress response. In the current review, we discuss the evidence to date that demonstrates stress-induced regulation of eCB signaling and the consequential role changes in eCB signaling have with respect to many of the effects of stress. Across a wide array of stress paradigms, studies have generally shown that stress evokes bidirectional changes in the two eCB molecules, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), with stress exposure reducing AEA levels and increasing 2-AG levels. Additionally, in almost every brain region examined, exposure to chronic stress reliably causes a downregulation or loss of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors. With respect to the functional role of changes in eCB signaling during stress, studies have demonstrated that the decline in AEA appears to contribute to the manifestation of the stress response, including activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and increases in anxiety behavior, while the increased 2-AG signaling contributes to termination and adaptation of the HPA axis, as well as potentially contributing to changes in pain perception, memory and synaptic plasticity. More so, translational studies have shown that eCB signaling in humans regulates many of the same domains and appears to be a critical component of stress regulation, and impairments in this system may be involved in the vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric conditions, such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Collectively, these data create a compelling argument that eCB signaling is an important regulatory system in the brain that largely functions to buffer against many of the effects of stress and that dynamic changes in this system contribute to different aspects of the stress response.

  4. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    Arm exercise stress testing may be an equivalent or better predictor of mortality outcome than pharmacological stress imaging for the ≥50% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals. In this retrospective observational cohort study, arm exercise ECG stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans aged 64.1 (11.1) years. (mean (SD)) between 1997 and 2002. From multivariate Cox models, arm exercise scores were developed for prediction of 5-year and 12-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and 5-year cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction (MI). Arm exercise capacity in resting metabolic equivalents (METs), 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR) and ST segment depression ≥1 mm were the stress test variables independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by step-wise Cox analysis (all pstatistic of 0.81 before and 0.88 after adjustment for significant demographic and clinical covariates. Arm exercise scores for the other outcome end points yielded C-statistic values of 0.77-0.79 before and 0.82-0.86 after adjustment for significant covariates versus 0.64-0.72 for best fit pharmacological myocardial perfusion imaging models in a cohort of 1730 veterans who were evaluated over the same time period. Arm exercise scores, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, have good power for prediction of mortality or MI in patients who cannot perform leg exercise.

  5. Interpretation of the Haestholmen in situ state of stress based on core damage observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.

    2000-01-01

    At the Haestholmen investigation site, direct in situ stress measurements, overcoring and hydraulic fracturing have been unsuccessful because of ring disking and horizontal hydraulic fracturing. Prior to this study, a detailed study on both core disking and ring disking was made, and based on those results an in situ state of stress interpretation method was developed. In this work this method is applied to the Haestholmen site. The interpretation is based on disk fracture type, spacing and shape. Also, the Hoek-Brown strength envelope and Poisson's ratio of intact rock are needed. The interpretation result is most reliable if both core disking and ring disking information at the same depth levels is available. A detailed core logging showed that ring disking is systematic below the -365 m level in the vertical overcoring stress measurement hole, HH-KR6. On the other hand, no representative core disking exists except for two points in two differently oriented subvertical boreholes HH-KR2 and HHKR7. Because the interpretation has to be based on ring disking only, upper and lower estimates for the vertical stress were set. These were gravitational and 67% of gravitational. Furthermore, the in situ stress state was assumed to be in horizontal and vertical planes, because the disking in vertical borehole HH-KR6 was not inclined. The interpretation resulted in a good estimate for the major horizontal stress but none of the horizontal stress rations ( 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 ) or vertical stress assumptions studied are clearly more probable the others. At the 500 m level the resulting maximum horizontal stress is 41 MPa. If a linear fit through the zero depth and zero stress point is applied, the maximum horizontal stress gradient is 0.0818 z MPa/m with a standard deviation between 5 and 12 per cent. The orientation of the major horizontal stress is 108 with standard deviation of 21 degrees. The interpreted major horizontal stress state also indicated that systematic

  6. NOAA Observing System Integrated Analysis (NOSIA): development and support to the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reining, R. C.; Cantrell, L. E., Jr.; Helms, D.; LaJoie, M.; Pratt, A. S.; Ries, V.; Taylor, J.; Yuen-Murphy, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    There is a deep relationship between NOSIA-II and the Federal Earth Observation Assessment (EOA) efforts (EOA 2012 and 2016) chartered under the National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Environment, Natural Resources, and Sustainability, co-chaired by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, NASA, NOAA, and USGS. NOSIA-1, which was conducted with a limited scope internal to NOAA in 2010, developed the methodology and toolset that was adopted for EOA 2012, and NOAA staffed the team that conducted the data collection, modeling, and analysis effort for EOA 2012. EOA 2012 was the first-ever integrated analysis of the relative impact of 379 observing systems and data sources contributing to the key objectives identified for 13 Societal Benefit Areas (SBA) including Weather, Climate, Disasters, Oceans and Coastal Resources, and Water Resources. This effort culminated in the first National Plan for Civil Earth Observations. NOAA conducted NOSIA-II starting in 2012 to extend the NOSIA methodology across all of NOAA's Mission Service Areas, covering a representative sample (over 1000) of NOAA's products and services. The detailed information from NOSIA-II is being integrated into EOA 2016 to underpin a broad array of Key Products, Services, and (science) Objectives (KPSO) identified by the inter-agency SBA teams. EOA 2016 is expected to provide substantially greater insight into the cross-agency impacts of observing systems contributing to a wide array of KPSOs, and by extension, to societal benefits flowing from these public-facing products. NOSIA-II is being adopted by NOAA as a corporate decision-analysis and support capability to inform leadership decisions on its integrated observing systems portfolio. Application examples include assessing the agency-wide impacts of planned decommissioning of ships and aircraft in NOAA's fleet, and the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative space-based architectures in the post-GOES-R and JPSS era

  7. Estimating a Global Hydrological Carrying Capacity Using GRACE Observed Water Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, K.; Reager, J. T.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Global population is expected to reach 9 billion people by the year 2050, causing increased demands for water and potential threats to human security. This study attempts to frame the overpopulation problem through a hydrological resources lens by hypothesizing that observed groundwater trends should be directly attributed to human water consumption. This study analyzes the relationships between available blue water, population, and cropland area on a global scale. Using satellite data from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) along with land surface model data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), a global groundwater depletion trend is isolated, the validity of which has been verified in many regional studies. By using the inherent distributions of these relationships, we estimate the regional populations that have exceeded their local hydrological carrying capacity. Globally, these populations sum to ~3.5 billion people that are living in presently water-stressed or potentially water-scarce regions, and we estimate total cropland is exceeding a sustainable threshold by about 80 million km^2. Key study areas such as the North China Plain, northwest India, and Mexico City were qualitatively chosen for further analysis of regional water resources and policies, based on our distributions of water stress. These case studies are used to verify the groundwater level changes seen in the GRACE trend . Tfor the many populous, arid regions of the world that have already begun to experience the strains of high water demand.he many populous, arid regions of the world have already begun to experience the strains of high water demand. It will take a global cooperative effort of improving domestic and agricultural use efficiency, and summoning a political will to prioritize environmental issues to adapt to a thirstier planet. Global Groundwater Depletion Trend (Mar 2003-Dec 2011)

  8. Computation of thermodynamic equilibrium in systems under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijmoed, Johannes C.; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.

    2016-04-01

    Metamorphic reactions may be partly controlled by the local stress distribution as suggested by observations of phase assemblages around garnet inclusions related to an amphibolite shear zone in granulite of the Bergen Arcs in Norway. A particular example presented in fig. 14 of Mukai et al. [1] is discussed here. A garnet crystal embedded in a plagioclase matrix is replaced on the left side by a high pressure intergrowth of kyanite and quartz and on the right side by chlorite-amphibole. This texture apparently represents disequilibrium. In this case, the minerals adapt to the low pressure ambient conditions only where fluids were present. Alternatively, here we compute that this particular low pressure and high pressure assemblage around a stressed rigid inclusion such as garnet can coexist in equilibrium. To do the computations we developed the Thermolab software package. The core of the software package consists of Matlab functions that generate Gibbs energy of minerals and melts from the Holland and Powell database [2] and aqueous species from the SUPCRT92 database [3]. Most up to date solid solutions are included in a general formulation. The user provides a Matlab script to do the desired calculations using the core functions. Gibbs energy of all minerals, solutions and species are benchmarked versus THERMOCALC, PerpleX [4] and SUPCRT92 and are reproduced within round off computer error. Multi-component phase diagrams have been calculated using Gibbs minimization to benchmark with THERMOCALC and Perple_X. The Matlab script to compute equilibrium in a stressed system needs only two modifications of the standard phase diagram script. Firstly, Gibbs energy of phases considered in the calculation is generated for multiple values of thermodynamic pressure. Secondly, for the Gibbs minimization the proportion of the system at each particular thermodynamic pressure needs to be constrained. The user decides which part of the stress tensor is input as thermodynamic

  9. AFSC/FMA/Observer Logistics System (OLS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Alaska groundfish fisheries observers have been monitoring domestic groundfish fishing activities in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off Alaska for over...

  10. Power system observability with minimum phasor measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Due to the high cost of having a PMU at each node, some of the studies performed in ..... through the process of expanding, which makes the observational topologies, ...... FACTS controllers”, International Journal of Engineering, Science and ...

  11. In-situ observations of stress-induced thin film failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z.B., E-mail: zzhao@firstsolar.co [Delphi Research Labs, 51786 Shelby Parkway, Shelby Twp., MI 48315 (United States); Hershberger, J. [Laird Technologies, 4707 Detroit Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio, 44102 (United States); Bilello, J.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136 (United States)

    2010-02-01

    In this work, the failure modes of thin films under thermo-mechanical treatments were observed via in-situ white beam X-ray topography. The in-situ experiments were carried out using an experimental setup on Beamline 2-2 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Magnetron sputtered polycrystalline thin films of Ta and CrN on Si substrates were selected for the present study due to their disparate states of intrinsic residual stresses: the Ta film was anisotropically compressive and the CrN film was isotropically tensile. Under a similar heating-cooling cycle in air, the two types of films exhibited distinct failure modes, which were observed in-situ and in a quasi-real-time fashion. The failures of the samples have been interpreted based on their distinctive growth stress states, superimposed on the additional stress development associated with different forms of thermal instabilities upon heating. These included the formation of oxide for the Ta/Si sample, which led to an increase in compressive stress, and a phase change for the CrN/Si sample, which caused the isotropic stress in the film to become increasingly tensile.

  12. In-situ observations of stress-induced thin film failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z.B.; Hershberger, J.; Bilello, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the failure modes of thin films under thermo-mechanical treatments were observed via in-situ white beam X-ray topography. The in-situ experiments were carried out using an experimental setup on Beamline 2-2 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Magnetron sputtered polycrystalline thin films of Ta and CrN on Si substrates were selected for the present study due to their disparate states of intrinsic residual stresses: the Ta film was anisotropically compressive and the CrN film was isotropically tensile. Under a similar heating-cooling cycle in air, the two types of films exhibited distinct failure modes, which were observed in-situ and in a quasi-real-time fashion. The failures of the samples have been interpreted based on their distinctive growth stress states, superimposed on the additional stress development associated with different forms of thermal instabilities upon heating. These included the formation of oxide for the Ta/Si sample, which led to an increase in compressive stress, and a phase change for the CrN/Si sample, which caused the isotropic stress in the film to become increasingly tensile.

  13. Hot weather stresses system : more supply needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    Signs of stress in Ontario's electric system were revealed this summer, mainly as a result of the hot and humid weather experienced in the Toronto region in particular. A question was raised by the Executive Director of the Independent Power Producers' Society of Ontario (IPPSO) as to whether there are enough incentives for new supply or any unnecessary barriers, in light of the tight reserve margins and little new construction. No major failures or breakdowns were experienced, which proved to be a real test of the newly created market system. However, significant spikes in hourly prices and uplift charges were felt in July. At times, power had to be purchased from outside the province, and the prices paid for this power were much higher than the prices paid to in-province producers. There was proof that consumers were not adjusting their consumption in response to fluctuations in the prices, as had been expected by the system's designers. Pre-dispatch and real-time prices were disconnected, and large consumers did not benefit from reliable day-ahead price projections. Another major issue raised was that of finding new power supplies. The situation is not yet desperate as Ontario can trade electricity with other regions, but it is felt that the situation should be examined sooner rather than later. Import pricing is an issue that needs to be addressed now. The IPPSO is concerned that no new generating capacity plans are in the works at this time. The barriers to new investment in Ontario's generation must be identified, and a meeting between market participants and government should be scheduled for that purpose. A review of the presentation of price-related information is being conducted to allow consumers to adjust their consumption, cutting back when prices soar and saving money by the same token. It is felt that a more comfortable surplus of supply would either reduce or eliminate these problems. Some of the reasons believed to affect the level of investment in

  14. Hot weather stresses system : more supply needed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2002-08-01

    Signs of stress in Ontario's electric system were revealed this summer, mainly as a result of the hot and humid weather experienced in the Toronto region in particular. A question was raised by the Executive Director of the Independent Power Producers' Society of Ontario (IPPSO) as to whether there are enough incentives for new supply or any unnecessary barriers, in light of the tight reserve margins and little new construction. No major failures or breakdowns were experienced, which proved to be a real test of the newly created market system. However, significant spikes in hourly prices and uplift charges were felt in July. At times, power had to be purchased from outside the province, and the prices paid for this power were much higher than the prices paid to in-province producers. There was proof that consumers were not adjusting their consumption in response to fluctuations in the prices, as had been expected by the system's designers. Pre-dispatch and real-time prices were disconnected, and large consumers did not benefit from reliable day-ahead price projections. Another major issue raised was that of finding new power supplies. The situation is not yet desperate as Ontario can trade electricity with other regions, but it is felt that the situation should be examined sooner rather than later. Import pricing is an issue that needs to be addressed now. The IPPSO is concerned that no new generating capacity plans are in the works at this time. The barriers to new investment in Ontario's generation must be identified, and a meeting between market participants and government should be scheduled for that purpose. A review of the presentation of price-related information is being conducted to allow consumers to adjust their consumption, cutting back when prices soar and saving money by the same token. It is felt that a more comfortable surplus of supply would either reduce or eliminate these problems. Some of the reasons believed to affect the

  15. Northeast storms ranked by wind stress and wave-generated bottom stress observed in Massachusetts Bay, 1990-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, B.; Sherwood, C.R.; Dalyander, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Along the coast of the northeastern United States, strong winds blowing from the northeast are often associated with storms called northeasters, coastal storms that strongly influence weather. In addition to effects caused by wind stress, the sea floor is affected by bottom stress associated with these storms. Bottom stress caused by orbital velocities associated with surface waves integrated over the duration of a storm is a metric of storm strength at the sea floor. Near-bottom wave-orbital velocities calculated by using measurements of significant wave height and dominant wave period and the parametric spectral method described in Wiberg and Sherwood [Wiberg, P.L., Sherwood, C.R. Calculating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from surface wave parameters. Computers in Geosciences, in press] compared well with observations in Massachusetts Bay. Integrated bottom-wave stress (called IWAVES), calculated at 30 m water depth, and a companion storm-strength metric, integrated surface wind stress at 10 m (called IWINDS), are used to provide an overview of the strength, frequency, and timing of large storms in Massachusetts Bay over a 17-year period from January 1990 through December 2006. These new metrics reflect both storm duration and intensity. Northeast storms were the major cause of large waves in Massachusetts Bay because of the long fetch to the east: of the strongest 10% of storms (n=38) ranked by IWAVES, 22 had vector-averaged wind stress from the northeast quadrant. The Blizzard of December 1992, the Perfect Storm of October 1991, and a December 2003 storm were the strongest three storms ranked by IWAVES and IWINDS, and all were northeasters. IWAVES integrated over the winter season (defined as October-May) ranged by about a factor of 11; the winters with the highest integrated IWAVES were 1992-1993 and 2004-2005 and the winter with the lowest integrated IWAVES was 2001-2002. May 2005 was the only month in the 17-year record that two of the nine

  16. Individualized Stress Detection System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Given the extended duration of future missions and the isolated, extreme, and confined environments, there is the possibility that stress-related behavioral...

  17. Individualized Stress Detection System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Given the extended duration of future missions and the isolated, extreme and confined environments, there is the possibility that stress-related behavioral...

  18. Terra - the Earth Observing System flagship observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Terra platform enters its teenage years with an array of accomplishments but also with the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to build upon its array of accomplishments and make its data more valuable by creating a record length that allows examination of inter annual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to the define climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, 'How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?' Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National Objectives for agriculture, air quality, climate, disaster management, ecological forecasting, public health, water

  19. Stress and multiple memory systems: from 'thinking' to 'doing'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Wolf, Oliver T

    2013-02-01

    Although it has been known for decades that stress influences memory performance, it was only recently shown that stress may alter the contribution of multiple, anatomically and functionally distinct memory systems to behavior. Here, we review recent animal and human studies demonstrating that stress promotes a shift from flexible 'cognitive' to rather rigid 'habit' memory systems and discuss, based on recent neuroimaging data in humans, the underlying brain mechanisms. We argue that, despite being generally adaptive, this stress-induced shift towards 'habit' memory may, in vulnerable individuals, be a risk factor for psychopathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiative processes for Rindler and accelerating observers and the stress-tensor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paola, R. De; Svaiter, N.F.

    1996-04-01

    It is considered a monopole detector interacting with a massive scalar field. Using the rotating wave approximation the radiative processes is discussed from the accelerated frame point of view. After this, it is obtained the Minkowski vacuum stress tensor measured by the accelerated observer using a non-gravitational stress sensor detector. Finally we analyse radiative processes of the monopole detector travelling in a world line that is inertial in the infinite past and has a constant proper acceleration in the infinite future. (author). 30 refs

  1. Are Bank Employees Stressed? Job Perception and Positivity in the Banking Sector: An Italian Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannocci, Alice; Marchini, Laura; Scognamiglio, Alfredo; Sinopoli, Alessandra; De Sio, Simone; Sernia, Sabina; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2018-04-10

    Background : The epidemiology of stress on bank workers in Europe is only at the introductory stages. This study investigated for the first time the association between occupational stress level in bank-employees using the BEST8, Karasek-Model and socio-demographic and working factors in Italy. Methods : The observational pilot study involved 384 employees. Three questionnaires were adopted to collect data: Karasek-Model, BEST8 ( p banking sector involves many aspects: gender, type of bank, role, personal morals, high job-demands, low level of decision-making. This study recommended that banks should implement strategic interventions for well-being of employees, and consequently for their productivity.

  2. The Global Emergency Observation and Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukley, Angelia P.; Mulqueen, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Based on an extensive characterization of natural hazards, and an evaluation of their impacts on humanity, a set of functional technical requirements for a global warning and relief system was developed. Since no technological breakthroughs are required to implement a global system capable of performing the functions required to provide sufficient information for prevention, preparedness, warning, and relief from natural disaster effects, a system is proposed which would combine the elements of remote sensing, data processing, information distribution, and communications support on a global scale for disaster mitigation.

  3. Pacific Islands Region Observer Program System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This system integrates the longline debriefing steps and procedures for Hawaii and American Samoa into one tool to standardize and streamline the debriefing process....

  4. Stress analysis of three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement with field observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zimo; Chanda, Emmanuel; Zhao, Jingli; Wang, Zhihe

    2018-01-01

    Longwall top-coal caving (LTCC) has been a popular, more productive and cost-effective method for extracting thick (> 5 m) to ultra-thick coal seams in recent years. However, low-level recovery ratio of coal resources and top-coal loss above the supports at both ends of working face are long-term problems. Geological factors, such as large dip angle, soft rock, mining depth further complicate the problems. This paper proposes addressing this issue by adopting three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement (3-D RLSA). In this study, the first step was to analyse the stress environment surrounding head entry in the replacing working face based on the stress distribution characteristics at the triangular coal-pillar side in gob and the stress slip line field theory. In the second step, filed observation was conducted. Finally, an economic evaluation of the 3-D RLSA for extracting thick to ultra-thick seams was conducted.

  5. Plant Core Environmental Stress Response Genes Are Systemically Coordinated during Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Berendzen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying plant stress responses is an important issue in a world threatened by global warming. Unfortunately, comparative analyses are hampered by varying experimental setups. In contrast, the AtGenExpress abiotic stress experiment displays intercomparability. Importantly, six of the nine stresses (wounding, genotoxic, oxidative, UV-B light, osmotic and salt can be examined for their capacity to generate systemic signals between the shoot and root, which might be essential to regain homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We classified the systemic responses into two groups: genes that are regulated in the non-treated tissue only are defined as type I responsive and, accordingly, genes that react in both tissues are termed type II responsive. Analysis of type I and II systemic responses suggest distinct functionalities, but also significant overlap between different stresses. Comparison with salicylic acid (SA and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA responsive genes implies that MeJA is involved in the systemic stress response. Certain genes are predominantly responding in only one of the categories, e.g., WRKY genes respond mainly non-systemically. Instead, genes of the plant core environmental stress response (PCESR, e.g., ZAT10, ZAT12, ERD9 or MES9, are part of different response types. Moreover, several PCESR genes switch between the categories in a stress-specific manner.

  6. Impact of Heartfulness Meditation on Reducing Stress in Nursing Students: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Amarnath G

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study and assess the effectiveness of Heartfulness Meditation in reducing stress levels of nursing students in a learning environment. Methodology: A cross-sectional research designed using a standard Perceived Stress Questionnaire pertaining to the subjective perception of things in the learning and clinical environment leading to emotional stress such as workload, worries, tension, and harassment as well as joyful conditions. Overall 120 students from I, II and IV years of a private nursing college in Chennai, in the state of Tamil Nadu, India participate in 3 hours (1 hour each day on 3 consecutive days Heartfulness meditation workshop. Results: The predominant themes represented are perceptions of the learning environment and clinical practice, coping, personal issues, balancing college work, and personal life. Mean Baseline stress scores of workload is higher for first and second-year students compared with final year students; Worries and Harassment score is higher in second-year students; Joy score is higher for first-year students; Tension score is higher in final year students. After Heartfulness meditation workshop, the mean decrease in workload, worries, tension and harassment score and mean increase in Joy score is observed in the participants. Conclusion: The investigation on the effectiveness of Heartfulness Meditation as a mental and emotional support tool to deal with and to mitigate stress reveals positive results. Based on these results, it is evident that Heartfulness meditation can be employed as a coping mechanism to deal with stress in a clinical and learning environment. Given the adverse effects of stress on the physiological and psychological well-being of caregivers; Heartfulness Meditation may be considered for inclusion in the standard curriculum of nursing colleges.

  7. Adaptive Sliding Mode Observer for a Class of Systems

    OpenAIRE

    D.Elleuch; T.Damak

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of two adaptive observers applied to interconnected systems is studied. The nonlinearity of systems can be written in a fractional form. The first adaptive observer is an adaptive sliding mode observer for a Lipchitz nonlinear system and the second one is an adaptive sliding mode observer having a filtered error as a sliding surface. After comparing their performances throughout the inverted pendulum mounted on a car system, it was shown tha...

  8. Stress generation and hierarchical fracturing in reactive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamtveit, B.; Iyer, K.; Royne, A.; Malthe-Sorenssen, A.; Mathiesen, J.; Feder, J.

    2007-12-01

    Hierarchical fracture patterns are the result of a slowly driven fracturing process that successively divides the rocks into smaller domains. In quasi-2D systems, such fracture patterns are characterized by four sided domains, and T-junctions where new fractures stop at right angles to pre-existing fractures. We describe fracturing of mm to dm thick enstatite layers in a dunite matrix from the Leka ophiolite complex in Norway. The fracturing process is driven by expansion of the dunite matrix during serpentinization. The cumulative distributions of fracture lengths show a scaling behavior that lies between a log - normal and power law (fractal) distribution. This is consistent with a simple fragmentation model in which domains are divided according to a 'top hat' distribution of new fracture positions within unfractured domains. Reaction-assisted hierarchical fracturing is also likely to be responsible for other (3-D) structures commonly observed in serpentinized ultramafic rocks, including the mesh-textures observed in individual olivine grains, and the high abundance of rectangular domains at a wide range of scales. Spectacular examples of 3-D hierarchical fracture patterns also form during the weathering of basaltic intrusions (dolerites). Incipient chemical weathering of dolerites in the Karoo Basin in South Africa occurs around water- filled fractures, originally produced by thermal contraction or by externally imposed stresses. This chemical weathering causes local expansion of the rock matrix and generates elastic stresses. On a mm to cm scale, these stresses lead to mechanical layer-by-layer spalling, producing the characteristic spheroidal weathering patterns. However, our field observations and computer simulations demonstrate that in confined environments, the spalling process alone is unable to relieve the elastic stresses. In such cases, chemical weathering drives a much larger scale hierarchical fracturing process in which fresh dolerite undergoes a

  9. TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF THE WASP-10 SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, J. A.; Close, L. M.; Scuderi, L. J.; Morris, M. D.

    2010-01-01

    We present here observations of the transit of WASP-10b on 2009 October 14 UT taken from the University of Arizona's 1.55 m Kuiper telescope on Mount Bigelow. Conditions were photometric and accuracies of 2.0 mmag rms were obtained throughout the transit. We have found that the ratio of the planet to host star radii is in agreement with the measurements of Christian et al. instead of the refinements of Johnson et al., suggesting that WASP-10b is indeed inflated beyond what is expected from theoretical modeling. We find no evidence for large (>20 s) transit timing variations in WASP-10b's orbit from the ephemeris of Christian et al. and Johnson et al.

  10. Stress-oriented driver assistance system for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Georgia; Tsotoulidis, Savvas; Mitronikas, Epaminondas; Lymberopoulos, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Stress is physiological and physical reaction that appears in highly demanding situations and affects human's perception and reaction capability. Occurrence of stress events within highly dynamic road environment could lead to life-threatening situation. With the perspective of safety and comfort driving provision to anxious drivers, in this paper a stress-oriented Driver Assistance System (DAS) is proposed. The DAS deployed on Electric Vehicle. This novel DAS customizes driving command signal in respect to road context, when stress is detected. The effectiveness of this novel DAS is verified by simulation in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

  11. Study of Tectonic Tremor in Depth: Triggering Stress Observation and Model of the Triggering Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tien-Huei

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been discovered in recent years due to advances in seismic instruments and increased density of seismic networks. The NVT is a special kind of seismic signal indicative of the physical conditions and the failure mechanism on the source on the fault where NVT occurs. The detection methods used and the sensitivity of them relies on the density, distance and instrumentation of the station network available. How accurately the tremor is identified in different regions varies greatly among different studies. Therefore, there has not been study that rigorously documents tectonic tremors in different regions under limited methods and data. Meanwhile, many incidences of NVTs are observed during or after small but significant strain change induced by teleseismic, regional or local earthquake. The understanding of the triggering mechanisms critical for tremor remains unclear. In addition, characteristics of the triggering of NVT in different regions are rarely compared because of the short time frame after the discovery of the triggered NVTs. We first explore tectonic tremor based on observations to learn about its triggering, frequency of occurrence, location and spectral characteristics. Then, we numerically model the triggering of instability on the estimated tremor-source, under assumptions fine-tuned according to previous studies (Thomas et al., 2009; Miyazawa et al., 2005; Hill, 2008; Ito, 2009; Rubinstein et al., 2007; Peng and Chao, 2008). The onset of the slip reveals that how and when the external loading triggers tremor. It also holds the information to the background stress conditions under which tremor source starts with. We observe and detect tremor in two regions: Anza and Cholame, along San Jacinto Fault (SJF) and San Andreas Fault (SAF) respectively. These two sections of the faults, relative to general fault zone on which general earthquakes occur, are considered transition zones where slip of slow rates occurs. Slip events

  12. Restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis in vivo--role of the sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stämpfli, Simon F; Camici, Giovanni G; Keller, Stephan; Rozenberg, Izabela; Arras, Margarete; Schuler, Beat; Gassmann, Max; Garcia, Irene; Lüscher, Thomas F; Tanner, Felix C

    2014-01-01

    Stress is known to correlate with the incidence of acute myocardial infarction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this correlation are not known. This study was designed to assess the effect of experimental stress on arterial thrombus formation, the key event in acute myocardial infarction. Mice exposed to 20 h of restraint stress displayed an increased arterial prothrombotic potential as assessed by photochemical injury-induced time to thrombotic occlusion. This increase was prevented by chemical sympathectomy performed through 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Blood-born tissue factor (TF) activity was enhanced by stress and this increase could be prevented by 6-OHDA treatment. Vessel wall TF, platelet count, platelet aggregation, coagulation times (PT, aPTT), fibrinolytic system (t-PA and PAI-1) and tail bleeding time remained unaltered. Telemetric analysis revealed only minor hemodynamic changes throughout the stress protocol. Plasma catecholamines remained unaffected after restraint stress. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plasma levels were unchanged and inhibition of TNF-α had no effect on stress-enhanced thrombosis. These results indicate that restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis via the sympathetic nervous system. Blood-borne TF contributes, at least in part, to the observed effect whereas vessel wall TF, platelets, circulating coagulation factors, fibrinolysis and inflammation do not appear to play a role. These findings shed new light on the understanding of stress-induced cardiovascular events.

  13. Changes in permeability caused by transient stresses: field observations, experiments, and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Michael; Beresnev, Igor; Brodsky, Emily E.; Elkhoury, Jean E.; Elsworth, Derek; Ingebritsen, Steve E.; Mays, David C.; Wang, Chi-Yuen

    2012-01-01

    Oscillations in stress, such as those created by earthquakes, can increase permeability and fluid mobility in geologic media. In natural systems, strain amplitudes as small as 10–6 can increase discharge in streams and springs, change the water level in wells, and enhance production from petroleum reservoirs. Enhanced permeability typically recovers to prestimulated values over a period of months to years. Mechanisms that can change permeability at such small stresses include unblocking pores, either by breaking up permeability-limiting colloidal deposits or by mobilizing droplets and bubbles trapped in pores by capillary forces. The recovery time over which permeability returns to the prestimulated value is governed by the time to reblock pores, or for geochemical processes to seal pores. Monitoring permeability in geothermal systems where there is abundant seismicity, and the response of flow to local and regional earthquakes, would help test some of the proposed mechanisms and identify controls on permeability and its evolution.

  14. Forest productivity and water stress in Amazonia: observations from GOSAT chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Eun; Frankenberg, Christian; van der Tol, Christiaan; Berry, Joseph A; Guanter, Luis; Boyce, C Kevin; Fisher, Joshua B; Morrow, Eric; Worden, John R; Asefi, Salvi; Badgley, Grayson; Saatchi, Sassan

    2013-06-22

    It is unclear to what extent seasonal water stress impacts on plant productivity over Amazonia. Using new Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) satellite measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, we show that midday fluorescence varies with water availability, both of which decrease in the dry season over Amazonian regions with substantial dry season length, suggesting a parallel decrease in gross primary production (GPP). Using additional SeaWinds Scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT satellite measurements of canopy water content, we found a concomitant decrease in daily storage of canopy water content within branches and leaves during the dry season, supporting our conclusion. A large part (r(2) = 0.75) of the variance in observed monthly midday fluorescence from GOSAT is explained by water stress over moderately stressed evergreen forests over Amazonia, which is reproduced by model simulations that include a full physiological representation of photosynthesis and fluorescence. The strong relationship between GOSAT and model fluorescence (r(2) = 0.79) was obtained using a fixed leaf area index, indicating that GPP changes are more related to environmental conditions than chlorophyll contents. When the dry season extended to drought in 2010 over Amazonia, midday basin-wide GPP was reduced by 15 per cent compared with 2009.

  15. Stressful life events and social health factors in women using anxiolytics and antidepressants: an Italian observational study in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Incau, Paola; Barbui, Corrado; Tubini, Jacopo; Conforti, Anita

    2011-04-01

    In Italy, as in all of Europe, women differ from men in that they are somewhat more sensitive to the depressogenic effects of stressful life events related to their social networks and emotional sphere. Women are more likely than men to have experienced poverty, gender discrimination, and physical and sexual abuse. The purpose of this study was to expand the knowledge about the occurrence of stressful life events in women exposed and not exposed to anxiolytics and antidepressants in a community pharmacy setting. Women attending 100 community pharmacies in the Italian Veneto region were surveyed by pharmacists with regard to a number of general features of their current pharmacologic treatment. Women independently completed a written self-assessment questionnaire that focused on stressful life events. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between anxiolytics and antidepressants use and potential factors, including stressful life events. The study population comprised 11,357 women. One or more stressful life events occurred in 90% of the women treated with anxiolytics and/or antidepressants (users [n = 3848]) and in 74% of the women not treated with these drugs (nonusers [n = 7509]) (odds ratio = 3.19; 95% CI, 2.83-3.60). On average, the life events occurred during the previous 6 months and the women considered the influence of these events on their well-being to be severe. After the unconditional logistic regression analysis, the association between anxiolytics and/or antidepressants use remained positive for most of the stressful life events studied as well as for other factors: separation/divorce, living alone or with others (family or friends), unemployment, whether currently being seen by a psychologist/psychiatrist, and treatment with drugs for the alimentary tract and metabolism, cardiovascular system, or nervous system. A significant association between stressful life events and anxiolytics and

  16. Are Bank Employees Stressed? Job Perception and Positivity in the Banking Sector: An Italian Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The epidemiology of stress on bank workers in Europe is only at the introductory stages. This study investigated for the first time the association between occupational stress level in bank-employees using the BEST8, Karasek-Model and socio-demographic and working factors in Italy. Methods: The observational pilot study involved 384 employees. Three questionnaires were adopted to collect data: Karasek-Model, BEST8 (p < 0.001 and Positivity-Scale. Results: 25% of the sample belonged to high stress group. The workers more stressed were older with a commercial role and consumer of antidepressants/sedatives. Women were much more likely to agree with the perception of feeling unsafe in a possible robbery (OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.50–3.91 and with that sales requests were in conflict with one’s own personal moral code (OR = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.38–3.87. Older employees declared feeling inadequate in the workplace (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.07–3.65 and younger employees referred to be anxious about meeting financial budget goals. Workers who had a low positivity had a lower probability of adaptation (OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83–0.93. Conclusions: The occupational stress level in the banking sector involves many aspects: gender, type of bank, role, personal morals, high job-demands, low level of decision-making. This study recommended that banks should implement strategic interventions for well-being of employees, and consequently for their productivity.

  17. Observations on the influence of tube manufacturing technique on iodine stress corrosion cracking of unirradiated Zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrett, B.C.; Cubicciotti, D.; Jones, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Closed-end tube pressurization tests at 593 K were used to compare the susceptibilities to iodine stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of two lots of Zircaloy-2 tubing manufactured by different suppliers. Although both tubings were produced to exactly the same specifications in terms of dimensions, chemical composition, burst strength, and certain other properties, as-received specimens from the two lots exhibited markedly different behavior in iodine SCC tests. The tubing from one supplier had a lower SCC threshold stress and failed about 30 times more quickly than the tubing from the other supplier. However, it was found that this difference in SCC susceptibility was eliminated if the internal surfaces of the specimens were polished to a 3 μm finish prior to testing. These observations are discussed in terms of possible effects of surface or near-surface chacteristics of the tubing on SCC susceptibility

  18. Oxidative stress and Ramadan observance; a possible influence of associated dieting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJ Shephard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of Ramadan observance and any associated dietary restriction upon oxidative stress are not well known. The topic has thus been examined in a brief systematic review of available literature concerning non-athletic but otherwise healthy subjects, patients with selected clinical conditions, and in athletes. Methods: Ovid/Medline and Google searches were supplemented by a perusal of reference lists in papers thus identified. Results: Ramadan observance and associated dietary restrictions are generally associated with a decrease of body mass in non-athletic adults, and in patients with conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. During Ramadan, measures of oxidative stress (particularly malondialdehyde and F2 isoprostanes are consistently decreased, antioxidant status (particularly levels of peroxidases, uric acid and reduced glutathione are enhanced and inflammatory reactions (particularly c-reactive protein, IL-6 and TNF-a are decreased in association with decreases in body mass. Perhaps because of lower initial body weights and greater dietary control during Ramadan, changes of oxidant status are more variable in athletes; in 3 of 7 studies, Ramadan observance had little effect on oxidant status, and in 2 reports there was some deterioration. In 3 of 4 studies where athletes underwent short-term dieting, there was also no improvement of antioxidant status. Conclusion: Ramadan observance and any associated dieting reduce oxidative stress in non-athletic individuals, apparently in association with decreases of body mass. In athletes, oxidant levels are generally unchanged during Ramadan, and if food intake is maintained they may even increase. More information is needed upon possible adverse health consequences, but chronic risks are probably small because any changes are limited to one month per year.

  19. Restricted and disrupted sleep : Effects on autonomic function, neuroendocrine stress systems and stress responsivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Sgoifo, Andrea; Suchecki, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Frequently disrupted and restricted sleep is a common problem for many people in our modern around-the-clock society. In this context, it is an important question how sleep loss affects the stress systems in our bodies since these systems enable us to deal with everyday challenges. Altered activity

  20. A multimodal stress monitoring system with canonical correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsoo Ha; Changhyeon Kim; Yongsu Lee; Hyunki Kim; Taehwan Roh; Hoi-Jun Yoo

    2015-08-01

    The multimodal stress monitoring headband is proposed for mobile stress management system. It is composed of headband and earplugs. Electroencephalography (EEG), hemoencephalography (HEG) and heart-rate variability (HRV) can be achieved simultaneously in the proposed system for user status estimation. With canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and temporal-kernel CCA (tkCCA) algorithm, those different signals can be combined for maximum correlation. Thanks to the proposed combination algorithm, the accuracy of the proposed system increased up to 19 percentage points than unimodal monitoring system in n-back task.

  1. Individual differences in the peripheral immune system promote resilience versus susceptibility to social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, Georgia E; Pfau, Madeline L; Leboeuf, Marylene; Golden, Sam A; Christoffel, Daniel J; Bregman, Dana; Rebusi, Nicole; Heshmati, Mitra; Aleyasin, Hossein; Warren, Brandon L; Lebonté, Benoit; Horn, Sarah; Lapidus, Kyle A; Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Wong, Erik H F; Bahn, Sabine; Krishnan, Vaishnav; Bolaños-Guzman, Carlos A; Murrough, James W; Merad, Miriam; Russo, Scott J

    2014-11-11

    Depression and anxiety disorders are associated with increased release of peripheral cytokines; however, their functional relevance remains unknown. Using a social stress model in mice, we find preexisting individual differences in the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system that predict and promote vulnerability to social stress. Cytokine profiles were obtained 20 min after the first social stress exposure. Of the cytokines regulated by stress, IL-6 was most highly up-regulated only in mice that ultimately developed a susceptible behavioral phenotype following a subsequent chronic stress, and levels remained elevated for at least 1 mo. We confirmed a similar elevation of serum IL-6 in two separate cohorts of patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Before any physical contact in mice, we observed individual differences in IL-6 levels from ex vivo stimulated leukocytes that predict susceptibility versus resilience to a subsequent stressor. To shift the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system to a pro- or antidepressant state, bone marrow (BM) chimeras were generated by transplanting hematopoietic progenitor cells from stress-susceptible mice releasing high IL-6 or from IL-6 knockout (IL-6(-/-)) mice. Stress-susceptible BM chimeras exhibited increased social avoidance behavior after exposure to either subthreshold repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) or a purely emotional stressor termed witness defeat. IL-6(-/-) BM chimeric and IL-6(-/-) mice, as well as those treated with a systemic IL-6 monoclonal antibody, were resilient to social stress. These data establish that preexisting differences in stress-responsive IL-6 release from BM-derived leukocytes functionally contribute to social stress-induced behavioral abnormalities.

  2. IPS observation system for the Miyun 50 m radio telescope and its commissioning observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xinying; Zhang Xizhen; Zhang Hongbo; Kong Deqing; Qu Huipeng

    2012-01-01

    Ground-based observation of Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) is an important approach for monitoring solar wind. A ground-based IPS observation system has been newly implemented on a 50 m radio telescope at Miyun station, managed by the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This observation system has been constructed for the purpose of observing solar wind speed and the associated scintillation index by using the normalized cross-spectrum of a simultaneous dual-frequency IPS measurement. The system consists of a universal dual-frequency front-end and a dual-channel multi-function back-end specially designed for IPS. After careful calibration and testing, IPS observations on source 3C 273B and 3C 279 have been successfully carried out. The preliminary observation results show that this newly-developed observation system is capable of performing IPS observation. The system's sensitivity for IPS observation can reach over 0.3 Jy in terms of an IPS polarization correlator with 4 MHz bandwidth and 2 s integration time. (research papers)

  3. Formation and Use of Stress Management Systems in Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honchar Mykhailo F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article there developed a typology of factors of forming and using stress management systems in enterprises that implies their division into factors of direct and indirect impact. The first group includes the factor of the management system as a whole, competence of the staff, information support, goals and tasks of stress management, temporary orientation of systems of stress management and its object. In turn, the factors of indirect impact include the level and scale of the enterprise’s activities, stability of the functioning environment, organizational culture, psychological management features, organizational communications, stakeholder interests, social responsibility, and corporate image. Knowledge and understanding of such factors contributes to a more thorough diagnosis of processes within these systems, as well as selection of an adequate model of managerial behavior. In addition, the results provide an opportunity to optimize the parameters of stress management systems based on identification of the level of influence of each of these factors. It is concluded that most of the factors in forming and using stress management systems in enterprises are those that are purposefully exposed to influence on the part of the organization, for example, by making decisions, attracting additional resources, increasing the competence of the staff, reviewing the terms of contracts with partners, changing methods of performing work, etc. This is due to the fact that most of the factors considered are factors of the internal environment.

  4. Role of sulfiredoxin in systemic diseases influenced by oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfiredoxin is a recently discovered member of the oxidoreductases family which plays a crucial role in thiol homoeostasis when under oxidative stress. A myriad of systemic disorders have oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species as the key components in their etiopathogenesis. Recent studies have evaluated the role of this enzyme in oxidative stress mediated diseases such as atherosclerosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a wide array of carcinomas. Its action is responsible for the normal functioning of cells under oxidative stress and the promotion of cell survival in cancerous cells. This review will highlight the cumulative effects of sulfiredoxin in various systemic disorders with a strong emphasis on its target activity and the factors influencing its expression in such conditions.

  5. The Earth Observing System (EOS) nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles W.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Earth Observing System (EOS) nickel hydrogen battery. Information is given on the life evaluation test, cell characteristics, acceptance and characterization tests, and the battery system description.

  6. An exponential observer for the generalized Rossler chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the generalized Rossler chaotic system is considered and the state observation problem of such a system is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach, a state observer for the generalized Rossler chaotic system is developed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Moreover, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be arbitrarily pre-specified. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the obtained result.

  7. A simple observer of the generalized Chen chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the generalized Chen chaotic system is considered and the state observation problem of such a system is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach, a simple observer for the generalized Chen chaotic system is proposed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Furthermore, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be correctly estimated. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the use of the main result.

  8. A simple observer design of the generalized Lorenz chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, the generalized Lorenz chaotic system is considered and the state observation problem of such a system is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach, a simple observer for the generalized Lorenz chaotic system is developed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Moreover, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be correctly estimated. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the obtained result.

  9. Stress Testing of Transactional Database Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Meira , Jorge Augusto; Cunha De Almeida , Eduardo; Sunyé , Gerson; Le Traon , Yves; Valduriez , Patrick

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Transactional database management systems (DBMS) have been successful at supporting traditional transaction processing workloads. However, web-based applications that tend to generate huge numbers of concurrent business operations are pushing DBMS performance over their limits, thus threatening overall system availability. Then, a crucial question is how to test DBMS performance under heavy workload conditions. Answering this question requires a testing methodology to ...

  10. Stress and its risk factors in medical students: An observational study from a medical college in India

    OpenAIRE

    Madhumita Nandi; Avijit Hazra; Sumantra Sarkar; Rakesh Mondal; Malay Kumar Ghosal

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Stress in medical students is well established. It may affect academic performance and lead to anxiety, depression, substance abuse, and burnouts. There is limited data on stress in Indian medical students. We conducted an analytical observational study to assess the magnitude of stress and identify possible "stressors" in medical students of a teaching hospital in Kolkata. Materials And Methods: This questionnaire-based study was conducted in the Institute of Post Graduate Medica...

  11. Nonlinear observer based phase synchronization of chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Juan; Wang Xingyuan

    2007-01-01

    This Letter analyzes the phase synchronization problem of autonomous chaotic systems. Based on the nonlinear state observer algorithm and the pole placement technique, a phase synchronization scheme is designed. The phase synchronization of a new chaotic system is achieved by using this observer controller. Numerical simulations further demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed phase synchronization scheme

  12. Catecholaminergic systems in stress: structural and molecular genetic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvetnansky, Richard; Sabban, Esther L; Palkovits, Miklos

    2009-04-01

    Stressful stimuli evoke complex endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses that are extremely variable and specific depending on the type and nature of the stressors. We first provide a short overview of physiology, biochemistry, and molecular genetics of sympatho-adrenomedullary, sympatho-neural, and brain catecholaminergic systems. Important processes of catecholamine biosynthesis, storage, release, secretion, uptake, reuptake, degradation, and transporters in acutely or chronically stressed organisms are described. We emphasize the structural variability of catecholamine systems and the molecular genetics of enzymes involved in biosynthesis and degradation of catecholamines and transporters. Characterization of enzyme gene promoters, transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, transcription factors, gene expression and protein translation, as well as different phases of stress-activated transcription and quantitative determination of mRNA levels in stressed organisms are discussed. Data from catecholamine enzyme gene knockout mice are shown. Interaction of catecholaminergic systems with other neurotransmitter and hormonal systems are discussed. We describe the effects of homotypic and heterotypic stressors, adaptation and maladaptation of the organism, and the specificity of stressors (physical, emotional, metabolic, etc.) on activation of catecholaminergic systems at all levels from plasma catecholamines to gene expression of catecholamine enzymes. We also discuss cross-adaptation and the effect of novel heterotypic stressors on organisms adapted to long-term monotypic stressors. The extra-adrenal nonneuronal adrenergic system is described. Stress-related central neuronal regulatory circuits and central organization of responses to various stressors are presented with selected examples of regulatory molecular mechanisms. Data summarized here indicate that catecholaminergic systems are activated in different ways following exposure to distinct

  13. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kawa, Dorota; Julkowska, Magdalena; Montero Sommerfeld, Hector; Horst, Anneliek ter; Haring, Michel A; Testerink, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced main root length and increased the number of lateral roots of Arabidopsis Col-0 seedlings. In combination with salt, low Pi dampened the inhibiting effect of mild salt stress (75mM) on all measured RSA components. At higher NaCl concentrations, the Pi deprivation response prevailed over the salt stress only for lateral root elongation. The Pi deprivation response of lateral roots appeared to be oppositely affected by abscisic acid (ABA) signaling compared to the salt stress response. Natural variation in the response to the combination treatment of salt and Pi starvation within 330 Arabidopsis accessions could be grouped into four response patterns. When exposed to double stress, in general lateral roots prioritized responses to salt, while the effect on main root traits was additive. Interestingly, these patterns were not identical for all accessions studied and multiple strategies to integrate the signals from Pi deprivation and salinity were identified. By Genome Wide Association Mapping (GWAS) 13 genomic loci were identified as putative factors integrating responses to salt stress and Pi starvation. From our experiments, we conclude that Pi starvation interferes with salt responses mainly at the level of lateral roots and that large natural variation exists in the available genetic repertoire of accessions to handle the combination of stresses.

  14. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kawa, Dorota

    2016-05-20

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced main root length and increased the number of lateral roots of Arabidopsis Col-0 seedlings. In combination with salt, low Pi dampened the inhibiting effect of mild salt stress (75mM) on all measured RSA components. At higher NaCl concentrations, the Pi deprivation response prevailed over the salt stress only for lateral root elongation. The Pi deprivation response of lateral roots appeared to be oppositely affected by abscisic acid (ABA) signaling compared to the salt stress response. Natural variation in the response to the combination treatment of salt and Pi starvation within 330 Arabidopsis accessions could be grouped into four response patterns. When exposed to double stress, in general lateral roots prioritized responses to salt, while the effect on main root traits was additive. Interestingly, these patterns were not identical for all accessions studied and multiple strategies to integrate the signals from Pi deprivation and salinity were identified. By Genome Wide Association Mapping (GWAS) 13 genomic loci were identified as putative factors integrating responses to salt stress and Pi starvation. From our experiments, we conclude that Pi starvation interferes with salt responses mainly at the level of lateral roots and that large natural variation exists in the available genetic repertoire of accessions to handle the combination of stresses.

  15. Stressor sensor and stress management system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A stressor detection system (100) comprises sensor means (101) arranged for being attached to a person for obtaining a time-varying signal representing a physical quantity relating to an environment of the person, and processing means (102) for deriving a stressor value from the obtained signal

  16. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  17. Observers for Systems with Nonlinearities Satisfying an Incremental Quadratic Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Corless, Martin

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of state estimation for nonlinear time-varying systems whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. These observer results unifies earlier results in the literature; and extend it to some additional classes of nonlinearities. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero. Observer design involves solving linear matrix inequalities for the observer gain matrices. Results are illustrated by application to a simple model of an underwater.

  18. STRESS AND DIFFERENTIAL ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE-SYSTEM FUNCTIONS - CONCLUSIONS FROM SOCIAL STRESS STUDIES IN ANIMALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOHUS, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; DERUITER, AJH; HEIJNEN, CJ

    1991-01-01

    Psychosocial factors are implicated in the development, in the course of, and in the recovery from disease. The immune system may be a mediator of the disease. Studies with animal models using social interactions in rodents suggest that short- and long-term social stress does not invariably suppress

  19. Systems responses to progressive water stress in durum wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimah Z Habash

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is susceptible to terminal drought which can greatly decrease grain yield. Breeding to improve crop yield is hampered by inadequate knowledge of how the physiological and metabolic changes caused by drought are related to gene expression. To gain better insight into mechanisms defining resistance to water stress we studied the physiological and transcriptome responses of three durum breeding lines varying for yield stability under drought. Parents of a mapping population (Lahn x Cham1 and a recombinant inbred line (RIL2219 showed lowered flag leaf relative water content, water potential and photosynthesis when subjected to controlled water stress time transient experiments over a six-day period. RIL2219 lost less water and showed constitutively higher stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, abscisic acid content and enhanced osmotic adjustment at equivalent leaf water compared to parents, thus defining a physiological strategy for high yield stability under water stress. Parallel analysis of the flag leaf transcriptome under stress uncovered global trends of early changes in regulatory pathways, reconfiguration of primary and secondary metabolism and lowered expression of transcripts in photosynthesis in all three lines. Differences in the number of genes, magnitude and profile of their expression response were also established amongst the lines with a high number belonging to regulatory pathways. In addition, we documented a large number of genes showing constitutive differences in leaf transcript expression between the genotypes at control non-stress conditions. Principal Coordinates Analysis uncovered a high level of structure in the transcriptome response to water stress in each wheat line suggesting genome-wide co-ordination of transcription. Utilising a systems-based approach of analysing the integrated wheat's response to water stress, in terms of biological robustness theory, the findings suggest that each durum

  20. A Hydraulic Stress Measurement System for Deep Borehole Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, Maria; Ask, Daniel; Cornet, Francois; Nilsson, Tommy

    2017-04-01

    Luleå University of Technology (LTU) is developing and building a wire-line system for hydraulic rock stress measurements, with funding from the Swedish Research Council and Luleå University of Technology. In this project, LTU is collaborating with University of Strasbourg and Geosigma AB. The stress state influences drilling and drillability, as well as rock mass stability and permeability. Therefore, knowledge about the state of in-situ stress (stress magnitudes, and orientations) and its spatial variation with depth is essential for many underground rock engineering projects, for example for underground storage of hazardous material (e.g. nuclear waste, carbon dioxide), deep geothermal exploration, and underground infrastructure (e.g. tunneling, hydropower dams). The system is designed to conduct hydraulic stress testing in slim boreholes. There are three types of test methods: (1) hydraulic fracturing, (2) sleeve fracturing and (3) hydraulic testing of pre-existing fractures. These are robust methods for determining in situ stresses from boreholes. Integration of the three methods allows determination of the three-dimensional stress tensor and its spatial variation with depth in a scientific unambiguously way. The stress system is composed of a downhole and a surface unit. The downhole unit consists of hydraulic fracturing equipment (straddle packers and downhole imaging tool) and their associated data acquisition systems. The testing system is state of the art in several aspects including: (1) Large depth range (3 km), (2) Ability to test three borehole dimensions (N=76 mm, H=96 mm, and P=122 mm), (3) Resistivity imager maps the orientation of tested fracture; (4) Highly stiff and resistive to corrosion downhole testing equipment; and (5) Very detailed control on the injection flow rate and cumulative volume is obtained by a hydraulic injection pump with variable piston rate, and a highly sensitive flow-meter. At EGU General Assembly 2017, we would like to

  1. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically impaired models. We examined respiratory and systemic effects following exposure to a sensory irritant acrolein to elucidate the systemic and pulmonary consequences in healthy and diabetic rat models. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, or 4 ppm acrolein, 4 h/d for 1 or 2 days. Exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal inflammation in both strains with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also caused metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK > Wistar). Serum total cholesterol (GKs only), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK > Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-chain amino acid or insulin levels. These responses corresponded with a significant increase in corticosterone and modest but insignificant increases in adrenaline in both strains, suggesting activation of the HPA axis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that acrolein exposure has a profound effect on nasal and pulmonary inflammation, as well as glucose and lipid metabolis

  2. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to ozone, a pulmonary irritant, causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects that are attributed to neuronal and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically-impaired models. In order to elucidate the systemic consequences and the contribution of the HPA axis in mediating metabolic and respiratory effects of acrolein, a sensory irritant, we examined pulmonary, nasal, and systemic effects in rats following exposure. Male, 10 week old Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed to 0, 2 or 4 ppm acrolein, 4h/day for 1 or 2 days. Acrolein exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal damage in both strains as demonstrated by increased inspiratory and expiratory times indicating labored breathing, elevated biomarkers of injury, and neutrophilic inflammation. Overall, at both time points acrolein exposure caused noticeably more damage in the nasal passages as opposed to the lung with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also led to metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK>Wistar) as indicated by glucose tolerance testing. In addition, serum total cholesterol (GKs only), LDL cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK>Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-c

  3. Experimental investigation of system effects in stressed-skin elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Stang, B.; Isaksson, T.; Hansson, M.

    What kind of behaviour can be expected from stressed-skin elements at failure? To answer this question was a primary objective of the experimental investigation presented in this report. Systems of 3 roof units, each made of 5 parallel beams, have been tested for load-carrying capacity and behavi......What kind of behaviour can be expected from stressed-skin elements at failure? To answer this question was a primary objective of the experimental investigation presented in this report. Systems of 3 roof units, each made of 5 parallel beams, have been tested for load-carrying capacity...

  4. Comments on Current Space Systems Observing the Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, L. A.

    2016-07-01

    The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), which was established in 1992, has been effective in specifying the observations needed for climate studies, and advocating that these observations be made. As a result, there are essential climate variables being observed, particularly from space, and these have formed the basis for our ever-improving models of how the Earth system functions and the human impact on it. We cannot conclude, however, that the current observing system in space is adequate. Climate change is accelerating, and we need to ensure that our observations capture, with completeness and with proper resolution and cadence, the most important changes. Perhaps of most significance, we need to use observations from space to guide the mitigation and adaptation strategies on which at last our civilization seems prepared to embark. And we need to use our observations to educate particularly policy makers on the reality of climate change, so that none deny the need to act. COSPAR is determined to play its part in highlighting the need to strengthen the climate observing system and notably its research component. This is being accomplished through events like the present roundtable, through the work of its Scientific Commission A, its Task Group on GEO (where COSPAR is serving as a member of its Program Board), and by promoting among space agencies and policy-makers the recently released scientific roadmap on Integrated Earth System Science for the period 2016-2025.

  5. Coulomb Stress Accumulation along the San Andreas Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bridget; Sandwell, David

    2003-01-01

    Stress accumulation rates along the primary segments of the San Andreas Fault system are computed using a three-dimensional (3-D) elastic half-space model with realistic fault geometry. The model is developed in the Fourier domain by solving for the response of an elastic half-space due to a point vector body force and analytically integrating the force from a locking depth to infinite depth. This approach is then applied to the San Andreas Fault system using published slip rates along 18 major fault strands of the fault zone. GPS-derived horizontal velocity measurements spanning the entire 1700 x 200 km region are then used to solve for apparent locking depth along each primary fault segment. This simple model fits remarkably well (2.43 mm/yr RMS misfit), although some discrepancies occur in the Eastern California Shear Zone. The model also predicts vertical uplift and subsidence rates that are in agreement with independent geologic and geodetic estimates. In addition, shear and normal stresses along the major fault strands are used to compute Coulomb stress accumulation rate. As a result, we find earthquake recurrence intervals along the San Andreas Fault system to be inversely proportional to Coulomb stress accumulation rate, in agreement with typical coseismic stress drops of 1 - 10 MPa. This 3-D deformation model can ultimately be extended to include both time-dependent forcing and viscoelastic response.

  6. Memory under stress: from single systems to network changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Stressful events have profound effects on learning and memory. These effects are mainly mediated by catecholamines and glucocorticoid hormones released from the adrenals during stressful encounters. It has been known for long that both catecholamines and glucocorticoids influence the functioning of the hippocampus, a critical hub for episodic memory. However, areas implicated in other forms of memory, such as the insula or the dorsal striatum, can be affected by stress as well. Beyond changes in single memory systems, acute stress triggers the reconfiguration of large scale neural networks which sets the stage for a shift from thoughtful, 'cognitive' control of learning and memory toward more reflexive, 'habitual' processes. Stress-related alterations in amygdala connectivity with the hippocampus, dorsal striatum, and prefrontal cortex seem to play a key role in this shift. The bias toward systems proficient in threat processing and the implementation of well-established routines may facilitate coping with an acute stressor. Overreliance on these reflexive systems or the inability to shift flexibly between them, however, may represent a risk factor for psychopathology in the long-run. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Experimental stress analysis for determination of residual stresses and integrity monitoring of components and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For an analysis of the safety-related significance of residual stresses, mechanical, magnetic as well as ultrasonic and diffraction methods can be applied as testing methods. The results of an interlaboratory test concerning the experimental determination of residual stresses in a railway track are included. Further, questions are analyzed concerning the in-service inspections of components and systems with regard to their operational safety and life. Measurement methods are explained by examples from power plant engineering, nuclear power plant engineering, construction and traffic engineering as well as aeronautics. (DG) [de

  8. Sensitivity of the prefrontal GABAergic system to chronic stress in male and female mice: Relevance for sex differences in stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Ryan; Page, Chloe E; Coutellier, Laurence

    2016-09-22

    Stress-induced modifications of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are believed to contribute to the onset of mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, which are more prevalent in women. In depression, the PFC is hypoactive; however the origin of this hypoactivity remains unclear. Possibly, stress could impact the prefrontal GABAergic inhibitory system that, as a result, impairs the functioning of downstream limbic structures controlling emotions. Preclinical evidence indicates that the female PFC is more sensitive to the effects of stress. These findings suggest that exposure to stress could lead to sex-specific alterations in prefrontal GABAergic signaling, which contribute to sex-specific abnormal functioning of limbic regions. These limbic changes could promote the onset of depressive and anxiety behaviors in a sex-specific manner, providing a possible mechanism mediating sex differences in the clinical presentation of stress-related mood disorders. We addressed this hypothesis using a mouse model of stress-induced depressive-like behaviors: the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) paradigm. We observed changes in prefrontal GABAergic signaling after exposure to UCMS most predominantly in females. Increased parvalbumin (PV) expression and decreased prefrontal neuronal activity were correlated in females with severe emotionality deficit following UCMS, and with altered activity of the amygdala. In males, small changes in emotionality following UCMS were associated with minor changes in prefrontal PV expression, and with hypoactivity of the nucleus accumbens. Our data suggest that prefrontal hypoactivity observed in stress-related mood disorders could result from stress-induced increases in PV expression, particularly in females. This increased vulnerability of the female prefrontal PV system to stress could underlie sex differences in the prevalence and symptomatology of stress-related mood disorders. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. Stress and cardiometabolic manifestations among Saudi students entering universities: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Alokail, Majed S; Albanyan, Abdulmajeed; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P

    2014-04-23

    In this observational study, we aimed to see whether transition in Saudi students entering university life could be a breeding stage for cardiometabolic risk factor emergence and clustering. A total of 1878 apparently healthy Saudi students of the Preparatory Year, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (1112 men and 766 women) spanning 2 academic years were included. They were divided into 2 groups based on the validated perceived stress test (PST). Anthropometrics were obtained and fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of fasting blood glucose and a lipid profile. PST score (>27) considered indicative of stress was noted in 44.4% of students. The prevalence of this score was higher in women than in men (49.7% versus 40.7%). The prevalence of obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia was significantly higher in men than women (p students entering universities. This study sheds light on the social responsibility of universities in promoting a healthy lifestyle, particularly in this age group, when exposure to different kinds of stressors may result in body weight and metabolic changes.

  10. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test.

  11. Observing System Simulation Experiments for Fun and Profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prive, Nikki C.

    2015-01-01

    Observing System Simulation Experiments can be powerful tools for evaluating and exploring both the behavior of data assimilation systems and the potential impacts of future observing systems. With great power comes great responsibility - given a pure modeling framework, how can we be sure our results are meaningful? The challenges and pitfalls of OSSE calibration and validation will be addressed, as well as issues of incestuousness, selection of appropriate metrics, and experiment design. The use of idealized observational networks to investigate theoretical ideas in a fully complex modeling framework will also be discussed

  12. The Stress Management in the Enterprise Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Oleh Ye.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article systematizes the classification of the type of management by a number of attributes: horizon of ambition, priority style of interaction between management and managed systems, level of centralization, orientation, consideration of environmental impact, contents, type of activity, and response to deviation. Within terms of the attribute of response to deviations, place of the stress management is allocated near to the harmonic and the risk management. It has been substantiated that the stress management is the enterprise management system aimed at overcoming unwanted deviations that are significant, extreme, and have a significant negative impact on the operation of enterprise. In the structure of the stress management, the following integral components have been allocated and characterized: crisis, adaptive, reactive, fears, and anticipative.

  13. Stress state and its anomaly observations in the vicinity of a fault in NanTroSEIZE Expedition 322

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Yu; Saito, Saneatsu; Kinoshita, Masataka

    2015-12-01

    To better understand the stress state and geological properties within the shallow Shikoku Basin, southwest of Japan, two sites, C0011A and C0011B, were drilled in open-ocean sediments using Logging While Drilling (LWD) and coring, respectively. Resistivity image logging was performed at C0011A from sea floor to 950 m below sea floor (mbsf). At C0011B, the serial coring was obtained in order to determine physical properties from 340 to 880 mbsf. For the LWD images, a notable breakout anomaly was observed at a depth of 615 m. Using resistivity images and a stress polygon, the potential horizontal principal stress azimuth and its magnitude within the 500-750 mbsf section of the C0011A borehole were constrained. Borehole breakout azimuths were observed for the variation by the existence of a fault zone at a depth of 615 mbsf. Out of this fracture zone, the breakout azimuth was located at approximately 109° ± 12°, subparallel to the Nankai Trough convergence vector (300-315°). Our calculations describe a stress drop was determined based on the fracture geometry. A close 90° (73° ± 12°) rotation implied a 100% stress drop, defined as a maximum shear stress drop equal to 1 MPa. The magnitude of the horizontal principal stresses near the fracture stress anomaly ranged between 49 and 52 MPa, and the bearing to the vertical stress (Sv = 52 MPa) was found to be within the normal-faulting stress regime. Low rock strength and a low stress level are necessary to satisfy the observations.

  14. Designing the Climate Observing System of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Elizabeth C.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Abbott, Mark; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Atlas, Robert; Brasseur, Guy; Bruhwiler, Lori; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Butler, James H.; Clack, Christopher T. M.; Cooke, Roger; Cucurull, Lidia; Davis, Sean M.; English, Jason M.; Fahey, David W.; Fine, Steven S.; Lazo, Jeffrey K.; Liang, Shunlin; Loeb, Norman G.; Rignot, Eric; Soden, Brian; Stanitski, Diane; Stephens, Graeme; Tapley, Byron D.; Thompson, Anne M.; Trenberth, Kevin E.; Wuebbles, Donald

    2018-01-01

    Climate observations are needed to address a large range of important societal issues including sea level rise, droughts, floods, extreme heat events, food security, and freshwater availability in the coming decades. Past, targeted investments in specific climate questions have resulted in tremendous improvements in issues important to human health, security, and infrastructure. However, the current climate observing system was not planned in a comprehensive, focused manner required to adequately address the full range of climate needs. A potential approach to planning the observing system of the future is presented in this article. First, this article proposes that priority be given to the most critical needs as identified within the World Climate Research Program as Grand Challenges. These currently include seven important topics: melting ice and global consequences; clouds, circulation and climate sensitivity; carbon feedbacks in the climate system; understanding and predicting weather and climate extremes; water for the food baskets of the world; regional sea-level change and coastal impacts; and near-term climate prediction. For each Grand Challenge, observations are needed for long-term monitoring, process studies and forecasting capabilities. Second, objective evaluations of proposed observing systems, including satellites, ground-based and in situ observations as well as potentially new, unidentified observational approaches, can quantify the ability to address these climate priorities. And third, investments in effective climate observations will be economically important as they will offer a magnified return on investment that justifies a far greater development of observations to serve society's needs.

  15. Using Combined Marine Spatial Planning Tools and Observing System Experiments to define Gaps in the Emerging European Ocean Observing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, G.; Pinardi, N.; Vukicevic, T.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Fernandez, V.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean observations are critical to providing accurate ocean forecasts that support operational decision making in European open and coastal seas. Observations are available in many forms from Fixed platforms e.g. Moored Buoys and tide gauges, underway measurements from Ferrybox systems, High Frequency radars and more recently from underwater Gliders and profiling floats. Observing System Simulation Experiments have been conducted to examine the relative contribution of each type of platform to an improvement in our ability to accurately forecast the future state of the ocean with HF radar and Gliders showing particular promise in improving model skill. There is considerable demand for ecosystem products and services from today's ocean observing system and biogeochemical observations are still relatively sparse particularly in coastal and shelf seas. There is a need to widen the techniques used to assess the fitness for purpose and gaps in the ocean observing system. As well as Observing System Simulation Experiments that quantify the effect of observations on the overall model skill we present a gap analysis based on (1) Examining where high model skill is required based on a marine spatial planning analysis of European seas i.e where does activity take place that requires more accurate forecasts? and (2) assessing gaps based on the capacity of the observing system to answer key societal challenges e.g. site suitability for aquaculture and ocean energy, oil spill response and contextual oceanographic products for fisheries and ecosystems. The broad based analysis will inform the development of the proposed European Ocean Observing System as a contribution to the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS).

  16. Chaotic Secure Communication Systems with an Adaptive State Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Der Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a new digital communication scheme based on using a unified chaotic system and an adaptive state observer. The proposed communication system basically consists of five important elements: signal modulation, chaotic encryption, adaptive state observer, chaotic decryption, and signal demodulation. A sequence of digital signals will be delivered from the transmitter to the receiver through a public channel. It is rather reasonable that if the number of signals delivered on the public channel is fewer, then the security of such communication system is more guaranteed. Therefore, in order to achieve this purpose, a state observer will be designed and its function is to estimate full system states only by using the system output signals. In this way, the signals delivered on the public channel can be reduced mostly. According to these estimated state signals, the original digital sequences are then retrieved completely. Finally, experiment results are provided to verify the applicability of the proposed communication system.

  17. Observations and insights into Pb-assisted stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600 steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, L.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    Pb-assisted stress-corrosion cracking (PbSCC) of Alloy 600 steam-generator tubing in high-temperature-water service and laboratory tests were studied by analytical transmission electron microscopy of cross-sectioned samples. Examinations of pulled tubes from many pressurized water reactors revealed lead in cracks from 11 of 17 samples. Comparisons of the degraded intergranular structures with ones produced in simple laboratory tests with PbO in near-neutral AVT water showed that the PbSCC characteristics in service tubing could be reproduced without complex chemistries and heat-flow conditions that can occur during plant operation. Observations of intergranular and transgranular cracks promoted by Pb in the test samples also provided new insights into the mechanisms of PbSCC in mill-annealed and thermally treated Alloy 600

  18. Observational studies of X-ray binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klis, M. van der.

    1983-01-01

    The subject of Chapter 1 is theoretical. The other chapters, Ch. 2 to 6, contain original observational data and efforts towards their interpretation. Of these, Ch. 3, 4 and 5 deal with massive X-ray binaries, Ch. 6 with low-mass systems and Ch. 2 with Cygnus X-3, which we have not yet been able to assign to any of these two classes. The X-ray observations described were made with the COS-B satellite. Work based on UV and optical observations is described in Ch. 5. The UV observations were made with the IUE satellite, the optical observations at several ground-based observatories. (Auth.)

  19. Observing plants dealing with soil water stress: Daily soil moisture fluctuations derived from polymer tensiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; de Rooij, Gerrit

    2014-05-01

    , doi: 10.1007/s11104-013-1990-8 Van der Ploeg MJ, Gooren HPA, Bakker G and de Rooij GH. Matric potential measurements by polymer tensiometers in cropped lysimeters under water-stressed conditions. Vadose Zone J. 7:1048-1053, 2008. Van der Ploeg MJ, Gooren HPA, Bakker G, Hoohendam CW, Huiskes C, Koopal LK, Kruidhof H and de Rooij GH. Polymer tensiometers with ceramic cones: direct observations of matric pressures in drying soils. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 14, 1787-1799, 2010. Van Genuchten MTh. A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44: 892-898, 1980. Wilson KB, Baldocchi DD and Hanson PJ. Leaf age affects the seasonal pattern of photosysnthetic capacity and net ecosystem exchange of carbon in a deciduous forest. Plant, cell and the environment 24: 571-583, 2001. Whalley WR, Ober ES, Jenkins M. Measurement of the matric protential of soil water in the rhzosphere. J. Exp. Bot. 64(13) 3951-3963, 2013.

  20. Impact of emerging clean vehicle system on water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Hua; Hu, Xiaojun; Xu, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Clean vehicles may increase US water consumption up to 2810 billion gallons/year. • Large-scale clean vehicle adoption could lead to severe regional water stress. • Fuel choice for clean vehicle is crucial in minimizing regional water stress. • Regional optimization illustrated the importance of regional consideration. - Abstract: While clean vehicles (i.e., vehicles powered by alternative fuels other than fossil fuels) offer great potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from gasoline-based vehicles, the associated impact on water resources has not yet been fully assessed. This research provides a systematic evaluation of the impact of a fully implemented clean vehicle system on national and state-level water demand and water stress. On the national level, based on existing policies, transitioning the current gasoline-based transportation into one with clean vehicles will increase national annual water consumption by 1950–2810 billion gallons of water, depending on the market penetration of electric vehicles. On the state level, variances of water efficiency in producing different fuels are significant. The fuel choice for clean vehicle development is especially crucial for minimizing water stress increase in states with already high water stress, high travel demands, and significant variations in water efficiency in producing different alternative fuels. Current development of clean vehicle infrastructure, however, has not reflected these state-level variations. This study takes an optimization approach to further evaluate impacts on state-level water stress from a fully implemented clean vehicle system and identified potential roles (fuel producer or consumer) states may play in real world clean vehicle development scenario. With an objective of minimizing overall water stress impact, our optimization model aims to provide an analytical framework to better assess impacts on state-level water

  1. Virtual Estimator for Piecewise Linear Systems Based on Observability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Morales, Cornelio; Adam-Medina, Manuel; Cervantes, Ilse; Vela-Valdés and, Luis G.; García Beltrán, Carlos Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a virtual sensor for piecewise linear systems based on observability analysis that is in function of a commutation law related with the system's outpu. This virtual sensor is also known as a state estimator. Besides, it presents a detector of active mode when the commutation sequences of each linear subsystem are arbitrary and unknown. For the previous, this article proposes a set of virtual estimators that discern the commutation paths of the system and allow estimating their output. In this work a methodology in order to test the observability for piecewise linear systems with discrete time is proposed. An academic example is presented to show the obtained results. PMID:23447007

  2. Dysregulated physiological stress systems and accelerated cellular aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Révész, D.; Verhoeven, J.; Milaneschi, Y.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to chronic stressors is associated with accelerated biological aging as indicated by reduced leukocyte telomere length (LTL). This impact could be because of chronic overactivation of the body's physiological stress systems. This study examined the associations between LTL and the immune

  3. Stress analysis program system for nuclear vessel: STANSAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Asao; Michikami, Shinsuke

    1979-01-01

    IHI has developed a computer system of stress analysis and evaluation for nuclear vessels: STANSAS (STress ANalysis System for Axi-symmetric Structure). The system consists of more than twenty independent programs divided into the following six parts. 1. Programs for opening design by code rule. 2. Calculation model generating programs. 3. Load defining programs. 4. Structural analysis programs. 5. Load data/calculation results plotting programs. 6. Stress evaluation programs. Each program is connected with its pre- or post-processor through three data-bases which enable automatic data transfer. The user can make his choice of structural analysis programs in accordance with the problem to be solved. The interface to STANSAS can be easily installed in generalized structural analysis programs such as NASTRAN and MARC. For almost all tables and figures in the stress report, STANSAS has the function to print or plot out. The complicated procedures of ''Design by Analysis'' for pressure vessels have been well standardized by STANSAS. The system will give a high degree of efficiency and confidence to the design work. (author)

  4. The stress systems in depression: a postmortem study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Min Bao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After trauma, depressive disorders are among the most frequent emerging diagnoses. However, although the symptoms of depression are well characterized, the molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder are largely unknown. Factors involved in the heterogeneous pathogenesis of depression include polymorphisms in stress-related genes, gender, age, developmental history, and environmental (traumatic stressors such as epigenetic factors. These factors may make different parts of the stress-related brain systems more vulnerable to different stressful or traumatic life events or psychological stresses, causing alterations in a network of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators including amines, amino acids, nitric oxide (NO, and neuropeptides, and finally make individuals at risk for depression. The hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis has a prominent position in this network. With the postmortem brain material obtained from the Netherlands Brain Bank, we have carried on a series of studies with the aim to elucidate the specific changes in these systems in relation to special subtypes of depression. Our final destination is to set up tailor-made treatment for depressive patients on the basis of his/her developmental history, genetic and epigenetic background, and the vulnerability in particular neurobiological systems. This presentation is a review of our findings of changes in systems of sex steroids, receptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, orexin, γ-aminobutyric acid, and NO in the etiology of depression, in relation to HPA activity, sex differences, and suicide.

  5. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Regional Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Wellman, Katharine F; Pelsoci, Thomas; Wieand, Kenneth; Pendleton, Linwood; Kaiser, Mark J; Pulsipher, Allan G; Luger, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We develop a methodology to estimate the potential economic benefits from new investments in regional coastal ocean observing systems in US waters, and apply this methodology to generate preliminary...

  6. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Regional Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Wellman, Katharine F; Pelsoci, Thomas; Wieand, Kenneth; Pendleton, Linwood; Kaiser, Mark J; Pulsipher, Allan G; Luger, Michael

    2005-01-01

    ... prediction, offshore energy, power generation, and commercial fishing. Our findings suggest that annual benefits to users from the deployment of ocean observing systems are likely to run in the multiple...

  7. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data, 2004-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  8. Control landscapes for observable preparation with open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Rebing; Pechen, Alexander; Rabitz, Herschel; Hsieh, Michael; Tsou, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    A quantum control landscape is defined as the observable as a function(al) of the system control variables. Such landscapes were introduced to provide a basis to understand the increasing number of successful experiments controlling quantum dynamics phenomena. This paper extends the concept to encompass the broader context of the environment having an influence. For the case that the open system dynamics are fully controllable, it is shown that the control landscape for open systems can be lifted to the analysis of an equivalent auxiliary landscape of a closed composite system that contains the environmental interactions. This inherent connection can be analyzed to provide relevant information about the topology of the original open system landscape. Application to the optimization of an observable expectation value reveals the same landscape simplicity observed in former studies on closed systems. In particular, no false suboptimal traps exist in the system control landscape when seeking to optimize an observable, even in the presence of complex environments. Moreover, a quantitative study of the control landscape of a system interacting with a thermal environment shows that the enhanced controllability attainable with open dynamics significantly broadens the range of the achievable observable values over the control landscape

  9. An Observation-based Assessment of Instrument Requirements for a Future Precipitation Process Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Wood, N.; Smalley, M.; Kulie, M.; Hahn, W.

    2017-12-01

    Global models exhibit substantial biases in the frequency, intensity, duration, and spatial scales of precipitation systems. Much of this uncertainty stems from an inadequate representation of the processes by which water is cycled between the surface and atmosphere and, in particular, those that govern the formation and maintenance of cloud systems and their propensity to form the precipitation. Progress toward improving precipitation process models requires observing systems capable of quantifying the coupling between the ice content, vertical mass fluxes, and precipitation yield of precipitating cloud systems. Spaceborne multi-frequency, Doppler radar offers a unique opportunity to address this need but the effectiveness of such a mission is heavily dependent on its ability to actually observe the processes of interest in the widest possible range of systems. Planning for a next generation precipitation process observing system should, therefore, start with a fundamental evaluation of the trade-offs between sensitivity, resolution, sampling, cost, and the overall potential scientific yield of the mission. Here we provide an initial assessment of the scientific and economic trade-space by evaluating hypothetical spaceborne multi-frequency radars using a combination of current real-world and model-derived synthetic observations. Specifically, we alter the field of view, vertical resolution, and sensitivity of a hypothetical Ka- and W-band radar system and propagate those changes through precipitation detection and intensity retrievals. The results suggest that sampling biases introduced by reducing sensitivity disproportionately affect the light rainfall and frozen precipitation regimes that are critical for warm cloud feedbacks and ice sheet mass balance, respectively. Coarser spatial resolution observations introduce regime-dependent biases in both precipitation occurrence and intensity that depend on cloud regime, with even the sign of the bias varying within a

  10. The Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA)

    OpenAIRE

    Baschek, Burkard; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Brix, Holger; Riethmüller, Rolf; Badewien, Thomas H.; Breitbach, Gisbert; Brügge, Bernd; Colijn, Franciscus; Doerffer, Roland; Eschenbach, Christiane; Friedrich, Jana; Fischer, Philipp; Garthe, Stefan; Horstmann, Jochen; Krasemann, Hajo

    2017-01-01

    The Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) was established in order to better understand the complex interdisciplinary processes of northern seas and the Arctic coasts in a changing environment. Particular focus is given to the German Bight in the North Sea as a prime example of a heavily used coastal area, and Svalbard as an example of an Arctic coast that is under strong pressure due to global change. The COSYNA automated observing and modelling system is designed...

  11. Operator symbols in the description of observable-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassner, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    For the observable-state system of finite degree of freedom N topological properties of the kernels and symbols belonging to the considered operators are investigated. For the operators of the observable algebra of rho + (delta) kernels and symbols are distributions and for density matrices p they are smooth functions

  12. The wireless networking system of Earthquake precursor mobile field observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Teng, Y.; Wang, X.; Fan, X.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    The mobile field observation network could be real-time, reliably record and transmit large amounts of data, strengthen the physical signal observations in specific regions and specific period, it can improve the monitoring capacity and abnormal tracking capability. According to the features of scatter everywhere, a large number of current earthquake precursor observation measuring points, networking technology is based on wireless broadband accessing McWILL system, the communication system of earthquake precursor mobile field observation would real-time, reliably transmit large amounts of data to the monitoring center from measuring points through the connection about equipment and wireless accessing system, broadband wireless access system and precursor mobile observation management center system, thereby implementing remote instrument monitoring and data transmition. At present, the earthquake precursor field mobile observation network technology has been applied to fluxgate magnetometer array geomagnetic observations of Tianzhu, Xichang,and Xinjiang, it can be real-time monitoring the working status of the observational instruments of large area laid after the last two or three years, large scale field operation. Therefore, it can get geomagnetic field data of the local refinement regions and provide high-quality observational data for impending earthquake tracking forecast. Although, wireless networking technology is very suitable for mobile field observation with the features of simple, flexible networking etc, it also has the phenomenon of packet loss etc when transmitting a large number of observational data due to the wireless relatively weak signal and narrow bandwidth. In view of high sampling rate instruments, this project uses data compression and effectively solves the problem of data transmission packet loss; Control commands, status data and observational data transmission use different priorities and means, which control the packet loss rate within

  13. Fault Diagnosis in Dynamic Systems Using Fuzzy Interacting Observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kolesov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of fault diagnosis in dynamic systems based on a fuzzy approach is proposed. The new method possesses two basic specific features which distinguish it from the other known fuzzy methods based on the application of fuzzy logic and a bank of state observers. First, this method uses a bank of interacting observers instead of traditional independent observers. The second specific feature of the proposed method is the assumption that there is no strict boundary between the serviceable and disabled technical states of the system, which makes it possible to specify a decision making rule for fault diagnosis.

  14. Interoperable Access to Near Real Time Ocean Observations with the Observing System Monitoring Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Hankin, S.; Mendelssohn, R.; Simons, R.; Smith, B.; Kern, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Observing System Monitoring Center (OSMC), a project funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate Observations Division (COD), exists to join the discrete 'networks' of In Situ ocean observing platforms -- ships, surface floats, profiling floats, tide gauges, etc. - into a single, integrated system. The OSMC is addressing this goal through capabilities in three areas focusing on the needs of specific user groups: 1) it provides real time monitoring of the integrated observing system assets to assist management in optimizing the cost-effectiveness of the system for the assessment of climate variables; 2) it makes the stream of real time data coming from the observing system available to scientific end users into an easy-to-use form; and 3) in the future, it will unify the delayed-mode data from platform-focused data assembly centers into a standards- based distributed system that is readily accessible to interested users from the science and education communities. In this presentation, we will be focusing on the efforts of the OSMC to provide interoperable access to the near real time data stream that is available via the Global Telecommunications System (GTS). This is a very rich data source, and includes data from nearly all of the oceanographic platforms that are actively observing. We will discuss how the data is being served out using a number of widely used 'web services' (including OPeNDAP and SOS) and downloadable file formats (KML, csv, xls, netCDF), so that it can be accessed in web browsers and popular desktop analysis tools. We will also be discussing our use of the Environmental Research Division's Data Access Program (ERDDAP), available from NOAA/NMFS, which has allowed us to achieve our goals of serving the near real time data. From an interoperability perspective, it's important to note that access to the this stream of data is not just for humans, but also for machine-to-machine requests. We'll also delve into how we

  15. Maintenance Effectiveness and Target Observation System and its ERP Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon, Han Seong; Kim, Gi Yong; Seo, Mi Ro; Jeong, Hun Jong; Choi, Kwang Hee; Hong, Sung Yull

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance effectiveness and target observation system (MENTOS) is a maintenance rule (MR) implementation software for plant personnel to collect, edit, store, and analyze all information required for the MR implementation. Potential users and the developers of MENTOS have decided that MENTOS is implemented in the ERP system of KHNP. This article describes MENTOS briefly and introduces the ERP interface of MENTOS

  16. The GO Cygni system: photoelectric observations and light curves analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovithis, P.; Rovithis-Livaniou, H.; Niarchos, P.G.

    1990-01-01

    Photoelectric observations, in B and V, of the system GO Cygni obtained during 1985 at the Kryonerion Astronomical Station of the National Observatory of Greece are given. The corresponding light curves (typical β Lyrae) are analysed using Frequency Domain techniques. New photoelectric and absolute elements for the system are given, and its period was found to continue its increasing

  17. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ER-Orionis ... February to April 2008 with the 51 cm telescope of Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University in U, B and V filters (Johnson system) and an RCA 4509 photomultiplier. ... Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately.

  18. A cooperative control algorithm for camera based observational systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Joseph G.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last several years, there has been considerable growth in camera based observation systems for a variety of safety, scientific, and recreational applications. In order to improve the effectiveness of these systems, we frequently desire the ability to increase the number of observed objects, but solving this problem is not as simple as adding more cameras. Quite often, there are economic or physical restrictions that prevent us from adding additional cameras to the system. As a result, we require methods that coordinate the tracking of objects between multiple cameras in an optimal way. In order to accomplish this goal, we present a new cooperative control algorithm for a camera based observational system. Specifically, we present a receding horizon control where we model the underlying optimal control problem as a mixed integer linear program. The benefit of this design is that we can coordinate the actions between each camera while simultaneously respecting its kinematics. In addition, we further improve the quality of our solution by coupling our algorithm with a Kalman filter. Through this integration, we not only add a predictive component to our control, but we use the uncertainty estimates provided by the filter to encourage the system to periodically observe any outliers in the observed area. This combined approach allows us to intelligently observe the entire region of interest in an effective and thorough manner.

  19. Calcium efflux systems in stress signalling and adaptation in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar eBose

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Transient cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt elevation is an ubiquitous denominator of the signalling network when plants are exposed to literally every known abiotic and biotic stress. These stress-induced [Ca2+]cyt elevations vary in magnitude, frequency and shape, depending on the severity of the stress as well the type of stress experienced. This creates a unique stress-specific calcium signature that is then decoded by signal transduction networks. While most published papers have been focused predominantly on the role of Ca2+ influx mechanisms in shaping [Ca2+]cyt signatures, restoration of the basal [Ca2+]cyt levels is impossible without both cytosolic Ca2+ buffering and efficient Ca2+ efflux mechanisms removing excess Ca2+ from cytosol, to reload Ca2+ stores and to terminate Ca2+ signalling. This is the topic of the current review. The molecular identity of two major types of Ca2+ efflux systems, Ca2+-ATPase pumps and Ca2+/H+ exchangers, is described, and their regulatory modes are analysed in detail. The spatial and temporal organisation of calcium signalling networks is described, and the importance of existence of intracellular calcium microdomains is discussed. Experimental evidence for the role of Ca2+ efflux systems in plant responses to a range of abiotic and biotic factors is summarised. Contribution of Ca2+-ATPase pumps and Ca2+/H+ exchangers in shaping [Ca2+]cyt signatures is then modelled by using a four-component model (plasma- and endo- membrane-based Ca2+-permeable channels and efflux systems taking into account the cytosolic Ca2+ buffering. It is concluded that physiologically relevant variations in the activity of Ca2+-ATPase pumps and Ca2+/H+ exchangers are sufficient to fully describe all the reported experimental evidence and determine the shape of [Ca2+]cyt signatures in response to environmental stimuli, emphasising the crucial role these active efflux systems play in plant adaptive responses to environment.

  20. Accelerating assimilation development for new observing systems using EFSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Guo-Yuan; Hotta, Daisuke; Kalnay, Eugenia; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Chen, Tse-Chun

    2018-03-01

    To successfully assimilate data from a new observing system, it is necessary to develop appropriate data selection strategies, assimilating only the generally useful data. This development work is usually done by trial and error using observing system experiments (OSEs), which are very time and resource consuming. This study proposes a new, efficient methodology to accelerate the development using ensemble forecast sensitivity to observations (EFSO). First, non-cycled assimilation of the new observation data is conducted to compute EFSO diagnostics for each observation within a large sample. Second, the average EFSO conditionally sampled in terms of various factors is computed. Third, potential data selection criteria are designed based on the non-cycled EFSO statistics, and tested in cycled OSEs to verify the actual assimilation impact. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated with the assimilation of satellite precipitation data. It is shown that the EFSO-based method can efficiently suggest data selection criteria that significantly improve the assimilation results.

  1. Observations of Warm Water in Young Solar-System Analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Magnus Vilhelm

    dioxide). The amount of warm water is deduced and its origin is observationally constrained. With both isotopologues observed, the HDO/H2O ratio is deduced. This ratio is then compared to other sources, e.g., comets and the Earth’s ocean, to gain understanding of the origin of the water in our own solar...... system. The emission line fluxes are modeled with radiative transfer tools and compared to other results of water abundances in the same source. The observed water emission, both H18(2 O and HDO is compact for all observed sources and traces the emission on R 150 AU scales or less. In one source...

  2. "New Space Explosion" and Earth Observing System Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensaas, G. L.; Casey, K.; Snyder, G. I.; Christopherson, J.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will describe recent developments in spaceborne remote sensing, including introduction to some of the increasing number of new firms entering the market, along with new systems and successes from established players, as well as industry consolidation reactions to these developments from communities of users. The information in this presentation will include inputs from the results of the Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) 2017 Civil Commercial Imagery Evaluation Workshop and the use of the US Geological Survey's Requirements Capabilities and Analysis for Earth Observation (RCA-EO) centralized Earth observing systems database and how system performance parameters are used with user science applications requirements.

  3. Weather Observation Systems and Efficiency of Fighting Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarov, N.; Moltchanova, E.; Obersteiner, M.

    2007-12-01

    Weather observation is an essential component of modern forest fire management systems. Satellite and in-situ based weather observation systems might help to reduce forest loss, human casualties and destruction of economic capital. In this paper, we develop and apply a methodology to assess the benefits of various weather observation systems on reductions of burned area due to early fire detection. In particular, we consider a model where the air patrolling schedule is determined by a fire hazard index. The index is computed from gridded daily weather data for the area covering parts Spain and Portugal. We conduct a number of simulation experiments. First, the resolution of the original data set is artificially reduced. The reduction of the total forest burned area associated with air patrolling based on a finer weather grid indicates the benefit of using higher spatially resolved weather observations. Second, we consider a stochastic model to simulate forest fires and explore the sensitivity of the model with respect to the quality of input data. The analysis of combination of satellite and ground monitoring reveals potential cost saving due to a "system of systems effect" and substantial reduction in burned area. Finally, we estimate the marginal improvement schedule for loss of life and economic capital as a function of the improved fire observing system.

  4. Dynamical System Analysis of Reynolds Stress Closure Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girimaji, Sharath S.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we establish the causality between the model coefficients in the standard pressure-strain correlation model and the predicted equilibrium states for homogeneous turbulence. We accomplish this by performing a comprehensive fixed point analysis of the modeled Reynolds stress and dissipation rate equations. The results from this analysis will be very useful for developing improved pressure-strain correlation models to yield observed equilibrium behavior.

  5. Construction of a patient observation system using KINECTTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaura, Kazunori; Kumazaki, Yu; Kato, Shingo; Fukushima, Chika; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in the positional accuracy of irradiation is expected by capturing patient motion (intra-fractional error) during irradiation. The present study reports the construction of a patient observation system using Microsoft® KINECT TM . By tracking movement, we made it possible to add a depth component to the acquired position coordinates and to display three-axis (X, Y, and Z) movement. Moreover, the developed system can be displayed in a graph which is constructed from the coordinate position at each time interval. Using the developed system, an observer can easily visualize patient movement. When the body phantom was moved a known distance in the X, Y, and Z directions, good coincidence was shown with each axis. We built a patient observation system which captures a patient's motion using KINECT TM .

  6. Internal-time observable of classical relativistic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Ya'acov, Uri

    2006-01-01

    The relativistic framework with its symmetries offers a natural definition for the internal time of classical (non-quantum) physical systems as a Lorentz-invariant observable. The internal-time observable, measuring the system's aging or internal evolution, is identified with the proper time of the system derived from its centre-of-mass (CM) coordinate. For its definition as an observable it is required that the system be symmetric not only under Lorentz-Poincare transformations but also under uniform scaling, with the associated existence of a dilatation function D, and yet that D be a varying-not conserved-quantity. Two alternative definitions are discussed, and it is found that in order to maintain simultaneity of the CM time with the events that define it, it is necessary to split the dilatation function into a CM part and an internal part

  7. Predictive maintenance policy for a gradually deteriorating system subject to stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deloux, E. [IRCCyN/Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France); Castanier, B. [IRCCyN/Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France)], E-mail: bruno.castanier@emn.fr; Berenguer, C. [Universite de Technologie de Troyes/CNRS, Troyes (France)

    2009-02-15

    This paper deals with a predictive maintenance policy for a continuously deteriorating system subject to stress. We consider a system with two failure mechanisms which are, respectively, due to an excessive deterioration level and a shock. To optimize the maintenance policy of the system, an approach combining statistical process control (SPC) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) is proposed. CBM policy is used to inspect and replace the system according to the observed deterioration level. SPC is used to monitor the stress covariate. In order to assess the performance of the proposed maintenance policy and to minimize the long-run expected maintenance cost per unit of time, a mathematical model for the maintained system cost is derived. Analysis based on numerical results are conducted to highlight the properties of the proposed maintenance policy in respect to the different maintenance parameters.

  8. Predictive maintenance policy for a gradually deteriorating system subject to stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deloux, E.; Castanier, B.; Berenguer, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a predictive maintenance policy for a continuously deteriorating system subject to stress. We consider a system with two failure mechanisms which are, respectively, due to an excessive deterioration level and a shock. To optimize the maintenance policy of the system, an approach combining statistical process control (SPC) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) is proposed. CBM policy is used to inspect and replace the system according to the observed deterioration level. SPC is used to monitor the stress covariate. In order to assess the performance of the proposed maintenance policy and to minimize the long-run expected maintenance cost per unit of time, a mathematical model for the maintained system cost is derived. Analysis based on numerical results are conducted to highlight the properties of the proposed maintenance policy in respect to the different maintenance parameters

  9. The diversity of planetary system architectures: contrasting theory with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Y.; Guilera, O. M.; Brunini, A.

    2011-10-01

    In order to explain the observed diversity of planetary system architectures and relate this primordial diversity to the initial properties of the discs where they were born, we develop a semi-analytical model for computing planetary system formation. The model is based on the core instability model for the gas accretion of the embryos and the oligarchic growth regime for the accretion of the solid cores. Two regimes of planetary migration are also included. With this model, we consider different initial conditions based on recent results of protoplanetary disc observations to generate a variety of planetary systems. These systems are analysed statistically, exploring the importance of several factors that define the planetary system birth environment. We explore the relevance of the mass and size of the disc, metallicity, mass of the central star and time-scale of gaseous disc dissipation in defining the architecture of the planetary system. We also test different values of some key parameters of our model to find out which factors best reproduce the diverse sample of observed planetary systems. We assume different migration rates and initial disc profiles, in the context of a surface density profile motivated by similarity solutions. According to this, and based on recent protoplanetary disc observational data, we predict which systems are the most common in the solar neighbourhood. We intend to unveil whether our Solar system is a rarity or whether more planetary systems like our own are expected to be found in the near future. We also analyse which is the more favourable environment for the formation of habitable planets. Our results show that planetary systems with only terrestrial planets are the most common, being the only planetary systems formed when considering low-metallicity discs, which also represent the best environment for the development of rocky, potentially habitable planets. We also found that planetary systems like our own are not rare in the

  10. Chlorine stress mediates microbial surface attachment in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Le, Yang; Jin, Juliang; Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Guowei

    2015-03-01

    Microbial attachment to drinking water pipe surfaces facilitates pathogen survival and deteriorates disinfection performance, directly threatening the safety of drinking water. Notwithstanding that the formation of biofilm has been studied for decades, the underlying mechanisms for the origins of microbial surface attachment in biofilm development in drinking water pipelines remain largely elusive. We combined experimental and mathematical methods to investigate the role of environmental stress-mediated cell motility on microbial surface attachment in chlorination-stressed drinking water distribution systems. Results show that at low levels of disinfectant (0.0-1.0 mg/L), the presence of chlorine promotes initiation of microbial surface attachment, while higher amounts of disinfectant (>1.0 mg/L) inhibit microbial attachment. The proposed mathematical model further demonstrates that chlorination stress (0.0-5.0 mg/L)-mediated microbial cell motility regulates the frequency of cell-wall collision and thereby controls initial microbial surface attachment. The results reveal that transport processes and decay patterns of chlorine in drinking water pipelines regulate microbial cell motility and, thus, control initial surface cell attachment. It provides a mechanistic understanding of microbial attachment shaped by environmental disinfection stress and leads to new insights into microbial safety protocols in water distribution systems.

  11. Perceived Medical School stress of undergraduate medical students predicts academic performance: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Wagner, Josefin; Brüheim, Linda; Voltmer, Edgar

    2017-12-16

    Medical students are exposed to high amounts of stress. Stress and poor academic performance can become part of a vicious circle. In order to counteract this circularity, it seems important to better understand the relationship between stress and performance during medical education. The most widespread stress questionnaire designed for use in Medical School is the "Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument" (PMSS). It addresses a wide range of stressors, including workload, competition, social isolation and financial worries. Our aim was to examine the relation between the perceived Medical School stress of undergraduate medical students and academic performance. We measured Medical School stress using the PMSS at two different time points (at the end of freshman year and at the end of sophomore year) and matched stress scores together with age and gender to the first medical examination (M1) grade of the students (n = 456). PMSS scores from 2 and 14 months before M1 proved to be significant predictors for medical students' M1 grade. Age and gender also predict academic performance, making older female students with high stress scores a potential risk group for entering the vicious circle of stress and poor academic performance. PMSS sum scores 2 and 14 months before the M1 exam seem to have an independent predictive validity for medical students' M1 grade. More research is needed to identify potential confounders.

  12. Fault tolerance improvement for queuing systems under stress load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, Eh.G.; Florko, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Various kinds of queuing information systems (exchange auctions systems, web servers, SCADA) are faced to unpredictable situations during operation, when information flow that requires being analyzed and processed rises extremely. Such stress load situations often require human (dispatcher's or administrator's) intervention that is the reason why the time of the first denial of service is extremely important. Common queuing systems architecture is described. Existing approaches to computing resource management are considered. A new late-first-denial-of-service resource management approach is proposed

  13. Predicting the future completing models of observed complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Abarbanel, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the Future: Completing Models of Observed Complex Systems provides a general framework for the discussion of model building and validation across a broad spectrum of disciplines. This is accomplished through the development of an exact path integral for use in transferring information from observations to a model of the observed system. Through many illustrative examples drawn from models in neuroscience, fluid dynamics, geosciences, and nonlinear electrical circuits, the concepts are exemplified in detail. Practical numerical methods for approximate evaluations of the path integral are explored, and their use in designing experiments and determining a model's consistency with observations is investigated. Using highly instructive examples, the problems of data assimilation and the means to treat them are clearly illustrated. This book will be useful for students and practitioners of physics, neuroscience, regulatory networks, meteorology and climate science, network dynamics, fluid dynamics, and o...

  14. Novel classification system of rib fractures observed in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jennifer C; Derrick, Sharon M; Wiersema, Jason M; Pinto, Deborrah C; Greeley, Christopher; Donaruma-Kwoh, Marcella; Bista, Bibek

    2013-03-01

    Rib fractures are considered highly suspicious for nonaccidental injury in the pediatric clinical literature; however, a rib fracture classification system has not been developed. As an aid and impetus for rib fracture research, we developed a concise schema for classifying rib fracture types and fracture location that is applicable to infants. The system defined four fracture types (sternal end, buckle, transverse, and oblique) and four regions of the rib (posterior, posterolateral, anterolateral, and anterior). It was applied to all rib fractures observed during 85 consecutive infant autopsies. Rib fractures were found in 24 (28%) of the cases. A total of 158 rib fractures were identified. The proposed schema was adequate to classify 153 (97%) of the observed fractures. The results indicate that the classification system is sufficiently robust to classify rib fractures typically observed in infants and should be used by researchers investigating infant rib fractures. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  16. Water resource monitoring systems and the role of satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. J. M. van Dijk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial water resource monitoring systems (SWRMS can provide valuable information in support of water management, but current operational systems are few and provide only a subset of the information required. Necessary innovations include the explicit description of water redistribution and water use from river and groundwater systems, achieving greater spatial detail (particularly in key features such as irrigated areas and wetlands, and improving accuracy as assessed against hydrometric observations, as well as assimilating those observations. The Australian water resources assessment (AWRA system aims to achieve this by coupling landscape models with models describing surface water and groundwater dynamics and water use. A review of operational and research applications demonstrates that satellite observations can improve accuracy and spatial detail in hydrological model estimation. All operational systems use dynamic forcing, land cover classifications and a priori parameterisation of vegetation dynamics that are partially or wholly derived from remote sensing. Satellite observations are used to varying degrees in model evaluation and data assimilation. The utility of satellite observations through data assimilation can vary as a function of dominant hydrological processes. Opportunities for improvement are identified, including the development of more accurate and higher spatial and temporal resolution precipitation products, and the use of a greater range of remote sensing products in a priori model parameter estimation, model evaluation and data assimilation. Operational challenges include the continuity of research satellite missions and data services, and the need to find computationally-efficient data assimilation techniques. The successful use of observations critically depends on the availability of detailed information on observational error and understanding of the relationship between remotely-sensed and model variables, as

  17. OBSERVATIONS OF THE WASP-2 SYSTEM BY THE APOSTLE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Andrew C.; Kundurthy, Praveen; Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rose, Amy E. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    We present transit observations of the WASP-2 exoplanet system by the Apache Point Survey of Transit Lightcurves of Exoplanets (APOSTLE) program. Model fitting to these data allows us to improve measurements of the hot-Jupiter exoplanet WASP-2b and its orbital parameters by a factor of {approx}2 over prior studies; we do not find evidence for transit depth variations. We do find reduced {chi}{sup 2} values greater than 1.0 in the observed minus computed transit times. A sinusoidal fit to the residuals yields a timing semi-amplitude of 32 s and a period of 389 days. However, random rearrangements of the data provide similar quality fits, and we cannot with certainty ascribe the timing variations to mutual exoplanet interactions. This inconclusive result is consistent with the lack of incontrovertible transit timing variations (TTVs) observed in other hot-Jupiter systems. This outcome emphasizes that unique recognition of TTVs requires dense sampling of the libration cycle (e.g., continuous observations from space-based platforms). However, even in systems observed with the Kepler spacecraft, there is a noted lack of transiting companions and TTVs in hot-Jupiter systems. This result is more meaningful, and indicates that hot-Jupiter systems, while they are easily observable from the ground, do not appear to be currently configured in a manner favorable to the detection of TTVs. The future of ground-based TTV studies may reside in resolving secular trends, and/or implementation at extreme quality observing sites to minimize atmospheric red noise.

  18. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar...

  19. Development of KIAPS Observation Processing Package for Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeon-Ho; Chun, Hyoung-Wook; Lee, Sihye; Han, Hyun-Jun; Ha, Su-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) was founded in 2011 by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) to develop Korea's own global Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system as nine year (2011-2019) project. Data assimilation team at KIAPS has been developing the observation processing system (KIAPS Package for Observation Processing: KPOP) to provide optimal observations to the data assimilation system for the KIAPS Global Model (KIAPS Integrated Model - Spectral Element method based on HOMME: KIM-SH). Currently, the KPOP is capable of processing the satellite radiance data (AMSU-A, IASI), GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO), AIRCRAFT (AMDAR, AIREP, and etc…), and synoptic observation (SONDE and SURFACE). KPOP adopted Radiative Transfer for TOVS version 10 (RTTOV_v10) to get brightness temperature (TB) for each channel at top of the atmosphere (TOA), and Radio Occultation Processing Package (ROPP) 1-dimensional forward module to get bending angle (BA) at each tangent point. The observation data are obtained from the KMA which has been composited with BUFR format to be converted with ODB that are used for operational data assimilation and monitoring at the KMA. The Unified Model (UM), Community Atmosphere - Spectral Element (CAM-SE) and KIM-SH model outputs are used for the bias correction (BC) and quality control (QC) of the observations, respectively. KPOP provides radiance and RO data for Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) and also provides SONDE, SURFACE and AIRCRAFT data for Three-Dimensional Variational Assimilation (3DVAR). We are expecting all of the observation type which processed in KPOP could be combined with both of the data assimilation method as soon as possible. The preliminary results from each observation type will be introduced with the current development status of the KPOP.

  20. Estimation of stress distribution in ferromagnetic tensile specimens using low cost eddy current stress measurement system and BP neural network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Li

    Full Text Available Estimation of the stress distribution in ferromagnetic components is very important for evaluating the working status of mechanical equipment and implementing preventive maintenance. Eddy current testing technology is a promising method in this field because of its advantages of safety, no need of coupling agent, etc. In order to reduce the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and obtain the stress distribution in ferromagnetic materials without scanning, a low cost eddy current stress measurement system based on Archimedes spiral planar coil was established, and a method based on BP neural network to obtain the stress distribution using the stress of several discrete test points was proposed. To verify the performance of the developed test system and the validity of the proposed method, experiment was implemented using structural steel (Q235 specimens. Standard curves of sensors at each test point were achieved, the calibrated data were used to establish the BP neural network model for approximating the stress variation on the specimen surface, and the stress distribution curve of the specimen was obtained by interpolating with the established model. The results show that there is a good linear relationship between the change of signal modulus and the stress in most elastic range of the specimen, and the established system can detect the change in stress with a theoretical average sensitivity of -0.4228 mV/MPa. The obtained stress distribution curve is well consonant with the theoretical analysis result. At last, possible causes and improving methods of problems appeared in the results were discussed. This research has important significance for reducing the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and advancing the engineering application of eddy current stress testing.

  1. Estimation of stress distribution in ferromagnetic tensile specimens using low cost eddy current stress measurement system and BP neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Weimin; Zeng, Weiqin; Chen, Guolong; Qiu, Zhongchao; Cao, Xinyuan; Gao, Xuanyi

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of the stress distribution in ferromagnetic components is very important for evaluating the working status of mechanical equipment and implementing preventive maintenance. Eddy current testing technology is a promising method in this field because of its advantages of safety, no need of coupling agent, etc. In order to reduce the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and obtain the stress distribution in ferromagnetic materials without scanning, a low cost eddy current stress measurement system based on Archimedes spiral planar coil was established, and a method based on BP neural network to obtain the stress distribution using the stress of several discrete test points was proposed. To verify the performance of the developed test system and the validity of the proposed method, experiment was implemented using structural steel (Q235) specimens. Standard curves of sensors at each test point were achieved, the calibrated data were used to establish the BP neural network model for approximating the stress variation on the specimen surface, and the stress distribution curve of the specimen was obtained by interpolating with the established model. The results show that there is a good linear relationship between the change of signal modulus and the stress in most elastic range of the specimen, and the established system can detect the change in stress with a theoretical average sensitivity of -0.4228 mV/MPa. The obtained stress distribution curve is well consonant with the theoretical analysis result. At last, possible causes and improving methods of problems appeared in the results were discussed. This research has important significance for reducing the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and advancing the engineering application of eddy current stress testing.

  2. The relationship between observed stress corrosion cracking fracture morphology and microstructure in Alloy 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, D.M.; Burke, M.G.; Foster, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Microstructure is known to influence the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of Alloy 600 in both hydrogenated water and steam environments. This study evaluated the relative SCC response of a single heat of Alloy 600 as a function of microstructure in a hydrogenated doped-steam environment. The 400 C doped-steam environment was selected for the SCC tests to accelerate cracking. The material was evaluated in three conditions: (1) as-received (2) as-annealed, and (3) as-annealed + 26% deformation. Microstructural characterization was performed using analytical electron microscopy (AEM) techniques for the evaluation of carbide type and morphology, and general structure. Constant displacement (bolt-loaded) compact tension specimens were used to induce SCC. The as-annealed and as-annealed plus cold worked samples had two fracture morphologies: a rough intergranular SCC fracture morphology and a smooth intergranular fracture morphology. The SCC fracture in the as-received specimens was characterized by a classic intergranular morphology at low magnification, consistent with the microstructural evaluation of cross-sectional metallographic samples. More detailed examination revealed a pseudo-intergranular fracture morphology. This pseudo-intergranular morphology appears to be comprised of very fine cleavage-like microfacets. These observations may assist in understanding the difference in SCC fracture morphologies as reported in the open literature

  3. Impact of alprazolam in allostatic load and neurocognition of patients with anxiety disorders and chronic stress (GEMA): observational study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Carlos A; Remedi, Carolina; Núñez, Daniel A; D'Alessio, Luciana; Roldán, Emilio J A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The allostatic load model explains the additive effects of multiple biological processes that accelerate pathophysiology related to stress, particularly in the central nervous system. Stress-related mental conditions such as anxiety disorders and neuroticism (a well-known stress vulnerability factor), have been linked to disturbances of hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal with cognitive implications. Nevertheless, there are controversial results in the literature and there is a need to determine the impact of the psychopharmacological treatment on allostatic load parameters and in cognitive functions. Gador study of Estres Modulation by Alprazolam, aims to determine the impact of medication on neurobiochemical variables related to chronic stress, metabolic syndrome, neurocognition and quality of life in patients with anxiety, allostatic load and neuroticism. Methods/analysis In this observational prospective phase IV study, highly sympthomatic patients with anxiety disorders (six or more points in the Hamilton-A scale), neuroticism (more than 18 points in the Neo five personality factor inventory (NEO-FFI) scale), an allostatic load (three positive clinical or biochemical items at Crimmins and Seeman criteria) will be included. Clinical variables of anxiety, neuroticism, allostatic load, neurobiochemical studies, neurocognition and quality of life will be determined prior and periodically (1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks) after treatment (on demand of alprazolam from 0.75 mg/day to 3.0 mg/day). A sample of n=55/182 patients will be considered enough to detect variables higher than 25% (pretreatment vs post-treatment or significant correlations) with a 1-ß power of 0–80. t Test and/or non-parametric test, and Pearson's test for correlation analysis will be determined. Ethics and dissemination This study protocol was approved by an Independent Ethics Committee of FEFyM (Foundation for Pharmacological Studies and Drugs, Buenos Aires) and by regulatory

  4. Mirror neuron system and observational learning: behavioral and neurophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago-Rodriguez, Angel; Lopez-Alonso, Virginia; Fernández-del-Olmo, Miguel

    2013-07-01

    Three experiments were performed to study observational learning using behavioral, perceptual, and neurophysiological data. Experiment 1 investigated whether observing an execution model, during physical practice of a transitive task that only presented one execution strategy, led to performance improvements compared with physical practice alone. Experiment 2 investigated whether performing an observational learning protocol improves subjects' action perception. In experiment 3 we evaluated whether the type of practice performed determined the activation of the Mirror Neuron System during action observation. Results showed that, compared with physical practice, observing an execution model during a task that only showed one execution strategy does not provide behavioral benefits. However, an observational learning protocol allows subjects to predict more precisely the outcome of the learned task. Finally, intersperse observation of an execution model with physical practice results in changes of primary motor cortex activity during the observation of the motor pattern previously practiced, whereas modulations in the connectivity between primary and non primary motor areas (PMv-M1; PPC-M1) were not affected by the practice protocol performed by the observer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of stress corrosion crack growth in BWR piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassir, M.; Sharma, S.; Reich, M.; Chang, M.T.

    1985-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to evaluate the effects of stress intensity factor and environment on the growth behavior of intergranular stress corrosion cracks in type 304 stainless steel piping systems. Most of the detected cracks are known to be circumferential in shape, and initially started at the inside surface in the heat affected zone near girth welds. These cracks grow both radially in-depth and circumferentially in length and, in extreme cases, may cause leakage in the installation. The propagation of the crack is essentially due to the influence of the following simultaneous factors: (1) the action of applied and residual stress; (2) sensitization of the base metal in the heat affected zone adjacent to girth weld; and (3) the continuous exposure of the material to an aggressive environment of high temperature water containing dissolved oxygen and some levels of impurities. Each of these factors and their effects on the piping systems is discussed in detail in the report. The report also evaluates the time required for hypothetical cracks in BWR pipes to propagate to their critical size. The pertinent times are computed and displayed graphically. Finally, parametric study is performed in order to assess the relative influence and sensitivity of the various input parameters (residual stress, crack growth law, diameter of pipe, initial size of defect, etc.) which have bearing on the growth behavior of the intergranular stress corrosion cracks in type 304 stainless steel. Cracks in large-diameter as well as in small-diameter pipes are considered and analyzed. 27 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs

  6. Thermoelastic stress analysis system developed for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldorsen, Lars Magne

    The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part describes an extensive evaluation of the existing thermoelastic theory. The second part describes the development and results af a reliable numerical simulation code of the thermoelastic effect and the associated heat transfer effects. Finall......, theories, methods and additional equipment are developed in order to adopt a commercial IR-imaging system to preform Termoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA)....

  7. EXTREME AO OBSERVATIONS OF TWO TRIPLE ASTEROID SYSTEMS WITH SPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, B.; Wahhaj, Z.; Dumas, C.; Marsset, M.; Beauvalet, L.; Marchis, F.; Nielsen, E. L.; Vachier, F.

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of a new satellite of asteroid (130) Elektra—S/2014 (130) 1—in differential imaging and in integral field spectroscopy data over multiple epochs obtained with Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research/Very Large Telescope. This new (second) moonlet of Elektra is about 2 km across, on an eccentric orbit, and about 500 km away from the primary. For a comparative study, we also observed another triple asteroid system, (93) Minerva. For both systems, component-resolved reflectance spectra of the satellites and primary were obtained simultaneously. No significant spectral difference was observed between the satellites and the primary for either triple system. We find that the moonlets in both systems are more likely to have been created by sub-disruptive impacts as opposed to having been captured

  8. EXTREME AO OBSERVATIONS OF TWO TRIPLE ASTEROID SYSTEMS WITH SPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Wahhaj, Z.; Dumas, C.; Marsset, M. [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Beauvalet, L. [National Observatory, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Marchis, F.; Nielsen, E. L. [Carl Sagan Center at the SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States); Vachier, F., E-mail: byang@eso.org [Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Éphémérides, Paris (France)

    2016-04-01

    We present the discovery of a new satellite of asteroid (130) Elektra—S/2014 (130) 1—in differential imaging and in integral field spectroscopy data over multiple epochs obtained with Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research/Very Large Telescope. This new (second) moonlet of Elektra is about 2 km across, on an eccentric orbit, and about 500 km away from the primary. For a comparative study, we also observed another triple asteroid system, (93) Minerva. For both systems, component-resolved reflectance spectra of the satellites and primary were obtained simultaneously. No significant spectral difference was observed between the satellites and the primary for either triple system. We find that the moonlets in both systems are more likely to have been created by sub-disruptive impacts as opposed to having been captured.

  9. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010. It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV, in 2012.

  10. Observer-Based Robust Control for Hydraulic Velocity Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problems of robust stabilization and robust control for the secondary component speed control system with parameters uncertainty and load disturbance. The aim is to enhance the control performance of hydraulic system based on Common Pressure Rail (CPR. Firstly, a mathematical model is presented to describe the hydraulic control system. Then a novel observer is proposed, and an observed-based control strategy is designed such that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and satisfies the disturbance attenuation level. The condition for the existence of the developed controller can by efficiently solved by using the MATLAB software. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Aggression, Social Stress, and the Immune System in Humans and Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Takahashi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Social stress can lead to the development of psychological problems ranging from exaggerated anxiety and depression to antisocial and violence-related behaviors. Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in responses to social stress in adulthood. For example, human studies show that individuals with high aggression traits display heightened inflammatory cytokine levels and dysregulated immune responses such as slower wound healing. Similar findings have been observed in patients with depression, and comorbidity of depression and aggression was correlated with stronger immune dysregulation. Therefore, dysregulation of the immune system may be one of the mediators of social stress that produces aggression and/or depression. Similar to humans, aggressive animals also show increased levels of several proinflammatory cytokines, however, unlike humans these animals are more protected from infectious organisms and have faster wound healing than animals with low aggression. On the other hand, subordinate animals that receive repeated social defeat stress have been shown to develop escalated and dysregulated immune responses such as glucocorticoid insensitivity in monocytes. In this review we synthesize the current evidence in humans, non-human primates, and rodents to show a role for the immune system in responses to social stress leading to psychiatric problems such as aggression or depression. We argue that while depression and aggression represent two fundamentally different behavioral and physiological responses to social stress, it is possible that some overlapped, as well as distinct, pattern of immune signaling may underlie both of them. We also argue the necessity of studying animal models of maladaptive aggression induced by social stress (i.e., social isolation for understanding neuro-immune mechanism of aggression, which may be relevant to human aggression.

  12. Aggression, Social Stress, and the Immune System in Humans and Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Flanigan, Meghan E; McEwen, Bruce S; Russo, Scott J

    2018-01-01

    Social stress can lead to the development of psychological problems ranging from exaggerated anxiety and depression to antisocial and violence-related behaviors. Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in responses to social stress in adulthood. For example, human studies show that individuals with high aggression traits display heightened inflammatory cytokine levels and dysregulated immune responses such as slower wound healing. Similar findings have been observed in patients with depression, and comorbidity of depression and aggression was correlated with stronger immune dysregulation. Therefore, dysregulation of the immune system may be one of the mediators of social stress that produces aggression and/or depression. Similar to humans, aggressive animals also show increased levels of several proinflammatory cytokines, however, unlike humans these animals are more protected from infectious organisms and have faster wound healing than animals with low aggression. On the other hand, subordinate animals that receive repeated social defeat stress have been shown to develop escalated and dysregulated immune responses such as glucocorticoid insensitivity in monocytes. In this review we synthesize the current evidence in humans, non-human primates, and rodents to show a role for the immune system in responses to social stress leading to psychiatric problems such as aggression or depression. We argue that while depression and aggression represent two fundamentally different behavioral and physiological responses to social stress, it is possible that some overlapped, as well as distinct, pattern of immune signaling may underlie both of them. We also argue the necessity of studying animal models of maladaptive aggression induced by social stress (i.e., social isolation) for understanding neuro-immune mechanism of aggression, which may be relevant to human aggression.

  13. Brassinosteroids Denigrate the Seasonal Stress through Antioxidant Defense System in Seedlings of Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work has been undertaken to study the effect of exogenously application of 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL on soluble protein, proline contents and antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. RLM 619 under the influence of seasonal stress. It was observed that 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL treatment enhance the soluble protein, dry weight and shoot length of B. juncea seedlings under seasonal stress. If seeds treated with the different concentrations (10-6, 10-8 and 10-10 M of 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL revealed batter growth, protein and proline contents as compare to untreated seedlings. Similarly the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, APOX, DHAR, PPO and Auxinases were enhanced by the application of different concentration of both brassinosteroids, whereas MDA content was decrease with both brassinosteroids treatments. Then we have concluded that both brassinolides have the seasonal stress ameliorative properties in B. juncea seedlings grown under the influence of seasonal stress. This study culminates to the role of brassinolides as an anti-stress property for protection of plant from various types of stresses.

  14. Cultivation of shear stress sensitive microorganisms in disposable bag reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, Patrick; Takenberg, Meike; Hartwig, Steffen; Beutel, Sascha; Berger, Ralf G; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-09-20

    Technical scale (≥5l) cultivations of shear stress sensitive microorganisms are often difficult to perform, as common bioreactors are usually designed to maximize the oxygen input into the culture medium. This is achieved by mechanical stirrers, causing high shear stress. Examples for shear stress sensitive microorganisms, for which no specific cultivation systems exist, are many anaerobic bacteria and fungi, such as basidiomycetes. In this work a disposable bag bioreactor developed for cultivation of mammalian cells was investigated to evaluate its potential to cultivate shear stress sensitive anaerobic Eubacterium ramulus and shear stress sensitive basidiomycetes Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus sapidus. All cultivations were compared with conventional stainless steel stirred tank reactors (STR) cultivations. Good growth of all investigated microorganisms cultivated in the bag reactor was found. E. ramulus showed growth rates of μ=0.56 h⁻¹ (bag) and μ=0.53 h⁻¹ (STR). Differences concerning morphology, enzymatic activities and growth in fungal cultivations were observed. In the bag reactor growth in form of small, independent pellets was observed while STR cultivations showed intense aggregation. F. velutipes reached higher biomass concentrations (21.2 g l⁻¹ DCW vs. 16.8 g l⁻¹ DCW) and up to 2-fold higher peptidolytic activities in comparison to cell cultivation in stirred tank reactors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural and stress analysis of nuclear piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Hiromichi

    1982-01-01

    The design of the strength of piping system is important in plant design, and its outline on the example of PWRs is reported. The standards and guides concerning the design of the strength of piping system are shown. The design condition for the strength of piping system is determined by considering the requirements in the normal operation of plants and for the safety design of plants, and the loads in normal operation, testing, credible accident and natural environment are explained. The methods of analysis for piping system are related to the transient phenomena of fluid, piping structure and local heat conduction, and linear static analysis, linear time response analysis, nonlinear time response analysis, thermal stress analysis and fluid transient phenomenon analysis are carried out. In the aseismatic design of piping system, it is desirable to avoid the vibration together with a building supporting it, and as a rule, to make it into rigid structure. The piping system is classified into high temperature and low temperature pipings. The formulas for calculating stress and the allowable condition, the points to which attention must be paid in the design of piping strength and the matters to be investigated hereafter are described. (Kako, I.)

  16. Interpreting anomalies observed in oxide semiconductor TFTs under negative and positive bias stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, J.W.; Nathan, A.; Barquinha, P.; Pereira, L.; Fortunato, E.; Martins, R.; Cobb, B.

    2016-01-01

    Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors can show anomalous behavior under bias stress. Two types of anomalies are discussed in this paper. The first is the shift in threshold voltage (VTH) in a direction opposite to the applied bias stress, and highly dependent on gate dielectric material. We

  17. System for stress corrosion conditions tests on PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Andre Cesar de Jesus

    2007-01-01

    The study of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) involves the consideration and evaluation of the inherent compatibility between a material and the environment under conditions of either applied or residual stress. EAC is a critical problem because equipment, components and structure are subject to the influence of mechanical stress, water environment of different composition, temperature and different material history. Testing for resistance to EAC is one of the most effective ways to determine the interrelationships among this variables on the process of EAC. Up to now, several experimental techniques have been developed worldwide, which address different aspects of environmental caused damage. Constant loading of CT specimens test is a typical example of test, which is used for the estimation of parameters of stress corrosion cracking. To assess the initiation stages and kinetics of crack growth, the testing facility should allow active loading of specimens in the environment that is close to the actual operation conditions of assessed component. This paper presents a testing facility for stress corrosion cracking to be installed at CDTN, which was designed and developed at CDTN. The facility is used to carry out constant load tests under simulated PWR environment, where temperature, water pressure and chemistry are controlled, which are considered the most important factors in SCC. Also, the equipment operational conditions, its applications, and restrictions are presented. The system was developed to operate at temperature until 380 degree C and pressure until 180 bar. It consists in a autoclave stuck at a mechanical system, responsible of producing load , a water treatment station, and a data acquisition system. This testing facility allows the evaluation of cracking progress, especially at PWR reactor. (author) operational conditions. (author)

  18. On the complete system of observables in quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, César R.

    1990-10-01

    This paper contains a series of remarks about the concept of Complete System of Observables (CSO) in quantum mechanics and a discussion of two definitions of CSO, one given by Jauch [Helv. Phys. Acta 33, 711 (1960)] and the other by Prugovecki [Can. J. Phys. 47, 1083 (1968)].

  19. Tourism and Arctic Observation Systems: exploring the relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barre, de la Suzanne; Maher, Patrick; Dawson, Jackie; Hillmer-Pegram, Kevin; Huijbens, Edward; Lamers, M.A.J.; Liggett, D.; Müller, D.; Pashkevich, A.; Stewart, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing

  20. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Photometric observations of the over-contact binary ER ORI were performed during November 2007 and February to April 2008 with the 51cm telescope of Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University in U, B and V filters (Johnson system) and an RCA 4509 photomultiplier. We used these data to obtain the light curves ...

  1. INVIS : Integrated night vision surveillance and observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Dijk, J.; Son, R. van

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and first field trial results of the all-day all-weather INVIS Integrated Night Vision surveillance and observation System. The INVIS augments a dynamic three-band false-color nightvision image with synthetic 3D imagery in a real-time display. The night vision sensor suite

  2. The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS): New developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summerhayes, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    GOOS will provide information about the present and future states of seas and oceans and their living resources, and on the role of the oceans in climate change. Among other things, it will include monitoring the extent to which the sea is polluted, and applying models enabling the behaviour of polluted environments to be forecast given a variety of forcing conditions including anthropogenic and natural changes. Implementation has begun through integration of previously separate existing observing systems into a GOOS Initial Observing System, and through the development of Pilot Projects, most notably in the coastal seas of Europe and North-east Asia. Although the present emphasis is on the measurement of physical properties, plans are underway for increasing the observation of chemical and biological parameters. The main biological thrust at present comes through the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN). Consideration needs to be given to incorporation into the GOOS Initial Observing System of present national, international and global chemical and biological monitoring systems, and the development and implementation of new chemical and biological monitoring subsystems, especially in coastal seas for monitoring the health of those environments. GOOS will offer marine scientists and other users a scheme of continuing measurements on a scale larger in time and space than can be accomplished by individuals for their own applications, and a vastly improved store of basic marine environmental data for a multitude of purposes. For GOOS news see the GOOS Homepage at http://ioc.unesco.org/GOOS/. (author)

  3. Emerging Methods and Systems for Observing Life in the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, F.; Pearlman, J.; Simmons, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing need for observations of life in the sea at time and space scales consistent with those made for physical and chemical parameters. International programs such as the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and Marine Biodiversity Observation Networks (MBON) are making the case for expanded biological observations and working diligently to prioritize essential variables. Here we review past, present and emerging systems and methods for observing life in the sea from the perspective of maintaining continuous observations over long time periods. Methods that rely on ships with instrumentation and over-the-side sample collections will need to be supplemented and eventually replaced with those based from autonomous platforms. Ship-based optical and acoustic instruments are being reduced in size and power for deployment on moorings and autonomous vehicles. In parallel a new generation of low power, improved resolution sensors are being developed. Animal bio-logging is evolving with new, smaller and more sophisticated tags being developed. New genomic methods, capable of assessing multiple trophic levels from a single water sample, are emerging. Autonomous devices for genomic sample collection are being miniaturized and adapted to autonomous vehicles. The required processing schemes and methods for these emerging data collections are being developed in parallel with the instrumentation. An evolving challenge will be the integration of information from these disparate methods given that each provides their own unique view of life in the sea.

  4. Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations launched in response to calls for action by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and by the G8 (Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries. These high-level meetings recognized that international collaboration is essential for exploiting the growing potential of Earth observations to support decision making in an increasingly complex and environmentally stressed world. To this aim is constructing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan for the period 2005 to 2015 when it will become operational. As a large-scale integrated system handling large datasets as those provided by Earth Observation, GEOSS needs to face several challenges related to big data handling and big data infrastructures management. Referring to the traditional multiple Vs characteristics of Big Data (volume, variety, velocity, veracity and visualization) it is evident how most of them can be found in data handled by GEOSS. In particular, concerning Volume, Earth Observation already generates a large amount of data which can be estimated in the range of Petabytes (1015 bytes), with Exabytes (1018) already targeted. Moreover, the challenge is related not only to the data size, but also to the large amount of datasets (not necessarily having a big size) that systems need to manage. Variety is the other main challenge since datasets coming from different sensors, processed for different use-cases are published with highly heterogeneous metadata and data models, through different service interfaces. Innovative multidisciplinary applications need to access and use those datasets in a harmonized way. Moreover Earth Observation data are growing in size and variety at an exceptionally fast rate and new technologies and applications, including crowdsourcing, will even increase data volume and variety in the next future

  5. Stress and its risk factors in medical students: an observational study from a medical college in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Madhumita; Hazra, Avijit; Sarkar, Sumantra; Mondal, Rakesh; Ghosal, Malay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Stress in medical students is well established. It may affect academic performance and lead to anxiety, depression, substance abuse, and burnouts. There is limited data on stress in Indian medical students. We conducted an analytical observational study to assess the magnitude of stress and identify possible "stressors" in medical students of a teaching hospital in Kolkata. This questionnaire-based study was conducted in the Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata with consenting undergraduate students of 3rd, 6th, and 9th (final) semesters, during lecture classes in individual semesters on a particular day. The students were not informed about the session beforehand and were assured of confidentiality. The first part of the questionnaire captured personal and interpersonal details which could be sources of stress. The rest comprised three rating scales--the 28-item General Health Questionnaire to identify the existence of stress, the Warwick-Edinburgh mental well-being scale to assess the mental well-being, and the revised version of the Lubben social network scale to assess the social networking. The responses and scores were compared between the three semesters as well as between various subgroups based on baseline characteristics. Data from 215 respondents were analyzed--approximately 75% were male, 45% came from rural background, 25% from low-income families, and 60% from vernacular medium. Totally, 113 (52.56%; 95% confidence interval: 43.35-61.76%) students were found to be stressed, without significant difference in stress incidence between the semesters. About 60% of the female students were stressed in contrast to 50% of the males, but this observed difference was not statistically significant. The mental well-being and social networking of stressed respondents suffered in comparison to their non-stressed counterparts. The stress incidence in medical students in this institution in India is high and is negatively affecting their

  6. A tethered balloon system for observation of atmospheric temperature inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takashi; Kakuta, Michio

    1979-05-01

    In environmental assessment of near-shore nuclear plants, information is often required on the development of internal boundary layer (IBL) and associated fumigation condition. Single tower data is not sufficient to clarify the site-dependent IBL structure that affects the atmospheric diffusion in shoreline-stack-site boundary complex. A tethered balloon system has been developed, which comprises a fixed point kitoon and a car-borne small balloon. The system enables us to measure the detailed time-space distribution of temperature without much man-power. The system and example of field observations with it are described. (author)

  7. The RITMARE Ocean Observing System for the Italian Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crise, A.

    2016-02-01

    Among its objectives, the Italian RITMARE Flagship Programme has the aim to produce a prototype of the RITMARE Ocean observing system explicitelly designed to provide a powerful infrastructure to the Italian marine science community, to help implement national and Europen environmental regulations and to contribute to the future European Ocean Observing System. The projects takes advantage of the existing platforms (fixed-point moorings, HF and X-band radars, gliders, satellite products), that constitute the basic components of the system. The structure of the RITMARE Ocean observing system is composed by a permanent component (mooring network, satellite images, HF radars) and relocatable component (gliders, drifters, relocatable infrastructures). The increasing number of available relocatable/expandable platforms allow a much larger flexibility in term of allocation of observations but requires an sampling strategy the can be modified according the scientific and socio-economic priorities. As an example, RITMARE focus is set on an experiment on the South Adriatic Pit convective area and its dynamic interactions with the adjacent Bari Canyon cascading site. (Central Mediterranean Sea). Additional effort is paid to support innovation for sensors (e.g. ship-borne LIDAR, stereo-optic directional wave detection, X-band radar innovative products), operational employment of gliders (e.g. Wave Glider) and new class of operational models. The integration can be obtained at different level: the is expected to be achieved at ICT level by defining standard interfaces (NedCDF, SOS) and catalogs in order to facilitate the discovery, viewing and downloading services of data and products. The implementation of a distributed platform-oriented RT repositories adopt a number of THREDDS web servers that act as endpoints for the RITMARE portal. The final aim is to decouple the platforms from the observations, moving from a set of observation to a suite of Essential Ocean Variables by

  8. [Effect of External Irradiation and Immobilization Stress on the Reproductive System of Male Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereschako, G G; Tshueshova, N V; Gorokh, G A; Kozlov, I G; Naumov, A D

    2016-01-01

    We studied the state of the reproductive system of male rats after irradiation at a dose of 2.0 Gy, immobilization stress (6 hours/day for 7 days) and their combined effects. On the 30th day after the combined treatment (37 days after irradiation) a decrease in the testicular weight by almost 50% compared with the control and lesions connected with the process of spermatogenesis are observed. In the remote period--on the 60th day (67th after irradiation) the effect of irradiation and irradiation in combination with immobilization stress leads to a sharp drop in the number of epididymal sperm (up to 18% of the control), and a reduction of their viability. The reaction ofthe reproductive system to the immobilization stress is expressed in a certain increase in the mass of the testes and epididymis, moderate imbalances in the composition of spermatogenic cells in the testis tissue, and in the long term--in the increased number of epididymal sperm and the decrease in their viability. Changes of testosterone in the blood serum, especially significant for the combined effect, reflect impairments of the regulation of the reproductive system of males under these conditions. With regard to individual indicators of the reproductive system of male rats in some cases, the- combined effects of radiation and stress had a synergistic, or, on the contrary, antagonistic character.

  9. Design of coherent quantum observers for linear quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuglar, Shanon L; Amini, Hadis

    2014-01-01

    Quantum versions of control problems are often more difficult than their classical counterparts because of the additional constraints imposed by quantum dynamics. For example, the quantum LQG and quantum H ∞ optimal control problems remain open. To make further progress, new, systematic and tractable methods need to be developed. This paper gives three algorithms for designing coherent quantum observers, i.e., quantum systems that are connected to a quantum plant and their outputs provide information about the internal state of the plant. Importantly, coherent quantum observers avoid measurements of the plant outputs. We compare our coherent quantum observers with a classical (measurement-based) observer by way of an example involving an optical cavity with thermal and vacuum noises as inputs. (paper)

  10. Osteoarchaeological Studies of Human Systemic Stress of Early Urbanization in Late Shang at Anyang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Merrett, Deborah C.; Jing, Zhichun; Tang, Jigen; He, Yuling; Yue, Hongbin; Yue, Zhanwei; Yang, Dongya Y.

    2016-01-01

    Through the analysis of human skeletal remains and mortuary practice in Yinxu, this study investigates the impact of early urbanization on the commoners during the Late Shang dynasty (ca. 1250–1046 B.C.). A total of 347 individuals examined in this study represent non-elites who were recovered from two different burial contexts (formally buried in lineage cemeteries and randomly scattered in refuse pits). Frequencies of enamel hypoplasia (childhood stress), cribra orbitalia (childhood stress and frailty) and osteoperiostitis (adult stress) were examined to assess systemic stress exposure. Our results reveal that there was no significant difference in the frequency of enamel hypoplasia between two burial groups and between sexes, suggesting these urban commoners experienced similar stresses during childhood, but significantly elevated levels of cribra orbitalia and osteoperiostitis were observed in the refuse pit female cohort. Theoretically, urbanization would have resulted in increased population density in the urban centre, declining sanitary conditions, and increased risk of resource shortage. Biologically, children would be more vulnerable to such physiological disturbance; as a result, high percentages of enamel hypoplasia (80.9% overall) and cribra orbitalia (30.3% overall) are observed in Yin commoners. Adults continued to suffer from stress, resulting in high frequencies of osteoperiostitis (40.0% total adults); in particular, in the refuse pit females who may also reflect a compound impact of gender inequality. Our data show that the non-elite urban population in the capital city of Late Shang Dynasty had experienced extensive stress exposure due to early urbanization with further social stratification only worsening the situation, and eventually contributing to collapse of the Shang Dynasty. PMID:27050400

  11. Neighborhood Stress and Autonomic Nervous System Activity during Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellman, Thomas Alan; Bell, Kimberly Ann; Abu-Bader, Soleman Hassan; Kobayashi, Ihori

    2018-04-04

    Stressful neighborhood environments are known to adversely impact health and contribute to health disparities but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Healthy sleep can provide a respite from sustained sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Our objective was to evaluate relationships between neighborhood stress and nocturnal and daytime SNS and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity. Eighty five urban-residing African Americans (56.5% female; mean age of 23.0) participated. Evaluation included surveys of neighborhood stress and sleep-related vigilance; and continuous ECG and actigraphic recording in participants' homes from which heart rate variability (HRV) analysis for low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio and normalized high frequency (nHF), as indicators of SNS and PNS activity, respectively, and total sleep time (TST), and wake after sleep onset were derived. All significant relationships with HRV measures were from the sleep period. Neighborhood disorder correlated negatively with nHF (r = -.24, p = .035). There were also significant correlations of HRV indices with sleep duration and sleep fears. Among females, LF/HF correlated with exposure to violence, r = .39, p = .008 and nHF with census tract rates for violent crime (r = -.35, p = .035). In a stepwise regression, TST accounted for the variance contributed by violent crime to nHF in the female participants. Further investigation of relationships between neighborhood environments and SNS/PNS balance during sleep and their consequences, and strategies for mitigating such effects would have implications for health disparities.

  12. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  13. SCHeMA web-based observation data information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellino, Antonio; Benedetti, Giacomo; D'Angelo, Paolo; Confalonieri, Fabio; Massa, Francesco; Povero, Paolo; Tercier-Waeber, Marie-Louise

    2016-04-01

    It is well recognized that the need of sharing ocean data among non-specialized users is constantly increasing. Initiatives that are built upon international standards will contribute to simplify data processing and dissemination, improve user-accessibility also through web browsers, facilitate the sharing of information across the integrated network of ocean observing systems; and ultimately provide a better understanding of the ocean functioning. The SCHeMA (Integrated in Situ Chemical MApping probe) Project is developing an open and modular sensing solution for autonomous in situ high resolution mapping of a wide range of anthropogenic and natural chemical compounds coupled to master bio-physicochemical parameters (www.schema-ocean.eu). The SCHeMA web system is designed to ensure user-friendly data discovery, access and download as well as interoperability with other projects through a dedicated interface that implements the Global Earth Observation System of Systems - Common Infrastructure (GCI) recommendations and the international Open Geospatial Consortium - Sensor Web Enablement (OGC-SWE) standards. This approach will insure data accessibility in compliance with major European Directives and recommendations. Being modular, the system allows the plug-and-play of commercially available probes as well as new sensor probess under development within the project. The access to the network of monitoring probes is provided via a web-based system interface that, being implemented as a SOS (Sensor Observation Service), is providing standard interoperability and access tosensor observations systems through O&M standard - as well as sensor descriptions - encoded in Sensor Model Language (SensorML). The use of common vocabularies in all metadatabases and data formats, to describe data in an already harmonized and common standard is a prerequisite towards consistency and interoperability. Therefore, the SCHeMA SOS has adopted the SeaVox common vocabularies populated by

  14. Enhancement of observability and protection of smart power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Abdul Hasib

    It is important for a modern power grid to be smarter in order to provide reliable and sustainable supply of electricity. Traditional way of receiving data from the wired system is a very old and outdated technology. For a quicker and better response from the electric system, it is important to look at wireless systems as a feasible option. In order to enhance the observability and protection it is important to integrate wireless technology with the modern power system. In this thesis, wireless network based architecture for wide area monitoring and an alternate method for performing current measurement for protection of generators and motors, has been adopted. There are basically two part of this project. First part deals with the wide area monitoring of the power system and the second part focuses more on application of wireless technology from the protection point of view. A number of wireless method have been adopted in both the part, these includes Zigbee, analog transmission (Both AM and FM) and digital transmission. The main aim of our project was to propose a cost effective wide area monitoring and protection method which will enhance the observability and stability of power grid. A new concept of wireless integration in the power protection system has been implemented in this thesis work.

  15. Satellite Observations of Imprint of Oceanic Current on Wind Stress by Air-Sea Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Lionel; McWilliams, James C; Masson, Sebastien

    2017-12-18

    Mesoscale eddies are present everywhere in the ocean and partly determine the mean state of the circulation and ecosystem. The current feedback on the surface wind stress modulates the air-sea transfer of momentum by providing a sink of mesoscale eddy energy as an atmospheric source. Using nine years of satellite measurements of surface stress and geostrophic currents over the global ocean, we confirm that the current-induced surface stress curl is linearly related to the current vorticity. The resulting coupling coefficient between current and surface stress (s τ [N s m -3 ]) is heterogeneous and can be roughly expressed as a linear function of the mean surface wind. s τ expresses the sink of eddy energy induced by the current feedback. This has important implications for air-sea interaction and implies that oceanic mean and mesoscale circulations and their effects on surface-layer ventilation and carbon uptake are better represented in oceanic models that include this feedback.

  16. Verifying Embedded Systems using Component-based Runtime Observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Wei; Marian, Nicolae; Angelov, Christo K.

    against formally specified properties. This paper presents a component-based design method for runtime observers, which are configured from instances of prefabricated reusable components---Predicate Evaluator (PE) and Temporal Evaluator (TE). The PE computes atomic propositions for the TE; the latter...... is a reconfigurable component processing a data structure, representing the state transition diagram of a non-deterministic state machine, i.e. a Buchi automaton derived from a system property specified in Linear Temporal Logic (LTL). Observer components have been implemented using design models and design patterns...

  17. Observability of linear control systems on Lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, V.; Hacibekiroglu, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we study the observability problem for a linear control system Σ on a Lie group G. The drift vector field of Σ is an infinitesimal automorphism of G and the control vectors are elements in the Lie algebra of G. We establish algebraic conditions to characterize locally and globally observability for Σ. As in the linear case on R n , these conditions are independent of the control vector. We give an algorithm on the co-tangent bundle of G to calculate the equivalence class of the neutral element. (author). 6 refs

  18. Dysregulated physiological stress systems and accelerated cellular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Révész, Dóra; Verhoeven, Josine E; Milaneschi, Yuri; de Geus, Eco J C N; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to chronic stressors is associated with accelerated biological aging as indicated by reduced leukocyte telomere length (LTL). This impact could be because of chronic overactivation of the body's physiological stress systems. This study examined the associations between LTL and the immune system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. LTL was assessed in 2936 adults from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Inflammation markers (interleukin-6, c-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha), hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis indicators (salivary cortisol awakening curve [area under the curve indicators, with respect to the ground and increase], evening levels, 0.5 mg dexamethasone cortisol suppression ratio), and autonomic nervous system measures (heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, pre-ejection period) were determined. Linear regression analyses were performed and adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors. Shorter LTL was significantly associated with higher c-reactive protein, interleukin-6, area under the curve with respect to increase, and heart rate. A cumulative index score was calculated based on the number of highest tertiles of these 4 stress markers. LTL demonstrated a significant gradient within subjects ranging from having zero (5528 base pairs) to having 4 elevated stress markers (5371 base pairs, p for trend = 0.002), corresponding to a difference of 10 years of accelerated biological aging. Contrary to the expectations, shorter LTL was also associated with longer pre-ejection period, indicating lower sympathetic tone. This large-scale study showed that inflammation, high awakening cortisol response, and increased heart rate are associated with shorter LTL, especially when they are dysregulated cumulatively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regional bone geometry of the tibia in triathletes and stress reactions--an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsham-West, Richard J; Lyons, Brett; Milburn, Peter D

    2014-03-01

    The association between tibial morphology and tibial stress fractures or tibial stress syndrome was examined in triathletes with an unusually high incidence of these injuries. A cross-sectional study design examined associations between tibial geometry from MRI images and training and injury data between male and female triathletes and between stress fracture (SF) and non-stress fracture (NSF) groups. Fifteen athletes (7 females, 8 males) aged 17-23 years who were currently able to train and race were recruited from the New Zealand Triathlete Elite Development Squad. Geometric measurements were taken at 5 zones along the tibia using MRI and compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic tibiae subjects. SF tibiae displayed either oedema within the cancellous bone and/or stress fracture on MRI. When collapsed across levels, symptomatic tibiae had thicker medial cortices (F1,140=9.285, p=0.003), thicker lateral cortices (F1,140=10.129, p=0.002) and thinner anterior cortices (F1,140=14.517, p=0.000) than NSF tibiae. Only medial cortex thickness in SF tibia was significantly different (F4,140=3.358, p=0.012) at different levels. Follow-up analysis showed that athletes showing oedema within the cancellous bone and/or stress fracture on MRI had, within 2 years of analysis, subsequently taken time off training and racing due a tibial stress fracture. The thinner anterior cortex in SF tibiae is associated with a stress reaction in these triathletes. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Global Geodetic Observing System: Recent Activities and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) provides the basis on which future advances in geosciences can be built. By considering the Earth system as a whole (including the geosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere and biosphere), monitoring Earth system components and their interactions by geodetic techniques and studying them from the geodetic point of view, the geodetic community provides the global geosciences community with a powerful tool consisting mainly of high-quality services, standards and references, and theoretical and observational innovations. The mission of GGOS is: (a) to provide the observations needed to monitor, map and understand changes in the Earth's shape, rotation and mass distribution; (b) to provide the global frame of reference that is the fundamental backbone for measuring and consistently interpreting key global change processes and for many other scientific and societal applications; and (c) to benefit science and society by providing the foundation upon which advances in Earth and planetary system science and applications are built. The goals of GGOS are: (1) to be the primary source for all global geodetic information and expertise serving society and Earth system science; (2) to actively promote, sustain, improve, and evolve the integrated global geodetic infrastructure needed to meet Earth science and societal requirements; (3) to coordinate with the international geodetic services that are the main source of key parameters and products needed to realize a stable global frame of reference and to observe and study changes in the dynamic Earth system; (4) to communicate and advocate the benefits of GGOS to user communities, policy makers, funding organizations, and society. In order to accomplish its mission and goals, GGOS depends on the IAG Services, Commissions, and Inter-Commission Committees. The Services provide the infrastructure and products on which all contributions

  1. Towards disruptions in Earth observation? New Earth Observation systems and markets evolution: Possible scenarios and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Gil; Claverie, Alain; Pasco, Xavier; Darnis, Jean-Pierre; de Maupeou, Benoît; Lafaye, Murielle; Morel, Eric

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews the trends in Earth observation (EO) and the possible impacts on markets of the new initiatives, launched either by existing providers of EO data or by new players, privately funded. After a presentation of the existing models, the paper discusses the new approaches, addressing both commercial and institutional markets. New concepts for the very high resolution markets, in Europe and in the US, are the main focus of this analysis. Two complementary perspectives are summarised: on the one hand, the type of system and its operational performance and, on the other, the related business models, concepts of operation and ownership schemes.

  2. LBT observations of the HR8799 planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, D.; Arcidiacono, C.; Claudi, R. U.; Desidera, S.; Esposito, S.; Gratton, R.; Masciadri, E.

    2013-09-01

    We present here observations of the HR8799 planetary system performed in H and Ks band exploiting the AO system at the Large Binocular Telescope and the PISCES camera. Thanks to the excellent performence of the instrument we were able to detect for the first time the inner known planet of the system (HR8799) in the H band. Precise photometric and astrometric measures have been taken for all the four planets. Further, exploiting ours and previous astrometric results, we were able to put some limits on the planetary orbits of the four planets. The analysis of the dinamical stability of the system seems to show lower planetary masses than the ones adopted until now.

  3. OBSERVING LYAPUNOV EXPONENTS OF INFINITE-DIMENSIONAL DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, William; Rivas, Mauricio A; West, James

    2015-12-01

    Can Lyapunov exponents of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems be observed by projecting the dynamics into ℝ N using a 'typical' nonlinear projection map? We answer this question affirmatively by developing embedding theorems for compact invariant sets associated with C 1 maps on Hilbert spaces. Examples of such discrete-time dynamical systems include time- T maps and Poincaré return maps generated by the solution semigroups of evolution partial differential equations. We make every effort to place hypotheses on the projected dynamics rather than on the underlying infinite-dimensional dynamical system. In so doing, we adopt an empirical approach and formulate checkable conditions under which a Lyapunov exponent computed from experimental data will be a Lyapunov exponent of the infinite-dimensional dynamical system under study (provided the nonlinear projection map producing the data is typical in the sense of prevalence).

  4. Multiscale Observation System for Sea Ice Drift and Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensu, M.; Haapala, J. J.; Heiler, I.; Karvonen, J.; Suominen, M.

    2011-12-01

    The drift and deformation of sea ice cover is most commonly followed from successive SAR images. The time interval between the images is seldom less than one day which provides rather crude approximation of the motion fields as ice can move tens of kilometers per day. This is particulary so from the viewpoint of operative services, seeking to provide real time information for ice navigating ships and other end users, as leads are closed and opened or ridge fields created in time scales of one hour or less. The ice forecast models are in a need of better temporal resolution for ice motion data as well. We present experiences from a multiscale monitoring system set up to the Bay of Bothnia, the northernmost basin of the Baltic Sea. The basin generates difficult ice conditions every winter while the ports are kept open with the help of an icebreaker fleet. The key addition to SAR imagery is the use of coastal radars for the monitoring of coastal ice fields. An independent server is used to tap the radar signal and process it to suit ice monitoring purposes. This is done without interfering the basic use of the radars, the ship traffic monitoring. About 20 images per minute are captured and sent to the headquarters for motion field extraction, website animation and distribution. This provides very detailed real time picture of the ice movement and deformation within 20 km range. The real time movements are followed in addition with ice drifter arrays, and using AIS ship identification data, from which the translation of ship cannels due to ice drift can be found out. To the operative setup is associated an extensive research effort that uses the data for ice drift model enhancement. The Baltic ice models seek to forecast conditions relevant to ship traffic, especilly hazardous ones like severe ice compression. The main missing link here is downscaling, or the relation of local scale ice dynamics and kinematics to the ice model scale behaviour. The data flow when

  5. Economic Value of an Advanced Climate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific missions increasingly need to show the monetary value of knowledge advances in budget-constrained environments. For example, suppose a climate science mission promises to yield decisive information on the rate of human caused global warming within a shortened time frame. How much should society be willing to pay for this knowledge today? The US interagency memo on the social cost of carbon (SCC) creates a standard yardstick for valuing damages from carbon emissions. We illustrate how value of information (VOI) calculations can be used to monetize the relative value of different climate observations. We follow the SCC, setting uncertainty in climate sensitivity to a truncated Roe and Baker (2007) distribution, setting discount rates of 2.5%, 3% and 5%, and using one of the Integrated Assessment Models sanctioned in SCC (DICE, Nordhaus 2008). We consider three mitigation scenarios: Business as Usual (BAU), a moderate mitigation response DICE Optimal, and a strong response scenario (Stern). To illustrate results, suppose that we are on the BAU emissions scenario, and that we would switch to the Stern emissions path if we learn with 90% confidence that the decadal rate of temperature change reaches or exceeds 0.2 C/decade. Under the SCC assumptions, the year in which this happens, if it happens, depends on the uncertain climate sensitivity and on the emissions path. The year in which we become 90% certain that it happens depends, in addition, on our Earth observations, their accuracy, and their completeness. The basic concept is that more accurate observations can shorten the time for societal decisions. The economic value of the resulting averted damages depends on the discount rate, and the years in which the damages occur. A new climate observation would be economically justified if the net present value (NPV) of the difference in averted damages, relative to the existing systems, exceeds the NPV of the system costs. Our results (Cooke et al. 2013

  6. An operational, multistate, earth observation data management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Hays, T. R.; Hill, C. T.; Ballard, R. J.; Morgan, R. P.; Crnkovich, G. G.; Gohagan, J. K.; Schaeffer, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate a group of potential users of satellite remotely sensed data - state, local, and regional agencies involved in natural resources management. We assess this group's needs in five states and outline alternative data management systems to serve some of those needs. We conclude that an operational Earth Observation Data Management System (EODMS) will be of most use to these user agencies if it provides a full range of information services - from raw data acquisition to interpretation and dissemination of final information products.

  7. Dynamic Stochastic Superresolution of sparsely observed turbulent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branicki, M.; Majda, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Real-time capture of the relevant features of the unresolved turbulent dynamics of complex natural systems from sparse noisy observations and imperfect models is a notoriously difficult problem. The resulting lack of observational resolution and statistical accuracy in estimating the important turbulent processes, which intermittently send significant energy to the large-scale fluctuations, hinders efficient parameterization and real-time prediction using discretized PDE models. This issue is particularly subtle and important when dealing with turbulent geophysical systems with an vast range of interacting spatio-temporal scales and rough energy spectra near the mesh scale of numerical models. Here, we introduce and study a suite of general Dynamic Stochastic Superresolution (DSS) algorithms and show that, by appropriately filtering sparse regular observations with the help of cheap stochastic exactly solvable models, one can derive stochastically ‘superresolved’ velocity fields and gain insight into the important characteristics of the unresolved dynamics, including the detection of the so-called black swans. The DSS algorithms operate in Fourier domain and exploit the fact that the coarse observation network aliases high-wavenumber information into the resolved waveband. It is shown that these cheap algorithms are robust and have significant skill on a test bed of turbulent solutions from realistic nonlinear turbulent spatially extended systems in the presence of a significant model error. In particular, the DSS algorithms are capable of successfully capturing time-localized extreme events in the unresolved modes, and they provide good and robust skill for recovery of the unresolved processes in terms of pattern correlation. Moreover, we show that DSS improves the skill for recovering the primary modes associated with the sparse observation mesh which is equally important in applications. The skill of the various DSS algorithms depends on the energy spectrum

  8. Observation on scintigram of bone tumors by color data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kyuman

    1982-01-01

    The uptake of RI on bone scintigram was converted with a color data system to a color pattern of 12 colors. The color patterns of bone tumors were analysed in comparison them with those in contralateral part of body. The author observed on color patterns of bone scintigrams in 70 cases of bone tumors, of which 28 cases were malignant, 32 benign and 10 giant cell tumors. Differences of color pattern were found relatively low in tumors of the pelvis, whereas they were high in tumors of the limbs and shoulder. In malignant tumors, differences of the color patterns were marked and wide in range. Applying the color data system to bone scintigram, bone tumors could be objectively observed and the method was very helpful for diagnosis of bone tumors. (author)

  9. Linear system identification via backward-time observer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Phan, Minh

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to identify a state-space model of a linear system using a backward-time approach. The procedure consists of three basic steps. First, the Markov parameters of a backward-time observer are computed from experimental input-output data. Second, the backward-time observer Markov parameters are decomposed to obtain the backward-time system Markov parameters (backward-time pulse response samples) from which a backward-time state-space model is realized using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm. Third, the obtained backward-time state space model is converted to the usual forward-time representation. Stochastic properties of this approach will be discussed. Experimental results are given to illustrate when and to what extent this concept works.

  10. CORONAGRAPHIC OBSERVATIONS OF FOMALHAUT AT SOLAR SYSTEM SCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Meshkat, Tiffany; Quanz, Sascha P.; Meyer, Michael R.; Girard, Julien H.; Kasper, Markus

    2013-01-01

    We report on a search for low mass companions within 10 AU of the star Fomalhaut, using narrowband observations at 4.05 μm obtained with the Apodizing Phase Plate coronagraph on the VLT/NaCo. Our observations place a model-dependent upper mass limit of 12-20 M jup from 4 to 10 AU, covering the semimajor axis search space between interferometric imaging measurements and other direct imaging non-detections. These observations rule out models where the large semimajor axis for the putative candidate companion Fomalhaut b is explained by dynamical scattering from a more massive companion in the inner stellar system, where such giant planets are thought to form.

  11. Development of the AuScope Australian Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawling, T.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in monitoring technology and significant investment in new national research initiatives, will provide significant new opportunities for delivery of novel geoscience data streams from across the Australian continent over the next decade. The AuScope Australian Earth Observing System (AEOS) is linking field and laboratory infrastructure across Australia to form a national sensor array focusing on the Solid Earth. As such AuScope is working with these programs to deploy observational infrastructure, including MT, passive seismic, and GNSS networks across the entire Australian Continent. Where possible the observational grid will be co-located with strategic basement drilling in areas of shallow cover and tied with national reflection seismic and sampling transects. This integrated suite of distributed earth observation and imaging sensors will provide unprecedented imaging fidelity of our crust, across all length and time scales, to fundamental and applied researchers in the earth, environmental and geospatial sciences. The AEOS will the Earth Science community's Square Kilometer Array (SKA) - a distributed telescope that looks INTO the earth rather than away from it - a 10 million SKA. The AEOS is strongly aligned with other community strategic initiatives including the UNCOVER research program as well as other National Collaborative Research Infrastructure programs such as the Terrestrial Environmental Research Network (TERN) and the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) providing an interdisciplinary collaboration platform across the earth and environmental sciences. There is also very close alignment between AuScope and similar international programs such as EPOS, the USArray and EarthCube - potential collaborative linkages we are currently in the process of pursuing more fomally. The AuScope AEOS Infrastructure System is ultimately designed to enable the progressive construction, refinement and ongoing enrichment of a live, "FAIR" four

  12. IEOOS: the Spanish Institute of Oceanography Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, E.; Balbin, R.; Cabanas, J. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Garcia-Martinez, M. C.; Gonzalez-Pola, C.; Lavin, A.; Lopez-Jurado, J. L.; Rodriguez, C.; Ruiz-Villarreal, M.; Sanchez-Leal, R. F.; Vargas-Yanez, M.; Velez-Belchi, P.

    2015-10-01

    Since its foundation, 100 years ago, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) has been observing and measuring the ocean characteristics. Here is a summary of the initiatives of the IEO in the field of the operational oceanography (OO). Some systems like the tide gauges network has been working for more than 70 years. The IEO standard sections began at different moments depending on the local projects, and nowadays there are more than 180 coastal stations and deep-sea ones that are systematically sampled, obtaining physical and biochemical measurements. At this moment, the IEO Observing System (IEOOS) includes 6 permanent moorings equipped with currentmeters, an open-sea ocean-meteorological buoy offshore Santander and an SST satellital image reception station. It also supports the Spanish contribution to the ARGO international program with 47 deployed profilers, and continuous monitoring thermosalinometers, meteorological stations and ADCP onboard the IEO research vessels. The system is completed with the IEO contribution to the RAIA and Gibraltar observatories, and the development of regional prediction models. All these systematic measurements allow the IEO to give responses to ocean research activities, official agencies requirements and industrial and main society demands as navigation, resource management, risks management, recreation, etc, as well as for management development pollution-related economic activities or marine ecosystems. All these networks are linked to international initiatives, framed largely in supranational programs Earth observation sponsored by the United Nations or the European Union. The synchronic observation system permits following spatio-temporal description of some events, as new deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea and the injection of heat to intermediate waters in the Bay of Biscay after some colder northern storms in winter 2005.

  13. Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: The Gulf Component of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L. J.; Moersdorf, P. F.

    2005-05-01

    The United States is developing an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) as the U.S. component of the international Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). IOOS consists of: (1) a coastal observing system for the U.S. EEZ, estuaries, and Great Lakes; and (2) a contribution to the global component of GOOS focused on climate and maritime services. The coastal component will consist of: (1) a National Backbone of observations and products from our coastal ocean supported by federal agencies; and (2) contributions of Regional Coastal Ocean Observing Systems (RCOOS). The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS) is one of eleven RCOOS. This paper describes how GCOOS is progressing as a system of systems to carry out data collection, analysis, product generation, dissemination of information, and data archival. These elements are provided by federal, state, and local government agencies, academic institutions, non-government organization, and the private sector. This end-to-end system supports the seven societal goals of the IOOS, as provided by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy: detect and forecast oceanic components of climate variability, facilitate safe and efficient marine operations, ensure national security, manage marine resources, preserve and restore healthy marine ecosystems, mitigate natural hazards, and ensure public health. The initial building blocks for GCOOS include continuing in situ observations, satellite products, models, and other information supported by federal and state government, private industry, and academia. GCOOS has compiled an inventory of such activities, together with descriptions, costs, sources of support, and possible out-year budgets. These activities provide information that will have broader use as they are integrated and enhanced. GCOOS has begun that process by several approaches. First, GCOOS has established a web site (www.gcoos.org) which is a portal to such activities and contains pertinent information

  14. NIRCam Coronagraphic Observations of Disks and Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichman, Charles A.; Ygouf, Marie; Gaspar, Andras; NIRCam Science Team

    2017-06-01

    The NIRCam coronagraph offers a dramatic increase in sensitivity at wavelengths of 3-5 um where young planets are brightest. While large ground-based telescopes with Extreme Adaptive Optics have an advantage in inner working angle, NIRCam's sensitivity will allow high precision photometry for known planets and searches for planets with masses below that of Saturn. For debris disk science NIRCam observations will address the scattering properties of dust, look for evidence of ices and tholins, and search for planets which affect the structure of the disk itself.The NIRCam team's GTO program includes medium-band filter observations of known young planets having 1-5 Jupiter masses. A collaborative program with the MIRI team will provide coronagraphic observations at longer wavelengths. The combined dataset will yield the exoplanet’s total luminosity and effective temperature, an estimate of the initial entropy of the newly-formed planet, and the retrieval of atmospheric properties.The program will also make deep searches for lower mass planets toward known planetary systems, nearby young M stars and debris disk systems. Achievable mass limits range from ~1 Jupiter mass beyond 20 AU for the brightest A stars to perhaps a Uranus mass within 10 AU for the closest M stars.We will discuss details of the coronagraphic program for both the exoplanet and debris disk cases with an emphasis on using APT to optimize the observations of target and reference stars.

  15. Climate Outreach Using Regional Coastal Ocean Observing System Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. M.; Hernandez, D. L.; Wakely, A.; Bochenek, R. J.; Bickel, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal oceans are dynamic, changing environments affected by processes ranging from seconds to millennia. On the east and west coast of the U.S., regional observing systems have deployed and sustained a remarkable diverse array of observing tools and sensors. Data portals visualize and provide access to real-time sensor networks. Portals have emerged as an interactive tool for educators to help students explore and understand climate. Bringing data portals to outreach events, into classrooms, and onto tablets and smartphones enables educators to address topics and phenomena happening right now. For example at the 2015 Charleston Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Festival, visitors navigated the SECOORA (Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing regional Association) data portal to view the real-time marine meteorological conditions off South Carolina. Map-based entry points provide an intuitive interface for most students, an array of time series and other visualizations depict many of the essential principles of climate science manifest in the coastal zone, and data down-load/ extract options provide access to the data and documentation for further inquiry by advanced users. Beyond the exposition of climate principles, the portal experience reveals remarkable technologies in action and shows how the observing system is enabled by the activity of many different partners.

  16. Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaoming; Luo Haigeng; Yue Chaoyuan; Liao Xiaoxin

    2008-01-01

    Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer is discussed generally. Based on the work of Guan et al. [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26], the design of unknown parameter observer is improved. The application of the improved approach is extended greatly. The works in some literatures [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26; J.H. Lue, S.C. Zhang, Phys. Lett. A 286 (2001) 148; X.Q. Wu, J.A. Lu, Chaos Solitons Fractals 18 (2003) 721; J. Liu, S.H. Chen, J. Xie, Chaos Solitons Fractals 19 (2004) 533] are only the special cases of our Corollaries 1 and 2. Some observers for Lue system and a new chaos system are designed to test our improved method, and simulations results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the improved approach

  17. Responses to reductive stress in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Diane E; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing appreciation that reductive stress represents a disturbance in the redox state that is harmful to biological systems. On a cellular level, the presence of increased reducing equivalents and the lack of beneficial fluxes of reactive oxygen species can prevent growth factor-mediated signaling, promote mitochondrial dysfunction, increase apoptosis, and decrease cell survival. In this review, we highlight the importance of redox balance in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis and consider the tenuous balance between oxidative and reductive stress. We explain the role of reductive stress in models of protein aggregation-induced cardiomyopathies, such as those caused by mutations in αB-crystallin. In addition, we discuss the role of NADPH oxidases in models of heart failure and ischemia-reperfusion to illustrate how oxidants may mediate the adaptive responses to injury. NADPH oxidase 4, a hydrogen peroxide generator, also has a major role in promoting vascular homeostasis through its regulation of vascular tone, angiogenic responses, and effects on atherogenesis. In contrast, the lack of antioxidant enzymes that reduce hydrogen peroxide, such as glutathione peroxidase 1, promotes vascular remodeling and is deleterious to endothelial function. Thus, we consider the role of oxidants as necessary signals to promote adaptive responses, such as the activation of Nrf2 and eNOS, and the stabilization of Hif1. In addition, we discuss the adaptive metabolic reprogramming in hypoxia that lead to a reductive state, and the subsequent cellular redistribution of reducing equivalents from NADH to other metabolites. Finally, we discuss the paradoxical ability of excess reducing equivalents to stimulate oxidative stress and promote injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stress analysis of CVD diamond window for ECH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koji

    2001-03-01

    The stress analysis of a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond window for Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH/ECCD) system of fusion reactors is described. It was found that the real size diamond window (φ aper =70mm, t=2.25mm) withstood 14.5 atm. (1.45 MPa). The calculation results of the diamond window by ABAQUS code agree well with the results of the pressure test. The design parameters of the torus diamond window for a vacuum and a safety barrier were also obtained. (author)

  19. New design deforming controlling system of the active stressed lap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Li; Wang, Daxing

    2008-07-01

    A 450mm diameter active stressed lap has been developed in NIAOT by 2003. We design a new lap in 2007. This paper puts on emphases on introducing the new deforming control system of the lap. Aiming at the control characteristic of the lap, a new kind of digital deforming controller is designed. The controller consists of 3 parts: computer signal disposing, motor driving and force sensor signal disposing. Intelligent numeral PID method is applied in the controller instead of traditional PID. In the end, the result of new deformation are given.

  20. Nonlinear observer designs for fuel cell power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgun, Haluk

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that combines hydrogen and oxygen, with the aid of electro-catalysts, to produce electricity. A fuel cell consists of a negatively charged anode, a positively charged cathode and an electrolyte, which transports protons or ions. A low temperature fuel cell has an electrical potential of about 0.7 Volt when generating a current density of 300--500 mA/cm2. Practical fuel cell power systems will require a combination of several cells in series (a stack) to satisfy the voltage requirements of specific applications. Fuel cells are suitable for a potentially wide variety of applications, from stationary power generation in the range of hundreds of megawatts to portable electronics in the range of a couple of watts. Efficient operation of a fuel cell system requires advanced feedback control designs. Reliable measurements from the system are necessary to implement such designs. However, most of the commercially available sensors do not operate properly in the reformate and humidified gas streams in fuel cell systems. Sensors working varying degrees of success are too big and costly, and sensors that are potentially low cost are not reliable or do not have the required life time [28]. Observer designs would eliminate sensor needs for measurements, and make feedback control implementable. Since the fuel cell system dynamics are highly nonlinear, observer design is not an easy task. In this study we aim to develop nonlinear observer design methods applicable to fuel cell systems. In part I of the thesis we design an observer to estimate the hydrogen partial pressure in the anode channel. We treat inlet partial pressure as an unknown slowly varying parameter and develop an adaptive observer that employs a nonlinear voltage injection term. However in this design Fuel Processing System (FPS) dynamics are not modelled, and their effect on the anode dynamics are treated as plant uncertainty. In part II of the thesis we study the FPS

  1. Comparing usage of a web and app stress management intervention: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne G. Morrison

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Choices in the design and delivery of digital health behaviour interventions may have a direct influence on subsequent usage and engagement. Few studies have been able to make direct, detailed comparisons of differences in usage between interventions that are delivered via web or app. This study compared the usage of two versions of a digital stress management intervention, one delivered via a website (Healthy Paths and the other delivered via an app (Healthy Mind. Design modifications were introduced within Healthy Mind to take account of reported differences in how individuals engage with websites compared to apps and mobile phones. Data were collected as part of an observational study nested within a broader exploratory trial of Healthy Mind. Objective usage of Healthy Paths and Healthy Mind were automatically recorded, including frequency and duration of logins, access to specific components within the intervention and order of page/screen visits. Usage was compared for a two week period following initial registration. In total, 381 participants completed the registration process for Healthy Paths (web and 162 participants completed the registration process for Healthy Mind (app. App users logged in twice as often (Mdn = 2.00 as web users (Mdn = 1.00, U = 13,059.50, p ≤ 0.001, but spent half as much time (Mdn = 5.23 min on the intervention compared to web users (Mdn = 10.52 min, U = 19,740.00, p ≤ 0.001. Visual exploration of usage patterns over time revealed that a significantly higher proportion of app users (n = 126, 82.35% accessed both types of support available within the intervention (i.e. awareness and change-focused tools compared to web users (n = 92, 40.17%, χ2(1, n = 382 = 66.60, p < 0.001. This study suggests that the digital platform used to deliver an intervention (i.e. web versus app and specific design choices (e.g. navigation, length and volume of content may be

  2. Talar body fatigue stress fractures: three cases observed in elite female gymnasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, F.; Dragoni, S.

    2005-01-01

    To introduce and emphasize the clinical and radiological findings of three talar body fatigue stress fractures in competitive athletes. Clinical and radiographic skeletal records of 24,562 athletes taken between 1962 and 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. Among these, 6851 files related to acute foot and ankle injuries or chronic post-traumatic sequelae were found. There were 925 (3.76%) stress fatigue fractures selected from the whole collection. Among these there were three cases (0.32%) of talar body stress fractures diagnosed in elite female gymnasts 15 - 17 years old. The negative first radiograph become positive 4-6 weeks later. Scintigraphy was positive at an early stage and consistent for the diagnosis. CT and MRI gave positive results 1-2 weeks after the beginning of symptoms which were always greatly diagnostic. The sports medicine literature lacks reports of talar body fatigue stress fractures. The poor initial sensitivity of radiography makes it problematic to establish an early diagnosis. A wise combination of scintigraphy, CT and MRI has therefore to be relied upon. Familiarity with this rare location for a stress fracture may prevent delayed diagnosis and long-lasting damage, both of which are important factors in competitive athletes. (orig.)

  3. Talar body fatigue stress fractures: three cases observed in elite female gymnasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, F. [National Institute of Sports Medicine of the Italian Olympic Committee, Rome (Italy); Dragoni, S. [National Institute of Sports Medicine of the Italian Olympic Committee, Rome (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Medicina dello Sport, Rome (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    To introduce and emphasize the clinical and radiological findings of three talar body fatigue stress fractures in competitive athletes. Clinical and radiographic skeletal records of 24,562 athletes taken between 1962 and 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. Among these, 6851 files related to acute foot and ankle injuries or chronic post-traumatic sequelae were found. There were 925 (3.76%) stress fatigue fractures selected from the whole collection. Among these there were three cases (0.32%) of talar body stress fractures diagnosed in elite female gymnasts 15 - 17 years old. The negative first radiograph become positive 4-6 weeks later. Scintigraphy was positive at an early stage and consistent for the diagnosis. CT and MRI gave positive results 1-2 weeks after the beginning of symptoms which were always greatly diagnostic. The sports medicine literature lacks reports of talar body fatigue stress fractures. The poor initial sensitivity of radiography makes it problematic to establish an early diagnosis. A wise combination of scintigraphy, CT and MRI has therefore to be relied upon. Familiarity with this rare location for a stress fracture may prevent delayed diagnosis and long-lasting damage, both of which are important factors in competitive athletes. (orig.)

  4. Roots Withstanding their Environment: Exploiting Root System Architecture Responses to Abiotic Stress to Improve Crop Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koevoets, Iko T.; Venema, Jan Henk; Elzenga, J. Theo. M.; Testerink, Christa

    2016-01-01

    To face future challenges in crop production dictated by global climate changes, breeders and plant researchers collaborate to develop productive crops that are able to withstand a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, crop selection is often focused on shoot performance alone, as observation of root properties is more complex and asks for artificial and extensive phenotyping platforms. In addition, most root research focuses on development, while a direct link to the functionality of plasticity in root development for tolerance is often lacking. In this paper we review the currently known root system architecture (RSA) responses in Arabidopsis and a number of crop species to a range of abiotic stresses, including nutrient limitation, drought, salinity, flooding, and extreme temperatures. For each of these stresses, the key molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the RSA response are highlighted. To explore the relevance for crop selection, we especially review and discuss studies linking root architectural responses to stress tolerance. This will provide a first step toward understanding the relevance of adaptive root development for a plant’s response to its environment. We suggest that functional evidence on the role of root plasticity will support breeders in their efforts to include root properties in their current selection pipeline for abiotic stress tolerance, aimed to improve the robustness of crops. PMID:27630659

  5. Lidar-Observed Stress Vectors and Veer in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Mann, Jakob; Patton, Edward G.

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates that a pulsed wind lidar is a reliable instrument for measuring angles between horizontal vectors of significance in the atmospheric boundary layer. Three different angles are considered: the wind turning, the angle between the stress vector and the mean wind direction......, and the angle between the stress vector and the vertical gradient of the mean velocity vector. The latter is assumed to be zero by the often applied turbulent-viscosity hypothesis, so that the stress vector can be described through the vertical gradient of velocity. In the atmospheric surface layer, where...... the Coriolis force is negligible, this is supposedly a good approximation. High-resolution large-eddy simulation data show that this is indeed the case even beyond the surface layer. In contrast, through analysis of WindCube lidar measurements supported by sonic measurements, the study shows that it is only...

  6. Sharing Data in the Global Ocean Observing System (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, E. J.; McCurdy, A.; Young, J.; Fischer, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    We examine the evolution of data sharing in the field of physical oceanography to highlight the challenges now before us. Synoptic global observation of the ocean from space and in situ platforms has significantly matured over the last two decades. In the early 1990’s the community data sharing challenges facing the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) largely focused on the behavior of individual scientists. Satellite data sharing depended on the policy of individual agencies. Global data sets were delivered with considerable delay and with enormous personal sacrifice. In the 2000’s the requirements for global data sets and sustained observations from the likes of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change have led to data sharing and cooperation at a grander level. It is more effective and certainly more efficient. The Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) provided the means to organize many aspects of data collection and data dissemination globally, for the common good. In response the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites organized Virtual Constellations to enable the assembly and sharing of like kinds of satellite data (e.g., sea surface topography, ocean vector winds, and ocean color). Individuals in physical oceanography have largely adapted to the new rigors of sharing data for the common good, and as a result of this revolution new science has been enabled. Primary obstacles to sharing have shifted from the individual level to the national level. As we enter into the 2010’s the demands for ocean data continue to evolve with an expanded requirement for more real-time reporting and broader disciplinary coverage, to answer key scientific and societal questions. We are also seeing the development of more numerous national contributions to the global observing system. The drivers for the establishment of global ocean observing systems are expanding beyond climate to include biological and

  7. New Directions in the NOAO Observing Proposal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, David; Bell, Dave

    For the past eight years NOAO has been refining its on-line observing proposal system. Virtually all related processes are now handled electronically. Members of the astronomical community can submit proposals through email, web form, or via the Gemini Phase I Tool. NOAO staff can use the system to do administrative tasks, scheduling, and compilation of various statistics. In addition, all information relevant to the TAC process is made available on-line, including the proposals themselves (in HTML, PDF and PostScript) and technical comments. Grades and TAC comments are entered and edited through web forms, and can be sorted and filtered according to specified criteria. Current developments include a move away from proprietary solutions, toward open standards such as SQL (in the form of the MySQL relational database system), Perl, PHP and XML.

  8. Initial Assessment of Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKague, D. S.; Ruf, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYNSS) mission provides high temporal resolution observations of cyclones from a constellation of eight low-Earth orbiting satellites. Using the relatively new technique of Global Navigation Satellite System reflectometry (GNSS-R), all-weather observations are possible, penetrating even deep convection within hurricane eye walls. The compact nature of the GNSS-R receivers permits the use of small satellites, which in turn enables the launch of a constellation of satellites from a single launch vehicle. Launched in December of 2016, the eight CYGNSS satellites provide 25 km resolution observations of mean square slope (surface roughness) and surface winds with a 2.8 hour median revisit time from 38 S to 38 N degrees latitude. In addition to the calibration and validation of CYGNSS sea state observations, the CYGNSS science team is assessing the ability of the mission to provide estimates of cyclone size, intensity, and integrated kinetic energy. With its all-weather ability and high temporal resolution, the CYGNSS mission will add significantly to our ability to monitor cyclone genesis and intensification and will significantly reduce uncertainties in our ability to estimate cyclone intensity, a key variable in predicting its destructive potential. Members of the CYGNSS Science Team are also assessing the assimilation of CYGNSS data into hurricane forecast models to determine the impact of the data on forecast skill, using the data to study extra-tropical cyclones, and looking at connections between tropical cyclones and global scale weather, including the global hydrologic cycle. This presentation will focus on the assessment of early on-orbit observations of cyclones with respect to these various applications.

  9. Tourism and Arctic Observation Systems: exploring the relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne de la Barre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing these impacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS contribute to the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change and responsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of this article is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On the one hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrum of impact fields. On the other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and far-reaching activities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational data and participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, we provide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest to AOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, including Alaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic and Russia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. On the basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International Polar Tourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that the potential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS is significant and has been overlooked.

  10. Cortisol and melatonin in the cutaneous stress response system of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczykowska, Ewa; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Sokołowska, Ewa

    2018-04-01

    The stress hormone cortisol, together with antioxidants, melatonin (Mel) and its biologically active metabolites, 5-methoxykynuramines, including AFMK, set up a local stress response system in mammalian skin. Our in vitro study of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) was designed to examine whether Mel and AFMK would respond to cortisol while a glucocorticoid is added to the incubation medium. The concentrations of cortisol in the incubation medium mimic plasma cortisol levels seen in fish exposed to different types of stresses such as handling, confinement, high density, food-deprivation or air-exposure. We measured Mel and AFMK in skin explants and culture media using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. We also analysed melanosome response (dispersion/aggregation) in the explants subjected to the different treatments. Cortisol stimulated the release of Mel and AFMK from skin explants in a dose-dependent manner. Melanosome dispersion and a darkening of the skin explants were observed after incubation with cortisol. This study is the first to demonstrate the interrelationship between cortisol and Mel/AFMK in fish skin. Our data strongly suggest that the cutaneous stress response system (CSRS) is present in fish. The question remains whether Mel, AFMK or cortisol are synthetized locally in fish skin and/or transported by the bloodstream. The presence of the CSRS should be taken into account during elaboration of new indicators of fish welfare both in aquaculture and in the wild. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal maternal stress and atopic diseases in the child: a systematic review of observational human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, N W; Hansen, M V; Larsen, A D; Hougaard, K S; Kolstad, H A; Schlünssen, V

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of studies suggest that maternal stress during pregnancy promotes atopic disorders in the offspring. This is the first systematic review to address prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) and the subsequent risk of atopy-related outcomes in the child. The review was performed in accordance to the PRISMA criteria. We searched and selected studies in PubMed, Scopus, Embase and PsychINFO until November 2014. Sixteen (with 25 analyses) of 426 identified articles met the review criteria. Five main PNMS exposures (negative life events, anxiety/depression, bereavement, distress and job strain) and five main atopic outcomes (asthma, wheeze, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and IgE) were assessed across the studies. Overall, 21 of the 25 analyses suggested a positive association between PNMS and atopic outcomes. Of the 11 exposure-response analyses reported, six found statistically significant trends. This systematic review suggests a relationship between maternal stress during pregnancy and atopic disorders in the child. However, the existing studies are of diverse quality. The wide definitions of often self-reported stress exposures imply a substantial risk for information bias and false-positive results. Research comparing objective and subjective measures of PNMS exposure as well as objective measures for atopic outcome is needed. © 2015 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Oxidative-Nitrosative Stress and Myocardial Dysfunctions in Sepsis: Evidence from the Literature and Postmortem Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Neri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Myocardial depression in sepsis is common, and it is associated with higher mortality. In recent years, the hypothesis that the myocardial dysfunction during sepsis could be mediated by ischemia related to decreased coronary blood flow waned and a complex mechanism was invoked to explain cardiac dysfunction in sepsis. Oxidative stress unbalance is thought to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiac impairment in septic patients. Aim. In this paper, we review the current literature regarding the pathophysiology of cardiac dysfunction in sepsis, focusing on the possible role of oxidative-nitrosative stress unbalance and mitochondria dysfunction. We discuss these mechanisms within the broad scenario of cardiac involvement in sepsis. Conclusions. Findings from the current literature broaden our understanding of the role of oxidative and nitrosative stress unbalance in the pathophysiology of cardiac dysfunction in sepsis, thus contributing to the establishment of a relationship between these settings and the occurrence of oxidative stress. The complex pathogenesis of septic cardiac failure may explain why, despite the therapeutic strategies, sepsis remains a big clinical challenge for effectively managing the disease to minimize mortality, leading to consideration of the potential therapeutic effects of antioxidant agents.

  13. Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool Behavior Problems: Moderation by Life Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2014-01-01

    Using both traditional composites and novel profiles of anger, we examined associations between infant anger and preschool behavior problems in a large, longitudinal data set (N = 966). We also tested the role of life stress as a moderator of the link between early anger and the development of behavior problems. Although traditional measures of…

  14. Observations of multiple order parameters in 5f electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, E.

    2005-12-01

    In this thesis, multiple order parameters originating in the same electronic system are studied. The multi-k magnetic structures, where more than one propagation wavevector, k, is observed in the same volume, are considered as prototypical models. The effect of this structure on the elastic and inelastic response is studied. In cubic 3-k uranium rock-salts, unexpected elastic diffraction events were observed at positions in reciprocal space where the structure factor should have been zero. These diffraction peaks are identified with correlations between the (orthogonal) magnetic order parameters. The 3-k structure also affects the observed dynamics; the spin-wave fluctuations in uranium dioxide as observed by inelastic neutron polarization analysis can only be explained on the basis of a 3-k structure. In the antiferromagnetic superconductor UPd 2 Al 3 the magnetic order and the super-conducting state coexist, and are apparently generated by the same heavy fermions. The effect of an external magnetic field on both the normal and superconducting states is examined. In the normal state, the compound displays Fermi-liquid-like behaviour. The inelastic neutron response is strongly renormalized on entering the superconducting state, and high-precision measurements of the low-energy transfer part of this response confirm that the superconducting energy gap has the same symmetry as the antiferromagnetic lattice. (author)

  15. Fires and Smoke Observed from the Earth Observing System MODIS Instrument: Products, Validation, and Operational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Ichoku, C.; Giglio, L.; Korontzi, S.; Chu, D. A.; Hao, W. M.; Justice, C. O.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The MODIS sensor, launched on NASA's Terra satellite at the end of 1999, was designed with 36 spectral channels for a wide array of land, ocean, and atmospheric investigations. MODIS has a unique ability to observe fires, smoke, and burn scars globally. Its main fire detection channels saturate at high brightness temperatures: 500 K at 4 microns and 400 K at 11 microns, which can only be attained in rare circumstances at the I kin fire detection spatial resolution. Thus, unlike other polar orbiting satellite sensors with similar thermal and spatial resolutions, but much lower saturation temperatures (e.g. AVHRR and ATSR), MODIS can distinguish between low intensity ground surface fires and high intensity crown forest fires. Smoke column concentration over land is for the first time being derived from the MOMS solar channels, extending from 0.41 microns to 2.1 microns. The smoke product has been provisionally validated both globally and regionally over southern Africa and central and south America. Burn scars are observed from MODIS even in the presence of smoke, using the 1.2 to 2.1 micron channels. MODIS burned area information is used to estimate pyrogenic emissions. A wide range of these fire and related products and validation are demonstrated for the wild fires that occurred in northwestern United States in the summer of 2000. The MODIS rapid response system and direct broadcast capability is being developed to enable users to obtain and generate data in near real time. It is expected that health and land management organizations will use these systems for monitoring the occurrence of fires and the dispersion of smoke within two to six hours after data acquisition.

  16. Understanding Water-Stress Responses in Soybean Using Hydroponics System-A Systems Biology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Shulaev, Vladimir; Shen, Qingxi J; Rushton, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious changes in environmental conditions such as water stress bring physiological and biochemical changes in plants, which results in crop loss. Thus, combating water stress is important for crop improvement to manage the needs of growing population. Utilization of hydroponics system in growing plants is questionable to some researchers, as it does not represent an actual field condition. However, trying to address a complex problem like water stress we have to utilize a simpler growing condition like the hydroponics system wherein every input given to the plants can be controlled. With the advent of high-throughput technologies, it is still challenging to address all levels of the genetic machinery whether a gene, protein, metabolite, and promoter. Thus, using a system of reduced complexity like hydroponics can certainly direct us toward the right candidates, if not completely help us to resolve the issue.

  17. A tiered observational system for anthropogenic methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Improved understanding of anthropogenic methane emissions is required for closing the global carbon budget and addressing priority challenges in climate policy. Several decades of top-down and bottom-up studies show that anthropogenic methane emissions are systematically underestimated in key regions and economic sectors. These uncertainties have been compounded by the dramatic rise of disruptive technologies (e.g., the transformation in the US energy system due to unconventional gas and oil production). Methane flux estimates derived from inverse analyses and aircraft-based mass balance approaches underscore the disagreement in nationally and regionally reported methane emissions as well as the possibility of a long-tail distribution in fugitive emissions spanning the US natural gas supply chain; i.e. a small number of super-emitters may be responsible for most of the observed anomalies. Other studies highlight the challenges of sectoral and spatial attribution of fugitive emissions - including the relative contributions of dairies vs oil and gas production or disentangling the contributions of natural gas transmission, distribution, and consumption or landfill emissions in complex urban environments. Limited observational data remains a foundational barrier to resolving these challenges. We present a tiered observing system strategy for persistent, high-frequency monitoring over large areas to provide remote detection, geolocation and quantification of significant anthropogenic methane emissions across cities, states, basins and continents. We describe how this would both improve confidence in methane emission estimates and expedite resolution of fugitive emissions and leaks. We summarize recent prototype field campaigns that employ multiple vantage points and measurement techniques (including NASA's CARVE and HyTES aircraft and PanFTS instrument on Mt Wilson). We share preliminary results of this tiered observational approach including examples of individual

  18. GAP: yet another image processing system for solar observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, C. U.

    GAP is a versatile, interactive image processing system for analyzing solar observations, in particular extended time sequences, and for preparing publication quality figures. It consists of an interpreter that is based on a language with a control flow similar to PASCAL and C. The interpreter may be accessed from a command line editor and from user-supplied functions, procedures, and command scripts. GAP is easily expandable via external FORTRAN programs that are linked to the GAP interface routines. The current version of GAP runs on VAX, DECstation, Sun, and Apollo computers. Versions for MS-DOS and OS/2 are in preparation.

  19. OBSERVATIONS OF LINEAR POLARIZATION IN A SOLAR CORONAL LOOP PROMINENCE SYSTEM OBSERVED NEAR 6173 Å

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Martínez Oliveros, Juan-Carlos; Hudson, Hugh S.; Krucker, Säm; Bain, Hazel [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schou, Jesper [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Couvidat, Sébastien, E-mail: shilaire@ssl.berkeley.edu [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    White-light observations by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager of a loop-prominence system occurring in the aftermath of an X-class flare on 2013 May 13 near the eastern solar limb show a linearly polarized component, reaching up to ∼20% at an altitude of ∼33 Mm, about the maximum amount expected if the emission were due solely to Thomson scattering of photospheric light by the coronal material. The mass associated with the polarized component was 8.2 × 10{sup 14} g. At 15 Mm altitude, the brightest part of the loop was 3(±0.5)% linearly polarized, only about 20% of that expected from pure Thomson scattering, indicating the presence of an additional unpolarized component at wavelengths near Fe I (617.33 nm). We estimate the free electron density of the white-light loop system to possibly be as high as 1.8 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup –3}.

  20. In-situ observation system for dual ion irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuno, Shigemi; Hojou, Kiichi; Otsu, Hitoshi; Sasaki, T.A.; Izui, Kazuhiko; Tukamoto, Tetsuo; Hata, Takao.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed an in-situ observation and analysis system during dual ion beam irradiation in an electron microscope. This system consists of an analytical electron microscope of JEM-4000FX type equipped with a parallel EELS and an EDS attachments and linked with two sets of ion accelerators of 40 kV. Hydrogen and helium dual-ion beam irradiation experiments were performed for SiC crystals. The result of dual-ion beam irradiation was compared with those of helium and hydrogen single ion irradiations. It is clearly seen that the dual-ion irradiation has the effect of suppressing bubble formation and growth in comparison with the case of single helium ion irradiation. (author)

  1. Upper wind observing systems used for meteorological operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nash

    Full Text Available Methods of upper wind measurements used in operational meteorology have been reviewed to provide guidance to those developing wind profiler radar systems. The main limitations of the various methods of tracking weather balloons are identified using results from the WMO radiosonde comparisons and additional tests in the United Kingdom. Costs associated with operational balloon measurements are reviewed. The sampling and quality of operational aircraft wind observations are illustrated with examples from the ASDAR system. Measurement errors in horizontal winds are quantified wherever possible. When tracking equipment is functioning correctly, random errors in southerly and westerly wind component measurements from aircraft and weather balloons are usually in the range 0.5-2 m s-1.

  2. Polarimetry of Solar System Objects: Observations vs. Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    The overarching goals for the remote sensing and robotic exploration of planetary systems are: (1) understanding the formation of planetary systems and their diversity; and (2) search for habitability. Since all objects have unique polarimetric signatures inclusion of spectrophotopolarimetry as a complementary approach to standard techniques of imaging and spectroscopy, provides insight into the scattering properties of the planetary media. Specifically, linear and circular polarimetric signatures of the object arise from different physical processes and their study proves essential to the characterization of the object. Linear polarization of reflected light by various solar system objects provides insight into the scattering characteristics of atmospheric aerosols and hazes? and surficial properties of atmosphereless bodies. Many optically active materials are anisotropic and so their scattering properties differ with the object's principal axes (such as dichroic or birefringent materials) and are crystalline in structure instead of amorphous, (eg., the presence of olivines and silicates in cometary dust and circumstellar disks? Titan, etc.). Ices (water and other species) are abundant in the system indicated in their near - infrared spectra. Gas giants form outside the frost line (where ices condense), and their satellites and ring systems exhibit signature of water ice? clathrates, nonices (Si, C, Fe) in their NIR spectra and spectral dependence of linear polarization. Additionally, spectral dependence of polarization is important to separate the macroscopic (bulk) properties of the scattering medium from the microscopic (particulate) properties of the scattering medium. Circular polarization, on the other hand, is indicative of magnetic fields and biologically active molecules, necessary for habitability. These applications suffer from lack of detailed observations, instrumentation, dedicated missions and numericalretrieval methods. With recent discoveries and

  3. Synthesis and Assimilation Systems - Essential Adjuncts to the Global Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienecker, Michele M.; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Awaji, Toshiyuki; Barnier, Bernard; Behringer, David; Bell, Mike; Bourassa, Mark; Brasseur, Pierre; Breivik, Lars-Anders; Carton, James; hide

    2009-01-01

    Ocean assimilation systems synthesize diverse in situ and satellite data streams into four-dimensional state estimates by combining the various observations with the model. Assimilation is particularly important for the ocean where subsurface observations, even today, are sparse and intermittent compared with the scales needed to represent ocean variability and where satellites only sense the surface. Developments in assimilation and in the observing system have advanced our understanding and prediction of ocean variations at mesoscale and climate scales. Use of these systems for assessing the observing system helps identify the strengths of each observation type. Results indicate that the ocean remains under-sampled and that further improvements in the observing system are needed. Prospects for future advances lie in improved models and better estimates of error statistics for both models and observations. Future developments will be increasingly towards consistent analyses across components of the Earth system. However, even today ocean synthesis and assimilation systems are providing products that are useful for many applications and should be considered an integral part of the global ocean observing and information system.

  4. Observation of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.; Tanaka, M.; Shinohara, S.; Kawai, Y.

    1995-01-01

    When an electron beam is injected into a plasma, unstable waves are excited spontaneously near the electron plasma frequency f pe by the electron beam plasma instability. The experiment on subharmonics in an electron beam plasma system was performed with a glow discharge tube. The bifurcation of unstable waves with the electron plasma frequency f pe and 1/2 f pe was observed using a double-plasma device. Furthermore, the period doubling route to chaos around the ion plasma frequency in an electron beam plasma system was reported. However, the physical mechanism of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system has not been clarified so far. We have studied nonlinear behaviors of the electron beam plasma instability. It was found that there are some cases: the fundamental unstable waves and subharmonics of 2 period are excited by the electron beam plasma instability, the fundamental unstable waves and subharmonics of 3 period are excited. In this paper, we measured the energy distribution functions of electrons and the dispersion relation of test waves in order to examine the physical mechanism of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system

  5. Information System Engineering Supporting Observation, Orientation, Decision, and Compliant Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios

    The majority of today's software systems and organizational/business structures have been built on the foundation of solving problems via long-term data collection, analysis, and solution design. This traditional approach of solving problems and building corresponding software systems and business processes, falls short in providing the necessary solutions needed to deal with many problems that require agility as the main ingredient of their solution. For example, such agility is needed in responding to an emergency, in military command control, physical security, price-based competition in business, investing in the stock market, video gaming, network monitoring and self-healing, diagnosis in emergency health care, and many other areas that are too numerous to list here. The concept of Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act (OODA) loops is a guiding principal that captures the fundamental issues and approach for engineering information systems that deal with many of these problem areas. However, there are currently few software systems that are capable of supporting OODA. In this talk, we provide a tour of the research issues and state of the art solutions for supporting OODA. In addition, we provide specific examples of OODA solutions we have developed for the video surveillance and emergency response domains.

  6. Physiological and psychological stress limits for astronautics Observations during the Skylab I-III missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    The physiological and psychological factors of manned space flight had a particular significance in the Skylab missions during which astronauts were subjected to a life in a space environment for longer periods of time than on previous space missions. The Skylab missions demonstrated again the great adaptability of human physiology to the environment of man. The results of Skylab have indicated also approaches for enhancing the capability of man to tolerate the physiological and psychological stresses of space flight.

  7. Interpreting anomalies observed in oxide semiconductor TFTs under negative and positive bias stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Woo Jin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors can show anomalous behavior under bias stress. Two types of anomalies are discussed in this paper. The first is the shift in threshold voltage (VTH in a direction opposite to the applied bias stress, and highly dependent on gate dielectric material. We attribute this to charge trapping/detrapping and charge migration within the gate dielectric. We emphasize the fundamental difference between trapping/detrapping events occurring at the semiconductor/dielectric interface and those occurring at gate/dielectric interface, and show that charge migration is essential to explain the first anomaly. We model charge migration in terms of the non-instantaneous polarization density. The second type of anomaly is negative VTH shift under high positive bias stress, with logarithmic evolution in time. This can be argued as electron-donating reactions involving H2O molecules or derived species, with a reaction rate exponentially accelerated by positive gate bias and exponentially decreased by the number of reactions already occurred.

  8. Interpreting anomalies observed in oxide semiconductor TFTs under negative and positive bias stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jong Woo [LPICM, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris Saclay, 91128, Palaiseau (France); Nathan, Arokia, E-mail: an299@cam.ac.uk [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Barquinha, Pedro; Pereira, Luís; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Cobb, Brian [Holst Centre/TNO, Eindhoven, 5656 AE (Netherlands)

    2016-08-15

    Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors can show anomalous behavior under bias stress. Two types of anomalies are discussed in this paper. The first is the shift in threshold voltage (V{sub TH}) in a direction opposite to the applied bias stress, and highly dependent on gate dielectric material. We attribute this to charge trapping/detrapping and charge migration within the gate dielectric. We emphasize the fundamental difference between trapping/detrapping events occurring at the semiconductor/dielectric interface and those occurring at gate/dielectric interface, and show that charge migration is essential to explain the first anomaly. We model charge migration in terms of the non-instantaneous polarization density. The second type of anomaly is negative V{sub TH} shift under high positive bias stress, with logarithmic evolution in time. This can be argued as electron-donating reactions involving H{sub 2}O molecules or derived species, with a reaction rate exponentially accelerated by positive gate bias and exponentially decreased by the number of reactions already occurred.

  9. Mobile Disdrometer Observations of Nocturnal Mesoscale Convective Systems During PECAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, D. J.; Rasmussen, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding microphysical processes in nocturnal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) is an important objective of the Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) experiment, which occurred from 1 June - 15 July 2015 in the central Great Plains region of the United States. Observations of MCSs were collected using a large array of mobile and fixed instrumentation, including ground-based radars, soundings, PECAN Integrated Sounding Arrays (PISAs), and aircraft. In addition to these observations, three mobile Parsivel disdrometers were deployed to obtain drop-size distribution (DSD) measurements to further explore microphysical processes in convective and stratiform regions of nocturnal MCSs. Disdrometers were deployed within close range of a multiple frequency network of mobile and fixed dual-polarization radars (5 - 30 km range), and near mobile sounding units and PISAs. Using mobile disdrometer and multiple-wavelength, dual-polarization radar data, microphysical properties of convective and stratiform regions of MCSs are investigated. The analysis will also examine coordinated Range-Height Indicator (RHI) scans over the disdrometers to elucidate vertical DSD structure. Analysis of dense observations obtained during PECAN in combination with mobile disdrometer DSD measurements contributes to a greater understanding of the structural characteristics and evolution of nocturnal MCSs.

  10. A Trigger for Opioid Misuse: Chronic Pain and Stress Dysregulate the Mesolimbic Pathway and Kappa Opioid System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaly, Nicolas; Morón, Jose A; Al-Hasani, Ream

    2016-01-01

    Pain and stress are protective mechanisms essential in avoiding harmful or threatening stimuli and ensuring survival. Despite these beneficial roles, chronic exposure to either pain or stress can lead to maladaptive hormonal and neuronal modulations that can result in chronic pain and a wide spectrum of stress-related disorders including anxiety and depression. By inducing allostatic changes in the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway, both chronic pain and stress disorders affect the rewarding values of both natural reinforcers, such as food or social interaction, and drugs of abuse. Despite opioids representing the best therapeutic strategy in pain conditions, they are often misused as a result of these allostatic changes induced by chronic pain and stress. The kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system is critically involved in these neuronal adaptations in part through its control of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Therefore, it is likely that changes in the kappa opioid system following chronic exposure to pain and stress play a key role in increasing the misuse liability observed in pain patients treated with opioids. In this review, we will discuss how chronic pain and stress-induced pathologies can affect mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission, leading to increased abuse liability. We will also assess how the kappa opioid system may underlie these pathological changes.

  11. A trigger for opioid misuse: Chronic pain and stress dysregulate the mesolimbic pathway and kappa opioid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Massaly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pain and stress are protective mechanisms essential in avoiding harmful or threatening stimuli and ensuring survival. Despite these beneficial roles, chronic exposure to either pain or stress can lead to maladaptive hormonal and neuronal modulations that can result in chronic pain and a wide spectrum of stress-related disorders including anxiety and depression. By inducing allostatic changes in the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway, both chronic pain and stress disorders affect the rewarding values of both natural reinforcers, such as food or social interaction, and drugs of abuse. Despite opioids representing the best therapeutic strategy in acute pain conditions, they are often misused as a result of these allostatic changes induced by chronic pain and stress. The kappa opioid receptor system is critically involved in these neuronal adaptations in part through its control of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Therefore, it is likely that changes in the kappa opioid system following chronic exposure to pain and stress play a key role in increasing the misuse liability observed in pain patients treated with opioids. In this review, we will discuss how chronic pain and stress-induced pathologies can affect mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission, leading to increased abuse liability. We will also assess how the kappa opioid system may underlie these pathological changes.

  12. Chronic stress impacts the cardiovascular system: animal models and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbidi, Saeid; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Laher, Ismail

    2015-06-15

    Psychological stresses are associated with cardiovascular diseases to the extent that cardiovascular diseases are among the most important group of psychosomatic diseases. The longstanding association between stress and cardiovascular disease exists despite a large ambiguity about the underlying mechanisms. An array of possibilities have been proposed including overactivity of the autonomic nervous system and humoral changes, which then converge on endothelial dysfunction that initiates unwanted cardiovascular consequences. We review some of the features of the two most important stress-activated systems, i.e., the humoral and nervous systems, and focus on alterations in endothelial function that could ensue as a result of these changes. Cardiac and hematologic consequences of stress are also addressed briefly. It is likely that activation of the inflammatory cascade in association with oxidative imbalance represents key pathophysiological components of stress-induced cardiovascular changes. We also review some of the commonly used animal models of stress and discuss the cardiovascular outcomes reported in these models of stress. The unique ability of animals for adaptation under stressful conditions lessens the extrapolation of laboratory findings to conditions of human stress. An animal model of unpredictable chronic stress, which applies various stress modules in a random fashion, might be a useful solution to this predicament. The use of stress markers as indicators of stress intensity is also discussed in various models of animal stress and in clinical studies. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Satellite Observation Systems for Polar Climate Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The key observational tools for detecting large scale changes of various parameters in the polar regions have been satellite sensors. The sensors include passive and active satellite systems in the visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. The monitoring started with Tiros and Nimbus research satellites series in the 1970s but during the period, not much data was stored digitally because of limitations and cost of the needed storage systems. Continuous global data came about starting with the launch of ocean color, passive microwave, and thermal infrared sensors on board Nimbus-7 and Synthetic Aperture Radar, Radar Altimeter and Scatterometer on board SeaSat satellite both launched in 1978. The Nimbus-7 lasted longer than expected and provided about 9 years of useful data while SeaSat quit working after 3 months but provided very useful data that became the baseline for follow-up systems with similar capabilities. Over the years, many new sensors were launched, some from Japan Aeronautics and Space Agency (JAXA), some from the European Space Agency (ESA) and more recently, from RuSSia, China, Korea, Canada and India. For polar studies, among the most useful sensors has been the passive microwave sensor which provides day/night and almost all weather observation of the surface. The sensor provide sea surface temperature, precipitation, wind, water vapor and sea ice concentration data that have been very useful in monitoring the climate of the region. More than 30 years of such data are now available, starting with the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7, the Special Scanning Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on board a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on board the EOS/ Aqua satellite. The techniques that have been developed to derive geophysical parameters from data provided by these and other sensors and associated instrumental and algorithm errors and validation techniques

  14. NARROW-K-BAND OBSERVATIONS OF THE GJ 1214 SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colón, Knicole D.; Gaidos, Eric, E-mail: colonk@hawaii.edu [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    GJ 1214 is a nearby M dwarf star that hosts a transiting super-Earth-size planet, making this system an excellent target for atmospheric studies. Most studies find that the transmission spectrum of GJ 1214b is flat, which favors either a high mean molecular weight or cloudy/hazy hydrogen (H) rich atmosphere model. Photometry at short wavelengths (<0.7 μm) and in the K band can discriminate the most between these different atmosphere models for GJ 1214b, but current observations do not have sufficiently high precision. We present photometry of seven transits of GJ 1214b through a narrow K-band (2.141 μm) filter with the Wide Field Camera on the 3.8 m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. Our photometric precision is typically 1.7 × 10{sup –3} (for a single transit), comparable with other ground-based observations of GJ 1214b. We measure a planet-star radius ratio of 0.1158 ± 0.0013, which, along with other studies, also supports a flat transmission spectrum for GJ 1214b. Since this does not exclude a scenario where GJ 1214b has an H-rich envelope with heavy elements that are sequestered below a cloud/haze layer, we compare K-band observations with models of H{sub 2} collision-induced absorption in an atmosphere for a range of temperatures. While we find no evidence for deviation from a flat spectrum (slope s = 0.0016 ± 0.0038), an H{sub 2}-dominated upper atmosphere (<60 mbar) cannot be excluded. More precise observations at <0.7 μm and in the K band, as well as a uniform analysis of all published data, would be useful for establishing more robust limits on atmosphere models for GJ 1214b.

  15. The stress response system of proteins: Implications for bioreactor scaleup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goochee, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    Animal cells face a variety of environmental stresses in large scale bioreactors, including periodic variations in shear stress and dissolved oxygen concentration. Diagnostic techniques were developed for identifying the particular sources of environmental stresses for animal cells in a given bioreactor configuration. The mechanisms by which cells cope with such stresses was examined. The individual concentrations and synthesis rates of hundreds of intracellular proteins are affected by the extracellular environment (medium composition, dissolved oxygen concentration, ph, and level of surface shear stress). Techniques are currently being developed for quantifying the synthesis rates and concentrations of the intracellular proteins which are most sensitive to environmental stress. Previous research has demonstrated that a particular set of stress response proteins are synthesized by mammalian cells in response to temperature fluctuations, dissolved oxygen deprivation, and glucose deprivation. Recently, it was demonstrated that exposure of human kidney cells to high shear stress results in expression of a completely distinct set of intracellular proteins.

  16. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Roland Teixeira

    Full Text Available The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive

  17. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renata Roland; Díaz, Miguel Mauricio; Santos, Tatiane Vanessa da Silva; Bernardes, Jean Tofoles Martins; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Bocanegra, Olga Lucia; Neto, Morun Bernardino; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance.

  18. Chronic Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Nrf2 Activation and Inflammation in the Hippocampus Accompany Heightened Systemic Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in an Animal Model of Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Geetha A.; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Upadhya, Dinesh; Bates, Adrian; Attaluri, Sahithi; Shuai, Bing; Kodali, Maheedhar; Shetty, Ashok K.

    2017-01-01

    (Tnfa, IL1b, IL1a, Tgfb, and Fgf2) and lipid peroxidation byproduct malondialdehyde in the serum, suggesting the presence of an incessant systemic inflammation and elevated oxidative stress. These results imply that chronic oxidative stress, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction in the hippocampus, and heightened systemic inflammation and oxidative stress likely underlie the persistent memory and mood dysfunction observed in GWI. PMID:28659758

  19. Chronic Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Nrf2 Activation and Inflammation in the Hippocampus Accompany Heightened Systemic Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in an Animal Model of Gulf War Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Geetha A; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Upadhya, Dinesh; Bates, Adrian; Attaluri, Sahithi; Shuai, Bing; Kodali, Maheedhar; Shetty, Ashok K

    2017-01-01

    and chemokines (Tnfa, IL1b, IL1a, Tgfb, and Fgf2) and lipid peroxidation byproduct malondialdehyde in the serum, suggesting the presence of an incessant systemic inflammation and elevated oxidative stress. These results imply that chronic oxidative stress, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction in the hippocampus, and heightened systemic inflammation and oxidative stress likely underlie the persistent memory and mood dysfunction observed in GWI.

  20. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  1. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  2. Interstellar Explorer Observations of the Solar System's Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C. M.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Brandt, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    Planetesimal belts and debris disks full of dust are known as the "signposts of planet formation" in exosystems. The overall brightness of a disk provides information on the amount of sourcing planetesimal material, while asymmetries in the shape of the disk can be used to search for perturbing planets. The solar system is known to house two such belts, the Asteroid belt and the Kuiper Belt; and at least one debris cloud, the Zodiacal Cloud, sourced by planetisimal collisions and Kuiper Belt comet evaporative sublimation. However these are poorly understood in toto because we live inside of them. E.g., while we know of the two planetesimal belt systems, it is not clear how much, if any, dust is produced from the Kuiper belt since the near-Sun comet contributions dominate near-Earth space. Understanding how much dust is produced in the Kuiper belt would give us a much better idea of the total number of bodies in the belt, especially the smallest ones, and their dynamical collisional state. Even for the close in Zodiacal cloud, questions remain concerning its overall shape and orientation with respect to the ecliptic and invariable planes of the solar system - they aren't explainable from the perturbations caused by the known planets alone. In this paper we explore the possibilities of using an Interstellar Explorer telescope placed at 200 AU from the sun to observe the brightness, shape, and extent of the solar system's debris disk(s). We should be able to measure the entire extent of the inner, near-earth zodiacal cloud; whether it connects smoothly into an outer cloud, or if there is a second outer cloud sourced by the Kuiper belt and isolated by the outer planets, as predicted by Stark & Kuchner (2009, 2010) and Poppe et al. (2012, 2016; Figure 1). VISNIR imagery will inform about the dust cloud's density, while MIR cameras will provide thermal imaging photometry related to the cloud's dust particle size and composition. Observing at high phase angle by looking

  3. Tank waste remediation system heat stress control program report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carls, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Protecting employees from heat stress within tank farms during the summer months is challenging. Work constraints typically experienced in tank farms complicate the measures taken to protect employees from heat stress. TWRS-Industrial Hygiene (IH) has endeavored to control heat stress injuries by anticipating, recognizing, evaluating and controlling the factors which lead or contribute to heat stress in Tank Farms. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program covers such areas as: employee and PIC training, communication of daily heat stress alerts to tank farm personnel, setting work/rest regimens, and the use of engineering and personal protective controls when applicable. The program has increased worker awareness of heat stress and prevention, established provisions for worker rest periods, increased drinking water availability to help ensure worker hydration, and allowed for the increased use of other protective controls to combat heat stress. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program is the cornerstone for controlling heat stress among tank farm employees. The program has made great strides since it's inception during the summer of 1994. Some improvements can still be made to enhance the program for the summer of 1996, such as: (1) procurement and use of personal heat stress monitoring equipment to ensure appropriate application of administrative controls, (2) decrease the need for use of containment tents and anti-contamination clothing, and (3) providing a wider variety of engineering and personal protective controls for heat stress prevention

  4. Migration to Earth Observation Satellite Product Dissemination System at JAXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Y.; Matsunaga, M.

    2017-12-01

    JAXA released "G-Portal" as a portal web site for search and deliver data of Earth observation satellites in February 2013. G-Portal handles ten satellites data; GPM, TRMM, Aqua, ADEOS-II, ALOS (search only), ALOS-2 (search only), MOS-1, MOS-1b, ERS-1 and JERS-1 and archives 5.17 million products and 14 million catalogues in total. Users can search those products/catalogues in GUI web search and catalogue interface(CSW/Opensearch). In this fiscal year, we will replace this to "Next G-Portal" and has been doing integration, test and migrations. New G-Portal will treat data of satellites planned to be launched in the future in addition to those handled by G - Portal. At system architecture perspective, G-Portal adopted "cluster system" for its redundancy, so we must replace the servers into those with higher specifications when we improve its performance ("scale up approach"). This requests a lot of cost in every improvement. To avoid this, Next G-Portal adopts "scale out" system: load balancing interfaces, distributed file system, distributed data bases. (We reported in AGU fall meeting 2015(IN23D-1748).) At customer usability perspective, G-Portal provides complicated interface: "step by step" web design, randomly generated URLs, sftp (needs anomaly tcp port). Customers complained about the interfaces and the support team had been tired from answering them. To solve this problem, Next G-Portal adopts simple interfaces: "1 page" web design, RESTful URL, and Normal FTP. (We reported in AGU fall meeting 2016(IN23B-1778).) Furthermore, Next G-Portal must merge GCOM-W data dissemination system to be terminated in the next March as well as the current G-Portal. This might arrise some difficulties, since the current G-Portal and GCOM-W data dissemination systems are quite different from Next G-Portal. The presentation reports the knowledge obtained from the process of merging those systems.

  5. Observations of hydrotectonic stress/strain events at a basement high at the Nicoya outer rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, M. D.; Brown, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    There is substantial and growing evidence from heat flow and coring investigations that the oceanic plate off Costa Rica is highly hydrologically active and that this activity is responsible for one of the most anomalously cold thermal environments encountered in the oceanic environment. Recent work by Fisher, et al. has identified limited regions above certain topographic highs with extremely high heat flows. Pore water profiles from cores above these thinly sedimented basement highs suggest upward flow on the order of ~1 cm/yr. These highs may be the principal regions of out-flow from the basement in this region and, thus, can potentially be used to constrain the general level of hydrologic activity. The nine Chemical and Aqueous Transport (CAT) meters we deployed at one of the highest heatflow sites provide a temporal record of both in-flow and out-flow of aqueous fluids at rates as low as 0.1 mm/yr. Our objective was to provide a direct measurement of long term flow rates to address the following questions: (1) What are the characteristic fluid fluxes at basement highs of the low heat flow region of the northern Costa Rican incoming plate, and (2) is this flow temporally variable? The results of the instrument deployments agree quite closely in general with the coring results in that the background rates are on the order of 1 cm/yr or less. There is, however, considerable detail in the temporal records which suggest small scale tectonic stress transients causing temporary increases in flow rate. While this is certainly not an area of major tectonic activity, the site is located at the top of the outer rise where one would expect bending-related stress and fault reactivation to occur. The CAT meters are capable of detecting minute strain events in the underlying sediments and therefore may be detecting small localized strain events. Two periods of increased flow lasting a few weeks each occur during the 5 month deployment and are indicated on all of the

  6. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Anindita; Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    investigated. ► Serum markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress were studied. ► Biomass using women had increased systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. ► Indoor air pollution and observed changes were positively associated.

  7. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Anindita, E-mail: anidu14@gmail.com [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 (India); Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban [Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 (India)

    2012-06-15

    cardiovascular health was investigated. ► Serum markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress were studied. ► Biomass using women had increased systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. ► Indoor air pollution and observed changes were positively associated.

  8. Observation of electromagnetically induced Talbot effect in an atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Dan; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2018-01-01

    The electromagnetically induced Talbot effect (EITE) resulting from the repeated self-reconstruction of a spatially intensity-modulated probe field is experimentally demonstrated in a three-level atomic configuration. The probe beam is launched into an optically induced lattice (established by the interference of two coupling fields) inside a rubidium vapor cell and is diffracted by the electromagnetically induced grating that was formed. The diffraction pattern repeats itself at the planes of integer multiple Talbot lengths. In addition, a fractional EITE is also investigated. The experimental observations agree well with the theoretical predictions. This investigation may potentially pave the way for studying the nonlinear and quantum dynamical features that have been predicted for established periodic optical systems.

  9. Submillimeter and millimeter observations of solar system objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhleman, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    Planetary atmospheres and satellite surfaces are observed with the three element array at Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Caltech's submillimeter telescope on Mauna Kea and at the 12-meter telescope at Kitt Peak. Researchers are primarily interested in spectroscopy of the atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan and the continuum structure of Saturn Rings, Galilean satellites, Neptune and Uranus. During the last year researchers completed a supersynthesis of the Saturn system at 2.8 mm with spatial resolution of 3 arc sec. They just completed a 4-confuguration synthesis of Venus in the CO absorption line. They hope to recover the wind patterns in the altitude range from 60 to 100 km where winds have never been measured. Two important questions are being investigated: (1) how high in the Venus atmosphere do 4-day winds extend, and (2) can we produce experiment proof (or disproof) of the subsolar-to-anti-solar flow (Dickenson winds) predicted by general circulation models

  10. Irregular focal mechanisms observed at Salton Sea Geothermal Field: Possible influences of anthropogenic stress perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall-Bear, Aren; Barbour, Andrew J.; Schoenball, Martin; Schoenball, Martin

    2018-01-01

    At the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), strain accumulation is released through seismic slip and aseismic deformation. Earthquake activity at the SSGF often occurs in swarm-like clusters, some with clear migration patterns. We have identified an earthquake sequence composed entirely of focal mechanisms representing an ambiguous style of faulting, where strikes are similar but deformation occurs due to steeply-dipping normal faults with varied stress states. In order to more accurately determine the style of faulting for these events, we revisit the original waveforms and refine estimates of P and S wave arrival times and displacement amplitudes. We calculate the acceptable focal plane solutions using P-wave polarities and S/P amplitude ratios, and determine the preferred fault plane. Without constraints on local variations in stress, found by inverting the full earthquake catalog, it is difficult to explain the occurrence of such events using standard fault-mechanics and friction. Comparing these variations with the expected poroelastic effects from local production and injection of geothermal fluids suggests that anthropogenic activity could affect the style of faulting.

  11. Measuring progress of the global sea level observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Philip L.; Aarup, Thorkild; Merrifield, Mark; Mitchum, Gary T.; Le Provost, Christian

    Sea level is such a fundamental parameter in the sciences of oceanography geophysics, and climate change, that in the mid-1980s, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) established the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS). GLOSS was to improve the quantity and quality of data provided to the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), and thereby, data for input to studies of long-term sea level change by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It would also provide the key data needed for international programs, such as the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and later, the Climate Variability and Predictability Programme (CLIVAR).GLOSS is now one of the main observation components of the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) of IOC and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Progress and deficiencies in GLOSS were presented in July to the 22nd IOC Assembly at UNESCO in Paris and are contained in the GLOSS Assessment Report (GAR) [IOC, 2003a].

  12. Incorporating Parallel Computing into the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jay W.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric data assimilation is a method of combining actual observations with model forecasts to produce a more accurate description of the earth system than the observations or forecast alone can provide. The output of data assimilation, sometimes called the analysis, are regular, gridded datasets of observed and unobserved variables. Analysis plays a key role in numerical weather prediction and is becoming increasingly important for climate research. These applications, and the need for timely validation of scientific enhancements to the data assimilation system pose computational demands that are best met by distributed parallel software. The mission of the NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) is to provide datasets for climate research and to support NASA satellite and aircraft missions. The system used to create these datasets is the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The core components of the the GEOS DAS are: the GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM), the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS), the Observer, the on-line Quality Control (QC) system, the Coupler (which feeds analysis increments back to the GCM), and an I/O package for processing the large amounts of data the system produces (which will be described in another presentation in this session). The discussion will center on the following issues: the computational complexity for the whole GEOS DAS, assessment of the performance of the individual elements of GEOS DAS, and parallelization strategy for some of the components of the system.

  13. Recovery of invertebrate and vertebrate populations in a coal ash stressed drainage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, D.S.; Larrick, S.R.; Guthrie, R.K.; Davis, E.M.; Sherberger, F.F.

    1979-09-01

    The influence of coal ash effluent on the densities of macrobenthic invertebrate and mosquitofish populations in a swamp drainage system was studied. Samples were collected during a period of 50 mo. Three perturbations in the swamp systemash siltation, low pH, and toxic elementscaused changes in population densities. Siltation from inefficient effluent management caused the greatest drop in invertebrate populations, and pH declines from flyash addition caused the greatest mosquitofish population reductions. Dipterans and odonates were most tolerant to coal ash stress. Invertebrate population recovery was observed on completion of an efficient ash retaining basin. (13 graphs, 28 references, 3 tables)

  14. Acute stress-induced cortisol elevations mediate reward system activity during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, N.Y.L.; Both, S.; van Heemst, D.; van der Grond, J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is thought to alter motivational processes by increasing dopamine (DA) secretion in the brain's "reward system", and its key region, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, stress studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), mainly found evidence for stress-induced decreases in

  15. Observer model optimization of a spectral mammography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenberg, Erik; Åslund, Magnus; Cederström, Björn; Lundqvist, Mats; Danielsson, Mats

    2010-04-01

    Spectral imaging is a method in medical x-ray imaging to extract information about the object constituents by the material-specific energy dependence of x-ray attenuation. Contrast-enhanced spectral imaging has been thoroughly investigated, but unenhanced imaging may be more useful because it comes as a bonus to the conventional non-energy-resolved absorption image at screening; there is no additional radiation dose and no need for contrast medium. We have used a previously developed theoretical framework and system model that include quantum and anatomical noise to characterize the performance of a photon-counting spectral mammography system with two energy bins for unenhanced imaging. The theoretical framework was validated with synthesized images. Optimal combination of the energy-resolved images for detecting large unenhanced tumors corresponded closely, but not exactly, to minimization of the anatomical noise, which is commonly referred to as energy subtraction. In that case, an ideal-observer detectability index could be improved close to 50% compared to absorption imaging. Optimization with respect to the signal-to-quantum-noise ratio, commonly referred to as energy weighting, deteriorated detectability. For small microcalcifications or tumors on uniform backgrounds, however, energy subtraction was suboptimal whereas energy weighting provided a minute improvement. The performance was largely independent of beam quality, detector energy resolution, and bin count fraction. It is clear that inclusion of anatomical noise and imaging task in spectral optimization may yield completely different results than an analysis based solely on quantum noise.

  16. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Ciais; A. J. Dolman; A. Bombelli; R. Duren; A. Peregon; P. J. Rayner; C. Miller; N. Gobron; G. Kinderman; G. Marland; N. Gruber; F. Chevallier; R. J. Andres; G. Balsamo; L. Bopp; F.-M. Bréon; G. Broquet; R. Dargaville; T. J. Battin; A. Borges; H. Bovensmann; M. Buchwitz; J. Butler; J. G. Canadell; R. B. Cook; R. DeFries; R. Engelen; K. R. Gurney; C. Heinze; M. Heimann; A. Held; M. Henry; B. Law; S. Luyssaert; J. Miller; T. Moriyama; C. Moulin; R. B. Myneni; C. Nussli; M. Obersteiner; D. Ojima; Y. Pan; J.-D. Paris; S. L. Piao; B. Poulter; S. Plummer; S. Quegan; P. Raymond; M. Reichstein; L. Rivier; C. Sabine; D. Schimel; O. Tarasova; R. Valentini; R. Wang; G. van der Werf; D. Wickland; M. Williams; C. Zehner

    2014-01-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires...

  17. Phloem small RNAs, nutrient stress responses, and systemic mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehr Julia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrient availabilities and needs have to be tightly coordinated between organs to ensure a balance between uptake and consumption for metabolism, growth, and defense reactions. Since plants often have to grow in environments with sub-optimal nutrient availability, a fine tuning is vital. To achieve this, information has to flow cell-to-cell and over long-distance via xylem and phloem. Recently, specific miRNAs emerged as a new type of regulating molecules during stress and nutrient deficiency responses, and miR399 was suggested to be a phloem-mobile long-distance signal involved in the phosphate starvation response. Results We used miRNA microarrays containing all known plant miRNAs and a set of unknown small (s RNAs earlier cloned from Brassica phloem sap 1, to comprehensively analyze the phloem response to nutrient deficiency by removing sulfate, copper or iron, respectively, from the growth medium. We show that phloem sap contains a specific set of sRNAs that is distinct from leaves and roots, and that the phloem also responds specifically to stress. Upon S and Cu deficiencies phloem sap reacts with an increase of the same miRNAs that were earlier characterized in other tissues, while no clear positive response to -Fe was observed. However, -Fe led to a reduction of Cu- and P-responsive miRNAs. We further demonstrate that under nutrient starvation miR399 and miR395 can be translocated through graft unions from wild type scions to rootstocks of the miRNA processing hen1-1 mutant. In contrast, miR171 was not transported. Translocation of miR395 led to a down-regulation of one of its targets in rootstocks, suggesting that this transport is of functional relevance, and that miR395, in addition to the well characterized miR399, could potentially act as a long-distance information transmitter. Conclusions Phloem sap contains a specific set of sRNAs, of which some specifically accumulate in response to nutrient deprivation. From

  18. Observing System Simulations for ASCENDS: Synthesizing Science Measurement Requirements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Baker, D. F.; Schuh, A. E.; Crowell, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Hammerling, D.; Michalak, A. M.; Wang, J. S.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Ott, L.; Zaccheo, T.; Abshire, J. B.; Browell, E. V.; Moore, B.; Crisp, D.

    2013-12-01

    The measurement of atmospheric CO2 from space using active (lidar) sensing techniques has several potentially significant advantages in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments. Application of this new technology aims to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle science into the next decade. The NASA Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission has been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey for the next generation of space-based CO2 observing systems. ASCENDS is currently planned for launch in 2022. Several possible lidar instrument approaches have been demonstrated in airborne campaigns and the results indicate that such sensors are quite feasible. Studies are now underway to evaluate performance requirements for space mission implementation. Satellite CO2 observations must be highly precise and unbiased in order to accurately infer global carbon source/sink fluxes. Measurement demands are likely to further increase in the wake of GOSAT, OCO-2, and enhanced ground-based in situ and remote sensing CO2 data. The objective of our work is to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for ASCENDS in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. Considerations include requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we attempt to synthesize the results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, into a coherent set of mission performance guidelines. A variety of forward and inverse model frameworks are employed to reduce the potential dependence of the results on model

  19. Oxidative stress and fatigue in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, B M; Thomas, W; Zhu, X; Diebes, A; McElvain, G; Baechler, E; Gross, M

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship of oxidative stress to fatigue in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of SLE by ACR criteria and healthy controls completed validated questionnaires to assess depression and fatigue. Fatigue was measured with the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the Profile of Fatigue (Prof-F). Visual analogue scales (VAS) were also used to assess fatigue and pain. Depression was measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Plasma F(2)-isoprostane was measured with gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy to assess oxidative stress. Evaluation included medical record review, physical exam and calculation of body mass index (BMI), disease activity (SLEDAI) and damage (SLICC) in the SLE patients. Seventy-one SLE patients with low disease activity (mean SLEDAI = 1.62 standard error (SE) 0.37, range 0-8) were compared to 51 controls. Fatigue-limiting physical activity (defined as FSS ≥ 4) was present in 56% of patients and 12% of controls. F(2)-isoprostane was higher in SLE patients with fatigue compared to not-fatigued SLE subjects (p = .0076) who were otherwise similar in ethnicity, disease activity and cardiovascular risk factors. Plasma F(2)-isoprostane was strongly correlated with FSS and Profile of Somatic Fatigue (Prof-S) (p fatigue (p = .005), CES-D (p = .008) and with BMI (p = .0001.) In a multivariate model, F(2)-isoprostane was a significant predictor of FSS after adjustment for age, BMI, pain and depression (p = .0002). Fatigue in SLE patients with low disease activity is associated with increased F(2)-isoprostane. F2-isoprostane could provide a useful biomarker to explore mitochondrial function and the regulation of oxidative pathways in patients with SLE in whom fatigue is a debilitating symptom.

  20. Prognostic value of stress myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography: results from a multicenter observational registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbala, Sharmila; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Beanlands, Rob S; Merhige, Michael E; Williams, Brent A; Veledar, Emir; Chow, Benjamin J W; Min, James K; Pencina, Michael J; Berman, Daniel S; Shaw, Leslee J

    2013-01-15

    The primary objective of this multicenter registry was to study the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and the improved classification of risk in a large cohort of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD). Limited prognostic data are available for MPI with PET. A total of 7,061 patients from 4 centers underwent a clinically indicated rest/stress rubidium-82 PET MPI, with a median follow-up of 2.2 years. The primary outcome of this study was cardiac death (n = 169), and the secondary outcome was all-cause death (n = 570). Net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination analyses were performed. Risk-adjusted hazard of cardiac death increased with each 10% myocardium abnormal with mildly, moderately, or severely abnormal stress PET (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.3 [95% CI: 1.4 to 3.8; p = 0.001], HR: 4.2 [95% CI: 2.3 to 7.5; p statistic 0.805 [95% CI: 0.772 to 0.838] to 0.839 [95% CI: 0.809 to 0.869]) and risk reclassification for cardiac death (NRI 0.116 [95% CI: 0.021 to 0.210]), with smaller improvements in risk assessment for all-cause death. In patients with known or suspected CAD, the extent and severity of ischemia and scar on PET MPI provided powerful and incremental risk estimates of cardiac death and all-cause death compared with traditional coronary risk factors. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Response of the Benguela upwelling systems to spatial variations in the wind stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennel, Wolfgang; Junker, Tim; Schmidt, Martin; Mohrholz, Volker

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we combine field observations, numerical modeling and an idealized analytical theory to study some features of the Benguela upwelling system. The current system can be established through a combination of observations and realistic simulations with an advanced numerical model. The poleward undercurrent below the equator-ward coastal jet is often found as a countercurrent that reaches the sea surface seaward of the coastal jet. The coastal band of cold upwelled water appears to broaden from south to north and at the northern edge of the wind band an offshore flow is often detected, which deflects the coastal Angola current to the west. These features can be explained and understood with an idealized analytical model forced by a spatially variable wind. A crucial role is played by the wind stress curl, which shapes the oceanic response through Ekman-pumping. The interplay of the curl driven effects and the coastal Ekman upwelling together with the coastal jet, Kelvin waves, and the undercurrent is the key to understand the formation of the three-dimensional circulation patterns in the Benguela system. While the numerical model is based on the full set of primitive equations, realistic topography and forcing, the analytic model uses a linear, flat-bottomed f-plane ocean, where the coast is a straight wall and the forcing is represented by an alongshore band of dome-shaped wind stress. Although the analytical model is highly idealized it is very useful to grasp the basic mechanisms leading to the response patterns.

  2. From scientific instrument to industrial machine : Coping with architectural stress in embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, R.; Loo, S. van

    2012-01-01

    Architectural stress is the inability of a system design to respond to new market demands. It is an important yet often concealed issue in high tech systems. In From scientific instrument to industrial machine, we look at the phenomenon of architectural stress in embedded systems in the context of a

  3. Influence of chemical peeling on the skin stress response system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Ayako; Kanazawa, Nobuo; Li, Hong-Jin; Yonei, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2012-07-01

    Skin stress response system (SSRS) involves corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and b-endorphin that are locally generated in response to locally provided stressors or proinflammatory cytokines. This system would restrict tissue damage and restore local homoeostasis. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is one of the most widely used peeling agents and applied for cosmetic treatment of photodamaged skin. However, the biological mechanism responsible for TCA peeling has yet to be fully determined. While our investigation focused on the inflammation and wound healing pathways, in the recent study, we have examined involvement of the SSRS as the third pathway. Mostly depending on our findings that TCA peeling activates the SSRS by inducing the POMC expression of keratinocytes in the CRH-independent manner, together with the results reported by other researchers, we can say that the biological effect of POMC seems to be responsible for the TCA-induced epidermal SSRS activation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Predator-scent stress, ethanol consumption and the opioid system in an animal model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjoch, Hadar; Vainer, Ella; Matar, Michael; Ifergane, Gal; Zohar, Joseph; Kaplan, Zeev; Cohen, Hagit

    2016-06-01

    Emerging literature points to stress exposure as a potential contributor to the development of alcohol abuse, but animal models have yielded inconsistent results. Converging experimental data indicate that the endogenous opioid system modulates alcohol consumption and stress regulation. The aim of the present study is to examine the interplay between stress exposure, behavioral stress responses, ethanol (EtOH) consumption and the endogenous opioid system in an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Rats were exposed to stress and then tested in a two-bottle free choice (TBC) assay or in a conditioned place preference paradigm. In some experiments, the endogenous opioid system was pharmacologically manipulated prior to stress exposure. The behavioral outcomes of stress exposure were assessed in an elevated plus-maze, with the acoustic startle response, and by monitoring the freezing response to trauma reminder. Immunoreactivity of phosphorylated opioid receptors in hippocampal subregions was also measured. Stress significantly increased the consumption of EtOH in the TBC assay. The severity of the behavioral response to stress was associated with EtOH consumption, cue-triggered freezing response to a trauma reminder, and endogenous levels of phosphorylated opioid receptors in the hippocampus. Pharmacologically manipulating the endogenous opioid system prior to stress exposure attenuated trauma cue-triggered freezing responses and blocked predator scent stress-induced potentiation of EtOH consumption. These data demonstrate a stress-induced potentiation of EtOH self-administration and reveal a clear association between individual patterns of the behavioral response to stress and alcohol preference, while indicating a role for the endogenous opioid system in the neurobiological response to stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. On the Magnitude and Orientation of Stress during Shock Metamorphism: Understanding Peak Ring Formation by Combining Observations and Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, A.; Poelchau, M.; Collins, G. S.; Timms, N.; Cavosie, A. J.; Lofi, J.; Salge, T.; Riller, U. P.; Ferrière, L.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Osinski, G.; Morgan, J. V.; Expedition 364 Science Party, I. I.

    2017-12-01

    Shock metamorphism occurs during the earliest moments after impact. The magnitude and orientation of shock leaves recordable signatures in rocks, which spatially vary across an impact structure. Consequently, observations of shock metamorphism can be used to understand deformation and its history within a shock wave, and to examine subsequent deformation during crater modification. IODP-ICDP Expedition 364 recovered nearly 600 m of shocked target rocks from the peak ring of the Chicxulub Crater. Samples from the expedition were used to measure the magnitude and orientation of shock in peak ring materials, and to determine the mechanism of peak-ring emplacement. Here, we present the results of petrographic analyses of the shocked granitic target rocks of the Chicxulub peak ring; using universal-stage optical microscopy, back-scattered electron images, and electron back-scatter diffraction. Deformation microstructures in quartz include planar deformation features (PDFs), feather features (FFs), which are unique to shock conditions, as well as planar fractures and crystal-plastic deformation bands. The assemblage of PDFs in quartz suggest that the peak-ring rocks experienced shock pressures of 15 GPa throughout the recovered drill core, and that the orientation of FFs are consistent with the present-day orientation of the maximum principal stress direction during shock is close to vertical. Numerical impact simulations of the impact event were run to determine the magnitude and orientation of principal stresses during shock and track those orientations throughout crater formation. Our results are remarkably consistent with the geological data, and accurately predict both the shock-pressure magnitudes, and the final near-vertical orientation of the direction of maximum principal stress in the shock wave. Furthermore, analysis of the state of stress throughout the impact event can be used to constrain the timing of fracture and fault orientations observed in the core

  6. Systems Biology Approach to Understanding Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is a psychological disorder a???ecting individuals that have experienced life-changing... post - traumatic stress disorder 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-10-2-0111 & USAMRMC 09284002 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...challenges As stated in the Introduction, post - traumatic stress disorder is the only psychological disorder for which the onset of the

  7. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  8. A Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Global Mercury Observation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinnirella S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS Project includes a specific Work Package aimed at developing tools (i.e. databases, catalogs, services to collect GMOS datasets, harvest mercury databases, and offer services like search, view, and download spatial datasets from the GMOS portal (www.gmos.eu. The system will be developed under the framework of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE Directive and the Directive 2003/4/EC on public access to environmental information, which both aim to make relevant, harmonized, high-quality geographic information available to support the formulation, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies and activities that have a direct or indirect impact on the environment. Three databases have been proposed (on emissions, field data and model results, and each will be equipped with state-of-the-art, open-source software to allow for the highest performance possible. Web-based user-interfaces and prototype applications will be developed to demonstrate the potential of blending different datasets from different servers for environmental assessment studies. Several services (i.e. catalog browsers, WMS and WCS services, web GIS services will be developed to facilitate data integration, data re-use, and data exchange within and beyond the GMOS project. Different types of measurement and model datasets provided by project partners and other sources will be integrated into PostgreSQL-PostGIS, harmonized by creating INSPIRE-compliant metadata and made available to a larger community of stakeholders, policy makers, scientists, and NGOs (as well as to other public and private institutions, as dictated by the Directive 2003/4/EC. Since interoperability is a central concept for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS, the Global Monitoring for Environmental and Security (GMES and the INSPIRE Directive, guidelines developed in these three frameworks will be

  9. Regulation of the corticosteroid signalling system in rainbow trout HPI axis during confinement stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Servili, Arianna; Péron, Sandrine; Valotaire, Claudiane; Goardon, Lionel; Leguen, Isabelle; Prunet, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to shed light on corticosteroid regulation of stress in teleost fish with focus on the corticosteroid signalling system. The role of the mineralocorticoid-like hormone 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) in fish is still enigmatic, as is the function of the mineralocorticoid receptor, MR. Low plasma DOC levels and ubiquitous tissue distribution of MR question the physiological relevance of the mineralocorticoid-axis. Furthermore, the particular purpose of each of the three corticosteroid receptors in fish, the glucocorticoid receptors, GR1 and GR2, and the MR, is still largely unknown. Therefore we investigate the regulation of cortisol and DOC in plasma and mRNA levels of MR, GR1 and GR2 in the HPI-axis tissues (hypothalamus, pituitary and interrenal gland) during a detailed confinement stress time-course. Here we show a sustained up-regulation of plasma DOC levels during a confinement stress time-course. However, the low DOC levels compared to cortisol measured in the plasma do not favour an activity of DOC through MR receptors. Furthermore, we show differential contribution of the CRs in regulation and control of HPI axis activity following confinement stress. Judged by the variation of mRNA levels negative feedback regulation of cortisol release occurs on the level of the pituitary via MR and on the level of the interrenal gland via GR2. Finally, asa significant effect of confinement stress on CR expressions was observed in the pituitary gland, we completed this experiment by demonstrating that corticosteroid receptors (GR1, GR2 and MR) are co-expressed in the ACTH cells located in the adenohypophysis. Overall, these data suggest the involvement of these receptors in the regulation of the HPI axis activity by cortisol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Calculation of electromagnetic observables in few-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, B.F.

    1986-10-01

    An introduction to the calculation of electromagnetic observables in few-body systems is given by studying two examples in the trinucleon system: (1) the elastic electron scattering charge form factor in configuration space and momentum space and (2) the two-body photodisintegration of 3 H leading to a neutron-deuteron final state in a separable potential formalism. In the discussion of charge form factor calculations, a number of related topics are touched upon: the relation of structure in Psi to the properties of simple NN forces, the Faddeev and Schroedinger solution to the harmonic oscillator problem, the Rosenbluth formula for electron scattering from a spin-1/2 nuclear target (e.g., the proton or 3 H), and the charge density operator. Formulae for 3 He and 3 H charge form factors in a central force approximation are given in configuration and momentum space. The physics of these form factors is discussed in light of results from realistic nucleon-nucleon potential model calculations, including the effects of two-pion-exchange three-body force models. Topics covered are the rms charge densities, and the Coulomb energy of 3 He. In the discussion of the 3 H photodisintegration, the Siegert form of the electric dipole operator (in the long wave length limit) is derived as are the separable potential equations which describe the off-shell transition amplitudes which connect nucleon-plus-corrected-pair states. Expressions for the Born amplitudes required to complete the two-body photodisintegration amplitude calculation are given. Numerical results for a model central force problem are discussed and compared with an approximate calculation. Comparisons with 3 H(γ,n)d and 3 He(γ,p)d data are made, and the significant features of the exact theoretical calculation are outlined. 61 refs., 26 figs

  11. An Observational Study of Service Dogs for Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H; Owen-Smith, Ashli A; Stumbo, Scott P; Yarborough, Micah T; Perrin, Nancy A; Green, Carla A

    2017-07-01

    This study examined needs related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), assistance by service dogs, and feasibility of data collection among veterans receiving service dogs. Questionnaires assessed PTSD-related needs and services performed or expected to be performed by service dogs among 78 veterans who had or were on a wait list for a service dog (average age, 42; women, 31%). Analyses compared pre-post characteristics among 22 veterans who received a service dog as part of the study (91% follow-up; average follow-up=3.37±2.57 months). Veterans reported that the most important services performed were licking or nudging veterans to help them "stay present," preventing panic, and putting space between veterans and strangers. High follow-up rates and improvements in outcomes with moderate to large effect sizes among recipients of study-provided dogs suggest further study is warranted. Service dogs may be feasible supports for veterans with PTSD; randomized clinical trials are needed to assess effectiveness.

  12. Prognostic implications of stress hyperglycemia in acute ST elevation myocardial infarction. Prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, Rafael; Núñez, Julio; Blasco, M Luisa; Miñana, Gema; Martínez-Maicas, Helena; Carbonell, Nieves; Palau, Patricia; Bodí, Vicente; Sanchis, Juan

    2011-03-01

    In patients with acute myocardial infarction, elevation of plasma glucose levels is associated with worse outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between stress hyperglycemia and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation (STEMI). We analyzed 834 consecutive patients admitted for STEMI to the Coronary Care Unit of our center. Association between admission glucose and mortality was assessed with Cox regression analysis. Discriminative accuracy of the multivariate model was assessed by Harrell's C statistic. Eighty-nine (10.7%) patients died during hospitalization. Optimal threshold glycemia level of 140mg/dl on admission to predict mortality was obtained by ROC curves. Those who presented glucose ≥140mg/dl showed higher rates of malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias (28% vs. 18%, P=.001), complicative bundle branch block (5% vs. 2%, P=.005), new atrioventricular block (9% vs. 5%, P=.05) and in-hospital mortality (15% vs. 5%, PStress hyperglycemia on admission is a predictor of mortality and arrhythmias in patients with STEMI and could be used in the stratification of risk in these patients. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. COSMOS: the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zreda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The newly-developed cosmic-ray method for measuring area-average soil moisture at the hectometer horizontal scale is being implemented in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (or the COSMOS. The stationary cosmic-ray soil moisture probe measures the neutrons that are generated by cosmic rays within air and soil and other materials, moderated by mainly hydrogen atoms located primarily in soil water, and emitted to the atmosphere where they mix instantaneously at a scale of hundreds of meters and whose density is inversely correlated with soil moisture. The COSMOS has already deployed more than 50 of the eventual 500 cosmic-ray probes, distributed mainly in the USA, each generating a time series of average soil moisture over its horizontal footprint, with similar networks coming into existence around the world. This paper is written to serve a community need to better understand this novel method and the COSMOS project. We describe the cosmic-ray soil moisture measurement method, the instrument and its calibration, the design, data processing and dissemination used in the COSMOS project, and give example time series of soil moisture obtained from COSMOS probes.

  14. Mesoscale climate hydrology: Earth Observation System - definition phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The use of airborne and space observations to map surface heat fluxes and soil water content at heterogeneous land surfaces was studied. Algorithms to estimate evaporation fluxes with satellite observations were evaluated against measurements. Spatialcorrelation lengths were studied with estimated

  15. Mesoscale climate hydrology: Earth Observation System - definition phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The use of airborne and space observations to map surface heat fluxes and soil water content at heterogeneous land surfaces was studied. Algorithms to estimate evaporation fluxes with satellite observations were evaluated against measurements. Spatialcorrelation lengths were studied with estimated

  16. Multi-modal sensor system for plant water stress assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant stress critically affects plant growth and causes significant loss of productivity and quality. When the plant is under water stress, it impedes photosynthesis and transpiration, resulting in changes in leaf color and temperature. Leaf discoloration in photosynthesis can be assessed by measu...

  17. Big Data in the Earth Observing System Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris; Baynes, Katie; McInerney, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Approaches that are being pursued for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data system to address the challenges of Big Data were presented to the NASA Big Data Task Force. Cloud prototypes are underway to tackle the volume challenge of Big Data. However, advances in computer hardware or cloud won't help (much) with variety. Rather, interoperability standards, conventions, and community engagement are the key to addressing variety.

  18. Stress analysis of piping systems and piping supports. Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusitschka, Erwin

    1999-01-01

    The presentation is focused on the Computer Aided Tools and Methods used by Siemens/KWU in the engineering activities for Nuclear Power Plant Design and Service. In the multi-disciplinary environment, KWU has developed specific tools to support As-Built Documentation as well as Service Activities. A special application based on Close Range Photogrammetry (PHOCAS) has been developed to support revamp planning even in a high level radiation environment. It comprises three completely inter-compatible expansion modules - Photo Catalog, Photo Database and 3D-Model - to generate objects which offer progressively more utilization and analysis options. To support the outage planning of NPP/CAD-based tools have been developed. The presentation gives also an overview of the broad range of skills and references in: Plant Layout and Design using 3D-CAD-Tools; evaluation of Earthquake Safety (Seismic Screening); Revamps in Existing Plants; Inter-disciplinary coordination of project engineering and execution fields; Consulting and Assistance; Conceptual Studies; Stress Analysis of Piping Systems and Piping Supports; Documentation; Training and Supports in CAD-Design, etc. All activities are performed to the greatest extent possible using proven data-processing tools. (author)

  19. Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management By Mayo Clinic Staff Stress basics Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to the demands of life. ... some people's alarm systems rarely shut off. Stress management gives you a range of tools to reset ...

  20. Marginal Ice Zone Processes Observed from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Furthermore, MIZ play a central role in setting the air-sea CO2 balance making them a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Incomplete understanding of how the sea-ice modulates gas fluxes renders it difficult to estimate the carbon budget in MIZ. Here, we investigate the turbulent mechanisms driving mixing and gas exchange in leads, polynyas and in the presence of ice floes using both field and laboratory measurements. Measurements from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the marginal ice zone were made during 2 experiments: 1) North of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea were made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013 and 2) Fram Strait and Greenland Sea northwest of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway during the Air-Sea-Ice Physics and Biogeochemistry Experiment (ASIPBEX) April - May 2015. We developed a number of new payloads that include: i) hyperspectral imaging spectrometers to measure VNIR (400-1000 nm) and NIR (900-1700 nm) spectral radiance; ii) net longwave and net shortwave radiation for ice-ocean albedo studies; iii) air-sea-ice turbulent fluxes as well as wave height, ice freeboard, and surface roughness with a LIDAR; and iv) drone-deployed micro-drifters (DDµD) deployed from the UAS that telemeter temperature, pressure, and RH as it descends through the atmosphere and temperature and salinity of the upper meter of the ocean once it lands on the ocean's surface. Visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as an intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near

  1. Semantics-enabled knowledge management for global Earth observation system of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roger L.; Durbha, Surya S.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is a distributed system of systems built on current international cooperation efforts among existing Earth observing and processing systems. The goal is to formulate an end-to-end process that enables the collection and distribution of accurate, reliable Earth Observation data, information, products, and services to both suppliers and consumers worldwide. One of the critical components in the development of such systems is the ability to obtain seamless access of data across geopolitical boundaries. In order to gain support and willingness to participate by countries around the world in such an endeavor, it is necessary to devise mechanisms whereby the data and the intellectual capital is protected through procedures that implement the policies specific to a country. Earth Observations (EO) are obtained from a multitude of sources and requires coordination among different agencies and user groups to come to a shared understanding on a set of concepts involved in a domain. It is envisaged that the data and information in a GEOSS context will be unprecedented and the current data archiving and delivery methods need to be transformed into one that allows realization of seamless interoperability. Thus, EO data integration is dependent on the resolution of conflicts arising from a variety of areas. Modularization is inevitable in distributed environments to facilitate flexible and efficient reuse of existing ontologies. Therefore, we propose a framework for modular ontologies based knowledge management approach for GEOSS and present methods to enable efficient reasoning in such systems.

  2. Observing the observers - uncovering the role of values in research assessments of organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsøe, Martin Hermansen; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the overall effects of organic food systems is important, but also a challenge because organic food systems cannot be fully assessed from one single research perspective. The aim of our research was to determine the role of values in assessments of organic food systems as a basis...... for discussing the implications of combining multiple perspectives in overall sustainability assessments of the food system. We explored how values were embedded in five research perspectives: (1) food science, (2) discourse analysis, (3) phenomenology, (4) neoclassical welfare economics, and (5) actor......-network theory. Value has various meanings according to different scientific perspectives. A strategy for including and balancing different forms of knowledge in overall assessments of the effects of food systems is needed. Based on the analysis, we recommend four courses of action: (1) elucidate values...

  3. Building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Its Interoperability Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Launched in 2005 by industrialized nations, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) began building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Consisting of both a policy framework, and an information infrastructure, GEOSS, was intended to link and/or integrate the multitude of Earth observation systems, primarily operated by its Member Countries and Participating Organizations, so that users could more readily benefit from global information assets for a number of society's key environmental issues. It was recognized that having ready access to observations from multiple systems was a prerequisite for both environmental decision-making, as well as economic development. From the very start, it was also recognized that the shear complexity of the Earth's system cannot be captured by any single observation system, and that a federated, interoperable approach was necessary. While this international effort has met with much success, primarily in advancing broad, open data policies and practices, challenges remain. In 2014 (Geneva, Switzerland) and 2015 (Mexico City, Mexico), Ministers from GEO's Member Countries, including the European Commission, came together to assess progress made during the first decade (2005 to 2015), and approve implementation strategies and mechanisms for the second decade (2016 to 2025), respectively. The approved implementation strategies and mechanisms are intended to advance GEOSS development thereby facilitating the increased uptake of Earth observations for informed decision-making. Clearly there are interoperability challenges that are technological in nature, and several will be discussed in this presentation. There are, however, interoperability challenges that can be better characterized as economic, governmental and/or political in nature, and these will be discussed as well. With the emergence of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), and the United Nations

  4. Vegetation Earth System Data Record from DSCOVR EPIC Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazikhin, Y.; Song, W.; Yang, B.; Mottus, M.; Rautiainen, M.; Stenberg, P.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA's Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission was launched on February 11, 2015 to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L1 point where it began to collect radiance data of the entire sunlit Earth every 65 to 110 min in June 2015. It provides imageries in near backscattering directions with the scattering angle between 168° and 176° at ten ultraviolet to near infrared (NIR) narrow spectral bands centered at 317.5 (band width 1.0) nm, 325.0 (2.0) nm, 340.0 (3.0) nm, 388.0 (3.0) nm, 433.0 (3.0) nm, 551.0 (3.0) nm, 680.0 (3.0) nm, 687.8 (0.8) nm, 764.0 (1.0) nm and 779.5 (2.0) nm. This poster presents current status of the Vegetation Earth System Data Record of global Leaf Area Index (LAI), solar zenith angle dependent Sunlit Leaf Area Index (SLAI), Fraction vegetation absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the DSCOVR EPIC observations. Whereas LAI is a standard product of many satellite missions, the SLAI is a new satellite-derived parameter. Sunlit and shaded leaves exhibit different radiative response to incident Photosynthetically Active Radiation (400-700 nm), which in turn triggers various physiological and physical processes required for the functioning of plants. FPAR, LAI and SLAI are key state parameters in most ecosystem productivity models and carbon/nitrogen cycle. The product at 10 km sinusoidal grid and 65 to 110 min temporal frequency as well as accompanying Quality Assessment (QA) variables will be publicly available from the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center. The Algorithm Theoretical Basis (ATBD) and product validation strategy are also discussed in this poster.

  5. The Demonstrator for the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Euteneuer, F.; Ulbricht, D.; Lauterjung, J.; Bailo, D.; Jeffery, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    An important outcome of the 4-year Preparatory Phase of the ESFRI project European Plate Observing System (EPOS) was the development and first implementation of the EPOS Demonstrator by the project's ICT Working Group 7. The Demonstrator implements the vertical integration of the three-layer architectural scheme for EPOS, connecting the Integrated Core Services (ICS), Thematic Core Services (TCS) and the National Research Infrastructures (NRI). The demonstrator provides a single GUI with central key discovery and query functionalities, based on already existing services by the seismic, geologic and geodetic communities. More specifically the seismic services of the Demonstrator utilize webservices and APIs for data and discovery of raw seismic data (FDSN webservices by the EIDA Network), events (Geoportal by EMSC) and analytical data products (e.g., hazard maps by EFEHR via OGC WMS). For geologic services, the EPOS Demonstrator accesses OneGeology Europe which serves the community with geologic maps and point information via OGC webservices. The Demonstrator also provides access to raw geodetic data via a newly developed universal tool called GSAC. The Demonstrator itself resembles the future Integrated Core Service (ICS) and provides direct access to the end user. Its core functionality lies in a metadata catalogue, which serves as the central information hub and stores information about all RIs, related persons, projects, financial background and technical access information. The database schema of the catalogue is based on CERIF, which has been slightly adapted. Currently, the portal provides basic query functions as well as cross domain search. [www.epos.cineca.it

  6. Observing System Simulations for Small Satellite Formations Estimating Bidirectional Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Gatebe, Charles K.; de Weck, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) gives the reflectance of a target as a function of illumination geometry and viewing geometry, hence carries information about the anisotropy of the surface. BRDF is needed in remote sensing for the correction of view and illumination angle effects (for example in image standardization and mosaicing), for deriving albedo, for land cover classification, for cloud detection, for atmospheric correction, and other applications. However, current spaceborne instruments provide sparse angular sampling of BRDF and airborne instruments are limited in the spatial and temporal coverage. To fill the gaps in angular coverage within spatial, spectral and temporal requirements, we propose a new measurement technique: Use of small satellites in formation flight, each satellite with a VNIR (visible and near infrared) imaging spectrometer, to make multi-spectral, near-simultaneous measurements of every ground spot in the swath at multiple angles. This paper describes an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) to evaluate the proposed concept and select the optimal formation architecture that minimizes BRDF uncertainties. The variables of the OSSE are identified; number of satellites, measurement spread in the view zenith and relative azimuth with respect to solar plane, solar zenith angle, BRDF models and wavelength of reflection. Analyzing the sensitivity of BRDF estimation errors to the variables allow simplification of the OSSE, to enable its use to rapidly evaluate formation architectures. A 6-satellite formation is shown to produce lower BRDF estimation errors, purely in terms of angular sampling as evaluated by the OSSE, than a single spacecraft with 9 forward-aft sensors. We demonstrate the ability to use OSSEs to design small satellite formations as complements to flagship mission data. The formations can fill angular sampling gaps and enable better BRDF products than currently possible.

  7. Observing system simulations for small satellite formations estimating bidirectional reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Gatebe, Charles K.; Weck, Olivier de

    2015-12-01

    The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) gives the reflectance of a target as a function of illumination geometry and viewing geometry, hence carries information about the anisotropy of the surface. BRDF is needed in remote sensing for the correction of view and illumination angle effects (for example in image standardization and mosaicing), for deriving albedo, for land cover classification, for cloud detection, for atmospheric correction, and other applications. However, current spaceborne instruments provide sparse angular sampling of BRDF and airborne instruments are limited in the spatial and temporal coverage. To fill the gaps in angular coverage within spatial, spectral and temporal requirements, we propose a new measurement technique: use of small satellites in formation flight, each satellite with a VNIR (visible and near infrared) imaging spectrometer, to make multi-spectral, near-simultaneous measurements of every ground spot in the swath at multiple angles. This paper describes an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) to evaluate the proposed concept and select the optimal formation architecture that minimizes BRDF uncertainties. The variables of the OSSE are identified; number of satellites, measurement spread in the view zenith and relative azimuth with respect to solar plane, solar zenith angle, BRDF models and wavelength of reflection. Analyzing the sensitivity of BRDF estimation errors to the variables allow simplification of the OSSE, to enable its use to rapidly evaluate formation architectures. A 6-satellite formation is shown to produce lower BRDF estimation errors, purely in terms of angular sampling as evaluated by the OSSE, than a single spacecraft with 9 forward-aft sensors. We demonstrate the ability to use OSSEs to design small satellite formations as complements to flagship mission data. The formations can fill angular sampling gaps and enable better BRDF products than currently possible.

  8. The Action Observation System when Observing Hand Actions in Autism and Typical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Jennifer J; Hatt, Naomi V; Colombi, Costanza; Vivanti, Giacomo; Rogers, Sally J; Rivera, Susan M

    2015-06-01

    Social impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be in part due to difficulty perceiving and recognizing the actions of others. Evidence from imitation studies, which involves both observation and execution of an action, suggests differences, in individuals with ASD, between the ability to imitate goal-directed actions involving objects (transitive actions) and the ability to imitate actions that do not involve objects (intransitive actions). In the present study, we examined whether there were differences in how ASD adolescents encoded transitive and intransitive actions compared to typically developing (TD) adolescents, by having participants view videos of a hand reaching across a screen toward an object or to where an object would be while functional magnetic resonance images were collected. Analyses focused on areas within the action observation network (AON), which is activated during the observation of actions performed by others. We hypothesized that the AON would differentiate transitive from intransitive actions only in the ASD group. However, results revealed that object presence modulated activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus of the TD group, a differentiation that was not seen in the ASD group. Furthermore, there were no significant group differences between the TD and ASD groups in any of the conditions. This suggests that there is not a global deficit of the AON in individuals with ASD while observing transitive and intransitive actions. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Data Assimilation of SMAP Observations and the Impact on Weather Forecasts and Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Case, Jonathan; Blankenship, Clay; Crosson, William; White, Khristopher

    2014-01-01

    SPoRT produces real-time LIS soil moisture products for situational awareness and local numerical weather prediction over CONUS, Mesoamerica, and East Africa ?Currently interact/collaborate with operational partners on evaluation of soil moisture products ?Drought/fire ?Extreme heat ?Convective initiation ?Flood and water borne diseases ?Initial efforts to assimilate L2 soil moisture observations from SMOS (as a precursor for SMAP) have been successful ?Active/passive blended product from SMAP will be assimilated similarly and higher spatial resolution should improve on local-scale processes

  10. In-situ observation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking in AA2024-T3 under constant load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaodong; Frankel, G.S.; Zoofan, B.; Rokhlin, S.I.

    2007-01-01

    A specially designed setup was used to apply a constant load to a thin sheet sample of AA2024-T3 and, using microfocal X-ray radiography, to observe in situ the resulting intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) from the exposed edge of the sample. The growth of and competition between multiple IGSCC sites was monitored. In many experiments twin cracks initiated close to each other. Furthermore, the deepest crack at the beginning of every experiment was found to slow or stop growing, and was then surpassed by another crack that eventually penetrated through the sample. These observations cannot be explained by the theory of fracture mechanics in inert environments. The possible mechanisms underlying the competition between cracks are discussed

  11. Biofeedback systems for stress reduction: Towards a Bright Future for a Revitalized Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Conchon, E.; Correia, C.; Fred, A.; Gamboa, H.

    2012-01-01

    Stress has recently been baptized as the black death of the 21st century, which illustrates its threat to current health standards. This article proposes biofeedback systems as a means to reduce stress. A concise state-ofthe-art introduction on biofeedback systems is given. The field of mental

  12. Biofeedback systems for stress reduction : Towards a bright future for a revitalized field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, E.L. van den; Westerink, J.H.D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Stress has recently been baptized as the black death of the 21st century, which illustrates its threat to current health standards. This article proposes biofeedback systems as a means to reduce stress. A concise state-of-the-art introduction on biofeedback systems is given. The field of mental

  13. Role of stress system disturbance and enhanced novelty response in spatial learning of NCAM-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandewiede, Joerg; Jakovcevski, Mira; Stork, Oliver; Schachner, Melitta

    2013-11-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays a crucial role in stress-related brain function, emotional behavior and memory formation. In this study, we investigated the functions of the glucocorticoid and serotonergic systems in mice constitutively deficient for NCAM (NCAM-/- mice). Our data provide evidence for a hyperfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, with enlarged adrenal glands and increased stress-induced corticosterone release, but reduced hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor expression in NCAM-/- mice when compared to NCAM+/+ mice. We also obtained evidence for a hypofunction of 5-HT1A autoreceptors as indicated by increased 8-0H-DPAT-induced hypothermia. These findings suggest a disturbance of both humoral and neural stress systems in NCAM-/- mice. Accordingly, we not only confirmed previously observed hyperarousal of NCAM-/- mice in various anxiety tests, but also observed an increased response to novelty exposure in these animals. Spatial learning deficits of the NCAM-/- mice in a Morris Water maze persisted, even when mice were pretrained to prevent effects of novelty or stress. We suggest that NCAM-mediated processes are involved in both novelty/stress-related emotional behavior and in cognitive function during spatial learning.

  14. Coordinated Regional Benefit Studies of Coastal Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Luger, Michael; Wieand, Ken; Pulsipher, Allan; Pendleton, Linwood; Wellman, Katherine; Pelsoci, Tom

    2003-01-01

    .... The authors will first produce regional "inventories" of ocean observation user sectors, including information about the physical and economic scale of their activities, how products from improved...

  15. Test plan for in situ stress measurement system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.

    1981-09-01

    The tests are to be performed to provide information regarding the state of stress of the basalt rock beneath the Hanford Site. This test series is designed to obtain information necessary to determine if hydrofracturing stress measurement is feasible in a fractured basalt medium. During the course of these field tests, it will be attempted to adapt the conventional hydrofracturing test method and analysis techniques to the basalt medium. If the test is shown to be feasible, more holes will be identified for testing. A comprehensive in situ stress determination program will be initiated. 2 figs

  16. Observations of static Coulomb stress triggering of the November 2011 M5.7 Oklahoma earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumy, Danielle F.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Keranen, Katie M.; Wei, Maya; Abers, Geoffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    In November 2011, a M5.0 earthquake occurred less than a day before a M5.7 earthquake near Prague, Oklahoma, which may have promoted failure of the mainshock and thousands of aftershocks along the Wilzetta fault, including a M5.0 aftershock. The M5.0 foreshock occurred in close proximity to active fluid injection wells; fluid injection can cause a buildup of pore fluid pressure, decrease the fault strength, and may induce earthquakes. Keranen et al. [2013] links the M5.0 foreshock with fluid injection, but the relationship between the foreshock and successive events has not been investigated. Here we examine the role of coseismic Coulomb stress transfer on earthquakes that follow the M5.0 foreshock, including the M5.7 mainshock. We resolve the static Coulomb stress change onto the focal mechanism nodal plane that is most consistent with the rupture geometry of the three M ≥ 5.0 earthquakes, as well as specified receiver fault planes that reflect the regional stress orientation. We find that Coulomb stress is increased, e.g., fault failure is promoted, on the nodal planes of ~60% of the events that have focal mechanism solutions, and more specifically, that the M5.0 foreshock promoted failure on the rupture plane of the M5.7 mainshock. We test our results over a range of effective coefficient of friction values. Hence, we argue that the M5.0 foreshock, induced by fluid injection, potentially triggered a cascading failure of earthquakes along the complex Wilzetta fault system.

  17. Conducting Classroom Observations : Stallings 'Classroom Snapshot' Observation System for an Electronic Tablet

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    The “Stallings Classroom Snapshot” instrument, technically called the “Stanford Research Institute Classroom Observation System”, was developed by Professor Jane Stallings for research on the efficiency and quality of basic education teachers in the United States in the 1970s. (Stallings, 1977; Stallings and Mohlman, 1988). The Stallings instrument generates robust quantitative data on the interaction of teachers and students in the classroom, with a high degree of inter-rater rel...

  18. Swim stress exaggerates the hyperactive mesocortical dopamine system in a rodent model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasato, Akane; Nakatani, Yasushi; Seki, Yoshinari; Tsujino, Naohisa; Umino, Masahiro; Arita, Hideho

    2008-02-08

    Several clinical reports have suggested that there is a hyperactivation of the dopaminergic system in people with autism. Using rats exposed prenatally to valproic acid (VPA) as an animal model of autism, we measured dopamine (DA) levels in samples collected from the frontal cortex (FC) using in vivo microdialysis and HPLC. The basal DA level in FC was significantly higher in VPA-exposed rats relative to controls. Since the mesocortical DA system is known to be sensitive to physical and psychological stressors, we measured DA levels in FC before, during, and after a 60-min forced swim test (FST). There were further gradual increases in FC DA levels during the FST in the VPA-exposed rats, but not in the control rats. Behavioral analysis during the last 10 min of the FST revealed a significant decrease in active, escape-oriented behavior and an increase in immobility, which is thought to reflect the development of depressive behavior that disengages the animal from active forms of coping with stressful stimuli. These results suggest that this rodent model of autism exhibits a hyperactive mesocortical DA system, which is exaggerated by swim stress. This abnormality may be responsible for depressive and withdrawal behavior observed in autism.

  19. Improvement in the bioenergetics system of plants under metal stress environment via seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmat, R.; Askari, S.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Hg and its remediation through seaweeds on seedlings were escorted in a greenhouse experiment in a randomized block design. The effects of Hg were monitored in relation with bioenergetics system of Trigonella foenumgraecum plant at test site scale. Plants that were exposed to Hg, showed affect in diverse ways, including affinity to suffer in morphological as well as on sugar metabolism. The stress imposed by Hg exposure also extends to chloroplast pigments that lead to the distorted photosynthetic apparatus. The outcomes of reduced contents of photosynthetic machinery related with reduced contents of glucose, sucrose, total soluble sugars and carbohydrate contents of plants. These contents plays vital rule for providing bioenergy to the plant growth regulation. It was suggested that Hg is lethal for plant bioenergetics system due to which plants fail to survive under stress. The lethal effects of Hg were tried to remediate through green seaweeds (Codium iyengrii). It was observed that seaweeds successfully controlled the mobility of Hg metal and improves the plant growth regulatory system at lower applied dose only. While at higher dose of Hg, seaweeds were also effective but to a certain limits. It was established that continuous addition of Hg in soil and aquatic resources execute to the plant productivity. It is demand of time to develop alternative eco-friendly remediation technologies for controlling, cleaning Hg-polluted zones. (author)

  20. The Role of the Brain's Endocannabinoid System in Pain and Its Modulation by Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Louise; Roche, Michelle; Finn, David P

    2015-01-01

    Stress has a complex, bidirectional modulatory influence on pain. Stress may either reduce (stress-induced analgesia) or exacerbate (stress-induced hyperalgesia) pain depending on the nature, duration, and intensity of the stressor. The endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system is present throughout the neuroanatomical pathways that mediate and modulate responses to painful stimuli. The specific role of the endocannabinoid system in the brain in pain and the modulation of pain by stress is reviewed herein. We first provide a brief overview of the endocannabinoid system, followed by a review of the evidence that the brain's endocannabinoid system modulates pain. We provide a comprehensive evaluation of the role of the endocannabinoid system supraspinally, and particularly in the rostral ventromedial medulla, periaqueductal gray, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex, in pain, stress-induced analgesia, and stress-induced hyperalgesia. Increased understanding of endocannabinoid-mediated regulation of pain and its modulation by stress will inform the development of novel therapeutic approaches for pain and its comorbidity with stress-related disorders. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. User's Guide: Arch Dam Stress Analysis System (ADSAS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... ADSAS assumes linear elastic behavior for the entire dam, i.e. the dam is assumed to support the computed tensile stresses within the concrete mass and across the monolith joints without cracking or opening the joints...

  2. Acoustic Emission Based Surveillance System for Prediction of Stress Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    aging are susceptible to such fractures in contexts of osteoporosis, diabetes, cerebral palsy, fibrous dysplasia and osteogenesis imperfecta . This...disease, or, healthy people who have excessive exercise regimes (soldiers and athletes) experience these fractures [2]. Stress fractures interrupt

  3. Systemic oxidative stress markers in animal model for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena; Kravtsova, Violetta; Aalkjær, Christian

    Involvement of oxidative stress (OxS) in development of major depressive disorder has recently become evident, though mechanisms behind this remain elusive. We analyzed therefore OxS pathways in rat Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) model of depression. Rats are exposed to chronic unpredictable mild...... mg/kg/day). Saline injections were done to control the vehicle effect. Escitalopram treated rats were sub-divided into 2 groups: responders and non-responders, according to their hedonic state and compared to non-stressed rats, treated with either saline or Escitalopram. Measurement of total...... glutathione and malondialdehyde (MDA) in lungs, heart, skeletal muscles, liver, saphenous, mesenteric, and tail arteries were used as estimates for OxS. In heart, glutathione was increased in CMS rats in comparison with non-stressed vehicle group. Accordingly, an estimate for free radical activity, MDA...

  4. Aerosol Observing System Greenhouse Gas (AOS GhG) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reichl, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Greenhouse Gas (GhG) Measurement system is a combination of two systems in series: (1) the Tower Gas Processing (TGP) System, an instrument rack which pulls, pressurizes, and dries air streams from an atmospheric sampling tower through a series of control and monitoring components, and (2) the Picarro model G2301 cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS), which measures CO2, CH4, and H2O vapor; the primary measurements of the GhG system.

  5. Microstructure, Slip Systems and Yield Stress Anisotropy in Plastic Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe; You, Ze Sheng; Lu, Lei

    The highly anisotropic microstructures in nanotwinned copper produced by electrodeposition provide an excellent opportunity to evaluate models for microstructurally induced mechanical anisotropy. A crystal plasticity model originally developed for the integration of deformation induced dislocatio...... boundaries with texture is applied to account for the effects of texture as well as twin and grain boundaries, providing good qualitative agreement with experimental yield stress and yield stress anisotropy data....

  6. Local stress calculation in simulations of multicomponent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branicio, Paulo S.; Srolovitz, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The virial and Hardy methods provide accurate local stresses for single component materials such as monatomic metals. In contrast to the elemental material case, both methods provide poor estimates of the local stress for multicomponent materials. Using binary materials such as CaO, SiC and AlN and homogeneous strain, we demonstrate that there are several sources for the slow convergence of the virial and Hardy local stresses to the bulk values. Different approaches such as enforced stoichiometry, atomic localization functions and the atomic voronoi volume are used to improve the convergence and increase the spatial resolution of the local stress. The virial method with enforced stoichiometry and atomic voronoi volumes is the most accurate, giving exact stress values by the first atomic shell. In the general case, not assuming stoichiometry, the virial method with localization functions converge to 93% of the bulk value by the third atomic shell. This work may be particularly useful for the real-time description of stresses in simulations of shock waves and deformation dynamics.

  7. Remaining life case history studies for high energy piping systems using equivalent stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    As the development of plant life extension for high energy piping systems is progressing, conventional piping system design methodologies are also being reevaluated. Traditional guidelines such as American National Standard Institute/American Society of Mechanical Engineers B31.1 (ANSI/ASME) were developed for plants having design lives in the 25- to 30-year regime based upon relatively short-term base metal creep data. These guidelines use a simplified approach for the piping analysis. Two types of stress criteria must be satisfied. The first type is longitudinal plus torsion stress checks for several types of loading conditions versus the material allowable stresses. The second type is an independent minimum wall thickness check which considers the hoop stress versus the material allowable stress. Seven case histories have been evaluated to estimate the minimum piping system creep life based on the current ANSI/ASME B31.1 finite element type of analysis, which is a traditional approach, versus a multiaxial stress state type of analysis. In nearly every case, the equivalent stress methodology predicted significantly higher stresses. Consequently, the equivalent stress methodology resulted in 11 to 96% lower time to rupture values as compared to the values predicted using ANSI/ASME B31.1 stresses

  8. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  9. The stress analysis evaluation and pipe support layout for pressurizer discharge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Qing; Wang Wei; Zhang Yixiong

    2000-01-01

    The author presents the stress analysis and evaluation of pipe layout and support adjustment process for Qinshan phase II pressurizer discharge system. Using PDL-SYSPIPE INTERFACE software, the characteristic parameters of the system are gained from 3-D CAD engineering design software PDL and outputted as the input date file format of special pipe stress analysis program SYSPIPE. Based on that, SYSPIPE program fast stress analysis function is applied in adjusting pipe layout , support layout and support types. According to RCC-M standard, the pipe stress analysis and evaluation under deadweight, internal pressure, thermal expansion, seismic, pipe rupture and discharge loads are fulfilled

  10. Intelligent Architecture for Enhanced Observability for Active Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    There is a rapid increase of renewable energy resources (RE) and demand response resources (DRR) in the distribution networks. This is challenging for the reliable and stable operation of the grid. So, to ensure secure, optimized and economical operation in such active distribution grids they need...... for active distribution network which satisfies the need for higher observability reach with less field observation. Improved state estimation with composite load forecasting model is aimed for enhanced observability. This paper also summarizes the application of intelligent architecture in the operation...

  11. The impact of stress systems and lifestyle on dyslipidemia and obesity in anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reedt Dortland, Arianne K B; Vreeburg, Sophie A; Giltay, Erik J; Licht, Carmilla M M; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Veen, Tineke; de Geus, Eco J C; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Zitman, Frans G

    2013-02-01

    Dyslipidemia and obesity have been observed in persons with severe anxiety or depression, and in tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) users. This likely contributes to the higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in anxiety and depressive disorders. We aimed to elucidate whether biological stress systems or lifestyle factors underlie these associations. If so, they may be useful targets for CVD prevention and intervention. Within 2850 Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) participants, we evaluated the explaining impact of biological stress systems (i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis, autonomic nervous system [ANS] and inflammation) and lifestyle factors (i.e., tobacco and alcohol use, and physical activity) on adverse associations of anxiety and depression severity and TCA use with high and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, body mass index and waist circumference. Through linear regression analyses, percentual change (%Δ) in β was determined and considered significant when %Δ>10. The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein had the most consistent impact (explaining 14-53% of the associations of anxiety and depression severity and TCA use with lipid and obesity levels), followed by tobacco use (explaining 34-43% of the associations with lipids). The ANS mediated all associations with TCA use (explaining 32-61%). The HPA axis measures did not explain any of the associations. Increased dyslipidemia and (abdominal) obesity risk in patients with more severe anxiety disorders and depression may be partly explained by chronic low-grade inflammation and smoking. TCAs may increase metabolic risk through enhanced sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic ANS activity. That the HPA axis had no impact in our sample may reflect the possibility that the HPA axis only plays a role in acute stress situations rather than under basal conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of the autonomic nervous system and baroreflex in stress-evoked cardiovascular responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Daniel Gustavo; Fortaleza, Eduardo Albino Trindade; Tavares, Rodrigo Fiacadori; Corrêa, Fernando Morgan Aguiar

    2014-07-01

    Restraint stress (RS) is an experimental model to study stress-related cardiovascular responses, characterized by sustained pressor and tachycardiac responses. We used pharmacologic and surgical procedures to investigate the role played by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) in the mediation of stress-evoked cardiovascular responses. Ganglionic blockade with pentolinium significantly reduced RS-evoked pressor and tachycardiac responses. Intravenous treatment with homatropine methyl bromide did not affect the pressor response but increased tachycardia. Pretreatment with prazosin reduced the pressor and increased the tachycardiac response. Pretreatment with atenolol did not affect the pressor response but reduced tachycardia. The combined treatment with atenolol and prazosin reduced both pressor and tachycardiac responses. Adrenal demedullation reduced the pressor response without affecting tachycardia. Sinoaortic denervation increased pressor and tachycardiac responses. The results indicate that: (1) the RS-evoked cardiovascular response is mediated by the autonomic nervous system without an important involvement of humoral factors; (2) hypertension results primarily from sympathovascular and sympathoadrenal activation, without a significant involvement of the cardiac sympathetic component (CSNS); (3) the abrupt initial peak in the hypertensive response to restraint is sympathovascular-mediated, whereas the less intense but sustained hypertensive response observed throughout the remaining restraint session is mainly mediated by sympathoadrenal activation and epinephrine release; (4) tachycardia results from CSNS activation, and not from PSNS inhibition; (5) RS evokes simultaneous CSNS and PSNS activation, and heart rate changes are a vector of both influences; (6) the baroreflex is functional during restraint, and modulates both the vascular and cardiac responses to restraint.

  13. Real-time and on-demand buoy observation system for tsunami and crustal displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Ochi, H.; Suzuki, K.; Kido, M.; Ohta, Y.; Imano, M.; Hino, R.

    2017-12-01

    We develop real-time and on-demand buoy observation system for tsunami and crustal displacement. It is indispensable for observation of crustal displacement to understand changes of stress field related to future large earthquakes. The current status of the observation is carried out by using a vessel with an interval of a few times per a year. When a large earthquake occurs, however, we need dense or on-demand observation of the crustal displacement to grasp nature of the slow slip after the rupture. Therefore, we constructed buoy system with a buoy station, wire-end station, seafloor unit and acoustic transponders for crustal displacement, and we installed a pressure sensor on the seafloor unit and GNSS system on the buoy in addition to measurement of e distance between the buoy and the seafloor acoustic transponders. Tsunami is evaluated using GNSS data and pressure data sent from seafloor. Observation error of the GNSS is about 10 cm. The crustal displacement is estimated using pressure sensor for vertical and acoustic measurement for horizontal. Using current slack ratio of 1.58, the observation error for the measurement of the crustal displacement is about 10 cm. We repeated three times sea trials and confirmed the data acquisition with high data quality, mooring without dredging anchor in the strong sea current with a speed of 5.5 knots. Current issues to be resolved we face are removing noises on the acoustic data transmission, data transmission between the buoy and wire-end stations, electrical consumption on the buoy station and large observation error on the crustal displacement due to large slack ratio. We consider the change of the acoustic transmission for pressure data, replace of a GNSS data logger with large electrical consumption, and reduce of the slack ratio, and search method to reduce resistance of the buoy on the sea water. In this presentation, we introduce the current status of the technical development and tsunami waveforms recorded on our

  14. Involvement of Potassium Transport Systems in the Response of Synechocystis PCC 6803 Cyanobacteria to External pH Change, High-Intensity Light Stress and Heavy Metal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checchetto, Vanessa; Segalla, Anna; Sato, Yuki; Bergantino, Elisabetta; Szabo, Ildiko; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

    2016-04-01

    The unicellular photosynthetic cyanobacterium, able to survive in varying environments, is the only prokaryote that directly converts solar energy and CO2 into organic material and is thus relevant for primary production in many ecosystems. To maintain the intracellular and intrathylakoid ion homeostasis upon different environmental challenges, the concentration of potassium as a major intracellular cation has to be optimized by various K(+)uptake-mediated transport systems. We reveal here the specific and concerted physiological function of three K(+)transporters of the plasma and thylakoid membranes, namely of SynK (K(+)channel), KtrB (Ktr/Trk/HKT) and KdpA (Kdp) in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, under specific stress conditions. The behavior of the wild type, single, double and triple mutants was compared, revealing that only Synk contributes to heavy metal-induced stress, while only Ktr/Kdp is involved in osmotic and salt stress adaptation. With regards to pH shifts in the external medium, the Kdp/Ktr uptake systems play an important role in the adaptation to acidic pH. Ktr, by affecting the CO2 concentration mechanism via its action on the bicarbonate transporter SbtA, might also be responsible for the observed effects concerning high-light stress and calcification. In the case of illumination with high-intensity light, a synergistic action of Kdr/Ktp and SynK is required in order to avoid oxidative stress and ensure cell viability. In summary, this study dissects, using growth tests, measurement of photosynthetic activity and analysis of ultrastructure, the physiological role of three K(+)transporters in adaptation of the cyanobacteria to various environmental changes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence with the Gynecare TVT Secur™ System – preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Baranowski

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sling procedures were first introduced over 100 years ago in the treatment of stress urinaryincontinence. Since then they have evolved to become less invasive and safer. The sling procedure using theGynecare TVT Secur™ system is a new therapeutic option for women with stress urinary incontinence.Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Gynecare TVT Secur™ in the surgical treatment of stressurinary incontinence in women. Material and methods: The study comprised consecutive female patients admitted to the Department ofGynaecology and Gynaecological Oncology of the Military Institute of Health Services in Warsaw, Poland, whohad been qualified for surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence on the basis of physical signs and symptomsand the findings of a urodynamic study. The procedure was performed using the Gynecare TVT Secur™system with tapes introduced in an H- or U-shape mode. Results: Between October 2006 and September 2009, 77 sling procedures using the Gynecare TVT Secur™system were performed in women with stress urinary incontinence. Their mean age was 55.1 (30-76 years, meanBMI 28.5 (20.2-43.8 kg/m2. Sixty-nine implants were positioned in H-shape mode, 8 in U-shape mode. Fortyninewomen (63.6% were menopausal, 14 (18.2% previously had three or more natural deliveries, 13 (16.8%had a history of gynaecological surgeries. Thirty-one procedures were performed under general anaesthesia and46 under local anaesthesia. The mean duration of the surgery was 9 (4-42 minutes. It was possible to dischargefifty-seven (74% women on the day of the surgery. Urine retention was observed only in 1 (1.7% woman. Noother complications were recorded. Conclusions: The surgical treatment of urinary incontinence with sling procedures using the Gynecare TVTSecur™ system shows good immediate efficacy and safety. Considering this as well as the short duration ofthe procedure and its good tolerability under local anaesthesia, use

  16. Thermal stress analysis of gravity support system for ITER based on ANSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Shangming; Yan Xijiang; Huang Yufeng; Wang Xianzhou; Hou Binglin; Li Pengyuan; Jian Guangde; Liu Dequan; Zhou Caipin

    2009-01-01

    A method for building the finite element model of the gravity support system for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) was proposed according to the characteristics of the gravity support system with the cyclic symmetry. A mesh dividing method, which has high precision and an acceptable calculating scale, was used, and a three dimensional finite element model for the toroidal 20 degree sector of the gravity support system was built by using ANSYS. Meantime, the steady-state thermal analysis and thermal-structural coupling analysis of the gravity support system were performed. The thermal stress distributions and the maximal thermal stress values of all parts of the gravity support system were obtained, and the stress intensity of parts of the gravity support system was analyzed. The results of thermal stress analysis lay the solid foundation for design and improvement for gravity supports system for ITER. (authors)

  17. Observer-based Fault Detection and Isolation for Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lootsma, T.F.

    With the rise in automation the increase in fault detectionand isolation & reconfiguration is inevitable. Interest in fault detection and isolation (FDI) for nonlinear systems has grown significantly in recent years. The design of FDI is motivated by the need for knowledge about occurring faults...... in fault-tolerant control systems (FTC systems). The idea of FTC systems is to detect, isolate, and handle faults in such a way that the systems can still perform in a required manner. One prefers reduced performance after occurrence of a fault to the shut down of (sub-) systems. Hence, the idea of fault......-output decoupling is described. It is a new idea based on the solution of the input-output decoupling problem. The idea is to include FDI considerations already during the control design....

  18. Multi-Planetary Systems: Observations and Models of Dynamical Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2018-01-01

    More than 600 multi-planet systems are known. The vast majority of these systems have been discovered by NASA's Kepler spacecraft, but dozens were found using the Doppler technique, the first multi-exoplanet system was identified through pulsar timing, and the most massive system has been found using imaging. More than one-third of the 4000+ planet candidates found by NASA's Kepler spacecraft are associated with target stars that have more than one planet candidate, and the large number of such Kepler "multis" tells us that flat multiplanet systems like our Solar System are common. Virtually all of Kepler candidate multis are stable, as tested by numerical integrations that assume a physically motivated mass-radius relationship. Statistical studies performed on these candidate systems reveal a great deal about the architecture of planetary systems, including the typical spacing of orbits and flatness. The characteristics of several of the most interesting confirmed multi-exoplanet systems will also be discussed.HR 8799's four massive planets orbit tens of AU from their host star and travel on nearly circular orbits. PSR B1257+12 has three much smaller planets orbiting close to a neutron star. Both represent extremes and show that planet formation is a robust process that produces a diversity of outcomes. Although both exomoons and Trojan (triangle Lagrange point) planets have been searched for, neither has yet been found.

  19. Influence of psychological stress on headache in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hitos, José Antonio; Sabio, José Mario; Martínez-Egea, Isabel; Jiménez-Jáimez, Enrique; Rodríguez-Guzmán, Manuel; Navarrete-Navarrete, Nuria; López-Lozano, Esther; Romero-Alegría, Ángela; de la Calle, Cristina; Jáimez-Gámiz, Laura; Baños-Piñero, Pilar; Nebrera-Navarro, Fernando; Fidalgo, Alba; Caminal, Luis; de Ramón Garrido, Enrique; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Expósito, Manuela; Zamora-Pasadas, Mónica; Jiménez-Alonso, Juan

    2014-03-01

    To compare the prevalence and disability of headache in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with the general population and to assess the role of chronic psychological stress (CPS) in headache development. One hundred seventy patients with SLE and 102 control subjects matched for age, sex, and level of education were included in this multicenter, cross-sectional study. CPS, headache-related disability, and chronic analgesic intake (CAI) were evaluated in all participants. No statistical differences in the prevalence of headache between both groups were observed but headache disability was significantly higher in patients with SLE. In addition, a higher average score in the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) and a higher prevalence of patients with CAI were observed in patients with SLE. In multivariate analysis, CPSS score was positively (OR 1.09; 95% CI: 1.03-1.14; p = 0.001) and CAI negatively (OR 0.43; 95% CI: 0.19-0.99; p = 0.049) associated with headache in patients with SLE. Despite the prevalence of headache in patients with SLE and the general population being similar, headache-related disability may be higher in patients with SLE. Moreover, CPS might play a role in the pathogenesis of SLE headache, whereas CAI might have a protective effect against it.

  20. Experimental observations on uniaxial whole-life transformation ratchetting and low-cycle stress fatigue of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy micro-tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Di; Kang, Guozheng; Kan, Qianhua; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2015-07-01

    In this work, the low-cycle fatigue failure of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy micro-tubes with a wall thickness of 150 μm is investigated by uniaxial stress-controlled cyclic tests at human body temperature 310 K. The effects of mean stress, peak stress, and stress amplitude on the uniaxial whole-life transformation ratchetting and fatigue failure of the NiTi alloy are observed. It is concluded that the fatigue life depends significantly on the stress levels, and the extent of martensite transformation and its reverse play an important role in determining the fatigue life. High peak stress or complete martensite transformation shortens the fatigue life.

  1. Experimental observations on uniaxial whole-life transformation ratchetting and low-cycle stress fatigue of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy micro-tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Di; Kang, Guozheng; Kan, Qianhua; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the low-cycle fatigue failure of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy micro-tubes with a wall thickness of 150 μm is investigated by uniaxial stress-controlled cyclic tests at human body temperature 310 K. The effects of mean stress, peak stress, and stress amplitude on the uniaxial whole-life transformation ratchetting and fatigue failure of the NiTi alloy are observed. It is concluded that the fatigue life depends significantly on the stress levels, and the extent of martensite transformation and its reverse play an important role in determining the fatigue life. High peak stress or complete martensite transformation shortens the fatigue life. (paper)

  2. The antioxidative system of Norway spruce: Effects of different stress factors. Das antioxidative System der Fichte: Einfluss von verschiedenen Stressfaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schittenhelm, J. (Freiburg Univ., Inst. fuer Biologie 2, Abt. Botanik (Germany)); Westphal, S. (Freiburg Univ., Inst. fuer Biologie 2, Abt. Botanik (Germany)); Toder, S. (Freiburg Univ., Inst. fuer Biologie 2, Abt. Botanik (Germany)); Wagner, E. (Freiburg Univ., Inst. fuer Biologie 2, Abt. Botanik (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    The effects of different stress factors on the antioxidative system of 6-year-old Norway spruces of the same clone were examined. Flooding and permanent darkness had only minor effects. On the other hand drought, chilling, intense light, and very high ozone concentrations showed strong but distinct consequences. This indicates that the damages by these stress factors are due to different toxic oxygen species, and that the stress factors could produce synergistic damages under natural field conditions. (orig.)

  3. Partial Linearization of Mechanical Systems with Application to Observer Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarras, Ioannis; Venkatraman, Aneesh; Ortega, Romeo; Schaft, Arjan van der

    2008-01-01

    We consider general mechanical systems and establish a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a suitable change in the generalized momentum coordinates such that the new dynamics become linear in the transformed momenta. The class of systems which can be (partially) linearized by

  4. Observation-Driven Configuration of Complex Software Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Aled

    2010-06-01

    The ever-increasing complexity of software systems makes them hard to comprehend, predict and tune due to emergent properties and non-deterministic behaviour. Complexity arises from the size of software systems and the wide variety of possible operating environments: the increasing choice of platforms and communication policies leads to ever more complex performance characteristics. In addition, software systems exhibit different behaviour under different workloads. Many software systems are designed to be configurable so that policies can be chosen to meet the needs of various stakeholders. For complex software systems it can be difficult to accurately predict the effects of a change and to know which configuration is most appropriate. This thesis demonstrates that it is useful to run automated experiments that measure a selection of system configurations. Experiments can find configurations that meet the stakeholders' needs, find interesting behavioural characteristics, and help produce predictive models of the system's behaviour. The design and use of ACT (Automated Configuration Tool) for running such experiments is described, in combination a number of search strategies for deciding on the configurations to measure. Design Of Experiments (DOE) is discussed, with emphasis on Taguchi Methods. These statistical methods have been used extensively in manufacturing, but have not previously been used for configuring software systems. The novel contribution here is an industrial case study, applying the combination of ACT and Taguchi Methods to DC-Directory, a product from Data Connection Ltd (DCL). The case study investigated the applicability of Taguchi Methods for configuring complex software systems. Taguchi Methods were found to be useful for modelling and configuring DC- Directory, making them a valuable addition to the techniques available to system administrators and developers.

  5. Conceptualizing the dynamics of workplace stress: a systems-based study of nursing aides

    OpenAIRE

    Jetha, Arif; Kernan, Laura; Kurowski, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Background Workplace stress is a complex phenomenon that may often be dynamic and?evolving over time. Traditional linear modeling does not allow representation of recursive feedback loops among the implicated factors. The objective of this study was to develop a multidimensional system dynamics model (SDM) of workplace stress among nursing aides and conduct simulations to illustrate how changes in psychosocial perceptions and workplace factors might influence workplace stress over time. Metho...

  6. The Influence of Daily Stress on Sedentary Behavior: Group and Person (N of 1) Level Results of a 1-Year Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Keith M; Thanataveerat, Anusorn; Parsons, Faith E; Yoon, Sunmoo; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Alcantara, Carmela; Duran, Andrea T; Ensari, Ipek; Krupka, David J; Schwartz, Joseph E; Burg, Matthew M; Davidson, Karina W

    2018-05-24

    The purpose of this study, which used mobile technologies to continuously collect data over 1 year, was to examine the association of psychological stress with objectively measured sedentary behavior in adults at both the group (e.g. nomothetic approach) and individual (e.g. idiographic approach) level. Data were collected in an observational study of healthy adults (n=79) residing in the New York City metro area who were studied for 365 days from 2014-2015. Sedentary behavior was objectively measured via accelerometry. A smartphone-based electronic diary was used to assess level of stress ("Overall, how stressful was your day?"; 0-10 scale) and sources of stress. The end-of-day stress rating was not associated with total sedentary time (B= -1.34, p=0.767) at the group-level. When specific sources of stress were evaluated at the group-level, argument-related stress was associated with increased sedentariness; while running late- and work-related stress were associated with decreased sedentariness. There was a substantial degree of inter-individual variability in the relationship of stress with sedentary behavior. Both the level and sources of stress were associated with increased sedentariness for some, decreased sedentariness for others, and had no effect for many (within-person variance p-value stress on sedentary behavior varies by source of stress and from person-to-person. A precision medicine approach may be warranted to target reductions in sedentary time; although further studies are needed to confirm the observed findings in light of study limitations including a small sample size and enrollment of participants from a single, urban metropolitan area.

  7. Computational Psychometrics for Modeling System Dynamics during Stressful Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Cipresso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Disasters can be very stressful events. However, computational models of stress require data that might be very difficult to collect during disasters. Moreover, personal experiences are not repeatable, so it is not possible to collect bottom-up information when building a coherent model. To overcome these problems, we propose the use of computational models and virtual reality integration to recreate disaster situations, while examining possible dynamics in order to understand human behavior and relative consequences. By providing realistic parameters associated with disaster situations, computational scientists can work more closely with emergency responders to improve the quality of interventions in the future.

  8. Evaluation of tropical Pacific observing systems using NCEP and GFDL ocean data assimilation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Wen, Caihong; Yang, Xiaosong; Behringer, David; Kumar, Arun; Vecchi, Gabriel; Rosati, Anthony; Gudgel, Rich

    2017-08-01

    The TAO/TRITON array is the cornerstone of the tropical Pacific and ENSO observing system. Motivated by the recent rapid decline of the TAO/TRITON array, the potential utility of TAO/TRITON was assessed for ENSO monitoring and prediction. The analysis focused on the period when observations from Argo floats were also available. We coordinated observing system experiments (OSEs) using the global ocean data assimilation system (GODAS) from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the ensemble coupled data assimilation (ECDA) from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory for the period 2004-2011. Four OSE simulations were conducted with inclusion of different subsets of in situ profiles: all profiles (XBT, moorings, Argo), all except the moorings, all except the Argo and no profiles. For evaluation of the OSE simulations, we examined the mean bias, standard deviation difference, root-mean-square difference (RMSD) and anomaly correlation against observations and objective analyses. Without assimilation of in situ observations, both GODAS and ECDA had large mean biases and RMSD in all variables. Assimilation of all in situ data significantly reduced mean biases and RMSD in all variables except zonal current at the equator. For GODAS, the mooring data is critical in constraining temperature in the eastern and northwestern tropical Pacific, while for ECDA both the mooring and Argo data is needed in constraining temperature in the western tropical Pacific. The Argo data is critical in constraining temperature in off-equatorial regions for both GODAS and ECDA. For constraining salinity, sea surface height and surface current analysis, the influence of Argo data was more pronounced. In addition, the salinity data from the TRITON buoys played an important role in constraining salinity in the western Pacific. GODAS was more sensitive to withholding Argo data in off-equatorial regions than ECDA because it relied on local observations to correct model biases and

  9. Observed tidal braking in the earth/moon/sun system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.; Williamson, R. G.; Klosko, S. M.

    1987-01-01

    The low degree and order terms in the spherical harmonic model of the tidal potential were observed through the perturbations which are induced on near-earth satellite orbital motions. Evaluations of tracking observations from 17 satellites and a GEM-T1 geopotential model were used in the tidal recovery which was made in the presence of over 600 long-wavelength coefficients from 32 major and minor tides. Wahr's earth tidal model was used as a basis for the recovery of the ocean tidal terms. Using this tidal model, the secular change in the moon's mean motion due to tidal dissipation was found to be -25.27 + or - 0.61 arcsec/century squared. The estimation of lunar acceleration agreed with that observed from lunar laser ranging techniques (-24.9 + or - 1.0 arcsec/century squared), with the corresponding tidal braking of earth's rotation being -5.98 + or - 0.22 x 10 to the minus 22 rad/second squared. If the nontidal braking of the earth due to the observed secular change in the earth's second zonal harmonic is considered, satellite techniques yield a total value of the secular change of the earth's rotation rate of -4.69 + or - 0.36 x 10 to the minus 22 rad/second squared.

  10. Controllers with Minimal Observation Power (Application to Timed Systems)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Petr; Cassez, Franck; David, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of controller synthesis under imper- fect information in a setting where there is a set of available observable predicates equipped with a cost function. The problem that we address is the computation of a subset of predicates sufficient for control and whose cost is minimal...

  11. Observations of ionospheric electric fields above atmospheric weather systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Aggson, T. L.; Rodgers, E. B.; Hanson, W. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the observations of a number of quasi-dc electric field events associated with large-scale atmospheric weather formations. The observations were made by the electric field experiment onboard the San Marco D satellite, operational in an equatorial orbit from May to December 1988. Several theoretical studies suggest that electric fields generated by thunderstorms are present at high altitudes in the ionosphere. In spite of such favorable predictions, weather-related events are not often observed since they are relatively weak. We shall report here on a set of likely E field candidates for atmospheric-ionospheric causality, these being observed over the Indonesian Basin, northern South America, and the west coast of Africa; all known sites of atmospheric activity. As we shall demonstrate, individual events often be traced to specific active weather features. For example, a number of events were associated with spacecraft passages near Hurricane Joan in mid-October 1988. As a statistical set, the events appear to coincide with the most active regions of atmospheric weather.

  12. Influence of oxygen on NADH recycling and oxidative stress resistance systems in Lactobacillus panis PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2013-01-31

    Lactobacillus panis strain PM1 is an obligatory heterofermentative and aerotolerant microorganism that also produces 1,3-propanediol from glycerol. This study investigated the metabolic responses of L. panis PM1 to oxidative stress under aerobic conditions. Growth under aerobic culture triggered an early entrance of L. panis PM1 into the stationary phase along with marked changes in end-product profiles. A ten-fold higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide was accumulated during aerobic culture compared to microaerobic culture. This H2O2 level was sufficient for the complete inhibition of L. panis PM1 cell growth, along with a significant reduction in end-products typically found during anaerobic growth. In silico analysis revealed that L. panis possessed two genes for NADH oxidase and NADH peroxidase, but their expression levels were not significantly affected by the presence of oxygen. Specific activities for these two enzymes were observed in crude extracts from L. panis PM1. Enzyme assays demonstrated that the majority of the H2O2 in the culture media was the product of NADH: H2O2 oxidase which was constitutively-active under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions; whereas, NADH peroxidase was positively-activated by the presence of oxygen and had a long induction time in contrast to NADH oxidase. These observations indicated that a coupled NADH oxidase - NADH peroxidase system was the main oxidative stress resistance mechanism in L. panis PM1, and was regulated by oxygen availability. Under aerobic conditions, NADH is mainly reoxidized by the NADH oxidase - peroxidase system rather than through the production of ethanol (or 1,3-propanediol or succinic acid production if glycerol or citric acid is available). This system helped L. panis PM1 directly use oxygen in its energy metabolism by producing extra ATP in contrast to homofermentative lactobacilli.

  13. Tuberculoid leprosy masquerading as systemic lupus erythematosus: an interesting observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawar, Vijay; Kumavat, Shrikant; Pawar, Manoj; Desai, Dipti

    2017-09-01

    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infectious multisystem disease that may present with protean manifestations. It mimics many systemic and dermatological disorders. Here we report a case in which an elderly female presented with malar rash, intermittent fever, and arthralgia. Her diagnosis was significantly delayed due to a close clinical resemblance to systemic lupus erythematosus. It is important to be aware of such manifestations of leprosy and improve awareness of it in clinicians to avoid misdiagnosis and delay in treatment.

  14. Parts of the Whole: Observing the State of the System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This column draws on the approach of statistician J. Edwards Deming to analyze sources and consequences of variation in an education system. Educational systems are not immune from the effects of poor statistical control, which makes it difficult for teachers to teach effectively and for managers such as principals to improve on school performance. It is also argued that the need for statistical control in these areas is in tension, if not outright conflict, with our goals for educating students.

  15. Defining and evaluating heat stress thresholds in different dairy cow production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brügemann, Kerstin; Gernand, Erhard; König von Borstel, Uta; König, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of heat stress in dairy cows on test-day records for production traits and somatic cell score (SCS) in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany. Three different production systems were defined: A production system characterized by intensive crop production (=indoor housing), a pasture based production system, and a maritime region. Heat stress was assessed by two temperature-humidity indices (THI) modelled as random regression coefficients in an analys...

  16. Hepcidin is an antibacterial, stress-inducible peptide of the biliary system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Strnad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepcidin (gene name HAMP, an IL-6-inducible acute phase peptide with antimicrobial properties, is the key negative regulator of iron metabolism. Liver is the primary source of HAMP synthesis, but it is also produced by other tissues such as kidney or heart and is found in body fluids such as urine or cerebrospinal fluid. While the role of hepcidin in biliary system is unknown, a recent study demonstrated that conditional gp130-knockout mice display diminished hepcidin levels and increased rate of biliary infections. METHODS: Expression and localization of HAMP in biliary system was analyzed by real time RT-PCR, in-situ hybridization, immunostaining and -blotting, while prohepcidin levels in human bile were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: Hepcidin was detected in mouse/human gallbladder and bile duct epithelia. Biliary HAMP is stress-inducible, in that it is increased in biliary cell lines upon IL-6 stimulation and in gallbladder mucosa of patients with acute cholecystitis. Hepcidin is also present in the bile and elevated prohepcidin levels were observed in bile of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC patients with concurrent bacterial cholangitis compared to PSC subjects without bacterial infection (median values 22.3 vs. 8.9; p = 0.03. In PSC-cholangitis subjects, bile prohepcidin levels positively correlated with C-reactive protein and bilirubin levels (r = 0.48 and r = 0.71, respectively. In vitro, hepcidin enhanced the antimicrobial capacity of human bile (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Hepcidin is a stress-inducible peptide of the biliary epithelia and a potential marker of biliary stress. In the bile, hepcidin may serve local functions such as protection from bacterial infections.

  17. Early life stress sensitizes the renal and systemic sympathetic system in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Analia S; Brands, Michael W; Pollock, David M; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2013-08-01

    We hypothesized that maternal separation (MS), an early life stress model, induces a sensitization of the sympathetic system. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the renal and systemic sympathetic system in 12- to 14-wk-old male control or MS rats with the following parameters: 1) effect of renal denervation on conscious renal filtration capacity, 2) norepinephrine (NE) content in key organs involved in blood pressure control, and 3) acute systemic pressor responses to adrenergic stimulation or ganglion blockade. MS was performed by separating pups from their mothers for 3 h/day from day 2 to 14; controls were nonhandled littermates. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was examined in renal denervated (DnX; within 2 wk) or sham rats using I¹²⁵-iothalamate plasma clearance. MS-DnX rats showed significantly increased GFR compared with MS-SHAM rats (3.8 ± 0.4 vs. 2.4 ± 0.2 ml/min, respectively, P renal nerves regulate GFR in MS rats. NE content was significantly increased in organ tissues from MS rats (P renal and systemic sympathetic system. Conscious MS rats displayed a significantly greater increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to NE (2 μg/kg ip) and a greater reduction in MAP in response to mecamylamine (2 mg/kg ip, P renal and systemic sympathetic system ultimately impairing blood pressure regulation.

  18. New generation lidar systems for eye safe full time observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhirne, James D.

    1995-01-01

    The traditional lidar over the last thirty years has typically been a big pulse low repetition rate system. Pulse energies are in the 0.1 to 1.0 J range and repetition rates from 0.1 to 10 Hz. While such systems have proven to be good research tools, they have a number of limitations that prevent them from moving beyond lidar research to operational, application oriented instruments. These problems include a lack of eye safety, very low efficiency, poor reliability, lack of ruggedness and high development and operating costs. Recent advances in solid state laser, detectors and data systems have enabled the development of a new generation of lidar technology that meets the need for routine, application oriented instruments. In this paper the new approaches to operational lidar systems will be discussed. Micro pulse lidar (MPL) systems are currently in use, and their technology is highlighted. The basis and current development of continuous wave (CW) lidar and potential of other technical approaches is presented.

  19. Stress in film/substrate system due to diffusion and thermal misfit effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Shanshan; Xuan Fuzhen; Wang Zhengdong; Tu Shantung

    2009-01-01

    The stress in film/substrate systems has been analysed taking into consideration the coupling effects of diffusion and thermal misfit within the framework of Fick's second law. The solution of diffusion-induced stress in a film/substrate system involving the thermal misfit stress feedback is developed. The effects of modulus ratios, diffusivity ratios, thickness ratios of the substrate and the film and the partial molar volume of the diffusing component on the stress distribution in the film/substrate system are then discussed with the help of the finite difference method. Results indicate that the stresses in the film/substrate system vary with diffusion time. Diffusion enhances the magnitudes of film stress when the thermal misfit stress is compressive in the film. Furthermore, the absolute values of stress in the film increase with the increasing modulus ratios of the substrate and film, while they reduce with the increasing partial molar volume of the diffusing component and the diffusivity ratio of the substrate and the film.

  20. Job-Stress and Burnout of the Venezuelan Teachers: Related to Educational Systems Change (Educacion Basica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Mi; And Others

    Beginning with a review of the increasing literature concerning job-related teacher stress, this study examines the particular stress and burnout experiences of school teachers in Venezuela since the incorporation by law in 1980 of "Educacion Basica" (basic education) as a new level of the school system (grades 1-9). To compare teachers…

  1. Biological stress systems, adverse life events and the onset of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain : a six-year cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Generaal, E.; Vogelzangs, N.; Macfarlane, G.J.; Geenen, R.; de Geus, E.; Smit, J.H.; Penninx, B.W.; Dekker, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dysregulated biological stress systems and adverse life events, both independently and in interaction, have been hypothesized to initiate chronic pain. Objectives We examine whether (i) function of biological stress systems, (ii) adverse life events, and (iii) their combination predict

  2. Alternative oxidase pathway optimizes photosynthesis during osmotic and temperature stress by regulating cellular ROS, malate valve and antioxidative systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINAKAR eCHALLABATHULA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study reveals the importance of alternative oxidase (AOX pathway in optimizing photosynthesis under osmotic and temperature stress conditions in the mesophyll protoplasts of Pisum sativum. The responses of photosynthesis and respiration were monitored at saturating light intensity of 1000 µmoles m-2 s-1 at 25 oC under a range of sorbitol concentrations from 0.4 M to 1.0M to induce hyper-osmotic stress and by varying the temperature of the thermo-jacketed pre-incubation chamber from 25 oC to 10 oC to impose sub-optimal temperature stress. Compared to controls (0.4 M sorbitol and 25 OC, the mesophyll protoplasts showed remarkable decrease in NaHCO3-dependent O2 evolution (indicator of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, under both hyper-osmotic (1.0 M sorbitol and sub-optimal temperature stress conditions (10 OC, while the decrease in rates of respiratory O2 uptake were marginal. The capacity of AOX pathway increased significantly in parallel to increase in intracellular pyruvate and reactive oxygen species (ROS levels under both hyper-osmotic stress and sub-optimal temperature stress under the background of saturating light. The ratio of redox couple (Malate/OAA related to malate valve increased in contrast to the ratio of redox couple (GSH/GSSG related to antioxidative system during hyper-osmotic stress. Nevertheless, the ratio of GSH/GSSG decreased in the presence of sub-optimal temperature, while the ratio of Malate/OAA showed no visible changes. Also, the redox ratios of pyridine nucleotides increased under hyper-osmotic (NADH/NAD and sub-optimal temperature (NADPH/NADP stresses, respectively. However, upon restriction of AOX pathway by using salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, the observed changes in NaHCO3 dependent O2 evolution, cellular ROS, redox ratios of Malate/OAA, NAD(PH/NAD(P and GSH/GSSG were further aggravated under stress conditions with concomitant modulations in NADP-MDH and antioxidant enzymes. Taken together, the

  3. The Earth Observing System AM Spacecraft - Thermal Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, D.; Fredley, J.; Scott, C.

    1993-01-01

    Mission requirements for the EOS-AM Spacecraft intended to monitor global changes of the entire earth system are considered. The spacecraft is based on an instrument set containing the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). Emphasis is placed on the design, analysis, development, and verification plans for the unique EOS-AM Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) aimed at providing the required environments for all the onboard equipment in a densely packed layout. The TCS design maximizes the use of proven thermal design techniques and materials, in conjunction with a capillary pumped two-phase heat transport system for instrument thermal control.

  4. Observation and control system of the thermohydraulic assays laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santome, D.; Hualde, R.

    1990-01-01

    The Thermohydraulic Assays Laboratory (L.E.T.) is an installation whose purpose will be the components testing and the CAREM-25 reactor thermohydraulic processes operation dynamics. This plant is located at Pilcaniyeu, province of Rio Negro. Part of the tests which will be carried out consist in the use of different control strategies. The control of the systems by digital processors (control by software) has been decided to proceed with a maximum flexibility and capacity to make changes in the algorithms. This work describes the design and implementation of a digital control system to command the three circuits of the installation. (Author) [es

  5. Global Stress Classification System for Materials Used in Solar Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamova, Karolina; Schill, Christian; Herrmann, Jan; Datta, Pawan; Chih Wang, Chien

    2016-08-01

    Depending on the geographical location, the individual or combined impact of environmental stress factors and corresponding performance losses for solar applications varies significantly. Therefore, as a strategy to reduce investment risks and operating and maintenance costs, it is necessary to adapt the materials and components of solar energy systems specifically to regional environmental conditions. The project «GloBe Solar» supports this strategy by focusing on the development of a global stress classification system for materials in solar energy applications. The aim of this classification system is to assist in the identification of the individual stress conditions for every location on the earth's surface. The stress classification system could serve as a decision support tool for the industry (manufacturers, investors, lenders and project developers) and help to improve knowledge and services that can provide higher confidence to solar power systems.

  6. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Paz, M.L. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vanasco, V. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D. [CESyMA, Facultad de Ciencia Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); González Maglio, D.H. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN

  7. ℋ- adaptive observer design and parameter identification for a class of nonlinear fractional-order systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ndoye, Ibrahima; Voos, Holger; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Darouach, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive observer design with parameter identification for a nonlinear system with external perturbations and unknown parameters is proposed. The states of the nonlinear system are estimated by a nonlinear observer and the unknown

  8. Observer-Based Fault Estimation and Accomodation for Dynamic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ke; Shi, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increasing security and reliability demand of actual industrial process control systems, the study on fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control of dynamic systems has received considerable attention. Fault accommodation (FA) is one of effective methods that can be used to enhance system stability and reliability, so it has been widely and in-depth investigated and become a hot topic in recent years. Fault detection is used to monitor whether a fault occurs, which is the first step in FA. On the basis of fault detection, fault estimation (FE) is utilized to determine online the magnitude of the fault, which is a very important step because the additional controller is designed using the fault estimate. Compared with fault detection, the design difficulties of FE would increase a lot, so research on FE and accommodation is very challenging. Although there have been advancements reported on FE and accommodation for dynamic systems, the common methods at the present stage have design difficulties, whi...

  9. Relaxation dynamics of local observables in integrable systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Nardis, J.; Piroli, L.; Caux, J.-S.

    2015-01-01

    We show, using the quench action approach (Caux and Essler 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 257203), that the whole post-quench time evolution of an integrable system in the thermodynamic limit can be computed with a minimal set of data which are encoded in what we denote the generalized single-particle

  10. Distributed Fuzzy and Stochastic Observers for Nonlinear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendek, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Many problems in decision making, control, and monitoring require that all variables of interest, usually states and parameters of the system, are known at all times. However, in practical situations, not all variables are measurable or they are not measured due to technical or economical reasons.

  11. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. A study on the stress history condensation method for a fatigue monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Hanok; Jhung, Myungjo; Lee, Kihyoung

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue damage is the one of important aging mechanisms. Time-varying thermal, pressure and mechanical loads produce perturbations of stress cycles primarily at the surface of a component. Stress cycles of sufficient magnitude cause fatigue damage, which can ultimately lead to cracking of the component. According to NUREG-1801, fatigue monitoring systems identify acceptable aging management programs, including programs for fatigue and cyclic operation. In a monitoring system, the rainflow counting method is mainly used as the stress cycle counting method. Before determining the stress cycles using rainflow counting method, stress extremum (or peak/valley) must be identified. Because real stress history contains large numbers of very small cycles, which may be a result of digitization noise, these cycles will slow down the analysis and distort the scaling of graphical displays. As a result, it is found that stress cycles smaller than a threshold value are discarded by using the proposed method. In this paper, an engineering methodology which extracts extremum from the real-time transient data, so-called SEE, has been developed. The proposed method is very simple and so fast because it only uses the difference between the input value and local peak/valley. The stress cycles counted by two methods are compared with those counted by only rainflow counting method and it is found that stress cycles smaller than a threshold value were eliminated

  13. Observation of Subdiffusion in a Disordered Interacting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucioni, E.; Deissler, B.; Tanzi, L.; Roati, G.; Zaccanti, M.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G.; Modugno, M.; Larcher, M.; Dalfovo, F.

    2011-01-01

    We study the transport dynamics of matter-waves in the presence of disorder and nonlinearity. An atomic Bose-Einstein condensate that is localized in a quasiperiodic lattice in the absence of atom-atom interaction shows instead a slow expansion with a subdiffusive behavior when a controlled repulsive interaction is added. The measured features of the subdiffusion are compared to numerical simulations and a heuristic model. The observations confirm the nature of subdiffusion as interaction-assisted hopping between localized states and highlight a role of the spatial correlation of the disorder.

  14. IEA-R1 renewed primary coolant piping system stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainer, Gerson; Faloppa, Altair A.; Oliveira, Carlos A. de; Mattar Neto, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A partial replacement of the IEA-R1 piping system was conducted in 2014. The aim of this work is to perform the stress analysis of the renewed primary piping system of the IEA-R1, taking into account the as built conditions and the pipe modifications. The nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 is a pool type reactor designed by Babcox-Willcox, which is operated by IPEN since 1957. The primary coolant system is responsible for removing the residual heat of the Reactor core. As a part of the life management, a regular inspection detected some degradation in the primary piping system. In consequence, part of the piping system was replaced. The partial renewing of the primary piping system did not imply in major piping layout modifications. However, the stress condition of the piping systems had to be reanalyzed. The structural stress analysis of the primary piping systems is now presented and the final results are discussed. (author)

  15. Taming Big Data Variety in the Earth Observing System Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Walter, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Although the volume of the remote sensing data managed by the Earth Observing System Data and Information System is formidable, an oft-overlooked challenge is the variety of data. The diversity in satellite instruments, science disciplines and user communities drives cost as much or more as the data volume. Several strategies are used to tame this variety: data allocation to distinct centers of expertise; a common metadata repository for discovery, data format standards and conventions; and services that further abstract the variations in data.

  16. Coordinated Actions of Glyoxalase and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Conferring Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Hasanuzzaman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Sometimes ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense systems, which leads to oxidative stress. In line with ROS, plants also produce a high amount of methylglyoxal (MG, which is an α-oxoaldehyde compound, highly reactive, cytotoxic, and produced via different enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This MG can impair cells or cell components and can even destroy DNA or cause mutation. Under stress conditions, MG concentration in plants can be increased 2- to 6-fold compared with normal conditions depending on the plant species. However, plants have a system developed to detoxify this MG consisting of two major enzymes: glyoxalase I (Gly I and glyoxalase II (Gly II, and hence known as the glyoxalase system. Recently, a novel glyoxalase enzyme, named glyoxalase III (Gly III, has been detected in plants, providing a shorter pathway for MG detoxification, which is also a signpost in the research of abiotic stress tolerance. Glutathione (GSH acts as a co-factor for this system. Therefore, this system not only detoxifies MG but also plays a role in maintaining GSH homeostasis and subsequent ROS detoxification. Upregulation of both Gly I and Gly II as well as their overexpression in plant species showed enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, metal toxicity, and extreme temperature. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of reports have indicated that both antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems have strong interactions in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants through the detoxification of ROS and MG. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of these interactions and the coordinated

  17. Coordinated Actions of Glyoxalase and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Conferring Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Hossain, Md. Shahadat; Mahmud, Jubayer Al; Rahman, Anisur; Inafuku, Masashi; Oku, Hirosuke; Fujita, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sometimes ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense systems, which leads to oxidative stress. In line with ROS, plants also produce a high amount of methylglyoxal (MG), which is an α-oxoaldehyde compound, highly reactive, cytotoxic, and produced via different enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This MG can impair cells or cell components and can even destroy DNA or cause mutation. Under stress conditions, MG concentration in plants can be increased 2- to 6-fold compared with normal conditions depending on the plant species. However, plants have a system developed to detoxify this MG consisting of two major enzymes: glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II), and hence known as the glyoxalase system. Recently, a novel glyoxalase enzyme, named glyoxalase III (Gly III), has been detected in plants, providing a shorter pathway for MG detoxification, which is also a signpost in the research of abiotic stress tolerance. Glutathione (GSH) acts as a co-factor for this system. Therefore, this system not only detoxifies MG but also plays a role in maintaining GSH homeostasis and subsequent ROS detoxification. Upregulation of both Gly I and Gly II as well as their overexpression in plant species showed enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, metal toxicity, and extreme temperature. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of reports have indicated that both antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems have strong interactions in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants through the detoxification of ROS and MG. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of these interactions and the coordinated action of

  18. Open Source Dataturbine (OSDT) Android Sensorpod in Environmental Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, T. R.; Shin, P.; Tilak, S.; Trinh, T.; Smith, J.; Kram, S.

    2014-12-01

    The OSDT Android SensorPod is a custom-designed mobile computing platform for assembling wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring applications. Funded by an award from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the OSDT SensorPod represents a significant technological advance in the application of mobile and cloud computing technologies to near-real-time applications in environmental science, natural resources management, and disaster response and recovery. It provides a modular architecture based on open standards and open-source software that allows system developers to align their projects with industry best practices and technology trends, while avoiding commercial vendor lock-in to expensive proprietary software and hardware systems. The integration of mobile and cloud-computing infrastructure represents a disruptive technology in the field of environmental science, since basic assumptions about technology requirements are now open to revision, e.g., the roles of special purpose data loggers and dedicated site infrastructure. The OSDT Android SensorPod was designed with these considerations in mind, and the resulting system exhibits the following characteristics - it is flexible, efficient and robust. The system was developed and tested in the three science applications: 1) a fresh water limnology deployment in Wisconsin, 2) a near coastal marine science deployment at the UCSD Scripps Pier, and 3) a terrestrial ecological deployment in the mountains of Taiwan. As part of a public education and outreach effort, a Facebook page with daily ocean pH measurements from the UCSD Scripps pier was developed. Wireless sensor networks and the virtualization of data and network services is the future of environmental science infrastructure. The OSDT Android SensorPod was designed and developed to harness these new technology developments for environmental monitoring applications.

  19. Ezilla Cloud Service with Cassandra Database for Sensor Observation System

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo-Yang Cheng; Yi-Lun Pan; Chang-Hsing Wu; His-En Yu; Hui-Shan Chen; Weicheng Huang

    2012-01-01

    The main mission of Ezilla is to provide a friendly interface to access the virtual machine and quickly deploy the high performance computing environment. Ezilla has been developed by Pervasive Computing Team at National Center for High-performance Computing (NCHC). Ezilla integrates the Cloud middleware, virtualization technology, and Web-based Operating System (WebOS) to form a virtual computer in distributed computing environment. In order to upgrade the dataset and sp...

  20. Automated anaesthesia record systems, observations on future trends of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, W

    1995-02-01

    The introduction of electronic anaesthesia documentation systems was attempted as early as in 1979, although their efficient application has become reality only in the past few years. Today, documentation technology is offered by most of the monitor manufacturers and new systems are being developed by various working groups. The advantages of the electronic protocol are apparent: Continuous high quality documentation, comparability of data due to the availability of a anaesthesia data bank, reduction of the workload of the anaesthesia staff and availability of new additional information. Disadvantages of the electronic protocol have also been discussed. Typically, by going through the process of entering data on the course of the anaesthetic procedure on the protocol sheet, the information is mentally absorbed and evaluated by the anaesthetist. This mental processing of information may, however, be missing when the data are recorded fully automatically--without active involvement on the part of the anaesthetist. It seems that electronic anaesthesia protocols will be required in the near future. The advantages of accurate documentation and quality control in the presence of careful planning will outweight cost considerations. However, at this time, almost none of the commercially available systems have matured to a point where their purchase can be recommended without reservation. There is still a lack of standards for the subsequent exchange of data and a solution to a number of ergonomic problems still remains to be found.

  1. I/O Parallelization for the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, Rob; Sawyer, W.; Takacs, L. L.; Lyster, P.; Zero, J.

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed the GEOS DAS, a data assimilation system that provides production support for NASA missions and will support NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) in the coming years. The GEOS DAS will be used to provide background fields of meteorological quantities to EOS satellite instrument teams for use in their data algorithms as well as providing assimilated data sets for climate studies on decadal time scales. The DAO has been involved in prototyping parallel implementations of the GEOS DAS for a number of years and is now embarking on an effort to convert the production version from shared-memory parallelism to distributed-memory parallelism using the portable Message-Passing Interface (MPI). The GEOS DAS consists of two main components, an atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) and a Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS). The GCM operates on data that are stored on a regular grid while PSAS works with observational data that are scattered irregularly throughout the atmosphere. As a result, the two components have different data decompositions. The GCM is decomposed horizontally as a checkerboard with all vertical levels of each box existing on the same processing element(PE). The dynamical core of the GCM can also operate on a rotated grid, which requires communication-intensive grid transformations during GCM integration. PSAS groups observations on PEs in a more irregular and dynamic fashion.

  2. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade prevents stress-induced modulation of multiple memory systems in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver; Wolf, Oliver T

    2013-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that stress may orchestrate the engagement of multiple memory systems in the brain. In particular, stress is thought to favor dorsal striatum-dependent procedural over hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. However, the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying these modulatory effects of stress remain elusive, especially in humans. Here, we targeted the role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced modulation of dorsal striatal and hippocampal memory systems in the human brain using a combination of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and pharmacologic blockade of the MR. Eighty healthy participants received the MR antagonist spironolactone (300 mg) or a placebo and underwent a stressor or control manipulation before they performed, in the scanner, a classification task that can be supported by the hippocampus and the dorsal striatum. Stress after placebo did not affect learning performance but reduced explicit task knowledge and led to a relative increase in the use of more procedural learning strategies. At the neural level, stress promoted striatum-based learning at the expense of hippocampus-based learning. Functional connectivity analyses showed that this shift was associated with altered coupling of the amygdala with the hippocampus and dorsal striatum. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade before stress prevented the stress-induced shift toward dorsal striatal procedural learning, same as the stress-induced alterations of amygdala connectivity with hippocampus and dorsal striatum, but resulted in significantly impaired performance. Our findings indicate that the stress-induced shift from hippocampal to dorsal striatal memory systems is mediated by the amygdala, required to preserve performance after stress, and dependent on the MR. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  3. Establishment and Discontinuance Criteria for Automated Weather Observing Systems (AWOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    supplement the probable cause(s).* Referring back to Figure 20, it is observed that all weat-her cause citations combined from 1975 through 1979 accounted...direction 70 p-rcynt of all arrivals. For the other 30 percent of all arrivals, it i7 r;s-;Lind that the Unicorn is not operating and that no other... vc P. 1W4 ui W Z L C 0e 14 ..t w 0 .- Z) LWWE W>-C" z .. JIL OC I.- -- =Z)- z " -- A tl 0 L- W < uo- z = - e a * w Z0)WI.>Z . - N m =) m " =r P- a3

  4. Towards a regional coastal ocean observing system: An initial design for the Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, H. E.; Fletcher, M.; Mooers, C. N. K.; Nelson, J. R.; Weisberg, R. H.

    2009-05-01

    A conceptual design for a southeast United States regional coastal ocean observing system (RCOOS) is built upon a partnership between institutions of the region and among elements of the academic, government and private sectors. This design envisions support of a broad range of applications (e.g., marine operations, natural hazards, and ecosystem-based management) through the routine operation of predictive models that utilize the system observations to ensure their validity. A distributed information management system enables information flow, and a centralized information hub serves to aggregate information regionally and distribute it as needed. A variety of observing assets are needed to satisfy model requirements. An initial distribution of assets is proposed that recognizes the physical structure and forcing in the southeast U.S. coastal ocean. In-situ data collection includes moorings, profilers and gliders to provide 3D, time-dependent sampling, HF radar and surface drifters for synoptic sampling of surface currents, and satellite remote sensing of surface ocean properties. Nested model systems are required to properly represent ocean conditions from the outer edge of the EEZ to the watersheds. An effective RCOOS will depend upon a vital "National Backbone" (federally supported) system of in situ and satellite observations, model products, and data management. This dependence highlights the needs for a clear definition of the National Backbone components and a Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that defines the roles, functions and interactions of regional and federal components of the integrated system. A preliminary CONOPS is offered for the Southeast (SE) RCOOS. Thorough system testing is advocated using a combination of application-specific and process-oriented experiments. Estimates of costs and personnel required as initial components of the SE RCOOS are included. Initial thoughts on the Research and Development program required to support the RCOOS are

  5. Regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by systemic factors including stress, glucocorticoids, sleep, and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Oomen, C.; van Dam, A.-M.; Czéh, B.; Gage, F.H.; Kempermann, G.; Song, H.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes and discusses the regulation of adult neurogenesis and hippocampal cellular plasticity by systemic factors. We focus on the role of stress, glucocorticoids, and related factors such as sleep deprivation and inflammation.

  6. Observations on algal populations in an experimental maturation pond system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shillinglaw, SN

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available ?) of influent (HTE) and secondary pond. The arrows indicate the beginning of the noled algal concentration declines. 190 Water SA Vol. 3 No. 4 October 1977 intermittent presence of some factor which suppresses algal growth and/or removes algal cells from... the system at a very rapid rate. Another possibility is that an algal growth suppres sor is almost continuously present and only when the suppres sing factor is intermittently ahsent, do the algal concentrations exhihit a peak. Based on the results...

  7. Interactions of Circadian Rhythmicity, Stress and Orexigenic Neuropeptide Systems: Implications for Food Intake Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiak, Anna; Gundlach, Andrew L; Hess, Grzegorz; Lewandowski, Marian H

    2017-01-01

    Many physiological processes fluctuate throughout the day/night and daily fluctuations are observed in brain and peripheral levels of several hormones, neuropeptides and transmitters. In turn, mediators under the "control" of the "master biological clock" reciprocally influence its function. Dysregulation in the rhythmicity of hormone release as well as hormone receptor sensitivity and availability in different tissues, is a common risk-factor for multiple clinical conditions, including psychiatric and metabolic disorders. At the same time circadian rhythms remain in a strong, reciprocal interaction with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent findings point to a role of circadian disturbances and excessive stress in the development of obesity and related food consumption and metabolism abnormalities, which constitute a major health problem worldwide. Appetite, food intake and energy balance are under the influence of several brain neuropeptides, including the orexigenic agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone and relaxin-3. Importantly, orexigenic neuropeptide neurons remain under the control of the circadian timing system and are highly sensitive to various stressors, therefore the potential neuronal mechanisms through which disturbances in the daily rhythmicity and stress-related mediator levels contribute to food intake abnormalities rely on reciprocal interactions between these elements.

  8. Towards European organisation for integrated greenhouse gas observation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukolehto, Marjut; Vesala, Timo; Sorvari, Sanna; Juurola, Eija; Paris, Jean-Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is one the most challenging problems that humanity will have to cope with in the coming decades. The perturbed global biogeochemical cycles of the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) are a major driving force of current and future climate change. Deeper understanding of the driving forces of climate change requires full quantification of the greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their evolution. Regional greenhouse gas budgets, tipping-points, vulnerabilities and the controlling mechanisms can be assessed by long term, high precision observations in the atmosphere and at the ocean and land surface. ICOS RI is a distributed infrastructure for on-line, in-situ monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHG) necessary to understand their present-state and future sinks and sources. ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions. Linking research, education and innovation promotes technological development and demonstrations related to greenhouse gases. The first objective of ICOS RI is to provide effective access to coherent and precise data and to provide assessments of GHG inventories with high temporal and spatial resolution. The second objective is to provide profound information for research and understanding of regional budgets of greenhouse gas sources and sinks, their human and natural drivers, and the controlling mechanisms. ICOS is one of several ESFRI initiatives in the environmental science domain. There is significant potential for structural and synergetic interaction with several other ESFRI initiatives. ICOS RI is relevant for Joint Programming by providing the data access for the researchers and acting as a contact point for developing joint strategic research agendas among European member states. The preparatory phase ends in March 2013 and there will be an interim period before the legal entity will

  9. Drug-induced and genetic alterations in stress-responsive systems: Implications for specific addictive diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Proudnikov, Dmitri; Yuferov, Vadim; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2010-02-16

    From the earliest work in our laboratory, we hypothesized, and with studies conducted in both clinical research and animal models, we have shown that drugs of abuse, administered or self-administered, on a chronic basis, profoundly alter stress-responsive systems. Alterations of expression of specific genes involved in stress responsivity, with increases or decreases in mRNA levels, receptor, and neuropeptide levels, and resultant changes in hormone levels, have been documented to occur after chronic intermittent exposure to heroin, morphine, other opiates, cocaine, other stimulants, and alcohol in animal models and in human molecular genetics. The best studied of the stress-responsive systems in humans and mammalian species in general is undoubtedly the HPA axis. In addition, there are stress-responsive systems in other parts in the brain itself, and some of these include components of the HPA axis, such as CRF and CRF receptors, along with POMC gene and gene products. Several other stress-responsive systems are known to influence the HPA axis, such as the vasopressin-vasopressin receptor system. Orexin-hypocretin, acting at its receptors, may effect changes which suggest that it should be properly categorized as a stress-responsive system. However, less is known about the interactions and connectivity of some of these different neuropeptide and receptor systems, and in particular, about the possible connectivity of fast-acting (e.g., glutamate and GABA) and slow-acting (including dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine) neurotransmitters with each of these stress-responsive components and the resultant impact, especially in the setting of chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. Several of these stress-responsive systems and components, primarily based on our laboratory-based and human molecular genetics research of addictive diseases, will be briefly discussed in this review. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciais, P.; Peregon, A.; Chevallier, F.; Bopp, L.; Breon, F.M.; Broquet, G.; Luyssaert, S.; Moulin, C.; Paris, J.D.; Poulter, B.; Rivier, L.; Wang, R.

    2014-01-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires transformational advances from the existing sparse, exploratory framework towards a dense, robust, and sustained system in all components: anthropogenic emissions, the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere. The paper is addressed to scientists, policy makers, and funding agencies who need to have a global picture of the current state of the (diverse) carbon observations. We identify the current state of carbon observations, and the needs and notional requirements for a global integrated carbon observation system that can be built in the next decade. A key conclusion is the substantial expansion of the ground-based observation networks required to reach the high spatial resolution for CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes, and for carbon stocks for addressing policy-relevant objectives, and attributing flux changes to underlying processes in each region. In order to establish flux and stock diagnostics over areas such as the southern oceans, tropical forests, and the Arctic, in situ observations will have to be complemented with remote-sensing measurements. Remote sensing offers the advantage of dense spatial coverage and frequent revisit. A key challenge is to bring remote-sensing measurements to a level of long-term consistency and accuracy so that they can be efficiently combined in models to reduce uncertainties, in synergy with ground based data. Bringing tight observational constraints on fossil fuel and land use change emissions will be the biggest challenge for deployment of a policy-relevant integrated carbon observation system. This will require in situ and remotely sensed data at much higher

  11. Investigations of oxidative stress effects and their mechanisms in rat brain after systemic administration of ceria engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardas, Sarita S.

    Advancing applications of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) in various fields create the opportunity for intended (e.g. drug and gene delivery) or unintended (e.g. occupational and environmental) exposure to ENM. However, the knowledge of ENM-toxicity is lagging behind their application development. Understanding the ENM hazard can help us to avoid potential human health problems associated with ENM applications as well as to increase their public acceptance. Ceria (cerium [Ce] oxide) ENM have many current and potential commercial applications. Beyond the traditional use of ceria as an abrasive, the scope of ceria ENM applications now extends into fuel cell manufacturing, diesel fuel additives and for therapeutic intervention as a putative antioxidant. However, the biological effects of ceria ENM exposure have yet to be fully defined. Both pro-and anti-oxidative effects of ceria ENM exposure are repeatedly reported in literature. EPA, NIEHS and OECD organizations have nominated ceria for its toxicological evaluation. All these together gave us the impetus to examine the oxidative stress effects of ceria ENM after systemic administration. Induction of oxidative stress is one of the primary mechanisms of ENM toxicity. Oxidative stress plays an important role in maintaining the redox homeostasis in the biological system. Increased oxidative stress, due to depletion of antioxidant enzymes or molecules and / or due to increased production of reactive oxygen (ROS) or nitrogen (RNS) species may lead to protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and/or DNA damage. Increased protein oxidation or lipid peroxidation together with antioxidant protein levels and activity can serve as markers of oxidative stress. To investigate the oxidative stress effects and the mechanisms of ceria-ENM toxicity, fully characterized ceria ENM of different sizes (˜ 5nm, 15nm, 30nm, 55nm and nanorods) were systematically injected into rats intravenously in separate experiments. Three brain regions

  12. An Observed Voting System Based On Biometric Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Devikiruba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article describes a computational framework which can run almost on every computer connected to an IP based network to study biometric techniques. This paper discusses with a system protecting confidential information puts strong security demands on the identification. Biometry provides us with a user-friendly method for this identification and is becoming a competitor for current identification mechanisms. The experimentation section focuses on biometric verification specifically based on fingerprints. This article should be read as a warning to those thinking of using methods of identification without first examine the technical opportunities for compromising mechanisms and the associated legal consequences. The development is based on the java language that easily improves software packages that is useful to test new control techniques.

  13. Observing the stars. Love in the age of systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetil Ansgar Jakobsen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of scholars have demonstrated how the cultural industry involves people in a participatory culture in which users actively construct personal identities. However, the link between a public of mass-mediated entertainment and the private sphere of intimacy and personal identity is a paradox. A consistent theory to clarify that paradox is lacking in the cultural studies literature. I suggest that social systems theory in the Luhmannian tradition may explain in economical terms why the continuous performance and intensification of the paradox of mass-mediated intimacy is a major trait of contemporary culture. Nevertheless, the article does not address normative issues. It is neither an apology for the culture industry, nor a condemnation. The aim is simply to bring one of the most powerful tools of analysis in social theory today to bear on an aspect of modern society which is as important as it is baffling.

  14. Acute stress-induced cortisol elevations mediate reward system activity during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Nicole Y L; Both, Stephanie; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Stress is thought to alter motivational processes by increasing dopamine (DA) secretion in the brain's "reward system", and its key region, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, stress studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), mainly found evidence for stress-induced decreases in NAcc responsiveness toward reward cues. Results from both animal and human PET studies indicate that the stress hormone cortisol may be crucial in the interaction between stress and dopaminergic actions. In the present study we therefore investigated whether cortisol mediated the effect of stress on DA-related responses to -subliminal-presentation of reward cues using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), which is known to reliably enhance cortisol levels. Young healthy males (n = 37) were randomly assigned to the TSST or control condition. After stress induction, brain activation was assessed using fMRI during a backward-masking paradigm in which potentially rewarding (sexual), emotionally negative and neutral stimuli were presented subliminally, masked by pictures of inanimate objects. A region of interest analysis showed that stress decreased activation in the NAcc in response to masked sexual cues (voxel-corrected, pcortisol levels were related to stronger NAcc activation, showing that cortisol acted as a suppressor variable in the negative relation between stress and NAcc activation. The present findings indicate that cortisol is crucially involved in the relation between stress and the responsiveness of the reward system. Although generally stress decreases activation in the NAcc in response to rewarding stimuli, high stress-induced cortisol levels suppress this relation, and are associated with stronger NAcc activation. Individuals with a high cortisol response to stress might on one hand be protected against reductions in reward sensitivity, which has been linked to anhedonia and depression, but they may ultimately be more vulnerable to increased reward

  15. Mutual event observations of solar system objects by SRC on Mars Express. Analysis and release of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziese, R.; Willner, K.

    2018-06-01

    Context. Both Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, have been observed during several imaging campaigns by the Super Resolution Channel (SRC) on the Mars Express probe. Several tens of images are obtained during mutual event observations - when the Martian moons are both observed or together with another solar system body. These observations provide new opportunities to determine the bodies' positions in their orbits. Aims: A method was sought to automate the observation of the positions of the imaged bodies. Within one image sequence a similarly accurate localization of the objects in all images should be possible. Methods: Shape models of Phobos and Deimos are applied to simulate the appearance of the bodies in the images. Matching the illuminated simulation against the observation provides a reliable determination of the bodies' location within the image. To enhance the matching confidence several corrections need to be applied to the simulation to closely reconstruct the observation. Results: A list of 884 relative positions between the different objects is provided through the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS). Tables A.1-A.4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/614/A15

  16. Stress and the engagement of multiple memory systems: integration of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars

    2013-11-01

    Learning and memory can be controlled by distinct memory systems. How these systems are coordinated to optimize learning and behavior has long been unclear. Accumulating evidence indicates that stress may modulate the engagement of multiple memory systems. In particular, rodent and human studies demonstrate that stress facilitates dorsal striatum-dependent "habit" memory, at the expense of hippocampus-dependent "cognitive" memory. Based on these data, a model is proposed which states that the impact of stress on the relative use of multiple memory systems is due to (i) differential effects of hormones and neurotransmitters that are released during stressful events on hippocampal and dorsal striatal memory systems, thus changing the relative strength of and the interactions between these systems, and (ii) a modulatory influence of the amygdala which biases learning toward dorsal striatum-based memory after stress. This shift to habit memory after stress can be adaptive with respect to current performance but might contribute to psychopathology in vulnerable individuals. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Macrobenthic community structure in a Brazilian chocked lagoon system under environmental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lima Torres Mendes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Saquarema-Jaconé lagoonal system (SJLS comprises a sequence of five interconnected shallow brackish lagoons with access to the sea by a single permanent tidal channel. It is a eutrophic system, receiving constant input of organic load from its urbanized catchments. The relationship between several environmental variables and the spatial-temporal distribution of the benthic macrofauna was assessed during four seasonal samplings (dry and wet periods of 2007-2009. Sediment replicates were sampled at seven sites for biological identification and analyzes of organic matter, carbonates, phytopigments, grain size and heavy metals. Salinity, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were measured in situ. SJLS was characterized by sandy bottoms with very reducing conditions. Redox potential significantly discriminated between the dry and wet periods and anoxic conditions were observed in the latter. No significant seasonal differences were observed in the macrofauna. A total of 37 taxa were identified, of which Capitella sp, oligochaetes and Laeonereis culveri (Webster, 1880 were the dominant, representing the early stage of community recovery following dystrophic crises. The faunistic pattern seems to be determined by complex combinations of silt+clay with salinity, organic matter and redox potential. On the other hand, the low concentrations of heavy metals found did not seem to influence the structure and distribution of the biota. SJLS is undergoing persistent environmental stress, dominated by first-order opportunistic species linked to organically enriched sediments.

  18. Statistical Analysis of Stress Signals from Bridge Monitoring by FBG System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Ye

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG-based stress monitoring system instrumented on an orthotropic steel deck arch bridge is demonstrated. The FBG sensors are installed at two types of critical fatigue-prone welded joints to measure the strain and temperature signals. A total of 64 FBG sensors are deployed around the rib-to-deck and rib-to-diagram areas at the mid-span and quarter-span of the investigated orthotropic steel bridge. The local stress behaviors caused by the highway loading and temperature effect during the construction and operation periods are presented with the aid of a wavelet multi-resolution analysis approach. In addition, the multi-modal characteristic of the rainflow counted stress spectrum is modeled by the method of finite mixture distribution together with a genetic algorithm (GA-based parameter estimation approach. The optimal probability distribution of the stress spectrum is determined by use of Bayesian information criterion (BIC. Furthermore, the hot spot stress of the welded joint is calculated by an extrapolation method recommended in the specification of International Institute of Welding (IIW. The stochastic characteristic of stress concentration factor (SCF of the concerned welded joint is addressed. The proposed FBG-based stress monitoring system and probabilistic stress evaluation methods can provide an effective tool for structural monitoring and condition assessment of orthotropic steel bridges.

  19. Systemic lupus erythematosus observations of travel burden: A qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Edith M; Ortiz, Kasim; Flournoy-Floyd, Minnjuan; Bruner, Larisa; Kamen, Diane

    2015-09-01

    Explorations of travel impediments among patients suffering from rheumatic diseases have been very limited. Research has consistently indicated a shortage of rheumatologists, resulting in patients potentially having to travel long distances for care. The purpose of our study was to explore how systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients experience travel issues differentially by race and socio-economic status. We conducted semi-structured interviews and a brief demographic survey with 10 patients diagnosed with SLE. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed using NVivo Analysis Software to facilitate the reporting of recurrent themes and supporting quotations, and an initial codebook was independently developed by two researchers on the study team and then verified together. Patients described three major areas of concern with respect to travel burden in accessing their rheumatologists: reliance on caregivers; meeting financial priorities; and pain and physical limitations. Our data suggest general traveling challenges interfering with medical appointment compliance for several participants and the importance of socio-economic issues when considering travel issues. This study highlights an important area with implications for adherence to medical appointments and participation in research among patients with SLE. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Rebuilding Afghanistan’s Higher Educational System: Observations from Kabul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHAELH. ROMANOWSKI

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the crucial issues and challenges facing Afghanistan’s universities as they begin the demanding task of rebuilding and restructuring their university system after two decades of war and civil unrest. The setting for this qualitative study is a four-day professional development conference for Afghan university presidents and academic deans sponsored and funded by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Afghanistan Ministry of Higher Education. Cooperative Studies (an NGO, not-for-profit educational organization located in Kansas City provided a team of academics to Kabul, Afghanistan, to offer professional development workshops. Using the Grounded Theory Methodology as a theoretical framework for this research, data was derived from interactive sessions, questionnaires, informal dialogue, small group sessions and question and answer sessions; the perspectives of the 39 Afghan academic leaders are presented as they describe the problems facing university administrators in their country today. Findings identify these challenges and center on 1 the lack of autonomy; 2 the need for qualified faculty; 3 concerns regarding students’ access and preparation; and 4 concerns about funding and budget issues. Based on these findings, policy suggestions and recommendations are provided.

  1. Observation of CP violation in the B(0) meson system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Palano, A; Chen, G P; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Reinertsen, P L; Stugu, B; Abbott, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Clark, A R; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kluth, S; Kolomensky, Y G; Kral, J F; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Liu, T; Lynch, G; Meyer, A B; Momayezi, M; Oddone, P J; Perazzo, A; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Zisman, M S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; O'Neale, S W; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Krug, J; Kunze, M; Lewandowski, B; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Andress, J C; Barlow, N R; Bhimji, W; Chevalier, N; Clark, P J; Cottingham, W N; De Groot, N; Dyce, N; Foster, B; McFall, J D; Wallom, D; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Jolly, S; McKemey, A K; Tinslay, J; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Bukin, D A; Buzykaev, A R; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Korol, A A; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Salnikov, A A; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Y I; Telnov, V I; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Stoker, D P; Ahsan, A; Arisaka, K; Buchanan, C; Chun, S; Branson, J G; MacFarlane, D B; Prell, S; Rahatlou, S; Raven, G; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Hart, P A; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Witherell, M; Yellin, S; Beringer, J; Dorfan, D E; Eisner, A M; Frey, A; Grillo, A A; Grothe, M; Heusch, C A; Johnson, R P; Kroeger, W; Lockman, W S; Pulliam, T; Sadrozinski, H; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Metzler, S; Oyang, J; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Weaver, M; Yang, S; Zhu, R Y; Devmal, S; Geld, T L; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Barillari, T; Bloom, P; Dima, M O; Fahey, S; Ford, W T; Johnson, D R; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Park, H; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Sen, S; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Wagner, D L; Blouw, J; Harton, J L; Krishnamurthy, M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dahlinger, G; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Behr, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Ferrag, S; Roussot, E; T'Jampens, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Anjomshoaa, A; Bernet, R; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Falbo, M; Borean, C; Bozzi, C; Dittongo, S; Folegani, M; Piemontese, L; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Xie, Y; Zallo, A; Bagnasco, S; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Musenich, R; Pallavicini, M; Parodi, R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Pia, M G; Priano, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Morii, M; Bartoldus, R; Dignan, T; Hamilton, R; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Fischer, P A; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Rosenberg, E I; Benkebil, M; Grosdidier, G; Hast, C; Höcker, A; Lacker, H M; Laplace, S; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Valassi, A; Wormser, G; Bionta, R M; Brigljević, V; Lange, D J; Mugge, M; Shi, X; van Bibber, K; Wenaus, T J; Wright, D M; Wuest, C R; Carroll, M; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, M; Kay, M; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Aspinwall, M L; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gunawardane, N J; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Smith, D; Azzopardi, D E; Back, J J; Dixon, P; Harrison, P F; Potter, R J; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Williams, M I; Cowan, G; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McGrath, P; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Scott, I; Vaitsas, G; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Boyd, J T; Forti, A C; Fullwood, J; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Savvas, N; Simopoulos, E T; Weatherall, J H; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Lillard, V; Olsen, J; Roberts, D A; Schieck, J R; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Moore, T B; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Brau, B; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Trischuk, J; Lanni, F; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Booke, M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Martin, J P; Nief, J Y; Seitz, R; Taras, P; Zacek, V; Nicholson, H; Sutton, C S; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; LoSecco, J M; Alsmiller, J R; Gabriel, T A; Handler, T; Brau, J; Frey, R; Iwasaki, M; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Colecchia, F; Dal Corso, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Michelon, G; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Torassa, E; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de La Vaissière, C; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; Le Diberder, F; Leruste, P; Lory, J; Roos, L; Stark, J; Versillé, S; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Speziali, V; Frank, E D; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J H; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Simi, G; Triggiani, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Turnbull, L; Wagoner, D E; Albert, J; Bula, C; Elmer, P; Lu, C; McDonald, K T; Miftakov, V; Schaffner, S F; Smith, A J; Tumanov, A; Varnes, E W; Cavoto, G; del Re, D; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Fratini, K; Lamanna, E; Leonardi, E; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Serra, M; Voena, C; Christ, S; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; De Domenico, G; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel De Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Serfass, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, C; Zito, M; Copty, N; Purohit, M V; Singh, H; Yumiceva, F X; Adam, I; Anthony, P L; Aston, D; Baird, K; Berger, J P; Bloom, E; Boyarski, A M; Bulos, F; Calderini, G; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Coward, D H; Dorfan, J; Dorser, M; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G L; Gowdy, S J; Grosso, P; Himel, T; Hryn'ova, T; Huffer, M E; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langennegger, U; Leith, D W; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Moffeit, K C; Mount, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Quinn, H; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Rochester, L S; Roodman, A; Schietinger, T; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Seeman, J T; Serbo, V V; Snyder, S R; Soha, A; Spanier, S M; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Tanaka, H A; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weinstein, A J; Wienands, U; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Cheng, C H; Kirkby, D; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Henderson, R; Bugg, W; Cohn, H; Weidemann, A W; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Turcotte, M; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; DiGirolamo, B; Gamba, D; Smol, A; Zanin, D; Bosisio, L; Della Ricci, G; Lanceri, L; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Brown, C M; De Silva, A; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Charles, E; Dasu, S; Di Lodovico, F; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Liu, R; Nielsen, J; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Scott, I J; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, S L; Zobernig, H; Kordich, T M; Neal, H

    2001-08-27

    We present an updated measurement of time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in neutral B decays with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B Factory at SLAC. This result uses an additional sample of Upsilon(4S) decays collected in 2001, bringing the data available to 32 x 10(6) BB macro pairs. We select events in which one neutral B meson is fully reconstructed in a final state containing charmonium and the flavor of the other neutral B meson is determined from its decay products. The amplitude of the CP-violating asymmetry, which in the standard model is proportional to sin2 beta, is derived from the decay time distributions in such events. The result sin2 beta = 0.59+/-0.14(stat)+/-0.05(syst) establishes CP violation in the B(0) meson system. We also determine absolute value of lambda = 0.93+/-0.09(stat)+/-0.03(syst), consistent with no direct CP violation.

  2. Effects of emotional and perceptual-motor stress on a voice recognition system's accuracy: An applied investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poock, G. K.; Martin, B. J.

    1984-02-01

    This was an applied investigation examining the ability of a speech recognition system to recognize speakers' inputs when the speakers were under different stress levels. Subjects were asked to speak to a voice recognition system under three conditions: (1) normal office environment, (2) emotional stress, and (3) perceptual-motor stress. Results indicate a definite relationship between voice recognition system performance and the type of low stress reference patterns used to achieve recognition.

  3. Assimilating Remote Sensing Observations of Leaf Area Index and Soil Moisture for Wheat Yield Estimates: An Observing System Simulation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Grey S.; Crow, Wade T.; Thorp, Kelly R.; Moran, Mary S.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2012-01-01

    Observing system simulation experiments were used to investigate ensemble Bayesian state updating data assimilation of observations of leaf area index (LAI) and soil moisture (theta) for the purpose of improving single-season wheat yield estimates with the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) CropSim-Ceres model. Assimilation was conducted in an energy-limited environment and a water-limited environment. Modeling uncertainty was prescribed to weather inputs, soil parameters and initial conditions, and cultivar parameters and through perturbations to model state transition equations. The ensemble Kalman filter and the sequential importance resampling filter were tested for the ability to attenuate effects of these types of uncertainty on yield estimates. LAI and theta observations were synthesized according to characteristics of existing remote sensing data, and effects of observation error were tested. Results indicate that the potential for assimilation to improve end-of-season yield estimates is low. Limitations are due to a lack of root zone soil moisture information, error in LAI observations, and a lack of correlation between leaf and grain growth.

  4. Oxidative Stress and Immune System in Vitiligo and Thyroid Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Roberta; Dragoni, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired dermatological disease frequently associated with autoimmune thyroid disorders. Several theories have been proposed so far to unravel the complex vitiligo pathogenesis. Currently, the autocytotoxic and the autoimmune theories are the most accredited hypothesis, since they are sustained by several important clinical and experimental evidences. A growing body of evidences shows that autoimmunity and oxidative stress strictly interact to finally determine melanocyte loss. In this scenario, associated thyroid autoimmunity might play an active and important role in triggering and maintaining the depigmentation process of vitiligo. PMID:25838868

  5. Asteroids in the Inner Solar System - Observable Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnik, S. A.; Evans, N. W.

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents synthetic observations of long-lived, co-orbiting asteroids of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and Mars. Our sample is constructed by taking the limiting semimajor axes, differential longitudes and inclinations for long-lived stability provided by simulations. The intervals are randomly populated with values to create initial conditions. These orbits are re-simulated to check that they are stable and then re-sampled every 2.5 years for 1 million years. The Mercurian sample contains only horseshoe orbits, the Martian sample only tadpoles. For both Venus and the Earth, the greatest concentration of objects on the sky occurs close to the classical Lagrange points at heliocentric ecliptic longitudes of 60o and 300o. The distributions are broad especially if horseshoes are present in the sample. The full-width half maximum (FWHM) in heliocentric longitude for Venus is 325o and for the Earth is 328o. The mean and most common velocity of these co-orbiting satellites coincides with the mean motion of the parent planet, but again the spread is wide with a FWHM for Venus of 27.8" hr-1 and for the Earth of 21.0" hr-1. For Mars, the greatest concentration on the sky occurs at heliocentric ecliptic latitudes of +/- 12o. The peak of the velocity distribution occurs at 65" hr-1, significantly less than the Martian mean motion, while its FWHM is 32.3" hr-1. The case of Mercury is the hardest of all, as the greatest concentrations occur at heliocentric longitudes of 16.0o and 348.5o and so are different from the classical values. The fluctuating eccentricity of Mercury means that these objects can have velocities exceeding 1000" hr-1, although the most common velocity is 459" hr-1, which is much less than the Mercurian mean motion. A variety of search strategies are discussed, including wide-field CCD imaging, space satellites such as The Global Astrometry Interferometer for Astrophysics (GAIA), ground-based surveys like The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), as well as

  6. Asteroids in the inner Solar system - II. Observable properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N. W.; Tabachnik, S. A.

    2000-11-01

    This paper presents synthetic observations of long-lived coorbiting asteroids of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and Mars. Our sample is constructed by taking the limiting semimajor axes, differential longitudes and inclinations for long-lived stability provided by simulations. The intervals are randomly populated with values to create initial conditions. These orbits are re-simulated to check that they are stable and then re-sampled every 2.5yr for 1Myr. The Mercurian sample only contains horseshoe orbits, whereas the Martian sample only contains tadpoles. For both Venus and the Earth, the greatest concentration of objects on the sky occurs close to the classical Lagrange points at heliocentric ecliptic longitudes of 60° and 300°. The distributions are broad especially if horseshoes are present in the sample. The FWHM in heliocentric longitude for Venus is 325° and for the Earth is 328°. The mean and most common velocity of these coorbiting satellites coincides with the mean motion of the parent planet, but again the spread is wide with an FWHM of 27.8 and 21.0arcsech-1 for Venus and the Earth, respectively. For Mars, the greatest concentration on the sky occurs at heliocentric ecliptic latitudes of +/-12°. The peak of the velocity distribution occurs at 65arcsech-1, significantly less than the Martian mean motion, while its FWHM is 32.3arcsech-1. The case of Mercury is the hardest of all, as the greatest concentrations occur at heliocentric longitudes of 16.0° and 348.5° and so are different from the classical values. The fluctuating eccentricity of Mercury means that these objects can have velocities exceeding 1000arcsech-1 although the most common velocity is 459arcsech-1, which is much less than the Mercurian mean motion. A variety of search strategies are discussed, including wide-field CCD imaging, space satellites such as the Global Astrometry Interferometer for Astrophysics (GAIA), ground-based surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), as well as

  7. Neuroscience of opiates for addiction medicine: From stress-responsive systems to behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Leri, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Opiate addiction, similarly to addiction to other psychoactive drugs, is chronic relapsing brain disease caused by drug-induced short-term and long-term neuroadaptations at the molecular, cellular, and behavioral levels. Preclinical research in laboratory animals has found important interactions between opiate exposure and stress-responsive systems. In this review, we will discuss the dysregulation of several stress-responsive systems in opiate addiction: vasopressin and its receptor system, endogenous opioid systems (including proopiomelanocortin/mu opioid receptor and dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor), orexin and its receptor system, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. A more complete understanding of how opiates alter these stress systems, through further laboratory-based studies, is required to identify novel and effective pharmacological targets for the long-term treatment of heroin addiction. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical Mechanisms and Their Applications in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J Eric; Pawson, Steven; Molod, Andrea; Auer, Benjamin; da Silva, Arlindo M; Douglass, Anne R; Duncan, Bryan; Liang, Qing; Manyin, Michael; Oman, Luke D; Putman, William; Strahan, Susan E; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model (ESM) is a modular, general circulation model (GCM), and data assimilation system (DAS) that is used to simulate and study the coupled dynamics, physics, chemistry, and biology of our planet. GEOS is developed by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It generates near-real-time analyzed data products, reanalyses, and weather and seasonal forecasts to support research targeted to understanding interactions among Earth System processes. For chemistry, our efforts are focused on ozone and its influence on the state of the atmosphere and oceans, and on trace gas data assimilation and global forecasting at mesoscale discretization. Several chemistry and aerosol modules are coupled to the GCM, which enables GEOS to address topics pertinent to NASA's Earth Science Mission. This paper describes the atmospheric chemistry components of GEOS and provides an overview of its Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)-based software infrastructure, which promotes a rich spectrum of feedbacks that influence circulation and climate, and impact human and ecosystem health. We detail how GEOS allows model users to select chemical mechanisms and emission scenarios at run time, establish the extent to which the aerosol and chemical components communicate, and decide whether either or both influence the radiative transfer calculations. A variety of resolutions facilitates research on spatial and temporal scales relevant to problems ranging from hourly changes in air quality to trace gas trends in a changing climate. Samples of recent GEOS chemistry applications are provided.

  9. Global Earth Observation System of Systems: Characterizing Uncertainties of Space- based Measurements and Earth System Models Informing Decision Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, R. J.; Frederick, M.

    2006-05-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) framework identifies the benefits of systematically and scientifically networking the capacity of organizations and systems into solutions that benefit nine societal benefit areas. The U.S. Integrated Earth Observation System (IEOS), the U.S. contribution to the GEOSS, focuses on near-term, mid-term, and long-term opportunities to establish integrated system solutions based on capacities and capabilities of member agencies and affiliations. Scientists at NASA, NOAA, DOE, NSF and other U.S. agencies are evolving the predictive capacity of models of Earth processes based on space-based, airborne and surface-based instruments and their measurements. NASA research activities include advancing the power and accessibility of computational resources (i.e. Project Columbia) to enable robust science data analysis, modeling, and assimilation techniques to rapidly advance. The integration of the resulting observations and predictions into decision support tools require characterization of the accuracies of a range of input measurements includes temperature and humidity profiles, wind speed, ocean height, sea surface temperature, and atmospheric constituents that are measured globally by U.S. deployed spacecraft. These measurements are stored in many data formats on many different information systems with widely varying accessibility and have processes whose documentation ranges from extremely detailed to very minimal. Integrated and interdisciplinary modeling (enabled by the Earth System Model Framework) enable the types of ensemble analysis that are useful for decision processes associated with energy management, public health risk assessments, and optimizing transportation safety and efficiency. Interdisciplinary approaches challenge systems integrators (both scientists and engineers) to expand beyond the traditional boundaries of particular disciplines to develop, verify and validate, and ultimately benchmark the

  10. Physical Trauma Patients with Symptoms of an Acute and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Protocol for an Observational Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Eva; Gosens, Taco; Den Oudsten, Brenda; De Vries, Jolanda

    2018-03-29

    Injury, medical treatment, and rehabilitation can have major impacts on patients' wellbeing. About 25-33% of the patients experience an acute stress disorder (ASD) or a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after injury. ASD is a relatively new diagnosis. Therefore, knowledge about patients' experiences, the course of ASD and PTSD, and who is at risk for developing ASD or PTSD is lacking. The aims of this multi-method study are to explore patients' experiences with injury (and their care) using a focus group study. Then, in the observational study, different courses of ASD, PTSD, and quality of life will be examined. In addition, this study will examine if these courses could be characterized by socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological variables. Consequently, a risk profile will be developed to determine which patients are at risk for developing ASD or PTSD during the 12 months after injury. Trauma patients treated in the shock room (in 2015) of the Elisabeth-TweeSteden Hospital will share their experiences with injury in the focus group study. Open, axial, and selective coding will be used to analyze the data. Concerning the observational study, patients treated in the shock room (during 2016 and 2017, Elisabeth-TweeSteden Hospital and Erasmus Medical Centre) will be asked to participate. The inclusion period is 12 months. Participants will complete the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, MINI-plus, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF after inclusion and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after injury. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait are completed after inclusion only. Repeated measures of latent class analysis and linear mixed models will be used to examine the research aims. This project was funded in August 2015 by ZonMw. The results of the focus group study are expected in the first trimester of 2018. With regard to the observational study, recruitment is currently

  11. Pipe stress analysis on HCCR-TBS ancillary systems in conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Mu-Young, E-mail: myahn74@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eo Hwak [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Youngmin [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Pipe stress is performed on Korean HCCR-TBS for the load combinations including seismic events. • The resultant stress meets the requirement of the design code & standard except one position where modification is needed. • The results gives useful information for the design evolution in the next desgin phase. - Abstract: Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket System (TBS) will be tested in ITER to demonstrate feasibility of the breeding blanket concept. The HCCR-TBS comprises Test Blanket Module (TBM) with associated shield, and ancillary systems located in various positions of ITER building. Currently, conceptual design for the HCCR-TBS is in progress. This paper presents pipe stress analysis results for the HCCR-TBS ancillary systems. The pipe stress analysis was performed in accordance with ASME B31.3 for major pipes of the Helium Cooling System (HCS) and the Coolant Purification System (CPS), which are operated in high pressure and temperature. The pipe stress for various load cases and load combinations were calculated. Operational pressure and temperature during plasma operation are applied as pressure load and thermal load, respectively. In addition seismic events were combined to investigate the code compliance for sustained load case and occasional load case. It was confirmed that the resultant stress meets the requirements of ASME B31.3 except one position in which it needs modification. These results give useful information for the next design phase, for example, nozzle loads for the component selection, the support design parameters, etc.

  12. Pipe stress analysis on HCCR-TBS ancillary systems in conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Mu-Young; Cho, Seungyon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Youngmin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pipe stress is performed on Korean HCCR-TBS for the load combinations including seismic events. • The resultant stress meets the requirement of the design code & standard except one position where modification is needed. • The results gives useful information for the design evolution in the next desgin phase. - Abstract: Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket System (TBS) will be tested in ITER to demonstrate feasibility of the breeding blanket concept. The HCCR-TBS comprises Test Blanket Module (TBM) with associated shield, and ancillary systems located in various positions of ITER building. Currently, conceptual design for the HCCR-TBS is in progress. This paper presents pipe stress analysis results for the HCCR-TBS ancillary systems. The pipe stress analysis was performed in accordance with ASME B31.3 for major pipes of the Helium Cooling System (HCS) and the Coolant Purification System (CPS), which are operated in high pressure and temperature. The pipe stress for various load cases and load combinations were calculated. Operational pressure and temperature during plasma operation are applied as pressure load and thermal load, respectively. In addition seismic events were combined to investigate the code compliance for sustained load case and occasional load case. It was confirmed that the resultant stress meets the requirements of ASME B31.3 except one position in which it needs modification. These results give useful information for the next design phase, for example, nozzle loads for the component selection, the support design parameters, etc.

  13. A Presence-Based Context-Aware Chronic Stress Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stressors encountered in daily life may play an important role in personal well-being. Chronic stress can have a serious long-term impact on our physical as well as our psychological health, due to ongoing increased levels of the chemicals released in the ‘fight or flight’ response. The currently available stress assessment methods are usually not suitable for daily chronic stress measurement. The paper presents a context-aware chronic stress recognition system that addresses this problem. The proposed system obtains contextual data from various mobile sensors and other external sources in order to calculate the impact of ongoing stress. By identifying and visualizing ongoing stress situations of an individual user, he/she is able to modify his/her behavior in order to successfully avoid them. Clinical evaluation of the proposed methodology has been made in parallel by using electrodermal activity sensor. To the best of our knowledge, the system presented herein is the first one that enables recognition of chronic stress situations on the basis of user context.

  14. A data delivery system for IMOS, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Roberts, K.; Ward, B. J.

    2010-09-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS, www.imos.org.au), an AUD 150 m 7-year project (2007-2013), is a distributed set of equipment and data-information services which, among many applications, collectively contribute to meeting the needs of marine climate research in Australia. The observing system provides data in the open oceans around Australia out to a few thousand kilometres as well as the coastal oceans through 11 facilities which effectively observe and measure the 4-dimensional ocean variability, and the physical and biological response of coastal and shelf seas around Australia. Through a national science rationale IMOS is organized as five regional nodes (Western Australia - WAIMOS, South Australian - SAIMOS, Tasmania - TASIMOS, New SouthWales - NSWIMOS and Queensland - QIMOS) surrounded by an oceanic node (Blue Water and Climate). Operationally IMOS is organized as 11 facilities (Argo Australia, Ships of Opportunity, Southern Ocean Automated Time Series Observations, Australian National Facility for Ocean Gliders, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Facility, Australian National Mooring Network, Australian Coastal Ocean Radar Network, Australian Acoustic Tagging and Monitoring System, Facility for Automated Intelligent Monitoring of Marine Systems, eMarine Information Infrastructure and Satellite Remote Sensing) delivering data. IMOS data is freely available to the public. The data, a combination of near real-time and delayed mode, are made available to researchers through the electronic Marine Information Infrastructure (eMII). eMII utilises the Australian Academic Research Network (AARNET) to support a distributed database on OPeNDAP/THREDDS servers hosted by regional computing centres. IMOS instruments are described through the OGC Specification SensorML and where-ever possible data is in CF compliant netCDF format. Metadata, conforming to standard ISO 19115, is automatically harvested from the netCDF files and the metadata records catalogued in the

  15. Dopamine and Stress System Modulation of Sex Differences in Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Polymnia; Zanos, Panos; Bhat, Shambhu; Tracy, J Kathleen; Merchenthaler, Istvan J; McCarthy, Margaret M; Gould, Todd D

    2018-01-01

    Maladaptive decision making is associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders, including problem gambling and suicidal behavior. The prevalence of these disorders is higher in men vs women, suggesting gender-dependent regulation of their pathophysiology underpinnings. We assessed sex differences in decision making using the rat version of the Iowa gambling task. Female rats identified the most optimal choice from session 1, whereas male rats from session 5. Male, but not female rats, progressively improved their advantageous option responding and surpassed females. Estrus cycle phase did not affect decision making. To test whether pharmacological manipulations targeting the dopaminergic and stress systems affect decision making in a sex-dependent manner, male and female rats received injections of a dopamine D 2 receptor (D 2 R) antagonist (eticlopride), D 2 R agonist (quinpirole), corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF 1 ) antagonist (antalarmin), and α 2 -adrenergic receptor antagonist (yohimbine; used as a pharmacological stressor). Alterations in mRNA levels of D 2 R and CRF 1 were also assessed. Eticlopride decreased advantageous responding in male, but not female rats, whereas quinpirole decreased advantageous responding specifically in females. Yohimbine dose-dependently decreased advantageous responding in female rats, whereas decreased advantageous responding was only observed at higher doses in males. Antalarmin increased optimal choice responding only in female rats. Higher Drd2 and Crhr1 expression in the amygdala were observed in female vs male rats. Higher amygdalar Crhr1 expression was negatively correlated with advantageous responding specifically in females. This study demonstrates the relevance of dopaminergic- and stress-dependent sex differences to maladaptive decision making.

  16. Preimplantation maternal stress impairs embryo development by inducing oviductal apoptosis with activation of the Fas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang-Liang; Tan, Xiu-Wen; Cui, Xiang-Zhong; Yuan, Hong-Jie; Li, Hong; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Ji, Chang-Li; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-11-01

    What are the mechanisms by which the preimplantation restraint stress (PIRS) impairs embryo development and pregnancy outcome? PIRS impairs embryo development by triggering apoptosis in mouse oviducts and embryos,and this involves activation of the Fas system. Although it is known that the early stages of pregnancy are more vulnerable than later stages to prenatalstress, studies on the effect of preimplantation stress on embryo developmentare limited. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which psychological stress impairs embryo development are largely unknown. These issues are worth exploring using the mouse PIRS models because restraint of mice is an efficient experimental procedure developed for studies of psychogenic stress. Mice of Kunming strain, the generalized lymphoproliferative disorder (gld) mice with a germline mutation F273L in FasL in a C57BL/6J genomic background and the wild-type C57BL/6J mice were used. Female and male mice were used 8-10 weeks and 10-12 weeks after birth, respectively. Female mice showing vaginal plugs were paired by weight and randomly assigned to restraint treatments or as controls. For restraint treatment, an individual mouse was put in a micro-cage with food and water available. Control mice remained in their cages with food and water during the time treated females were stressed. Female mice were exposed to PIRS for 48 h starting from 16:00 on the day of vaginal plug detection. At the end of PIRS, levels of glucorticoids (GC), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)and redox potential were measured in serum, while levels of GC, GC receptor (GR), CRH, CRH receptor (CRHR), Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) protein, mRNAs for brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), oxidative stress (OS) and apoptosis were examined in oviducts. Preimplantation development and levels of GR, Fas, redox potential and apoptosis were observed in embryos recovered at different times after the initiation of PIRS. The gld mice

  17. An Improved Ocean Observing System for Coastal Louisiana: WAVCIS (WAVE-CURRENT-SURGE Information System )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Stone, G. W.; Gibson, W. J.; Braud, D.

    2005-05-01

    WAVCIS is a regional ocean observing and forecasting system. It was designed to measure, process, forecast, and distribute oceanographic and meteorological information. WAVCIS was developed and is maintained by the Coastal Studies Institute at Louisiana State University. The in-situ observing stations are distributed along the central Louisiana and Mississippi coast. The forecast region covers the entire Gulf of Mexico with emphasis on offshore Louisiana. By using state-of-the-art instrumentation, WAVCIS measures directional waves, currents, temperature, water level, conductivity, turbidity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, Meteorological parameters include wind speed and direction, air pressure and temperature visibility and humidity. Through satellite communication links, the measured data are transmitted to the WAVCIS laboratory. After processing, they are available to the public via the internet on a near real-time basis. WAVCIS also includes a forecasting capability. Waves, tides, currents, and winds are forecast daily for up to 80 hours in advance. There are a number of numerical wave and surge models that can be used for forecasts. WAM and SWAN are used for operational purposes to forecast sea state. Tides at each station are predicted based on the harmonic constants calculated from past in-situ observations at respective sites. Interpolated winds from the ETA model are used as input forcing for waves. Both in-situ and forecast information are available online to the users through WWW. Interactive GIS web mapping is implemented on the WAVCIS webpage to visualize the model output and in-situ observational data. WAVCIS data can be queried, retrieved, downloaded, and analyzed through the web page. Near real-time numerical model skill assessment can also be performed by using the data from in-situ observing stations.

  18. Experimental Observations of Multiscale Dynamics of Viscous Fluid Behavior: Implications in Volcanic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Spina, L.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of Newtonian fluids with viscosities (10-1000 Pa s; corresponding to mafic to intermediate silicate melts) during slow decompression, in a Plexiglas shock tube. As an analogue fluid we used silicon oil saturated with Argon gas for 72 hours. Slow decompression, dropping from 10 MPa to ambient pressure, acts as the excitation mechanism, initiating several processes with their own distinct timescales. The evolution of this multi-timescale phenomenon generates complex non-stationary microseismic signals, which have been recorded with 7 high-dynamic piezoelectric sensors located along the conduit. Correlation analysis of these time series with the associated high-speed imaging enables characterization of distinct phases of the dynamics of these viscous fluids and the extraction of the time and the frequency characteristics of the individual processes. We have identified fluid-solid elastic interaction, degassing, fluid mass expansion and flow, bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence and collapse, foam building and vertical wagging. All these processes (in fine and coarse scales) are sequentially coupled in time, occur within specific pressure intervals, and exhibit a localized distribution in space. Their coexistence and interactions constitute the stress field and driving forces that determine the dynamics of the system. Our observations point to the great potential of this experimental approach in the understanding of volcanic processes and volcanic seismicity.

  19. Improvement of emotional healthcare system with stress detection from ECG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivatansakul, S; Ohkura, M

    2015-01-01

    Our emotional healthcare system is designed to cope with users' negative emotions in daily life. To make the system more intelligent, we integrated emotion recognition by facial expression to provide appropriate services based on user's current emotional state. Our emotion recognition by facial expression has confusion issue to recognize some positive, neutral and negative emotions that make the emotional healthcare system provide a relaxation service even though users don't have negative emotions. Therefore, to increase the effectiveness of the system to provide the relaxation service, we integrate stress detection from ECG signal. The stress detection might be able to address the confusion issue of emotion recognition by facial expression to provide the service. Indeed, our results show that integration of stress detection increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the emotional healthcare system to provide services.

  20. NANOOS, the Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing Systems: a regional Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) for the Pacific Northwest US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, J.; Martin, D.; Kosro, M.

    2012-12-01

    NANOOS is the Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing Systems, the Pacific Northwest Regional Association of the United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (US IOOS). User driven since its inception in 2003, this regional observing system is responding to a variety of scientific and societal needs across its coastal ocean, estuaries, and shorelines. Regional priorities have been solicited and re-affirmed through active engagement with users and stakeholders. NANOOS membership is composed of an even mix of academic, governmental, industry, and non-profit organizations, who appoint representatives to the NANOOS Governing Council who confirm the priority applications of the observing system. NANOOS regional priorities are: Maritime Operations, Regional Fisheries, Ecosystem Assessment, Coastal Hazards, and Climate. NANOOS' regional coastal ocean observing system is implemented by seven partners (three universities, three state agencies, and one industry). Together, these partners conduct the observations, modeling, data management and communication, analysis products, education and outreach activities of NANOOS. Observations, designed to span coastal ocean, shorelines, and estuaries, include physical, chemical, biological and geological measurements. To date, modeling has been more limited in scope, but has provided the system with increased coverage for some parameters. The data management and communication system for NANOOS, led by the NANOOS Visualization System (NVS) is the cornerstone of the user interaction with NANOOS. NVS gives users access to observational data, both real time and archived, as well as modeling output. Given the diversity of user needs, measurements, and the complexity of the coastal environment, the challenge for the system is large. NANOOS' successes take advantage of technological advances, including real-time data transmission, profiling buoys, gliders, HF radars, and modeling. The most profound challenges NANOOS faces stem

  1. Assessment of bioelectrical activity of synergistic muscles during pelvic floor muscles activation in postmenopausal women with and without stress urinary incontinence: a preliminary observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptaszkowski K

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kuba Ptaszkowski,1 Małgorzata Paprocka-Borowicz,2 Lucyna Słupska,2 Janusz Bartnicki,1,3 Robert Dymarek,4 Joanna Rosińczuk,4 Jerzy Heimrath,5 Janusz Dembowski,6 Romuald Zdrojowy6 1Department of Obstetrics, 2Department of Clinical Biomechanics and Physiotherapy in Motor System Disorders, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Health Center Bitterfeld/Wolfen gGmbH, Bitterfeld-Wolfen, Germany; 4Department of Nervous System Diseases, 5Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Health Science, 6Department and Clinic of Urology, Faculty of Postgraduate Medical Training, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Objective: Muscles such as adductor magnus (AM, gluteus maximus (GM, rectus abdominis (RA, and abdominal external and internal oblique muscles are considered to play an important role in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI, and the relationship between contraction of these muscles and pelvic floor muscles (PFM has been established in previous studies. Synergistic muscle activation intensifies a woman’s ability to contract the PFM. In some cases, even for continent women, it is not possible to fully contract their PFM without involving the synergistic muscles. The primary aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyographic activity of synergistic muscles to PFM (SPFM during resting and functional PFM activation in postmenopausal women with and without SUI.Materials and methods: This study was a preliminary, prospective, cross-sectional observational study and included volunteers and patients who visited the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Forty-two patients participated in the study and were screened for eligibility criteria. Thirty participants satisfied the criteria and were categorized into two groups: women with SUI (n=16 and continent women (n=14. The bioelectrical activity of PFM and SPFM (AM, RA, GM was

  2. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...

  3. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...

  4. Influence of stress-induced deformations on observed water flow in fractures of the Climax Granitic Stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    Three examples of stress induced influence on fracture dominated hydrology were noted in drifts 1400 ft below surface in granite. Seepage into portions of shears near a fault zone and an adjoining drift, and mineralization of the joints were the three indicators of shear stress. Interpretation of these results are given

  5. A multimodal image sensor system for identifying water stress in grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Qin; Li, Minzan; Shao, Yongni; Zhou, Jianfeng; Sun, Hong

    2012-11-01

    Water stress is one of the most common limitations of fruit growth. Water is the most limiting resource for crop growth. In grapevines, as well as in other fruit crops, fruit quality benefits from a certain level of water deficit which facilitates to balance vegetative and reproductive growth and the flow of carbohydrates to reproductive structures. A multi-modal sensor system was designed to measure the reflectance signature of grape plant surfaces and identify different water stress levels in this paper. The multi-modal sensor system was equipped with one 3CCD camera (three channels in R, G, and IR). The multi-modal sensor can capture and analyze grape canopy from its reflectance features, and identify the different water stress levels. This research aims at solving the aforementioned problems. The core technology of this multi-modal sensor system could further be used as a decision support system that combines multi-modal sensory data to improve plant stress detection and identify the causes of stress. The images were taken by multi-modal sensor which could output images in spectral bands of near-infrared, green and red channel. Based on the analysis of the acquired images, color features based on color space and reflectance features based on image process method were calculated. The results showed that these parameters had the potential as water stress indicators. More experiments and analysis are needed to validate the conclusion.

  6. An automated x-ray stress measurement system using a microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Masanori; Miyagawa, Matsuo; Sato, Fumiyoshi; Sugiharai, Shigeru; Ishii, Masami; Sumiyoshi, Michio.

    1985-01-01

    An automated system for a rapid and precise X-ray stress measurement using a microcomputer has been developed. A block diagram of the system and a flowchart for the stress measurement method are shown. Of the various methods, the one most suitable for the material to be measured can be programmed in this system. The residual stress in a hardened steel having a broad diffraction profile (half-width of 7.2 deg ) could be measured in six minutes with a small standard deviation of 13 MPa by the Gaussian curve method using the sin 2 ψ method. Both the oscillation and the fixed ψ methods, using the Gaussian curve method, allow the X-ray stress measurement of coarse-grained steels; the sin 2 ψ diagram obtained by these methods had a good linearity. The residual stress measurement of an annealed chromium powder gave almost zero stress values, -3.2 to 2.9 MPa depending on the method used, showing a high accuracy of the system. (author)

  7. Divergent short- and long-term effects of acute stress in object recognition memory are mediated by endogenous opioid system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O; Lamprea, Marisol R; Múnera, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    Acute stress induces short-term object recognition memory impairment and elicits endogenous opioid system activation. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate whether opiate system activation mediates the acute stress-induced object recognition memory changes. Adult male Wistar rats were trained in an object recognition task designed to test both short- and long-term memory. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 1 mg/kg naltrexone or 3 mg/kg naltrexone, four and a half hours before the sample trial. Five minutes after the injection, half the subjects were submitted to movement restraint during four hours while the other half remained in their home cages. Non-stressed subjects receiving saline (control) performed adequately during the short-term memory test, while stressed subjects receiving saline displayed impaired performance. Naltrexone prevented such deleterious effect, in spite of the fact that it had no intrinsic effect on short-term object recognition memory. Stressed subjects receiving saline and non-stressed subjects receiving naltrexone performed adequately during the long-term memory test; however, control subjects as well as stressed subjects receiving a high dose of naltrexone performed poorly. Control subjects' dissociated performance during both memory tests suggests that the short-term memory test induced a retroactive interference effect mediated through light opioid system activation; such effect was prevented either by low dose naltrexone administration or by strongly activating the opioid system through acute stress. Both short-term memory retrieval impairment and long-term memory improvement observed in stressed subjects may have been mediated through strong opioid system activation, since they were prevented by high dose naltrexone administration. Therefore, the activation of the opioid system plays a dual modulating role in object recognition memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. Positive and problematic support, stress and quality of life in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Davide; Cicognani, Elvira

    2016-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease. Previous studies showed that perceived social support has an important role in enhancing patient's quality of life (QOL). However, the precise mechanisms through which social support exerts such an effect are not completely understood. The aim of this paper is to test two alternative models explaining the relationship between social support (positive and problematic) and two dimensions of QOL: Health-Related (HR-QOL) and Non-Health-Related (NHR-QOL). Model A (mediation) hypothesized that positive support would reduce stress while problematic support would increase stress), and that this in turn would reduce QOL. Model B (moderation) hypothesized that the effect of support on QOL would be moderated by the experience of stress in that more stressed individuals would show stronger effects. Three hundred and forty-four Italian patients with SLE completed an online questionnaire. Stress partially mediated the relationship between support and QOL dimensions (either HR-QOL and NHR-QOL) thus supporting Model B. As hypothesized, positive support reduced stress, while problematic support increased stress. These findings help to explain the complex relationship between social support, stress and QOL in patients with SLE.

  9. Neuropeptide Y and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Gulsun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The neurobiological aspects of stress and coping skills has been the focus of interest for many researchers. Some of the studies has shown that there is a significant relationship among genetically variables, stress response and life events. Neuropeptide Y is one of the systems regulating the stress response. Under the prolonged or repeated trauma neuropeptide Y is released from the brain's key areas. This system shows different levels of functioning in individuals with different levels of resilience. There is particular interest in the variations of genes that encode stress-sensitive signaling molecules during gene-environment interaction. This condition may contribute to susceptibility of stress or stress resilience. Neuropeptide Y system plays a key role in the adaptation to behavioral stress. The reduced levels of neuropeptide Y have also been observed in treatment-resistant depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Lower level of neuropeptide Y expression and dysfunctional neuropeptide Y system in response to stress and resulting decreased stress resilience could increase susceptibility to stress-related disorders.

  10. Activity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal System in Prenatally Stressed Male Rats on the Experimental Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivina, S G; Rakitskaya, V V; Akulova, V K; Ordyan, N E

    2016-03-01

    Using the experimental model of post-traumatic stress disorder (stress-restress paradigm), we studied the dynamics of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system (HPAS) in adult male rats, whose mothers were daily subjected to restraint stress on days 15-19 of pregnancy. Prenatally stressed males that were subjected to combined stress and subsequent restress exhibited not only increased sensitivity of HPAS to negative feedback signals (manifested under restress conditions), but also enhanced stress system reactivity. These changes persisted to the 30th day after restress. Under basal conditions, the number of cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of these animals expressing corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin was shown to decrease progressively on days 1-30. By contrast, combined stress and restress in control animals were followed by an increase in the count of CRH-immunopositive cells in the magnocellular and parvocellular parts of the paraventricular nucleus and number of vasopressin-immunopositive cells in the magnocellular part of the nucleus (to the 10th day after restress). Our results indicate a peculiar level of functional activity of HPAS in prenatally stressed males in the stress-restress paradigm: decreased activity under basal conditions and enhanced reactivity during stress.

  11. The 2014-2015 Warming Anomaly in the Southern California Current System: Glider Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaba, K. D.; Rudnick, D. L.

    2016-02-01

    During 2014-2015, basin-wide patterns of oceanic and atmospheric anomalies affected surface waters throughout the North Pacific Ocean. We present regional physical and biological effects of the warming, as observed by our autonomous underwater gliders in the southern California Current System (SCCS). Established in 2006, the California Glider Network provides sustained subsurface observations for monitoring the coastal effects of large-scale climate variability. Along repeat sections that extend to 350-500 km in offshore distance and 500 m in depth, Spray gliders have continuously occupied CalCOFI lines 66.7, 80, and 90 for nearly nine years. Following a sawtooth trajectory, the gliders complete each dive in approximately 3 hours and over 3 km. Measured variables include pressure, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, and velocity. For each of the three lines, a comprehensive climatology has been constructed from the multiyear timeseries. The ongoing surface-intensified warming anomaly, which began locally in early 2014 and persists through present, is unprecedented in the glider climatology. Reaching up to 5°C, positive temperature anomalies have been generally confined to the upper 50 m and persistent for over 20 months. The timing of the warming was in phase along each glider line but out of phase with equatorial SST anomalies, suggesting a decoupling of tropical and mid-latitude dynamics. Concurrent physical oceanographic anomalies included a depressed thermocline and high stratification. An induced biological response was apparent in the deepening of the subsurface chlorophyll fluorescence maximum. Ancillary atmospheric data from the NCEP North American Mesoscale (NAM) model indicate that a combination of surface forcing anomalies, namely high downward heat flux and weak wind stress magnitude, caused the unusual warm, downwelling conditions. With a strong El Niño event in the forecast for winter 2015-2016, our sustained glider network will

  12. Automatic stress-relieving music recommendation system based on photoplethysmography-derived heart rate variability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Il-Hyung; Cha, Jaepyeong; Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Lee, Choonghee; Lee, Seung Yup; Yoon, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic stress-relieving music recommendation system (ASMRS) for individual music listeners. The ASMRS uses a portable, wireless photoplethysmography module with a finger-type sensor, and a program that translates heartbeat signals from the sensor to the stress index. The sympathovagal balance index (SVI) was calculated from heart rate variability to assess the user's stress levels while listening to music. Twenty-two healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. The results have shown that the participants' SVI values are highly correlated with their prespecified music preferences. The sensitivity and specificity of the favorable music classification also improved as the number of music repetitions increased to 20 times. Based on the SVI values, the system automatically recommends favorable music lists to relieve stress for individuals.

  13. Use of observation followed by outpatient stress testing in chest pain patients with prior coronary artery disease history: An evaluation of prognostic utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Yasser; Schwartz, Melvin H; Pandey, Prasant S; Abdul Latif, Maida S; Matsumura, Martin E

    2015-06-01

    To determine the outcomes of patients with chest pain (CP) and prior history of coronary artery disease (CAD) managed with observation followed by outpatient stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Retrospective analysis of patients with CP managed with observation followed by outpatient stress MPI, comparing cardiovascular (CV) event rates stratified by CAD history. 375 patients were included: 111 with and 264 without a CAD history. All patients underwent outpatient stress MPI within 72 h of observation. MPI identified patients at risk for CV events. However, while patients with negative MPI and without a CAD history had very low rates of short- and long-term CAD events (0.8%, 0.8%, and 1.3% at 30 days, 1 year, and 3 years, respectively), event rates of those with a negative test but a CAD history were significantly higher (2.6%, 5.3%, and 6.6% at 30 days, 1 year and 3 years, respectively; p = 0.044 and p = 0.034 compared to CAD- patients at 1 year and 3 years, respectively). In a multivariable logistic regression model, a positive MPI proved to be an independent predictor of long-term CV events in patients with CP and prior CAD. Observation followed by stress MPI can effectively risk stratify CP patients with prior CAD for CV risk. These patients are at increased risk of CV events even after a low-risk stress MPI study. Patients presenting with CP and managed with a strategy of observation followed by a negative stress MPI warrant close short- and long-term monitoring for recurrent events.

  14. Reliability of Single Crystal Silver Nanowire-Based Systems: Stress Assisted Instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandramoorthy, Rajaprakash; Wang, Yanming; Aghaei, Amin; Richter, Gunther; Cai, Wei; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2017-05-23

    Time-dependent mechanical characterization of nanowires is critical to understand their long-term reliability in applications, such as flexible-electronics and touch screens. It is also of great importance to develop a theoretical framework for experimentation and analysis on the mechanics of nanowires under time-dependent loading conditions, such as stress-relaxation and fatigue. Here, we combine in situ scanning electron microscope (SEM)/transmission electron microscope (TEM) tests with atomistic and phase-field simulations to understand the deformation mechanisms of single crystal silver nanowires held under constant strain. We observe that the nanowires initially undergo stress-relaxation, where the stress reduces with time and saturates after some time period. The stress-relaxation process occurs due to the formation of few dislocations and stacking faults. Remarkably, after a few hours the nanowires rupture suddenly. The reason for this abrupt failure of the nanowire was identified as stress-assisted diffusion, using phase-field simulations. Under a large applied strain, diffusion leads to the amplification of nanowire surface perturbation at long wavelengths and the nanowire fails at the stress-concentrated thin cross-sectional regions. An analytical analysis on the competition between the elastic energy and the surface energy predicts a longer time to failure for thicker nanowires than thinner ones, consistent with our experimental observations. The measured time to failure of nanowires under cyclic loading conditions can also be explained in terms of this mechanism.

  15. Computer-aided stress analysis system for nuclear plant primary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Tsutomu; Tokumaru, Yoshio; Yamazaki, Junko.

    1980-06-01

    Generally it needs a vast quantity of calculation to make the stress analysis reports of nuclear plant primary components. In Japan, especially, stress analysis reports are under obligation to make for each plant. In Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., We have been making great efforts to rationalize the process of analysis for about these ten years. As the result of rationalization up to now, a computer-aided stress analysis system using graphic display, graphic tablet, data file, etc. was accomplished and it needs us only the least hand work. In addition we developed a fracture safety analysis system. And we are going to develop the input generator system for 3-dimensional FEM analysis by graphics terminals in the near future. We expect that when the above-mentioned input generator system is accomplished, it will be possible for us to solve instantly any case of problem. (author)

  16. Balneotherapy, Immune System, and Stress Response: A Hormetic Strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gálvez

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Balneotherapy is a clinically effective complementary approach in the treatment of low-grade inflammation- and stress-related pathologies. The biological mechanisms by which immersion in mineral-medicinal water and the application of mud alleviate symptoms of several pathologies are still not completely understood, but it is known that neuroendocrine and immunological responses—including both humoral and cell-mediated immunity—to balneotherapy are involved in these mechanisms of effectiveness; leading to anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, chondroprotective, and anabolic effects together with neuroendocrine-immune regulation in different conditions. Hormesis can play a critical role in all these biological effects and mechanisms of effectiveness. The hormetic effects of balneotherapy can be related to non-specific factors such as heat—which induces the heat shock response, and therefore the synthesis and release of heat shock proteins—and also to specific biochemical components such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S in sulfurous water and radon in radioactive water. Results from several investigations suggest that the beneficial effects of balneotherapy and hydrotherapy are consistent with the concept of hormesis, and thus support a role for hormesis in hydrothermal treatments.

  17. HammerCloud: A Stress Testing System for Distributed Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ster, Daniel C van der; García, Mario Úbeda; Paladin, Massimo; Elmsheuser, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Distributed analysis of LHC data is an I/O-intensive activity which places large demands on the internal network, storage, and local disks at remote computing facilities. Commissioning and maintaining a site to provide an efficient distributed analysis service is therefore a challenge which can be aided by tools to help evaluate a variety of infrastructure designs and configurations. HammerCloud is one such tool; it is a stress testing service which is used by central operations teams, regional coordinators, and local site admins to (a) submit arbitrary number of analysis jobs to a number of sites, (b) maintain at a steady-state a predefined number of jobs running at the sites under test, (c) produce web-based reports summarizing the efficiency and performance of the sites under test, and (d) present a web-interface for historical test results to both evaluate progress and compare sites. HammerCloud was built around the distributed analysis framework Ganga, exploiting its API for grid job management. HammerCloud has been employed by the ATLAS experiment for continuous testing of many sites worldwide, and also during large scale computing challenges such as STEP'09 and UAT'09, where the scale of the tests exceeded 10,000 concurrently running and 1,000,000 total jobs over multi-day periods. In addition, HammerCloud is being adopted by the CMS experiment; the plugin structure of HammerCloud allows the execution of CMS jobs using their official tool (CRAB).

  18. HammerCloud: A Stress Testing System for Distributed Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    van der Ster, Daniel C; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Paladin, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Distributed analysis of LHC data is an I/O-intensive activity which places large demands on the internal network, storage, and local disks at remote computing facilities. Commissioning and maintaining a site to provide an efficient distributed analysis service is therefore a challenge which can be aided by tools to help evaluate a variety of infrastructure designs and configurations. HammerCloud (HC) is one such tool; it is a stress testing service which is used by central operations teams, regional coordinators, and local site admins to (a) submit arbitrary number of analysis jobs to a number of sites, (b) maintain at a steady-state a predefined number of jobs running at the sites under test, (c) produce web-based reports summarizing the efficiency and performance of the sites under test, and (d) present a web-interface for historical test results to both evaluate progress and compare sites. HC was built around the distributed analysis framework Ganga, exploiting its API for grid job management. HC has been ...

  19. The protective role of exercise on stress system dysregulation and comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsoulis, Agathocles; Fountoulakis, Stelios

    2006-11-01

    The human body, when under threat, elicits a set of neuroendocrine responses, including an increased secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines from the adrenal gland and the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. These hormonal secretions allow a "fight or flight" response by mobilizing endogenous substrate and inducing a state of insulin resistance in the liver and skeletal muscles. Although the stress response was essential in ancient times to survive physical aggression, this threat has disappeared in our industrialized societies. However, in today's environment, the same stress responses can be elicited by emotional stimuli or professional and social stress. Such psychological stress may be protracted and unrelated to an increased metabolic demand. Thus, the energy mobilized is not used but is stored in visceral fat depots by the combined action of hypercortisolism and hyperinsulinemia. In addition, chronic activation of the stress system causes suppression of the gonadal, growth hormone (GH), and thyroid axes. These metabolic disturbances, in concert, lead to the clinical expression of a number of comorbidities including central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and endothelial dysfunction, all components of the metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk factors. Moreover, chronic stress has deleterious effects on the brain and, in particular, affects hippocampal structure and function leading to cognitive and mood disturbances. Importantly, this stress-induced clinical phenotype is likely to be exaggerated in the presence of physical inactivity, resulting in a "stress-induced/exercise deficient" phenotype. Assuming that the stress response is a neuroendocrine mechanism that occurs in anticipation of physical action, then physical activity should be the natural means to prevent the consequences of stress. Indeed, accumulating evidence documents the beneficial effects of regular exercise in preventing or ameliorating the metabolic and

  20. Evolution of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Behnke, Jeanne; Sofinowski, Edwin; Lowe, Dawn; Esfandiari, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to "Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration". An important sub-goal of this goal is to "Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." NASA meets this subgoal in partnership with other U.S. agencies and international organizations through its Earth science program. A major component of NASA s Earth science program is the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS program was started in 1990 with the primary purpose of modeling global climate change. This program consists of a set of space-borne instruments, science teams, and a data system. The instruments are designed to obtain highly accurate, frequent and global measurements of geophysical properties of land, oceans and atmosphere. The science teams are responsible for designing the instruments as well as scientific algorithms to derive information from the instrument measurements. The data system, called the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), produces data products using those algorithms as well as archives and distributes such products. The first of the EOS instruments were launched in November 1997 on the Japanese satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the last, on the U.S. satellite Aura, were launched in July 2004. The instrument science teams have been active since the inception of the program in 1990 and have participation from Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and U.S. The development of EOSDIS was initiated in 1990, and this data system has been serving the user community since 1994. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the history and evolution of EOSDIS since its beginnings to the present and indicate how it continues to evolve into the future. this chapter is organized as follows. Sect

  1. Multiple Two-Component Systems of Streptococcus mutans Regulate Agmatine Deiminase Gene Expression and Stress Tolerance▿

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yaling; Burne, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Induction of the agmatine deiminase system (AgDS) of Streptococcus mutans requires agmatine and is optimal at low pH. We show here that the VicRK, ComDE, and CiaRH two-component systems influence AgDS gene expression in response to acidic and thermal stresses.

  2. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Ground System: Leveraging an Existing Operational Ground System Infrastructure to Support New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.

  3. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - Many Mechanisms for On-Going Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System has been serving a broad user community since August 1994. As a long-lived multi-mission system serving multiple scientific disciplines and a diverse user community, EOSDIS has been evolving continuously. It has had and continues to have many forms of community input to help with this evolution. Early in its history, it had inputs from the EOSDIS Advisory Panel, benefited from the reviews by various external committees and evolved into the present distributed architecture with discipline-based Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), Science Investigator-led Processing Systems and a cross-DAAC search and data access capability. EOSDIS evolution has been helped by advances in computer technology, moving from an initially planned supercomputing environment to SGI workstations to Linux Clusters for computation and from near-line archives of robotic silos with tape cassettes to RAID-disk-based on-line archives for storage. The network capacities have increased steadily over the years making delivery of data on media almost obsolete. The advances in information systems technologies have been having an even greater impact on the evolution of EOSDIS. In the early days, the advent of the World Wide Web came as a game-changer in the operation of EOSDIS. The metadata model developed for the EOSDIS Core System for representing metadata from EOS standard data products has had an influence on the Federal Geographic Data Committee's metadata content standard and the ISO metadata standards. The influence works both ways. As ISO 19115 metadata standard has developed in recent years, EOSDIS is reviewing its metadata to ensure compliance with the standard. Improvements have been made in the cross-DAAC search and access of data using the centralized metadata clearing house (EOS Clearing House - ECHO) and the client Reverb. Given the diversity of the Earth science disciplines served by the