Apóstolo,João Luís Alves; Mendes,Aida Cruz; Azeredo,Zaida Aguiar
Objective: to adapt to Portuguese, of Portugal, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, a 21-item short scale (DASS 21), designed to measure depression, anxiety and stress. Method: After translation and back-translation with the help of experts, the DASS 21 was administered to patients in external psychiatry consults (N=101), and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were measured. Results: The DASS 21 properties certify its quality to measure emotional state...
Osman, Augustine; Wong, Jane L; Bagge, Courtney L; Freedenthal, Stacey; Gutierrez, Peter M; Lozano, Gregorio
We conducted two studies to examine the dimensions, internal consistency reliability estimates, and potential correlates of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). Participants in Study 1 included 887 undergraduate students (363 men and 524 women, aged 18 to 35 years; mean [M] age = 19.46, standard deviation [SD] = 2.17) recruited from two public universities to assess the specificity of the individual DASS-21 items and to evaluate estimates of internal consistency reliability. Participants in a follow-up study (Study 2) included 410 students (168 men and 242 women, aged 18 to 47 years; M age = 19.65, SD = 2.88) recruited from the same universities to further assess factorial validity and to evaluate potential correlates of the original DASS-21 total and scale scores. Item bifactor and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a general factor accounted for the greatest proportion of common variance in the DASS-21 item scores (Study 1). In Study 2, the fit statistics showed good fit for the bifactor model. In addition, the DASS-21 total scale score correlated more highly with scores on a measure of mixed depression and anxiety than with scores on the proposed specific scales of depression or anxiety. Coefficient omega estimates for the DASS-21 scale scores were good. Further investigations of the bifactor structure and psychometric properties of the DASS-21, specifically its incremental and discriminant validity, using known clinical groups are needed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Moussa, Miriam Taouk; Lovibond, Peter; Laube, Roy; Megahead, Hamido A.
Objective: To translate and evaluate the psychometric properties of an Arabic-language version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS). Method: The items were translated, back translated, refined, and tested in an Australian immigrant sample (N = 220). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Arabic DASS discriminates between…
Tonsing, Kareen N
This study investigated the reliability of the Nepali version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) among non-clinical sample. The purpose of this paper is to report the dimensionality and internal consistency of the DASS-21in a sample of non-clinical adults. This study was conducted in Hong Kong among 212 Nepali adults, aged 18-60 years. Life satisfaction was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Scale. The dimensionality of the DASS-21 scale was investigated using exploratory factor analysis. Construct validity was evaluated using the life satisfaction scale. The intercorrelation among depression, anxiety and stress subscales indicates that symptoms of psychological distress as measured by the DASS-21-N can distinguished between the three constructs in adult community sample. The results also showed inverse correlation among DASS-21-N and life satisfaction scale, supporting the assumption that the higher the life satisfaction, the lower the psychological distress. The results of this study indicate that the Nepali version of the DASS-21 demonstrate adequate psychometric properties in relation to internal consistency and validity, lending support to prior studies and suggest that the DASS-21 can be utilized among diverse groups with confidence. It supports the reliability of the 3-factorial dimensionality of the DASS-21, and highlight that it is a valid and useful tool that can distinguish between depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Apóstolo, João Luís Alves; Mendes, Aida Cruz; Azeredo, Zaida Aguiar
To adapt to Portuguese, of Portugal, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, a 21-item short scale (DASS 21), designed to measure depression, anxiety and stress. After translation and back-translation with the help of experts, the DASS 21 was administered to patients in external psychiatry consults (N=101), and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were measured. The DASS 21 properties certify its quality to measure emotional states. The instrument reveals good internal consistency. Factorial analysis shows that the two-factor structure is more adequate. The first factor groups most of the items that theoretically assess anxiety and stress, and the second groups most of the items that assess depression, explaining, on the whole, 58.54% of total variance. The strong positive correlation between the DASS 21 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD) confirms the hypothesis regarding the criterion validity, however, revealing fragilities as to the divergence between theoretically different constructs.
Page, Andrew C; Hooke, Geoffrey R; Morrison, David L
The psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995a) were examined in depressed psychiatric hospital samples. Three studies administered the DASS and other symptom measures at admission and discharge to consecutive adult hospital patients with a primary diagnosis of depression. Study 3 aimed to address problems with the DASS by extending the response options. Study 1 found that the DASS had good reliability and validity, was moderately sensitive to change, but the Depression Scale exhibited a ceiling effect. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure and the DASS continued to demonstrate good psychometric properties, but the ceiling effect was replicated. Study 3 found that by extending the response scale to include an additional option, the factor structure of the instrument as a whole was maintained, the sensitivity to treatment was increased, but the ceiling effect was only marginally reduced. The psychometric properties of the DASS were sound in clinically depressed samples, but the Depression Scale exhibited a ceiling effect that could not be resolved with minor changes to the scale. Suggestions for revisions of the DASS are made.
Shea, Tracey L; Tennant, Alan; Pallant, Julie F
There is a growing awareness of the need for easily administered, psychometrically sound screening tools to identify individuals with elevated levels of psychological distress. Although support has been found for the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) using classical test theory approaches it has not been subjected to Rasch analysis. The aim of this study was to use Rasch analysis to assess the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 scales, using two different administration modes. The DASS-21 was administered to 420 participants with half the sample responding to a web-based version and the other half completing a traditional pencil-and-paper version. Conformity of DASS-21 scales to a Rasch partial credit model was assessed using the RUMM2020 software. To achieve adequate model fit it was necessary to remove one item from each of the DASS-21 subscales. The reduced scales showed adequate internal consistency reliability, unidimensionality and freedom from differential item functioning for sex, age and mode of administration. Analysis of all DASS-21 items combined did not support its use as a measure of general psychological distress. A scale combining the anxiety and stress items showed satisfactory fit to the Rasch model after removal of three items. The results provide support for the measurement properties, internal consistency reliability, and unidimensionality of three slightly modified DASS-21 scales, across two different administration methods. The further use of Rasch analysis on the DASS-21 in larger and broader samples is recommended to confirm the findings of the current study.
Shea, Tracey L; Tennant, Alan; Pallant, Julie F
Background There is a growing awareness of the need for easily administered, psychometrically sound screening tools to identify individuals with elevated levels of psychological distress. Although support has been found for the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) using classical test theory approaches it has not been subjected to Rasch analysis. The aim of this study was to use Rasch analysis to assess the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 scales, using two different administration modes. Methods The DASS-21 was administered to 420 participants with half the sample responding to a web-based version and the other half completing a traditional pencil-and-paper version. Conformity of DASS-21 scales to a Rasch partial credit model was assessed using the RUMM2020 software. Results To achieve adequate model fit it was necessary to remove one item from each of the DASS-21 subscales. The reduced scales showed adequate internal consistency reliability, unidimensionality and freedom from differential item functioning for sex, age and mode of administration. Analysis of all DASS-21 items combined did not support its use as a measure of general psychological distress. A scale combining the anxiety and stress items showed satisfactory fit to the Rasch model after removal of three items. Conclusion The results provide support for the measurement properties, internal consistency reliability, and unidimensionality of three slightly modified DASS-21 scales, across two different administration methods. The further use of Rasch analysis on the DASS-21 in larger and broader samples is recommended to confirm the findings of the current study. PMID:19426512
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing awareness of the need for easily administered, psychometrically sound screening tools to identify individuals with elevated levels of psychological distress. Although support has been found for the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS using classical test theory approaches it has not been subjected to Rasch analysis. The aim of this study was to use Rasch analysis to assess the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 scales, using two different administration modes. Methods The DASS-21 was administered to 420 participants with half the sample responding to a web-based version and the other half completing a traditional pencil-and-paper version. Conformity of DASS-21 scales to a Rasch partial credit model was assessed using the RUMM2020 software. Results To achieve adequate model fit it was necessary to remove one item from each of the DASS-21 subscales. The reduced scales showed adequate internal consistency reliability, unidimensionality and freedom from differential item functioning for sex, age and mode of administration. Analysis of all DASS-21 items combined did not support its use as a measure of general psychological distress. A scale combining the anxiety and stress items showed satisfactory fit to the Rasch model after removal of three items. Conclusion The results provide support for the measurement properties, internal consistency reliability, and unidimensionality of three slightly modified DASS-21 scales, across two different administration methods. The further use of Rasch analysis on the DASS-21 in larger and broader samples is recommended to confirm the findings of the current study.
Vignola, Rose Claudia Batistelli; Tucci, Adriana Marcassa
Depression and anxiety have been associated with a range of symptoms that often overlap. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is a single instrument to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. This study aimed to adapt and validate the DASS-21 for use in the Brazilian Portuguese language. The DASS-21 has been adapted following the translation-back translation methodology from English to Portuguese. 242 subjects completed the following assessments: the DASS-21, the Beck Depression Index (BDI), Beck Anxiety Index (BAI) and the Inventory of Stress Symptoms of Lipp (ISSL). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) result was .949, indicating that the adequacy of the model was high. Cronbach's alpha was .92 for the depression, .90 for the stress, and .86 for the anxiety, indicating a good internal consistency for each subscale. The correlations between DASS scale and BDI scale, BAI scale and ISSL inventory were strong. The factorial analysis and distribution of factors among the subscales indicated that the structure of three distinct factors is adequate. Older subjects over 65 years of age were not largely represented in this sample. A study specific to this elderly population should be conducted. Another limitation of the study was education level. The impact of low education in its applicability should be considered. The findings support the validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the DASS-21 and add to the evidence of the DASS-21 quality and ability to assess emotional states separately, eliminating the use of different instruments to assess these states. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Akin, Ahmet; Cetin, Bayram
This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). The sample of the study consisted of 590 university students, 121 English teachers and 136 emotionally disturbed individuals who sought treatment in various clinics and counseling centers. Factor loadings of the scale ranged…
Nilges, P; Essau, C
The assessment of mental distress is a central aspect in pain research and treatment. Particularly for depression the comorbidity with pain poses methodological and conceptual challenges. This study examined the psychometric properties of the short version of the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS), used in both pain research and treatment and constructed to overcome the particular problems by omitting somatic items and concentrating on the psychological core aspects of depression, anxiety and stress. The psychometric properties of the DASS-21 were compared between patients with pain and various people without any pain problems (N = 950). The DASS has three subscales, depression, anxiety and stress, each with seven items. The construct validity of the DASS was examined using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) for anxiety and depression and the general depression scale (Allgemeine Depressionsskala, ADS) for depression. The sensitivity and specificity for depression were determined against a structured interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) and compared with the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale (CESD) and HADS in pain patients. Cronbach's alpha of the DASS for the depression subscale was at least 0.91, while the anxiety and stress subscales had Cronbach alphas of 0.78-0.82 and 0.81-0.89, respectively. Although the depression subscale has only 7 items, it is just as reliable as the ADS with 21 items. It also has a better sensitivity and specificity than the HADS in identifying clinical patients with depression. The DASS is a reliable questionnaire, free to use and brief to administer; therefore, it is an alternative to the previously used instruments for the screening of depression. Furthermore, the subscale stress measures irritability and tension, which are important aspects of pain experience but underused in assessment procedures for the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of patients
Norton, Peter J
Growing cross-cultural awareness has led researchers to examine frequently used research instruments and assessment tools in racially diverse populations. The present study was conducted to assess the psychometric characteristics of the 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) among different racial groups. The DASS-21 was chosen because it appears to be a reliable and easy to administer measure, ideal for both clinical and research purposes. Results suggest that the internal consistency, and convergent and divergent validity of the DASS-21 are similar across racial groups. Multigroup CFA, however, indicated that item loadings were invariant, while scale covariances were not invariant. This suggests that, although the items may load similarly on the depression, anxiety and stress constructs, these constructs may be differentially inter-related across groups. Implications for application in clinical practice are discussed.
Basha, Ertan; Kaya, Mehmet
The purpose of this study is to examine validity and reliability of the Albanian version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), which is developed by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995). The sample of this study is consisted of 555 subjects who were living in Kosovo. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated 42 items loaded on…
Adaptation to Portuguese of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) Adaptación para la lengua portuguesa de la Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) Adaptação para a língua portuguesa da Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS)
João Luís Alves Apóstolo; Aida Cruz Mendes; Zaida Aguiar Azeredo
Objective: to adapt to Portuguese, of Portugal, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, a 21-item short scale (DASS 21), designed to measure depression, anxiety and stress. Method: After translation and back-translation with the help of experts, the DASS 21 was administered to patients in external psychiatry consults (N=101), and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were measured. Results: The DASS 21 properties certify its quality to measure emotional state...
Oei, Tian P S; Sawang, Sukanlaya; Goh, Yong Wah; Mukhtar, Firdaus
The DASS-21 is a well-established instrument for measuring depression, anxiety, and stress with good reliability and validity reported from Hispanic American, British, and Australian adults. However, the lack of appropriate validation among Asian populations continues to pose concerns over the use of DASS-21 in Asian samples. Cultural variation may influence the individual's experience and emotional expression. Thus, when researchers and practitioners employ Western-based assessments with Asian populations by directly translating them without an appropriate validation, the process can be challenging. We conducted a series of rigorous statistical tests and minimized any potential confounds from the demographic information. Following factor analyses, we performed multigroup analysis across six nations to demonstrate consistency of our findings. The advantages of this revised DASS-18 stress scale are twofold. First, it possesses fewer items, which results in a cleaner factorial structure. Second, it has a smaller interfactor correlation. With these justifications, the revised DASS-18 stress scale is potentially more suitable for Asian populations. Nonetheless, given limitations, findings should be considered preliminary.
Nanthakumar, Shenooka; Bucks, Romola S; Skinner, Timothy C; Starkstein, Sergio; Hillman, David; James, Alan; Hunter, Michael
The assessment of depression in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is confounded by symptom overlap. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-short form (DASS-21) is a commonly used measure of negative affect, but it not known whether the DASS-21 is suitable for use in an OSA sample. This study compared the fit of Lovibond and Lovibond's (1995) correlated 3-factor structure of the DASS-21 and measurement invariance between a non-OSA and an OSA sample using confirmatory factor analysis. As measurement invariance was not found, to determine the source of non-invariance differential item functioning (DIF) was examined using dMACS. The correlated 3-factor structure (with correlated errors) of the DASS-21 was a better fit in the non-OSA sample. dMACS indicated that there was a degree of DIF for each of the subscales, especially for the Anxiety subscale, in which 2 symptoms (that are also physiological symptoms of OSA) produced lower severity scores in the OSA sample compared with the non-OSA sample. However, the degree of DIF for each of the subscales is not sufficient to cause concern when using the DASS-21; therefore, the total DASS-21 is suitable for use in an OSA sample. Interestingly, the impact of symptom overlap in anxiety symptoms may be reducing anxiety scores because of DIF, which contrasts with the proposed effect of symptom overlap in depression, where it leads to the inflation of depression scores in OSA. This deserves greater consideration in relation to OSA and other clinical disorders or chronic illness conditions with different patterns of overlapping symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
This study explored the factor structure of the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995b) in a young adolescent sample. A group of 484 high school students ("Mean" age = 13.62 years, Min = 11.83, Max = 15.67 years, 52 % boys) completed the DASS-21. Several models were tested using Confirmatory Factor…
Crawford, John R; Henry, Julie D
To provide UK normative data for the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and test its convergent, discriminant and construct validity. Cross-sectional, correlational and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The DASS was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1,771) in terms of demographic variables. Competing models of the latent structure of the DASS were derived from theoretical and empirical sources and evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Correlational analysis was used to determine the influence of demographic variables on DASS scores. The convergent and discriminant validity of the measure was examined through correlating the measure with two other measures of depression and anxiety (the HADS and the sAD), and a measure of positive and negative affectivity (the PANAS). The best fitting model (CFI =.93) of the latent structure of the DASS consisted of three correlated factors corresponding to the depression, anxiety and stress scales with correlated error permitted between items comprising the DASS subscales. Demographic variables had only very modest influences on DASS scores. The reliability of the DASS was excellent, and the measure possessed adequate convergent and discriminant validity Conclusions: The DASS is a reliable and valid measure of the constructs it was intended to assess. The utility of this measure for UK clinicians is enhanced by the provision of large sample normative data.
Randall, Diane; Thomas, Matt; Whiting, Diane; McGrath, Andrew
To confirm the construct validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) by investigating the fit of published factor structures in a sample of adults with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (posttraumatic amnesia > 24 hours). Archival data from 504 patient records at the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Unit at Liverpool Hospital, Australia. Participants were aged between 16 and 71 years and were engaged in a specialist rehabilitation program. The DASS-21. Two of the 6 models had adequate fit using structural equation modeling. The data best fit Henry and Crawford's quadripartite model, which comprised a Depression, Anxiety and Stress factor, as well as a General Distress factor. The data also adequately fit Lovibond and Lovibond's original 3-factor model, and the internal consistencies of each factor were very good (α = 0.82-0.90). This study confirms the structure and construct validity of the DASS-21 and provides support for its use as a screening tool in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation.
Scholten, Saskia; Velten, Julia; Bieda, Angela; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Margraf, Jürgen
The rising burden of mental and behavioral disorders has become a global challenge (Murray et al., 2012). Measurement invariant clinical instruments are necessary for the assessment of relevant symptoms across countries. The present study tested the measurement invariance of the 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995b) in Poland, Russia, the United Kingdom (U.K.), and the United States of America (U.S.). Telephone interviews were conducted with population-based samples (nPL = 1003, nRU = 3020, nU.K. = 1002, nU.S. = 1002). The DASS-21 shows threshold measurement invariance. Comparisons of latent means did not indicate differences between U.K. and U.S. However, Polish and Russian samples reported more depressive symptoms compared with U.K. and U.S. samples; the Russian sample had the highest levels of anxiety symptoms and the Polish sample demonstrated the highest stress levels. The DASS-21 can be recommended to meaningfully compare the relationships between variables across groups and to compare latent means in Polish-, Russian-, and English-speaking populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
This paper presented the Turkish version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) in community and clinical samples, examined its psychometric properties. Construct validity and concurrent validity were conducted in validity studies. Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-42 (DASS-42) was used for concurrent validity. In reliability analysis, the instruments internal consistency and re-test reliability were studied. Results of explanatory factor analyses demonstrated that 21 items yielded...
Lee, Keou Won; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyung Jong
Although increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) is caused by stress accelerates collagen degradation, there was no data on the relationship between stress and urinary hydroxyproline (Hyp) and proline (Pro), a good marker of collagen degradation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) and concentrations of urinary Hyp and Pro. 97 hospital employees aged 20 to 58 were asked to fill out comprehensive self-administrated questionnaires containing information about their medical history, lifestyle, length of the work year, shift-work and DAS. depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) was applied to evaluate chronic mental disorders. Urine samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with double derivatization for the assay of hydroxyproline and proline. The mean value of Hyp and Pro concentration in all subjects was 194.1 ± 113.4 μmol/g and 568.2 ± 310.7 μmol/g. DASS values and urinary Pro concentrations were differentiated by sex (female > male, p others, p < 0.05). In the stepwise multiple linear regressions, urinary Hyp and Pro concentrations were influenced by stress (Adjusted r2 = 0.051) and anxiety and job (Adjusted r2 = 0.199), respectively. We found that stress and anxiety were correlated with urinary Hyp and Pro concentrations. To identifying a definite correlation, further study in large populations will be needed.
Full Text Available This paper presented the Turkish version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21 in community and clinical samples, examined its psychometric properties. Construct validity and concurrent validity were conducted in validity studies. Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-42 (DASS-42 was used for concurrent validity. In reliability analysis, the instruments internal consistency and re-test reliability were studied. Results of explanatory factor analyses demonstrated that 21 items yielded three-factors. Results of confirmatory factor analyses for three-dimensional model showed that acceptable fit index values in community sample and perfect fit index values in clinical sample. Factor loadings ranged from .42 to .72. In the concurrent validity, significant positive relationships were found between DASS-42 and DASS-21. Cronbach alpha internal consistency coefficient was found as α= .87 for depression sub-scale, α= .85 for anxiety sub-scale and α= .81 for stress sub-scale in clinical sample. Moreover, test-retest reliability coefficient was obtained as r=.68 for depression sub-scale, r=.66 for anxiety sub-scale and r=.61 for stress sub-scale in community sample, and corrected item-total correlations ranged from .43 to .77 in clinical sample. In second study, DASS-21 discriminated the patients (depression mean score=10.83; anxiety mean score=10.39; stress mean score=11.85 from the healthy subjects (depression mean score=5.88; anxiety mean score=5.37; stress mean score=7.90 well (U=5310.50; 4748.50; 5562.50, p=0.00. According to psychometric properties, DASS-21 is a reliable and valid instrument in the assessment of depression, anxiety, stress levels. [JCBPR 2018; 7(1.000: 19-30
Hekimoglu, Levent; Altun, Zeren Ozturk; Kaya, Emine Zeynep; Bayram, Nuran; Bilgel, Nazan
To study the psychometric properties of the Turkish translation of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-42) in a clinical group. Outpatients diagnosed with anxiety (n = 138; mean age = 44.5 years; 74.6% female) or depression (n = 112; mean age = 46.2 years; 77.7% female) from the psychiatric outpatient clinic of a public hospital were evaluated. A group of non-clinical volunteers (n = 250; mean age = 37 years; 68% female) served as a community group for comparison. The participants completed the Turkish versions of the DASS-42, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The structure of the DASS-42 was analyzed in the clinical sample using principal components extraction. The three-factor solution accounted for 56% of the total variance, with eigenvalues of 17.6, 3.0, and 2.6. The range of factor loadings was 0.55-0.85 for depression, 0.47-0.62 for anxiety, and 0.49-0.74 for stress. The Cronbach alpha values for the DASS depression, anxiety, and stress subscales were 0.94, 0.88, 0.94 respectively. The concurrent validity of the DASS was satisfactory. The non-clincal participants scored lower on all three subscales than the individuals in all of the clinical groups. The Turkish version of the DASS-42 appears to be an excellent instrument for measuring features of depression, hyperarousal, and tension in clinical groups.
Adaptation to Portuguese of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS Adaptación para la lengua portuguesa de la Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS Adaptação para a língua portuguesa da Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS
João Luís Alves Apóstolo
Full Text Available Objective: to adapt to Portuguese, of Portugal, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, a 21-item short scale (DASS 21, designed to measure depression, anxiety and stress. Method: After translation and back-translation with the help of experts, the DASS 21 was administered to patients in external psychiatry consults (N=101, and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were measured. Results: The DASS 21 properties certify its quality to measure emotional states. The instrument reveals good internal consistency. Factorial analysis shows that the two-factor structure is more adequate. The first factor groups most of the items that theoretically assess anxiety and stress, and the second groups most of the items that assess depression, explaining, on the whole, 58.54% of total variance. The strong positive correlation between the DASS 21 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD confirms the hypothesis regarding the criterion validity, however, revealing fragilities as to the divergence between theoretically different constructs.Objetivo: adaptar a la lengua portuguesa, de Portugal, la Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, versión corta de 21 ítems, (DASS-21, que permite evaluar depresión, ansiedad y estrés. Método: Después de haber sido traducida y retrovertida, con la ayuda de peritos, la DASS-21 fue administrada a enfermos en consulta externa de psiquiatría (N=101, y fue evaluada la consistencia interna, la validez de constructo y la validez concurrente. Resultados: Las propiedades de la DASS-21 atestiguan su calidad para evaluar estados emocionales. El instrumento reveló buena consistencia interna. El análisis factorial muestra que la estructura de dos factores es la más ajustada. El primer factor agrupa la mayoría de los ítems que teóricamente evalúan ansiedad y estrés, y el segundo agrupa la mayoría de los ítems que evalúan depresión, explicando en su conjunto el 58,54% de la variaci
Beaufort, Ilse N; De Weert-Van Oene, Gerdien H; Buwalda, Victor A J; de Leeuw, J Rob J; Goudriaan, Anna E
Depression is a common co-morbid disorder in substance use disorder (SUD) patients. Hence, valid instruments are needed to screen for depression in this subpopulation. In this study, the predictive validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) for the presence of a depressive disorder was investigated in SUD inpatients. Furthermore, differences between DASS-21 scores at intake and those recorded one week after inpatient detoxification were assessed in order to determine the measurement point of the assessment of the DASS-21 leading to the best predictive validity. The DASS-21 was administered to 47 patients at intake and shortly after inpatient detoxification. The results of the DASS-21 were compared to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), which served as the gold standard. Levels of sensitivity and specificity of 78-89% and 71-76% were found for the DASS-21 assessed after detoxification, satisfactorily predicting depression as diagnosed with the MINI. Total DASS-21 scores as well as the DASS subscale for depression were significantly reduced at the second measurement, compared to the DASS at intake. We conclude that the DASS-21 may be a suitable instrument to screen for depressive disorders in SUD patients when administered (shortly) after detoxification. Future research is needed to support this conclusion. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Lovibond, P F; Lovibond, S H
The psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) were evaluated in a normal sample of N = 717 who were also administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The DASS was shown to possess satisfactory psychometric properties, and the factor structure was substantiated both by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In comparison to the BDI and BAI, the DASS scales showed greater separation in factor loadings. The DASS Anxiety scale correlated 0.81 with the BAI, and the DASS Depression scale correlated 0.74 with the BDI. Factor analyses suggested that the BDI differs from the DASS Depression scale primarily in that the BDI includes items such as weight loss, insomnia, somatic preoccupation and irritability, which fail to discriminate between depression and other affective states. The factor structure of the combined BDI and BAI items was virtually identical to that reported by Beck for a sample of diagnosed depressed and anxious patients, supporting the view that these clinical states are more severe expressions of the same states that may be discerned in normals. Implications of the results for the conceptualisation of depression, anxiety and tension/stress are considered, and the utility of the DASS scales in discriminating between these constructs is discussed.
Kok, Tim; de Haan, Hein A; van der Meer, Margreet; Najavits, Lisa M; De Jong, Cor A J
Several instruments have been developed and validated as screens for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in substance use disorder (SUD) patients. Unfortunately, many of these instruments have one or several disadvantages (e.g. low specificity, low sensitivity or high costs). No research has been conducted on instruments that screen simultaneously for other psychiatric disorders, which would be a potentially time-saving and cost-effective approach. In the current study we tested the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) as a screen for PTSD. The DASS was assessed in an inpatient facility during intake with 58 patients and again 4 weeks after admission. Another 138 patients were assessed 4 weeks after admission only. The results were compared to the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) that was also administered after 4 weeks of abstinence. ROC curve analyses showed an area under the curve of 0.84 for the DASS at intake and 0.78 for the DASS after 4 weeks' abstinence. The DASS is therefore a reliable and convenient measure to use as a screen for PTSD in SUD patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Nanthakumar, Shenooka; Bucks, Romola S.; Skinner, Timothy C.
compared the fit of Lovibond and Lovibond's (1995) correlated 3-factor structure of the DASS-21 and measurement invariance between a non-OSA and an OSA sample using confirmatory factor analysis. As measurement invariance was not found, to determine the source of non-invariance differential item functioning...... (DIF) was examined using dMACS. The correlated 3-factor structure (with correlated errors) of the DASS-21 was a better fit in the non-OSA sample. dMACS indicated that there was a degree of DIF for each of the subscales, especially for the Anxiety subscale, in which 2 symptoms (that are also...
Wise, Frances M; Harris, Darren W; Olver, John H
Considerable research has been undertaken in evaluating the DASS-21 in a variety of clinical populations, but studies of the instrument's psychometric adequacy in healthcare professionals is lacking. This study aimed to establish and improve the construct validity and reliability of the DASS-21 in a cohort of Australian health professionals. 343 rehabilitation health professionals completed the DASS-21, along with a demographic questionnaire. Principal components analysis was performed to identify potential factors in the DASS-21. Factors were interpreted against theoretical constructs underlying the instrument. Items loading on separate factors were then subjected to reliability analysis to determine internal consistency of subscales. Items that demonstrated poor fit, or loaded onto more than one factor, were deleted to maximise the reliability of each subscale. Principal components analysis identified three dimensions (depression, anxiety, stress) in a modified version of the DASS-21 (renamed DASS-14), with appropriate construct validity and good reliability (a=0.73 to 0.88). The three dimensions accounted for over 62% of variance between items. The modified DASS-14 scale is a more parsimonious measure of depression, anxiety, and stress, with acceptable reliability and construct validity, in rehabilitation health professionals and is appropriate for use in studies of similar populations.
Henry, Julie D; Crawford, John R
To test the construct validity of the short-form version of the Depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21), and in particular, to assess whether stress as indexed by this measure is synonymous with negative affectivity (NA) or whether it represents a related, but distinct, construct. To provide normative data for the general adult population. Cross-sectional, correlational and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The DASS-21 was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1,794). Competing models of the latent structure of the DASS-21 were evaluated using CFA. The model with optimal fit (RCFI = 0.94) had a quadripartite structure, and consisted of a general factor of psychological distress plus orthogonal specific factors of depression, anxiety, and stress. This model was a significantly better fit than a competing model that tested the possibility that the Stress scale simply measures NA. The DASS-21 subscales can validly be used to measure the dimensions of depression, anxiety, and stress. However, each of these subscales also taps a more general dimension of psychological distress or NA. The utility of the measure is enhanced by the provision of normative data based on a large sample.
Jun, Deokhoon; Johnston, Venerina; Kim, Jun-Mo; O'Leary, Shaun
In this study, we developed a new Korean translation for the shortened version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and examined its psychometric properties in a Korean working population. To develop a new Korean version of the DASS-21 and test its psychometric properties specific to the Korean working population. The DASS-21 was translated to the Korean language in accordance with scientific guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation. A total of 228 general workers from Korea then completed the newly translated version of the DAS S-21 and its psychometric properties were evaluated. Most of the questionnaire items were correctly loaded on the proposed scales of the original questionnaire. Excellent internal consistency and measurement consistency over a one week interval were obtained for all scales (Cronbach's alpha; 0.87, 83, and 83, and ICC (2, 1); 0.84, 0.94, and 0.89 for depression, anxiety and stress scales, respectively). All three scales were negatively associated with the level of life satisfaction (p DASS-21 has shown excellent validity and reliability of measurement in the Korean working population. Organizations investigating the prominent health issue of affective disorders in Korean workers can use this instrument with confidence.
Bener A; Alsulaiman R; Doodson LG; El Ayoubi HR
Background: No study has been conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Hospital Anxiety and Depression [HADS] and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) among the Arab Breast Cancer population. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the reliability and validity of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale (DASS-21), the Beck Depression Inventory-(BDI-II) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) among Breast Cancer women ...
Al-Gelban, Khalid S; Al-Amri, Hasan S; Mostafa, Ossama A
To determine the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among secondary school girls. A cross- sectional study was carried out on secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia, using the Arabic version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42). Of 545 female students recruited in this study, 73.4% had the symptoms of at least one of the three studied disorders; 50.1% had at least two disorders. The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress was 41.5 %, 66.2% and 52.5% respectively. The majority of symptoms were mild to moderate in severity. The scores for depression, anxiety, and stress were positively and significantly correlated. No significant association was found between the girls' sociodemographic characteristics and the scores of the three studied disorders. One of the most important aspects of a primary care physician's care of females is to screen for and treat common mental disorders.
Tran, Thach Duc; Tran, Tuan; Fisher, Jane
Depression and anxiety are recognised increasingly as serious public health problems among women in low- and lower-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to validate the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21) for use in screening for these common mental disorders among rural women with young children in the North of Vietnam. The DASS-21 was translated from English to Vietnamese, culturally verified, back-translated and administered to women who also completed, separately, a psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis 1 diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders. The sample was a community-based representative cohort of adult women with young children living in Ha Nam Province in northern Viet Nam. Cronbach's alpha, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to identify the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales and the overall scale. Complete data were available for 221 women. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of each sub-scale and the overall scale were high, ranging from 0.70 for the Stress subscale to 0.88 for the overall scale, but EFA indicated that the 21 items all loaded on one factor. Scores on each of the three sub-scales, and the combinations of two or three of them were able to detect the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in women with a sensitivity of 79.1% and a specificity of 77.0% at the optimal cut off of >33. However, they did not distinguish between those experiencing only depression or only anxiety. The total score of the 21 items of the DASS21-Vietnamese validation appears to be comprehensible and sensitive to detecting common mental disorders in women with young children in primary health care in rural northern Vietnam and therefore might also be useful to screen for these conditions in other resource-constrained settings.
Wood, Bradley M; Nicholas, Michael K; Blyth, Fiona; Asghari, Ali; Gibson, Stephen
This study examined the assessment of the negative emotional constructs of depression, anxiety and stress with the short version (21 items) of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) in elderly patients (age > 60 years) with persistent pain. A convenience sample of 2,045 patients attending a tertiary referral pain centre were categorized by age and included a group aged 60 years and under (n=1,245) for assessment of age differences. Elderly patients (n=800) were divided into 3 groups: 61-70 years (n=366), 71-80 years (n=308) and 81 years and over (n=126). Patients completed the DASS-21 as part of an initial clinical assessment process. The failure rate for scale completion increased across age groups and was significantly higher in the oldest group compared to the youngest group. All scales demonstrated reasonable convergent and divergent validity. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a three-factor structure and is consistent with previous studies. Age differences in depression, anxiety and stress scores were also assessed. Interestingly, patients aged 60 years and under had significantly higher Depression and Stress scores compared to all other age groups. This group also had significantly higher Anxiety scores compared to patients aged 61-70 years. Overall, the DASS-21 is a reliable and valid measure of depression, anxiety and stress in elderly patients with persistent pain. There are some age differences in the normative values for the reporting of mood symptoms and these need to be taken into account when assessing pain-related mood disturbance in older populations. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tran Thach Duc
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are recognised increasingly as serious public health problems among women in low- and lower-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to validate the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21 for use in screening for these common mental disorders among rural women with young children in the North of Vietnam. Methods The DASS-21 was translated from English to Vietnamese, culturally verified, back-translated and administered to women who also completed, separately, a psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis 1 diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders. The sample was a community-based representative cohort of adult women with young children living in Ha Nam Province in northern Viet Nam. Cronbach’s alpha, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analyses were performed to identify the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales and the overall scale. Results Complete data were available for 221 women. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of each sub-scale and the overall scale were high, ranging from 0.70 for the Stress subscale to 0.88 for the overall scale, but EFA indicated that the 21 items all loaded on one factor. Scores on each of the three sub-scales, and the combinations of two or three of them were able to detect the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in women with a sensitivity of 79.1% and a specificity of 77.0% at the optimal cut off of >33. However, they did not distinguish between those experiencing only depression or only anxiety. Conclusions The total score of the 21 items of the DASS21-Vietnamese validation appears to be comprehensible and sensitive to detecting common mental disorders in women with young children in primary health care in rural northern Vietnam and therefore might also be useful to screen for these conditions in other resource
Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)
Covic Tanya; Cumming Steven R; Pallant Julie F; Manolios Nick; Emery Paul; Conaghan Philip G; Tennant Alan
Abstract Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific ca...
Rusli, B N; Amrina, K; Trived, S; Loh, K P; Shashi, M
The 21-item English version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) has been proposed as a method for assessing self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress over the past week in various clinical and nonclinical populations. Several Malay versions of the DASS-21 have been validated in various populations with varying success. One particular Malay version has been validated in various occupational groups (such as nurses and automotive workers) but not among male clinic outpatient attendees in Malaysia. To validate the Malay version of the DASS-21 (Malay-DASS-21) among male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor. A validation study with a random sample of 402 male respondents attending the outpatient clinic of a major public outpatient clinic in Johor Bahru and Segamat was carried out from January to March 2016. Construct validity of the Malay-DASS-21 was examined using Exploratory Factor Analysis (KMO = 0.947; Bartlett's test of sphericity is significant, pDASS- 21 and the internal consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity of the Malay-DASS-21 based on eigenvalues and factor loadings to confirm the three factor structure (depression, anxiety, and stress) was acceptable. The internal consistency reliability of the factor construct was very impressive with Cronbach's alpha values in the range of 0.837 to 0.863. The present study showed that the Malay- DASS-21 has acceptable psychometric construct and high internal consistency reliability to measure self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress over the past week in male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor. Further studies are necessary to revalidate the Malay-DASS-21 across different populations and cultures, and using confirmatory factor analyses.
Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Siefert, Caleb J; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle M; Stein, Michelle B; Renna, Megan; Blais, Mark A
Health care professionals are coming under increased pressure to empirically monitor patient outcomes across settings as a means of improving clinical practice. Within the psychiatric and primary care communities, many have begun utilizing brief psychometric measures of psychological functioning to accomplish these goals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21-item version (DASS-21), and contribute normative data to facilitate interpretation using a sample of U.S. adults (N = 503). Item-scale convergence was generally supported, although assumptions of item-scale divergence were not met. Only 86%, 50%, and 43% of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress items, respectively, correlated significantly greater with their hypothesized scales than other scales. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable for all scales and comparable to existing research (αs = .91, .80, and .84 for Depression, Anxiety, and Stress, respectively). Scale-level correlations were greater than what has been reported elsewhere (range of rs = .68 to .73), and principal components analysis supported the extraction of only one component accounting for 47% of the item-level variance. However, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) favored a three-factor structure when compared to a one-factor model. The implications for the health care professions are discussed.
Relationship between levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, age, and gender, with symptoms of depression among patients with thyroid disorders as measured by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21).
Saidi, Sanisah; Iliani Jaafar, Siti Nur; Daud, Azlina; Musa, Ramli; Nik Ahmad, Nik Noor Fatnoon
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between levels of depression symptoms and age, thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, and stressful life events of the participants. Patients above 18 years old, with any thyroid disorders, and without psychiatric disorders were included in this study. All participants completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21). The depression symptom score was calculated and interpreted as follows: less than 9: no depression; between 10 and 13: mild depression; between 14 and 20: moderate depression; between 21 and 27: severe depression, and more than 28: extremely severe depression. The total number of participants in this study was 199. There was no correlation between age, thyroid stimulating hormone, and the DASS score. There was also no significant difference in the DASS-21 score between genders. However, there was a positive correlation between depression symptoms and stressful life events (r=0.201, n=199, p < 0.05). These findings would suggest that increased depression symptom scores correlate with increased stressful life events. A larger study should be undertaken to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)
Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Methods Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. Results A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. Conclusions This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use. PMID:22269280
Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).
Covic, Tanya; Cumming, Steven R; Pallant, Julie F; Manolios, Nick; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G; Tennant, Alan
While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use.
Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS
Full Text Available Abstract Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA, recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Methods Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. Results A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. Conclusions This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use.
Beurs, E. de; Dyck, R. van; Marquenie, L.A.; Lange, A.; Blonk, R.W.B.
Dit artikel behandelt de psychometrische eigenschappen van de Nederlandse versie van de Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). Een van de doelstellingen voor het nieuwe instrument was te komen tot een vragenlijst met subschalen met een maximaal onderscheidend vermogen voor angst en depressie. De
Kok, T.; Haan, H.A. de; Meer, M. van der; Najavits, L.M.; Jong, C.A.J. de
Background: Several instruments have been developed and validated as screens for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in substance use disorder (SUD) patients. Unfortunately, many of these instruments have one or several disadvantages (e.g. low specificity, low sensitivity or high costs). No
Sardá, Jamir; Nicholas, Michael K; Pimenta, Cibele A M; Asghari, Ali
Depression is a common contributor to suffering and disability in people with chronic pain. However, the assessment of depression in this population has been hampered by the presence of a number of somatic symptoms that are shared between chronic pain, treatment side-effects and traditional concepts of depression. As a result, the use of depression measures that do not contain somatic items has been encouraged. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Depression sub-scale of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) in a Brazilian chronic pain patient population. Data on a number of measures were collected from 348 participants attending pain facilities. Principal components and exploratory factor analyses indicated the presence of only one factor. Item analyses indicated adequate item-scale correlations. The Cronbach alpha was .96, which suggests an excellent internal consistency. The DASS-Depression scale has adequate psychometric properties and its further use with Brazilian chronic pain populations can now be supported.
Crawford, John R; Garthwaite, Paul H; Lawrie, Caroline J; Henry, Julie D; MacDonald, Marie A; Sutherland, Jane; Sinha, Priyanka
A series of recent papers have reported normative data from the general adult population for commonly used self-report mood scales. To bring together and supplement these data in order to provide a convenient means of obtaining percentile norms for the mood scales. A computer program was developed that provides point and interval estimates of the percentile rank corresponding to raw scores on the various self-report scales. The program can be used to obtain point and interval estimates of the percentile rank of an individual's raw scores on the DASS, DASS-21, HADS, PANAS, and sAD mood scales, based on normative sample sizes ranging from 758 to 3822. The interval estimates can be obtained using either classical or Bayesian methods as preferred. The computer program (which can be downloaded at www.abdn.ac.uk/~psy086/dept/MoodScore.htm) provides a convenient and reliable means of supplementing existing cut-off scores for self-report mood scales.
Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a critical period in life, which is associated with tumultuous transitions and “storm and stress. The present study aimed to evaluate the correlation between depression, anxiety, and stress with the high-risk behaviors among the adolescents in Torghabeh and Shandiz towns, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 adolescents from the high schools. Participants were selected via two-stage sampling. Data were collected using the validated Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21 and history of high-risk behaviors in the students. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16. Results:Variable degrees of depression, anxiety, and stress were reported in 43.3%, 43.3%, and 38.9% of the students, respectively. Although the difference was not statistically significant, female students were more affected by the mentioned disorders compared to the male students. Among the high-risk behaviors, smoking cigarettes was significantly correlated with the depression, anxiety, and stress subscales. In addition, a significant association was observed between opium consumption and stress. However, no significant correlation was observed between smoking hookah and the DASS-21 subscales. Regular alcohol consumption was found to be significantly correlated with the higher rate of depression in the studied adolescents. Also, premarital sexual behaviors had a significant association with the stress and depression subscales. Conclusion: Lack of attention to depression, anxiety, and stress and their risk factors in adolescents may lead to variable degrees of life dissatisfaction in the community. Therefore, it is recommended that on-school mental screening programs be performed for high-school students in order prevent these complications.
McMullen, Michelle; Lau, Peter K H; Taylor, Scott; McTigue, Joseph; Cook, Angus; Bamblett, Marion; Hasani, Arman; Johnson, Claire E
This study sought to identify clinical, demographic and service-related factors associated with psychological distress amongst outpatient chemotherapy patients. Distress in cancer patients leads to increased risk of psychological comorbidity, contributing to sub-optimal treatment adherence and potentially leading to poorer health outcomes. Screening and recognition of distress and risk factors is an important aspect of holistic care within a multidisciplinary team environment. Data were obtained via survey and chart review of ambulatory chemotherapy patients at three public tertiary referral hospitals in Perth, Western Australia. The DASS-21 was used to screen for psychological distress. Regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between distress and a range of cancer, socioeconomic and treatment factors. Patients with a Karnofsky Performance Score≤80 (OR 3.8, 95% CI [1.7, 78.7]) and average waiting time (between oncology outpatient appointment and commencement of chemotherapy infusion) >60min (OR 2.4, 95% CI [1.04, 5.5]) were at increased risk of moderate-severe distress. Patients with a household income between $AU 50-75,000 p.a. had a lower risk of distress compared to 25,000 p.a. (OR 0.05, 95% CI [0.01, 0.52]). On sub-scale analysis, depression and anxiety contributed more to overall distress than the stress subscales. Performance status, waiting times and household income were key predictors of distress. Findings could assist clinicians to identify higher-risk population subsets that could benefit from targeted screening and additional psychological and social work support. Findings could also assist administrators to consider the contribution of modifiable factors such as waiting times to patient distress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fox, Rina S; Lillis, Teresa A; Gerhart, James; Hoerger, Michael; Duberstein, Paul
The DASS-21 is a public domain instrument that is commonly used to evaluate depression and anxiety in psychiatric and community populations; however, the factor structure of the measure has not previously been examined in oncologic settings. Given that the psychometric properties of measures of distress may be compromised in the context of symptoms related to cancer and its treatment, the present study evaluated the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scales in cancer patients ( n = 376) as compared to noncancer control participants ( n = 207). Cancer patients ranged in age from 21 to 84 years (mean = 58.3, standard deviation = 10.4) and noncancer control participants ranged in age from 18 to 81 years (mean = 45.0, standard deviation = 11.7). Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis supported the structural invariance of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scales across groups; the factor variance/covariance invariance model was the best fit to the data. Cronbach's coefficient alpha values demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability across the total sample as well as within subgroups of cancer patients and noncancer control participants. Expected relationships of DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scale scores to measures of suicidal ideation, quality of life, self-rated health, and depressed mood supported construct validity. These results support the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scales when measuring psychological distress in cancer patients.
Alfonsson, S; Wallin, E; Maathz, P
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is a widely used measurement for psychological symptoms and distress. Some previous studies have shown that the DASS-21 can accurately measure symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress, while other studies have indicated that the DASS-21 mainly measures overall distress. The factor structure of the DASS-21 is important and debated since if affects interpretations of findings. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: In this study, the DASS-21 was translated into Swedish and evaluated in three diverse samples. The DASS-21 subscales of Depression and Anxiety correlated significantly with corresponding criteria instruments. The DASS-21 Stress subscale showed more diverse associations with psychological distress. The analyses supported a bifactor model of the DASS-21 with three specific factors of depression, anxiety and stress as well as a general distress factor. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The results show that the DASS-21 may be used to measure unique symptoms of depression, anxiety and, with some caveat, stress as well as overall psychological distress. This study confirms that the DASS-21 is theoretically sound instrument that is feasible for both research and clinical practice. The DASS-21 can be an accessible tool for screening and evaluation in first-line mental health services. Introduction There is a constant need for theoretically sound and valid self-report instruments for measuring psychological distress. Previous studies have shown that the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is theoretically sound, but there have been some inconsistent results regarding its factor structure. Aims The aim of the present study was to investigate and elucidate the factor structure and convergent validity of the DASS-21. Methods A total of 624 participants recruited from student, primary care and psychotherapy populations. The factor structure of the DASS
Gloster, Andrew T.; Rhoades, Howard M.; Novy, Diane; Klotsche, Jens; Senior, Ashley; Kunik, Mark; Wilson, Nancy; Stanley, Melinda A.
The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) was designed to efficiently measure the core symptoms of anxiety and depression and has demonstrated positive psychometric properties in adult samples of anxiety and depression patients and student samples. Despite these findings, the psychometric properties of the DASS remain untested in older adults, for whom the identification of efficient measures of these constructs is especially important.
Dahm, Jane; Wong, Dana; Ponsford, Jennie
Anxiety and depression following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are associated with poorer outcomes. A brief self-report questionnaire would assist in identifying those at risk, however validity of such measures is complicated by confounding symptoms of the injury. This study investigated the validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in screening for clinical diagnoses of anxiety and mood disorders following TBI. One hundred and twenty-three participants with mild to severe TBI were interviewed using the SCID (Axis I) and completed the DASS and HADS. The DASS, DASS21 and HADS scales demonstrated validity compared with SCID diagnoses of anxiety and mood disorders as measured by Area Under ROC Curve, sensitivity and specificity. Validity of the DASS depression scale benefited from items reflecting symptoms of devaluation of life, self-deprecation, and hopelessness that are not present on the HADS. Validity of the HADS anxiety scale benefited from items reflecting symptoms of tension and worry that are measured separately for the DASS on the stress scale. Participants were predominantly drawn from a rehabilitation centre which may limit the extent to which results can be generalized. Scores for the DASS21 were derived from the DASS rather than being administered separately. The DASS, DASS21 and HADS demonstrated validity as screening measures of anxiety and mood disorders in this TBI sample. The findings support use of these self-report questionnaires for individuals with TBI to identify those who should be referred for clinical diagnostic follow-up. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ali, Amira Mohammed; Ahmed, Anwar; Sharaf, Amira; Kawakami, Norito; Abdeldayem, Samia M; Green, Joseph
This study aimed to examine the validity of the Arabic version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) in 149 illicit drug users. We calculated α coefficient, inter-item and item-total correlations, coefficients of reproducibility and scalability (CR and CS), item difficulty and discrimination indices. The DASS-21 had an acceptable reliability; but values of the CR and the CS were less than acceptable. Items varied in difficulty and discrimination; some items are candidates for elimination. The DASS-21 is a probabilistic and not a deterministic measure of distress; it has problematic items and needs further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In Order to find how rating the WHOQOL-BREF and DASS scales are combined to produce an overall measure of quality of life and satisfaction with health rating, a QOL-DASS model was designed; and the strength of this hypothesized model was examined using the structural equation modeling. Participants included a sample of 103 voluntary males who were divided into two groups of unhealthy (N=55) and healthy (N=48). To assess satisfaction and negative emotions of depression, anxiety and stress among the participants, they were asked to fill out the WHOQOL-BREF and The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-42). Our findings on running the hypothesized model of QOL-DASS indicated that the proposed model of QOL-DASS fitted the data well for the both healthy and unhealthy groups. Our findings with CFA to evaluate the hypothesized model of QOL-DASS indicated that the different satisfaction domain ratings and the negative emotions of depression, anxiety and stress as the observed variables can represent the underlying constructs of general health and quality of life on both healthy and unhealthy groups.
Full Text Available "n Objective: In order to find how rating the WHOQOL-BREF and DASS scales are combined to produce an overall measure of quality of life and satisfaction with health rating, a QOL-DASS model was designed ; and the strength of this hypothesized model was examined using the structural equation modeling "n "nMethod: Participants included a sample of 103 voluntary males who were divided into two groups of unhealthy (N=55 and healthy (N=48. To assess satisfaction and negative emotions of depression, anxiety and stress among the participants, they were asked to fill out the WHOQOLBREF and The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-42. "nResults: Our findings on running the hypothesized model of QOL-DASS indicated that the proposed model of QOL-DASS fitted the data well for the both healthy and unhealthy groups "nConclusion: Our findings with CFA to evaluate the hypothesized model of QOL-DASS indicated that the different satisfaction domain ratings and the negative emotions of depression, anxiety and stress as the observed variables can represent the underlying constructs of general health and quality of life on both healthy and unhealthy groups.
Ownsworth, Tamara; Little, Trudi; Turner, Ben; Hawkes, Anna; Shum, David
To investigate the clinical potential of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS 42) and its shorter version (DASS 21) for assessing emotional status following acquired brain injury. Participants included 23 individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), 25 individuals with brain tumour and 29 non-clinical controls. Investigations of internal consistency, test-re-test reliability, theory-consistent differences, sensitivity to change and concurrent validity were conducted. Internal consistency of the DASS was generally acceptable (r > 0.70), with the exception of the anxiety scale for the TBI sample. Test-re-test reliability (1-3 weeks) was sound for the depression scale (r > 0.75) and significant but comparatively lower for other scales (r = 0.60-0.73, p scale (p DASS in the context of hospital discharge was demonstrated for depression and stress (p 0.05). Concurrent validity with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was significant for all scales of the DASS (p DASS following ABI, further research examining the factor structure of existing and modified versions of the DASS is recommended.
Full Text Available Objective: To translate the Perceived Stress Scale (versions PSS-4, -10 and -14 and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of general Greek population. Methods: 941 individuals completed anonymously questionnaires comprising of PSS, the Depression Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS-21 version, and a list of stress-related symptoms. Psychometric properties of PSS were investigated by confirmatory factor analysis (construct validity, Cronbach’s alpha (reliability, and by investigating relations with the DASS-21 scores and the number of symptoms, across individuals’ characteristics. The two-factor structure of PSS-10 and PSS-14 was confirmed in our analysis. We found satisfactory Cronbach’s alpha values (0.82 for the full scale for PSS-14 and PSS-10 and marginal satisfactory values for PSS-4 (0.69. PSS score exhibited high correlation coefficients with DASS-21 subscales scores, meaning stress (r = 0.64, depression (r = 0.61, and anxiety (r = 0.54. Women reported significantly more stress compared to men and divorced or widows compared to married or singled only. A strong significant (p < 0.001 positive correlation between the stress score and the number of self-reported symptoms was also noted. Conclusions: The Greek versions of the PSS-14 and PSS-10 exhibited satisfactory psychometric properties and their use for research and health care practice is warranted.
Andreou, Eleni; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Lionis, Christos; Varvogli, Liza; Gnardellis, Charalambos; Chrousos, George P; Darviri, Christina
To translate the Perceived Stress Scale (versions PSS-4, -10 and -14) and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of general Greek population. 941 individuals completed anonymously questionnaires comprising of PSS, the Depression Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS-21 version), and a list of stress-related symptoms. Psychometric properties of PSS were investigated by confirmatory factor analysis (construct validity), Cronbach's alpha (reliability), and by investigating relations with the DASS-21 scores and the number of symptoms, across individuals' characteristics. The two-factor structure of PSS-10 and PSS-14 was confirmed in our analysis. We found satisfactory Cronbach's alpha values (0.82 for the full scale) for PSS-14 and PSS-10 and marginal satisfactory values for PSS-4 (0.69). PSS score exhibited high correlation coefficients with DASS-21 subscales scores, meaning stress (r = 0.64), depression (r = 0.61), and anxiety (r = 0.54). Women reported significantly more stress compared to men and divorced or widows compared to married or singled only. A strong significant (p < 0.001) positive correlation between the stress score and the number of self-reported symptoms was also noted. The Greek versions of the PSS-14 and PSS-10 exhibited satisfactory psychometric properties and their use for research and health care practice is warranted.
Le, Minh Thi Hong; Tran, Thach Duc; Holton, Sara; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Wolfe, Rory; Fisher, Jane
To assess the internal consistency, latent structure and convergent validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) among adolescents in Vietnam. An anonymous, self-completed questionnaire was conducted among 1,745 high school students in Hanoi, Vietnam between October, 2013 and January, 2014. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed to assess the latent structure of the DASS-21. Factorial invariance between girls and boys was examined. Cronbach alphas and correlation coefficients between DASS-21 factor scores and the domain scores of the Duke Health Profile Adolescent Vietnamese validated version (ADHP-V) were calculated to assess DASS-21 internal consistency and convergent validity. A total of 1,606/ 1,745 (92.6%) students returned the questionnaire. Of those, 1,387 students provided complete DASS-21 data. The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach α: 0.761 to 0.906). A four-factor model showed the best fit to the data. Items loaded significantly on a common general distress factor, the depression, and the anxiety factors, but few on the stress factor (pDASS-21 convergent validity was confirmed with moderate correlation coefficients (-0.47 to -0.66) between its factor scores and the ADHP-V mental health related domains. The DASS-21 is reliable and suitable for use to assess symptoms of common mental health problems, especially depression and anxiety among Vietnamese adolescents. However, its ability in detecting stress among these adolescents may be limited. Further research is warrant to explore these results.
Minh Thi Hong Le
Full Text Available To assess the internal consistency, latent structure and convergent validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21 among adolescents in Vietnam.An anonymous, self-completed questionnaire was conducted among 1,745 high school students in Hanoi, Vietnam between October, 2013 and January, 2014. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed to assess the latent structure of the DASS-21. Factorial invariance between girls and boys was examined. Cronbach alphas and correlation coefficients between DASS-21 factor scores and the domain scores of the Duke Health Profile Adolescent Vietnamese validated version (ADHP-V were calculated to assess DASS-21 internal consistency and convergent validity.A total of 1,606/ 1,745 (92.6% students returned the questionnaire. Of those, 1,387 students provided complete DASS-21 data. The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach α: 0.761 to 0.906. A four-factor model showed the best fit to the data. Items loaded significantly on a common general distress factor, the depression, and the anxiety factors, but few on the stress factor (p<0.05. DASS-21 convergent validity was confirmed with moderate correlation coefficients (-0.47 to -0.66 between its factor scores and the ADHP-V mental health related domains.The DASS-21 is reliable and suitable for use to assess symptoms of common mental health problems, especially depression and anxiety among Vietnamese adolescents. However, its ability in detecting stress among these adolescents may be limited. Further research is warrant to explore these results.
Bottesi, Gioia; Ghisi, Marta; Altoè, Gianmarco; Conforti, Erica; Melli, Gabriele; Sica, Claudio
The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) is the short version of a self-report measure that was originally developed to provide maximum differentiation between depressive and anxious symptoms. Despite encouraging evidence, the factor structure and other features of the DASS-21 are yet to be firmly established. A community sample of 417 participants and two clinical groups (32 depressive patients and 25 anxious patients) completed the Italian version of the DASS-21 along with several measures of psychopathology. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested that the DASS-21 is a measure of general distress plus three additional orthogonal dimensions (anxiety, depression, and stress). The internal consistency and temporal stability of the measure were good; each DASS-21 scale correlated more strongly with a measure of a similar construct, demonstrating good convergent and divergent validity. Lastly, the DASS-21 demonstrated good criterion-oriented validity. The validity of the Italian DASS-21 and its utility, both for community and clinical individuals, are supported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ronk, Fiona R; Korman, James R; Hooke, Geoffrey R; Page, Andrew C
Standard clinical significance classifications are based on movement between the "dysfunctional" and "functional" distributions; however, this dichotomy ignores heterogeneity within the "dysfunctional" population. Based on the methodology described by Tingey, Lambert, Burlingame, and Hansen (1996), the present study sought to present a 3-distribution clinical significance model for the 21-item version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; P. F. Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) using data from a normative sample (n = 2,914), an outpatient sample (n = 1,000), and an inpatient sample (n = 3,964). DASS-21 scores were collected at pre- and post-treatment for both clinical samples, and patients were classified into 1 of 5 categories based on whether they had made a reliable change and whether they had moved into a different functional range. Evidence supported the validity of the 3-distribution model for the DASS-21, since inpatients who were classified as making a clinically significant change showed lower symptom severity, higher perceived quality of life, and higher clinician-rated functioning than those who did not make a clinically significant change. Importantly, results suggest that the new category of recovering is an intermediate point between recovered and making no clinically significant change. Inpatients and outpatients have different treatment goals and therefore use of the concept of clinical significance needs to acknowledge differences in what constitutes a meaningful change. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Sukantarat, K T; Williamson, R C N; Brett, S J
Recovery from a critical illness can be delayed by persistent anxiety and depression. To identify such patients, a new self-report questionnaire (the Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale, DASS) was used alongside an established instrument (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, HADS) in those who had spent a minimum of 3 days (median 9 days) in a general intensive care unit. Fifty-one patients were studied 3 months later, and 45 survivors were reviewed at 9 months. High Cronbach alpha values (0.92-0.95) for each subscale of DASS confirmed its internal consistency, and likewise for HADS (0.82-0.86). HADS and DASS correlated strongly at each time point both for anxiety (r = 0.88) and depression (r = 0.93), with few discrepant values on a Bland and Altman plot. DASS performs as consistently as HADS in screening for anxiety and depression, and its psychometric properties support its use in an intensive care setting.
Shaw, T; Campbell, M A; Runions, K C; Zubrick, S R
Although developed for adults, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-Short Version (DASS-21) has been used in many research studies with adolescent samples. Evidence as to the applicability of the DASS subscale scores to represent the distinct states of depression, anxiety, and stress as experienced by adolescents is mixed, and the age at which it may be possible to differentiate these 3 states using the DASS-21 has not yet been determined. This study evaluated evidence for a multifactor structure in the DASS-21 in adolescents and the specificity of the 3 subscales for adolescents in general and at different ages. Data were from a large cross-sectional survey of 2,873 school students in Grades 6-12 (aged 12-18 years) in Australia. We conducted confirmatory bifactor analyses testing a general mental health distress factor and 3 domain-specific factors for anxiety, depression, and stress for the whole sample and across gender by age groups. The internal consistency reliability of the DASS total and subscale scores was determined using omega coefficients. Analyses identified that most of the variation in the items was explained by the dominance of a single, general factor and the subscales lacked specificity across all age groups. The DASS-21 can be reliably used to measure general distress in adolescents, but the subscales fail to discriminate between the 3 states. Our results indicate that this lack of discrimination does not reduce with increasing age. These findings caution against the use of adult theoretical models and measures within adolescent populations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Johnson, Andrew R; Lawrence, Blake J; Corti, Emily J; Booth, Leon; Gasson, N; Thomas, Meghan G; Loftus, A M; Bucks, Romola S
The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale -21 (DASS-21) is a frequently used measure of emotional disturbance symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the factor structure of the DASS-21 in PD has yet to be explored. To assess whether the scale is measuring these symptoms in PD in the same way as the general population. The present study fit a series of established DASS-21 factor structures with both confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) using data from 251 participants with PD. The 3-factor ESEM provided the best fit. The depression and stress scales fit well, however, few items on the anxiety subscale loaded clearly, with several items significantly loading onto the depression or stress factors. Whilst the depression and stress subscales appear suitable in PD, poor loadings and internal consistency indicate the anxiety subscale may not accurately assess anxiety symptomology in PD. This may be due to the scale's reliance on physiological symptoms as indicators of anxiety, when many of these are present in PD. Thus, the anxiety subscale of the DASS-21 may not be a suitable measure of anxiety in PD.
Moore, Stephanie A.; Dowdy, Erin; Furlong, Michael J.
As part of universal screening efforts in schools, validated measures that identify internalizing distress are needed. One promising available measure, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21), has yet to be thoroughly investigated with adolescents in the United States. This study investigated the underlying factor structure of the…
Wang, Kui; Shi, Hai-Song; Geng, Fu-Lei; Zou, Lai-Quan; Tan, Shu-Ping; Wang, Yi; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K
The gap between the demand and delivery of mental health services in mainland China can be reduced by validating freely available and psychometrically sound psychological instruments. The present research examined the Chinese version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Study 1 administered the DASS-21 to 1,815 Chinese college students and found internal consistency indices (Cronbach's alpha) of .83, .80, and .82 for the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales, respectively, and .92 for the total DASS total. Test-retest reliability over a 6-month interval was .39 to .46 for each of the 3 subscales and .46 for the total DASS. Moderate convergent validity of the Depression and Anxiety subscales was demonstrated via significant correlations with the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory (r = .51 at Time 1 and r = .64 at Time 2) and the Chinese State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = .41), respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the original 3-factor model with 1 minor change (nonnormed fit index [NNFI] = .964, comparative fit index [CFI] = .968, and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .079). Study 2 examined the clinical utility of the Chinese DASS-21 in 166 patients with schizophrenia and 90 matched healthy controls. Patients had higher Depression and Anxiety but not Stress subscale scores than healthy controls. A discriminant function composed of the linear combination of 3 subscale scores correctly discriminated 69.92% of participants, which again supported the potential clinical utility of the DASS in mainland China. Taken together, findings in these studies support the cross-cultural validity of the DASS-21 in China. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Ayoub Ghanbary Sartang
Full Text Available Shift work has been recognized as an important tool for organizing of work in developing countries. The disturbed depression, stress accident are the most common health‐related effects of shift work. The military personnel shift worker during work, are exposed to stress and psychological pressure that certainly affect the efficiency of their work. The aim of this study was to Investigation Effect of shift work on job burnout and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale in military personnel. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 100 military personnel male in Southern Iran. Respondents were divided into two groups based on their working schedule (50 shift work personnel / 50 day work personnel. Data collection tools were a Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21, demographic characteristics and Maslach job burnout questionnaire. Convenience sampling was used as sampling method. Finally, Data analysis was performed with SPSS (version 20, descriptive statistics, One Way Anova test, ANCOVA and t-independent test. The results of showed that shift work has an impact on burnout and DASS-21 and mean obtained score for DASS-21 and job burnout in shift workers are more day work individuals. Analysis of variance test showed significant difference between job burnout in day workers and shift workers and job burnout were more in shift workers. Also significant difference between DASS-21 in day workers and shift workers and DASS-21 was more in shift workers. This study showed that shift work has an impact on burnout and scale DASS-21 shall is taken to Intervention actions in shift works.
Gloster, Andrew T; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane; Klotsche, Jens; Senior, Ashley; Kunik, Mark; Wilson, Nancy; Stanley, Melinda A
The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) was designed to efficiently measure the core symptoms of anxiety and depression and has demonstrated positive psychometric properties in adult samples of anxiety and depression patients and student samples. Despite these findings, the psychometric properties of the DASS remain untested in older adults, for whom the identification of efficient measures of these constructs is especially important. To determine the psychometric properties of the DASS 21-item version in older adults, we analyzed data from 222 medical patients seeking treatment to manage worry. Consistent with younger samples, a three-factor structure best fit the data. Results also indicated good internal consistency, excellent convergent validity, and good discriminative validity, especially for the Depression scale. Receiver operating curve analyses indicated that the DASS-21 predicted the diagnostic presence of generalized anxiety disorder and depression as well as other commonly used measures. These data suggest that the DASS may be used with older adults in lieu of multiple scales designed to measure similar constructs, thereby reducing participant burden and facilitating assessment in settings with limited assessment resources.
Osman, Zubaidah Jamil; Mukhtar, Firdaus; Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Abdul Latiff, Latiffah; Mohd Sidik, Sherina; Awang, Hamidin; Ibrahim, Normala; Abdul Rahman, Hejar; Ismail, Siti Irma Fadhilah; Ibrahim, Faisal; Tajik, Esra; Othman, Norlijah
The 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) is frequently used in non-clinical research to measure mental health factors among adults. However, previous studies have concluded that the 21 items are not stable for utilization among the adolescent population. Thus, the aims of this study are to examine the structure of the factors and to report on the reliability of the refined version of the DASS that consists of 12 items. A total of 2850 students (aged 13 to 17 years old) from three major ethnic in Malaysia completed the DASS-21. The study was conducted at 10 randomly selected secondary schools in the northern state of Peninsular Malaysia. The study population comprised secondary school students (Forms 1, 2 and 4) from the selected schools. Based on the results of the EFA stage, 12 items were included in a final CFA to test the fit of the model. Using maximum likelihood procedures to estimate the model, the selected fit indices indicated a close model fit (χ(2)=132.94, df=57, p=.000; CFI=.96; RMR=.02; RMSEA=.04). Moreover, significant loadings of all the unstandardized regression weights implied an acceptable convergent validity. Besides the convergent validity of the item, a discriminant validity of the subscales was also evident from the moderate latent factor inter-correlations, which ranged from .62 to .75. The subscale reliability was further estimated using Cronbach's alpha and the adequate reliability of the subscales was obtained (Total=76; Depression=.68; Anxiety=.53; Stress=.52). The new version of the 12-item DASS for adolescents in Malaysia (DASS-12) is reliable and has a stable factor structure, and thus it is a useful instrument for distinguishing between depression, anxiety and stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mohamed, Ahmed S; Peden, Eric K
In this article, we will review the clinical symptoms of dialysis access steal syndrome (DASS), evaluation, treatment options, and our approach and treatment algorithm. We reviewed the literature discussing different aspects of DASS including its epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, evaluation and management options. DASS is the most dreaded complication of access surgery. Although the incidence is low, all providers caring for dialysis patients should be aware of this problem. Symptoms can range from mild to limb threatening. Although various tests are available, the diagnosis of DASS remains a clinical one and requires thoughtful management to have the best outcomes. Multiple treatment options exist for steal. We present diagnostic evaluation and management algorithm.
Hairul Anuar Hashim; Freddy Golok; Rosmatunisah Ali
Background: Psychometrically sound measurement instrument is a fundamental requirement across broad range of research areas. In negative affect research, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) has been identified as a psychometrically sound instrument to measure depression, anxiety and stress, especially the 21-item version. However, its psychometric properties in adolescents have been less consistent. Objectives: Thus, the present study sought to examine the factorial validity and internal c...
Maroufizadeh, Saman; Zareiyan, Armin; Sigari, Naseh
Asthma is a major public health problem in the world, and recent findings suggest that stress influences asthma and asthma morbidity. The 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) is one of the most frequently used instruments to measure psychological stress. This study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian versions of the PSS-10 in adults with asthma. In this descriptive cross-sectional study as a methodological research, 106 asthmatic patients referring to several clinics in Sanandaj (western Iran) were selected through convenience sampling. The PSS-10 and the 21-item Depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21) were administrated to all patients. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate reliability of PSS-10, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and convergent validity were used to evaluate its validity. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor structure of PSS-10 provided a good fit to data. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for negative factor, positive factor and total score (PSS-10) were 0.86, 0.83, and 0.90, respectively. The PSS-10 was positively correlated with the DASS-21 and its subscales, indicating an acceptable convergent validity. Female asthmatic patients scored higher on PSS-10 in comparison with male asthmatic patients. The Persian version of PSS-10 is a valid and reliable instrument to measure perceived stress in adults with asthma.
Chan, Raymond C K; Xu, Ting; Huang, Jia; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Qing; Shum, David H K; O'Gorman, John; Potangaroa, Regan
The Depression Anxiety Stress scale (DASS) is a widely used instrument for assessing mental health status, but the construct validity of the Chinese version of the test has not been demonstrated. The current study recruited three independent samples of Chinese participants to examine its reliability, factor structure, and utility in differentiating groups expected to show high and low scores on the scales. The first sample comprised 605 undergraduate student volunteers from Beijing, the second sample comprised 138 residents from the Sichuan Province who had experienced the 2008 earthquake there, and the third sample comprised 86 Beijing residents. Cronbach's alpha values in excess of 0.80 were found for all samples and all scales. Confirmatory factor analysis with the student sample supported a three-factor latent structure for the DASS (depression, anxiety, and stress). Substantially higher scores on all scales were found for the Sichuan earthquake sample compared with the Beijing resident's sample. Implications of these findings for the assessment of mental status using the DASS in China are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Su, Xiaoyou; Lau, Joseph T F; Mak, Winnie W S; Chen, Lin; Feng, Tiejian; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chuliang; Liu, Jun; Liu, De; Cheng, Jinquan
Stress among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is associated with psychological morbidity. There are only a few stress scales specially developed for PLWHA and none of them is in Chinese. This study develops and validates a new Chinese Perceived Stress Scale among PLWHA (PSSHIV) in Shenzhen of Guangdong Province and Hengyang of Hunan Province in China during September 2006 through July 2007. In-depth interviews were administered to 58 PLWHA (33 males, mean age, 32) to generate the items, while 215 other PLWHA were interviewed in another survey to validate the instrument (136 males, mean age, 33). Exploratory factor analysis yielded 8 factors (percent variance explained, 71.47%), namely: social/psychological problems, sexual relationship, functional problems, social acceptance/rejection issues, work-related issues, family/offspring issues, accessibility to treatment, and treatment outcomes. The Cronbach alpha values ranged from 0.76 to 0.94 for the overall scale and the 8 subscales. The scores of the overall scale, the social/psychological problems, and functional problems subscales of the PSSHIV were significantly correlated with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), and all domains of the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV) (correlation coefficient = 0.50 to 0.71 for positive correlations, and -0.73 to -0.21 for negative correlations, p DASS, and MOS-HIV (correlation coefficient = 0.16 to 0.39 for positive correlation, -0.58 to -0.15 for negative correlation, p < 0.05). This new instrument collected information from the PLWHA from qualitative interviews and the items are specific to the HIV/AIDS context. PSSHIV can be used for assessing the level of stress faced by PLWHA in China.
Objective In Order to find how rating the WHOQOL-BREF and DASS scales are combined to produce an overall measure of quality of life and satisfaction with health rating, a QOL-DASS model was designed; and the strength of this hypothesized model was examined using the structural equation modeling. Method Participants included a sample of 103 voluntary males who were divided into two groups of unhealthy (N=55) and healthy (N=48). To assess satisfaction and negative emotions of depression, anxiet...
Gomaa, Mohammed Abdel Motaal; Elmagd, Manal Hassan Abo; Elbadry, Mohammed Mohammed; Kader, Rafeek Mohammed Abdel
The study was proposed to evaluate co-morbid depression, anxiety and stress associated with tinnitus patients. The study was done on 196 subjects: 100 patients suffering from subjective tinnitus associated with hearing loss (tinnitus group), 45 patients suffering from hearing loss only (hearing loss group) and 50 healthy subjects not suffering from tinnitus or hearing loss (control group); the age ranges from 20 to 60 years old. The studied sample was subjected to full ear, nose and throat examinations and audiological evaluation. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) was developed by Levibond H and Levibond F to assess three self-report scales designed to measure the negative emotional status of depression, anxiety and stress. All patients and control group were evaluated by DASS. (1) Depression: males were affected more than females. All patients over 60 years were affected by depression. The duration of tinnitus seems correlating with the severity of depression. Only 2 patients (4.3 %) of the hearing loss group suffer from depression. (2) Anxiety: 90 % of males suffer from anxiety as compared to 83.3 % females. The age group 20-29 years old suffers more than other age groups. Only 4 patients (8.7 %) of hearing loss group suffer from anxiety. (3) Stress: females seem to be affected by the stress (76.7 %) more than males (67.5). Patients in age group 30-39 suffer the most from the disease. There is a direct correlation between duration of tinnitus and severity of stress. No one of the hearing loss group suffers from stress. In conclusion, depression, anxiety and stress should be taken into consideration in the treatment of patients suffering from tinnitus.
2nd-year medical students, followed by an interview to confirm the diagnosis. They found an ... Lifetime and past month substance use were determined. Results. .... Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), and questions on alcohol and drug use.
Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Rusli, Bin Nordin; Naing, Lin; Mohamed Rusli, Bin Abdullah; Winn, Than; Tengku Mohamed Ariff, Bin Raja Hussin
Depression, anxiety and stress have been recognized as important mental outcome measures in stressful working settings. The present study explores the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress; and their relationships with psychosocial job factors. A cross-sectional study involving 728 male automotive assembly workers was conducted in two major automotive assembly plants in Malaysia using the validated Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Based on the DASS cut-off of > or =78 percentile scores, the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Four (0.5%), 29 (4.0%) and 2 (0.3%) workers, respectively, reported extremely severe self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress. Multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for age, education, salary, duration of work and marital status, revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition were positively associated with DASS-Depression, DASS-Anxiety and DASS-Stress; supervisor support was inversely associated with DASS-Depression and DASS-Stress. We suggest that reducing psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition factors may improve the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers. Supervisor support is protective for self-perceived depression and stress.
Confirmatory factor analysis of the portuguese Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 Análisis factorial confirmatoria de la versión portuguesa de la Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 Análise fatorial confirmatória da versão portuguesa da Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21
João Luís Alves Apóstolo
Full Text Available To determine which of three published models best characterizes the factor structure of the Portuguese version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and to assess its validity and reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 for 1,297 adult, primary care outpatients (66.7% female, Mage = 48.57 years comparing 3 models. The relationship between the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was analyzed. The correlated 3-factor model fit the data best. The scale demonstrated good internal consistency, with alpha scores of the subscales ranging from 0.836 to 0.897. Correlation with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was positive and moderate with the negative affect scale; it was negative and limited with the positive affect. These findings support the correlated 3-factor structure. The test demonstrated adequate reliability and construct validity, which supports its use for screening in primary care settings with Portuguese speakers.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar cual de los tres modelos publicados mejor caracteriza la estructura factorial de la versión portuguesa de la Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21 y evaluar su validez y confiabilidad. Se compararon los tres modelos a través de análisis factorial confirmatoria de la DASS-21, aplicada el 1.297 pacientes adultos, del servicio de atención básica (66,7% mujeres; edad Media=48,57 años. La relación entre la DASS-21 y la Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS también fue analizada. El modelo de tres factores correlacionados se ajusta mejor a los datos. La escala presentó buena consistencia interna con valores alfa observados en las subescalas, variando de 0,836 a 0,897. La correlación con la PANAS fue positiva y comedida con la escala de afecto negativa, y negativa y limitada con la escala de afecto positivo. Esos resultados corroboran la estructura de tres factores. La
"n Objective: In order to find how rating the WHOQOL-BREF and DASS scales are combined to produce an overall measure of quality of life and satisfaction with health rating, a QOL-DASS model was designed ; and the strength of this hypothesized model was examined using the structural equation modeling "n "nMethod: Participants included a sample of 103 voluntary males who were divided into two groups of unhealthy (N=55) and healthy (N=48). To assess satisfaction and negative emotions of depress...
Sandhu, Sukhvinder Singh; Ismail, Noor Hassim; Rampal, Krishna Gopal
The Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10) is widely used to assess stress perception. The aim of this study was to translate the original PSS-10 into Malay and assess the reliability and validity of the Malay version among nurses. The Malay version of the PSS-10 was distributed among 229 nurses from four government hospitals in Selangor State. Test-retest reliability and concurrent validity was conducted with 25 nurses with the Malay version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) 21. Cronbach's alpha, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson's r correlation coefficient were used to determine the psychometric properties of the Malay PSS-10. Two factor components were yielded through exploratory factor analysis with eigenvalues of 3.37 and 2.10, respectively. Both of the factors accounted for 54.6% of the variance. CFA yielded a two-factor structure with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices [x 2 /df = 2.43; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.92, goodness-of-fit Index (GFI) = 0.94; standardised root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.07 and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.08 (90% CI = 0.07-0.09)]. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total items was 0.63 (0.82 for factor 1 and 0.72 for factor 2). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.62-0.91) for test-retest reliability testing after seven days. The total score and the negative component of the PSS-10 correlated significantly with the stress component of the DASS-21: (r = 0.61, P < 0.001) and (r = 0.56, P < 0.004), respectively. The Malay version of the PSS-10 demonstrated a satisfactory level of validity and reliability to assess stress perception. Therefore, this questionnaire is valid in assessing stress perception among nurses in Malaysia.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Malaysia stress scale, Stress and compliance scale for diabetes, Stress, ... and 'Rate your life on current life satisfaction scale!' People rated how often they ..... Handbook of depression in children and adolescents.
Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Boer, A.G.E.M. de; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van
Aims: To (1) evaluate the psychometric properties and (2) examine the ability to detect cases with anxiety disorder and depression in a population of employees absent from work because of mental health problems. Methods: Internal consistency, construct validity, and criterion validity of the
Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.; Blonk, R. W. B.; van Dijk, F. J. H.
Aims: To (1) evaluate the psychometric properties and (2) examine the ability to detect cases with anxiety disorder and depression in a population of employees absent from work because of mental health problems. Methods: Internal consistency, construct validity, and criterion validity of the
Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; de Boer, A.G.E.M.; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Blonk, R.W.B.; van Dijk, F.J.H.
Aims: To (1) evaluate the psychometric properties and (2) examine the ability to detect cases with anxiety disorder and depression in a population of employees absent from work because of mental health problems.
Attitude of Rural Youths towards Family Farming in Dass, Bauchi State, Nigeria and the ... Majority were males (88 %), single (51 %), literate (99 %) and had rural ... most of them (78 %) said was learned through parents (non-formal sources).
Kalkur, Chaithra; Sattur, Atul Prahlad; Guttal, Kruthika Satyabodh
Lichen planus is a psychosomatic disease. Higher frequency of psychiatric symptoms, poor quality of life, higher level of anxiety and neuroendocrine and immune dysregulations, all these factors, will enhance the exacerbation of the disease. The present study was to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels in patients with oral lichen planus. The psychometric evaluation using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS)-42 questionnaire was carried out, by the same investigator on all members of group 1 (Oral Lichen Planus) and group 2 (Control). DASS-42 questionnaire consists of 42 symptoms divided into three subscales of 14 items: Depression scale, anxiety scale, and stress scale. The Student t test was used to determine statistical difference for both the groups and to evaluate for significant relationships among variables. Psychological assessment using DASS-42 reveals lichen planus patients showed higher frequency of psychiatric co morbidities like depression, anxiety and stress compared to control group. This study has provided evidence that the DASS-42 questionnaire is internally consistent and valid measures of depression, anxiety, and stress. Psychiatric evaluation can be considered for patients with oral lichen planus with routine treatment protocols are recommended. DASS-42 Questionnaire can also be used to determine the level of anxiety, stress and depression in diseases of the oral mucosa like recurrent apthous stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome and TMD disorders.
Full Text Available Context: Lichen planus is a psychosomatic disease. Higher frequency of psychiatric symptoms, poor quality of life, higher level of anxiety and neuroendocrine and immune dysregulations, all these factors, will enhance the exacerbation of the disease. Aims: The present study was to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels in patients with oral lichen planus. Methods: The psychometric evaluation using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-42 questionnaire was carried out, by the same investigator on all members of group 1 (Oral Lichen Planus and group 2 (Control. DASS-42 questionnaire consists of 42 symptoms divided into three subscales of 14 items: Depression scale, anxiety scale, and stress scale. Statistical Analysis Used: The Student t test was used to determine statistical difference for both the groups and to evaluate for significant relationships among variables. Results: Psychological assessment using DASS-42 reveals lichen planus patients showed higher frequency of psychiatric co morbidities like depression, anxiety and stress compared to control group. Conclusions: This study has provided evidence that the DASS-42 questionnaire is internally consistent and valid measures of depression, anxiety, and stress. Psychiatric evaluation can be considered for patients with oral lichen planus with routine treatment protocols are recommended. DASS-42 Questionnaire can also be used to determine the level of anxiety, stress and depression in diseases of the oral mucosa like recurrent apthous stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome and TMD disorders.
In an attempt to provide a consistent framework for the analysis and treatment of secondary stresses associated with welding and thermal loading in the context of fracture mechanics, this paper starts with an effective stress characterization procedure by introducing a length-scale concept. With it, a traction-based stress separation procedure is then presented to provide a consistent characterization of stresses from various sources based on their length scale. Their relative contributions to fracture driving force are then quantified in terms of their characteristic length scales. Special attention is given to the implications of the length-scale argument on both analysis and treatment of welding residual stresses in fracture assessment. A series of examples is provided to demonstrate how the present developments can be applied for treating not only secondary stresses but also externally applied stresses, as well as their combined effects on the structural integrity of engineering components
Aerts, Johan; Metz, Juriaan Rogier; Ampe, Bart; Decostere, Annemie; Flik, Gert; De Saeger, Sarah
Fish faced with stressful stimuli launch an endocrine stress response through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI-) axis to release cortisol into the blood. Scientifically validated biomarkers to capture systemic cortisol exposure over longer periods of time are of utmost importance to assess chronic stress in governmental, wildlife, aquaculture and scientific settings. Here we demonstrate that cortisol in scales of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is the long-sought biomarker for chronic stress. Undisturbed (CTR) and daily stressed (STRESS) carp were compared. Dexamethasone (DEX) or cortisol (CORT) fed fish served as negative and positive controls, respectively. Scale cortisol was quantified with a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. An increase in scale cortisol content was found in STRESS and CORT but not in CTR and DEX fish. Scale cortisol content reflects its accumulation in a stressor and time dependent manner and validates the scale cortisol content as biomarker for chronic stress. Plasma analyses confirmed that (i) CTR, DEX and CORT treatments were effective, (ii) plasma cortisol of STRESS fish showed no signs of chronic HPI-axis activation, and (iii) plasma cortisol is a poor predictor for chronic stress. The expression of HPI key genes crf, pomc, and star were up-regulated in STRESS fish in the absence of a plasma cortisol response, as was the target gene of cortisol encoding subunit α1 of the Na+/K+-ATPase in gills. When lost, scales of fish regenerate fast. Regenerated scales corroborate our findings, offering (i) unsurpassed time resolution for cortisol incorporation and as such for stressful events, and (ii) the possibility to investigate stress in a well defined and controlled environment and time frame creating novel opportunities for bone physiological research. We conclude that the cortisol content in ontogenetic and regenerated scales is an innovative biomarker for chronic
Wafaa Yousif Abdel Wahed
Feb 20, 2016 ... sion Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), along with a pretested Sociodemographic questionnaire. .... sons.26 Most of them live in rural communities and work in ..... ing period.39 Results of other studies in North America also suggest that .... NIMH. National Institute of Mental Health; 2008.
Scalings of reactor cavity wall loads and stresses are determined by deriving an analytic expression in terms of relevant parameters for each loading induced in the reactor cavity walls by fuel pellet microexplosion and by deriving associated expressions relating resulting stresses to shell thicknesses. Also identified are problems that require additional investigations to obtain satisfactory explicit stress estimates for the reactor cavity walls
Shivappa, Nitin; Hebert, James R; Rashidkhani, Bahram
The relation between diet and stress has not been widely explored. In this study, we examined the association between the inflammatory potential of diet and levels of stress among adolescent girls in Iran. A total of 299 adolescent girls aged 15-18 years were recruited during 2014-2015. Stress was assessed using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS)-21 scale. Data were analyzed as continuous DASS scores and as a dichotomous outcome with a cut-off value of 9. The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a literature-derived population-based dietary. DII scores were index computed from dietary intake assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were used to calculate beta estimates and odds ratios adjusting for potential confounding factors. In total, 84 girls (28% of the entire study sample) had at least a moderate level of stress symptoms (DASS > 9). Girls with the most pro-inflammatory diet (tertile 3) had higher DASS stress scores (β = 2.75; 95% CI = 1.05, 4.46) and were at 3.48 times (95% CI = 1.33, 9.09) risk of having at least moderate level of stress compared to girls with the most anti-inflammatory diets (tertile 1). These data suggest that Iranian adolescent girls with a pro-inflammatory diet, as shown by higher DII scores, had higher levels of stress and greater odds of having at least a moderate level of stress symptoms.
Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Qureshi, Adil; Antonin, Montserrat; Collazos, Francisco
In the study of mental health and migration, an increasing number of researchers have shifted the focus away from the concept of acculturation towards the stress present in the migratory experience. The bulk of research on acculturative stress has been carried out in the United States, and thus the definition and measurement of the construct has been predicated on that cultural and demographic context, which is of dubious applicability in Europe in general, and Spain in particular. Further, some scales have focused on international students, which down-played the importance of the migratory process, because it deals with a special subset of people who are not formally immigrating. The Barcelona Immigration Stress Scale was developed to measure acculturative stress appropriate to immigrants in Spain, using expert and focus group review and has 42 items. The scale shows acceptable internal validity, and, consistent with other scales, suggests that immigration stress is a complex construct.
Basudan, Sumaya; Binanzan, Najla; Alhassan, Aseel
Objectives To measure the occurrence and levels of depression, anxiety and stress in undergraduate dental students using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2014. A total of 289 dental students were invited to participate, and 277 responded, resulting in a response rate of 96%. The final sample included 247 participants. Eligible participants were surveyed via a self-reported questionnaire that includ...
This study describes the development and evaluation of the Nursery Teacher's Stress Scale (NTSS), which explores the relation between daily hassles at work and work-related stress. In Analysis 1, 29 items were chosen to construct the NTSS. Six factors were identified: I. Stress relating to child care; II. Stress from human relations at work; III. Stress from staff-parent relations; IV. Stress from lack of time; V. Stress relating to compensation; and VI. Stress from the difference between individual beliefs and school policy. All these factors had high degrees of internal consistency. In Analysis 2, the concurrent validity of the NTSS was examined. The results showed that the NTSS total scores were significantly correlated with the Job Stress Scale-Revised Version (job stressor scale, r = .68), the Pre-school Teacher-efficacy Scale (r = -.21), and the WHO-five Well-Being Index Japanese Version (r = -.40). Work stresses are affected by several daily hassles at work. The NTSS has acceptable reliability and validity, and can be used to improve nursery teacher's mental health.
Sung, Yao-Ting; Chao, Tzu-Yang
The tools used for measuring examination stress have three main limitations: sample selected, sample sizes, and measurement contents. In this study, we constructed the Examination Stress Scale (ExamSS), and 4,717 high school students participated in this research. The results indicate that ExamSS has satisfactory reliability, construct validity,…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationships between working conditions [job demand, job control and social support]; stress, anxiety, and depression; and perceived quality of life factors [physical health, psychological wellbeing, social relationships and environmental conditions] were assessed using a sample of 698 male automotive assembly workers in Malaysia. Methods The validated Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-BREF were used. A structural equation modelling (SEM analysis was applied to test the structural relationships of the model using AMOS version 6.0, with the maximum likelihood ratio as the method of estimation. Results The results of the SEM supported the hypothesized structural model (χ2 = 22.801, df = 19, p = 0.246. The final model shows that social support (JCQ was directly related to all 4 factors of the WHOQOL-BREF and inversely related to depression and stress (DASS. Job demand (JCQ was directly related to stress (DASS and inversely related to the environmental conditions (WHOQOL-BREF. Job control (JCQ was directly related to social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF. Stress (DASS was directly related to anxiety and depression (DASS and inversely related to physical health, environment conditions and social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF. Anxiety (DASS was directly related to depression (DASS and inversely related to physical health (WHOQOL-BREF. Depression (DASS was inversely related to the psychological wellbeing (WHOQOL-BREF. Finally, stress, anxiety and depression (DASS mediate the relationships between job demand and social support (JCQ to the 4 factors of WHOQOL-BREF. Conclusion These findings suggest that higher social support increases the self-reported quality of life of these workers. Higher job control increases the social relationships, whilst higher job demand increases the self-perceived stress and decreases
Rusli, Bin Nordin; Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Naing, Lin
The relationships between working conditions [job demand, job control and social support]; stress, anxiety, and depression; and perceived quality of life factors [physical health, psychological wellbeing, social relationships and environmental conditions] were assessed using a sample of 698 male automotive assembly workers in Malaysia. The validated Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-BREF) were used. A structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis was applied to test the structural relationships of the model using AMOS version 6.0, with the maximum likelihood ratio as the method of estimation. The results of the SEM supported the hypothesized structural model (chi2 = 22.801, df = 19, p = 0.246). The final model shows that social support (JCQ) was directly related to all 4 factors of the WHOQOL-BREF and inversely related to depression and stress (DASS). Job demand (JCQ) was directly related to stress (DASS) and inversely related to the environmental conditions (WHOQOL-BREF). Job control (JCQ) was directly related to social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF). Stress (DASS) was directly related to anxiety and depression (DASS) and inversely related to physical health, environment conditions and social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF). Anxiety (DASS) was directly related to depression (DASS) and inversely related to physical health (WHOQOL-BREF). Depression (DASS) was inversely related to the psychological wellbeing (WHOQOL-BREF). Finally, stress, anxiety and depression (DASS) mediate the relationships between job demand and social support (JCQ) to the 4 factors of WHOQOL-BREF. These findings suggest that higher social support increases the self-reported quality of life of these workers. Higher job control increases the social relationships, whilst higher job demand increases the self-perceived stress and decreases the self-perceived quality of life related to
Rusli, Bin Nordin; Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Naing, Lin
Background The relationships between working conditions [job demand, job control and social support]; stress, anxiety, and depression; and perceived quality of life factors [physical health, psychological wellbeing, social relationships and environmental conditions] were assessed using a sample of 698 male automotive assembly workers in Malaysia. Methods The validated Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-BREF) were used. A structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis was applied to test the structural relationships of the model using AMOS version 6.0, with the maximum likelihood ratio as the method of estimation. Results The results of the SEM supported the hypothesized structural model (χ2 = 22.801, df = 19, p = 0.246). The final model shows that social support (JCQ) was directly related to all 4 factors of the WHOQOL-BREF and inversely related to depression and stress (DASS). Job demand (JCQ) was directly related to stress (DASS) and inversely related to the environmental conditions (WHOQOL-BREF). Job control (JCQ) was directly related to social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF). Stress (DASS) was directly related to anxiety and depression (DASS) and inversely related to physical health, environment conditions and social relationships (WHOQOL-BREF). Anxiety (DASS) was directly related to depression (DASS) and inversely related to physical health (WHOQOL-BREF). Depression (DASS) was inversely related to the psychological wellbeing (WHOQOL-BREF). Finally, stress, anxiety and depression (DASS) mediate the relationships between job demand and social support (JCQ) to the 4 factors of WHOQOL-BREF. Conclusion These findings suggest that higher social support increases the self-reported quality of life of these workers. Higher job control increases the social relationships, whilst higher job demand increases the self-perceived stress and decreases the self
Garzon-Rey, J M; Arza, A; de-la-Camara, C; Lobo, A; Armario, A; Aguilo, J
The clinical diagnosis aims to identify the degree of affectation of the psycho-physical state of the patient as a guide to therapeutic intervention. In stress, the lack of a measurement tool based on a reference makes it difficult to quantitatively assess this degree of affectation. To define and perform a primary assessment of a standard reference in order to measure acute emotional stress from the markers identified as indicators of the degree. Psychometric tests and biochemical variables are, in general, the most accepted stress measurements by the scientific community. Each one of them probably responds to different and complementary processes related to the reaction to a stress stimulus. The reference that is proposed is a weighted mean of these indicators by assigning them relative weights in accordance with a principal components analysis. An experimental study was conducted on 40 healthy young people subjected to the psychosocial stress stimulus of the Trier Social Stress Test in order to perform a primary assessment and consistency check of the proposed reference. The proposed scale clearly differentiates between the induced relax and stress states. Accepting the subjectivity of the definition and the lack of a subsequent validation with new experimental data, the proposed standard differentiates between a relax state and an emotional stress state triggered by a moderate stress stimulus, as it is the Trier Social Stress Test. The scale is robust. Although the variations in the percentage composition slightly affect the score, but they do not affect the valid differentiation between states.
On the basis the of the fatigue failure statistic theory obtained is the formula for calculated estimation of probabillity of failure under complex stressed state according to partial probabilities of failure under linear stressed state with provision for the scale effect. Also the formula for calculation of equivalent stress is obtained. The verification of both formulae using literary experimental data for plane stressed state torsion has shown that the error of estimations does not exceed 10% for materials with the ultimate strength changing from 61 to 124 kg/mm 2
Dunstan, Debra A; Scott, Ned; Todd, Anna K
While the gold standard for the diagnosis of mental disorders remains the structured clinical interview, self-report measures continue to play an important role in screening and measuring progress, as well as being frequently employed in research studies. Two widely-used self-report measures in the area of depression and anxiety are Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). However, considerable confusion exists in their application, with clinical cut-offs often applied incorrectly. This study re-examines the credentials of the Zung scales by comparing them with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) in terms of their ability to predict clinical diagnoses of anxiety and depression made using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). A total sample of 376 adults, of whom 87 reported being in receipt of psychological treatment, completed the two-page version of the PHQ relating to depression and anxiety, together with the SDS, the SAS and the DASS. Overall, although the respective DASS scales emerged as marginally stronger predictors of PHQ diagnoses of anxiety and depression, the Zung indices performed more than acceptably in comparison. The DASS also had an advantage in discriminative ability. Using the current recommended cut-offs for all scales, the DASS has the edge on specificity, while the Zung scales are superior in terms of sensitivity. There are grounds to consider making the Zung cut-offs more conservative, and doing this would produce comparable numbers of 'Misses' and 'False Positives' to those obtained with the DASS. Given these promising results, further research is justified to assess the Zung scales ability against full clinical diagnoses and to further explore optimum cut-off levels.
Miller, Renée L; Pallant, Julie F; Negri, Lisa M
Postnatal depression has received considerable research and clinical attention, however anxiety and stress in the postpartum has been relatively ignored. Along with the widespread use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), depression has become the marker for postnatal maladjustment. Symptoms of anxiety tend to be subsumed within diagnoses of depression, which can result in anxiety being minimized or overlooked in the absence of depression. Some researchers have identified the need to distinguish between postnatal depression and anxiety, and to discern cases where depression and anxiety co-exist. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of postnatal distress using the EPDS and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). As part of a larger cross-sectional study, the EPDS and DASS-21 were administered to a convenience sample of 325 primiparous mothers, who ranged in age from 18 to 44 years (M = 32 years). Recruited through mother's groups and health centres in Melbourne Australia, inclusion was limited to mothers whose babies were aged between 6 weeks and 6 months. Analyses included comparisons between the classifications of women according to the EPDS and the DASS-21, and an exploration of the extent to which the EPDS identified anxious-depressed women. The EPDS identified 80 women (25%) as possibly depressed (using a cut-off of over 9), of which the DASS-21 corroborated 58%. In the total sample, 61 women (19%) were classified by the DASS-21 to be depressed. Using broader criteria for distress, it was revealed by the DASS-21 that a further 33 women (10%) showed symptoms of anxiety and stress without depression. A total of 41 women (13%) had symptoms of anxiety either in isolation or in combination with depression. The DASS-21 identified 7% of the sample as being both anxious and depressed. This at-risk sub-group had higher mean EPDS and DASS-depression scores than their depressed-only counterparts. The prevalence of anxiety and stress in
Pallant Julie F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Postnatal depression has received considerable research and clinical attention, however anxiety and stress in the postpartum has been relatively ignored. Along with the widespread use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, depression has become the marker for postnatal maladjustment. Symptoms of anxiety tend to be subsumed within diagnoses of depression, which can result in anxiety being minimized or overlooked in the absence of depression. Some researchers have identified the need to distinguish between postnatal depression and anxiety, and to discern cases where depression and anxiety co-exist. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of postnatal distress using the EPDS and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21. Method As part of a larger cross-sectional study, the EPDS and DASS-21 were administered to a convenience sample of 325 primiparous mothers, who ranged in age from 18 to 44 years (M = 32 years. Recruited through mother's groups and health centres in Melbourne Australia, inclusion was limited to mothers whose babies were aged between 6 weeks and 6 months. Analyses included comparisons between the classifications of women according to the EPDS and the DASS-21, and an exploration of the extent to which the EPDS identified anxious-depressed women. Results The EPDS identified 80 women (25% as possibly depressed (using a cut-off of over 9, of which the DASS-21 corroborated 58%. In the total sample, 61 women (19% were classified by the DASS-21 to be depressed. Using broader criteria for distress, it was revealed by the DASS-21 that a further 33 women (10% showed symptoms of anxiety and stress without depression. A total of 41 women (13% had symptoms of anxiety either in isolation or in combination with depression. The DASS-21 identified 7% of the sample as being both anxious and depressed. This at-risk sub-group had higher mean EPDS and DASS-depression scores than their depressed
Swartout, Kevin M; Parrott, Dominic J; Cohn, Amy M; Hagman, Brett T; Gallagher, Kathryn E
Data gathered from 6 independent samples (n = 1,729) that assessed men's masculine gender role stress in college and community males were aggregated used to determine the reliability and validity of an abbreviated version of the Masculine Gender Role Stress (MGRS) Scale. The 15 items with the highest item-to-total scale correlations were used to create an abbreviated MGRS Scale. Psychometric properties of each of the 15 items were examined with item response theory (IRT) analysis, using the discrimination and threshold parameters. IRT results showed that the abbreviated scale may hold promise at capturing the same amount of information as the full 40-item scale. Relative to the 40-item scale, the total score of the abbreviated MGRS Scale demonstrated comparable convergent validity using the measurement domains of masculine identity, hypermasculinity, trait anger, anger expression, and alcohol involvement. An abbreviated MGRS Scale may be recommended for use in clinical practice and research settings to reduce cost, time, and patient/participant burden. Additionally, IRT analyses identified items with higher discrimination and threshold parameters that may be used to screen for problematic gender role stress in men who may be seen in routine clinical or medical practice. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
McKinnon, Norma M.
Dayspring AIDS support services (DASS), a New England-based health organization, like many service organizations that rely on part-time and volunteer help, lacked the funds needed to improve and/or renew part-time staff and volunteer knowledge and skills. This paper describes an innovative way in which the professional development needs of DASS's…
Hollunder, Jens; Friedel, Maik; Beyer, Andreas; Workman, Christopher T; Wilhelm, Thomas
Pattern identification in biological sequence data is one of the main objectives of bioinformatics research. However, few methods are available for detecting patterns (substructures) in unordered datasets. Data mining algorithms mainly developed outside the realm of bioinformatics have been adapted for that purpose, but typically do not determine the statistical significance of the identified patterns. Moreover, these algorithms do not exploit the often modular structure of biological data. We present the algorithm DASS (Discovery of All Significant Substructures) that first identifies all substructures in unordered data (DASS(Sub)) in a manner that is especially efficient for modular data. In addition, DASS calculates the statistical significance of the identified substructures, for sets with at most one element of each type (DASS(P(set))), or for sets with multiple occurrence of elements (DASS(P(mset))). The power and versatility of DASS is demonstrated by four examples: combinations of protein domains in multi-domain proteins, combinations of proteins in protein complexes (protein subcomplexes), combinations of transcription factor target sites in promoter regions and evolutionarily conserved protein interaction subnetworks. The program code and additional data are available at http://www.fli-leibniz.de/tsb/DASS
Heidbach, O.; Rajabi, M.; Cui, X.; Fuchs, K. W.; Mueller, B.; Reinecker, J.; Reiter, K.; Tingay, M. R. P.; Wenzel, F.; Xie, F.; Ziegler, M.; Zoback, M. D.; Zoback, M. L.
Knowledge of the contemporary crustal stress field is a key parameter for the understanding of geodynamic processes such as global plate tectonics and the earthquake cycle. It is also an essential parameter for our sustainable and safe usage of Earth's resources, which is a major challenge for energy security in the 21st century. Since 1986, the World Stress Map (WSM) project has systematically compiled present-day stress information and provides a unique public domain global database. It is a long-term project based on an international network of partners from academia and industry. All data are public and available on the project website at world-stress-map.org. For the 30th anniversary of the project a new database has been compiled, containing double the amount of data records (n=42,870) including new data records from almost 4,000 deep boreholes. The new compilation focused on areas with previously sparse data coverage in order to resolve the stress pattern on different spatial scales. The significantly higher data density can now be used to resolve stress pattern heterogeneities on regional and local scales, as well as with depth in some regions. We present three results derived from the new WSM compilation: 1.) The global comparison between absolute plate motion and the mean of the orientation of maximum horizontal stress SHmax on a regular grid shows that there is still a correlation for the North and South America plate, but deviations from this general trend are now also clearly resolved. 2.) The variability of the crustal stress pattern changes when zooming in from plate-wide scale down to basin scale at 100 km. We show examples for Eastern Australia, Oklahoma and Central Europe. This regional and local variability of the stress pattern can be used as a proxy to identify and quantify regional and local stress sources by means of geomechanical-numerical models of the 3D stress tensor. 3.) Finally we present briefly the general concept of a multi-stage 3D
Spurgin, A.J.; Cain, D.G.; Long, A.B.
The paper covers recent work on the development of the Disturbance Analysis and Surveillance System (DASS) of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto. The work at EPRI covered a BWR application and the development of advance concepts as applied to a PWR. The paper starts by considering the environment in which the DASS developments are taking place, especially the effect of observations resulting from evaluations of the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) in actual control rooms. It is pointed out that insights are being gained into the behaviour of reactor control room crews. The DASS group at EPRI has designed the control room operator aids for the process manager or systems manager. The paper covers the work on DASS in 1981 and 1982. The foundation of the work done in 1982 was established in 1981 when the DASS user and the functional design of software were defined, a working DASS was demonstrated and a portable test vehicle which could be used for dynamic evaluation of displays was developed. Both the philosophy and characteristics of the displays for the PWR and BWR DASS applications are discussed and pictures of the actual displays are included. The development and execution of a human factors plan is an integral part of the EPRI DASS programme and some discussion of the plan is included in the paper. It is concluded that there is a need for DASS-type systems and that such systems might be developed from an enhanced SPDS which would include the newly proposed emergency procedures based on identification of symptoms rather than events. (author)
Camacho, Álvaro; Cordero, Elizabeth D; Perkins, Tara
Anxious-depression symptomatology is frequently encountered among Latina/o individuals. There is a dearth of studies that examine this mixed class of anxiety and depression symptomatology, especially among Latina/o college students by the US-Mexico border. A total of 505 participants from rural institutions of higher education completed the DASS21. Psychometric properties were measured by means of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to determine gender differences in depression, anxiety and stress. Among women, 18 % reported at least moderate levels of depressive symptoms, 33.1 % reported at least moderate levels of anxiety symptoms, and 16.4 % reported at least moderate levels of stress. In men, 15.9 % reported at least moderate levels of depressive symptoms, 34.1 % reported at least moderate levels of anxiety symptoms, and 12.9 % reported at least moderate levels of stress. The EFA supported a one dimension factor (anxious/stress-depression) among this sample of Latina/o college students (Bartlett's test = 4960.9; df = 210; p ≤ 0.01; Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin = 0.95). The MANOVA found no significant gender differences in depression, anxiety symptomatology and stress [Wilks'Λ = 0.99; F = (3, 500) = 2.41; p = 0.07]. The DASS-21 showed a one dimensional construct of anxious/stress-depression symptomatology in a Latina/o rural undergraduate sample, raising awareness to the need to screen and monitor this constellation of symptoms.
Escobar Espejo, Milagros; Blanca, María J; Fernández-Baena, F Javier; Trianes Torres, María Victoria
The aim of the present study was to translate into Spanish and to describe the psychometric properties of the Stress Manifestations Scale of the Student Stress Inventory (SSI-SM), developed by Fimian, Fastenau, Tashner and Cross to identify the main manifestations of stress in adolescents. The scale was applied to a sample of 1,002 pupils from years one and two of Secondary Education. The paper reports the factor structure, an item analysis, the internal consistency, differences by sex and academic year, external evidence of validity, and norms for scoring the scale. The results reveal a factor structure based on three first-order factors (emotional manifestations, physiological manifestations and behavioural manifestations) and one second-order factor (indicative of stress manifestations). In terms of external validity, there was a positive association with measures of perceived stress, aggressiveness, internalized/externalized symptoms, and a negative association with life satisfaction. The results show that the scale is an adequate tool for evaluating stress manifestations in adolescents.
Euro, Atom, Umwelt – es kriselt allenthalben. Historiker David Gugerli ist überzeugt, dass der Glaube an die Technik abgenommen hat. Gleichzeitig wir lernen, mit den vielen Optionen unserer Zeit umzugehen.
Germund Nielsen, Marie; Ørnbøl, Eva; Vestergaard, Mogens
Objective: Stress impacts the quality of life and is associated with increased risk of mental and physical disorders. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is widely used for measuring psychological distress. Although the instrument was originally defined as a single construct, several studies based...... of 32,374 citizens who completed the PSS-10 as part of the Danish National Health Survey in 2010. We investigated the construct validity of the PSS-10 by CFA. We examined the scalability by investigating the fit of the data distribution in a unidimensional Rasch model and performing modification...... of response categories, persons and items. The scale dimensionality was additionally assessed by Mokken and Rasch analysis. Results: The PSS-10 did not fit the Rasch model. Item four indicated the largest misfit, and items four and seven displayed disordered thresholds. Unidimensionality could...
Tearne, Jessica E; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Allen, Karina L; Cunningham, Nadia K; Li, Jianghong; McLean, Neil J
The evidence regarding older parental age and incidence of mood disorder symptoms in offspring is limited, and that which exists is mixed. We sought to clarify these relationships by using data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The Raine Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900 pregnancies, resulting in 2,868 live born children. A total of 1,220 participants completed the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. We used negative binomial regression analyses with log link and with adjustment for known perinatal risk factors to examine the extent to which maternal and paternal age at childbirth predicted continuous DASS-21 index scores. In the final multivariate models, a maternal age of 30-34 years was associated with significant increases in stress DASS-21 scores in female offspring relative to female offspring of 25- to 29-year-old mothers. A maternal age of 35 years and over was associated with increased scores on all DASS-21 scales in female offspring. Our results indicate that older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult females. Further research into the mechanisms underpinning this relationship is needed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Significant ecosystem-scale emissions of methylsalicylate (MeSA, a semivolatile plant hormone thought to act as the mobile signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR, were observed in an agroforest. Our measurements show that plant internal defence mechanisms can be activated in response to temperature stress and are modulated by water availability on large scales. Highest MeSA fluxes (up to 0.25 mg/m2/h were observed after plants experienced ambient night-time temperatures of ~7.5°C followed by a large daytime temperature increase (e.g. up to 22°C. Under these conditions estimated night-time leaf temperatures were as low as ~4.6°C, likely inducing a response to prevent chilling injury. Our observations imply that plant hormones can be a significant component of ecosystem scale volatile organic compound (VOC fluxes (e.g. as high as the total monoterpene (MT flux and therefore contribute to the missing VOC budget. If generalized to other ecosystems and different types of stresses these findings suggest that semivolatile plant hormones have been overlooked by investigations of the impact of biogenic VOCs on aerosol formation events in forested regions. Our observations show that the presence of MeSA in canopy air serves as an early chemical warning signal indicating ecosystem-scale stresses before visible damage becomes apparent. As a chemical metric, ecosystem emission measurements of MeSA in ambient air could therefore support field studies investigating factors that adversely affect plant growth.
Elizabeth G Pringle
Full Text Available Abiotic environmental variables strongly affect the outcomes of species interactions. For example, mutualistic interactions between species are often stronger when resources are limited. The effect might be indirect: water stress on plants can lead to carbon stress, which could alter carbon-mediated plant mutualisms. In mutualistic ant-plant symbioses, plants host ant colonies that defend them against herbivores. Here we show that the partners' investments in a widespread ant-plant symbiosis increase with water stress across 26 sites along a Mesoamerican precipitation gradient. At lower precipitation levels, Cordia alliodora trees invest more carbon in Azteca ants via phloem-feeding scale insects that provide the ants with sugars, and the ants provide better defense of the carbon-producing leaves. Under water stress, the trees have smaller carbon pools. A model of the carbon trade-offs for the mutualistic partners shows that the observed strategies can arise from the carbon costs of rare but extreme events of herbivory in the rainy season. Thus, water limitation, together with the risk of herbivory, increases the strength of a carbon-based mutualism.
Pringle, Elizabeth G.; Akçay, Erol; Raab, Ted K.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Gordon, Deborah M.
Abiotic environmental variables strongly affect the outcomes of species interactions. For example, mutualistic interactions between species are often stronger when resources are limited. The effect might be indirect: water stress on plants can lead to carbon stress, which could alter carbon-mediated plant mutualisms. In mutualistic ant–plant symbioses, plants host ant colonies that defend them against herbivores. Here we show that the partners' investments in a widespread ant–plant symbiosis increase with water stress across 26 sites along a Mesoamerican precipitation gradient. At lower precipitation levels, Cordia alliodora trees invest more carbon in Azteca ants via phloem-feeding scale insects that provide the ants with sugars, and the ants provide better defense of the carbon-producing leaves. Under water stress, the trees have smaller carbon pools. A model of the carbon trade-offs for the mutualistic partners shows that the observed strategies can arise from the carbon costs of rare but extreme events of herbivory in the rainy season. Thus, water limitation, together with the risk of herbivory, increases the strength of a carbon-based mutualism. PMID:24223521
Pringle, Elizabeth G; Akçay, Erol; Raab, Ted K; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Gordon, Deborah M
Abiotic environmental variables strongly affect the outcomes of species interactions. For example, mutualistic interactions between species are often stronger when resources are limited. The effect might be indirect: water stress on plants can lead to carbon stress, which could alter carbon-mediated plant mutualisms. In mutualistic ant-plant symbioses, plants host ant colonies that defend them against herbivores. Here we show that the partners' investments in a widespread ant-plant symbiosis increase with water stress across 26 sites along a Mesoamerican precipitation gradient. At lower precipitation levels, Cordia alliodora trees invest more carbon in Azteca ants via phloem-feeding scale insects that provide the ants with sugars, and the ants provide better defense of the carbon-producing leaves. Under water stress, the trees have smaller carbon pools. A model of the carbon trade-offs for the mutualistic partners shows that the observed strategies can arise from the carbon costs of rare but extreme events of herbivory in the rainy season. Thus, water limitation, together with the risk of herbivory, increases the strength of a carbon-based mutualism.
Alexander, Sandra J; Harrison, Allyson G
To explore the relationship between levels of reported depression, anxiety, and stress with scores on the Conners's Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Information was obtained from 84 1st-year psychology students using the CAARS, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), and the Life Experiences Survey (LES). Approximately 23%, 18%, and 12% of students scored above critical values on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV) Inattention Symptoms, the DSM-IV ADHD Symptoms Total, and the Inattention/Restlessness subscales, respectively. CAARS scores were positively related to reported levels of depression, anxiety, and stress, which accounted for significant variance among the three subscales. Only 5% of participants scored above recommended critical values on the ADHD index; however, a significant amount of the variance on this measure was also attributable to the DASS. Mood symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and stress may obscure correct attribution of cause in those being evaluated for ADHD.
Feng, Z.; Engelstad, R.L.; Lovell, E.G.; Corradini, M.L.
In the event of a severe accident in a LWR, water may be input to cool the molten mixture of fuel and concrete. A number of structural models are developed and used to predict whether a crust will be formed and remain stable between the melt and water. Bending stresses and membrane stresses due to pressure loadings and the temperature differential are considered in the analyses to investigate the stability of the crust as a function of the time, thickness and span. The results from parametric studies show the conditions under which a crust could develop, and how such structural models could be used to determine scaling effects and provide correlations to prototypic accident situations. (orig.)
Edimansyah Bin; Rusli Bin; Naing Lin
Abstract Background The relationships between working conditions [job demand, job control and social support]; stress, anxiety, and depression; and perceived quality of life factors [physical health, psychological wellbeing, social relationships and environmental conditions] were assessed using a sample of 698 male automotive assembly workers in Malaysia. Methods The validated Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and the World Health Or...
Mozumder, Muhammad Kamruzzaman
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) population encounter more stressful life circumstances compared to general population. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) can be a useful tool for measuring their stress. However, psychometric properties of PSS have never been tested on LGBT population. This cross sectional study employed a two-stage sampling strategy to collect data from 296 LGBT participants from six divisional districts of Bangladesh. Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were carried out on PSS 10 along with analysis of reliability and validity. EFA revealed a two-factor structure of PSS for LGBT population explaining 43.55% - 51.45% of total variance. This measurement model was supported by multiple fit indices during CFA. Acceptable Cronbach's alpha indicated internal consistency reliability and high correlations with Self Reporting Questionnaire 20 demonstrated construct validity of PSS 10 for LGBT population. This study provided evidence of satisfactory psychometric properties of Bengali PSS 10 in terms of factor structure, internal consistency and validity among LGBT population.
Yasuoka, Tetsuo; Mizutani, Yoshihiro; Todoroki, Akira
High-temperature water stress corrosion cracking has high tensile stress sensitivity, and its growth rate has been evaluated using the stress intensity factor, which is a linear fracture mechanics parameter. Stress corrosion cracking mainly occurs and propagates around welded metals or heat-affected zones. These regions have complex residual stress distributions and yield strength distributions because of input heat effects. The authors previously reported that the stress intensity factor becomes inapplicable when steep residual stress distributions or yield strength distributions occur along the crack propagation path, because small-scale yielding conditions deviate around those distributions. Here, when the stress intensity factor is modified by considering these distributions, the modified stress intensity factor may be used for crack growth evaluation for large-scale yielding. The authors previously proposed a modified stress intensity factor incorporating the stress distribution or yield strength distribution in front of the crack using the rate of change of stress intensity factor and yield strength. However, the applicable range of modified stress intensity factor for large-scale yielding was not clarified. In this study, the range was analytically investigated by comparison with the J-integral solution. A three-point bending specimen with parallel surface crack was adopted as the analytical model and the stress intensity factor, modified stress intensity factor and equivalent stress intensity factor derived from the J-integral were calculated and compared under large-scale yielding conditions. The modified stress intensity was closer to the equivalent stress intensity factor when compared with the stress intensity factor. If deviation from the J-integral solution is acceptable up to 2%, the modified stress intensity factor is applicable up to 30% of the J-integral limit, while the stress intensity factor is applicable up to 10%. These results showed that
Apóstolo, João Luís Alves; Kolcaba, Katharine
This article describes the efficacy of a guided imagery intervention for decreasing depression, anxiety, and stress and increasing comfort in psychiatric inpatients with depressive disorders. A quasi-experimental design sampled 60 short-term hospitalized depressive patients selected consecutively. The experimental group listened to a guided imagery compact disk once a day for 10 days. The Psychiatric Inpatients Comfort Scale and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) were self-administered at two time points: prior to the intervention (T1) and 10 days later (T2). Comfort and DASS-21 were also assessed in the usual care group at T1 and T2. Repeated measures revealed that the treatment group had significantly improved comfort and decreased depression, anxiety, and stress over time.
van Well, S; Kolk, AM; Arrindell, WA
The objective was to examine the usefulness of Dutch versions of the Masculine Gender Role Stress (MGRS; Eisler & Skidmore, 1987) Scale and the Feminine Gender Role Stress (Gillespie & Eisler, 1992) Scale in The Netherlands. Undergraduate students (N = 2,239) completed both gender role stress
Temaet for nærværende artikel er en diskussion af muligheden for at fastlægge en tysk dass-sætnings semantiske funktion som afficeret eller efficeret objekt , når den optræder i rollen som komplement for verber, der har såvel en afficerende som en efficerende betydningsvariant, hvorved dass......-sætningen i det første tilfælde betegner et forhold, matrixsætningens subjektsreferent reagerer på, og i det andet indholdet af en ytring, der fremsættes af matrixsætningens subjektsreferent. Jeg går i artiklen særligt ind i diskussionen om, hvorvidt dass-sætningens modus kan tjene som formel indikation på...... den semantiske funktion, dvs. om en dass-sætning i konjunktiv utvetydigt kan tilskrives en funktion som efficeret objekt for matrixsætningsverbet....
Schlotz, Wolff; Yim, Ilona S.; Zoccola, Peggy M.; Jansen, Lars; Schulz, Peter
There is accumulating evidence that individual differences in stress reactivity contribute to the risk for stress-related disease. However, the assessment of stress reactivity remains challenging, and there is a relative lack of questionnaires reliably assessing this construct. We here present the Perceived Stress Reactivity Scale (PSRS), a…
Simonovski, Igor; Cizelj, Leon
Highlights: ► Simulating the onset and propagation of intergranular cracking. ► Model based on the as-measured geometry and crystallographic orientations. ► Feasibility, performance of the proposed computational approach demonstrated. - Abstract: Development of advanced models at the grain size scales has so far been mostly limited to simulated geometry structures such as for example 3D Voronoi tessellations. The difficulty came from a lack of non-destructive techniques for measuring the microstructures. In this work a novel grain-size scale approach for modelling intergranular stress corrosion cracking based on as-measured 3D grain structure of a 400 μm stainless steel wire is presented. Grain topologies and crystallographic orientations are obtained using a diffraction contrast tomography, reconstructed within a detailed finite element model and coupled with advanced constitutive models for grains and grain boundaries. The wire is composed of 362 grains and over 1600 grain boundaries. Grain boundary damage initialization and early development is then explored for a number of cases, ranging from isotropic elasticity up to crystal plasticity constitutive laws for the bulk grain material. In all cases the grain boundaries are modeled using the cohesive zone approach. The feasibility of the approach is explored.
Allen, Jacqui; Annells, Merilyn
To explore through literature review the appropriateness of three common tools for use by community nurses to screen war veteran and war widow(er) clients for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. War veterans and, to a lesser extent, war widow(er)s, are prone to mental health challenges, especially depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Community nurses do not accurately identify such people with depression and related disorders although they are well positioned to do so. The use of valid and reliable self-report tools is one method of improving nurses' identification of people with actual or potential mental health difficulties for referral to a general practitioner or mental health practitioner for diagnostic assessment and treatment. The Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist are frequently recommended for mental health screening but the appropriateness of using the tools for screening war veteran and war widow(er) community nursing clients who are often aged and have functional impairment, is unknown. Systematic review. Current literature informs that the Geriatric Depression Scale accurately predicts a diagnosis of depression in community nursing cohorts. The three Depression Anxiety Stress Scales subscales of depression, anxiety and stress are valid; however, no studies were identified that compared the performance of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in predicting diagnoses of depression or anxiety. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist predicts post-traumatic stress disorder in community cohorts although no studies meeting the selection criteria included male participants. This review provides recommendations for the use of the Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist based on examination of the published evidence for the application of these screening tools in samples
Thermann, Florian; Ukkat, Jörg; Wollert, Ulrich; Dralle, Henning; Brauckhoff, Michael
Dialysis shunt-associated steal syndrome (DASS) is a rare complication of hemodialysis access (HA) which preferably occurs in brachial fistulas. Treatment options are discussed controversially. Aim of this study was to evaluate flow-controlled fistula banding. Patients treated between 2002 and 2006 were included in this prospective survey. According to a classification we established, patients were typed DASS I-III (I: short history, no dermal lesions; II: long history, skin lesions; III: long history, gangrene). Surgical therapy was HA banding including controlled reduction (about 50% of initial flow) of HA blood flow (patients type I and II). Patients with type III underwent closure of the HA. In 15 patients with relevant DASS, blood-flow-controlled banding was performed. In ten patients (all type I), banding led to restitution of the hand function while preserving the HA. In five patients (all type II), banding was not successful; in two patients, closure of the HA was performed eventually. In five patients (type III), primary closure of the HA was performed. Four patients with DASS type II but only two with DASS type I had diabetes mellitus (p = 0.006). Banding under blood flow control resulting in an approximately 50% reduction in the initial blood flow is an adequate therapeutic option in patients with brachial HA and type I-DASS. In type II-DASS, banding does not lead to satisfying results, more complex surgical options might be more successful. Diabetes is associated with poor HA outcome in case of DASS.
Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) are apparently the excessively bright nuclei of distant galaxies. They are thought to be powered by accretion disks surrounding supermassive black holes: however, proof of this presumption is hampered by major uncertainties in the viscous stress necessary for accretion to occur. Models generally assume an and hoc stress law which scales the stress with the total pressure. Near the black hole, radiation pressure dominates gas pressure; scaling the stress with the radiation pressure results in disk models that are thermally unstable and optically thin. This dissertation shows that a radiation pressure scaling for the stress is not possible if the viscosity is due to turbulent magnetic Maxwell stresses. The argument is one of internal self-consistency. First, four model accretion disks that bound the reasonably expected ranges of viscous stress scalings and vertical structures are constructed. Magnetic flux tubes of various initial field strengths are then placed within these models, nd their buoyancy is modeled numerically. In disks using the radiation pressure stress law scaling, low opacities allow rapid heat flow into the flux tubes: the tubes are extremely buoyant, and magnetic fields strong enough to provide the required stress cannot be retained. If an alternative gas pressure scaling for the stress is assumed, then the disks are optically thick; flux tubes have corresponding lower buoyancy, and magnetic fields strong enough to provide the stress can be retained for dynamically significant time periods
Bayani, Ali Asghar
The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were examined, with a sample of 306 undergraduate students (123 men, 183 women) ranging from 18 to 51 years of age (M age = 25.4, SD = 6.1). Participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. The findings confirmed the preliminary reliabilities and preliminary construct validity of the Farsi translation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales.
AL-Bairmani, Sukaina; Li, Yi; Rosales, Carlos; Xie, Zheng-tong
The multi-scale turnover Lagrangian map (MTLM) [C. Rosales and C. Meneveau, "Anomalous scaling and intermittency in three-dimensional synthetic turbulence," Phys. Rev. E 78, 016313 (2008)] uses nested multi-scale Lagrangian advection of fluid particles to distort a Gaussian velocity field and, as a result, generate non-Gaussian synthetic velocity fields. Passive scalar fields can be generated with the procedure when the fluid particles carry a scalar property [C. Rosales, "Synthetic three-dimensional turbulent passive scalar fields via the minimal Lagrangian map," Phys. Fluids 23, 075106 (2011)]. The synthetic fields have been shown to possess highly realistic statistics characterizing small scale intermittency, geometrical structures, and vortex dynamics. In this paper, we present a study of the synthetic fields using the filtering approach. This approach, which has not been pursued so far, provides insights on the potential applications of the synthetic fields in large eddy simulations and subgrid-scale (SGS) modelling. The MTLM method is first generalized to model scalar fields produced by an imposed linear mean profile. We then calculate the subgrid-scale stress, SGS scalar flux, SGS scalar variance, as well as related quantities from the synthetic fields. Comparison with direct numerical simulations (DNSs) shows that the synthetic fields reproduce the probability distributions of the SGS energy and scalar dissipation rather well. Related geometrical statistics also display close agreement with DNS results. The synthetic fields slightly under-estimate the mean SGS energy dissipation and slightly over-predict the mean SGS scalar variance dissipation. In general, the synthetic fields tend to slightly under-estimate the probability of large fluctuations for most quantities we have examined. Small scale anisotropy in the scalar field originated from the imposed mean gradient is captured. The sensitivity of the synthetic fields on the input spectra is assessed by
Moustafa, Ahmed A; Tindle, Richard; Frydecka, Dorota; Misiak, Błażej
We aimed to assess the association between depression, anxiety, stress and impulsivity with respect to age. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-42) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) were administered to 145 individuals. Due to a negative correlation between age, BIS-11 and DASS-42 subscales, participants were divided into three groups: young-aged (18-30years), middle-aged (31-49years) and old-aged (≥50years). Subjects from old-aged group had significantly lower scores of depression, anxiety, stress and impulsivity compared to those from younger groups. Anxiety, followed by stress and depression, was the strongest predictor of BIS-11 total score in young-aged and middle-aged individuals. There were no significant differences in the correlations between BIS-11 total score, depression, anxiety and stress in old-aged individuals. Our results indicate that the levels of depression, anxiety, stress and impulsivity decrease with age. Additionally, age might moderate the effect of depression, anxiety and stress on impulsivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gray, Peter H; Edwards, Dawn M; Gibbons, Kristen
To examine levels of parenting stress in mothers of preterm and term infants when the children were 2 years old; to determine the trajectory of stress over three time periods and to examine the association of maternal and neonatal factors and developmental outcomes with parenting stress. It is a prospective longitudinal study to determine parenting stress in mothers of preterm and term infants with outcomes having been previously obtained at 4 and 12 months. At 2 years, 79 preterm mothers (96 babies) and 64 term mothers (77 babies) participated. The mothers completed the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS) and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). The infants had a neurological examination and the Bayley-III scales were administered. The mean total PSI-SF at 2 years was significantly higher for the preterm group compared with the term group of mothers (p=0.007). There was a significant increase in the mean total PSI over time for the preterm mothers (pparenting stress and abnormal scores on the DASS (pparenting stress and maternal demographics, neonatal factors or Bayley-III results. Parenting stress in mothers of preterm infants continues to be high at 2 years having increased over time. Maternal mental health problems and infant behavioural issues contribute to the stress. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Kulsoom, Bibi; Afsar, Nasir Ali
Contemporary literature suggests that medical education might adversely affect students' mental health. Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia is a developing institution; hence, there has been a concern regarding the mental well-being of the students. This study was designed to assess the traits of depression, anxiety, and stress among students in relation to potential underlying reasons. All 575 medical students across the 5 years of study participated by filling out the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) questionnaire anonymously twice. Firstly, 2-3 weeks before a major examination (pre-examination), and secondly, during regular classes (post-examination). Correlation was sought regarding sex, year of scholarship, attendance of a premedical university preparatory program (UPP), housing, and smoking. Subjective comments from students were also obtained. A total of 76.8% and 74.9% of students participated in pre-and post-examination groups, respectively. The majority were the children of expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia, and included Arabs, South Asians, and North Americans. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was high (43%, 63%, and 41%, respectively) which reduced (to 30%, 47%, and 30%, respectively) to some extent after examinations. Saudis and those who had attended UPP had higher DASS-21 scores. Smoking and female sex predicted higher levels of "baseline" depression, anxiety, or stress. The students perceived the curriculum and schedule to be the primary causes of their high DASS-21 scores. The students had high "baseline" traits of depression, anxiety, and stress, and these were higher if an examination was near, especially among Saudis and those who had attended UPP. Smoking and female sex predicted higher levels of "baseline" depression, anxiety, or stress. Students suggested that study burden and a busy schedule were the major reasons for their high DASS-21 scores.
Full Text Available The development of a scale to measure perceived sources of academic stress among university students. Based on empirical evidence and recent literature review, we developed an 18-item scale to measure perceptions of academic stress and its sources. Experts ( n = 12 participated in the content validation process of the instrument before it was administered to ( n = 100 students. The developed instrument has internal consistency reliability of 0.7 (Cronbach’s alpha, there was evidence for content validity, and factor analysis resulted in four correlated and theoretically meaningful factors. We developed and tested a scale to measure academic stress and its sources. This scale takes 5 minutes to complete.
Mehrtash, Shabnam; Koçak, Settar; Hürmeriç Altunsöz, Irmak
In this study, it is investigated the psychological effects of yoga on adult’s mood such as stress, anxiety and depression. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) with 42 items (Lovibond and Lovibond, 1995) was used for collecting data in two times: Pre-test and Post-test. This scale administered in 95 subjects in Middle East Technical University in Ankara/Turkey. For data analysis, SPSS version 21 and a paired sample T-test were used. The results indicated that there was a significant ...
Purpose: To provide factorial analytical findings, and to construct validation and normative .... participants were asked to fold the questionnaire ... both cross loaded onto both factors. .... Compas B, Grant K. Ey S. Psychosocial stress and child.
Gitchel, W. Dent; Roessler, Richard T.; Turner, Ronna C.
Assessment is critical to rehabilitation practice and research, and self-reports are a commonly used form of assessment. This study examines a gender effect according to item wording on the "Perceived Stress Scale" for adults with multiple sclerosis. Past studies have demonstrated two-factor solutions on this scale and other scales measuring…
Myers, Amanda J; Williams, Leanne; Gatt, Justine M; McAuley-Clark, Erica Z; Dobson-Stone, Carol; Schofield, Peter R; Nemeroff, Charles B
Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that is involved in the regulation of mood, anxiety and social biology. Genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been implicated in anxiety, depression and related stress phenotypes. It is not yet known whether OXTR interacts with other risk factors such as early life trauma to heighten the severity of experienced anxiety and depression. In this study, we examined genotypes in 653 individuals and tested whether SNP variation in OXTR correlates with severity of features of self-reported experience on the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), and whether this correlation is enhanced when early life trauma is taken into account. We also assessed the effects of OXTR SNPs on RNA expression levels in two separate brain tissue cohorts totaling 365 samples. A significant effect of OXTR genotype on DASS anxiety, stress and depression scores was found and ELS events, in combination with several different OXTR SNPs, were significantly associated with differences in DASS scores with one SNP (rs139832701) showing significant association or a trend towards association for all three measures. Several OXTR SNPs were correlated with alterations in OXTR RNA expression and rs3831817 replicated across both sets of tissues. These results support the hypothesis that the oxytocin system plays a role in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Basudan, Sumaya; Binanzan, Najla; Alhassan, Aseel
To measure the occurrence and levels of depression, anxiety and stress in undergraduate dental students using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2014. A total of 289 dental students were invited to participate, and 277 responded, resulting in a response rate of 96%. The final sample included 247 participants. Eligible participants were surveyed via a self-reported questionnaire that included the validated DASS-21 scale as the assessment tool and questions about demographic characteristics and methods for managing stress. Abnormal levels of depression, anxiety and stress were identified in 55.9%, 66.8% and 54.7% of the study participants, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed multiple predictors: gender (for anxiety b=-3.589, p=.016 and stress b=-4.099, p=.008), satisfaction with faculty relationships (for depression b=-2.318, p=.007; anxiety b=-2.213, p=.004; and stress b=-2.854, prelationships (for depression b=-3.527, panxiety b=-2.213, p=.004; and stress b=-2.854, pstress b=-2.648, p=.045). The standardized coefficients demonstrated the relationship and strength of the predictors for each subscale. To cope with stress, students engaged in various activities such as reading, watching television and seeking emotional support from others. The high occurrence of depression, anxiety and stress among dental students highlights the importance of providing support programs and implementing preventive measures to help students, particularly those who are most susceptible to higher levels of these psychological conditions.
Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Vue, Lee; Luka, Andi; Peters, Aimee; Pande, Reena L
Depression is prevalent among individuals with diabetes and associated with suboptimal self-management. Little is known about the feasibility and potential impact of tele-behavioral therapy to improve depressive symptoms and self-management among diabetes patients. This was a retrospective observational study of consecutive graduates enrolled in a national 8-week diabetes behavioral telehealth program between August 1, 2014, and January 31, 2015 (N = 466; mean age 56.8 ± 5.0 years; 56% female). Participant characteristics (demographics, comorbidities) were obtained by standardized questionnaire. Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms (DASS; validated Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 survey), and glucose self-testing frequency and values (point-of-care monitor) were measured at program start and completion. Changes in DASS severity and glucose self-testing frequency were assessed by chi-square tests. Changes in DASS and blood glucose levels were evaluated by paired t-tests. At baseline, approximately one in three participants had elevated depression (32%), anxiety (33%), or stress (31%) scores. Significant reductions in average DASS, depression (-8.8), anxiety (-6.9), and stress (-9.9), scores were observed at graduation among those with elevated baseline scores (p depression, anxiety, or stress categories. Improved glucose self-testing frequency (69% vs. 60% tested ≥once per week; p = 0.0005) and significant reductions in mean morning glucose levels (-12.3 mg/dL; p = 0.0002) were observed from baseline to graduation. Participants with normal versus non-normal depression scores were more likely to have lower (depression, anxiety, stress, and glucose levels, as well as increased frequency of glucose self-testing, among participants in a diabetes behavioral telehealth program.
Renusch, D.; Veal, B.W.; Koshelev, I.; Natesan, K.; Grimsditch [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hou, P.Y. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)
By exploiting the strain dependence of the ruby luminescence line, we have measured the strain in alumina scales thermally grown on Fe-Cr- Al alloys. Results are compared and found to be reasonably consistent with strains determined using x rays. Oxidation studies were carried out on alloys Fe - 5Cr - 28Al and Fe - 18Cr - 10Al (at.%). Significantly different levels of strain buildup were observed in scales on these alloys. Results on similar alloys containing a ``reactive element`` (Zr or Hf) in dilute quantity are also presented. Scales on alloys containing a reactive element (RE) can support significantly higher strains than scales on RE-free alloys. With the luminescence technique, strain relief associated with spallation thresholds is readily observed.
Eun-Hyun Lee, RN, PhD
Conclusion: Overall, the PSS is an easy-to-use questionnaire with established acceptable psychometric properties. However, future studies should evaluate these psychometric properties in greater depth, and validate the scale using diverse populations.
Edmondson, Donald; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.
Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a poorly understood and controversial diagnosis (A. G. Harvey & R. A. Bryant, 2002). The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure of the most widely used self-report measure of ASD, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (R. A. Bryant, M. L. Moulds, & R. M. Guthrie, 2000),…
Basu, Indranil; Ocelík, Václav; De Hosson, Jeff Th M.
Grain/phase boundaries contribute significantly to build up of residual stresses, owing to varied plastic/thermal response of different grain orientations or phases during thermomechanical treatment. Hence, accurate quantification of such local scale stress gradients in commercial components is
Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Kirkland, Timothy Philip [ORNL; Strong, Kevin T [ORNL; Jadaan, Osama M. [University of Wisconsin, Platteville; Thompson, G. A. [U.S. Army Dental and Trauma Research Detachment, Greak Lakes
Weibull strength-size-scaling in a rotary-ground, hot-pressed boron carbide is described when strength test coupons sampled effective areas from the very small (~ 0.001 square millimeters) to the very large (~ 40,000 square millimeters). Equibiaxial flexure and Hertzian testing were used for the strength testing. Characteristic strengths for several different specimen geometries are analyzed as a function of effective area. Characteristic strength was found to substantially increase with decreased effective area, and exhibited a bilinear relationship. Machining damage limited strength as measured with equibiaxial flexure testing for effective areas greater than ~ 1 mm2 and microstructural-scale flaws limited strength for effective areas less than 0.1 mm2 for the Hertzian testing. The selections of a ceramic strength to account for ballistically-induced tile deflection and to account for expanding cavity modeling are considered in context with the measured strength-size-scaling.
Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Memon, Ayesha; Jones, Chloe; Dabydeen, Lyvia; Das, Krishna B; Gillberg, Christopher; Neville, Brian G R; Scott, Rod C
The objective was to provide population-based data on depression, anxiety, and stress in parents of young children with epilepsy and to compare findings with those of parents of developmental-, age-, and gender-matched children with nonepilepsy-related neurodisability (neurological and/or neurodevelopmental concerns). The parents (mothers and fathers) of 47 (89% ascertainment) young children (1-7years) with epilepsy in a defined geographical area of the UK completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales - Short Form (DASS-21), a screening measure for depression, anxiety, and stress. The responses of parents of children with epilepsy were compared with parents of developmental-, age-, and gender-matched children with nonepilepsy-related neurodisability (n=48). Factors associated with parental symptoms were analyzed using regression. In the group with epilepsy, 47 mothers and 39 fathers completed the DASS-21. Seventy-two percent of mothers scored in the at-risk range on at least one DASS-21 subscale (Fathers 49%). Mothers of children with epilepsy were significantly more likely to score in the at risk range than fathers on depression (55% vs. 33%), anxiety (47% vs. 26%), and stress (55% vs. 31%) subscales (all pchildren with epilepsy were also significantly more likely to score in the at-risk range than mothers of children with neurodisability on measures of depression (p=0.005) and stress (p=0.03). There was not a significant difference between fathers in both groups on any measures. In the group with epilepsy, increased child emotional-behavioral difficulties were associated with increased DASS-21 scores on multivariable analysis (p=0.04). Mothers of young children with epilepsy are at high risk for mental health difficulties, and all should be screened for such difficulties. There is a need to explore what parent and/or child focused interventions might be useful to reduce the mental health difficulties reported by mothers of young children with epilepsy. Copyright
Hollunder, Jens; Friedel, Maik; Kuiper, Martin; Wilhelm, Thomas
Many large 'omics' datasets have been published and many more are expected in the near future. New analysis methods are needed for best exploitation. We have developed a graphical user interface (GUI) for easy data analysis. Our discovery of all significant substructures (DASS) approach elucidates the underlying modularity, a typical feature of complex biological data. It is related to biclustering and other data mining approaches. Importantly, DASS-GUI also allows handling of multi-sets and calculation of statistical significances. DASS-GUI contains tools for further analysis of the identified patterns: analysis of the pattern hierarchy, enrichment analysis, module validation, analysis of additional numerical data, easy handling of synonymous names, clustering, filtering and merging. Different export options allow easy usage of additional tools such as Cytoscape. Source code, pre-compiled binaries for different systems, a comprehensive tutorial, case studies and many additional datasets are freely available at http://www.ifr.ac.uk/dass/gui/. DASS-GUI is implemented in Qt.
Yimnirun, R; Wongsaenmai, S; Wongmaneerung, R; Wongdamnern, N; Ngamjarurojana, A; Ananta, S; Laosiritaworn, Y
Effects of electric field-frequency, electric field-amplitude, mechanical stress, and temperature on the hysteresis area, especially the scaling form, were investigated in soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT) bulk ceramics. The hysteresis area was found to depend on the frequency and field-amplitude with the same set of exponents as the power-law scaling for both with and without stresses. The inclusion of stresses into the power-law was obtained in the form of σ=0 > ∝ f -0.25 E 0 σ 0.45 which indicates the difference in energy dissipation between the under-stress and stress-free conditions. The power-law temperature scaling relations were obtained for hysteresis area (A) and remanent polarization P r , while the coercivity E C was found to scale linearly with temperature T. The three temperature scaling relations were also field-dependent. At fixed field amplitude E 0 , the scaling relations take the forms of ∝ T -1.1024 , P r ∼T -1.2322 and (E C0 - E C ) ∼T
Full Text Available Bibi Kulsoom,1 Nasir Ali Afsar2 1Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Contemporary literature suggests that medical education might adversely affect students’ mental health. Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia is a developing institution; hence, there has been a concern regarding the mental well-being of the students.Objectives: This study was designed to assess the traits of depression, anxiety, and stress among students in relation to potential underlying reasons.Methods: All 575 medical students across the 5 years of study participated by filling out the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21 questionnaire anonymously twice. Firstly, 2–3 weeks before a major examination (pre-examination, and secondly, during regular classes (post-examination. Correlation was sought regarding sex, year of scholarship, attendance of a premedical university preparatory program (UPP, housing, and smoking. Subjective comments from students were also obtained.Results: A total of 76.8% and 74.9% of students participated in pre- and post-examination groups, respectively. The majority were the children of expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia, and included Arabs, South Asians, and North Americans. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was high (43%, 63%, and 41%, respectively which reduced (to 30%, 47%, and 30%, respectively to some extent after examinations. Saudis and those who had attended UPP had higher DASS-21 scores. Smoking and female sex predicted higher levels of “baseline” depression, anxiety, or stress. The students perceived the curriculum and schedule to be the primary causes of their high DASS-21 scores.Conclusion: The students had high “baseline” traits of depression, anxiety, and stress, and these were higher if an examination was near, especially among Saudis and those who had attended UPP. Smoking and female sex
Vallejo, Miguel A; Vallejo-Slocker, Laura; Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G; Mañanes, Guillermo
Objective: Stress perception depends on cultural and social aspects that vary from one country to another. One of the most widely disseminated methods of assessing psychological stress is the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4). Therefore, in order to identify these factors and their impact on mental health, the present study compares the PSS-4 results among three European countries (Great Britain, France and Spain). This study focuses on PSS-4 results within a Spanish sample to determine: (1) normative data, reliability and validity of PSS-4 in a Spanish sample and (2) how stress perception changes depending on cultural and social factors. Methods: The data were obtained from a website representing a service of a smoking cessation program, the study represented a service that was open to all individuals. The number of participants were 37,451. They reported their age, gender, nationality, marital status, education and employment status, and completed two psychological questionnaires (PPS-4 and the anxiety and depression scales of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, SCL 90-R). Results: The PSS-4 scores could differentiate between relevant sociodemographic variables (such as sex, age, nationality, marital status, education, parental status, employment status, and income class). The PSS-4 scores showed a positive correlation with the SCL 90-R anxiety and depression scales. The normed values for interpreting the PSS-4 scores are presented. The PSS-4 showed adequate internal consistency and reliability. Conclusions: The PSS-4 is a useful instrument for assessing stress perception levels in the general population in different countries. Its internal consistency is sufficient for a 4-item scale.
Miguel A. Vallejo
Full Text Available Objective: Stress perception depends on cultural and social aspects that vary from one country to another. One of the most widely disseminated methods of assessing psychological stress is the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4. Therefore, in order to identify these factors and their impact on mental health, the present study compares the PSS-4 results among three European countries (Great Britain, France and Spain. This study focuses on PSS-4 results within a Spanish sample to determine: (1 normative data, reliability and validity of PSS-4 in a Spanish sample and (2 how stress perception changes depending on cultural and social factors.Methods: The data were obtained from a website representing a service of a smoking cessation program, the study represented a service that was open to all individuals. The number of participants were 37,451. They reported their age, gender, nationality, marital status, education and employment status, and completed two psychological questionnaires (PPS-4 and the anxiety and depression scales of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, SCL 90-R.Results: The PSS-4 scores could differentiate between relevant sociodemographic variables (such as sex, age, nationality, marital status, education, parental status, employment status, and income class. The PSS-4 scores showed a positive correlation with the SCL 90-R anxiety and depression scales. The normed values for interpreting the PSS-4 scores are presented. The PSS-4 showed adequate internal consistency and reliability.Conclusions: The PSS-4 is a useful instrument for assessing stress perception levels in the general population in different countries. Its internal consistency is sufficient for a 4-item scale.
Galsurker, Ortal; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Daus, Avinoam; Lers, Amnon; Eshel, Dani
Brown protective skin formation in onion bulbs can be induced by rapid postharvest heat treatment. Onions that were peeled to different depths and were exposed to heat stress showed that only the outer scale formed dry brown skin, whereas the inner scales maintained high water content and did not change color. Our results reveal that browning of the outer scale during heat treatment is due to an enzymatic process that is associated with high levels of oxidation components, such as peroxidase and quercetin glucoside. De-novo transcriptome analysis revealed differential molecular responses of the outer and inner scales to the heat stress. Genes involved in lipid metabolism, oxidation pathways and cell-wall modification were highly expressed in the outer scale during heating. Defense-response-related genes such as those encoding heat-shock proteins, antioxidative stress defense or production of osmoprotectant metabolites were mostly induced in the inner scale in response to the heat exposure. These transcriptomic data led to a conceptual model that suggests sequential processes for browning development and desiccation of the outer scales versus processes associated with defense response and heat tolerance in the inner scale. Thus, the observed physiological differences between the outer and inner scales is supported by the identified molecular differences.
Guest, Rebecca; Tran, Yvonne; Gopinath, Bamini; Cameron, Ian D; Craig, Ashley
Physical injury and psychological disorder following a motor vehicle crash (MVC) is a public health concern. The objective of this research was to determine rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults with MVC-related injury engaged in compensation, and to determine the capacity (e.g. sensitivity and specificity) of two psychometric scales for estimating the presence of MDD and PTSD. Participants included 109 adults with MVC-related injury engaged in compensation during 2015 to 2017, in Sydney, Australia. The mean time from MVC to baseline assessment was 11 weeks. Comprehensive assessment was conducted at baseline, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) were administered to determine probable MDD and PTSD. An online psychiatric interview, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5), was used to diagnose actual MDD and PTSD, acknowledged as gold standard diagnostic criteria. One-way multivariate analyses of variance established criterion validity of the DASS-21 and IES-R, and sensitivity and specificity analyses were conducted to determine the most sensitive cut-off points for detecting probable MDD and PTSD. Substantial rates of MDD (53.2%) and PTSD (19.3%) were found. The DASS-21 and IES-R were shown to have excellent criterion validity for detecting MDD and PTSD in injured participants. A range of cut-off points were investigated and shown to have acceptable sensitivity and specificity for detecting MDD and PTSD in an injured population engaged in compensation. The preferred cut-off points based on this study are: to detect MDD, a DASS-21 total score of 30 and/or a DASS-21 depression score of 10; to detect PTSD, IES-R scores of 33-40 and/or a DASS-21 anxiety score of 7-8. Major psychological disorder is prevalent following a MVC. Results suggest the DASS-21 and IES-R are suitable for use in clinical/compensation settings to
Maron-Katz, Adi; Vaisvaser, Sharon; Lin, Tamar; Hendler, Talma; Shamir, Ron
Stress is known to induce large-scale neural modulations. However, its neural effect once the stressor is removed and how it relates to subjective experience are not fully understood. Here we used a statistically sound data-driven approach to investigate alterations in large-scale resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) induced by acute social stress. We compared rsfMRI profiles of 57 healthy male subjects before and after stress induction. Using a parcellation-based univariate statistical analysis, we identified a large-scale rsFC change, involving 490 parcel-pairs. Aiming to characterize this change, we employed statistical enrichment analysis, identifying anatomic structures that were significantly interconnected by these pairs. This analysis revealed strengthening of thalamo-cortical connectivity and weakening of cross-hemispheral parieto-temporal connectivity. These alterations were further found to be associated with change in subjective stress reports. Integrating report-based information on stress sustainment 20 minutes post induction, revealed a single significant rsFC change between the right amygdala and the precuneus, which inversely correlated with the level of subjective recovery. Our study demonstrates the value of enrichment analysis for exploring large-scale network reorganization patterns, and provides new insight on stress-induced neural modulations and their relation to subjective experience.
Chang, Chih-Cheng; Su, Jian-An; Chang, Kun-Chia; Lin, Chung-Ying; Koschorke, Mirja; Rüsch, Nicolas; Thornicroft, Graham
People with mental illness and their family caregivers often perceive public stigma, which may lead to stigma-related stress (or stigma stress). However, no instruments have been developed to measure this stress for family caregivers of people with mental illness. We modified an instrument that measures the stigma stress of people with mental illness (i.e., the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor) and examined the psychometric properties of the scores of the newly developed instrument: the Family Stigma Stress Scale (FSSS). Primary family caregivers of people with mental illness in Southern Taiwan ( n = 300; mean age = 53.08 ± 13.80; 136 males) completed the FSSS. An exploratory factor analysis showed that the FSSS score had two factors; both factor scores had excellent internal consistency (α = .913 and .814) and adequate test-retest reliability ( r = .627 and .533; n = 197). Significant correlations between FSSS factor scores and other instruments supported its concurrent validity and the ability of the FSSS to differentiate between clinical characteristics, for example, having been previously hospitalized or not. The FSSS is a brief and effective measure of the stigma stress of family caregivers of people with mental illness.
Kaya, Cahit; Tansey, Timothy N; Melekoglu, Macid; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Chan, Fong
The Turkish version of the Perceived Stress Scale (T-PSS-10) measures the extent to which situations in one's life are appraised as stressful. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the measurement structure of T-PSS-10. Two-hundred and thirty-five Turkish university students (93 men and 142 women) completed the T-PSS-10, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the General Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale (GAD-7), and the Inventory of Common Problems (ICP). Confirmatory factor analysis results indicated that a one-factor model did not fit the data, whereas a two-factor correlated model (stress related self-efficacy beliefs, stress related feelings of helplessness) provided a better fit between the model and the data. Significant moderate correlations were found for the stress-related self-efficacy beliefs and stress-related feelings of helplessness factors with depression, anxiety, academic difficulty, relationship problems and health problems. The internal consistency reliability coefficients for the stress-related self-efficacy beliefs and stress-related feelings of helplessness factors were 0.68 and 0.85, respectively. This study provided support for the reliability and validity of T-PSS-10 suggesting that it can be used as a screening instrument by health professionals working with Turkish college students.
Ishihara, Kenichi; Hamada, Takeshi; Meshii, Toshiyuki
In this paper, a new method for scaling the crack tip stress distribution under small scale yielding condition was proposed and named as T-scaling method. This method enables to identify the different stress distributions for materials with different tensile properties but identical load in terms of K or J. Then by assuming that the temperature dependence of a material is represented as the stress-strain relationship temperature dependence, a method to predict the fracture load at an arbitrary temperature from the already known fracture load at a reference temperature was proposed. This method combined the T-scaling method and the knowledge “fracture stress for slip induced cleavage fracture is temperature independent.” Once the fracture load is predicted, fracture toughness J c at the temperature under consideration can be evaluated by running elastic-plastic finite element analysis. Finally, the above-mentioned framework to predict the J c temperature dependency of a material in the ductile-to-brittle temperature distribution was validated for 0.55% carbon steel JIS S55C. The proposed framework seems to have a possibility to solve the problem the master curve is facing in the relatively higher temperature region, by requiring only tensile tests. (author)
Full Text Available Objective To examine the reliability and validity of the servicemen occupational stress scale. Methods A survey with the servicemen occupational stress scale was carried out on 1100 randomly chosen military personnel in the army, and 106 among them also underwent examination with Chinese Military Mental Health Scale (CMMHS at the same time. Results The Cronbach's α coefficient of total scale was 0.929, and subscales were 0.731-0.857 (P<0.01; the half reliability of total scale was 0.932, and subscales were 0.465-0.881 (P<0.01. The correlation coefficients among factors and between factors and total scale score were 0.699-0.900 (P<0.01. The factors of the servicemen occupational stress scale showed a significant correlation with most factors of the CMMHS, the correlation coefficients were 0.186-0253. According to the results of exploratory factor analysis, it was showed that the scale of the entries in the collation and factors named were more reasonable. According to the results of confirmatory factor analysis, there was a higher degree of accordance between the sample data and the hypothesized structure of factors, with Chi-Square statistic equal to 8293.0, RMSEA (root mean square error of approximation equal to 0.055, RMR (root mean square residual equal to 0.031, TLI (Tucker-Lewis index, CFI (comparative fit index, IFI (incremental fit index and GFI (goodness of fit index 0.919, 0.926, 0.920, 0.915, respectively. Conclusion The reliability and validity of the servicemen occupational stress scale meet the standards for scale designing.
Mills, S D; Azizoddin, D; Racaza, G Z; Wallace, D J; Weisman, M H; Nicassio, P M
Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem autoimmune disease characterized by periods of remission and recurrent flares, which have been associated with stress. Despite the significance of stress in this disease, the Perceived Stress Scale-10 has yet to be psychometrically evaluated in patients with SLE. Methods Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structural validity of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 among patients with SLE ( N = 138) receiving medical care at Cedars Sinai Medical Center. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used to examine internal consistency reliability, and Pearson product-moment correlations were used to examine convergent validity with measures of anxiety, depression, helplessness, and disease activity. Results Exploratory factor analysis provided support for a two-factor structure (comparative fit index = .95; standardized root mean residual = .04; root mean square error of approximation = .08). Internal consistency reliability was good for both factors (α = .84 and .86). Convergent validity was evidenced via significant correlations with measures of anxiety, depression, and helplessness. There were no significant correlations with the measure of disease activity. Conclusion The Perceived Stress Scale-10 can be used to examine perceived stress among patients with SLE.
Small-scale faulting at seismogenic depths in the crust appears to be more homogeneous than previously thought. I study three new high-quality focal-mechanism datasets of small (M angular difference between their focal mechanisms. Closely spaced earthquakes (interhypocentral distance ??2 km) tend to have very similar focal mechanisms, often identical to within the 1-sigma uncertainty of ???25??. This observed similarity implies that in small volumes of crust, while faults of many orientations may or may not be present, only similarly oriented fault planes produce earthquakes contemporaneously. On these short length scales, the crustal stress orientation and fault strength (coefficient of friction) are inferred to be homogeneous as well, to produce such similar earthquakes. Over larger length scales (???2-50 km), focal mechanisms become more diverse with increasing interhypocentral distance (differing on average by 40-70??). Mechanism variability on ???2- to 50 km length scales can be explained by ralatively small variations (???30%) in stress or fault strength. It is possible that most of this small apparent heterogeneity in stress of strength comes from measurement error in the focal mechanisms, as negligibble variation in stress or fault strength (<10%) is needed if each earthquake is assigned the optimally oriented focal mechanism within the 1-sigma confidence region. This local homogeneity in stress orientation and fault strength is encouraging, implying it may be possible to measure these parameters with enough precision to be useful in studying and modeling large earthquakes.
Full Text Available The relation between chromia scale spallation during oxidation or cooling down of ferritic stainless steels is generally discussed in terms of mechanical stresses induced by volume changes or differential thermal expansion. In the present paper, growth and thermal stress measurements in scales grown on different ferritic steel grades have shown that the main stress accumulation occurs during isothermal scale growth and that thermal stresses are of minor importance. However, when spallation occurs, it is always during cooling down. Steel-oxide interface undulation seems to play a major role at this stage, thus relating spallation to the metal mechanical properties, thickness and surface preparation. A major influence on spallation of the minor stabilizing elements of the steels was observed which could not be related to any difference in stress state. Therefore, an original inverted blister test was developed to derive quantitative values of the metal-oxide adhesion energy. These values clearly confirmed that this parameter was influenced by scale thickness and by minor additions, titanium greatly increasing adhesion whereas niobium decreased it.
Noriyuki Kushida; Hiroshi Okuda; Genki Yagawa
In this paper, the convergence behavior of large-scale parallel finite element method for the stress singular problems was investigated. The convergence behavior of iterative solvers depends on the efficiency of the pre-conditioners. However, efficiency of pre-conditioners may be influenced by the domain decomposition that is necessary for parallel FEM. In this study the following results were obtained: Conjugate gradient method without preconditioning and the diagonal scaling preconditioned conjugate gradient method were not influenced by the domain decomposition as expected. symmetric successive over relaxation method preconditioned conjugate gradient method converged 6% faster as maximum if the stress singular area was contained in one sub-domain. (authors)
Fawzy, Mohamed; Hamed, Sherifa A
Poor psychological health in medical students has been reported nationwide. This study estimated the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among medical students who were enrolled in a public university in Upper Egypt and determine the association of these morbidities with the students' basic socio-demographic variables. This cross-sectional study included 700 students. A self-administered, questionnaire for the socio-demographic characteristics, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 21) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire were used for assessment. High frequencies of depression (65%), anxiety (73%) and stress (59.9%) were reported. Stress scores were significantly higher than depression and anxiety (P=0.001). 55.7% were poor sleepers. In univarate analysis, females, those living in the University campus/students' residence facility, in the preclinical years and with lower academic achievement had higher scores of DASS and PSQI compared to their comparative partners. Significant correlations were reported between stress with depression, anxiety and PQSI scores (P=0.0001). In multivariate analysis, stress scores were significantly associated with female sex, depression and anxiety scores. We conclude that depression, anxiety and stress symptoms are common in medical students of Assiut University relative to other schools and female gender was significantly correlated with these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Bragança Alves, Felipe Augusto; de Bruyn Kops, Stephen
In stratified turbulence, the residual stress tensor is statistically anisotropic unless the smallest resolved length scale is smaller than the Ozmidov scale and the buoyancy Reynolds number is sufficiently high for there to exist a range of scales that is statistically isotropic. We present approximations to the residual stress tensor that are derived analytically. These approximations are evaluated by filtering data from direct numerical simulations of homogeneous stratified turbulence, with unity Prandtl number, resolved on up to 8192 × 8192 × 4096 grid points along with an isotropic homogeneous case resolved on 81923 grid points. It is found that the best possible scaling of the strain rate tensor yields a residual stress tensor (RST) that is less well statistically aligned with the exact RST than a randomly generated tensor. It is also found that, while a scaling of the strain rate tensor can dissipate the right amount of energy, it produces incorrect anisotropic dissipation, removing energy from the wrong components of the velocity vector. We find that a combination of the strain rate tensor and a tensor related to energy redistribution caused by a Newtonian fluid viscous stress yields an excellent tensorial basis for modelling the RST.
Alley, William; Clark, Brian R.; Ely, Matt; Faunt, Claudia
The increased availability of global datasets and technologies such as global hydrologic models and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites have resulted in a growing number of global-scale assessments of water availability using simple indices of water stress. Developed initially for surface water, such indices are increasingly used to evaluate global groundwater resources. We compare indices of groundwater development stress for three major agricultural areas of the United States to information available from regional water budgets developed from detailed groundwater modeling. These comparisons illustrate the potential value of regional-scale analyses to supplement global hydrological models and GRACE analyses of groundwater depletion. Regional-scale analyses allow assessments of water stress that better account for scale effects, the dynamics of groundwater flow systems, the complexities of irrigated agricultural systems, and the laws, regulations, engineering, and socioeconomic factors that govern groundwater use. Strategic use of regional-scale models with global-scale analyses would greatly enhance knowledge of the global groundwater depletion problem.
Pala, Andrea Norcini; Dell'Amore, Francesca; Steca, Patrizia; Clinton, Lauren; Sandfort, Theodorus; Rael, Christine
The experience of sexual orientation stigma (e.g., homophobic discrimination and physical aggression) generates minority stress, a chronic form of psychosocial stress. Minority stress has been shown to have a negative effect on gay and bisexual men's (GBM's) mental and physical health, increasing the rates of depression, suicidal ideation, and HIV risk behaviors. In conservative religious settings, such as Italy, sexual orientation stigma can be more frequently and/or more intensively experienced. However, minority stress among Italian GBM remains understudied. The aim of this study was to explore the dimensionality, internal reliability, and convergent validity of the Minority Stress Scale (MSS), a comprehensive instrument designed to assess the manifestations of sexual orientation stigma. The MSS consists of 50 items assessing (a) Structural Stigma, (b) Enacted Stigma, (c) Expectations of Discrimination, (d) Sexual Orientation Concealment, (e) Internalized Homophobia Toward Others, (f) Internalized Homophobia toward Oneself, and (g) Stigma Awareness. We recruited an online sample of 451 Italian GBM to take the MSS. We tested convergent validity using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire. Through exploratory factor analysis, we extracted the 7 theoretical factors and an additional 3-item factor assessing Expectations of Discrimination From Family Members. The MSS factors showed good internal reliability (ordinal α > .81) and good convergent validity. Our scale can be suitable for applications in research settings, psychosocial interventions, and, potentially, in clinical practice. Future studies will be conducted to further investigate the properties of the MSS, exploring the association with additional health-related measures (e.g., depressive symptoms and anxiety).
Besèr, Aniella; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Kristina; Peterson, Ulla; Nygren, Ake; Asberg, Marie
Prolonged stress (≥ six months) may cause a condition which has been named exhaustion disorder (ED) with ICD-10 code F43.8. ED is characterised by exhaustion, cognitive problems, poor sleep and reduced tolerance to further stress. ED can cause long term disability and depressive symptoms may develop. The aim was to construct and evaluate a self-rating scale, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), for the assessment of ED symptoms. A second aim was to examine the relationship between self-rated symptoms of ED, depression, and anxiety using KEDS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Items were selected based on their correspondence to criteria for ED as formulated by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW), with seven response alternatives in a Likert-format. Self-ratings performed by 317 clinically assessed participants were used to analyse the scale's psychometric properties. KEDS consists of nine items with a scale range of 0-54. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated that a cut-off score of 19 was accompanied by high sensitivity and specificity (each above 95%) in the discrimination between healthy subjects and patients with ED. Reliability was satisfactory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that ED, depression and anxiety are best regarded as different phenomena. KEDS may be a useful tool in the assessment of symptoms of Exhaustion Disorder in clinical as well as research settings. There is evidence that the symptom clusters of ED, anxiety and depression, respectively, reflect three different underlying dimensions. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wolf, Erika J.; Miller, Mark W.; Orazem, Robert J.; Weierich, Mariann R.; Castillo, Diane T.; Milford, Jaime; Kaloupek, Danny G.; Keane, Terence M.
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Restructured Clinical Scales (RCSs) in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) receiving clinical services at Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers. Study 1 included 1,098 men who completed the MMPI-2 and were…
Sijbrandij, Marit; Olff, Miranda; Opmeer, Brent C.; Carlier, Ingrid V. E.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.
Background: This study examined the accuracy of the 17-item. Dutch version of the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) and the four-item SPAN (Startle, Physiological Arousal, Anger and Numbness) to detect survivors at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within the first 2 weeks after the trauma.
Lu, Wei; Bian, Qian; Wang, Wenzheng; Wu, Xiaoling; Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Min
Chinese university students often suffer from acute stress, which can affect their mental health. We measured and evaluated perceived stress in this population using the Simplified Chinese version of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (SCPSS-10). The SCPSS-10, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7) were conducted in 1096 university students. Two weeks later, 129 participants were re-tested using the SCPSS-10. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors with Eigen values of 4.76 and 1.48, accounting for 62.41% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit of this two-factor model. The internal consistency reliability, as measured by Cronbach's α, was 0.85. The test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.7. The SCPSS-10 exhibited high correlation with the PHQ-9 and GAD-7, indicating an acceptable concurrent validity. The SCPSS-10 exhibited satisfactory psychometric properties in Chinese university students.
Full Text Available This study aims to determine if large-scale choked panel destress blasting can provide sufficient beneficial stress reduction in highly-stressed remnant ore pillar that is planned for production. The orebody is divided into 20 stopes over 2 levels, and 2 panels are choke-blasted in the hanging wall to shield the ore pillar by creating a stress shadow around it. A linear-elastic model of the mining system is constructed with finite difference code FLAC3D. The effect of destress blasting in the panels is simulated by applying a fragmentation factor (α to the rock mass stiffness and a stress reduction factor (β to the current state of stress in the region occupied by the destress panels. As an extreme case, the destress panel is also modeled as a void to obtain the maximum possible beneficial effects of destressing and stress shadow. Four stopes are mined in the stress shadow of the panels in 6 lifts and then backfilled. The effect of destress blasting on the remnant ore pillar is quantified based on stress change and brittle shear ratio (BSR in the stress shadow zone compared to the base case without destress blasting. To establish realistic rock fragmentation and stress reduction factors, model results are compared to measured stress changes reported for case studies at Fraser and Brunswick mines. A 1.5 MPa immediate stress decrease was observed 20 m away from the panel at Fraser Mine, and a 4 MPa immediate stress decrease was observed 25 m away at Brunswick Mine. Comparable results are obtained from the current model with a rock fragmentation factor α of 0.2 and a stress reduction factor β of 0.8. It is shown that a destress blasting with these parameters reduces the major principal stress in the nearest stopes by 10–25 MPa. This yields an immediate reduction of BSR, which is deemed sufficient to reduce volume of ore at risk in the pillar.
Sobral, Maria P.; Costa, Maria E.; Schmidt, Lone
comparability of fertility-related stress across genders and countries. STUDY DESIGN SIZE, DURATION Cross-sectional study. First, we tested the structure of the COMPI-FPSS. Then, reliability and validity (convergent and discriminant) were examined for the final model. Finally, measurement invariance both across...... genders and cultures was tested. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Our final sample had 3923 fertility patients (1691 men and 2232 women) recruited in clinical settings from seven different countries: Denmark, China, Croatia, Germany, Greece, Hungary and Sweden. Participants had a mean age of 34......STUDY QUESTION Are the Copenhagen Multi‐Centre Psychosocial Infertility research program Fertility Problem Stress Scales (COMPI-FPSS) a reliable and valid measure across gender and culture? SUMMARY ANSWER The COMPI-FPSS is a valid and reliable measure, presenting excellent or good fit...
Wielenga, J. M.; de Vos, R.; de Leeuw, R.; de Haan, R. J.
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of clinimetric properties and diagnostic quality of a stress measurement scale (COMFORT scale). DESIGN: Sample of an open population. SETTING: Neonatology department (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), Academic Medical Centre/Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Li, Jingyu; Yang, Ranxia; Wang, Hehui
The temperature field and thermal stress of Man type gas holder is simulated by using the theory of sunshine temperature field based on ASHRAE clear-sky model and the finite element method. The distribution of surface temperature and thermal stress of gas holder under the given sunshine condition is obtained. The results show that the thermal stress caused by sunshine can be identified as one of the important factors for the failure of local cracked oil leakage which happens on the sunny side before on the shady side. Therefore, it is of great importance to consider the sunshine thermal load in the stress analysis, design and operation of large-scale steel structures such as the gas holder.
Bukhari, S.R.; Saba, F.
Objective: To study the role of depression, anxiety and stress in prediction of life satisfaction in male and female university students. Methodology: The study involved 200 students, 100 males and 100 females selected by using purposive sampling technique from different universities of Islamabad. Age range of participants was 19-30 years (mean 21.79+-2.970). Depression anxiety stress scale-21 (DASS-21 and Life Satisfaction scale were administered. Data were analyzed on SPSS version 19. Results: The result of present study indicated that depression anxiety and stress significantly predict life satisfaction among male and female university students. Conclusion: University students who are facing depression, anxiety and stress are more vulnerable to low levels of life satisfaction. (author)
Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Yu; Liu, Yong; Gao, Yuan
Highlights: • The fatigue behavior of the large-scale cruciform welding joint with groove was studied. • The longitudinal residual stress of the large-scale cruciform welding joint was tested by contour method. • The fatigue fracture mechanism of the large-scale cruciform welding joint with groove was analyzed. - Abstract: Fatigue fracture behavior of the 30 mm thick Q460C-Z steel cruciform welded joint with groove was investigated. The fatigue test results indicated that fatigue strength of 30 mm thick Q460C-Z steel cruciform welded joint with groove can reach fatigue level of 80 MPa (FAT80). Fatigue crack source of the failure specimen initiated from weld toe. Meanwhile, the microcrack was also found in the fusion zones of the fatigue failure specimen, which was caused by weld quality and weld metal integrity resulting from the multi-pass welds. Two-dimensional map of the longitudinal residual stress of 30 mm thick Q460C-Z steel cruciform welded joint with groove was obtained by using the contour method. The stress nephogram of Two-dimensional map indicated that longitudinal residual stress in the welding center is the largest
Batigün, Ayşegül Durak; Sahin, Nesrin H
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of two instruments developed to measure Type-A behaviors and job satisfaction, two important variables mentioned in the stress literature. The data were collected from two different samples, one composed of 426 bank personnel, the other composed of 94 adults working in a private company. The findings are presented separately under the titles Study I and Study II. In both of the studies the assessment instruments used were: Stress Audit (Symptoms), Stress Audit (Vulnerability), Stress Coping Behaviors, Job Satisfaction Scale, and Type-A Behaviors Inventory. For both of the instruments, the studies were based on factor analyses. For Type-A Behaviors Inventory the analyses revealed 4 factors, while for Job Satisfaction Scale they revealed 6 factors. The factor subscales developed from these factors were found to have satisfactory Cronbach's alphas. For Type-A Behaviors Inventory they ranged between .40 and .90; whereas for Job Satisfaction Inventory these values were between .53 and .94. Both studies also included correlational analyses to specify the criterion validity values of the two instruments. The findings revealed that both of the instruments had satisfactory psychometric values, indicating that they can be reliably used in health psychology and job stress studies.
Pathak, Vasundhara; Chakraborty, Tania; Mukhopadhyay, Suman
The original Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) was structurally modified according to results of factorial analysis and a new scale was named as modified nursing stress scale (MNSS). This is the first study to modify and validate NSS for Indian nursing population. Factorial analysis showed different factor loading for two subscales and items were shifted according to their loading to provide a more meaningful structure. After relocation of Items 13, 14, and 15 into first factor, this factor was renamed as "emotional and painful conditions of patients" to provide a more appropriate name to the first factor. Items 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, and 29 were found to be distributed under two different factors; one of these two was renamed as "unpredictable changes" and another retained its original name (i.e., workload). This distribution was also supported by rational analysis. All other items were distributed under factors as in the original scale. Rest of the validity assessment was done with the modified scale. Thus, with minor changes in structure, the scale was found to have better content validity.
Thom, C.; Brodsky, E. E.; Carpick, R. W.; Goldsby, D. L.; Pharr, G.; Oliver, W.
Despite significant differences in their lithologies and slip histories, natural fault surfaces exhibit remarkably similar scale-dependent roughness over lateral length scales spanning 7 orders of magnitude, from microns to tens of meters. Recent work has suggested that a scale-dependent yield stress may result in such a characteristic roughness, but experimental evidence in favor of this hypothesis has been lacking. We employ an atomic force microscope (AFM) operating in intermittent-contact mode to map the topography of the Corona Heights fault surface. Our experiments demonstrate that the Corona Heights fault exhibits isotropic self-affine roughness with a Hurst exponent of 0.75 +/- 0.05 at all wavelengths from 60 nm to 10 μm. If yield stress controls roughness, then the roughness data predict that yield strength varies with length scale as λ-0.25 +/ 0.05. To test the relationship between roughness and yield stress, we conducted nanoindentation tests on the same Corona Heights sample and a sample of the Yair Fault, a carbonate fault surface that has been previously characterized by AFM. A diamond Berkovich indenter tip was used to indent the samples at a nominally constant strain rate (defined as the loading rate divided by the load) of 0.2 s-1. The continuous stiffness method (CSM) was used to measure the indentation hardness (which is proportional to yield stress) and the elastic modulus of the sample as a function of depth in each test. For both samples, the yield stress decreases with increasing size of the indents, a behavior consistent with that observed for many engineering materials and recently for other geologic materials such as olivine. The magnitude of this "indentation size effect" is best described by a power-law with exponents of -0.12 +/- 0.06 and -0.18 +/- 0.08 for the Corona Heights and Yair Faults, respectively. These results demonstrate a link between surface roughness and yield stress, and suggest that fault geometry is the physical
Elhai, Jon D.; Naifeh, James A.; Zucker, Irene S.; Gold, Steven N.; Deitsch, Sarah E.; Frueh, B. Christopher
The Infrequency-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder scale (Fptsd), recently created for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), has demonstrated incremental validity over other MMPI-2 scales in malingered posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) detection. Fptsd was developed with combat-exposed PTSD patients, potentially limiting its…
Wiseman, Taneal A; Curtis, Kate; Lam, Mary; Foster, Kim
Traumatic injury and mental health disorders are co-associated. Early identification of depression, anxiety and stress following injury, and subsequent preventive intervention, may reduce the long-term symptoms and negative impacts associated with depression and anxiety. The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence, severity and predictors of depression, anxiety and stress in injured patients in the acute phase of care, and at six months following injury, as well as the effectiveness of an in-hospital screening tool. This descriptive longitudinal study of trauma patients was conducted at a Level 1 Metropolitan Trauma Centre in Australia over 14 months. Participants were interviewed using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale short-form version (DASS-21) during hospital admission then at 3 and 6 months after injury. Descriptive statistics were performed to evaluate participant characteristics and incidence of depression, anxiety and stress. Correlations and logistic regression were conducted to investigate the ability of the DASS-21 to predict symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress and to investigate factors associated with depression, anxiety and stress 6 months after injury. 201 participants ranging in age (18-94 years) and injury severity participated in the baseline interview and 109 completed all 3 interviews over 6 months. Over half (54%) reported above normal scores for depression, anxiety and/or stress in at least one of the 3 time points. Intensive care unit admission and high levels of depression, anxiety and stress at 3 months post injury were predictors for high levels of depression, anxiety and stress at 6 months. Low scores for depression, anxiety and stress during admission were correlated with low scores for depression, anxiety and stress at 3 and 6 months. Depression, anxiety and stress in patients hospitalised following injury is common and should be anticipated in patients who have had an intensive care admission. Screening at 3
Baik, Sharon H; Fox, Rina S; Mills, Sarah D; Roesch, Scott C; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Klonoff, Elizabeth A; Malcarne, Vanessa L
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 among 436 community-dwelling Hispanic Americans with English or Spanish language preference. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis examined the factorial invariance of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 across language groups. Results supported a two-factor model (negative, positive) with equivalent response patterns and item intercepts but different factor covariances across languages. Internal consistency reliability of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 total and subscale scores was good in both language groups. Convergent validity was supported by expected relationships of Perceived Stress Scale-10 scores to measures of anxiety and depression. These results support the use of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 among Hispanic Americans.
Beezhold, Bonnie; Radnitz, Cynthia; Rinne, Amy; DiMatteo, Julie
Studies investigating mood in vegetarian diets have yielded conflicting results, either demonstrating risk for mental disorders or mood protection. Our objective was to investigate mood, as well as factors that potentially impact mood in vegans (VG), vegetarians (VEG), and omnivores (OMN). We surveyed mood, diet, and lifestyle factors in a broad geographic online sample of adult VG (n = 283), VEG (n = 109), and OMN (n = 228) who were recruited via diet-related social networks. Mood was measured with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). The sample was mostly female (78.5%), and age was inversely correlated with all DASS scores (p vegan diet and daily fruit and vegetable intake. Mean stress scores were different in females only (F(2,476) = 3.82, p = 0.023, η(p)(2) = 0.016) and lower stress in females was related to a vegan diet and lower daily intake of sweets. A strict plant-based diet does not appear to negatively impact mood, in fact, reduction of animal food intake may have mood benefits. The improved mood domains were not consistent with those found in other studies, which may be due to methodological differences.
Suzuki, Hiroshi; Katsuyama, Jinya; Tobita, Tohru; Morii, Yukio
The RESA-1 neutron engineering diffractometer in the JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor No.3) at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, which is used for stress measurements, was upgraded to realize residual stress measurements of large scaled mechanical components. A series of residual stress measurements was made to obtain through-thickness residual stress distributions in a Type 304 stainless steel butt-welded pipe of 500A-sch.80 using the upgraded RESA-1 diffractometer. We evaluated effects of crack propagation such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and a part-circumference repair weld on the residual stress distributions induced by girth welding. Measured residual stress distributions near original girth weld revealed good agreement with typical results shown in some previous works using finite element method, deep hole drilling as well as neutron diffraction. After introducing a mock crack with 10 mm depth in the heat affected zone on the inside wall of the pipe by electro discharge machining, the axial residual stresses were found to be released in the part of the mock crack. However, changes in the through-wall bending stress component and the self-equilibrated stress component were negligible and hence the axial residual stress distribution in the ligament was remained in the original residual stresses near girth weld without the mock crack. Furthermore, changes in hoop and radial residual stress were also small. The residual stress distributions after a part repair welding on the outer circumference of the girth weld were significantly different from residual stress distributions near the original girth weld. The through-thickness average axial residual stress was increased due to increase of the tensile membrane stress and mitigation of the bending stress after repair welding. Throughout above studies, we evidenced that the neutron diffraction technique is useful and powerful tool for measuring residual stress distributions in large as well as thick mechanical
Barah, Pankaj; Jayavelu, Naresh Doni; Rasmussen, Simon
available from Arabidopsis thaliana 1001 genome project, we further investigated sequence polymorphisms in the core cold stress regulon genes. Significant numbers of non-synonymous amino acid changes were observed in the coding region of the CBF regulon genes. Considering the limited knowledge about......BACKGROUND: Low temperature leads to major crop losses every year. Although several studies have been conducted focusing on diversity of cold tolerance level in multiple phenotypically divergent Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) ecotypes, genome-scale molecular understanding is still lacking....... RESULTS: In this study, we report genome-scale transcript response diversity of 10 A. thaliana ecotypes originating from different geographical locations to non-freezing cold stress (10°C). To analyze the transcriptional response diversity, we initially compared transcriptome changes in all 10 ecotypes...
Patrick, Jeff; Dyck, Murray; Bramston, Paul
The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) is used to assess the severity of symptoms in child and adolescent samples although its validity in these populations has not been demonstrated. The authors assessed the latent structure of the 21-item version of the scale in samples of 425 and 285 children and adolescents on two occasions, one year apart. On each occasion, parallel analyses suggested that only one component should be extracted, indicating that the test does not differentiate depression, anxiety, and stress in children and adolescents. The results provide additional evidence that adult models of depression do not describe the experience of depression in children and adolescents. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Using a stand-alone developmental test-bed consisting of a minicomputer and a high-resolution color graphics computer, displays and supporting software incorporating advanced on-line decision-aid concepts were developed and evaluated. The advanced concepts embodied in displays designed for the operating crew of a PWR plant include: (1) an integrated display format which supports a top-down approach to problem detection, recovery planning, and control; (2) introduction of nonobservable plant parameters derived from first principles mass and energy balances as part of the displayed information; and (3) systematic processing and display of key success path (plant safety system) attributes. The prototype system, referred to as the PWR-DASS (Disturbance Analysis and Surveillance System), consists of 18 displays targeted for principal use by the control room systems manager. PWR-DASS was conceived to fulfill an operational void not fully supported by safety parameter display systems or reformulated emergency procedure guidelines. The results from the evaluation by licensed operators suggest that organization and display of desired critical safety function and success path information as incorporated in the PWR-DASS prototype can support the systems manager's overview. The results also point to the need for several refinements required for a field grade system, and to the need for a simulator-based evaluation of the prototype or its successor. (author)
Rosenau, Matthias; Angiboust, Samuel; Moreno, Marcos; Schurr, Bernd; Oncken, Onno
During the lifetime of a convergent plate margin stress transfer across the plate interface (a megathrust) can be expected to vary at multiple timescales. At short time scales (years to decades), a subduction megathrust interface appears coupled (accumulating shear stress) at shallow depth (seismogenic zone proportional to effective normal load but also to relative shear stress. For areas of near complete stress drop locking might systematically decrease over the interseismic period from >80-95 % shortly after an earthquake to backslip at significant fractions of plate convergence rate (non-volcanic tremor and slow slip below the seismogenic zone represent short term episodes of metamorphic fluid infiltration into the shallow megathrust. A megathrust fault valve mechanism clocked by the greatest earthquakes then accounts for cyclic fluid pressure build up and drainage at sub-seismic cycle scale. As pore pressure dynamics are controlled primarily by permeability which in turn is controlled by structure and material properties, then more long term coupling transients associated with structural evolution of the plate margin can be implied. Fluid controlled transients might interfere with transients and secular trends resulting from changes in material strength and plate tectonic forces over the Wilson cycle resulting in a multispectral stress-transfer pattern associated with convergent margin evolution. Because of the viscous damping effect of the underlying asthenosphere, however, only longterm transients (periods >1-10 ka) are transmitted into the engaged plates. We therefore speculate that the multispectral nature of stress transfer across a megathrust filtered through the asthenosphere explains transient fault activity in some intraplate settings.
Pereira, Bruno; Moustafa, Farès; Naughton, Geraldine; Lesage, François-Xavier; Lambert, Céline
Background The visual analogue scale (VAS) is widely used in clinical practice by occupational physicians to assess perceived stress in workers. However, a single cut-off (black-or-white decision) inadequately discriminates between workers with and without stress. We explored an innovative statistical approach to distinguish an at-risk population among stressed workers, and to establish a threshold over which an action is urgently required, via the use of two cut-offs. Methods Participants were recruited during annual work medical examinations by a random sample of workers from five occupational health centres. We previously proposed a single cut-off of VAS stress in comparison with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS14). Similar methodology was used in the current study, along with a gray zone approach. The lower limit of the gray zone supports sensitivity (“at-risk” threshold; interpreted as requiring closer surveillance) and the upper limit supports specificity (i.e. “intervention” threshold–emergency action required). Results We included 500 workers (49.6% males), aged 40±11 years, with a PSS14 score of 3.8±1.4 and a VAS score of 4.0±2.4. Using a receiver operating characteristic curve and the PSS cut-off score of 7.2, the optimal VAS threshold was 6.8 (sensitivity = 0.89, specificity = 0.87). The lower and upper thresholds of the gray zone were 5 and 8.2, respectively. Conclusions We identified two clinically relevant cut-offs on the VAS of stress: a first cut-off of 5.0 for an at-risk population, and a second cut-off of 8.2 over which an action is urgently required. Future investigations into the relationships between this upper threshold and deleterious events are required. PMID:28586383
resolved by the recognition that cities are first and foremost self- organizing social networks embedded in space and enabled by urban infrastructure and...AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 15. SUBJECT TERMS b. ABSTRACT 2. REPORT TYPE 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 5d...Report: Energy and Environmental Drivers of Stress and Conflict in Multi-scale Models of Human Social Behavior The views, opinions and/or findings
Lee, Mei-Hua; Holzemer, William L; Faucett, Julia
The purpose of this study was to translate the Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) into Chinese and test its reliability and validity among Chinese nurses in Taiwan. Potential participants were asked to self-administer a Chinese version of the NSS. The agreement estimation was used to determine the equivalence of the meaning between the Chinese and original English versions and was rated by five bilingual nurses as 92% accurate for the 34 items. The test-retest reliability for the NSS at 2 weeks was .71 (p = .022, n=10). Internal consistency reliability and factor analysis were tested with 770 nurses from 65 inpatient units at a medical center in Taiwan. The internal consistency of the Chinese version of the NSS for an overall coefficient alpha is .91 for the total scale, and ranges from .67 to .79 for the subscales. The Chinese version of the NSS explains 53.77% of the variance in work stressors among Chinese nurses in Taiwan. Overall, the Chinese version of the NSS is internally consistent but may not be stable over 2 weeks. There was adequate evidence of the reliability and validity of the NSS-Chinese as an instrument appropriate to measure work stress among Chinese nurses. The translated NSS could be a useful tool for examining the frequency and major sources of stress experienced by Chinese nurses in hospital settings, and for the development of appropriate interventions for stress reduction.
Simsek, Zeynep; Ersin, Fatma; Kirmizitoprak, Evin
Stress is one of the main causes of health problems, especially mental disorders. These health problems cause a significant amount of ability loss and increase cost. It is estimated that by 2020, mental disorders will constitute 15% of the total disease burden, and depression will rank second only after ischemic heart disease. Environmental experiences are paramount in increasing the liability of mental disorders in those who constantly face sustained high levels of stress. The objective of this study was to develop a stress scale for seasonal migrant agricultural workers aged 18 years and older. The sample consisted of 270 randomly selected seasonal migrant agricultural workers. The average age of the participants was 33.1 ± 14, and 50.7% were male. The Cronbach alpha coefficient and test-retest methods were used for reliability analyses. Although the factor analysis was performed for the structure validity of the scale, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient and Bartlett test were used to determine the convenience of the data for the factor analysis. In the reliability analyses, the Cronbach alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .96, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was .81. In the exploratory factor analysis for validity of the scale, four factors were obtained, and the factors represented workplace physical conditions (25.7% of the total variance), workplace psychosocial and economic factors (19.3% of the total variance), workplace health problems (15.2% of the total variance), and school problems (10.1% of the total variance). The four factors explained 70.3% of the total variance. As a result of the expert opinions and analyses, a stress scale with 48 items was developed. The highest score to be obtained from the scale was 144, and the lowest score was 0. The increase in the score indicates the increase in the stress levels. The findings show that the scale is a valid and reliable assessment instrument that can be used in
Nasiri, Saeideh; Akbari, Hossein; Tagharrobi, Leila; Tabatabaee, Akram Sadat
If anxiety and depression do not detect in pregnant women, they may cause complications for the mother, child, and family, including postpartum depression. With regard to the administrative capability of relaxation in health centers, this study was conducted to determine the effect of progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery on stress, anxiety, and depression in pregnant women. This randomized clinical trial was conducted on pregnant women in the city of Kashan at 28-36 weeks. At the onset of the study, demographic questionnaire, Edinburgh Depression Scale, and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) were completed. Providing obtaining score of mild-to-moderate in the stress, anxiety, and depression scale and score of 10 or higher in Edinburgh Depression Scale, individuals were divided randomized to the intervention group ( n = 33) and control group ( n = 33). DASS-21 was again completed in the 4 th -7 th weeks of beginning of the study by all women. Analysis of variance with repeated measures indicated significant differences in mean of scores of stress, anxiety, and depression at three different times in relaxation group ( P pregnancy outcomes.
Pabon, Rommel; Barnard, Casey; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark
Experiments were performed on a turbulent boundary layer developing on a flat plate model under zero pressure gradient flow. A MEMS differential capacitive shear stress sensor with a 1 mm × 1 mm floating element was used to capture the fluctuating wall shear stress simultaneously with streamwise velocity measurements from a hot-wire anemometer traversed in the wall normal direction. Near the wall, the peak in the cross correlation corresponds to an organized motion inclined 45° from the wall. In the outer region, the peak diminishes in value, but is still significant at a distance greater than half the boundary layer thickness, and corresponds to a structure inclined 14° from the wall. High coherence between the two signals was found for the low-frequency content, reinforcing the belief that large scale structures have a vital impact on wall shear stress. Thus, estimation of the wall shear stress from the low-frequency velocity signal will be performed, and is expected to be statistically significant in the outer boundary layer. Additionally, conditionally averaged mean velocity profiles will be presented to assess the effects of high and low shear stress. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.
Lu Jian; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yi Zhang; Maeda, Ryutaro; Mihara, Takashi
In this paper, platinum/titanium (Pt/Ti) film was introduced as a residual stress balance layer into wafer scale thick lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film fabrication by sol-gel method. The stress developing in PZT film's bottom electrode as well as in PZT film itself during deposition were analyzed; the wafer curvatures, PZT crystallizations and PZT electric properties before and after using Pt/Ti stress balance layer were studied and compared. It was found that this layer is effective to balance the residual stress in PZT film's bottom electrode induced by thermal expansion coefficient mismatch and Ti diffusion, thus can notably reduce the curvature of 4-in. wafer from - 40.5 μm to - 12.9 μm after PZT film deposition. This stress balance layer was also found effective to avoid the PZT film cracking even when annealed by rapid thermal annealing with heating-rate up to 10.5 deg. C/s. According to X-ray diffraction analysis and electric properties characterization, crack-free uniform 1-μm-thick PZT film with preferred pervoskite (001) orientation, excellent dielectric constant, as high as 1310, and excellent remanent polarization, as high as 39.8 μC/cm 2 , can be obtained on 4-in. wafer
Almawi, W; Tamim, H; Al-Sayed, N; Arekat, M R; Al-Khateeb, G M; Baqer, A; Tutanji, H; Kamel, C
This study examined the association of depression, anxiety, and stress with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Bahrain, an island-country with a very high prevalence of T2DM. This was a cross-sectional study involving administering Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS)-21 structured depression, anxiety, and stress scale to 143 T2DM patients and 132 healthy controls. Higher proportion of T2DM patients were found in the mild-moderate and severe- extremely severe depression (p=0.002), anxiety (pstress (pstress were associated with T2DM after adjusting for all variables, while age was the only significant variable associated with stress. These results suggest a positive contribution of T2DM to increased depressive and/or anxiety and/or stress disorders among the patients examined, thereby recommending counseling for T2DM patients.
Oh, HyunSoo; Lee, Seul; Kim, JiSun; Lee, EunJu; Min, HyoNam; Cho, OkJa; Seo, WhaSook
This study was conducted to develop a family relocation stress scale by modifying the Son's Relocation Stress Syndrome Scale, to examine its clinical validity and reliability and to confirm its suitability for measuring family relocation stress. The transfer of ICU patients to general wards is a significant anxiety-producing event for family members. However, no relocation stress scale has been developed specifically for families. A nonexperimental, correlation design was adopted. The study subjects were 95 family members of 95 ICU patients at a university hospital located in Incheon, South Korea. Face and construct validities of the devised family relocation stress scale were examined. Construct validity was examined using factor analysis and by using a nomological validity test. Reliability was also examined. Face and content validity of the scale were verified by confirming that its items adequately measured family relocation stress. Factor analysis yielded four components, and the total variance explained by these four components was 63·0%, which is acceptable. Nomological validity was well supported by significant relationships between relocation stress and degree of preparation for relocation, patient self-care ability, family burden and satisfaction with the relocation process. The devised scale was also found to have good reliability. The family relocation stress scale devised in this study was found to have good validity and reliability, and thus, is believed to offer a means of assessing family relocation stress. The findings of this study provide a reliable and valid assessment tool when nurses prepare families for patient transfer from an ICU to a ward setting, and may also provide useful information to those developing an intervention programme for family relocation stress management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Prefrontal systems play an important role in the regulation of emotion as evidenced by clinical neuroimaging studies. Both subjective and objective neuropsychological tests provide functional evidence of executive dysfunction in emotional deregulation. The present authors evaluated these relationships here in a nonclinical community sample using the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale, Profile of Mood States (POMS), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS). Positive correlations uniformly emerged between prefrontal system dysfunction and negative emotional states (anger, depression, anxiety, stress, confusion, and fatigue), whereas positive emotion (vigor) showed a modest inverse correlation with prefrontal system dysfunction, even after control for demographic influences. These relationships may result from cognitive strategies for managing emotion mediated by reciprocal connections between prefrontal systems and the limbic system. The findings corroborated those of other methodologies, supporting the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe) as a valid tool to measure prefrontal function in nonclinical populations.
Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian Frithiof
The compressive strength of unidirectionally or layer-wise reinforced composite materials in direction parallel to their reinforcement is limited by micro-buckling instabilities. Although the inherent compressive strength of a given material micro-structure can easily be determined by assessing its...... compressive stress but also on spatial stress or strain gradients, rendering failure initiation size scale dependent. The present work demonstrates and investigates the aforementioned effect through numerical simulations of periodically layered structures withnotches and holes under bending and compressive...... loads, respectively. The presented results emphasize the importance of the reinforcing layer thickness on the load carrying capacity of the investigated structures, at a constant volumetric fraction of the reinforcement. The observed strengthening at higher values of the relative layer thickness...
Richmond, Katherine; Levant, Ronald; Smalley, Bryant; Cook, Stephen
The purpose of this study was to conduct a confirmatory factor analytic investigation of the Femininity Ideology Scale (FIS) and to assess whether feminine gender role stress mediated the relationship between femininity ideology and anxiety. During the 2010-2011 academic year, a convenience sample of 606 college women were recruited from three universities and one college. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four- versus the hypothesized five-factor model, resulting in the elimination of the Dependency/Deference factor. Mediation analysis using structural equation modeling indicated no direct relationship between Femininity Ideology and Anxiety, although an indirect one was observed, mediated through Feminine Gender Role Stress. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes in contemporary notions of femininity, and the utility of using the FIS in applied therapeutic settings.
A combined analysis of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS), and Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R): Different perfectionist profiles in adolescent high school students.
Sironic, Amanda; Reeve, Robert A
To investigate differences and similarities in the dimensional constructs of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS; Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990), Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS; Flett, Hewitt, Boucher, Davidson, & Munro, 2000), and Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001), 938 high school students completed the 3 perfectionism questionnaires, as well as the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). Preliminary analyses revealed commonly observed factor structures for each perfectionism questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis of item responses from the questionnaires (combined) yielded a 4-factor solution (factors were labeled High Personal Standards, Concerns, Doubts and Discrepancy, Externally Motivated Perfectionism, and Organization and Order). A latent class analysis of individuals' mean ratings on each of the 4 factors yielded a 6-class solution. Three of the 6 classes represented perfectionist subgroups (labeled adaptive perfectionist, externally motivated maladaptive perfectionist, and mixed maladaptive perfectionist), and 3 represented nonperfectionist subgroups (labeled nonperfectionist A, nonperfectionist B, and order and organization nonperfectionist). Each of the 6 subgroups was meaningfully associated with the DASS. Findings showed that 3 out of 10 students were classified as maladaptive perfectionists, and maladaptive perfectionists were more prevalent than adaptive perfectionists. In sum, it is evident that combined ratings from the FMPS, CAPS, and APS-R offer a meaningful characterization of perfectionism. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Di Benedetto, Mirella; Sheehan, Matthew
Comorbid depression and medical illness is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes such as lower medication adherence and higher rates of subsequent mortality. Reliable and valid psychological measures capable of detecting a range of depressive symptoms found in medical settings are needed. The Cardiac Depression Visual Analogue Scale (CDVAS) is a recently developed, brief six-item measure originally designed to assess the range and severity of depressive symptoms within a cardiac population. The current study aimed to further investigate the psychometric properties of the CDVAS in a general and medical sample. The sample consisted of 117 participants, whose mean age was 40.0 years (SD = 19.0, range 18-84). Participants completed the CDVAS, the Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and a demographic and health questionnaire. The CDVAS was found to have adequate internal reliability (α = .76), strong concurrent validity with the CDS (r = .89) and the depression sub-scale of the DASS (r = .70), strong discriminant validity and strong predictive validity. The principal components analysis revealed that the CDVAS measured only one component, providing further support for the construct validity of the scale. Results of the current study indicate that the CDVAS is a short, simple, valid and reliable measure of depressive symptoms suitable for use in a general and medical sample.
Davey, C G; López-Solà, C; Bui, M; Hopper, J L; Pantelis, C; Fontenelle, L F; Harrison, B J
Negative mood states are composed of symptoms of depression and anxiety, and by a third factor related to stress, tension and irritability. We sought to clarify the nature of the relationships between the factors by studying twin pairs. A total of 503 monozygotic twin pairs completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), an instrument that assesses symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress-tension. We applied a recently developed twin regression methodology - Inference about Causation from Examination of FAmiliaL CONfounding (ICE FALCON) - to test for evidence consistent with the existence of 'causal' influences between the DASS factors. There was evidence consistent with the stress-tension factor having a causal influence on both the depression (p anxiety factors (p = 0.001), and for the depression factor having a causal influence on the anxiety factor (p stress-tension in the structure of negative mood states, and that interventions that target it may be particularly effective in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms.
Silva, Hítalo Andrade da; Passos, Muana Hiandra Pereira Dos; Oliveira, Valéria Mayaly Alves de; Palmeira, Aline Cabral; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato de
To evaluate the interday reproducibility, agreement and validity of the construct of short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 applied to adolescents. The sample consisted of adolescents of both sexes, aged between 10 and 19 years, who were recruited from schools and sports centers. The validity of the construct was performed by exploratory factor analysis, and reliability was calculated for each construct using the intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement and the minimum detectable change. The factor analysis combining the items corresponding to anxiety and stress in a single factor, and depression in a second factor, showed a better match of all 21 items, with higher factor loadings in their respective constructs. The reproducibility values for depression were intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.86, standard error of measurement with 0.80, and minimum detectable change with 2.22; and, for anxiety/stress: intraclass correlation coefficient with 0.82, standard error of measurement with 1.80, and minimum detectable change with 4.99. The short version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 showed excellent values of reliability, and strong internal consistency. The two-factor model with condensation of the constructs anxiety and stress in a single factor was the most acceptable for the adolescent population. Avaliar a reprodutibilidade interdias, a concordância e a validade do construto da versão reduzida da Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 aplicada a adolescentes. A amostra foi composta por adolescentes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 10 e 19 anos, recrutados de escolas e centros esportivos. A validade de construto foi realizada por análise fatorial exploratória, e a confiabilidade foi calculada para cada construto, por meio de coeficiente de correlação intraclasse, erro padrão de medida e mudança mínima detectável. A análise fatorial combinando os itens correspondentes a ansiedade e estresse em um
Chinese students are the biggest ethnic group of international students in the United States. This study aims to develop a reliable and valid scale to accurately measure their acculturative stress. A 72-item pool was sent online to Chinese students and a five-factor scale of 32 items was generated by exploratory factor analysis. The five factors included language insufficiency, social isolation, perceived discrimination, academic pressure, and guilt toward family. The Acculturative Stress Scale for Chinese Students demonstrated high reliability and initial validity by predicting depression and life satisfaction. It was the first Chinese scale of acculturative stress developed and validated among a Chinese student sample in the United States. In the future, the scale can be used as a diagnostic tool by mental health professionals and a self-assessment tool by Chinese students. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.
Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Fadzil, Fariza; Ismail, Wan Salwina Wan; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Omar, Khairani; Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Jaffar, Aida; Ismail, Aniza; Mahadevan, Raynuha
University students face not only challenges related with independent living, but also academic challenges. This predisposes them to depression, anxiety and stress, which are fairly common. The aim was to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, and identify their correlates among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 506 students between the ages of 18 and 24 years from four public universities in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Through an anonymous, self administered questionnaire, they were assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Data on socio-demographic, family characteristics and living arrangement were also obtained. Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to explore association between these aspects. Analysis showed among all students, 27.5% had moderate, and 9.7% had severe or extremely severe depression; 34% had moderate, and 29% had severe or extremely severe anxiety; and 18.6% had moderate and 5.1% had severe or extremely severe stress scores based on the DASS-21 inventory. Both depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher among older students (20 and above) and those born in rural areas. Whereas, higher stress scores were significantly higher among older students (20 and above), females, Malays and those whose family had either low or high incomes compared to those with middle incomes. The prevalence of anxiety is much higher than either depression or stress, with some differences in their correlates except for age. These differences need to be further explored for development of better intervention programs and appropriate support services targeting this group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Luis L. Fonseca
Full Text Available Heat is one of the most fundamental and ancient environmental stresses, and response mechanisms are found in prokaryotes and shared among most eukaryotes. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the heat stress response involves coordinated changes at all biological levels, from gene expression to protein and metabolite abundances, and to temporary adjustments in physiology. Due to its integrative multi-level-multi-scale nature, heat adaptation constitutes a complex dynamic process, which has forced most experimental and modeling analyses in the past to focus on just one or a few of its aspects. Here we review the basic components of the heat stress response in yeast and outline what has been done, and what needs to be done, to merge the available information into computational structures that permit comprehensive diagnostics, interrogation, and interpretation. We illustrate the process in particular with the coordination of two metabolic responses, namely the dramatic accumulation of the protective disaccharide trehalose and the substantial change in the profile of sphingolipids, which in turn affect gene expression. The proposed methods primarily use differential equations in the canonical modeling framework of Biochemical Systems Theory (BST, which permits the relatively easy construction of coarse, initial models even in systems that are incompletely characterized.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 is one of most widely used instruments to measure a global level of perceived stress in a range of clinical and research settings. This study was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Simplified Chinese version of the PSS-10 in policewomen. METHODOLOGY: A total of 240 policewomen were recruited in this study. The Simplified Chinese versions of the PSS-10, the Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI were administered to all participants, and 36 of the participants were re-tested two weeks after the initial testing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.86, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.68. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA yielded 2 factors with eigenvalues of 4.76 and 1.48, accounting for 62.41% of variance. Factor 1 consisted of 6 items representing "negative feelings"; whereas Factor 2 consisted of 4 items representing "positive feelings". The item loadings ranged from 0.72 to 0.83. The Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated a very good fit of this two-factor model to this sample. The PSS-10 significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI, indicating an acceptable concurrent validity. CONCLUSIONS: The Simplified Chinese version of the PSS-10 demonstrated adequate psychometric properties for evaluating stress levels. The results support its use among the Chinese population.
Full Text Available This study aimed to psychometrically test a Thai Stressful Life Events Rating Scale (TSLERS. Factor analysis was done on data collected from 313 patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse in Thailand from April to May, 2015. Results identified the following problems impacting physical and mental health: social relationship and social concerns, money, family life, life security, and career. Evaluation of the psychometric scale properties demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. TSLERS provided scientific and empirical data about stressful life events of patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse, and was suitable for stress detection and suggesting further innovations.
Full Text Available Research, all over the world, is starting to recognize the potential impact of physicians’ dissatisfaction and burnout on their productivity, that is, on their intent to leave the job, on their work ability, on the amount of sick leave days, on their intent to continue practicing, and last but not least, on the quality of the services provided, which is an essential part of the general medical care system. It was interest of the provincial medical board’s ethical committee to acquire information about physician’s work-related stress and dissatisfaction. The research group was committed to define the indicators of dissatisfaction and work-related stressors. Focus groups were carried out, 21 stressful experience’s indicators were identified; we developed an online questionnaire to assess the amount of perceived stress relating to each indicator at work (3070 physicians were contacted by e-mail; quantitative and qualitative data analysis were carried out. The grounded theory perspective was applied in order to assure the most reliable procedure to investigate the concepts’ structure of work-related stress. We tested the five dimensions' model of the stressful experience with a confirmatory factor analysis: Personal Costs; Decline in Public Image and Role Uncertainty; Physician's Responsibility toward hopelessly ill Patients; Relationship with Staff and Colleagues; Bureaucracy. We split the sample according to attachment style (secure and insecure -anxious and avoidant-. Results show the complex representation of physicians’ dissatisfaction at work also with references to the variable of individual difference of attachment security/insecurity. The discriminant validity of the scale was tested. The original contribution of this paper lies on the one hand in the qualitative in depth inductive analysis of physicians’ dissatisfaction starting from physicians’ perception, on the other hand, it represents the first attempt to analyze the
Pedrazza, Monica; Berlanda, Sabrina; Trifiletti, Elena; Bressan, Franco
Research, all over the world, is starting to recognize the potential impact of physicians' dissatisfaction and burnout on their productivity, that is, on their intent to leave the job, on their work ability, on the amount of sick leave days, on their intent to continue practicing, and last but not least, on the quality of the services provided, which is an essential part of the general medical care system. It was interest of the provincial medical board's ethical committee to acquire information about physician's work-related stress and dissatisfaction. The research group was committed to define the indicators of dissatisfaction and work-related stressors. Focus groups were carried out, 21 stressful experience's indicators were identified; we developed an online questionnaire to assess the amount of perceived stress relating to each indicator at work (3070 physicians were contacted by e-mail); quantitative and qualitative data analysis were carried out. The grounded theory perspective was applied in order to assure the most reliable procedure to investigate the concepts' structure of "work-related stress." We tested the five dimensions' model of the stressful experience with a confirmatory factor analysis: Personal Costs; Decline in Public Image and Role Uncertainty; Physician's Responsibility toward hopelessly ill Patients; Relationship with Staff and Colleagues; Bureaucracy. We split the sample according to attachment style (secure and insecure -anxious and avoidant-). Results show the complex representation of physicians' dissatisfaction at work also with references to the variable of individual difference of attachment security/insecurity. The discriminant validity of the scale was tested. The original contribution of this paper lies on the one hand in the qualitative in depth inductive analysis of physicians' dissatisfaction starting from physicians' perception, on the other hand, it represents the first attempt to analyze the physicians' dissatisfaction with
Full Text Available Brian E Goldhagen,1 Karen Kingsolver,2 Sandra S Stinnett,1 Jullia A Rosdahl1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USABackground and objective: Stress and burnout impact resident physicians. This prospective study tests the hypothesis that a mindfulness-based resilience intervention would decrease stress and burnout in residents.Methods: Resident physicians from the Departments of Family Medicine, Psychiatry, and Anesthesia at Duke University, Durham, NC, USA, participated in two or three 1-hour sessions of mindfulness-based resilience activities, which introduced mindful-awareness and included practical exercises for nurturing resilience. Anonymous surveys were distributed before (completed by 47 residents and after the intervention (both completed by 30 residents; a follow-up survey was distributed 1 month later (seven residents completed all three surveys. The survey included the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, 21-question version (DASS-21, the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, and ten questions from the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire.Results: At baseline, most residents’ scores were in the normal range with respect to stress; however, female residents had higher DASS-21 scores than male residents (31.7, females vs 18.4, males; P=0.002. Most residents’ burnout scores were in the abnormal range, both with respect to exhaustion (38/47 residents, subscore ≥2.25 and disengagement (37/47 residents, subscore ≥2.1. Higher perceived levels of stress correlated with the instruments. Analysis of the surveys before and after the intervention showed no significant short-term change in stress, burnout, mindful-awareness, or cognitive failure. There was a trend for females and post-medical school graduate year 1 and 2 (PGY1 and PGY2 residents to have a reduction in DASS-21 scores after intervention. There was also a trend of
Coluccia, Anna; Lorini, Francesca; Ferretti, Fabio; Pozza, Andrea; Gaetani, Marco
The issue of the assessment of work-related stress has stimulated in recent years, the production of several theoretical paradigms and assessment tools. In this paper we present a new scale for the assessment of organizational well-being and work-related stress specific for healthcare organizations (Work-related Stress Assessment Scale - WSAS). The goal of the authors is to examine the psychometric properties of the scale, so that it can be used in the healthcare setting as a work-related stress assessment tool. The answers of 230 healthcare professionals belonging to different roles have been analyzed. The study was realized in 16 Units of the University Hospital "S. Maria alle Scotte "of Siena. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed the presence of five factors with good internal consistency and reliability, "relationship to the structure of proximity" (α = 0.93) "change" (α = 0.92), "organization of work "(α = 0.81)," relationship with the company / Governance "(α = 0.87)" working environment "(α = 0.83). The analysis of SEM (Structural Equation Models) has confirmed the goodness of the factor solution (NNFI = 0.835, CFI = 0.921, RMSEA = 0.060). The good psychometric qualities, the shortness and simplicity of the scale WSAS makes it a useful aid in the assessment of work-related stress in health care organizations.
Wei-Qun, Lou Vivian; Chi, Iris
To develop a Grandparent Stress and Reward Scale (GSRS) for grandparents with adolescent grandchildren in a Chinese context. Twenty-three grandparents with adolescent grandchildren were given in-depth interviews on perceived grandparenthood stress and reward to develop the GSRS. The GSRS was then tested on 107 older adults (mean age, 75.8 years) whose youngest grandchildren were aged 12 or older, living in the community, and were recruited from elderly service agencies. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a standardized questionnaire which included the GSRS, Life Satisfaction Scale for Chinese Elders (LSS-C), a single-item measure on grandparenthood stress, and demographic measures. The GSRS has satisfactory structure validity. It measures three aspects of reward (self-esteem and life satisfaction, life-long learning opportunity, and grandchildren support), and two aspects of stress (relationship-oriented stress and grandchildren-oriented stress). GSRS was correlated with LSS-C and perceived grandparenthood stress as theoretically expected, which supported its criteria-related validity. It also had satisfactory reliability based on the internal consistency coefficient. The GSRS was a valid and reliable measure that assesses meaning given to grandparents' perception on reward and stress in relations with adolescent grandchildren in a Chinese context. The underlying construct of the scale suggested that the meaning given to grandparenthood in the Chinese context was still influenced by the Confucian tradition.
Zike, Sanita; Sørensen, Bent F.; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard
An approach is developed for determining the stress-strain law and a failure stress appropriate for micro-mechanical models of polymer materials. Double cantilever beam test specimens, made of an epoxy polymer with notches having finite root radius, were subjected to pure bending moments in an en......An approach is developed for determining the stress-strain law and a failure stress appropriate for micro-mechanical models of polymer materials. Double cantilever beam test specimens, made of an epoxy polymer with notches having finite root radius, were subjected to pure bending moments......-scale (5–6%). The hardening exponent of a power law hardening material was obtained by the use of the J-integral, estimating the strain energy density around the notch. The hardening exponent was found to be within the range of 5–6 and the corresponding micro-scale failure stress was in the range of 220...
Full Text Available Background: Mental health disorders affect around 500 million people worldwide. In India, around 10-12% of people are affected by a mental disorder either due to stress, depression, anxiety, or any other cause. Mental health of workers affects the productivity of the workplace, with estimates putting these losses to be over 100 million dollars annually. Aims: The study aims to measure depression, anxiety, and stress levels of workers in an industry and to investigate if it has any effect on productivity of the firm. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a cross-sectional design and was conducted among workmen of the firm. A sociodemographic based questionnaire and a mental health screening tool -Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21 were used for the same. A total of 90 completed questionnaires were analyzed for the study. The data was analyzed for central tendencies as well as for any associations and correlations. Results: The study showed that none of the workers had a positive score for depression. It also showed that around 36% of the workers had a positive score for anxiety and 18% of the workers had a positive score for stress on DASS-21 scale. The odds ratio between stress and number of leaves taken by a worker in the last 3 months suggested a dose-response relationship, but was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The study found a prevalence rate of around 18-36% for anxiety and stress amongst the workers at the factory. Large-scale studies will help understand the effect mental health status has on the Indian workplace.
Örlü, R; Fiorini, T; Segalini, A; Bellani, G; Talamelli, A; Alfredsson, P H
This paper reports the first turbulence measurements performed in the Long Pipe Facility at the Center for International Cooperation in Long Pipe Experiments (CICLoPE). In particular, the Reynolds stress components obtained from a number of straight and boundary-layer-type single-wire and X-wire probes up to a friction Reynolds number of 3.8×10 4 are reported. In agreement with turbulent boundary-layer experiments as well as with results from the Superpipe, the present measurements show a clear logarithmic region in the streamwise variance profile, with a Townsend-Perry constant of A 2 ≈1.26. The wall-normal variance profile exhibits a Reynolds-number-independent plateau, while the spanwise component was found to obey a logarithmic scaling over a much wider wall-normal distance than the other two components, with a slope that is nearly half of that of the Townsend-Perry constant, i.e. A 2,w ≈A 2 /2. The present results therefore provide strong support for the scaling of the Reynolds stress tensor based on the attached-eddy hypothesis. Intriguingly, the wall-normal and spanwise components exhibit higher amplitudes than in previous studies, and therefore call for follow-up studies in CICLoPE, as well as other large-scale facilities.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).
... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...
Yalinay Dikmen, Pinar; Yavuz, Burcu Goksan; Aydinlar, Elif Ilgaz
To assess the relationships between migraine, depression, anxiety, stress, and sleep problems. Psychiatric conditions and sleep disturbances are common in migraineurs. Depression, anxiety, stress, migraine, and sleep problems frequently coexist as comorbidities. Eighty-seven episodic migraineurs (62 females, 25 males; 32.8 ± 6.9) and 41 control subjects (25 females, 16 males; 31.5 ± 5.6) were prospectively enrolled for the study. The participants completed a sociodemographic data form and a migraine disability assessment scale (MIDAS), depression, anxiety, stress scale (DASS), and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). In migraineurs, a significant positive correlation was found between PSQI total scores and MIDAS scores (migraine related disability for at least three consecutive months) (r = 0. 234, p = 0.04). Only 24.1 % of migraineus (n = 21) had minimal or no disability, 75.9 % of the patients (n = 66) had more than a little disability according to MIDAS scores. PSQI total scores were also correlated with pain intensity over a three month period (MIDAS B) (r = 0.221, p = 0.04). While PSQI scores were found significantly different between migraineurs and control subjects (5.5 ± 2.9 vs 4.5 ± 2.5; p = 0.04), the correlation of all the DASS subscale scores between the groups was not statistically significant. Our findings showed that episodic migraine was a risk factor on its own for sleep disturbances without comorbid depression, anxiety, and stress. Moreover, migraine-related disability and pain intensity in migraine attacks were related to poor sleep quality.
Elhai, Jon D; Hall, Brian J; Erwin, Meredith Claycomb
A sample of 359 students participated in a web survey, administered the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) as a pre-test. We subsequently randomly assigned subjects to either 1) a smart phone loss group or 2) social media accounts loss group. We asked them to imagine losing two days' access to the technology in their respective group, and rate associated symptoms using the DASS-21. Compared to subjects in the smartphone loss group, social media loss subjects evidenced stronger relations between suppressive emotion regulation with depression, anxiety and stress from imagined loss. Controlling for age and gender, social media loss subjects' increased use of suppression, and decreased use of cognitive reappraisal in emotion regulation, were related to depression, stress and (for suppression only) anxiety due to imagined lost social media. Emotion regulation was not related to psychopathology for subjects in the smartphone loss scenario. Results suggest that emotion dysregulation may be associated with psychopathology from social media loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Smoking is prohibited in India at all the public places including hospital premises, but people with habit of smoking are not able to abide the rules strictly. Somehow, level of dependence and stress along with other psychological variables like anxiety and depression play key roles in smoking in the hospital premises. Methodology: Present study aimed to know the level of dependence and other psychological variables like depression, anxiety, and stress in the caregivers of patients of casualty and outpatients departments. Seventy five participants were recruited purposively from the hospital premises. The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS- Hindi were administered. Result: Participants reported nicotine dependence was associated with psychological variables like mild to moderate level of depression, anxiety, and stress. Caregivers of casualty patients were having high level of stress than caregivers of outpatients. Conclusion: It can be concluded that psychological variables play a significant role in nicotine dependence.
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of a new version of job stress scale, which measures the extended set of psychosocial stressors by adding new scales to the current version of the job stress scale. Additional scales were extensively collected from theoretical job stress models and similar questionnaire from different countries. Items were tested in workplace and refined through a pilot survey (n = 400 to examine the reliability and construct validity. Most scales showed acceptable levels of internal consistency, intra-class reliability, and test–retest reliability. Factor analysis and correlation analysis showed that these scales fit the theoretical expectations. These findings provided enough evidences that the new job stress scale is reliable and valid. Although confirmatory analysis should be examined in future studies. The new job stress scale is a useful instrument for organization and academicians to evaluate job stress in modern Indian workplace.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the stress level of medical students and the relationship between stress and academic year. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at an undergraduate medical school with a five-year curriculum, in Pakistan, from January 2014 to April 2014. Medical students in the first four years were included in the study. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10, a self-administered questionnaire, was distributed to the students. A total of 445 medical students completed the questionnaire. The average stress score was 19.61 (SD = 6.76 with a range from 10 to 43. Stress was experienced by 169 students (41.7%. The scores of female students were higher than scores of males, indicating a higher stress level (P = 0.011. The relationship between stress and academic year was insignificant (P = 0.392.
Imura, Tomoya; Takamura, Masahiro; Okazaki, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, Satoko
We developed a scale to measure time management and assessed its reliability and validity. We then used this scale to examine the impact of time management on psychological stress response. In Study 1-1, we developed the scale and assessed its internal consistency and criterion-related validity. Findings from a factor analysis revealed three elements of time management, “time estimation,” “time utilization,” and “taking each moment as it comes.” In Study 1-2, we assessed the scale’s test-retest reliability. In Study 1-3, we assessed the validity of the constructed scale. The results indicate that the time management scale has good reliability and validity. In Study 2, we performed a covariance structural analysis to verify our model that hypothesized that time management influences perceived control of time and psychological stress response, and perceived control of time influences psychological stress response. The results showed that time estimation increases the perceived control of time, which in turn decreases stress response. However, we also found that taking each moment as it comes reduces perceived control of time, which in turn increases stress response.
Yalin Sapmaz, Şermin; Ergin, Dilek; Özek Erkuran, Handan; Şen Celasin, Nesrin; Öztürk, Masum; Karaarslan, Duygu; Köroğlu, Ertuğrul; Aydemir, Ömer
This study assessed the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity Scale-Child Form for use among the Turkish population. The study group consisted of 30 patients that had been treated in a child psychiatry unit and diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder and 83 healthy volunteers that were attending middle or high school during the study period. For reliability analyses, the internal consistency coefficient and the test-retest correlation coefficient were measured. For validity analyses, the exploratory factor analysis and correlation analysis with the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index for concurrent validity were measured. The Cronbach's alpha (the internal consistency coefficient) of the scale was 0.909, and the test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.663. One factor that could explain 58.5% of the variance was obtained and was congruent with the original construct of the scale. As for concurrent validity, the scale showed high correlation with the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index. It was concluded that the Turkish version of the DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity Scale-Child Form can be used as a valid and reliable tool.
Wei Yanpeng; Wang Yiwei; Huang Chenguang; Fang Xin; Duan Zhuping
A scaled underwater launch system based on the stress wave theory and the slip Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) technique is developed to study the phenomenon of cavitations and other hydrodynamic features of high-speed submerged bodies. The present system can achieve a transient acceleration in the water instead of long-time acceleration outside the water. The projectile can obtain a maximum speed of 30 m/s in about 200 μs by the SHPB launcher. The cavitation characteristics in the stage of acceleration and deceleration are captured by the high-speed camera. The processes of cavitation inception, development and collapse are also simulated with the business software FLUENT, and the results are in good agreement with experiment. There is about 20-30% energy loss during the launching processes, the mechanism of energy loss is also preliminary investigated by measuring the energy of the incident bar and the projectile. (authors)
Take, Andy; Bowman, Elisabeth; Bryant, Sarah
The rheology of dry granular flows is an area of significant focus within the granular physics, geoscience, and geotechnical engineering research communities. Studies performed to better understand granular flows in manufacturing, materials processing or bulk handling applications have typically focused on the behavior of steady, continuous flows. As a result, much of the research on relating the fundamental interaction of particles to the rheological or constitutive behaviour of granular flows has been performed under (usually) steady-state conditions and low stress levels. However, landslides, which are the primary focus of the geoscience and geotechnical engineering communities, are by nature unsteady flows defined by a finite source volume and at flow depths much larger than typically possible in laboratory experiments. The objective of this paper is to report initial findings of experimental studies currently being conducted using a new large-scale landslide flume (8 m long, 2 m wide slope inclined at 30° with a 35 m long horizontal base section) and at elevated particle self-weight in a 10 m diameter geotechnical centrifuge to investigate the granular flow behavior at multiple-scales and stress levels. The transparent sidewalls of the two flumes used in the experimental investigation permit the combination of observations of particle-scale interaction (using high-speed imaging through transparent vertical sidewalls at over 1000 frames per second) with observations of the distal reach of the landslide debris. These observations are used to investigate the applicability of rheological models developed for steady state flows (e.g. the dimensionless inertial number) in landslide applications and the robustness of depth-averaged approaches to modelling dry granular flow at multiple scales. These observations indicate that the dimensionless inertial number calculated for the flow may be of limited utility except perhaps to define a general state (e.g. liquid
Laranjeira, Carlos António
The Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) is a widely used instrument to measure the impact of fatigue on specific types of functioning. This study aims to translate and test the reliability and validity of the Portuguese version of the FSS. The questionnaire was administered to a worker sample of 424 nurses. Reliability analysis showed satisfactory results (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = .87). The test-retest reliability was .85. The principal component analysis showed that the FSS was a measure with a one-factor structure. The construct validity of the total FSS score was assessed by correlation with Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) score, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) score, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score. Each of the corresponding correlation coefficients among the total FSS score and MBI score, DASS score, and perceived fatigue score (VAS) were .55 (p < .01), .62 (p < .01), and .68 (p < .01), respectively, which shows sufficient construct validity. To measure the discriminant validity of FSS, we examined the differences in scores between groups in terms of the number of hours of sleep and overtime. The less nurses slept and the longer they worked, the higher their total FSS score became. This preliminary validation study of the Portuguese version of FSS proved that it is an acceptable, reliable, and valid measure of fatigue in the working population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In the frame of the studies for a high performance concept of a light water reactor (LWR) different materials for the cladding are investigated, among them are austenitic and ferritic/martensitic (f/m) steels of different Cr content. Due to the envisaged very extended life times of the fuel elements in the reactor, corrosion problems may arise. Thus, cracking and/or spalling effects in oxide scales on metallic components may play an important role in the corrosion process as they lead, in general, to a drastic enhancement in the oxidation rates. Analytical models for different fundamental stress problems in the compound oxide scale/metallic substrate have been developed and implemented in the computer code OXSPA. These models concern the growth stresses in the cylindrical tubes, the stresses due to temperature changes and radial temperature gradients and the stresses due to inside and outside pressures. (orig.)
Drouet, Stéphane; Bouin, Marie-Paule; Cotton, Fabrice
In this study we analyse records from the 'Les Saintes' seismic sequence following the Mw= 6.3 earthquake of 2004 November 11, which occurred close to Guadeloupe (French West Indies). 485 earthquakes with magnitudes from 2 to 6, recorded at distances between 5 and 150 km are used. S-waves Fourier spectra are analysed to simultaneously determine source, path and site terms. The results show that the duration magnitude routinely estimated for the events that occurred in the region underestimate moment magnitude by 0.5 magnitude units over the whole magnitude range. From the inverted seismic moments and corner frequencies, we compute Brune's stress drops. We show that stress drops increase with increasing magnitude. The same pattern is observed on apparent stresses (i.e. the seismic energy-to-moment ratio). However, the rate of increase diminishes at high magnitudes, which is consistent with a constant stress drop model for large events. Using the results of the inversions, we perform ground motion simulations for the entire data set using the SMSIM stochastic simulation tool. The results show that a good fit (σ= 0.25) with observed data is achieved when the source is properly described by its moment magnitude and stress drop, and when site effects are taken into account. Although the magnitude-dependent stress drop model is giving better results than the constant stress drop model, the interevent variability remains high, which could suggest that stress drop depends on other parameters such as the depth of the hypocentre. In any case, the overall variability is of the same order of magnitude as usually observed in empirical ground motion prediction equations.
Zeng, Fan-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Mian-Zhen; Lan, Ya-Jia
To establish the scale of the norm of occupational stress on the professionals and put it into practice. T scores were linear transformations of raw scores, derived to have a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. The scale standard of the norm was formulated in line with the principle of normal distribution. (1) For the occupational role questionnaire (ORQ) and personal strain questionnaire (PSQ) scales, high scores suggested significant levels of occupational stress and psychological strain, respectively. T scores >/= 70 indicated a strong probability of maladaptive stress, debilitating strain, or both. T scores in 60 approximately 69 suggested mild levels of maladaptive stress and strain, and in 40 approximately 59 were within one standard deviation of the mean and should be interpreted as being within normal range. T scores /= 60) indicated increasingly strong coping resources. (2) This study provided raw score to T-score conversion tables for each OSI-R scale for the total normative sample as well as for gender, and several occupational groups, including professional engineer, professional health care, economic business, financial business, law, education and news. OSI-R profile forms for total normative samples, gender and occupation were also offered according to the conversion tables. The norm of occupational stress can be used as screening tool, organizational/occupational assessment, guide to occupational choice and intervention measures.
Khalili, Robabe; Sirati Nir, Masoud; Ebadi, Abbas; Tavallai, Abbas; Habibi, Mehdi
The Cohen Perceived Stress Scale is being used widely in various countries. The present study evaluated the validity and reliability of the Cohen 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) in assessing tension headache, migraine, and stress-related diseases in Iran. This study is a methodological and cross-sectional descriptive investigation of 100 patients with chronic headache admitted to the pain clinic of Baqiyatallah Educational and Therapeutic Center. Convenience sampling was used for subject selection. PSS psychometric properties were evaluated in two stages. First, the standard scale was translated. Then, the face validity, content, and construct of the translated version were determined. The average age of participants was 38 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 13.2. As for stress levels, 12% were within the normal range, 36% had an intermediate level, and 52% had a high level of stress. The face validity and scale content were remarkable, and the KMO coefficient was 0.82. Bartlett's test yielded 0.327 which was statistically significant (pstress and chronic headache. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Del Brutto, Victor J; Maestre, Gladys E; Gardener, Hannah; Zambrano, Mauricio; Wright, Clinton B
To assess the relationship between cognitive status and self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress of older adults living in an underserved rural South American population. Community-dwelling Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years were identified during a door-to-door census, and evaluated with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). We explored whether positivity in each of the DASS-21 axes was related to total and domain-specific MoCA performance after adjustment for age, sex and education. A total of 280 persons (59% women; mean age, mean age 70 ± 8 years) were included. Based on established cut-offs for the DASS-21, 12% persons had depression, 15% had anxiety and 5% had stress. Mean total MoCA scores were significantly lower for depressed than for not depressed individuals (15.9 ± 5.5 vs 18.9 ± 4.4, P Depressed participants had significantly lower total and domain-specific MoCA scores for abstraction, short-term memory and orientation. Anxiety was related to significantly lower total MoCA scores (17 ± 4.7 vs 18.8 ± 4.5, P = 0.02), but not to differences in domain-specific MoCA scores. Stress was not associated with significant differences in MoCA scores. The present study suggests that depression and anxiety are associated with poorer cognitive performance in elderly residents living in rural areas of developing countries. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Full Text Available The present study examined the stability of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the complementary scales of family adaptability and cohesion evaluation scales (FACES in Iranian families. The scale was translated into Persian language and was used as part of a battery of questionnaires consisting of the scales measuring family communication scale (FCS, family satisfaction scale (FSS, depression, anxiety, stress scale (DASS, youth self-report for behavior problems (YSR, parenting stress index-short form (PSI-SF, and life events (LF. A sample of 1652 subjects (father= 558, mother= 576, child=518 from seven capital cities including Tehran, Mashhad, Tabriz, Kermanshah, Yazd, Shiraz, and Esfahan completed questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the original two-factor structure. The results provided acceptable internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent, and divergent validity. Findings supported the Persian version of FCS and FSS for cross-cultural use as a valid and reliable measure for diagnostic purposes in family context.
Niu, Lu; Qiu, Yangyang; Luo, Dan; Chen, Xi; Wang, Min; Pakenham, Kenneth I; Zhang, Xixing; Huang, Zhulin; Xiao, Shuiyuan
Being HIV-infected is a stressful experience for many individuals. To assess HIV-related stress in the Chinese context, a measure with satisfied psychometric properties is yet underdeveloped. This study aimed to examine the psychometric characteristics of a simplified Chinese version of the HIV/AIDS Stress Scale (SS-HIV) among people living with HIV/AIDS in central China. A total of 667 people living with HIV (92% were male) were recruited from March 1st 2014 to August 31th 2015 by consecutive sampling. A standard questionnaire package containing the Chinese HIV/AIDS Stress Scale (CSS-HIV), the Chinese Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and the Chinese Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) were administered to all participants, and 38 of the participants were selected randomly to be re-tested in four weeks after the initial testing. Our data supported that a revised 17-item CSS-HIV had adequate psychometric properties. It consisted of 3 factors: emotional stress (6 items), social stress (6 items) and instrumental stress (5 items). The overall Cronbach's α was 0.906, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.832. The revised CSS-HIV was significantly correlated with the number of HIV-related symptoms, as well as scores on the PHQ-9 and GAD-7, indicating acceptable concurrent validity. The 17-item Chinese version of the SS-HIV has potential research and clinical utility in identifying important stressors among the Chinese HIV-infected population and in understanding the effects of stress on adjustment to HIV.
Helmuth, Brian; Broitman, Bernardo R; Yamane, Lauren; Gilman, Sarah E; Mach, Katharine; Mislan, K A S; Denny, Mark W
Predicting when, where and with what magnitude climate change is likely to affect the fitness, abundance and distribution of organisms and the functioning of ecosystems has emerged as a high priority for scientists and resource managers. However, even in cases where we have detailed knowledge of current species' range boundaries, we often do not understand what, if any, aspects of weather and climate act to set these limits. This shortcoming significantly curtails our capacity to predict potential future range shifts in response to climate change, especially since the factors that set range boundaries under those novel conditions may be different from those that set limits today. We quantitatively examine a nine-year time series of temperature records relevant to the body temperatures of intertidal mussels as measured using biomimetic sensors. Specifically, we explore how a 'climatology' of body temperatures, as opposed to long-term records of habitat-level parameters such as air and water temperatures, can be used to extrapolate meaningful spatial and temporal patterns of physiological stress. Using different metrics that correspond to various aspects of physiological stress (seasonal means, cumulative temperature and the return time of extremes) we show that these potential environmental stressors do not always occur in synchrony with one another. Our analysis also shows that patterns of animal temperature are not well correlated with simple, commonly used metrics such as air temperature. Detailed physiological studies can provide guidance to predicting the effects of global climate change on natural ecosystems but only if we concomitantly record, archive and model environmental signals at appropriate scales.
Ek-uma Imkome; JintanaYunibhand; Waraporn Chaiyawat
This study aimed to psychometrically test a Thai Stressful Life Events Rating Scale (TSLERS). Factor analysis was done on data collected from 313 patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse in Thailand from April to May, 2015. Results identified the following problems impacting physical and mental health: social relationship and social concerns, money, family life, life security, and career. Evaluation of the psychometric scale properties demonstrated acceptable validity ...
Effects of a hops (Humulus lupulus L.) dry extract supplement on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in apparently healthy young adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot study.
Kyrou, Ioannis; Christou, Aimilia; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Stefanaki, Charikleia; Skenderi, Katerina; Katsana, Konstantina; Tsigos, Constantine
The Humulus lupulus L. plant (hops) is used as a herbal medicinal product for anxiety/mood disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of a hops dry extract on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in young adults. Apparently healthy young adults from our university completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and those reporting at least mild depression, anxiety and stress were invited to complete the study intervention. This followed a randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design with two 4-week intervention periods (Melcalin hops or placebo; two 0.2 gr capsules once daily) separated by a 2-week wash-out. Anthropometric measurements, DASS-21 assessments and measurements of morning cortisol plasma levels were performed at the beginning and the end of the 4-week treatment periods. 36 participants (Females/Males: 31/5; age: 24.7±0.5 years) completed the study intervention (attrition: 6/42). No significant changes in body weight and composition or morning circulating cortisol were noted with the hops or placebo. Significantly decreased DASS-21 anxiety, depression and stress scores were documented with hops (9.2±7.3 vs. 5.1±5.9, 11.9±7.9 vs. 9.2±7.4, and 19.1±8.1 vs. 11.6±8.1; all p values depression, anxietyand stress symptoms, daily supplementation with a hops dry extract can significantly improve all these symptoms over a 4-week period. These beneficial effects agree with the indication of hops for anxiety/mood disorders and restlessness, as approved by the German Commission E.
Kornelsen, Jude; Stoll, Kathrin; Grzybowski, Stefan
Rural pregnant woman who lack local access to maternity care due to their remote living circumstances may experience stress and anxiety related to pregnancy and parturition. The Rural Pregnancy Experience Scale (RPES) was designed to assess the unique worry and concerns reflective of the stress and anxiety of rural pregnant women related to pregnancy and parturition. The items of the scale were designed based on the results of a qualitative study of the experiences of pregnant rural women, thereby building a priori content validity into the measure. The relevancy content validity index (CVI) for this instrument was 1.0 and the clarity CVI was .91, as rated by maternity care specialists. A field test of the RPES with 187 pregnant rural women from British Columbia indicated that it had two factors: financial worries and worries/concerns about maternity care services, which were consistent with the conceptual base of the tool. Cronbach's alpha for the total RPES was .91; for the financial worries subscale and the worries/concerns about maternity care services subscale, alpha were .89 and .88, respectively. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations between the total scores of the RPES and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS [r =.39, p DASS supporting convergent validity (correlations ranged between .20; p < .05 and .43; p < .01). Construct validity was also supported by findings that the level of access and availability of maternity care services were significantly associated with RPES scores. It was concluded that the RPES is a reliable and valid measure of worries and concerns reflective of rural pregnant women's stress and anxiety related to pregnancy and parturition.
Blair, A; Daynes, N; Hamilton, D; Horne, G; Hodgson, D Z L; Shterenlikht, A [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Heard, P J; Scott, T B, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Interface Analysis Centre, University of Bristol, Bristol BS2 8BS (United Kingdom)
In this paper digital image correlation is used to measure relaxation of residual stresses across an interface. On the macro scale the method is applied to a tri-layer bonded aluminium sample, where the middle layer is in tension and the top and the bottom layers are in compression. High contrast speckle pattern was sprayed onto the surface. The relaxation was done with the slitting saw. Three dimensional image correlation was used. On the micro scale the technique was applied to a heat treated large grain brass loaded in tension. Mechanical and electro polishing was used for surface preparation. A focused ion beam was used for slitting across a grain boundary and for imaging. Grain orientation was measured using electron back-scattering diffraction. Two dimensional image correlation was employed. In all macro- and micro-scale experiments the range of measured relaxation was sub-pixel, almost at the limit of the resolution of the image correlation algorithms. In the macro-scale experiments, the limiting factor was low residual stress, due to low shear strength of the Araldite glue used for bonding. Finite element simulation of the relaxation agreed only qualitatively with the experimental results at both size scales. The methodology is intended for use with inverse methods, i.e. the measured relaxation is applied as the boundary conditions to an appropriate FE model which produces stresses equal to the relaxed residual stresses, but with opposite sign. The main conclusion is that the digital image correlation method could be used to measure relaxation caused by slitting in heterogeneous materials and structures at both macro- and micro-scales. However, the repeatability of the techniques needs to be improved before residual stresses can be determined confidently. Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge Airbus UK for provision of materials. They thank Dr Richard Burguete, Airbus UK, and Prof Peter Flewitt, Department of Physics, University of Bristol, for
Blair, A; Daynes, N; Hamilton, D; Horne, G; Hodgson, D Z L; Shterenlikht, A; Heard, P J; Scott, T B
In this paper digital image correlation is used to measure relaxation of residual stresses across an interface. On the macro scale the method is applied to a tri-layer bonded aluminium sample, where the middle layer is in tension and the top and the bottom layers are in compression. High contrast speckle pattern was sprayed onto the surface. The relaxation was done with the slitting saw. Three dimensional image correlation was used. On the micro scale the technique was applied to a heat treated large grain brass loaded in tension. Mechanical and electro polishing was used for surface preparation. A focused ion beam was used for slitting across a grain boundary and for imaging. Grain orientation was measured using electron back-scattering diffraction. Two dimensional image correlation was employed. In all macro- and micro-scale experiments the range of measured relaxation was sub-pixel, almost at the limit of the resolution of the image correlation algorithms. In the macro-scale experiments, the limiting factor was low residual stress, due to low shear strength of the Araldite glue used for bonding. Finite element simulation of the relaxation agreed only qualitatively with the experimental results at both size scales. The methodology is intended for use with inverse methods, i.e. the measured relaxation is applied as the boundary conditions to an appropriate FE model which produces stresses equal to the relaxed residual stresses, but with opposite sign. The main conclusion is that the digital image correlation method could be used to measure relaxation caused by slitting in heterogeneous materials and structures at both macro- and micro-scales. However, the repeatability of the techniques needs to be improved before residual stresses can be determined confidently. Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge Airbus UK for provision of materials. They thank Dr Richard Burguete, Airbus UK, and Prof Peter Flewitt, Department of Physics, University of Bristol, for
Pabon, Rommel; Barnard, Casey; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and fluctuating wall shear stress experiments were performed on a flat plate turbulent boundary layer (TBL) under zero pressure gradient conditions. The fluctuating wall shear stress was measured using a microelectromechanical 1mm × 1mm floating element capacitive shear stress sensor (CSSS) developed at the University of Florida. The experiments elucidated the imprint of the organized motions in a TBL on the wall shear stress through its direct measurement. Spatial autocorrelation of the streamwise velocity from the PIV snapshots revealed large scale motions that scale on the order of boundary layer thickness. However, the captured inclination angle was lower than that determined using the classic method by means of wall shear stress and hot-wire anemometry (HWA) temporal cross-correlations and a frozen field hypothesis using a convection velocity. The current study suggests the large size of these motions begins to degrade the applicability of the frozen field hypothesis for the time resolved HWA experiments. The simultaneous PIV and CSSS measurements are also used for spatial reconstruction of the velocity field during conditionally sampled intense wall shear stress events. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.
X-ray diffraction is a non-destructive method frequently used in materials science to analyse the stress state at a macroscopic scale. Due to the growing complexity of new materials and their applications, it is necessary to know the strain and stress state at a lower scale. Thus, a Kossel micro-diffraction experimental set-up was developed inside a scanning electron microscope. It allows to obtain the crystallographic orientation as well as the strains and stresses within a volume of a few cubic micrometers. Some experiments were also performed using a synchrotron radiation. An experimental procedure was developed to optimize the acquisition of Kossel line patterns and their post-processing. The stress calculation from Kossel patterns was validated by comparing the stress state of single crystals during in situ mechanical loading, obtained by Kossel micro-diffraction and with classical diffraction methods. Then Kossel micro-diffraction was applied to polycrystalline samples by gradually decreasing the grain size. Intergranular stress heterogeneities were for example measured in an interstitial-free steel. Experiments were finally carried out in thin layer samples representative of microelectronic components. (author)
Carvajal, Scott C.; Rosales, Cecilia; Rubio-Goldsmith, Raquel; Sabo, Samantha; Ingram, Maia; McClelland, Debra Jean; Redondo, Floribella; Torres, Emma; Romero, Andrea J.; Oleary, Anna Ochoa; Sanchez, Zoila; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey
Background Understanding contemporary socio-cultural stressors may assist educational, clinical and policy-level health promotion efforts. This study presents descriptive findings on a new measure, the Border Community & Immigration Stress Scale (BCISS). Methods The data were from two community surveys as part of community based participatory projects conducted in the Southwestern US border region. This scale includes stressful experiences reflected in extant measures, with new items reflecting heightened local migration pressures and health care barriers. Results Stressors representing each main domain, including novel ones, were reported with frequency and at high intensity in the predominantly Mexican-descent samples. Total stress was also significantly associated with mental and physical health indicators. Discussion The study suggests particularly high health burdens tied to the experience of stressors in the US border region. Further, many of the stressors are also likely relevant for other communities within developed nations also experiencing high levels of migration. PMID:22430894
Moutinho, Ivana Lúcia Damásio; Maddalena, Natalia de Castro Pecci; Roland, Ronald Kleinsorge; Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero; Tibiriçá, Sandra Helena Cerrato; Ezequiel, Oscarina da Silva; Lucchetti, Giancarlo
To compare the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and stress in medical students from all semesters of a Brazilian medical school and assess their respective associated factors. A cross-sectional study of students from the twelve semesters of a Brazilian medical school was carried out. Students filled out a questionnaire including sociodemographics, religiosity (DUREL - Duke Religion Index), and mental health (DASS-21 - Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale). The students were compared for mental health variables (Chi-squared/ANOVA). Linear regression models were employed to assess factors associated with DASS-21 scores. 761 (75.4%) students answered the questionnaire; 34.6% reported depressive symptomatology, 37.2% showed anxiety symptoms, and 47.1% stress symptoms. Significant differences were found for: anxiety - ANOVA: [F = 2.536, p=0.004] between first and tenth (p=0.048) and first and eleventh (p=0.025) semesters; depression - ANOVA: [F = 2.410, p=0.006] between first and second semesters (p=0.045); and stress - ANOVA: [F = 2.968, p=0.001] between seventh and twelfth (p=0.044), tenth and twelfth (p=0.011), and eleventh and twelfth (p=0.001) semesters. The following factors were associated with (a) stress: female gender, anxiety, and depression; (b) depression: female gender, intrinsic religiosity, anxiety, and stress; and (c) anxiety: course semester, depression, and stress. Our findings revealed high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in medical students, with marked differences among course semesters. Gender and religiosity appeared to influence the mental health of the medical students.
Rosnawati, Muhamad Robat; Moe, Htay; Masilamani, Retneswari; Darus, A
The Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) has been shown to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess occupational stressors among nurses. The NSS, which was previously used in the English version, was translated and back-translated into Bahasa Melayu. This study was conducted to assess the reliability of the Bahasa Melayu version of the NSS among nurses for future studies in this country. The reliability of the NSS was assessed after its readministration to 30 nurses with a 2-week interval. The Spearman coefficient was calculated to assess its stability. The internal consistency was measured through 4 measures: Cronbach's α, Spearman-Brown, Guttman split-half, and standardized item α coefficients. The total response rate was 70%. Test-retest reliability showed remarkable stability (Spearman's ρ exceeded .70). All 4 measures of internal consistency among items indicated a satisfactory level (coefficients in the range of .68 to .87). In conclusion, the Bahasa Melayu version of the NSS is a reliable and useful instrument for measuring the possible stressors at the workplace among nurses.
Roesch, Scott C; Rowley, Anthony A; Vaughn, Allison A
We examined the factorial validity and dimensionality of the Stress-Related Growth Scale (SRGS; Park, Cohen, & Murch, 1996) using a large multiethnic sample (n = 1,070). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a multidimensional representation of the SRGS fit better than a unidimensional representation. Specifically, we cross-validated both a 3-factor model and a 7-factor model using confirmatory factor analysis and were shown to be invariant across gender and ethnic groups. The 3-factor model was represented by global dimensions of growth that included rational/mature thinking, affective/emotional growth, and religious/spiritual growth. We replicated the 7-factor model of Armeli, Gunthert, and Cohen (2001) and it represented more specific components of growth such as Self-Understanding and Treatment of Others. However, some factors of the 7-factor model had questionable internal consistency and were strongly intercorrelated, suggesting redundancy. The findings support the notion that the factor structure of both the original 1-factor and revised 7-factor models are unstable and that the 3-factor model developed in this research has more reliable psychometric properties and structure.
Northern, Jebediah J.; O'Brien, William H.; Goetz, Paul W.
Financial stress is commonly experienced among college students and is associated with adverse academic, mental health, and physical health outcomes. Surprisingly, no validated measures of financial stress have been developed for undergraduate populations. The present study was conducted to generate and evaluate a measure of financial stress for…
Algarvio, Susana; Leal, Isabel; Maroco, João
The aim of this study was to validate the Parental Stress Scale (PSS) for Portuguese parents and to further investigate the scale's criterion-related validity. A two-stage stratified sample of the Portuguese population of parents, with children attending public preschools and primary schools, was obtained, totalizing 3842 parents of children between 3 and 10 years old. Parents completed a Parental Concerns Scale and the Portuguese version of the PSS. Results support the four-factor structure of the Portuguese version of the PSS. Higher levels of parental stress were reported by parents of boys, with lower educational levels; older, divorced or single parents; unemployed mothers; and with a higher number of children. Parental concerns and parental stress' comparative study reported very low correlations between the two constructs. This study supported evidence for the PSS' validity with a stratified sample of Portuguese parents of children between 3 and 10 years old. Moreover, our findings reported the scale's divergent validity with a Parental Concerns Scale. These results point to the importance of assessing both dimensions in family practice.
Ghassami, Maryam; Asghari, Ali; Shaeeri, Mohammad R; Soltaninejad, Zahra; Safarinejad, Mohammad R
The present study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of a Persian version of the Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised (P-FSDS-R) among a sample of healthy Iranian women. A total of 562 healthy Iranian women completed a battery of questionnaires, including the P-FSDS-R, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), Positive and Negative Affect Scales (PANAS) and Locke-Wallace-Marital Adjustment Test (LWMAT). The factor structure and the convergent and divergent validity of the P-FSDS-R were examined, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and Pearson product-moment correlations, respectively. To examine the discriminant validity of the P-FSDS-R, data collected from 562 healthy participants were compared with data from 108 women with sexual problems who completed the P-FSDS-R measure. The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicate that the P-FSDS-R is conceptualized within a one - factor model. The results also indicate that the P-FSDS-R has good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Significant correlations in the predicted directions between the P-FSDS-R scores and the scores of DASS, PANAS and LWMAT support both the convergent and divergent validity of the FSDS-R. The results also indicate that the scores of the P-FSDS-R tests significantly differentiated women with and without sexual problems. In general, these findings support the reliability and the validity of the P-FSDS-R among Iranian women.
... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...
Vosberg, V.; Quadakkers, W.J.; Schubert, F.; Nickel, H.
The relation between mechanical stresses and the adhesion of alumina scales on Si- and Ti-containing NiCrAlY alloys has been investigated. Therefore the Si and Ti contents in model alloys with the base composition Ni-20Cr-10Al-Y, which were cast to achieve high purity, were varied from 0 to 2 m/0 . These solid samples were subjected to cyclic oxidation in the temperature range from 950 to 1100 C. Growth and spallation of the oxide scale were observed by gravimetry. The stresses, present at ambient temperature, were periodically determined by X-ray stress evaluation. Using these results a reasoning of the mechanisms for stress relief and damage of the scale was carried out. The addition of Silicon as well as of titanium has an evident influence on phase composition of Ni-20Cr-10Al-Y type alloys. Due to the variation of phase stability regions the thermal expansion is affected by these additions in the range from 950 to 1100 C. The expansion is enlarged by the addition of Si and lowered with increasing Ti content. (orig.)
Dianne Bautista Solis
Full Text Available The study identified the profile of the single working mothers in terms of number of children, number of years as a single parent and reason for being a single parent; assessed the single mothers’ stress level and adversity quotient; determined the significant difference of stress level and adversity quotient of single mothers when grouped according to profile variables; determined the best predictor of stress level and adversity quotient. Moreover this research endeavoured to test significant relationship between the adversity quotient and stress level of single working mothers. Lastly, it proposed a stress management program for single working mothers for them to cope with their stress and adversities in life. The researcher employed quantitative method using standardized questionnaires namely Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS and Adversity Response Profile (ARP. The respondents were twenty five (25 single working mothers of the students of Batangas State University. From the results, majority of the respondents have 3 children, widow and in early years as single parent; with a normal level of stress and an average adversity quotient.. There are no significant differences on the stress level and adversity quotient of the respondents when grouped according to profile variables. Finally, stress level has no significant effect on adversity quotient of single working mothers. From the findings, the researcher further recommends that the Office of Guidance and Counseling should update the student information database to determine students with a single working mother. The Parent-Teacher Association may form a single-parent subgroup for the single working mothers to be able to identify to other mothers with same situation. Moreover, the proposed stress management program may be reviewed and implemented by the Office of Guidance and Counseling in coordination with the Parent-Teacher Association of Batangas State University. Future researchers
Mahmoud, Jihan Saber Raja; Staten, Ruth; Hall, Lynne A; Lennie, Terry A
Recent research indicates that young adult college students experience increased levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. It is less clear what strategies college health care providers might use to assist students in decreasing these mental health concerns. In this paper, we examine the relative importance of coping style, life satisfaction, and selected demographics in predicting undergraduates' depression, anxiety, and stress. A total of 508 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed the study measures and a short demographics information questionnaire. Coping strategies and life satisfaction were assessed using the Brief COPE Inventory and an adapted version of the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relative influence of each of the independent variables on depression, anxiety, and stress. Maladaptive coping was the main predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress. Adaptive coping was not a significant predictor of any of the three outcome variables. Reducing maladaptive coping behaviors may have the most positive impact on reducing depression, anxiety, and stress in this population.
Full Text Available This paper develops a framework to obtain the flow stress of nickel-based superalloys as a function of γ-γ’ morphology. The yield strength is a major factor in the design of these alloys. This work provides additional effects of γ’ morphology in the design scope that has been adopted for the model developed by authors. In general, the two-phase γ-γ’ morphology in nickel-based superalloys can be divided into three variables including γ’ shape, γ’ volume fraction and γ’ size in the sub-grain microstructure. In order to obtain the flow stress, non-Schmid crystal plasticity constitutive models at two length scales are employed and bridged through a homogenized multi-scale framework. The multi-scale framework includes two sub-grain and homogenized grain scales. For the sub-grain scale, a size-dependent, dislocation-density-based finite element model (FEM of the representative volume element (RVE with explicit depiction of the γ-γ’ morphology is developed as a building block for the homogenization. For the next scale, an activation-energy-based crystal plasticity model is developed for the homogenized single crystal of Ni-based superalloys. The constitutive models address the thermo-mechanical behavior of nickel-based superalloys for a large temperature range and include orientation dependencies and tension-compression asymmetry. This homogenized model is used to obtain the morphology dependence on the flow stress in nickel-based superalloys and can significantly expedite crystal plasticity FE simulations in polycrystalline microstructures, as well as higher scale FE models in order to cast and design superalloys.
McElroy, Eoin; Shevlin, Mark
Cyberchondria is a form of anxiety characterised by excessive online health research. It may lead to increased levels of psychological distress, worry, and unnecessary medical expenses. The aim of the present study was to develop a psychometrically sound measure of this dimension. A sample of undergraduate students (N = 208; 64% female) completed a pilot version of the cyberchondria severity scale (CSS) along with the short form version of the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21). Exploratory factor analysis identified a correlated five factor structure that were labelled 'Compulsion', 'Distress', 'Excessiveness', 'Reassurance Seeking' and 'Mistrust of Medical Professional'. The CSS demonstrated good psychometric properties; the subscales had high internal consistency, along with good concurrent and convergent validity. The CSS may prove useful in a wide variety of future research activities. It may also facilitate the development and validation of interventions for cyberchondria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...
Jackson, Linda J.; Hawkins, Raymond C.
The hypothesis that negative emotional life states accompanying life stresses are associated with overeating and weight gain cannot be adequately tested solely by laboratory analogue studies. Naturalistic, short-term longitudinal designs are needed in which individuals susceptible to mood eating can be identified prior to a stressful event and…
Eskildsen, Anita; Dalgaard, Vita Ligaya; Nielsen, Kent Jacob
with work-related stress complaints. METHODS: A consensus-building process was performed involving the authors of the three previous Danish translations and the consensus version was back-translated into English and pilot-tested. Psychometric properties of the final version were examined in a sample of 64...... patients with work-related stress complaints. RESULTS: The face validity, reliability, and internal consistency of the Danish consensus version of the PSS-10 were satisfactory, and convergent construct validity was confirmed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the change scores showed......OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to (i) cross-culturally adapt a Danish consensus version of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and (ii) evaluate its psychometric properties in terms of agreement, reliability, validity, responsiveness, and interpretability among patients...
Aloba, Olutayo; Awe, Oluwatosin; Adelola, Aderopo; Olatunji, Philemon; Aloba, Tolulope
Globally, suicide is the most important cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. The factor that correlates most significantly with suicide is hopelessness. The aim is to explore the psychometric adaptation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) as a suicide risk evaluation tool among Nigerian university students. A total of 554 Nigerian students completed the BHS and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). Suicide risk level among them was determined by interviewing them with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Suicidality module. Cronbach's alpha for the 16-item BHS was 0.87. It exhibited satisfactory concurrent validity with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Suicidality module and the subscales of the DASS among the students. The 2-factor model of the BHS-16 exhibited satisfactory indices of fitness (goodness of fit index = 0.930; parsimonious goodness of fit index = 0.601; comparative fit index = 0.934; incremental fit index = 0.936; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.910; root mean square error of approximation = 0.059; χ 2 / df = 1.9). Receiver operating characteristics curve indicated that the best cutoff score for those categorized as high suicide risk was 7 (sensitivity 0.700, specificity 0.908, AUC = 0.897). The BHS has satisfactory psychometric properties as a suicide risk screening tool among Nigerian university students.
Full Text Available Background Organisms are facing increasing levels of environmental stress under climate change that may severely affect the functioning of biological systems at different levels of organization. Growing evidence suggests that reduction in body size is a universal response of organisms to global warming. However, a clear understanding of whether extreme climate events will impose selection directly on phenotypic plastic responses and how these responses affect ecological interactions has remained elusive. Methods We experimentally investigated the effects of extreme desiccation events on antioxidant defense mechanisms of a rocky intertidal gastropod (Patella ulyssiponensis, and evaluated how these effects scaled-up at the population and assemblage levels. Results With increasing levels of desiccation stress, limpets showed significant lower levels of total glutathione, tended to grow less and had reduced per capita interaction strength on their resources. Discussion Results suggested that phenotypic plasticity (i.e., reduction in adults’ body size allowed buffering biochemical responses to stress to scale-up at the assemblage level. Unveiling the linkages among different levels of biological organization is key to develop indicators that can anticipate large-scale ecological impacts of climate change.
Ajilchi, Bita; Nejati, Vahid
This study aimed to investigate and compare the executive functions of students with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms with those functions in healthy ones. This study was a comparative and non-clinical analysis. The study population comprised all students of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. A total of 448 students were recruited using convenience sampling method. They were also screened using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) test comprising 21 items. Of study participants, 30 people were depressed, 27 had anxiety, and 15 suffered from stress. Then, 50 control people were matched with them. Next, both groups were compared using the Stroop test, Wisconsin card sorting, and cognitive ability test. Using MANOVA test, data analysis revealed no significant differences among 4 groups with regard to selective attention and shifting attention. Depressed group reacted rapidly as opposed to the anxiety group with regard to measures of shifting attention and cognitive abilities; it was observed that the memory, inhibition control, planning, and flexibility of the healthy group were better than those of the 3 other groups. The findings of this research raised specific issues in relation to the role of depression, anxiety, and stress in the disruption of the executive functions of sufferers. Selective and shifting attention and cognitive abilities are specifically affected in this regard. Meanwhile, the role of stress in impairing decision making and the major role of anxiety in impairing sustained attention was shown to be considerable.
Kargar Jahromi, Marzieh; Javadpour, Shohreh; Taheri, Leila; Poorgholami, Farzad
Depressive and anxious patients on hemodialysis have a higher risk of death and hospitalizations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nurse-led telephone follow ups (tele-nursing) on depression, anxiety and stress in hemodialysis patients. The subjects of the study who were selected based on double blind randomized clinical trial consisted of 60 patients with advanced chronic renal disease treated with hemodialysis. The patients were placed in two groups of 30 individuals. Before the intervention, a questionnaire was completed by patients. There was no telephone follow up in the control group and the patients received only routine care in the hospital. The participants allocated to the intervention group received telephone follow-up 30 days after dialysis shift, in addition to conventional treatment. Every session lasted 30 minutes, as possible. Then the DASS scale was filled out by the patients after completion of study by two groups. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in the posttest regarding the dimensions scores of DASS scale. The result of this trial is expected to provide new knowledge to support the effective follow-up for hemodialysis patient in order to improve their emotional and health status.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Physiological changes and psychological adaptations during pregnancy period expose pregnant mothers to increased risk of depression, anxiety, and stress. Presently, spiritual intelligence is addressed as one of the most influential issues in mental and emotional health of individuals. This study was conducted aimed at examination of the relationship between spiritual intelligence, on the one hand, and depression, anxiety, and stress, on the other, among pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive-correlative study was performed on 182 pregnant women using Stratified Random Sampling method. Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21 and King Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory were used to evaluate and compare research’s variables. SPSS, version 16, and descriptive-analytical statistical methods were employed to analyze data. Results: Results indicated that there was a negative, significant relationship between all scales of spiritual intelligence components and subscales of depression and stress during pregnancy period (P<0.05. There was a negative, significant relationship between critical existential thinking and personal meaning production, on the one hand, and stress, on the other, in pregnancy period (P<0.05. Multiple regressions analysis indicated that predictor variables explain criterion variables in a significant way. Conclusion: Pregnant women with higher degrees of spiritual intelligence tend to have lower degrees of depression, anxiety, and stress during their pregnancy period.
Thiry, Olivier; Winckelmans, Grégoire
In the large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flows, models are used to account for the subgrid-scale (SGS) stress. We here consider LES with "truncation filtering only" (i.e., that due to the LES grid), thus without regular explicit filtering added. The SGS stress tensor is then composed of two terms: the cross term that accounts for interactions between resolved scales and unresolved scales, and the Reynolds term that accounts for interactions between unresolved scales. Both terms provide forward- (dissipation) and backward (production, also called backscatter) energy transfer. Purely dissipative, eddy-viscosity type, SGS models are widely used: Smagorinsky-type models, or more advanced multiscale-type models. Dynamic versions have also been developed, where the model coefficient is determined using a dynamic procedure. Being dissipative by nature, those models do not provide backscatter. Even when using the dynamic version with local averaging, one typically uses clipping to forbid negative values of the model coefficient and hence ensure the stability of the simulation; hence removing the backscatter produced by the dynamic procedure. More advanced SGS model are thus desirable, and that better conform to the physics of the true SGS stress, while remaining stable. We here investigate, in decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence, and using a de-aliased pseudo-spectral method, the behavior of the cross term and of the Reynolds term: in terms of dissipation spectra, and in terms of probability density function (pdf) of dissipation in physical space: positive and negative (backscatter). We then develop a new mixed model that better accounts for the physics of the SGS stress and for the backscatter. It has a cross term part which is built using a scale-similarity argument, further combined with a correction for Galilean invariance using a pseudo-Leonard term: this is the term that also does backscatter. It also has an eddy-viscosity multiscale model part that
Gökler DanIşman, Ilgın; Yıldız, Nejla; Yiğit, İbrahim
In the related literature numerous instruments have been developed to measure children and adolescents' coping with stress. Considering the cultural differences in individuals' choice for coping strategies, along with the limitations of the existing measures of coping for children and adolescents (e.g., being derived from coping measures developed for adults; unrepresentative samples with limited age range, etc.), the current study aimed to construct a self-report coping scale for a non-western population of children and adolescents. The study design included both qualitative and quantitative methodology. Three consecutive studies were conducted for the development and validation of the Children and Adolescents' Coping with Stress Scale (CACSS), a self-report measure assessing coping strategies of children and adolescents aged from 9 to 18 in response to self-identified stressors. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in a 61-item CACSS with 10 factors. The scale appears to have a clear factor structure; sufficient temporal stability; and good convergent, discriminant, and construct validity. By addressing limitations of existing coping scales, CACSS is believed to contribute to the literature as a developmentally appropriate and multidimensional tool.
Rahim, Ahmad Nabil Bin Ab; Mohamed, Faizal; Farid, Mohd Fairus Abdul; Fazli Zakaria, Mohd; Sangau Ligam, Alfred; Ramli, Nurhayati Binti
Human factor can be affected by prevalence stress measured using Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). From the respondents feedback can be summarized that the main factor causes the highest prevalence stress is due to the working conditions that require operators to handle critical situation and make a prompt critical decisions. The relationship between the prevalence stress and performance shaping factors found that PSFFitness and PSFWork Process showed positive Pearson’s Correlation with the score of .763 and .826 while the level of significance, p = .028 and p = .012. These positive correlations with good significant values between prevalence stress and human performance shaping factor (PSF) related to fitness, work processes and procedures. The higher the stress level of the respondents, the higher the score of selected for the PSFs. This is due to the higher levels of stress lead to deteriorating physical health and cognitive also worsened. In addition, the lack of understanding in the work procedures can also be a factor that causes a growing stress. The higher these values will lead to the higher the probabilities of human error occur. Thus, monitoring the level of stress among operators RTP is important to ensure the safety of RTP.
Puccio, G J; Talbot, R J; Joniak, A J
The relationship between person-environment fit and stress was examined for two samples of university students (N = 55 and 79). The Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) was modified to assess the students' perceptions of the adaptor-innovator style required by their course, the styles they exhibited in the course, and their ideal style preferences. To ascertain fit, the KAI total scores and subscale scores (Originality, Efficiency, and Rule/Group Conformity) were used to classify students on three dimensions: (1) perception of what style their course required, adaptive or innovative; (2) congruence between the style the course required and the style they exhibited in the course; and (3) the magnitude of the difference, if any, between the required style and the exhibited style. Points two and three are measures of fit. The dependent variable was stress. Also the students' ideal style scores, KAI total and subscales, were substituted for the exhibited scores and the classification and analyses were repeated. Analysis of the total scores revealed that a course requiring adaptive behaviours was perceived as more stressful than a course requiring innovative behaviours. Similarly, an analysis of the Rule/Group Conformity scores revealed that the greater the conformity required the greater the stress. Also the less originality demanded in the course the greater was the perceived stress. For the KAI total scores and Rule/Group Conformity scores, the two measures of fit (incongruity and magnitude of the incongruity) were not related to stress. However, analyses of the Originality and Efficiency subscales supported the importance of the P-E fit position. For both subscales, stress was associated with the magnitude of the difference between what was required in the course and what students exhibited in the course. Educational implications derived from these findings as well as recommendations for future research are discussed.
Keller, Hanne Dauer
Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....
Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.
Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda
Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725
Torrealba, V.; Karpyn, Z.; Yoon, H.; Hart, D. B.; Klise, K. A.
The pore-scale dynamics that govern multiphase flow under variable stress conditions are not well understood. This lack of fundamental understanding limits our ability to quantitatively predict multiphase flow and fluid distributions in natural geologic systems. In this research, we focus on pore-scale, single and multiphase flow properties that impact displacement mechanisms and residual trapping of non-wetting phase under varying stress conditions. X-ray micro-tomography is used to image pore structures and distribution of wetting and non-wetting fluids in water-wet synthetic granular packs, under dynamic load. Micro-tomography images are also used to determine structural features such as medial axis, surface area, and pore body and throat distribution; while the corresponding transport properties are determined from Lattice-Boltzmann simulations performed on lattice replicas of the imaged specimens. Results are used to investigate how inter-granular deformation mechanisms affect fluid displacement and residual trapping at the pore-scale. This will improve our understanding of the dynamic interaction of mechanical deformation and fluid flow during enhanced oil recovery and geologic CO2 sequestration. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Full Text Available Fruit development, from its early stages, is the result of a complex network of interacting processes, at different scales. These include cell division, cell expansion but also nutrient transports from the plant and exchanges with the environment. In the presence of nutrients limitation, in particular, the plant reacts as whole, by modifying its architecture, metabolism and reproductive strategy, determining the resources available for fruits development, which in turn affects the overall source-sink balance of the system.Here we present an integrated model of tomato that explicitly accounts for early developmental changes (from cell division to harvest, and use it to investigate the impact of water deficit and carbon limitation on nutrient fluxes and fruit growth, in both dry and fresh mass. Variability in fruit response is analyzed at two different scales: among trusses, at the plant level and within the cells population, at the fruit scale. Results show that the effect of stress on individual cells strongly depends on their age, size and uptake capabilities and that the timing of stress application, together with the fruit position on the plant, is crucial to determine the final phenotypic outcome. Water deficit and carbon depletion impacted either source size, source activity or sink strength with contrasted effects on fruit growth. An important prediction of the model is the major role of symplasmic transport of carbon in early stage of fruit development, as a catalyst of cells and fruit growth.
Blevins, Zachary W; Wahl, David H; Suski, Cory D
Abstract To date, relatively few studies have tried to determine the practicality of using physiological information to help answer complex ecological questions and assist in conservation actions aimed at improving conditions for fish populations. In this study, the physiological stress responses of fish were evaluated in-stream between agricultural and forested stream reaches to determine whether differences in these responses can be used as tools to evaluate conservation actions. Creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus sampled directly from forested and agricultural stream segments did not show differences in a suite of physiological indicators. When given a thermal challenge in the laboratory, creek chub sampled from cooler forested stream reaches had higher cortisol levels and higher metabolic stress responses to thermal challenge than creek chub collected from warmer and more thermally variable agricultural reaches within the same stream. Despite fish from agricultural and forested stream segments having different primary and secondary stress responses, fish were able to maintain homeostasis of other physiological indicators to thermal challenge. These results demonstrate that local habitat conditions within discrete stream reaches may impact the stress responses of resident fish and provide insight into changes in community structure and the ability of tolerant fish species to persist in agricultural areas.
Najder, Anna; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Wójcik, Aleksandra
Job characteristics and the consequences of everyday stress among radio journalists who are not exposed to traumatic events have not been studied sufficiently before. We aimed at determining the most common job characteristics and their stressfulness; relationships between stress exposure, health and occupational functioning; differences between radio journalists and other journalists, and also the psychosocial risk for health and functioning in this group. The studied group involved 208 journalists, 134 of whom worked in radio stations. The respondents filled in the Psychosocial Risks Scale (PRS) developed by the Department of Health and Work Psychology of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland. Requirement of mental effort and readiness to response quickly for most of the time as well as limited possibilities for promotion were the most frequent journalists' complaints. We confirmed that higher levels of stress resulted in worse functioning--the radio journalists who experienced lower stress assessed their health status and ability to work better, were more satisfied with particular aspects of their work, and were more involved in their work. They also presented a significantly lower turnover intention. Moreover, the radio journalists were more involved in their work than other journalists, but experienced lower satisfaction, took more sick leaves and had more days of absence. Well-known relationships between stress level, satisfaction and occupational functioning were confirmed. The most important conclusion refers to the fact that psychosocial risks and stress analysis should be based on the understanding of specificity of each occupation or even position. It is so, because the same job characteristic may pose a challenge for one person, while for another--it can result in extreme discomfort and anxiety--such an attitude broadens understanding of the phenomenon. We also confirmed that the PRS is a well-designed method, appropriate to
Fuertes, Jairo N.; Westbrook, Franklin D.
Reexamined the validity and reliability of the 24-item S.A.F.E. scale and found it to be a reliable measure of Hispanics' acculturation stress. Also studied the effect of generational status, gender, and socioeconomic status on the levels of acculturation stress experienced by this sample. (RJM)
Ayer, Lynsay; Althoff, Robert; Ivanova, Masha; Rettew, David; Waxler, Ellen; Sulman, Julie; Hudziak, James
Background: The Child Behavior Checklist Juvenile Bipolar Disorder (CBCL-JBD) profile and Posttraumatic Stress Problems (CBCL-PTSP) scale have been used to assess juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), respectively. However, their validity is questionable according to previous research. Both measures are…
Ehret, Laura L.; O'Brien, James J.
Nineteen years of wind data over the North Atlantic are used to calculate a field of wind stress curl. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is performed on this field, resulting in spatial patterns of wind stress curl and associated time series. A Monte Carlo technique is used to establish the statistical significance of each spatial pattern, and the associated time series are spectrally analyzed. The first four statistically significant EOF modes represent more than 50 percent of the curl variance, and the spatial patterns of curl associated with these modes exhibit the major elements of North Atlantic climatology. Most of the time series spectral variance is contained in annual and semiannual frequencies. The features observed include the individual annual variation of the subtropical high and the subpolar low, the annual oscillation of intensity between pressure centers, the influence of localized strong SST gradients and associated cyclogenesis regions, and the constant nature of the trades.
The radiographic method described uses micrometre X-ray diffraction for high-resolution residual stress analysis in single crystals. The focus is on application of two x-ray optics (glass capillaries) for shaping a sufficiently fine and intensive primary beam. Due to application of a proper one-grain measuring and analysis method, the resolution results are applicable to the characteristic grain sizes of many materials. (orig.) [de
Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.
Wang, Dongmin; Liu, Xiangnan
Remote sensing can actively monitor heavy metal contamination in crops, but with the increase of satellite sensors, the optimal scale for monitoring heavy metal stress in rice is still unknown. This study focused on identifying the optimal scale by comparing the ability to detect heavy metal stress in rice at various spatial scales. The 2 m, 8 m, and 16 m resolution GF-1 (China) data and the 30 m resolution HJ-1 (China) data were used to invert leaf area index (LAI). The LAI was the input parameter of the World Food Studies (WOFOST) model, and we obtained the dry weight of storage organs (WSO) and dry weight of roots (WRT) through the assimilation method; then, the mass ratio of rice storage organs and roots (SORMR) was calculated. Through the comparative analysis of SORMR at each spatial scale of data, we determined the optimal scale to monitor heavy metal stress in rice. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) SORMR could accurately and effectively monitor heavy metal stress; (2) the 8 m and 16 m images from GF-1 were suitable for monitoring heavy metal stress in rice; (3) 16 m was considered the optimal scale to assess heavy metal stress in rice.
The report describes the work performed for achieving readiness to calculate fracture toughness dependence on dimension effects and loading conditions in fracture test specimens and real structures. In the report two- and three-dimensional computer codes developed and calculational methods applied are described. One of the main goals is to converse fracture toughness from small scale three point bending test specimens to case of a depth crack in plane strain i.e. to small scale yielding state (SSY) by numerical elastic-plastic stress analysis. Thickness effect of a test specimens and effect of a crack depth are separately investigated. Tests of three point bending specimens with and without sidegrooves and curved crack front are numerically simulated and experimental and computed results are compared. J-integral is calculated along crack front and also from force-deflection dependence of the beam. For the analyses the computing system was thoroughly automatized. Measuring capacity of three point bending test specimens was tried to evaluate. (orig.) (7 refs., 54 figs.)
Rianne J. A. Hoek
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate implementation of work-related stress management interventions can reduce or prevent work-related stress and sick leave in organizations. We developed a multifaceted integral stress-prevention strategy for organizations from several sectors that includes a digital platform and collaborative learning network. The digital platform contains a stepwise protocol to implement work-related stress-management interventions. It includes stress screeners, interventions and intervention providers to facilitate access to and the selection of matching work-related stress-management interventions. The collaborative learning network, including stakeholders from various organizations, plans meetings focussing on an exchange of experiences and good practices among organizations for the implementation of stress prevention measures. This paper describes the design of an integral stress-prevention strategy, Stress Prevention@Work, and the protocol for the evaluation of: 1 the effects of the strategy on perceived stress and work-related outcomes, and 2 the barriers and facilitators for implementation of the strategy. Methods The effectiveness of Stress Prevention@Work will be evaluated in a cluster controlled trial, in a large healthcare organization in the Netherlands, at six and 12 months. An independent researcher will match teams on working conditions and size and allocate the teams to the intervention or control group. Teams in the intervention group will be offered Stress Prevention@Work. For each intervention team, one employee is responsible for applying the strategy within his/her team using the digital platform and visiting the collaborative learning network. Using a waiting list design, the control group will be given access to the strategy after 12 months. The primary outcome is the employees’ perceived stress measured by the stress subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21. Secondary outcome measures
Hoek, Rianne J A; Havermans, Bo M; Houtman, Irene L D; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Heerkens, Yvonne F; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, Moniek C; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J; Boot, Cécile R L
Adequate implementation of work-related stress management interventions can reduce or prevent work-related stress and sick leave in organizations. We developed a multifaceted integral stress-prevention strategy for organizations from several sectors that includes a digital platform and collaborative learning network. The digital platform contains a stepwise protocol to implement work-related stress-management interventions. It includes stress screeners, interventions and intervention providers to facilitate access to and the selection of matching work-related stress-management interventions. The collaborative learning network, including stakeholders from various organizations, plans meetings focussing on an exchange of experiences and good practices among organizations for the implementation of stress prevention measures. This paper describes the design of an integral stress-prevention strategy, Stress Prevention@Work, and the protocol for the evaluation of: 1) the effects of the strategy on perceived stress and work-related outcomes, and 2) the barriers and facilitators for implementation of the strategy. The effectiveness of Stress Prevention@Work will be evaluated in a cluster controlled trial, in a large healthcare organization in the Netherlands, at six and 12 months. An independent researcher will match teams on working conditions and size and allocate the teams to the intervention or control group. Teams in the intervention group will be offered Stress Prevention@Work. For each intervention team, one employee is responsible for applying the strategy within his/her team using the digital platform and visiting the collaborative learning network. Using a waiting list design, the control group will be given access to the strategy after 12 months. The primary outcome is the employees' perceived stress measured by the stress subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Secondary outcome measures are job demands, job resources and the number
Jamshidi, N.; Abbaszadeh, A.; Kalyani, M.N.
Objective: Anxiety and stress are common in patients undergoing invasive procedures. Coronary angiography is a definitive diagnostic evaluation for coronary artery disease and valvular disease. It is necessary to give information to the patients in order to minimize levels of anxiety and stress to this invasive procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of patients education by video on levels of anxiety, stress and depression of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methodology: In a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design, 128 patients were randomly assigned to either control or experimental group. Control group received verbal routine education by nurses and experimental group received an informative video about coronary angiography procedure as well as pre and post angiography interventions. Using Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-21) levels of these variables were measured before and after education. Results: Seventy eight (60.9%) males and fifty (39.1%) females participated in the study. There was a statistically significant reduction in the Anxiety, stress and depression levels of experimental group after video information (P = .000). There was a statistically significant correlation between sex with anxiety (P = .000) and stress (P = .04). Conclusions: The use of patients education by informative video is a useful method for decreasing psychological parameters of patients undergoing coronary angiography procedure. Results of the study confirm the usefulness of video information prior to an Invasive angiography procedure. (author)
Heidari, Mohammad; Ghodusi, Mansureh; Rafiei, Hossein
Women in menopause have the more mood swings than before menopause. At the same time seem to sexual self-concept and sexual aspects of self-knowledge has a great impact on their mental health. This study aimed to investigate the sexual self-concept and its relationship to depression, stress and anxiety in postmenopausal women's. In this descriptive correlation research, 300 of postmenopausal women referred to healthcare and medical treatment centers in Abadeh city were selected by convenience sampling method. The information in this study was collected by using questionnaires of multidimensional sexual self-concept and depression anxiety stress scale 21 (DASS-21). For data analysis, SPSS/17 software was used. The results showed the mean score positive sexual self-concept was 41.03 ± 8.66 and the average score of negative sexual self in women's was 110.32 ± 43.05. As well as scores of depression, stress, and anxiety, 35.67%, 32.33% and 37.67% respectively were in severe level. Positive and negative sexual self-concept scores with scores of stress, anxiety, and depression, of post-menopausal women in the confidence of 0.01, is significantly correlated ( P stress, anxiety, and depression in severe level and also a significant correlation between increased stress, anxiety and depression with negative and weak self-concept of women's, it is necessary to devote more careful attention to mental health issues of women's and have appropriate interventions.
Azatov, Mikheil; Sun, Xiaoyu; Suberi, Alexandra; Fourkas, John T.; Upadhyaya, Arpita
Cells can sense and adapt to mechanical properties of their environment. The local geometry of the extracellular matrix, such as its topography, has been shown to modulate cell morphology, migration, and proliferation. Here we investigate the effect of micro/nanotopography on the morphology and cytoskeletal dynamics of human pancreatic tumor-associated fibroblast cells (TAFs). We use arrays of parallel nanoridges with variable spacings on a subcellular scale to investigate the response of TAFs to the topography of their environment. We find that cell shape and stress fiber organization both align along the direction of the nanoridges. Our analysis reveals a strong bimodal relationship between the degree of alignment and the spacing of the nanoridges. Furthermore, focal adhesions align along ridges and form preferentially on top of the ridges. Tracking actin stress fiber movement reveals enhanced dynamics of stress fibers on topographically patterned surfaces. We find that components of the actin cytoskeleton move preferentially along the ridges with a significantly higher velocity along the ridges than on a flat surface. Our results suggest that a complex interplay between the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions coordinates the cellular response to micro/nanotopography.
Al-Dubai, Sar; Ganasegeran, K; Barua, A; Rizal, Am; Rampal, Kg
The 10-item version of Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) is a widely used tool to measure stress. The Malay version of the PSS-10 has been validated among Malaysian Medical Students. However, studies have not been conducted to assess its validity in occupational settings. The aim of this study is to assess the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the PSS-10 in two occupational setting in Malaysia. This study was conducted among 191 medical residents and 513 railway workers. An exploratory factor analysis was performed using the principal component method with varimax rotation. Correlation analyses, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin, Bartlett's test of Sphericity and Cronbach's alpha were obtained. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical package for the social sciences version 16 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) software. Analysis yielded two factor structure of the Malay version of PSS-10 in both occupational groups. The two factors accounted for 59.2% and 64.8% of the variance in the medical residents and the railway workers respectively. Factor loadings were greater than 0.59 in both occupational groups. Cronbach's alpha co-efficient was 0.70 for medical residents and 0.71 for railway workers. The Malay version of PSS-10 had adequate psychometric properties and can be used to measure stress among occupational settings in Malaysia.
Park, Young-Joon; Andleigh, Vaibhav K.; Thompson, Carl V.
An electromigration model is developed to simulate the reliability of Al and Al-Cu interconnects. A polynomial expression for the free energy of solution by Murray [Int. Met. Rev. 30, 211 (1985)] was used to calculate the chemical potential for Al and Cu while the diffusivities were defined based on a Cu-trapping model by Rosenberg [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 263 (1972)]. The effects of Cu on stress evolution and lifetime were investigated in all-bamboo and near-bamboo stud-to-stud structures. In addition, the significance of the effect of mechanical stress on the diffusivity of both Al and Cu was determined in all-bamboo and near-bamboo lines. The void nucleation and growth process was simulated in 200 μm, stud-to-stud lines. Current density scaling behavior for void-nucleation-limited failure and void-growth-limited failure modes was simulated in long, stud-to-stud lines. Current density exponents of both n=2 for void nucleation and n=1 for void growth failure modes were found in both pure Al and Al-Cu lines. Limitations of the most widely used current density scaling law (Black's equation) in the analysis of the reliability of stud-to-stud lines are discussed. By modifying the input materials properties used in this model (when they are known), this model can be adapted to predict the reliability of other interconnect materials such as pure Cu and Cu alloys.
Geller, Jil T.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Fortney, Julian L.; Lam, Bonita R.; Hazen, Terry C.; Biggin, Mark D.
The Protein Complex Analysis Project (PCAP, http://pcap.lbl.gov/), focuses on high-throughput analysis of microbial protein complexes in the anaerobic, sulfate-reducing organism, DesulfovibriovulgarisHildenborough(DvH).Interest in DvHas a model organism for bioremediation of contaminated groundwater sites arises from its ability to reduce heavy metals. D. vulgarishas been isolated from contaminated groundwater of sites in the DOE complex. To understand the effect of environmental changes on the organism, midlog-phase cultures are exposed to nitrate and salt stresses (at the minimum inhibitory concentration, which reduces growth rates by 50percent), and compared to controls of cultures at midlogand stationary phases. Large volumes of culture of consistent quality (up to 100 liters) are needed because of the relatively low cell density of DvHcultures (one order of magnitude lower than E. coli, for example) and PCAP's challenge to characterize low-abundance membrane proteins. Cultures are grown in continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CFSTRs) to produce consistent cell densities. Stressor is added to the outflow from the CFSTR, and the mixture is pumped through a plug flow reactor (PFR), to provide a stress exposure time of 2 hours. Effluent is chilled and held in large carboys until it is centrifuged. A variety of analyses -- including metabolites, total proteins, cell density and phospholipidfatty-acids -- track culture consistency within a production run, and differences due to stress exposure and growth phase for the different conditions used. With our system we are able to produce the requisite 100 L of culture for a given condition within a week.
Die sportwissenschaftliche Forschung zeigt deutlich, dass Sport und körperliche Aktivität positive Effekte für die Gesundheit haben, im Gegensatz dazu aber erlebter Stress negative Folgen hat. Es stellt sich die Frage, welche Rollen und Effekte Sport im Stress-Gesundheit Kontext spielen kann. In drei Studien wurde der Moderatoreffekt von Sport auf den Zusammenhang zwischen Stress und Beschwerden sowie der Effekt von erlebtem Stress auf die Sportaktivität selbst untersucht.
Dao-Tran, Tiet-Hanh; Anderson, Debra; Seib, Charrlotte
The Perceived Stress Scale 10 item (PSS-10) has been translated into more than 20 languages and used widely in different populations. Yet, to date, no study has tested psychometric properties of the instrument among older women and there is no Vietnamese version of the instrument. This study translated the PSS-10 into Vietnamese and assessed Vietnamese version of the Perceived Stress Scale 10 items (V-PSS-10) for translation equivalence, face validity, construct validity, correlations, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability among 473 women aged 60 and over. The study found that V-PSS-10 retained the original meaning and was understood by Vietnamese older women. An exploratory factor analysis of the V-PSS-10 yielded a two-factor structure, and these two factors were significantly correlated (0.56, p < .01) with all item loadings exceeded .50. The V-PSS-10 score was positively correlated with general sleep disturbance (ρ = .12, p < .05), CES-D score for depression symptoms (ρ = .60, p < .01), and negatively correlated with mental (ρ = -.46, p < .01), and physical health scores (ρ = -.19, p < .01). The Cronbach's alpha for the V-PSS-10 was .80, and the test-retest correlation at one month's interval was .43. Findings from this study suggest that the V-PSS-10 has acceptable validity and reliability levels among older women. The V-PSS-10 can be used to measure perceived stress in future research and practice. However, future research would be useful to further endorse the validity and reliability of the V-PSS-10.
Márcia Guimarães de Mello Alves
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o processo de adaptação, para o português, da versão resumida da "job stress scale", originalmente elaborada em inglês. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados seis aspectos de equivalência entre a escala original e a versão para o português: as equivalências conceitual, semântica, operacional, de itens, de medidas e funcional. Tomou-se por base um estudo de confiabilidade teste-reteste com 94 indivíduos selecionados. RESULTADOS: O estudo de confiabilidade teste-reteste entre 94 indivíduos permitiu estimativas de reprodutibilidade (coeficientes de correlação intraclasse para as dimensões de "demanda", "controle" e "apoio social" da escala de 0,88, 0,87 e 0,85, respectivamente. Para as mesmas dimensões, as estimativas de consistência interna (alpha de Cronbach foram, respectivamente, 0,79, 0,67 e 0,85. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem que o processo de adaptação da escala foi bem sucedido, indicando que seu uso no contexto sociocultural da população de estudo (Estudo Pró-Saúde é apropriado.OBJECTIVE: To describe the adaptation to Portuguese of the short version of the "job stress scale", originally in English. METHODS: We evaluate six aspects of equivalence between the original scale and the Portuguese version: conceptual, semantic, operational, item, measurement, and functional equivalences. A reliability test-retest study was conducted with 94 selected subjects. RESULTS: Reproducibility (interclass correlation coefficients for the 'demand', 'control', and 'social support' dimensions of the scale was estimated at 0.88, 0.87, and 0.85, respectively. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha estimates for these same dimensions were 0.79, 0.67, and 0.85, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the adaptation of the scale was successful, and indicate that its use in the sociocultural context of the studied population (Pró-Saúde survey is appropriate.
Lam, Lawrence T; Wong, Emmy M Y
Based on the theoretical framework of Problem Behavior and Stress Reduction theories for problematic Internet use (PIU), this study aimed to investigate the relationship between parental PIU and the PIU among adolescents taking into consideration the stress levels of young people. This was a population-based parent and adolescent dyad health survey utilizing a random sampling technique. PIU for both parents and adolescents was measured by the Internet addiction test designed by Young. The stress level of adolescents was assessed using the stress subscale of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). Data were analyzed using logistic regression modeling techniques with adjustment for potential confounding factors with analysis on the modification effect of stress levels on the relationship between parent and adolescent PIU. Of the total 1,098 parent and adolescent dyads with usable information, 263 adolescents (24.0%) and 62 parents (5.7%) could be classified as moderate and severe problematic users of the Internet. About 14% (n = 157) of adolescents could be classified with moderate-to-severe stress. Regression analysis results suggested a significant interaction between parental PIU and adolescents' stress levels on adolescent PIU. Stratified regression analyses by stress level resulted in a significant parent and adolescent PIU relationship in the low stress group (odds ratio, 3.18; 95% confidence interval 1.65-6.14). However, the association between parent and adolescent PIU in the high stress group became insignificant. There was a significant parent and adolescent PIU relationship; however, this relationship is differentially affected by the stress status of the adolescent. The direct implication of the results is that parental Internet use should also be assessed and included as part of the treatment regime for adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
K Sathish Kumar
Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a stressful period due to physical, psychological, sexual changes, and the presence of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress at this stage of life is a matter of concern. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal and to determine the association between depression, anxiety, and stress and selected variables such as gender, standard, and religion. Materials and methods: From September 2014 to October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among higher secondary school students of Imphal. The sample size was calculated to be 750. Seven schools were randomly selected, and all the students in that school were enrolled in the study. The study tool used was a questionnaire containing DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among 830 valid respondents were 19.5%, 24.4%, and 21.1%, respectively. In total, 81.6% of the respondents had at least one of the studied disorders and 34.7% of the respondents had all the three negative states. The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high among females and were significant for anxiety (P = 0.00 and stress (P = 0.04. The prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students with P-values of 0.00 and 0.02. Conclusion: The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high with anxiety and stress significantly higher among females, whereas prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students. More studies are recommended to determine the factors leading to these mental disorders.
Castro-Olivo, Sara M.; Palardy, Gregory J.; Albeg, Loren; Williamson, Ariel A.
The psychometric properties of the Coping With Acculturative Stress in American Schools (CASAS-A) scale were examined using a sample of 148 Latino middle school students. CASAS-A is a self-report scale designed to identify students in need of culturally responsive social-emotional interventions due to having high levels of school-related…
Full Text Available Background Although Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, Cohen, Kamarack & Mermelstein, 1983 has been validated and widely used in many domains, there is still no validation in sports by comparing athletes and non-athletes and examining related psychometric indices. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of PSS between athletes and non-athletes, and examine construct validity and reliability in the sports contexts. Methods Study 1 sampled 359 college student-athletes (males = 233; females = 126 and 242 non-athletes (males = 124; females = 118 and examined factorial structure, measurement invariance and internal consistency. Study 2 sampled 196 student-athletes (males = 139, females = 57, Mage = 19.88 yrs, SD = 1.35 and examined discriminant validity and convergent validity of PSS. Study 3 sampled 37 student-athletes to assess test-retest reliability of PSS. Results Results found that 2-factor PSS-10 fitted the model the best and had appropriate reliability. Also, there was a measurement invariance between athletes and non-athletes; and PSS positively correlated with athletic burnout and life stress but negatively correlated with coping efficacy provided evidence of discriminant validity and convergent validity. Further, the test-retest reliability for PSS subscales was significant (r = .66 and r = .50. Discussion It is suggested that 2-factor PSS-10 can be a useful tool in assessing perceived stress either in sports or non-sports settings. We suggest future study may use 2-factor PSS-10 in examining the effects of stress on the athletic injury, burnout, and psychiatry disorders.
Blaheta, Radim; Byczanski, Petr; Jakl, Ondřej; Kohut, Roman; Kolcun, Alexej; Krečmer, Karel; Starý, Jiří
Roč. 22, č. 4 (2006), s. 449-459 ISSN 0167-739X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/02/0492; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET400300415 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : large scale finite element analysis Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.722, year: 2006
Full Text Available Internet addiction (IA could be a major concern in university medical students aiming to develop into health professionals. The implications of this addiction as well as its association with sleep, mood disorders and self-esteem can hinder their studies, impact their long-term career goals and have wide and detrimental consequences for society as a whole. The objectives of this study were to: 1 Assess potential IA in university medical students, as well as factors associated with it; 2 Assess the relationships between potential IA, insomnia, depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem.Our study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted among 600 students of three faculties: medicine, dentistry and pharmacy at Saint-Joseph University. Four validated and reliable questionnaires were used: the Young Internet Addiction Test, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21, and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES.The average YIAT score was 30 ± 18.474; Potential IA prevalence rate was 16.8% (95% confidence interval: 13.81-19.79% and it was significantly different between males and females (p-value = 0.003, with a higher prevalence in males (23.6% versus 13.9%. Significant correlations were found between potential IA and insomnia, stress, anxiety, depression and self-esteem (p-value < 0.001; ISI and DASS sub-scores were higher and self-esteem lower in students with potential IA.Identifying students with potential IA is important because this addiction often coexists with other psychological problems. Therefore, interventions should include not only IA management but also associated psychosocial stressors such as insomnia, anxiety, depression, stress, and self-esteem.
The Symptom Checklist - Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale (SCL-PTSD), also known as Crime-Related PTSD Scale has been validated in survivors of interpersonal trauma in the general population. However, the psychometric properties have not been investigated in a clinical setting for patients with PTSD from diverse traumatic events. This study investigates the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the SCL-PTSD among 104 psychiatric outpatients with PTSD, caused by interpersonal (n = 50) or non-interpersonal trauma (n = 54). Self-report data of the SCL-PTSD, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) were gathered. The Korean version of the SCL-PTSD showed excellent internal consistency and moderate-to-good four-week temporal stability in both the interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma groups. In comparison with other diagnostic groups, the scores of the SCL-PTSD were significantly higher compared to those of adjustment disorder, depression, other anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia, demonstrating its criteria-related validity. Convergent validity was confirmed because the scores of the SCL-PTSD were significantly correlated with BDI, SAI and TAI scores. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by significant correlation with the IES-R score. This study demonstrated the favorable psychometric prosperities of the Korean version of the SCL-PTSD, supporting its use in clinical research and practice. PMID:27134501
Chambers, David W
We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.
Johnson, Jane C; Degenhardt, Brian F; Smith, Carol K; Wolf, Thomas M; Peterson, D Fred
Acute stress during medical school affects the health of students and is associated with burnout. The Medical Education Hassles Scale-R (MEHS-R) is designed to measure acute stress among medical students. Researchers using the MEHS-R primarily report overall hassles scores, which are unable to discriminate between different categories of hassles encountered. The present study examined the factor structure of the MEHS-R to identify subscales that would be useful to categorize hassles for research and assessment purposes. Longitudinal, observational study. Two osteopathic medical schools. Five hundred six first-year medical students. The MEHS-R was administered at orientation and 9 to 10 times throughout the first year, classified into examination, vacation, and routine medical school activity periods. Students rated the 101 items on a 4-point scale (0=none to 3=a great deal) to indicate how much of a hassle each item had been during the previous week. Demographic subgroups were males, females, married students, single students, whites, and ethnic minorities. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on data collected at the first school during orientation. Seven subscales were identified: Academic and Time Pressures, Financial, Social, External Influences, Day-to-Day Functioning, Relationships With Immediate Family, and Health. Cronbach α were ≥0.75. Stability of these subscales was examined using confirmatory factor analysis. Both of the fit indices used indicated the 7-subscale model for the MEHS-R adequately fit the data obtained during examination and routine medical school activity periods, one fit index indicated adequate fit for the vacation period, and neither indicated adequate fit for the data from the second school. Of the 7 subscales, 5 had a strong correspondence with categories identified by the scale developers. Fit indices also indicated the 7-subscale model was adequately generalizable to the demographic subgroups with the exception of the ethnic
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological disturbances in clinical dental students and teachers remain largely unknown. Aim: To describe the psychological health of clinical dental students and their trainers in an institution in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted among clinical dental students and faculty of an Indian dental college in November 2014. The questionnaire consisted of depression anxiety stress scales-21 (DASS 21, a short version of the original 42-item DASS. Data were compiled on SPSS version 21. Group comparisons were done and P values were obtained. All tests were two-tailed with significance set at P< 0.05. Results: Stress scores were found to be higher in students as compared to trainers (P = 0.040, with the highest scores for undergraduate students. Statistically, significant difference was seen in stress scores between graduate and postgraduate trainers (P = 0.015, undergraduates and postgraduate trainers (P = 0.005, and postgraduate trainers and students (P = 0.029. A significant difference was also observed between depression scores in graduate and postgraduate trainers (P = 0.006 as well as postgraduate trainers and students (P = 0.041. Females had significantly higher level of stress (P = 0.007 and anxiety (P = 0.003 scores as compared to males. Conclusion: Stress, anxiety, and depression scores in dental students are higher than trainers. Undergraduate students among all showed the highest scores for all three parameters. Different approaches to reduce them should be further investigated and utilized at the earliest.
Balsam, Kimberly F.; Molina, Yamile; Beadnell, Blair; Simoni, Jane; Walters, Karina
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals who are also racial/ethnic minorities (LGBT-POC) are a multiply marginalized population subject to microaggressions associated with both racism and heterosexism. To date, research on this population has been hampered by the lack of a measurement tool to assess the unique experiences associated with the intersection of these oppressions. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a three-phase, mixed method empirical study to assess microaggressions among LGBT-POC. The LGBT People of Color Microaggressions Scale is an 18-item self-report scale assessing the unique types of microaggressions experienced by ethnic minority LGBT adults. The measure includes three subscales: (a) Racism in LGBT communities, (b) Heterosexism in Racial/Ethnic Minority Communities, and (c) Racism in Dating and Close Relationships, that are theoretically consistent with prior literature on racial/ethnic minority LGBTs and have strong psychometric properties including internal consistency and construct validity in terms of correlations with measures of psychological distress and LGBT-identity variables. Men scored higher on the LGBT-PCMS than women, lesbians and gay men scored higher than bisexual women and men, and Asian Americans scored higher than African Americans and Latina/os. PMID:21604840
Bruno, Luigi; Decuzzi, Paolo; Gentile, Francesco
The promise of nanotechnology lies in the possibility of engineering matter on the nanoscale and creating technological interfaces that, because of their small scales, may directly interact with biological objects, creating new strategies for the treatment of pathologies that are otherwise beyond the reach of conventional medicine. Nanotechnology is inherently a multiscale, multiphenomena challenge. Fundamental understanding and highly accurate predictive methods are critical to successful manufacturing of nanostructured materials, bio/mechanical devices and systems. In biomedical engineering, and in the mechanical analysis of biological tissues, classical continuum approaches are routinely utilized, even if these disregard the discrete nature of tissues, that are an interpenetrating network of a matrix (the extra cellular matrix, ECM) and a generally large but finite number of cells with a size falling in the micrometer range. Here, we introduce a nano-mechanical theory that accounts for the-non continuum nature of bio systems and other discrete systems. This discrete field theory, doublet mechanics (DM), is a technique to model the mechanical behavior of materials over multiple scales, ranging from some millimeters down to few nanometers. In the paper, we use this theory to predict the response of a granular material to an external applied load. Such a representation is extremely attractive in modeling biological tissues which may be considered as a spatial set of a large number of particulate (cells) dispersed in an extracellular matrix. Possibly more important of this, using digital image correlation (DIC) optical methods, we provide an experimental verification of the model.
Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo construir e validar um instrumento de estresse ocupacional geral, de fácil aplicação e que pudesse ser utilizado em diversos ambientes de trabalho e para ocupações variadas. A Escala de Estresse no Trabalho (EET, inicialmente composta por 31 itens, foi aplicada a 437 trabalhadores de diferentes organizações, públicas e privadas, sendo 249 homens e 188 mulheres. A análise fatorial revelou a existência de um único fator que, após eliminação de itens com carga fatorial abaixo de 0,45, ficou composto por 23 itens e obteve um coeficiente alfa de Cronbach equivalente a 0,91. Uma versão reduzida da escala, com 13 itens e alfa de 0,85 foi proposta. Com base nos parâmetros psicométricos satisfatórios da EET, conclui-se que esta é uma alternativa para investigações empíricas e trabalhos aplicados em organizações, podendo orientar medidas que visem à qualidade de vida dos trabalhadores.The objective of this study was to develop and to validate a general instrument to evaluate occupational stress, easily administered, used in different work environments and for a variety of occupations. The Work Stress Scale (WSS initially composed of 31 items was applied to 437 workers, 249 men and 188 women, of public and private organizations. The factor analysis detected only one factor. After the elimination of the items with a factor loading below .45, the final version of the scale was composed of 23 items and had a Cronbach's coefficient of .91. A reduced version of the scale with 13 items and a Cronbach's coefficient of .85 has been proposed. Based on the satisfactory psychometric parameters of the scale, it is concluded that the WSS is useful as an alternative in empirical investigations and organizational diagnostics. The results obtained can be useful indicators for organizational decisions in relation to the life quality of the workers.
Jeffrey, Jennifer D; Hasler, Caleb T; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Cooke, Steven J; Suski, Cory D
Humans have dramatically altered landscapes as a result of urban and agricultural development, which has led to decreases in the quality and quantity of habitats for animals. This is particularly the case for freshwater fish that reside in fluvial systems, given that changes to adjacent lands have direct impacts on the structure and function of watersheds. Because choices of habitat have physiological consequences for organisms, animals that occupy sub-optimal habitats may experience increased expenditure of energy or homeostatic overload that can cause negative outcomes for individuals and populations. With the imperiled and threatened status of many freshwater fish, there is a critical need to define relationships between land use, quality of the habitat, and physiological performance for resident fish as an aid to restoration and management. Here, we synthesize existing literature to relate variation in land use at the scale of watersheds to the physiological status of resident fish. This examination revealed that landscape-level disturbances can influence a host of physiological properties of resident fishes, ranging from cellular and genomic levels to the hormonal and whole-animal levels. More importantly, these physiological responses have been integrated into traditional field-based monitoring protocols to provide a mechanistic understanding of how organisms interact with their environment, and to enhance restoration. We also generated a conceptual model that provides a basis for relating landscape-level changes to physiological responses in fish. We conclude that physiological sampling of resident fish has the potential to assess the effects of landscape-scale disturbances on freshwater fish and to enhance restoration and conservation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: email@example.com.
Gallego, José; Aguilar-Parra, José M; Cangas, Adolfo J; Langer, Álvaro I; Mañas, Israel
Two of the problems that currently affect a large proportion of university students are high levels of anxiety and stress experienced in different situations, which are particularly high during the first years of their degree and during exam periods. The present study aims to investigate whether mindfulness training can bring about significant changes in the manifestations of depression, anxiety, and stress of students when compared to another group undergoing a physical activity program and a control group. The sample consisted of 125 students from the Bachelor of Education Program. The measuring instrument used was the Abbreviated Scale of Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS-21). The results indicate that the effects of reducing the identified variables were higher for the mindfulness group than for the physical education group and for the control group F(2) = 5.91, p = .004, η2 = .106. The total scores for all variables related to the mindfulness group decreased significantly, including an important stress reduction t(29) = 2.95, p = .006, d = .667. Mindfulness exercises and some individual relaxing exercises involving Physical Education could help to reduce manifestations of stress and anxiety caused by exams in students.
Syed, Annosha; Ali, Syed Shazad; Khan, Muhammad
To assess the frequency of Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DAS) among the undergraduate physiotherapy students. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in various Physiotherapy Institutes in Sindh, Pakistan among undergraduate physiotherapy students. The total duration of this study was 4 months from September, 2016 to January, 2017. Data was collected from 267 students with no physical and mental illness; more than half were female students 75.3%. They were selected through Non probability purposive sampling technique. A self-administered standardized DASS (depression, anxiety and stress scale) was used to collect data and result was analyzed using its severity rating index. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 21. Descriptive statistics including the frequency of depression, anxiety, stress and demographic characteristic of the participant was collected. The mean age of students was 19.3371±1.18839 years. The Frequency of depression, anxiety and stress found among undergraduates Physiotherapy students was 48.0%, 68.54% and 53.2%, respectively. It was observed that the frequency of depression, anxiety and stress among physiotherapy undergraduates students were high. It suggests the urgent need of carrying out evidence based Psychological health promotion for undergraduate Physiotherapy students to control this growing problem.
Alok, R; Das, S K; Agarwal, G G; Salwahan, L; Srivastava, R
Negative affects like depression, anxiety and stress are frequently observed in patients with fibromyalgia (FMS). Understanding the association between FMS and negative affects is likely to help in deciding the choice of treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the severity of FMS with the severity of depression, anxiety and stress. Sixty patients with fibromyalgia and 60 healthy controls were included in the study. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised (FIQR), and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21) were administered to both the groups. The mean age of study population was 40.4±9.9 and 36±8.7 for FMS and control groups respectively. Most of the patients were females (93.3%). In subjects without FMS, depression was seen in 5% and was significantly associated with all three components of FIQR (pdepression, anxiety and stress were found significantly associated with the severity of all three components of FIQR, namely pain, function and symptoms (pdepression, anxiety and stress and in FMS magnitude of negative affects is significantly correlated with FIQR. However, depression alone in absence of FMS can also give rise to all three components of FIQR.
Flachowsky, S.; Wei, A.; Herrmann, T.; Illgen, R.; Horstmann, M.; Richter, R.; Salz, H.; Klix, W.; Stenzel, R.
Strain engineering in MOSFETs using tensile nitride overlayer (TOL) films, compressive nitride overlayer (COL) films, and embedded-SiGe (eSiGe) is studied by extensive device experiments and numerical simulations. The scaling behavior was analyzed by gate length reduction down to 40 nm and it was found that drive current strongly depends on the device dimensions. The reduction of drain-current enhancement for short-channel devices can be attributed to two competing factors: shorter gate length devices have increased longitudinal and vertical stress components which should result in improved drain-currents. However, there is a larger degradation from external resistance as the gate length decreases, due to a larger voltage dropped across the external resistance. Adding an eSiGe stressor reduces the external resistance in the p-MOSFET, to the extent that the drive current improvement from COL continues to increase even down the shortest gate length studied. This is due to the reduced resistivity of SiGe itself and the SiGe valence band offset relative to Si, leading to a smaller silicide-active contact resistance. It demonstrates the advantage of combining eSiGe and COL, not only for increased stress, but also for parasitic resistance reduction to enable better COL drive current benefit
Raymond, Karren-Lee; Kannis-Dymand, Lee; Lovell, Geoff P
To examine differences in depression, anxiety, and stress across people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (t2d) classified according to a four level processed food addiction (PFA) severity indicator dichotomy. Four hundred and eight participants with a t2d diagnoses completed an online survey including the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) and the DASS-21. Based on YFAS symptom counts participants were classified as either: non-PFA; mild-PFA; moderate-PFA; or severe-PFA. Multivariate, λ=0.422, F(9,978.51)=46.286, pstress scores F(3,408)=129.714, pstress χ 2 (12)=240.875, pstress, and that the adopted four level PFA severity indicator dichotomy is valid and useful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Damage assessment is an important task requested in very different contexts. On the one hand very detailed studies are required for cost benefit analysis, on the other hand vulnerability and risk needs to be evaluated for political decisions and emergency situations (i.e. loss estimation of a large scale flood event. Even though a lot of studies have been performed and a lot of different methods are available by now, it is very difficult to use the results in the decision making process, as many methods are poorly described or are based on very special data, and therefore cannot be compared to each other. The attempt of regional (German federal state level standardizations based on very detailed object based approaches are shown. Additionally, a European wide data set for asset mapping is described and a set of application examples is given. It is designed to enable users to compare the impact of different types of hazard. To take it one step further, a global map for vulnerability is presented that can be used to set up a monetary based data set if detailed statistical data is not available. Every type of data set and methodology has its special tasks to fulfil but there is also a high demand for harmonisation and comparability between different studies to enable better decision making. The next demand on data sets and methodologies is to perform time sequence analyses, therefore all data sets and methods presented fulfil the requirement of being updated regularly.
The role of elastic interactions, particularly for the self-organized formation of periodically faceted interfaces, was investigated in this thesis for archetype organic-metal interfaces. The cantilever bending technique was applied to study the change of surface stress upon formation of the interface between 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) and Ag(111). The main focus of this work was on the investigation of the formation of the long-range ordered, self-organized faceted PTCDA/Ag(10 8 7) interface. Reciprocal space maps of this interface were recorded both by spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED) and low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) in selected area LEED mode. Complementary to the reciprocal data, also microscopic real-space LEEM data were used to characterize the morphology of this interface. Six different facet faces ((111), (532), (743), (954), (13 9 5), and (542)) were observed for the preparation path of molecular adsorption on the substrate kept at 550 K. Facet-sensitive dark-field LEEM localized these facets to grow in homogeneous areas of microscopic extensions. The temperature-dependence of the interface formation was studied in a range between 418 K and 612 K in order to learn more about the kinetics of the process. Additional steeper facets of 27 inclination with respect to the (111) surface were observed in the low temperature regime. Furthermore, using facet-sensitive dark-field LEEM, spatial and size distributions of specific facets were studied for the different temperatures. Moreover, the facet dimensions were statistically analyzed. The total island size of the facets follows an exponential distribution, indicating a random growth mode in absence of any mutual facet interactions. While the length distribution of the facets also follows an exponential distribution, the width distribution is peaked, reflecting the high degree of lateral order. This anisotropy is temperature-dependent and occurs
Pelegrino, Flávia M; Dantas, Rosana A S; Corbi, Inaiara S A; da Silva Carvalho, Ariana R; Schmidt, André; Pazin Filho, Antônio
The aim of this study was to evaluate the internal reliability and validity of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of Duke Anticoagulation Satisfaction Scale (DASS) among cardiovascular patients. Oral anticoagulation is widely used to prevent and treat thromboembolic events in several conditions, especially in cardiovascular diseases; however, this therapy can induce dissatisfaction and reduce the quality of life. Methodological and cross-sectional research design. The cultural adaptation of the DASS included the translation and back-translation, discussions with healthcare professionals and patients to ensure conceptual equivalence, semantic evaluation and instrument pretest. The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the DASS was tested among subjects followed in a university hospital anticoagulation outpatient clinic. The psychometric properties were assessed by construct validity (convergent, known groups and dimensionality) and internal consistency/reliability (Cronbach's alpha). A total of 180 subjects under oral anticoagulation formed the baseline validation population. DASS total score and SF-36 domain correlations were moderate for General health (r=-0.47, pDASS score and most of the subscales, except Limitation (r=-0.375, pscale, and it ranged from 0.76 (hassles and burdens)-0.46 (psychological impact) among the domains, confirming the internal consistency reliability. The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the DASS has shown levels of reliability and validity comparable with the original English version. Healthcare practitioners and researchers need internationally validated measurement tools to compare outcomes of interventions in clinical management and research tools in oral anticoagulation therapy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Lam, T P; Wong, J G W S; Ip, Mary S M; Lam, K F; Pang, S L
Many doctors experience psychological ill health. Interns are known to be particularly vulnerable. To examine the level of depression, anxiety and stress in interns in Hong Kong, as well as the causes and how they cope. A questionnaire was designed based on the themes identified in three focus groups of medical graduates of Year 2004 of the University of Hong Kong. The 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS 21) was also administered. All 155 graduates of the same year were invited to participate with a response rate of 63%. Percentages of respondents with abnormal levels of depression, anxiety and stress were 35.8%, 35.4% and 29.2%, respectively. Frequent calls during night shift, long working hours and heavy workload constituted the most significant stressors. Factor analysis of the stressors showed that seven factors could explain 68% of the total variance: multidisciplinary team working issues, clinical difficulties, job seeking and employment, workload issues, ethical and interpersonal issues, adjustment to job rotation and performance appraisal. Holidays, peers and sleep offered the most significant relief. Interns experience considerable depression, anxiety and stress. The source of stress is multi-faceted, but workload is the most significant stressor. Peer support groups may relief stress.
Dobson, P. F.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Wu, Y.; Cook, P. J.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Nakagawa, S.; Ulrich, C.; Siler, D. L.; Guglielmi, Y.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Rutqvist, J.; Daley, T. M.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Wang, H. F.; Lord, N.; Haimson, B. C.; Sone, H.; Vigilante, P.; Roggenthen, W.; Doe, T.; Lee, M.; Ingraham, M. D.; Huang, H.; Mattson, E.; Johnson, T. C.; Zhou, J.; Zoback, M. D.; Morris, J.; White, J. A.; Johnson, P. A.; Coblentz, D. D.; Heise, J.
In 2015, we established a field test facility at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), and in 2016 we carried out in situ hydraulic fracturing experiments to characterize the stress field, understand the effects of crystalline rock fabric on fracturing, and gain experience in monitoring using geophysical methods. The kISMET (permeability (k) and Induced Seismicity Management for Energy Technologies) project test site was established in the West Access Drift at the 4850 ft level, 1478 m below ground in phyllite of the Precambrian Poorman Formation. The kISMET team drilled and cored five near-vertical boreholes in a line on 3 m spacing, deviating the two outermost boreholes slightly to create a five-spot pattern around the test borehole centered in the test volume 40 m below the drift invert (floor) at a total depth of 1518 m. Laboratory measurements of core from the center test borehole showed P-wave velocity heterogeneity along each core indicating strong, fine-scale ( 1 cm or smaller) changes in the mechanical properties of the rock. Tensile strength ranges between 3‒7.5 MPa and 5‒12 MPa. Pre-fracturing numerical simulations with a discrete element code were carried out to predict fracture size and magnitude of microseismicity. Field measurements of the stress field were made using hydraulic fracturing, which produced remarkably uniformly oriented fractures suggesting rock fabric did not play a significant role in controlling fracture orientation. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and continuous active seismic source monitoring (CASSM) were deployed in the four monitoring boreholes, and passive seismic accelerometer-based measurements in the West Access Drift were carried out during the generation of a larger fracture (so-called stimulation test). ERT was not able to detect the fracture created, nor did the accelerometers in the drift, but microseismicity was detected for the first (deepest) hydraulic-fracturing stress measurement. Analytical
Wu, Zi Liang; Moshe, Michael; Greener, Jesse; Therien-Aubin, Heloise; Nie, Zhihong; Sharon, Eran; Kumacheva, Eugenia
Although Nature has always been a common source of inspiration in the development of artificial materials, only recently has the ability of man-made materials to produce complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from two-dimensional sheets been explored. Here we present a new approach to the self-shaping of soft matter that mimics fibrous plant tissues by exploiting small-scale variations in the internal stresses to form three-dimensional morphologies. We design single-layer hydrogel sheets with chemically distinct, fibre-like regions that exhibit differential shrinkage and elastic moduli under the application of external stimulus. Using a planar-to-helical three-dimensional shape transformation as an example, we explore the relation between the internal architecture of the sheets and their transition to cylindrical and conical helices with specific structural characteristics. The ability to engineer multiple three-dimensional shape transformations determined by small-scale patterns in a hydrogel sheet represents a promising step in the development of programmable soft matter.
Hall, J. W.; Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Coxon, G.; Guillod, B. P.; Allen, M. R.
Water resources systems can fail to deliver the services required by water users (and deprive the environment of flow requirements) in many different ways. In an attempt to make systems more resilient, they have also been made more complex, for example through a growing number of large-scale transfers, optimized storages and reuse plants. These systems may be vulnerable to complex variants of hydrological variability in space and time, and behavioural adaptations by water users. In previous research we have used non-parametric stochastic streamflow generators to test the vulnerability of water resource systems. Here we use a very large ensemble of regional climate model outputs from the weather@home crowd-sourced citizen science project, which has generated more than 30,000 years of synthetic weather for present and future climates in the UK and western Europe, using the HadAM3P regional climate model. These simulations have been constructed in order to preserve prolonged drought characteristics, through treatment of long-memory processes in ocean circulations and soil moisture. The weather simulations have been propagated through the newly developed DynaTOP national hydrological for Britain, in order to provide low flow simulations at points of water withdrawal for public water supply, energy and agricultural abstractors. We have used the WATHNET water resource simulation model, set up for the Thames Basin and for all of the large water resource zones in England, to simulate the frequency, severity and duration of water shortages in all of these synthetic weather conditions. In particular, we have sought to explore systemic vulnerabilities associated with inter-basin transfers and the trade-offs between different water users. This analytical capability is providing the basis for (i) implementation of the Duty of Resilience, which has been placed upon the water industry in the 2014 Water Act and (ii) testing reformed abstraction arrangements which the UK government
Saghaei, Mozhdeh; Omidi, Pouya; Dehkordi, Elham Hashemi; Safavi, Parvin
The study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a training course of cognitive-behavioral stress management in glycaemia regulation in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus as well as in mental health status of their mothers. Fifty children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their mothers were selected and randomly assigned into two groups. A group of mothers (n=25; as experimental one besides their children) passed a course, eight 2-h sessions, on the cognitive-behavioral and stress management, and the control group received the usual care. To evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, before and after holding the course, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) test was done on both groups of children, and also some information was collected from the mothers through interview and the DASS (depression, anxiety, stress scale) and PSI (parenting stress index) questionnaires. After the intervention, HbA1c level decreased in the experimental group. Feeling of depression, anxiety and stress was significantly lower than the control group. Furthermore, training for parenting stress management positively affected on the sense of demanding, reinforcement, and adaptability in child domain and also on attachment, competence, depression, relationship with spouse and family health in parent domain. The intervention program was significantly effective in reducing the amount of HbA1c in diabetic children, and also reduced the intensity of psychosocial problems such as depression, anxiety and stress in the mothers caring for children with type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Watkinson, John; Patton, Regan
It is widely known that gravitation can be accounted for via general relativity in a four-dimensional manifold called spacetime. A direct corollary of this is that the observable characteristics of any self-gravitating body in space are closely tied to its 'rheology' - how stress and deformation are related to one another. The large-scale/long-term response of terrestrial planets to loading is arguably dissipative, which can be modeled using purely viscous rheology. Evidence for this includes Earth's flattened ellipsoidal configuration, the likely result of self-gravity and rotation. On the other hand, the small scale, short-term response of solid earth materials is arguably conservative, which can be modeled using purely elastic rheology. Evidence for this includes the propagation of shear waves throughout the crust and mantle. These general observations, combined with long-term creep and attenuation of seismic signals at the longest wavelengths, seems to suggest that networks of springs, dash pots, and sliding masses, although vogue, comprise only one possible family of an otherwise infinite number of rheological models. The response of solid earth materials to loading is a scale-dependent process and involves both elasticity (strain-energy storage) and viscosity (energy dissipation). Tectonic processes are controlled by regional stratification, lithology, thermal structure, fluid content, metamorphic reactions, and deformation rates, many aspects of which are inherited through geological time. Clearly, topography and igneous activity on terrestrial planets are closely allied phenomena, consistent with global and regional isostatic balance demonstrated through gravity-topography analysis. It is reasonable to conclude that crustal stratification and igneous activity are inherent features of the Earth system, which must be predicted by any self-consistent model. We have assumed that solid earth rheology can be modeled using the differential grade-2 (DG-2) material
Full Text Available Background & aim: Recent studies showed that spirituality and spiritual intelligence in pregnant women are associated with mental reactions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of spiritual counseling on pregnant women's spiritual intelligence and common mental reactions during pregnancy. Methods: Inthis quasi-experimental study, 80 multiparous and nulliparous pregnant women were randomly selected from among pregnant women referring to our clinic. The patients were screened and then randomly assigned to intervention (n=40 and control (n=40 groups. The intervention group was divided into four groups of ten and then received spiritual counseling during eight sessions. The control group only received the routine care. The data was collected by using a demographic form, Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21, and King spiritual intelligence scale. Both groups were followed immediately and two months after the intervention. To analyze the data, descriptive and analytical statistics were used in SPSS, version 16. Results: Before the intervention, there was no significant difference in mean scores of depression, anxiety, stress, spiritual intelligence, and its components between the two groups (P>0.05. However, immediately and two month after the intervention, the results showed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean scores of depression, anxiety, stress, spiritual intelligence, and its components (P0.05. The mean scores of spiritual intelligence and its components significantly increased over time (before, immediately, and two months after the intervention in the intervention group (P
Catestatin, vasostatin, cortisol, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, scores of the short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale and visual analog scale for stress and pain behavior in dogs before and after ovariohysterectomy.
Srithunyarat, Thanikul; Höglund, Odd V; Hagman, Ragnvi; Olsson, Ulf; Stridsberg, Mats; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Pettersson, Ann
The stress reaction induced by surgery and associated pain may be detrimental for patient recovery and should be minimized. The neuropeptide chromogranin A (CGA) has shown promise as a sensitive biomarker for stress in humans. Little is known about CGA and its derived peptides, catestatin (CST) and vasostatin (VS), in dogs undergoing surgery. The objectives of this study were to investigate and compare concentrations of CGA epitopes CST and VS, cortisol, body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, scores of the short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale (CMPS-SF) and visual analog scales (VAS) for stress and pain behavior in dogs before and after ovariohysterectomy. Thirty healthy privately owned female dogs admitted for elective ovariohysterectomy were included. Physical examination, CMPS-SF, pain behavior VAS, and stress behavior VAS were recorded and saliva and blood samples were collected before surgery, 3 h after extubation, and once at recall 7-15 days after surgery. Dogs were premedicated with morphine and received carprofen as analgesia for 7 days during the postoperative period. At 3 h after extubation, CMPS-SF and pain behavior VAS scores had increased (p stress behavior VAS scores, temperature, respiratory rate (p stress and pain changed in dogs subjected to ovariohysterectomy. To further evaluate CST and VS usefulness as pain biomarkers, studies on dogs in acute painful situations are warranted.
Full Text Available Background: In recent decades, several medical and scientific studies on yoga proved it to be very useful in the treatment of some diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of yoga on stress, anxiety, and depression in women living in Ilam, Iran. Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study with pre-post test. To collect data, the questionnaire of DASS-21 (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 was used. For eligible samples, hatha yoga exercises and training sessions were held for 4 weeks (3 time/weeks; 60-70 min each by a specialist. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: 52 women with a mean age of 33.5 ± 6.5 were included for analysis. Depression, anxiety, and stress decreased significantly in women after 12 sessions of regular hatha yoga practice (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Yoga has an effective role in reducing stress, anxiety, and depression. Thus, it can be used as complementary medicine.
Norizan, A; Shamsuddin, K
Having children with intellectual disability can be stressful for most parents. Currently there are very few studies focusing on parenting stress among mothers of children with Down syndrome (DS) in Asia. The present study examined the level of parenting stress experienced by Malaysian mothers of children with DS and evaluated the child and maternal factors that contributed to parenting stress based on Hill's ABC-X Model (Hill 1949). We conducted a cross-sectional study of mothers of children with DS between the ages of 2-12 years during February-June 2008 in Kedah, a state in Peninsular Malaysia. We used self-administered questionnaires to gather data on parenting stress, child's birth history and current behavioural problems, as well as the maternal sociodemographic characteristics, coping styles and psychological well-being. Parental Stress Scale (PSS) was used to assess parenting stress. Measures of child's behavioural problem using Pediatric Symptom Checklist, mother's coping style using Carver et al. (1989) COPE inventory and their psychological well-being using Lovibond and Lovibond (1995) DASS21, a scale assessing depression, anxiety and stress were also carried out. The 147 mothers who participated in the study had an average age of 43.1 years (SD = 7.6 years), of whom 94.6% were married, 57.1% had secondary level education and 28.6% were working outside their home. Based on PSS, mean parenting stress was 37.6 (SD = 8.1). Parenting stress was significantly higher among mothers who reported having children with behavioural problems. However, parenting stress was modified by positive coping styles and negative maternal psychological well-being. The final model based on hierarchical regression analysis identified maternal depression and lack of acceptance as significant predictors of parenting stress rather than child's behavioural problems. Mean parenting stress among mothers of children with DS significantly differed by behavioural problems in their
Galor, Sharon; Hentschel, Uwe
The primary objective of this study was to identify the vulnerability factors for suicide attempts in an Israeli sample, with the help of the Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis scales. The respondents were divided into four groups: suicide attempters; controls; post-traumatic stress disorder and depressed patients who did not report suicidal…
Full Text Available Background: One of the factors that could influence the quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis, which is usually overlooked, is its psychological aspects. Considering the increasing acceptance of complementary medicine in the health system, this study was designed and conducted to determine the effect of group cognitive therapy on the stress, anxiety, and depression of women suffering from multiple sclerosis. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted among 70 women suffering from multiple sclerosis who were referred to the health centers of Isfahan. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups of intervention and control, each containing 35 patients. The intervention group received cognitive behavioral therapy as 8 90-minute group sessions (a session per week, and the control group participated in 4 group sessions to express their feelings and experiences. Data were gathered using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-24. Results: There was a significant difference between the mean score of stress (P = 0.03, anxiety (P = 0.02, and depression (P = 0.03 of the intervention and the control group immediately after and 1 month after the intervention. Least squares difference test showed that the mean score of stress (P = 0.02, anxiety (P = 0.02, and depression (P = 0.03 immediately and 1 month after the intervention was significantly lower in the intervention group. Conclusions: According to the results of the present study, cognitive behavioral therapy could decrease stress, anxiety, and depression in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis.
The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is currently involved in a 1/5 scale testing program on the Mark I BWR pressure suppression system. A key element of the test setup is a pressure vessel that is a 90 0 sector of a torus. Proper performance of the 90 0 torus depends on its structural integrity and structural dynamic characteristics. It must sustain the internal pressurization of the planned tests, and its dynamic response to the transient test loads should be minimal. If the structural vibrations are too great, interpretation of important load cell and pressure transducer data will be difficult. The purpose of the report is to bring together under one cover calculations pertaining to the structural dynamic characteristics and structural integrity of 90 0 torus. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) system description in which the torus and associated hardware are briefly described; (2) structural dynamics in which calculations of natural frequency and dynamic response are presented; and (3) structural integrity in which stress calculations for design purposes are presented; and an appendix which contains an LLL internal report comparing the expected load cell response for a three and four-point supported torus
Duan, Wenjie; Mu, Wenlong
Although stress emerges when environmental demands exceed personal resources, existing measurement methods for stress focus only on one aspect. The newly-developed Short Stress Overload Scale (SOS-S) assesses the extent of stress by assessing both event load (i.e., environmental demands) and personal vulnerability (i.e., personal resources). The present study was designed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Stress Overload Scale-Short (SOS-SC), and further examine its roles in screening mental health status. A total of 1364 participants were recruited from communities and colleges for scale validation. Reliabilities were good throughout the subsamples (ω > 0.80). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the acceptable goodness-of-fit for the two-factor correlated model (Sample 1: 560 community residents). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis confirmed measurement invariance across community residents (Sample 1) and college students (Sample 2 and Sample 3). Criterion validity and convergent validity were established (Sample 2: 554 college students). Latent moderated structural equations demonstrated that the relationship between SOS-SC and depression is moderated by social support (Sample 2), further validating the SOS-SC. In addition, the SOS-SC effectively screened individuals in a population at different levels of mental health status (i.e., "at risk" vs. "at low risk" for depression symptoms and/or wellbeing). The SOS-SC exhibits acceptable psychometric properties in the Chinese context. That said, the two aspects of stress can be differentiated by the Chinese context, therefore, the SOS-SC can be used to measure stress and screen mental health status among the Chinese population, and monitor and evaluate health-promoting interventions.
Peng Chiong Tan
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the temporal and case-controlled correlations of anxiety, depression and stress with hyperemesis gravidarum. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a longitudinal cohort study of women with hyperemesis gravidarum using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21 to evaluate psychological distress at hospitalization and in the third trimester of pregnancy (from 28 weeks gestation. Third pregnancy trimester controls were recruited from routine antenatal clinic attendees who were matched to gestational age at the second DASS-21 assessment in the HG cohort. RESULTS: The prevalences of nausea and vomiting, depression, anxiety and stress caseness in newly hospitalised hyperemesis gravidarum women were 100% and 100%, 19%, 69% and 21% which by the third trimester had fallen to 15.7% and 9.9%, 4%, 19% and 3% and in third trimester controls were 15.9% and 14.2%, 14%, 61% and 20% respectively. Within the hyperemesis gravidarum cohort, nausea, vomiting depression, anxiety and stress reduced significantly by an absolute 84.3% (95% CI 76.2%-89.8%, 90.1% (82.8%-94.2%, 14.9% (7.2%-23.0%, 49.6% (38.6%-58.7% and 18.2% (10.4%-26.4% respectively between hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum and at the third trimester. In the third trimester, when comparing the hyperemesis gravidarum cohort to controls, the risk of nausea or vomiting was similar but depression, anxiety and stress were significantly lower: adjusted odds ratio AOR 0.10 (95% CI 0.03-0.5, 0.11 (0.05-0.23 and 0.08 (0.02-0.33 respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed a reassuring pattern of a strong rebound from depression, anxiety and stress in women with hyperemesis gravidarum such that by the third pregnancy trimester the level of psychological distress was even lower than in controls. This observation imply that much of the psychological distress in acute hyperemesis gravidarum is self-limiting and probably in the causal pathway of hyperemesis gravidarum. Care in women with
Creedy, D K; Sidebotham, M; Gamble, J; Pallant, Julie; Fenwick, J
The health and wellbeing of midwives are important considerations for workforce retention and quality care. The occurrence and relationships among mental health conditions such as burnout and depression have received little attention. We investigated the prevalence of burnout, depression, anxiety and stress in Australian midwives. An online survey was conducted in September 2014. Participants were recruited through the Australian College of Midwives and professional networks. The survey sought personal and professional details. Standard measures included the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) (Personal, Work and Client subscales), and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS). The sample was collapsed into two groups according to DASS clinical cut-offs (normal/mild versus moderate/severe/extreme). Effect size statistics were calculated and judged according to Cohen's guidelines. One thousand thirty-seven surveys were received. Respondents were predominantly female (98%), with an average age of 46.43 years, and 16.51 years of practice. Using a CBI subscale cut-off score of 50 and above (moderate and higher), 64.9% (n = 643) reported personal burnout; 43.8% (n = 428) reported work-related burnout; and 10.4% (n = 102) reported client-related burnout. All burnout subscales were significantly correlated with depression, anxiety and stress, particularly personal and work-related burnout with Spearman's rho correlations ranging from .51 to .63 (p stress (22.1%) symptoms. Mann-Whitney U tests revealed significant differences between groups with depression (r = .43), anxiety (r = .41) and stress (r = 48) having a medium size effect on burnout. Prevalence of personal and work-related burnout in Australian midwives was high. The physical and psychological exhaustion associated with the different types of burnout were reflected in symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. Further research is needed to support the personal well-being of
Yang, Y.; Anderson, M. C.; Gao, F.; Wardlow, B.; Hain, C.; Otkin, J.; Sun, L.; Dulaney, W.
In agricultural regions, water is one of the most widely limiting factors of crop performance and production. Evapotranspiration (ET) describes crop water use through transpiration and water lost through direct soil evaporation, which makes it a good indicator of soil moisture availability and vegetation health and thus has been an integral part of many yield estimation efforts. The Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) describes temporal anomalies in a normalized evapotranspiration metric (fRET) as derived from satellite remote sensing and has demonstrated capacity to explain regional yield variability in water limited crop growing regions. However, its performance in some regions where the vegetation cycle is intensively managed appears to be degraded. In this study we generated maps of ET, fRET, and ESI at high spatiotemporal resolution (30-m pixels, daily timesteps) using a multi-sensor data fusion method, integrating information from satellite platforms with good temporal coverage and other platforms that provide field-scale spatial detail. The study was conducted over the period 2010-2014, covering a region around Mead, Nebraska that includes both rainfed and irrigated crops. Correlations between ESI and measurements of corn yield are investigated at both the field and county level to assess the value of ESI as a yield forecasting tool. To examine the role of phenology in ESI-yield correlations, annual input fRET timeseries were aligned by both calendar day and by biophysically relevant dates (e.g. days since planting or emergence). Results demonstrate that mapping of fRET and ESI at 30-m has the advantage of being able to resolve different crop types with varying phenology. The study also suggests that incorporating phenological information significantly improves yield-correlations by accounting for effects of phenology such as variable planting date and emergence date. The yield-ESI relationship in this study well captures the inter-annual variability of yields
Cotchett, Matthew; Munteanu, Shannon E; Landorf, Karl B
Depression, anxiety, and stress are prevalent in patients with musculoskeletal pain, but the impact of these emotional states has not been evaluated in people with plantar heel pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between depression, anxiety, and stress with plantar heel pain. Forty-five participants with plantar heel pain were matched by sex and age (±2 years) to 45 participants without plantar heel pain. Levels of depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (short version) in participants with and without plantar heel pain. Logistic regression was conducted to determine if levels of depression, anxiety, or stress were associated with having plantar heel pain. Univariate analysis indicated that participants with plantar heel pain had greater levels of depression (mean difference = 4.4, 95% CI 2.3 to 6.5), anxiety (mean difference = 2.6, 95% CI 0.9 to 4.3), and stress (mean difference = 4.8, 95% CI 1.9 to 7.8). After adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and education, for every 1 unit increase in depression, anxiety, or stress (in the DASS subscales), the odds ratios for having plantar heel pain were increased by 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.6), 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5), and 1.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.3), respectively. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress were independently associated with plantar heel pain. Larger prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the temporal association between these emotional states and plantar heel pain. Level III, cross sectional, observational. © The Author(s) 2016.
Guerain, Mathieu; Grosseau-Poussard, Jean-Luc; Geandier, Guillaume; Panicaud, Benoit; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Dejoie, Catherine; Micha, Jean-Sebastien; Thiaudière, Dominique; Goudeau, Philippe
In oxidizing environments, the protection of metals and alloys against further oxidation at high temperature is provided by the oxide film itself. This protection is efficient only if the formed film adheres well to the metal (substrate), i.e., without microcracks and spalls induced by thermomechanical stresses. In this study, the residual stresses at both macroscopic and microscopic scales in the oxide film adhering to the substrate and over the damaged areas have been rigorously determined on the same samples for both techniques. Ni-30Cr and Fe-47Cr alloys have been oxidized together at 900 and 1000 °C, respectively, to create films with a thickness of a few microns. A multi-scale approach was adopted: macroscopic stress was determined by conventional X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, while microscopic residual stress mappings were performed over different types of bucklings using Raman micro-spectroscopy and synchrotron micro-diffraction. A very good agreement is found at macro- and microscales between the residual stress values obtained with both techniques, giving confidence on the reliability of the measurements. In addition, relevant structural information at the interface between the metallic substrate and the oxide layer was collected by micro-diffraction, a non-destructive technique that allows mapping through the oxide layer, and both the grain size and the crystallographic orientation of the supporting polycrystalline metal located either under a buckling or not were measured.
Narayan, Angela J; Rivera, Luisa M; Bernstein, Rosemary E; Harris, William W; Lieberman, Alicia F
This pilot study examined the psychometric properties of the Benevolent Childhood Experiences (BCEs) scale, a new instrument designed to assess positive early life experiences in adults with histories of childhood maltreatment and other adversities. A counterpart to the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire, the BCEs was developed to be multiculturally-sensitive and applicable regardless of socioeconomic position, urban-rural background, or immigration status. Higher levels of BCEs were hypothesized to predict lower levels of psychopathology and stress beyond the effects of ACES in a sample of ethnically diverse, low-income pregnant women. BCEs were also expected to show adequate internal validity across racial/ethnic groups and test-retest stability from the prenatal to the postnatal period. Participants were 101 pregnant women (M=29.10years, SD=6.56, range=18-44; 37% Latina, 22% African-American, 20% White, 21% biracial/multiracial/other; 37% foreign-born, 26% Spanish-speaking) who completed the BCEs and ACEs scales; assessments of prenatal depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, perceived stress, and exposure to stressful life events (SLEs) during pregnancy; and demographic information. Higher levels of BCEs predicted less PTSD symptoms and SLEs, above and beyond ACEs. The BCEs showed excellent test-retest reliability, and mean levels were comparable across racial/ethnic and Spanish-English groups of women. Person-oriented analyses also showed that higher levels of BCEs offset the effects of ACEs on prenatal stress and psychopathology. The BCEs scale indexes promising promotive factors associated with lower trauma-related symptomatology and stress exposure during pregnancy and illuminates how favorable childhood experiences may counteract long-term effects of childhood adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sili, Alessandro; Fida, Roberta; Zaghini, F; Tramontano, C; Paciello, Marinella
Several studies, but no one in the nursing, have shown that work stress can facilitate the adoption of specific behaviors that the literature identifies as Counterproductive Work Behaviors (CWB). Individuals, however, not giving up to their moral principles, may transgress social, organizational, moral and ethical norms, through the adoption of moral disengagement (MD). The purpose of this study is to validate two specific scales of deviant behaviors and MD in nursing: the Nursing Counterproductive Work Behaviours Scale (Nursing CWBS) and Nursing Moral Disengagement Scale (Nursing MDS). 460 nurses participated in the study. After the adaptation of the Counterproductive Work Behavior Checklist by Spector and Fox to Nursing context (Nursing CWBS) and the ex novo development of the Nursing MDS, the psychometric properties of the two scales were tested. Also, the two scales were correlated. Through a cross-validation approach and based on the results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we have shown that the scales have good psychometric properties. Furthermore, the results, attest that the nurse with high levels of MD implements more CWB in the workplace. The Nursing CWBS and Nursing MDS represent a valid starting point for the study of such phenomena in this specific context where stress among nursing staff is sometimes of considerable extent, especially in specific contexts of clinical care.
Qian, Cheng; Fan, Jiajie; Fang, Jiayi; Yu, Chaohua; Ren, Yi; Fan, Xuejun; Zhang, Guoqi
By solving the problem of very long test time on reliability qualification for Light-emitting Diode (LED) products, the accelerated degradation test with a thermal overstress at a proper range is regarded as a promising and effective approach. For a comprehensive survey of the application of step-stress accelerated degradation test (SSADT) in LEDs, the thermal, photometric, and colorimetric properties of two types of LED chip scale packages (CSPs), i.e., 4000 °K and 5000 °K samples each of which was driven by two different levels of currents (i.e., 120 mA and 350 mA, respectively), were investigated under an increasing temperature from 55 °C to 150 °C and a systemic study of driving current effect on the SSADT results were also reported in this paper. During SSADT, junction temperatures of the test samples have a positive relationship with their driving currents. However, the temperature-voltage curve, which represents the thermal resistance property of the test samples, does not show significant variance as long as the driving current is no more than the sample's rated current. But when the test sample is tested under an overdrive current, its temperature-voltage curve is observed as obviously shifted to the left when compared to that before SSADT. Similar overdrive current affected the degradation scenario is also found in the attenuation of Spectral Power Distributions (SPDs) of the test samples. As used in the reliability qualification, SSADT provides explicit scenes on color shift and correlated color temperature (CCT) depreciation of the test samples, but not on lumen maintenance depreciation. It is also proved that the varying rates of the color shift and CCT depreciation failures can be effectively accelerated with an increase of the driving current, for instance, from 120 mA to 350 mA. For these reasons, SSADT is considered as a suitable accelerated test method for qualifying these two failure modes of LED CSPs.
Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Lalor, Aislinn; Farnworth, Louise; Pallant, Julie F
The Health Promoting Activities Scale (HPAS) measures the frequency that mothers participate in self-selected leisure activities that promote health and wellbeing. The scale was originally validated on mothers of school-aged children with disabilities, and the current article extends this research using a comparative sample of mothers of typically developing school-aged children. Australian mothers (N = 263) completed a questionnaire containing the HPAS, a measure of depression, anxiety and stress (DASS-21) and questions concerning their weight, height, sleep quality and demographics. Statistical analysis assessed the underlying structure, internal consistency and construct validity of the HPAS. Inferential statistics were utilised to investigate the construct validity. Exploratory factor analysis supported the unidimensionality of the HPAS. It showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.78). Significantly lower HPAS scores were recorded for women who were obese; had elevated levels of depression, anxiety and stress; had poor quality sleep or had heavy caring commitments. The mean HPAS score in this sample (M = 32.2) was significantly higher than was previously reported for women of children with a disability (M = 21.6: P < 0.001). Further psychometric evaluation of the HPAS continues to support the HPAS as a sound instrument that measures the frequency that women participate in meaningful occupation that is associated with differences in mental health and wellbeing and other health indicators. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Tonsing, Kareen; Zimet, Gregory D; Tse, Samson
The psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) of the Urdu (MSPSS-U) and Nepali (MSPSS-N) versions were investigated among Pakistani (n=148) and Nepalese (n=153) respondents living in Hong Kong. The factor analysis of the MSPSS-N conducted in this study confirmed the three factors of the original MSPSS, namely, Family, Friend, and Significant Others, while only two factors were extracted from the MSPSS-U (i.e., the Family and Friends subscales). With regard to construct validity, both the MSPSS-U and MSPSS-N were inversely correlated with depression, anxiety and stress as assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). The internal reliability and construct validity of the MSPSS-U and MSPSS-N were also established and provided support for the validity of both versions as tools for measuring perceived social support among South Asian migrants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Younes, Farah; Halawi, Ghinwa; Jabbour, Hicham; El Osta, Nada; Karam, Latife; Hajj, Aline; Rabbaa Khabbaz, Lydia
Internet addiction (IA) could be a major concern in university medical students aiming to develop into health professionals. The implications of this addiction as well as its association with sleep, mood disorders and self-esteem can hinder their studies, impact their long-term career goals and have wide and detrimental consequences for society as a whole. The objectives of this study were to: 1) Assess potential IA in university medical students, as well as factors associated with it; 2) Assess the relationships between potential IA, insomnia, depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem. Our study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted among 600 students of three faculties: medicine, dentistry and pharmacy at Saint-Joseph University. Four validated and reliable questionnaires were used: the Young Internet Addiction Test, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21), and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). The average YIAT score was 30 ± 18.474; Potential IA prevalence rate was 16.8% (95% confidence interval: 13.81-19.79%) and it was significantly different between males and females (p-value = 0.003), with a higher prevalence in males (23.6% versus 13.9%). Significant correlations were found between potential IA and insomnia, stress, anxiety, depression and self-esteem (p-value anxiety, depression, stress, and self-esteem.
Beiter, R; Nash, R; McCrady, M; Rhoades, D; Linscomb, M; Clarahan, M; Sammut, S
Over the past four years, the Franciscan University Counseling Center has reported a 231% increase in yearly visits, as well as a 173% increase in total yearly clients. This trend has been observed at many universities as mental health issues pose significant problems for many college students. The objective of this study was to investigate potential correlates of depression, anxiety, and stress in a sample of college students. The final analyzed sample consisted of 374 undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 24 attending Franciscan University, Steubenville, Ohio. Subjects completed a survey consisting of demographic questions, a section instructing participants to rate the level of concern associated with challenges pertinent to daily life (e.g. academics, family, sleep), and the 21 question version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS21). The results indicated that the top three concerns were academic performance, pressure to succeed, and post-graduation plans. Demographically, the most stressed, anxious, and depressed students were transfers, upperclassmen, and those living off-campus. With the propensity for mental health issues to hinder the success of college students, it is vital that colleges continually evaluate the mental health of their students and tailor treatment programs to specifically target their needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hítalo Andrade Silva
Full Text Available Psychological distress is among the main causes of the onset or worsening of pain symptoms in young sports people. The increasing participation of adolescents in various sports increases the need to verify the prevalence and association of these affective disorders such as anxiety, stress and depression with pain in the shoulder girdle and in the cervical region that are typical in sportspeople who use more frequently the upper limbs. The sample (n = 310; 14.16±2.12 years. Corlett's body diagram and the Brazilian short version of the anxiety, depression and stress scale (DASS-21 were used. Independent t-tests, chi-square and multiple logistic regression were used. The girls had a higher prevalence of anxiety/stress (62%, p = 0.02. The variables associated with anxiety/stress were female (OR = 2.16, aged 15 to 19 years (OR = 2.39 and individual modality (OR = 1.88. The variables associated with depression were age 15 to 19 years (OR = 1.74, individual modality (OR = 1.84 and pain in the shoulder girdle and cervical region (OR = 2.33.
Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh
Background: Menstruation signs are among the most common disorders in adolescents and are influenced by various environmental and psychosocial factors. This study aimed to define the association between menstruation signs and anxiety, depression, and stress in school girls in Mashhad in 2011-2012. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 407 high school girls in Mashhad who were selected through two-step random sampling. The students completed a questionnaire concerning demographic characteristics, menstruation, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale of 21 questions (DASS-21), and menstruation signs in three phases of their menstruation. Data were analyzed by the statistical tests of Pearson correlation coefficient, Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression through SPSS version 14. Results: Based on the findings, 74% of the subjects reported pre-menstruation signs, 94% reported signs during bleeding, and 40.8% reported post-menstruation signs. About 44.3% of the subjects had anxiety, 45.5% had depression, and 47.2% had stress. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficient test showed a significant positive correlation between menstruation signs and depression, anxiety, and stress (P menstruation signs and psycho-cognitive variables, prevention and treatment of these disorders by the authorities of education and training and the Ministry of Health are essential. PMID:24403944
Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh
Menstruation signs are among the most common disorders in adolescents and are influenced by various environmental and psychosocial factors. This study aimed to define the association between menstruation signs and anxiety, depression, and stress in school girls in Mashhad in 2011-2012. This was a cross-sectional study on 407 high school girls in Mashhad who were selected through two-step random sampling. The students completed a questionnaire concerning demographic characteristics, menstruation, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale of 21 questions (DASS-21), and menstruation signs in three phases of their menstruation. Data were analyzed by the statistical tests of Pearson correlation coefficient, Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression through SPSS version 14. Based on the findings, 74% of the subjects reported pre-menstruation signs, 94% reported signs during bleeding, and 40.8% reported post-menstruation signs. About 44.3% of the subjects had anxiety, 45.5% had depression, and 47.2% had stress. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficient test showed a significant positive correlation between menstruation signs and depression, anxiety, and stress (P menstruation signs and psycho-cognitive variables, prevention and treatment of these disorders by the authorities of education and training and the Ministry of Health are essential.
Yu, Chaohua; Fan, Xuejun; Zhang, Guoqi
By solving the problem of very long test time on reliability qualification for Light-emitting Diode (LED) products, the accelerated degradation test with a thermal overstress at a proper range is regarded as a promising and effective approach. For a comprehensive survey of the application of step-stress accelerated degradation test (SSADT) in LEDs, the thermal, photometric, and colorimetric properties of two types of LED chip scale packages (CSPs), i.e., 4000 °K and 5000 °K samples each of which was driven by two different levels of currents (i.e., 120 mA and 350 mA, respectively), were investigated under an increasing temperature from 55 °C to 150 °C and a systemic study of driving current effect on the SSADT results were also reported in this paper. During SSADT, junction temperatures of the test samples have a positive relationship with their driving currents. However, the temperature-voltage curve, which represents the thermal resistance property of the test samples, does not show significant variance as long as the driving current is no more than the sample’s rated current. But when the test sample is tested under an overdrive current, its temperature-voltage curve is observed as obviously shifted to the left when compared to that before SSADT. Similar overdrive current affected the degradation scenario is also found in the attenuation of Spectral Power Distributions (SPDs) of the test samples. As used in the reliability qualification, SSADT provides explicit scenes on color shift and correlated color temperature (CCT) depreciation of the test samples, but not on lumen maintenance depreciation. It is also proved that the varying rates of the color shift and CCT depreciation failures can be effectively accelerated with an increase of the driving current, for instance, from 120 mA to 350 mA. For these reasons, SSADT is considered as a suitable accelerated test method for qualifying these two failure modes of LED CSPs. PMID:29035300
Gischig, Valentin Samuel; Doetsch, Joseph; Maurer, Hansruedi; Krietsch, Hannes; Amann, Florian; Evans, Keith Frederick; Nejati, Morteza; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Valley, Benoît; Obermann, Anne Christine; Wiemer, Stefan; Giardini, Domenico
To characterize the stress field at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) underground rock laboratory, a series of hydrofracturing and overcoring tests were performed. Hydrofracturing was accompanied by seismic monitoring using a network of highly sensitive piezosensors and accelerometers that were able to record small seismic events associated with metre-sized fractures. Due to potential discrepancies between the hydrofracture orientation and stress field estimates from overcoring, it was essential to obtain high-precision hypocentre locations that reliably illuminate fracture growth. Absolute locations were improved using a transverse isotropic P-wave velocity model and by applying joint hypocentre determination that allowed for the computation of station corrections. We further exploited the high degree of waveform similarity of events by applying cluster analysis and relative relocation. Resulting clouds of absolute and relative located seismicity showed a consistent east-west strike and 70° dip for all hydrofractures. The fracture growth direction from microseismicity is consistent with the principal stress orientations from the overcoring stress tests, provided that an anisotropic elastic model for the rock mass is used in the data inversions. The σ1 stress is significantly larger than the other two principal stresses and has a reasonably well-defined orientation that is subparallel to the fracture plane; σ2 and σ3 are almost equal in magnitude and thus lie on a circle defined by the standard errors of the solutions. The poles of the microseismicity planes also lie on this circle towards the north. Analysis of P-wave polarizations suggested double-couple focal mechanisms with both thrust and normal faulting mechanisms present, whereas strike-slip and thrust mechanisms would be expected from the overcoring-derived stress solution. The reasons for these discrepancies can be explained by pressure leak-off, but possibly may also involve stress field rotation around the
Manijeh Yazdanshenas Ghazwin
Full Text Available Objective: The determinants of satisfaction of life (SWL are poorly described among Iranian employed nurses. This study aimed to assess the effect of various factors including age, gender, marital status, depression, anxiety and stress on SWL among Iranian nurses.Method: Employed nurses in three teaching hospitals were invited to participate in this study. Ninety-four nurses (65 women and 29 men participated in this study. Depression, anxiety, stress scale (DASS-21 was used to measure the related variables. Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS was used to assess SWL. Multivariate analysis was utilized to examine the relationship between multiple variables. Results: A noticeable proportion of Iranian employed nurses were either dissatisfied or extremely dissatisfied with life (45%. Severe depression was related to lower scores of SWLS (P: 0.001, r = -0.32. The similar outcomes were detected between anxiety and stress scales, and SWLS (P: 0.023, r = -0.23 and P: 0.008, r = -0.27 for anxiety and stress, respectively. Although females were more vulnerable to depression (P: 0.010 and stress (P: 0.013, the overall effect of gender on SWL was insignificant (0.41. Satisfactions with financial power and work environment were associated with higher scores of SWLS (P: 0.030 and 0.042, respectively. Marital status was not related to severity of depression, anxiety, stress and SWLS (P: 0.39, 0.38, 0.80, and 0.61, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed that poor satisfaction with financial status and work environment, depression, anxiety and stress are the major determinants of satisfaction with life among Iranian employed nurses.
Full Text Available Our recently developed multi-scale form of Terzaghi’s effective stress principle for unsaturated swelling clays that was rigorously derived by periodic homogenization starting from micro- and nano-mechanical analyses is applied to numerically simulate one-dimensional swelling pressure tests of compacted bentonites during hydration. The total macroscopic stress captures the coupling between disjoining forces at the nanoscopic scale of clay platelets and capillary effects at the microscopic scale of clay aggregates over the entire water content range. The numerical results allow to draw conclusions on the water transfer mechanism between inter- and intra-aggregate pores during hydration and consequently on the evolution of the external swelling pressure resulting from the competition between capillary and disjoining forces. In addition, such application highlights the abilities and the limits of the electrical double-layer theory to compute the disjoining pressure in the nano-pores. For large platelet distances, in the range of osmotic swelling, the nature of the disjoining pressure is electro-chemical and can be computed from Poisson-Boltzmann theory. Conversely, at small distances, in the crystalline swelling, a solvation component has to be added to account for the molecular nature of the solvent. As a first improvement of the nano-scale description the solvent is treated as a hard sphere fluid using Density Functional Theory.
Morote, Roxanna; Hjemdal, Odin; Martinez Uribe, Patricia; Corveleyn, Jozef
Resilience is a multi-dimensional construct associated with health and well-being. At present, we do not yet have a valid, scientific instrument that is designed to evaluate adult resilience in Spanish-speaking countries and that accounts for family, social and individual components. This study aimed at investigating the construct and cross-cultural validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) by combining Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Hierarchical Regression models in a Hispanic Latin-American group. A community sample of 805 adults answered the RSA, Spanish Language Stressful Life-Events checklist (SL-SLE), and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). First-order CFA verified the six factors structure for the RSA (RMSEA = .037, SRMR = .047, CFI = .91, TLI = .90). Five RSA scales and total score have good internal consistency (scales α > .70; total score α = .90). Two second-order CFA verified the intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of the protector factors of resilience, as well as their commonality and uniqueness with affective symptoms (anxiety and depression). An exploratory MDS reproduced the relations of RSA items and factors at first and second-order levels against random simulated data, thereby providing initial evidence of its cross-cultural validity in a Spanish-speaking group. The Four-steps hierarchical model showed that the RSA scales are the strongest predictors of anxiety and depression-greater than gender, age, education and stressful life-events. Three RSA scales are significant unique predictors of affective symptoms. In addition, similar to findings in diverse cultural settings, resilience is positively associated with age but not with education. Women report higher scores of Social Resources and Social Competence and lower scores of Perception of the Self. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the construct and criterion-related validity of the RSA in broad, diverse and Spanish speaking
Iurlaro, Luigi; Gherlone, Marco; Di Sciuva, Marco; Tessler, Alexander
The Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT) enables accurate predictions of the in-plane displacements, strains, and stresses. The transverse shear stresses obtained from constitutive equations are layer-wise constant. Although these transverse shear stresses are generally accurate in the average, layer-wise sense, they are nevertheless discontinuous at layer interfaces, and thus they violate the requisite interlaminar continuity of transverse stresses. Recently, Tessler applied Reissner's mixed variational theorem and RZT kinematic assumptions to derive an accurate and efficient shear-deformation theory for homogeneous, laminated composite, and sandwich beams, called RZT(m), where "m" stands for "mixed". Herein, the RZT(m) for beams is extended to plate analysis, where two alternative assumptions for the transverse shear stresses field are examined: the first follows Tessler's formulation, whereas the second is based on Murakami's polynomial approach. Results for elasto-static simply supported and cantilever plates demonstrate that Tessler's formulation results in a powerful and efficient structural theory that is well-suited for the analysis of multilayered composite and sandwich panels.
Kolodny, Michael A.
Today's battlefield space is extremely complex, dealing with an enemy that is neither well-defined nor well-understood. Adversaries are comprised of widely-distributed, loosely-networked groups engaging in nefarious activities. Situational understanding is needed by decision makers; understanding of adversarial capabilities and intent is essential. Information needed at any time is dependent on the mission/task at hand. Information sources potentially providing mission-relevant information are disparate and numerous; they include sensors, social networks, fusion engines, internet, etc. Management of these multi-dimensional informational sources is critical. This paper will present a new approach being undertaken to answer the challenge of enhancing battlefield understanding by optimizing the utilization of available informational sources (means) to required missions/tasks as well as determining the "goodness'" of the information acquired in meeting the capabilities needed. Requirements are usually expressed in terms of a presumed technology solution (e.g., imagery). A metaphor of the "magic rabbits" was conceived to remove presumed technology solutions from requirements by claiming the "required" technology is obsolete. Instead, intelligent "magic rabbits" are used to provide needed information. The question then becomes: "WHAT INFORMATION DO YOU NEED THE RABBITS TO PROVIDE YOU?" This paper will describe a new approach called Mission-Informed Needed Information - Discoverable, Available Sensing Sources (MINI-DASS) that designs a process that builds information acquisition missions and determines what the "magic rabbits" need to provide in a manner that is machine understandable. Also described is the Missions and Means Framework (MMF) model used, the process flow utilized, the approach to developing an ontology of information source means and the approach for determining the value of the information acquired.
Paulina van Zyl
Full Text Available Background. The mental health of medical students is a global concern, and medical training has been described by some as being detrimental to the health of medical students, affecting both their student experience and professional life.Objectives. To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and substance use among preclinical students in a 5-year outcomes-based medical curriculum. The study also investigated the association of selected demographic factors with these outcomes.Methods. All University of the Free State medical students in semesters 3 (n=164 and 5 (n=131 during 2015 were included in this cross-sectional study. Depression, anxiety and stress levels were measured by means of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21. Demographic questions were included in an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Lifetime and past month substance use were determined.Results. A prevalence of 26.5% for moderate to extremely severe depression, 26.5% for moderate to extremely severe anxiety, and 29.5% for moderate to extremely severe stress was recorded. Female students had significantly higher stress levels, but not increased anxiety. Relationship status and accommodation were not associated with these outcomes. Lifetime use of methylphenidate, lifetime use of alcohol, and past month use of alcohol were associated with depression.Conclusion. The study revealed high levels of depression, anxiety and stress in 2nd- and 3rd-year medical students compared with the general population, but the levels were comparable to those of medical students elsewhere in the world. Past month substance use of alcohol and cannabis was lower than in international studies, but nicotine use was higher.
Paulina Maria van Zyl
Full Text Available Background. The mental health of medical students is a global concern, and medical training has been described by some as being detrimental to the health of medical students, affecting both their student experience and professional life. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and substance use among preclinical students in a 5-year outcomes-based medical curriculum. The study also investigated the association of selected demographic factors with these outcomes. Methods. All University of the Free State medical students in semesters 3 (n=164 and 5 (n=131 during 2015 were included in this cross-sectional study. Depression, anxiety and stress levels were measured by means of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21. Demographic questions were included in an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Lifetime and past month substance use were determined. Results. A prevalence of 26.5% for moderate to extremely severe depression, 26.5% for moderate to extremely severe anxiety, and 29.5% for moderate to extremely severe stress was recorded. Female students had significantly higher stress levels, but not increased anxiety. Relationship status and accommodation were not associated with these outcomes. Lifetime use of methylphenidate, lifetime use of alcohol, and past month use of alcohol were associated with depression. Conclusion. The study revealed high levels of depression, anxiety and stress in 2nd- and 3rd-year medical students compared with the general population, but the levels were comparable to those of medical students elsewhere in the world. Past month substance use of alcohol and cannabis was lower than in international studies, but nicotine use was higher.
Smith, Victoria C; Leppert, Katherine A; Alfano, Candice A; Dougherty, Lea R
Using a multi-method design, this study examined the construct validity of the Parent-Child Sleep Interactions Scale (PSIS; Alfano et al., 2013), which measures sleep-related parenting behaviors and interactions that contribute to preschoolers' sleep problems. Participants included a community sample of 155 preschoolers (ages 3-5years; 51.6% female). Primary caregivers completed the PSIS. Parenting styles and behaviors were assessed with laboratory observations and parent reports. Parent and child psychopathology and family life stress were assessed with clinical interviews and parent reports. Bivariate correlations revealed significant associations between the PSIS and a number of variables, including lower observed parental support and quality of instruction; higher observed parental intrusiveness; authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles; current maternal depressive and/or anxiety disorders and depressive symptomatology; increased stressful life events; lower marital satisfaction; and higher child depressive, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms. The patterns of association varied based on the specific PSIS scale. The PSIS demonstrates meaningful associations with parenting, maternal psychopathology, family stress, and child psychopathology and functioning. Findings suggest that the PSIS is a valid measure for assessing sleep-related parent/child behaviors and interactions among preschoolers, suited to real-world settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Choi, Edmond P H; Chin, Weng Yee; Lam, Cindy L K; Wan, Eric Y F
To examine the responsiveness of a combined symptom severity and health-related quality of life measure, condition-specific health-related quality of life measure and mental health measure in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. To establish the responsiveness of measures that accurately capture the change in health status of patients is crucial before any longitudinal studies can be appropriately planned and evaluated. Prospective longitudinal observational study. 402 patients were surveyed at baseline and 1-year using the International Prostate Symptom Score, the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21. The internal and external responsiveness were assessed. Surveys were conducted from March 2013-July 2014. In participants with improvements, the internal responsiveness for detecting positive changes was satisfactory in males and females for all scales, expect for the Depression subscale. The health-related quality of life question of the International Prostate Symptom Score was more externally responsive than the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7. The International Prostate Symptom Score and Anxiety and Stress subscales were more responsive in males than in females. The symptom questions of the International Prostate Symptom Score and Anxiety and Stress subscales were not externally responsive in females. The health-related quality of life question of the International Prostate Symptom Score outperformed the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 in both males and females, in terms of external responsiveness. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bordeaux John M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Global transcriptional analysis of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. is challenging due to limited molecular tools. PtGen2, a 26,496 feature cDNA microarray, was fabricated and used to assess drought-induced gene expression in loblolly pine propagule roots. Statistical analysis of differential expression and weighted gene correlation network analysis were used to identify drought-responsive genes and further characterize the molecular basis of drought tolerance in loblolly pine. Results Microarrays were used to interrogate root cDNA populations obtained from 12 genotype × treatment combinations (four genotypes, three watering regimes. Comparison of drought-stressed roots with roots from the control treatment identified 2445 genes displaying at least a 1.5-fold expression difference (false discovery rate = 0.01. Genes commonly associated with drought response in pine and other plant species, as well as a number of abiotic and biotic stress-related genes, were up-regulated in drought-stressed roots. Only 76 genes were identified as differentially expressed in drought-recovered roots, indicating that the transcript population can return to the pre-drought state within 48 hours. Gene correlation analysis predicts a scale-free network topology and identifies eleven co-expression modules that ranged in size from 34 to 938 members. Network topological parameters identified a number of central nodes (hubs including those with significant homology (E-values ≤ 2 × 10-30 to 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, zeatin O-glucosyltransferase, and ABA-responsive protein. Identified hubs also include genes that have been associated previously with osmotic stress, phytohormones, enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species, and several genes of unknown function. Conclusion PtGen2 was used to evaluate transcriptome responses in loblolly pine and was leveraged to identify 2445 differentially expressed genes responding to severe drought stress in
Background Global transcriptional analysis of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is challenging due to limited molecular tools. PtGen2, a 26,496 feature cDNA microarray, was fabricated and used to assess drought-induced gene expression in loblolly pine propagule roots. Statistical analysis of differential expression and weighted gene correlation network analysis were used to identify drought-responsive genes and further characterize the molecular basis of drought tolerance in loblolly pine. Results Microarrays were used to interrogate root cDNA populations obtained from 12 genotype × treatment combinations (four genotypes, three watering regimes). Comparison of drought-stressed roots with roots from the control treatment identified 2445 genes displaying at least a 1.5-fold expression difference (false discovery rate = 0.01). Genes commonly associated with drought response in pine and other plant species, as well as a number of abiotic and biotic stress-related genes, were up-regulated in drought-stressed roots. Only 76 genes were identified as differentially expressed in drought-recovered roots, indicating that the transcript population can return to the pre-drought state within 48 hours. Gene correlation analysis predicts a scale-free network topology and identifies eleven co-expression modules that ranged in size from 34 to 938 members. Network topological parameters identified a number of central nodes (hubs) including those with significant homology (E-values ≤ 2 × 10-30) to 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, zeatin O-glucosyltransferase, and ABA-responsive protein. Identified hubs also include genes that have been associated previously with osmotic stress, phytohormones, enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species, and several genes of unknown function. Conclusion PtGen2 was used to evaluate transcriptome responses in loblolly pine and was leveraged to identify 2445 differentially expressed genes responding to severe drought stress in roots. Many of the
Li, Dongna; Li, Xudong; Dai, Jianfeng; Xi, Shangbin
In this paper, three kinds of constitutive laws, elastic, "cure hardening instantaneously linear elastic (CHILE)" and viscoelastic law, are used to predict curing process-induced residual stress for the thermoset polymer composites. A multi-physics coupling finite element analysis (FEA) model implementing the proposed three approaches is established in COMSOL Multiphysics-Version 4.3b. The evolution of thermo-physical properties with temperature and degree of cure (DOC), which improved the accuracy of numerical simulations, and cure shrinkage are taken into account for the three models. Subsequently, these three proposed constitutive models are implemented respectively in a 3D micro-scale composite laminate structure. Compared the differences between these three numerical results, it indicates that big error in residual stress and cure shrinkage generates by elastic model, but the results calculated by the modified CHILE model are in excellent agreement with those estimated by the viscoelastic model.
McDonald, Russell J; Beaudoin, Armand J
Aluminium–lithium alloys provide a lower density and higher stiffness alternative to other high strength aluminium alloys. However, many Al–Li alloys exhibit a non-traditional failure mechanism called delamination, which refers to the failure of the elongated grain boundary interface. In this investigation, delaminations were observed after cyclic deformation of both uniaxial and torsion experiments. A cyclically stable rate-independent crystal plasticity framework with kinematic hardening was developed to address many experimental trends of stabilized cyclic plasticity. Utilizing this framework, meso-scale grain boundary interface stresses were estimated with uniform deformation and bi-crystal models. These models are computationally amenable to investigate both orientation dependence and the statistical nature of the grain boundary stresses for a given bulk texture and nominal loading. A coupled shear-normal Findley-based damage parameter was formulated to quantitatively characterize the nucleation of delamination consistently with experimental trends
Levashov, V. A.
We studied the connection between the structural relaxation and viscosity for a binary model of repulsive particles in the supercooled liquid regime. The used approach is based on the decomposition of the macroscopic Green-Kubo stress correlation function into the correlation functions between the atomic level stresses. Previously we used the approach to study an iron-like single component system of particles. The role of vibrational motion has been addressed through the demonstration of the relationship between viscosity and the shear waves propagating over large distances. In our previous considerations, however, we did not discuss the role of the structural relaxation. Here we suggest that the contribution to viscosity from the structural relaxation can be taken into account through the consideration of the contribution from the atomic stress auto-correlation term only. This conclusion, however, does not mean that only the auto-correlation term represents the contribution to viscosity from the structural relaxation. Previously the role of the structural relaxation for viscosity has been addressed through the considerations of the transitions between inherent structures and within the mode-coupling theory by other authors. In the present work, we study the structural relaxation through the considerations of the parent liquid and the atomic level stress correlations in it. The comparison with the results obtained on the inherent structures also is made. Our current results suggest, as our previous observations, that in the supercooled liquid regime, the vibrational contribution to viscosity extends over the times that are much larger than the Einstein's vibrational period and much larger than the times that it takes for the shear waves to propagate over the model systems. Besides addressing the atomic level shear stress correlations, we also studied correlations between the atomic level pressure elements.
Scherer, Laura; Venkatesh, Aranya; Karuppiah, Ramkumar; Pfister, Stephan
Physical water scarcities can be described by water stress indices. These are often determined at an annual scale and a watershed level; however, such scales mask seasonal fluctuations and spatial heterogeneity within a watershed. In order to account for this level of detail, first and foremost, water availability estimates must be improved and refined. State-of-the-art global hydrological models such as WaterGAP and UNH/GRDC have previously been unable to reliably reflect water availability at the subbasin scale. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was tested as an alternative to global models, using the case study of the Mississippi watershed. While SWAT clearly outperformed the global models at the scale of a large watershed, it was judged to be unsuitable for global scale simulations due to the high calibration efforts required. The results obtained in this study show that global assessments miss out on key aspects related to upstream/downstream relations and monthly fluctuations, which are important both for the characterization of water scarcity in the Mississippi watershed and for water footprints. Especially in arid regions, where scarcity is high, these models provide unsatisfying results.
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychiatric disorders such as depression, stress, and anxiety are factors that affect the quality of life, suicide and many physical problems, and socioeconomic in elders. Considering the importance of the issue and increasing the number of elderly people in this County, researchers decided to investigate the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression in the elderly health centers of Khoy, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 383 elderly people referred to health centers in Khoy County. A random cluster sampling was used in this study where each health care is considered as a cluster. The Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21 standard questionnaire was used for data collection. The SPSS software was used for all computations. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistic, t-test, and one-way ANOVA. P < 0.050 was determined to be significant. Results: The results of this study showed that 1.3% of the elderly people suffer from very severe stress, 1.3% from severe depression, and 3.1% from severe anxiety. Likewise, the comparison between anxiety, stress, and depression disorders with demographic variables showed that there is a significant association between these disorders and sex, education, marital status, medical condition, as well as their housing conditions (P < 0.050. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated anxiety disorders, depression, and stress prevail among the elderly. In addition, some factors such as education, housing, medical condition, and marital status had significant effects on anxiety disorders, depression, and stress. Therefore, more attention is deserved in these aspects. Moreover, appropriate measures need to be taken to improve the mental health of elderly people.
Maryam Nakhaey Moghaddam
Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetes type I (DTI is one of the most common endocrine disorders during childhood and adolescents in which has strong impact on physical and emotional development of individuals with family members. We aimed to evaluate of stress, anxiety and depression in parents with DTI child compared with parents with healthy child.Materials and MethodsIn this case – control study, 60 parents of patients with type 1 diabetes, who had referred to the endocrine clinic of Ali Asghar hospital in Zahedan city and the same number of parents with healthy children, who had referred to the hospital for their children's routine checkup, as control group (n=60, were studied. Depression, anxiety and stress was measurement by Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 42 (DASS. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16.ResultsMean age of children was 6.3 ± 3.6 years. In this study, the score and rate of depression in parents of children with diabetes type I was 21.4 ± 13.8 and 75.4%, respectively. The scores of depression, anxiety and stress in parents of children with DTI were 21.4 + 13.8, 18.8 + 11.3 and 27.1 + 11.5 respectively. Also, the scores of depression, anxiety and stress in parents with healthy children were 14.8 ± 11.3, 8.7 ± 6.9 and 15.8 ± 9.3, respectively; and these scores was significantly lower in control group (P0.05.ConclusionDiabetes in children is a stressful event that can affect the public health of parents. Parents of children who diagnosed with DTI, are at risk for experiencing anxiety, depression and stress.
Almog, Y.; Brenner, H.
The macroscale rheological properties of a dilute suspension exposed to a uniform external field and composed of identical, rigid, inhomogeneous, dipolar, spherical particles dispersed in an incompressible Newtonian fluid and possessing the same mean density as the latter fluid are derived from knowledge of its microscale properties by applying a global ensemble-averaging technique. Each dipole, which is permanently embedded in the particle, is assumed to be generated by the presence of an inhomogeneous external body-force field in the particle interior resulting from the action of the uniform external field on an inhomogeneous distribution of interior matter. It is shown that although the ensemble-average stress tensor is symmetric, the suspension nevertheless behaves macroscopically as if it possessed an asymmetric stress tensor. This seeming contradiction can be traced to the fact that the average body force acting on the contents of any arbitrarily drawn volume lying in the interior of the suspension does not vanish despite the fact that each particle is 'neutrally buoyant'. That this force is not zero stems from the fact that some particles necessarily straddle the closed surface bounding that volume, and that the distribution of external body forces over the interiors of these particles is nonuniform. As such, that portion of the spherical particle lying outside of the surface enclosing the domain exerts a force on the remaining portion of the sphere lying within that domain. We then demonstrate that the natural macroscopic model, which is derived by equating the divergence of the suspension-scale stress appearing in that model to the ensemble-average external body-force field, and which predicts a symmetric stress tensor, is macroscopically deficient with respect to the more intuitive asymmetric stress model usually proposed by continuum mechanicians for such a suspension. It is shown that the latter, continuum-mechanical model recovers all the physically
Albertson, Larry M.; Kagan, Dona M.
Two studies were conducted to investigate the degree to which occupational stress among teachers could be attributed to personal characteristics of the individuals themselves. The first study developed dispositional stress scales. The second examined correlations between these scales, occupational stress scales, and teachers' attitudes toward…
Arrieta Vergara, Katherine; Cárdenas, Shyrley Díaz; Martínez, Farith González
To estimate the relationship between depressive symptoms, anxiety and stress and socio-demographic, academic and social factors among dental students. A cross-sectional study was carried out on dental students from a university in Cartagena, selected by simple random sampling. Students answered a self-report anonymous questionnaire of 20 questions that included demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms (DASS scale 21), family function (APGAR family) and other factors associated with the academic, economic and social context. Data were analyzed computing odds ratios by binomial logistic regression. The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress were 37.4%, 56.6% and 45.4%, respectively. Factors associated with depressive symptoms were lack of support from friends (OR=6.2; 95%CI, 2.6-14.5), family dysfunction (OR=3.6; 95%CI, 1.9-6.6) and economic hardship (OR=2.2; 95%CI, 1.2-3.9). The anxiety symptoms were associated with family dysfunction (OR=3.1; 95%CI, 1.8-5.3) and lack of support from friends (OR=2.1; 95%CI, 1.1-5.8). Also for symptoms of stress factors family dysfunction (OR=2.3; 95%CI, 1.4-4.1), income (OR=2.4; 95%CI, 1.2-4.9) and time to rest (OR=2.3; 95%CI, 1.4-4.0). Dental students report a high prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress. Associated factors are economic resources, family function, lack of time for rest, and social support. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders with chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habit without any organic reason. Sleep disorders may be associated to IBS. OBJECTIVE We aimed to assess sleep disturbances and depression-anxiety-stress in IBS patients. METHODS In this analytical cross sectional study from November 2013 to May 2014, A total of 123 IBS patients were recruited by simple random sampling. IBS was diagnosed using ROME-III criteria. Demographic and basic data were driven from all patients then Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was utilized to estimate sleep quality and DASS (depression anxiety stress scale questionnaire was filled out for depression, anxiety and stress. RESULTS The mean age of patients was 29±9, where 48 cases (39% were male. Twelve cases (10% had a background disease. Types of IBS in patients were included 38% diarrhea, 42% constipation and 20% mixed. From all IBS patients 87 (71% cases had depression, 97 (79% patients stress, 94 (76% patients had anxiety. Seventy-six (62% cases of IBS patients had poor sleep quality. Simultaneously employing predictors demonstrate that gender, background disease, and type of IBS did not statistically significant. On the other hand, depression (P=0.034, OR=2.35, anxiety (P=0.011, OR=3.022, and stress (P=0.029, OR=2.77 were significantly effect on sleep quality in poor sleepers. CONCLUSION Many of IBS patients is suffering from poor sleep quality. It seems that sleep disorder should be considered and treated in this patients.
Full Text Available Background: Coronary artery disease and its associated treatment interventions such as angioplasty can lead to emotional problems, including depression, anxiety, and stress, in patients and might have adverse effects on the recovery process. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of collaborative care model on depression, anxiety, and stress in patients after coronary angioplasty. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients undergoing coronary angioplasty, who were referred to intensive care unit and surgical ward of one of the hospitals of Isfahan, Iran, in 2015. Samples were selected through randomized convenience sampling and were divided into intervention and control group (n=25 for each group. Collaborative care model, consisting of four stages of motivation, preparation, engagement, and evaluation, was implemented for the intervention group through five 45-60 minute sessions and a three-month telephone follow-up. Data was collected using depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-42 before and one month after the intervention from both groups. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, as well as independent and paired t-tests in SPSS, version 18. Results: In this study, mean score of depression was significantly decreased in the intervention group after the implementation of collaborative model (from 31.6±3.7 to 6.3±5.03 (P<0.001, and mean anxiety and stress scores were reduced from 32.6±3.04 and 32.2±3.3 to 6.2±4.1 and 8.5±4.8, respectively (P<0.001. In this regard, a significant difference was observed between the intervention and control groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: Implementation of collaborative care could be associated with lower depression, anxiety, and stress in patients after coronary angioplasty. Therefore, its application is recommended as an effective method for such patients.
Baniasadi, Nadieh; Dehesh, Mohammad Moein; Mohebbi, Elham; Hayatbakhsh Abbasi, Mahdy; Oghabian, Zohreh
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders with chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habit without any organic reason. Sleep disorders may be associated to IBS. We aimed to assess sleep disturbances and depression-anxiety-stress in IBS patients. In this analytical cross sectional study from November 2013 to May 2014, A total of 123 IBS patients were recruited by simple random sampling. IBS was diagnosed using ROME-III criteria. Demographic and basic data were driven from all patients then Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was utilized to estimate sleep quality and DASS (depression anxiety stress scale) questionnaire was filled out for depression, anxiety and stress. The mean age of patients was 29±9, where 48 cases (39%) were male. Twelve cases (10%) had a background disease. Types of IBS in patients were included 38% diarrhea, 42% constipation and 20% mixed. From all IBS patients 87 (71%) cases had depression, 97 (79%) patients stress, 94 (76%) patients had anxiety. Seventy-six (62%) cases of IBS patients had poor sleep quality. Simultaneously employing predictors demonstrate that gender, background disease, and type of IBS did not statistically significant. On the other hand, depression (P=0.034, OR=2.35), anxiety (P=0.011, OR=3.022), and stress (P=0.029, OR=2.77) were significantly effect on sleep quality in poor sleepers. Many of IBS patients is suffering from poor sleep quality. It seems that sleep disorder should be considered and treated in this patients.
Kunwar, D; Risal, A; Koirala, S
Background Medical education is intended to prepare graduates for a promoting health and caring for the sick. Medical students are confronted with significant academic, psychological and existential stressors. There is insufficient information regarding psychological morbidity among Nepalese medical students. Objective To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, among the medical students in Nepal, and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. Method A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted including all students from first to fifth year of student using convenience method of sampling from Kathmandu University Medical School (KUSMS), Dhulikhel and Manipal College of Medical Sciences (MCOMS), Pokhara, Nepal. Depression, Anxiety and stress were assessed using Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Additional questions regarding demographic variables were also included in the survey. Data analysis was done on Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS version 16. Result A total of 538 students participated in the study giving a response rate of 89.6%. Aamong them 56.5% were from age group 21-25 years, 42.2% were below 20 years and only 1.3% were above 25 years of age. Among them 52% were female and 48% were male. Our study found that the overall prevalence of depression was 29.9%, anxiety was 41.1% and stress was 27% among all participated medical students. Depression was significantly associated (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.43-3.47, pdepression 29.9%, anxiety 41.1% and stress 27% among undergraduate medical students warrants needs for strategic plans to alleviate depression anxiety and the stressors right from the time they join medical school and has to be continued till they finish the course.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Heart failure is a life-threatening illness in which panic disorder, anxiety, depression, and death expectation are constantly experienced. This study, thus, determined to examine the relationship between spiritual health and depression, anxiety, and stress in patients with heart failure. Methods: This study was a descriptive-correlational investigation that was performed on 150 patients with heart failure in selected Ardabil teaching hospitals in 2014. Data was collected using Demographic Questionnaire, Ellison-Paloutzian Spiritual Well-Being Scale, and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21. They were, then, analyzed using SPSS, descriptive statistical method, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and multivariable regression analysis. Results: The results of this study showed that the spiritual wellbeing level of most subjects (75.3% was in the range of medium. Mean scores of religious and existential aspects of spiritual well-being were obtained to be 33.26±1.247 and 45.76±1.328, respectively. In addition, depression, anxiety, and stress levels of most research units were in the medium range. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between depression, anxiety, and stress in all aspects of spiritual wellbeing (r=-0.592, P<0.01. Conclusion: Results indicated that an increase in spiritual health would be a concomitant of a reduction in depression, anxiety, and stress levels in heart failure patients. Based on the results and importance of spiritual health, an improvement of proficiencies of medical and paramedical communities in offering spiritual healthcares appears to be mandatory.
Somerville, Susanne; Byrne, Shannon L; Dedman, Kellie; Hagan, Rosemary; Coo, Soledad; Oxnam, Elizabeth; Doherty, Dorota; Cunningham, Nadia; Page, Andrew C
The Perinatal Anxiety Screening Scale (PASS; Somerville et al., 2014) reliably identifies perinatal women at risk of problematic anxiety when a clinical cut-off score of 26 is used. This study aimed to identify a severity continuum of anxiety symptoms with the PASS to enhance screening, treatment and research for perinatal anxiety. Antenatal and postnatal women (n=410) recruited from the antenatal clinics and mental health services at an obstetric hospital completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), the Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI), and the PASS. The women referred to mental health services were assessed to determine anxiety diagnoses via a diagnostic interview conducted by an experienced mental health professional from the Department of Psychological Medicine - King Edward Memorial Hospital. Three normative groups for the PASS, namely minimal anxiety, mild-moderate anxiety, and severe anxiety, were identified based on the severity of anxiety indicated on the standardised scales and anxiety diagnoses. Two cut-off points for the normative groups were calculated using the Jacobson-Truax method (Jacobson and Truax, 1991) resulting in three severity ranges: 'minimal anxiety'; 'mild-moderate anxiety'; and 'severe anxiety'. The most frequent diagnoses in the study sample were adjustment disorder, mixed anxiety and depression, generalised anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. This may limit the generalisability of the severity range results to other anxiety diagnoses including obsessive compulsive disorder and specific phobia. Severity ranges for the PASS add value to having a clinically validated cut-off score in the detection and monitoring of problematic perinatal anxiety. The PASS can now be used to identify risk of an anxiety disorder and the severity ranges can indicate developing risk for early referrals for further assessments
Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.; Besser, Avi; Su, Chang; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boucher, Daniel; Munro, Yvette; Davidson, Lisa A.; Gale, Olga
There is growing interest in perfectionism among children and adolescents as well as growing interest in the measures designed to assess perfectionism in young people. The current article describes the development and psychometric characteristics of the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS), a measure that assesses self-oriented…
Full Text Available Objective. The current study is aimed at investigating the association between stressful life events and psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adults. Method. In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4763 Iranian adults, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Grouped outcomes latent factor regression on latent predictors was used for modeling the association of psychological problems (depression, anxiety, and psychological distress, measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, as the grouped outcomes, and stressful life events, measured by a self-administered stressful life events (SLEs questionnaire, as the latent predictors. Results. The results showed that the personal stressors domain has significant positive association with psychological distress (β=0.19, anxiety (β=0.25, depression (β=0.15, and their collective profile score (β=0.20, with greater associations in females (β=0.28 than in males (β=0.13 (all P<0.001. In addition, in the adjusted models, the regression coefficients for the association of social stressors domain and psychological problems profile score were 0.37, 0.35, and 0.46 in total sample, males, and females, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion. Results of our study indicated that different stressors, particularly those socioeconomic related, have an effective impact on psychological problems. It is important to consider the social and cultural background of a population for managing the stressors as an effective approach for preventing and reducing the destructive burden of psychological problems.
Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Heidari, Zahra; Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ammar; Afshar, Hamid
Objective The current study is aimed at investigating the association between stressful life events and psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adults. Method In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4763 Iranian adults, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Grouped outcomes latent factor regression on latent predictors was used for modeling the association of psychological problems (depression, anxiety, and psychological distress), measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), as the grouped outcomes, and stressful life events, measured by a self-administered stressful life events (SLEs) questionnaire, as the latent predictors. Results The results showed that the personal stressors domain has significant positive association with psychological distress (β = 0.19), anxiety (β = 0.25), depression (β = 0.15), and their collective profile score (β = 0.20), with greater associations in females (β = 0.28) than in males (β = 0.13) (all P < 0.001). In addition, in the adjusted models, the regression coefficients for the association of social stressors domain and psychological problems profile score were 0.37, 0.35, and 0.46 in total sample, males, and females, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion Results of our study indicated that different stressors, particularly those socioeconomic related, have an effective impact on psychological problems. It is important to consider the social and cultural background of a population for managing the stressors as an effective approach for preventing and reducing the destructive burden of psychological problems. PMID:29312459
Iturrieta, Pablo Cristián; Hurtado, Daniel E.; Cembrano, José; Stanton-Yonge, Ashley
Orogenic belts at oblique convergent subduction margins accommodate deformation in several trench-parallel domains, one of which is the magmatic arc, commonly regarded as taking up the margin-parallel, strike-slip component. However, the stress state and kinematics of volcanic arcs is more complex than usually recognized, involving first- and second-order faults with distinctive slip senses and mutual interaction. These are usually organized into regional scale strike-slip duplexes, associated with both long-term and short-term heterogeneous deformation and magmatic activity. This is the case of the 1100 km-long Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System in the Southern Andes, made up of two overlapping margin-parallel master faults joined by several NE-striking second-order faults. We present a finite element model addressing the nature and spatial distribution of stress across and along the volcanic arc in the Southern Andes to understand slip partitioning and the connection between tectonics and magmatism, particularly during the interseismic phase of the subduction earthquake cycle. We correlate the dynamics of the strike-slip duplex with geological, seismic and magma transport evidence documented by previous work, showing consistency between the model and the inferred fault system behavior. Our results show that maximum principal stress orientations are heterogeneously distributed within the continental margin, ranging from 15° to 25° counter-clockwise (with respect to the convergence vector) in the master faults and 10-19° clockwise in the forearc and backarc domains. We calculate the stress tensor ellipticity, indicating simple shearing in the eastern master fault and transpressional stress in the western master fault. Subsidiary faults undergo transtensional-to-extensional stress states. The eastern master fault displays slip rates of 5 to 10 mm/yr, whereas the western and subsidiary faults show slips rates of 1 to 5 mm/yr. Our results endorse that favorably oriented
Full Text Available Mahasiswa sebagai bagian dari sebuah kelompok individu merupakan bagian dari target integrasi pelayanan keperawatan, kelompok yang paling rapuh terkena ketidakseimbangan homeostasis karena stress dari kegiatan akademik. Peningkatan kejadian stres akademik akan meingkatkan kemampuan akademik yang mempengaruhi index prestasi dan beratnya stres dapat menyebabkan seseorang berperilaku negatif. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan akademik stres pada mahasiswa Diploma III Keperawatan Cirebon. Desain penelitian adalah analisis korelasi dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Responden sebanyak 77 mahasiswa diambil secara acak, instrumen yang digunakan yaitu kuesioner yang terdiri dari data demografi dan pernyataan mengenai level stres akademik dengan Depression Anxiety and Stess Scale 42 (DASS 42 dan dianalisis dengan uji chi-square. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan antara usia dan tingkat stres akademik yang signifikan (p=0.039 dan hubungan antara jumlah kunjungan ke puskesmas dengan tingkat stress akademik (p=0.008.
Tajik, Esra; Latiffah, Abd Latiff; Awang, Hamidin; Siti Nur'Asyura, Adznam; Chin, Yit Siew; Azrin Shah, Abu Bakar; Patricia Koh, Chai Hsia; Mohd Izudin Hariz, Che Ghazali
Missing main meals and an unhealthy snacking pattern can lead to poor diet quality and consequently to the presence of chronic diseases among which mental disorder is no exception. Since there is little research on diet, skipping meals and psychological status in Asian countries, this study tries to determine eating behaviour and predicting symptoms of stress and depression of adolescents in Pasir Gudang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Form 1 secondary school-going adolescents (n 1565, response rate: 90%) in southern Malaysia from April to May 2013. A self-administered structured and validated questionnaire (socio-demographic, eating behaviour questionnaire, and depression, anxiety and stress scales (DASS-21)) was used for data collection. Among respondents, 803 (51.3%) were female, 1125 were Malay (71.9%) with a mean age of 13.7 (SD=0.8) years. Logistic regression analysis indicated that students who were underweight (OR=3.07, 95% CI 1.21, 7.76), obese (OR=2.64, 95% CI 1.01, 6.87), used to eat out of home (OR=1.37, 95% CI 1.28, 2.13), eat dinner (>4 days/week) (OR=1.59, 95% CI 1.04, 2.43) were more likely to have depression or stress symptoms. Moreover, participants with 4-7 days/week eating breakfast (OR=0.88, 95% CI 0.21, 0.89) were less likely to be at mild/moderate stress. Findings underscore the effect of unhealthy eating practices among adolescents on mental health. Targeted education should be implemented to improve psychological well-being. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Višnjić, Aleksandar; Veličković, Vladica; Sokolović, Dušan; Stanković, Miodrag; Mijatović, Kristijan; Stojanović, Miodrag; Milošević, Zoran; Radulović, Olivera
Objectives : There is insufficient evidence regarding the potential risk of mobile phone use on mental health. Therefore, the aim of this research was to examine the relationship between mobile phone use and mental health by measuring the levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among university students in Serbia and Italy. Methods : This cross-sectional study was carried out at two distinguished universities in Serbia and Italy from March to May of the 2015/2016 academic year and included 785 students of both genders. The questionnaire was compiled and developed from different published sources regarding the manner and intensity of mobile phone use, along with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 42) for measuring psychological health. The statistical analysis of the data included the application of binary logistic regression and correlation tests. Results: Statistical analysis indicates that anxiety symptoms are somewhat more present in younger students (odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76-0.96), in those who send more text messages SMSs (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.11-1.31), and in those who browse the internet less frequently (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73-0.95). Stress is more common in students who make fewer calls a day (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.64-0.97), as well in those who spend more time talking on the mobile phone per day (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.12-1.56). The strongest predictor of high stress levels was keeping the mobile phone less than 1 m away during sleeping (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.12-2.08). Conclusions: The results indicated that the intensity and modality of mobile phone use could be a factor that can influence causal pathways leading to mental health problems in the university student population.
Full Text Available Background: In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved in medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. Objective of the study was to explore the effectiveness of humor when used as intervention in large group teaching over negative emotions amongst students. Method: The present Interventional, Randomized control trial study was carried out on medical students of 4th Semester of RMCH, Bareilly, which has total 90 students. Using simple random sampling lottery method the whole class was divided in two groups-A and B consisting of 45 students each. Group A as control group and Group B experimental group. In first and last lecture of both groups Dass-21 was used as measuring scale, for depression, anxiety and stress and results were compared to see the effect of humor on these three negative emotions. Result: Comparison of Severe and Extremely severe Stress: In Group A 40.54% in class -1 increased to 47.54% in class- 4, while in group B initial 13.15 % was reduced to 0 % (highly significant. Anxiety: In group A, after Class 1 -57.45% increased to 61.11% after class 4, while in group B, after class 1- 23.68% reduced to 2.27% only (highly significant. Depression: In group A, after Class 1 - 40.53% & 41.66 % after class 4 (not significant, while in group B, after class 1- 18.41% reduced to 0% (highly significant. Conclusion: In present study humor was found to be very effective intervention in relieving students on their negative emotions of depression, anxiety and stress to a larger extent. Further research would justify the use of humor as an effective teaching aid in medical education.
Višnjić, Aleksandar; Veličković, Vladica; Sokolović, Dušan; Stanković, Miodrag; Stojanović, Miodrag; Milošević, Zoran; Radulović, Olivera
Objectives: There is insufficient evidence regarding the potential risk of mobile phone use on mental health. Therefore, the aim of this research was to examine the relationship between mobile phone use and mental health by measuring the levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among university students in Serbia and Italy. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at two distinguished universities in Serbia and Italy from March to May of the 2015/2016 academic year and included 785 students of both genders. The questionnaire was compiled and developed from different published sources regarding the manner and intensity of mobile phone use, along with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 42) for measuring psychological health. The statistical analysis of the data included the application of binary logistic regression and correlation tests. Results: Statistical analysis indicates that anxiety symptoms are somewhat more present in younger students (odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76–0.96), in those who send more text messages (SMSs) (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.11–1.31), and in those who browse the internet less frequently (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73–0.95). Stress is more common in students who make fewer calls a day (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.64–0.97), as well in those who spend more time talking on the mobile phone per day (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.12–1.56). The strongest predictor of high stress levels was keeping the mobile phone less than 1 m away during sleeping (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.12–2.08). Conclusions: The results indicated that the intensity and modality of mobile phone use could be a factor that can influence causal pathways leading to mental health problems in the university student population. PMID:29642471
Fortier, Emmanuel; Alavi, Maryam; Bruneau, Julie; Micallef, Michelle; Perram, Jacinta; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Dunlop, Adrian J; Balcomb, Annie C; Day, Carolyn A; Treloar, Carla; Bath, Nicky; Haber, Paul S; Dore, Gregory J; Grebely, Jason
The aims of this study were to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress and associated sociodemographic factors among people living with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with a history of injecting drug use and to assess the association between symptoms of depression, anxiety, or stress and HCV treatment intent, specialist assessment, or treatment uptake. The Enhancing Treatment for Hepatitis C in Opioid Substitution Settings was an observational cohort study evaluating the provision of HCV assessment and treatment among people with chronic HCV and a history of injecting drug use, recruited from 9 community health centers and opioid substitution therapy (OST) clinics (New South Wales, Australia). Symptoms were assessed using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Analyses were performed using logistic regression. Among 415 participants (mean age 41 years, 71% male), 47%, 52%, and 36% demonstrated moderate to extremely severe symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. In adjusted analyses, depression symptoms were associated with recent injecting drug use [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.49), whereas stress symptoms were associated with unemployment (aOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.09-8.15) and not living with a spouse or other relatives/friends (aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.01-2.39). Symptoms of depression, anxiety, or stress or having a history of treated mental illness were not independently associated with HCV treatment intent, specialist assessment, or treatment uptake. Findings suggest a need for improved interventions and care regarding mental health among people living with chronic HCV with a history of injecting drug use, but suggest that symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress should not be immediate contraindications to HCV assessment and treatment.
The Bosnian version of the international self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, is reliable and valid in a variety of different adult samples affected by war
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to assess the internal consistency and discriminant and convergent validity of the Bosnian version of a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PTDS. The PTDS yields both a PTSD diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-IV and a measure of symptom severity. Methods 812 people living in Sarajevo or in Banja Luka in Bosnia-Herzegovina, of whom the majority had experienced a high number of traumatic war events, were administered the PTDS and other measures of trauma-related psychopathology. The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed using Cronbach's alpha and principal components analysis, and its construct validity was assessed via Spearman correlation coefficients with the other instruments. Results The PTDS and its subscales demonstrated high internal consistency. The principal components revealed by an exploratory analysis are broadly consistent with the DSM-IV subscales except that they reproduce some previously reported difficulties with the "numbing" items from the avoidance subscale. The construct validity of the PTDS was supported by appropriate correlations with other relevant measures of trauma related psychopathology. Conclusion The Bosnian version of the PTDS thus appears to be a time-economic and psychometrically sound measure for screening and assessing current PTSD. This self-report measure awaits further validation by interview methods.
Paulsen, G. E.; Nielsen, S. B.; Hansen, D. L.
The vertical movements during a regional stress reversal in a rifted basin or on a passive continental margin are examined using a numerical 2D thermo-mechanical finite element model with a visco-elastic-plastic rheology. Three different physical mechanisms are recognized in small-scale vertical movements at small inplane force variations: elastic dilatation, elastic flexure, and permanent deformation. Their rela- tive importance depend on the applied force, the duration of the force, and the thermal structure of the lithosphere. Elastic material dilatation occurs whenever the stress state changes. A reversal from extension to compression therefore immediately leads to elastic dilatation, and re- sults in an overall subsidence of the entire profile. Simultaneously with dilatation the lithosphere reacts with flexure. The significance of the flexural component strongly depends on the thermal structure of the lithosphere. The polarity and amplitude of the flexure depends on the initial (before compression) loading of the lithosphere. Gener- ally, the flexural effects lead to subsidence of the overdeep in the landward part of the basin and a small amount of uplift at the basin flanks. The amplitudes of the flexural response are small and comparable with the amplitudes of the elastic dilatation. With continuing compression permanent deformation and lithospheric thickening becomes increasingly important. Ultimately, the thickened part of the lithosphere stands out as an inverted zone. The amount of permanent deformation is directly connected with the size and duration of the applied force, but even a relatively small force leads to inversion tectonics in the landward part of the basin. The conclusions are: 1) small stress induced vertical movements in rift basins and at passive continental margins are the result of a complex interaction of at least three different processes, 2) the total sediment loaded amplitudes resulting from these pro- cesses are small (2-300 m) for
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Coronary artery disease and its associated treatment interventions such as angioplasty can lead to emotional problems, including depression, anxiety, and stress, in patients and might have adverse effects on the recovery process. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of collaborative care model on depression, anxiety, and stress in patients after coronary angioplasty. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients undergoing coronary angioplasty, who were referred to intensive care unit and surgical ward of one of the hospitals of Isfahan, Iran, in 2015. Samples were selected through randomized convenience sampling and were divided into intervention and control group (n=25 for each group. Collaborative care model, consisting of four stages of motivation, preparation, engagement, and evaluation, was implemented for the intervention group through five 45-60 minute sessions and a three-month telephone follow-up. Data was collected using depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-42 before and one month after the intervention from both groups. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, as well as independent and paired t-tests in SPSS, version 18. Results: In this study, mean score of depression was significantly decreased in the intervention group after the implementation of collaborative model (from 31.6±3.7 to 6.3±5.03 (P <0.001, and mean anxiety and stress scores were reduced from 32.6±3.04 and 32.2±3.3 to 6.2±4.1 and 8.5±4.8, respectively (P<0.001. In this regard, a significant difference was observed between the intervention and control groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: Implementation of collaborative care could be associated with lower depression, anxiety, and stress in patients after coronary angioplasty. Therefore, its application is recommended as an effective method for such patients.
Capitanio, F. A.
The quantification of the exact tectonic forces budget on Earth has remained thus far elusive. Geodetic velocities provide relevant constraints on the current dynamics of the coupling between collision and continental tectonics, however in the Tibetan plateau these support contrasting, non-unique models. Here, we compare numerical models of coupled India-Asia plate convergence, collision and continent interiors tectonics to the geodetically-constrained motions in the Tibetan Plateau to provide a quantitative assessment of the driving forces of plate tectonics in the area. The models develop a range of long-term evolutions remarkably similar to the Asian tectonics in the Cenozoic, reproducing the current large-scale motions pattern under a range of conditions. Balancing the convergent margin forces, following subduction, and the far-field forcing along the trail of the subducting continent, the geodetic rates in the Tibetan Plateau can be matched. The comparisons support the discussion on the likely processes at work, allowing inferences on the drivers of plateau formation and its role on the plate margin-interiors tectonics. More in general, the outcomes highlight the unique role of the Tibetan Plateau as a pressure gauge for the tectonic forces on Earth.
Full Text Available Aims: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in children, and in adolescents, as in adults. Once its occurrence during childhood and adolescence leads to serious consequences in adulthood, its early detection is an important goal. Self-report instruments have a key role on accessing thoughts, feelings and behaviors in an easily, reliably and validly way. The aim of the current study is to assess psychometric properties (reliability and validity of the Portuguese translation of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC. Methods: A school-based sample of 417 adolescents aged 12–18 years (M = 15,20, SD = 1,72 was involved in this study. Translation and Back Translation was made. To study convergent and divergent validity there were used the Portuguese versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21, of the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI, and of the Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS which measure, respectively, negative emotional states (depression, anxiety and stress, depressive symptoms and global life satisfaction. Results: Factor analysis revealed three factors (mood, interpersonal relationships and happiness that explain 54% of the variance. The results show that the scale has an excellent internal consistency (α = 0,90, good temporal stability (r = 0,72 as an adequate convergent and divergent validity. Results showed that depressive symptoms varied in function of age and gender. Conclusions: The results of the present study provide initial adequate validity and reliability of the CES-DC. Nevertheless some limitations to this study, the results suggest that CES-DC can be a useful questionnaire in the assessment of depressive symptoms in Portuguese adolescents.
Adaptação cultural e validação para a língua portuguesa da Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU Adaptación cultural y validación al idioma português del Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU Cultural adaptation and validation for the portuguese language of the Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU
Sandra Regina de Souza
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traduzir, realizar a adaptação cultural e validar a escala Parental Stress Scale:Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU para a língua portuguesa. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se o método descritivo de validação de instrumentos de medida, baseado nas etapas propostas por Guillemin et al. A análise da confiabilidade foi realizada por meio dos testes e retestes e da consistência interna. Na validação clínica, participaram 163 pais de recém-nascidos internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN. RESULTADOS: Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse ficaram em torno de 0,70 mostrando boa estabilidade entre as duas avaliações. A análise fatorial pelo método de componentes principais utilizou os mesmos critérios da escala original, com rotação Varimax, com grau de variância adequado de 57,9%. Os maiores níveis de estresse dos pais foram obtidos na subescala "alteração do papel de pais". CONCLUSÃO: A PSS:NICU na versão em português é uma ferramenta válida e confiável para avaliação do estresse de pais com filho internado na UTIN.OBJETIVO: Traducir, realizar la adaptación cultural y validar la escala Parental Stress Scale:Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU al idioma portugués. MÉTODOS: Se utilizó el método descriptivo de validación de instrumentos de medida, basado en las etapas propuestas por Guillemin et al. El análisis de la confiabilidad fue realizado por medio de los tests y retests y de la consistencia interna. En la validación clínica, participaron 163 padres de recién nacidos internados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal (UCIN. RESULTADOS: Los coeficientes de correlación intraclase quedaron alrededor de 0,70 mostrando buena estabilidad entre las dos evaluaciones El análisis factorial por el método de componentes principales utilizó los mismos criterios de la escala original, con rotación Varimax, con grado de varianza adecuado de 57,9%. Los mayores niveles de estrés de
is seen to occur. This is observed for the considered alloys to be particularly pronounced in transverse direction of the weld. By contrast, the residual stress level in longitudinal weld direction is nearly independent of the shrinkage conditions. With the help of residual stress depth gradients it could be established that the additional shrinkage restraint manifests itself in a parallel shift of the residual stress level in the weld metal. Application of energy-dispersive diffraction methods additionally allowed it for the first time to determine residual stresses in the austenitic phase of the LTT alloy which is present parallel to martensite. Results gained under laboratory conditions mostly need to be verified under real fabrication conditions. For this purpose, a component weld test was performed in a special large-scale testing facility. Under structural shrinkage restraint, the load relieving effect of a specific LTT welding filler material could be proven by means of a pronounced stress reduction duringwelding. Overall, evidence was furnished that the concept of Low Transformation Temperature (LTT)alloys is successful and that the proven austenite-martensite transformation exerts a significanteffect on the residual stress level. [German] Die Erkenntnis, dass die Phasenumwandlung bei der Schweisseigenspannungsentstehung hochfester Staehle eine bedeutende Rolle spielt, gibt es bereits seit langer Zeit. Bisher existierten jedoch keine Ansaetze, diesen Effekt praktisch zur Schweisseigenspannungskontrolle zu nutzen. Neuartige Low Transformation Temperature (LTT) Legierungen bieten aufgrund ihrer charakteristischen chemischen Zusammensetzung die Moeglichkeit, hochfeste Staehle auf deren Festigkeitsniveau zu fuegen. Die martensitische Phasenumwandlung soll zudem eine gezielte Einstellung der Schweisseigenspannungen erlauben. Die im Schrifttum vorliegenden Untersuchungen zu diesem Thema sind zwar zahlreich, bieten jedoch nur wenige Erkenntnisse zur Wechselwirkung
Onton, Julie A; Matthews, Scott C; Kang, Dae Y; Coleman, Todd P
Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often report suboptimal sleep quality, often described as lack of restfulness for unknown reasons. These experiences are sometimes difficult to objectively quantify in sleep lab assessments. Here, we used a streamlined sleep assessment tool to record in-home 2-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) with concurrent collection of electrodermal activity (EDA) and acceleration. Data from a single forehead channel were transformed into a whole-night spectrogram, and sleep stages were classified using a fully automated algorithm. For this study, 71 control subjects and 60 military-related PTSD subjects were analyzed for percentage of time spent in Light, Hi Deep (1-3 Hz), Lo Deep (spend a smaller percentage of the night in REM ( p spending a larger percentage of the night in Hi Deep ( p < 0.0001) sleep. The percentage of combined Hi+Lo Deep sleep did not differ between groups. All sleepers usually showed EDA peaks during Lo, but not Hi, Deep sleep; however, PTSD sleepers were more likely to lack EDA peaks altogether, which usually coincided with a lack of Lo Deep sleep. Linear regressions with all subjects showed that a decreased percentage of REM sleep in PTSD sleepers was accounted for by age, prazosin, SSRIs and SNRIs ( p < 0.02), while decreased Lo Deep and increased Hi Deep in the PTSD group could not be accounted for by any factor in this study ( p < 0.005). Linear regression models with only the PTSD group showed that decreased REM correlated with self-reported depression, as measured with the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS; p < 0.00001). DASS anxiety was associated with increased REM time ( p < 0.0001). This study shows altered sleep patterns in sleepers with PTSD that can be partially accounted for by age and medication use; however, differences in deep sleep related to PTSD could not be linked to any known factor. With several medications [prazosin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs
Salehpoor, Ghasem; Rezaei, Sajjad; Hosseininezhad, Mozaffar
Although studies have demonstrated significant negative relationships between quality of life (QOL), fatigue, and the most common psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety, stress), the main ambiguity of previous studies on QOL is in the relative importance of these predictors. Also, there is lack of adequate knowledge about the actual contribution of each of them in the prediction of QOL dimensions. Thus, the main objective of this study is to assess the role of fatigue, depression, anxiety, and stress in relation to QOL of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. One hundred and sixty-two MS patients completed the questionnaire on demographic variables, and then they were evaluated by the Persian versions of Short-Form Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36), Fatigue Survey Scale (FSS), and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and hierarchical regression. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between QOL elements in SF-36 (physical component summary and mental component summary) and depression, fatigue, stress, and anxiety (P depression, and anxiety were identified as the physical component summary predictor variables. Anxiety was found to be the most powerful predictor variable amongst all (β = -0.46, P depression as the only significant mental component summary predictor variable (β = -0.39, P anxiety, fatigue, and depression in physical dimensions and the role of depression in psychological dimensions of the lives of MS patients. In addition, the findings of this study indirectly suggest that psychological interventions for reducing fatigue, depression, and anxiety can lead to improved QOL of MS patients.
Ghayas, Saba; Batool, Syeda Shahida
The purpose of this study was to develop a scale in Urdu language for measuring different dimensions of afterlife belief. The scale was subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis on a sample of 504 individuals (235 men and 269 women) recruited from different cities in the Punjab, Pakistan. After exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, 16 items were retained with three well-defined factor structures of afterlife belief: positive, negative, and extinction. The alpha coefficients of the subscales ranged from .65 to .78. Convergent and discriminant validity of the subscales of Afterlife Belief Scale was determined by finding its relationship with the Pleasant Afterlife Belief Scale, the Unpleasant Afterlife Belief Scale, the Anxiety Subscale of DASS, and the Belief in Equitable World Scale. The results support that the newly developed scale has promising validity.
Wilson, S A; Jourdain, R P; Owens, S
The projected force–displacement capability of piezoelectric ceramic films in the 20–50 µm thickness range suggests that they are well suited to many micro-fluidic and micro-pneumatic applications. Furthermore when they are configured as bending actuators and operated at ∼ 1 V µm −1 they do not necessarily conform to the high-voltage, very low-displacement piezoelectric stereotype. Even so they are rarely found today in commercial micro-electromechanical devices, such as micro-pumps and micro-valves, and the main barriers to making them much more widely available would appear to be processing incompatibilities rather than commercial desirability. In particular, the issues associated with integration of these devices into MEMS at the production level are highly significant and they have perhaps received less attention in the mainstream than they deserve. This paper describes a fabrication route based on ultra-precision ceramic machining and full-wafer bonding for cost-effective batch scale production of thick film PZT bimorph micro-actuators and their integration with MEMS. The resulting actuators are pre-stressed (ceramic in compression) which gives them added performance, they are true bimorphs with bi-directional capability and they exhibit full bulk piezoelectric ceramic properties. The devices are designed to integrate with ancillary systems components using transfer-bonding techniques. The work forms part of the European Framework 6 Project 'Q2M—Quality to Micro'
Full Text Available Background Urinary disorders are common problems in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Urinary incontinence largely affects the physical, social and emotional characteristics and activities of such patients. Objectives The current study aimed to identify the effect of pelvic floor muscle training on urinary incontinence and its resulting stress, anxiety and depression in patients with MS. Methods The present clinical trial with a pre-post design was conducted on 50 patients with MS referring to the MS clinic of Imam Khomeini hospital in Tehran, Iran, selected by convenience sampling method. Participants received instructions on pelvic floor muscle exercises and then practiced for three consecutive months. The international consultation on incontinence questionnaire-urinary incontinence short form (ICIQ-UI-SF was used to measure participants' urinary incontinence, and the 21-item depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21 to measure their depression, anxiety and stress, both before the intervention and at the end of the third month of exercising. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS16 using descriptive statistics and the dependent t test. Results About 45 (90% participants practiced pelvic floor muscle exercises until the end of the third month. The frequency and amount of urine leakage and the effect of urinary incontinence on the quality of life differed significantly in the patients after the instructions compared to the status before the intervention (P < 0.001. The mean score of stress (P < 0.001, anxiety (P = 0.04 and depression (P = 0.003 decreased significantly after the intervention. Conclusions According to the findings, instructing pelvic floor muscle exercises was effective in reducing urinary incontinence and its resulting stress, anxiety and depression in patients with MS. These exercises were recommended as a non-pharmacological, non-invasive and cost-effective method to control urinary incontinence in patients with MS.
Shareinia, Habib; Rafii, Forough; Sarraf, Payam; Seyedalshohahadaee, Mahnaz
Background and aims Urinary disorders are common problems in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Urinary incontinence largely affects the physical, social, and emotional characteristics and activities of these patients. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of pelvic floor muscle Training on urinary incontinence and its resulting stress, anxiety and depression in MS patients. Methods The present clinical trial with a pre-post design was conducted on 50 MS patients presenting to the MS clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran (Iran) who had been selected by convenience sampling method. Participants received instructions on pelvic floor muscle exercises and then practiced them for three consecutive months. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire – Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF) was used to measure participants' urinary incontinence and the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) then used to measure their depression, anxiety and stress, both before the intervention and at the end of the third month of exercising. The data obtained were analyzed in SPSS16 using descriptive statistics and the dependent t test. Results About 45 (90%) participants practiced pelvic floor muscle exercises up until the end of the third month. The frequency and amount of urine leakage and the effect of urinary incontinence on the quality of life differed significantly in the patients after the instructions compared to before (P<0.001). The mean score of stress (P<0.001), anxiety (P=0.04) and depression (P=0.003) decreased significantly after the intervention. Conclusion According to the findings, instructing pelvic floor muscle exercises is effective in reducing urinary incontinence and its resulting stress, anxiety and depression in MS patients. These exercises are therefore recommended as a non-pharmacological, non-invasive and cost-effective method for controlling urinary incontinence in MS patients.
Full Text Available Background Patients with sickle cell disease, who must manage serious and unpredictable complications related to their disease, particularly chronic pain, suffer from numerous psychosocial problems such as depression, anxiety, stress, and disruption of interpersonal relationships; these problems often lead to fatigue and poor quality of life. Objectives This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of self-management programs targeting pain, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and stress in sickle cell patients. Patients and Methods This was a quasi-experimental study; participants were 53 patients with sickle cell disease who were referred to the Thalassemia Clinic of Ahvaz Shafa Hospital. Participants were recruited by census in 2013. Participants received a self-management program that was implemented in five sessions over 12 weeks. Levels of fatigue, depression, anxiety, and stress were assessed before and 24 weeks after the intervention; pain was assessed during the intervention and at a 24 week post-intervention follow-up using the fatigue severity scale (FSS, DASS21, and a pain record. Descriptive statistics, Fisher’s exact test, Chi-square, independent t-tests, paired t-tests, repeated measures tests and correlations were used to analyze the data. Results Scores for fatigue, anxiety, depression, and stress after the intervention were significantly decreased compared to before the intervention (P < 0.001. Repeated measures testing showed that mean scores for frequency and duration of pain decreased significantly during the 12 weeks of intervention, as well as during the 24 weeks of follow-up (P < 0.001. Conclusions The results suggest the effectiveness of self-management programs on the reduction of pain, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and stress in sickle cell patients. Therefore, self-management programs are advisable in order to empower patients and assist their management of health-related problems.
Larance, Briony; Bruno, Raimondo; Lintzeris, Nicholas; Degenhardt, Louisa; Black, Emma; Brown, Amanda; Nielsen, Suzanne; Dunlop, Adrian; Holland, Rohan; Cohen, Milton; Mattick, Richard P
Early identification of problems is essential in minimising the unintended consequences of opioid therapy. This study aimed to develop a brief scale that identifies and quantifies recent aberrant behaviour among diverse patient populations receiving long-term opioid treatment. 40 scale items were generated via literature review and expert panel (N=19) and tested in surveys of: (i) N=41 key experts, and (ii) N=426 patients prescribed opioids >3 months (222 pain patients and 204 opioid substitution therapy (OST) patients). We employed item and scale psychometrics (exploratory factor analyses, confirmatory factor analyses and item-response theory statistics) to refine items to a brief scale. Following removal of problematic items (poor retest-reliability or wording, semantic redundancy, differential item functioning, collinearity or rarity) iterative factor analytic procedures identified a 10-item unifactorial scale with good model fit in the total sample (N=426; CFI=0.981, TLI=0.975, RMSEA=0.057), and among pain (CFI=0.969, TLI=0.960, RMSEA=0.062) and OST subgroups (CFI=0.989, TFI=0.986, RMSEA=0.051). The 10 items provided good discrimination between groups, demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability (ICC 0.80, 95% CI 0.60-0.89; Cronbach's alpha=0.89), were moderately correlated with related constructs, including opioid dependence (SDS), depression and stress (DASS subscales) and Social Relationships and Environment domains of the WHO-QoL, and had strong face validity among advising clinicians. The Opioid-Related Behaviours In Treatment (ORBIT) scale is brief, reliable and validated for use in diverse patient groups receiving opioids. The ORBIT has potential applications as a checklist to prompt clinical discussions and as a tool to quantify aberrant behaviour and assess change over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The UPPS-P model of impulsivity proposes that impulsivity comprises five distinct facetsânegative urgency, positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. The UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale has been used to measure these facets. The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the 20-item UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (SUPPS-P. The sample comprised 343 Swedish young adults (Mage=24.21, SD=2.01; 27% men, 2% other or undisclosed gender identity who answered a questionnaire including the SUPPS-P; Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21; and questions regarding their alcohol consumption and substance use. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 5-factor, inter-correlated model, where each subscale of the SUPPS-P constitutes one latent variable. The convergent validity was established by replicating previously found correlations between the different impulsivity facets and depression, anxiety, frequency of alcohol consumption, and substance use. The internal consistency was acceptable for all the SUPPS-P subscales (Cronbach's Î±=0.65â0.78, McDonald's Ï=0.65â0.79, except lack of perseverance (Cronbach's Î±=0.60, McDonald's Ï=0.61. Thus, while the Swedish version of the SUPPS-P is suitable for assessing impulsivity in Swedish young adult samples, further research is needed to improve the psychometric properties of the lack of perseverance subscale. Keywords: Impulsivity, UPPS, UPPS-P, Swedish, Impulsive behavior scale
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos realizar a análise fatorial confirmatória da Escala de Estresse Percebido (Perceived Stress Scale- PSS, nas versões traduzidas de 14, 10 e 4 itens; analisar sua validade concorrente com o Questionário de Saúde Geral (QSG-12; mapear o perfil do estresse em uma amostra representativa da população; e estabelecer parâmetros de avaliação do estresse por meio da normatização dos escores da população total. A amostragem foi de base populacional, em formato de conglomerado por setores censitários. Participaram 1.154 habitantes de uma capital do Nordeste brasileiro, sendo a maioria do sexo feminino (55,6%, com nível de escolaridade em ensino médio (51,7%, empregados (72,7% e não tabagistas (90,6%. As medianas de renda e idade ficaram em R$ 1.200,00 e 29 anos. Ao final, constatou-se que houve ajustes satisfatórios para as três versões da PSS apenas em seu modelo bifatorial e a escala com 10 itens se mostrou uma solução harmônica entre as versões completa e mais reduzida, considerando-se a relação entre a parcimônia na quantidade de itens e a robustez estatística deste instrumento. Ademais, a PSS ratificou sua validade concorrente com o QSG-12 e foi feita a normatização dos escores da PSS, estabelecendo-se parâmetros para comparação em futuros estudos.
Natal'ya V. Burmasheva
Full Text Available In this paper a new exact solution of an overdetermined system of Oberbeck–Boussinesq equations that describes a stationary shear flow of a viscous incompressible fluid in an infinite layer is under study. The given exact solution is a generalization of the Ostroumov–Birich class for a layered unidirectional flow. In the proposed solution, the horizontal velocities depend only on the transverse coordinate z. The temperature field and the pressure field are three-dimensional. In contradistinction to the Ostroumov–Birich solution, in the solution presented in the paper the horizontal temperature gradients are linear functions of the $z$ coordinate. This structure of the exact solution allows us to find a nontrivial solution of the Oberbeck–Boussinesq equations by means of the identity zero of the incompressibility equation. This exact solution is suitable for investigating large-scale flows of a viscous incompressible fluid by quasi-two-dimensional equations. Convective fluid motion is caused by the setting of tangential stresses on the free boundary of the layer. Inhomogeneous thermal sources are given on both boundaries. The pressure in the fluid at the upper boundary coincides with the atmospheric pressure. The paper focuses on the study of temperature and pressure fields, which are described by polynomials of three variables. The features of the distribution of the temperature and pressure profiles, which are polynomials of the seventh and eighth degree, respectively, are discussed in detail. To analyze the properties of temperature and pressure, algebraic methods are used to study the number of roots on a segment. It is shown that the background temperature and the background pressure are nonmonotonic functions. The temperature field is stratified into zones that form the thermocline and the thermal boundary layer near the boundaries of the fluid layer. Investigation of the properties of the pressure field showed that it is stratified
... and Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995), VA Form 10-0532i. k. Patient Health..., & Rudy, 1985), VA Form 10-0532c. e. Pain Catastrophizing Scale (Osman, Barrios, Gutierrez, Kopper...
... COPE (Carver, 1997) 10-0532h. j. Depression and Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond..., & Rudy, 1985) 10-0532b. e. Pain Catastrophizing Scale (Osman, Barrios, Gutierrez, Kopper, Merrifield...
... 10-0532h. j. Depression and Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995), VA Form 10... Pain Inventory (MPI; Kearns, Turk, & Rudy, 1985), VA Form 10-0532c. e. Pain Catastrophizing Scale...
Kaur, Gurpreet; Tee, Guat Hiong; Ariaratnam, Suthahar; Krishnapillai, Ambigga S; China, Karuthan
Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent condition in Malaysia, increasing from 11.6% in 2006 to 15.2% in 2011 among individuals 18 years and above. Co-morbid depression in diabetics is associated with hyperglycemia, diabetic complications and increased health care costs. The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in Type II diabetics attending government primary care facilities in the urban area of Klang Valley, Malaysia. The study was cross sectional in design and carried out in 12 randomly selected primary care government clinics in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. A total of 2508 eligible consenting respondents participated in the study. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) 21 questionnaire was used to measure depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. Data was analyzed using the SPSS version 16 software using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among Type II diabetics were 11.5%, 30.5% and 12.5% respectively. Using multiple logistic regression, females, Asian Indians, marital status (never married, divorced/widowed/separated), a family history of psychiatric illness, less than 2 years duration of diabetes and current alcohol consumption were found to be significant predictors of depression. For anxiety, unemployment, housewives, HbA1c level of more than 8.5%, a family history of psychiatric illness, life events and lack of physical activity were independent risk factors. Stress was significantly associated with females, HbA1c level of more than 8.5%, presence of co-morbidity, a family history of psychiatric illness, life events and current alcohol consumption. For depression (adjusted OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.1; 7.0), anxiety (adjusted OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1;5.5) and stress (adjusted OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.8; 9.8), a family history of psychiatric illness was the strongest predictor. We found the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress
Vujičić Milena M.
Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to examine the predictive power of personality traits, as defined by the Big five model of personality in expressing depression, anxiety, and stress with secondary school students of final years. The research was conducted on a sample of 977 secondary school students in the third and fourth grade from ten secondary schools in Niš. The gender structure of the sample was as follows: 397 boys and 607 girls. The following instruments were used in the research: Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond and Lovibond, 1995, Big Five Inventory - BFI (John, Donahue and Kentle, 1991. The results showed that the regression model constructed by personal traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to experience explain 26% of the criterion variable of Anxiety. The largest individual contribution to the prediction of this variable is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β=.34, p<0.01 . Other personal traits that contribute to the prediction of this variable at a statistically significant level are Extraversion (β =-.17, p<0.01, Agreeableness (β =-.14, p<0.01 and Conscientiousness (β =-.17, p<0.01. The same model explains 37% of the criterion variable Stress. The largest individual contribution to Stress prediction is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β =.57, p<0.01. The same model explains 27% of the criterion variable Anxiety as well. The largest individual contribution to the prediction of this variable is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β =.45, p<0.01, whereas a statistically significant correlation between personal traits Agreeableness (β =-.06, p<0.05 and Conscientious (β =-.12, p<0.01 exists. Results show that the difference between boys and girls in expressing Anxiety (t=-2.96, p<0.01 and Stress (t=-5.01, p<0.01 exists. These emotional states are more expressive with girls. However, there are no differences in expressing Depression
Tang, Fang; Xue, Fuzhong; Qin, Ping
Background Stressful life events are common among youth students and may induce psychological problems and even suicidal behaviors in those with poor coping skills. This study aims to assess the influence of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior and to elucidate the underlying mechanism using a large sample of university students in China. Methods 5972 students, randoml...
del C Quezada-Berumen, Lucía; González-Ramírez, Mónica T; Cebolla, Ausias; Soler, Joaquim; Garcia-Campayo, Javier
To assess the psychometric properties and the factor structure of the Spanish version of the Scale of Body Connection (SBC) in a community population of meditators and non-meditators and to investigate the relationships among mindfulness, body awareness and body dissociation. Design. Validation study. Sampling. An internet-based commercial system was used to recruit the sample. Instruments. In addition to the SBC, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) were administered. A sample of 578 subjects responded to all of the items in the protocol. A total of 55.2% of respondents had some previous experience with meditation. A Scree plot showed a two-factor solution involving the Body Awareness (BA) and Body Dissociation (BD) subscales. This study differed from the original validation study in the lack of independence of the subscales; they were correlated in the present study (r=-.11). Internal consistency for BA was α: .86, and for BD, the α was .62. Test-retest reliability was assessed in a subsample (N=67) and was r=.679 for BA and r=.765 for BD. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that mindfulness practice and the FFMQ factors of Observing and Describing were positive predictors of BA. Describing, Acting with awareness and Non-judging negatively predicted BD, and Observing positively predicted BD. The study confirms the adequacy of the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the SBC for use in community samples. The relationship between SBC and mindfulness is discussed in light of previous research.
Moy, Foong Ming; Hoe, Victor Chee Wai; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Buckley, Brian; Wark, Petra A; Koh, David; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Bulgiba, Awang M
The study on Clustering of Lifestyle risk factors and Understanding its association with Stress on health and wellbeing among school Teachers in Malaysia (CLUSTer) is a prospective cohort study which aims to extensively study teachers in Malaysia with respect to clustering of lifestyle risk factors and stress, and subsequently, to follow-up the population for important health outcomes. This study is being conducted in six states within Peninsular Malaysia. From each state, schools from each district are randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Once the schools agree to participate, all teachers who fulfilled the inclusion criteria are invited to participate. Data collection includes a questionnaire survey and health assessment. Information collected in the questionnaire includes socio-demographic characteristics, participants' medical history and family history of chronic diseases, teaching characteristics and burden, questions on smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activities (IPAQ); a food frequency questionnaire, the job content questionnaire (JCQ); depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS21); health related quality of life (SF12-V2); Voice Handicap Index 10 on voice disorder, questions on chronic pain, sleep duration and obstetric history for female participants. Following blood drawn for predefined clinical tests, additional blood and urine specimens are collected and stored for future analysis. Active follow up of exposure and health outcomes will be carried out every two years via telephone or face to face contact. Data collection started in March 2013 and as of the end of March 2014 has been completed for four states: Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Melaka and Penang. Approximately 6580 participants have been recruited. The first round of data collection and blood sampling is expected to be completed by the end of 2014 with an expected 10,000 participants recruited. Our study will provide a good basis for exploring the clustering of
Normative data on the diurnal pattern of the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale ratings and its relation to age, sex, work, stress, sleep quality and sickness absence/illness in a large sample of daytime workers.
Åkerstedt, Torbjorn; Hallvig, David; Kecklund, Göran
Self-rated sleepiness responds to sleep loss, time of day and work schedules. There is, however, a lack of a normative reference showing the diurnal pattern during a normal working day, compared with a day off, as well as differences depending on stress, sleep quality, sex, age and being sick listed. The present study sought to provide such data for the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Participants were 431 individuals working in medium-sized public service units. Sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, scale 1-9) was rated at six times a day for a working week and 2 days off (>90.000 ratings). The results show a clear circadian pattern, with high values during the morning (4.5 at 07:00 hours) and evening (6.0 at 22:00 hours), and with low values (3-4) during the 10:00-16:00 hours span. Women had significantly higher (0.5 units) Karolinska Sleepiness Scale values than men, as did younger individuals (0.3 units), those with stress (1.3 units above the low-stress group) and those with poor sleep quality (1.0 units above those with qood sleep quality). Days off showed reduced sleepiness (0.7 units), while being sick listed was associated with an increased sleepiness (0.8 units). Multiple regression analysis of mean sleepiness during the working week yielded mean daytime stress, mean sleep quality, age, and sex as predictors (not sleep duration). Improved sleep quality accounted for the reduced sleepiness during days off, but reduced stress was a second factor. Similar results were obtained in a longitudinal mixed-model regression analysis across the 7 days of the week. The percentage of ratings at Karolinska Sleepiness Scale risk levels (8 + 9) was 6.6%, but most of these were obtained at 22:00 hours. It was concluded that sleepiness ratings are strongly associated with time of day, sleep quality, stress, work day/day off, being ill, age, and sex. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.
Ziel dieser Dissertationsschrift war es, die Effekte des oxidativen Stresses in Form von oxLDL auf die Expression der atherogenen Scavenger-Rezeptoren CD36, SR-BI, des Transkriptionsfaktors PPARγ und pro-inflammatorischer Zytokine zu untersuchen. Die durchgeführten Untersuchungen beruhen auf der Annahme, dass modifizierte LDL durch Induktion der genannten Scavenger-Rezeptoren und nachfolgende unregulierte Aufnahme in Makrophagen mit Bildung von Schaumzellen entscheidend zur Entwicklung einer ...
A new methodology for strain and stress analysis by X ray diffraction (XRD) in single crystal was developed. It can be applied to determine the second order stress (in grain scale) in single and multi-crystal material with non-cubic lattice. This method is based on the method Ortner I. It has introduced the metric tensor G which is deduced from the lattice space measured by XRD. In the developed method, when the crystal reference is non-orthonormal, an orthonormal reference associated with the crystal basis is defined, so all calculation could be done with usual calculation laws. The use of the least square method allows the acquisition of many more measurements than the six absolute necessary. Then a better metric tensor G is calculated and the statistical error is obtained. This developed method was applied in a bi crystal copper. The experimental results have shown that this method is also effective. The second order residuals stresses for coarse Zn grains in a galvanized coating were determined after annealing. The four coarse grains with different orientations were also characterized and demonstrated the elastic and plastic deformation mechanism in a grain or between the grains during in situ tensile loading. So this method is well able to determine the strains and stresses in grain scale in a mono crystal or multi crystal with any crystalline structure. (author)
Claréus, Benjamin; Daukantaitė, Daiva; Wångby-Lundh, Margit; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar
The UPPS-P model of impulsivity proposes that impulsivity comprises five distinct facets-negative urgency, positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. The UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale has been used to measure these facets. The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the 20-item UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (SUPPS-P). The sample comprised 343 Swedish young adults ( M age = 24.21, SD = 2.01; 27% men, 2% other or undisclosed gender identity) who answered a questionnaire including the SUPPS-P; Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21); and questions regarding their alcohol consumption and substance use. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 5-factor, inter-correlated model, where each subscale of the SUPPS-P constitutes one latent variable. The convergent validity was established by replicating previously found correlations between the different impulsivity facets and depression, anxiety, frequency of alcohol consumption, and substance use. The internal consistency was acceptable for all the SUPPS-P subscales (Cronbach's α = 0.65-0.78, McDonald's ω = 0.65-0.79), except lack of perseverance (Cronbach's α = 0.60, McDonald's ω = 0.61). Thus, while the Swedish version of the SUPPS-P is suitable for assessing impulsivity in Swedish young adult samples, further research is needed to improve the psychometric properties of the lack of perseverance subscale.
The present study was carried out to observe the difference between male and female Eritrean students on the basis of stressful life events, vulnerable to stress and depression. Stressful life Events Questionnaire, Vulnerable to Stress Instrument and Beck Depression Scale were administered to gather information. The data ...
Tang, Fang; Xue, Fuzhong; Qin, Ping
Stressful life events are common among youth students and may induce psychological problems and even suicidal behaviors in those with poor coping skills. This study aims to assess the influence of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior and to elucidate the underlying mechanism using a large sample of university students in China. 5972 students, randomly selected from 6 universities, completed the questionnaire survey. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior. Bayesian network was further adopted to probe their probabilistic relationships. Of the 5972 students, 7.64% reported the presence of suicidal behavior (attempt or ideation) within the past one year period. Stressful life events such as strong conflicts with classmates and a failure in study exam constituted strong risk factors for suicidal behavior. The influence of coping skills varied according to the strategies adapted toward problems with a high score of approach coping skills significantly associated with a reduced risk of suicidal behavior. The Bayesian network indicated that the probability of suicidal behavior associated with specific life events was to a large extent conditional on coping skills. For instance, a stressful experience of having strong conflicts with classmates could result in a probability of suicidal behavior of 21.25% and 15.36% respectively, for female and male students with the score of approach coping skills under the average. Stressful life events and deficient coping skills are strong risk factors for suicidal behavior among youth students. The results underscore the importance of prevention efforts to improve coping skills towards stressful life events.
De Beer, Morris
Full Text Available This paper summarises the results of a study in which the maximum vertical contact stressess of the one third scale test tyres of the Model Mobile Load Simulator (MMLS3) were compared with those measured for three types of full-scale test tyres...
Gehrman, Philip R; Hall, Martica; Barilla, Holly; Buysse, Daniel; Perlis, Michael; Gooneratne, Nalaka; Ross, Richard J
This study examined whether individuals with primary insomnia (PI) are more reactive to stress than good sleepers (GS). PI and GS (n = 20 per group), matched on gender and age, completed three nights of polysomnography. On the stress night, participants received a mild electric shock and were told they could receive additional shocks during the night. Saliva samples were obtained for analysis of cortisol and alpha amylase along with self-report and visual analog scales (VAS). There was very little evidence of increased stress on the stress night, compared to the baseline night. There was also no evidence of greater stress reactivity in the PI group for any sleep or for salivary measures. In the GS group, stress reactivity measured by VAS scales was positively associated with an increase in sleep latency in the experimental night on exploratory analyses. Individuals with PI did not show greater stress reactivity compared to GS.
Warhel Asim Mohammed
Full Text Available Literature indicates that injured athletes face both physical and psychological distress after they have been injured. In this study, a Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR was utilised as an intervention for use during the period of recovery with injured athletes and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using MBSR as an intervention for this purpose.Objective: The aim of this research was to investigate the role of MBSR practise in reducing the perception of pain and decreasing anxiety/stress, as well as increasing pain tolerance and mindfulness. An additional aim was to increase positive mood and decrease negative mood in injured athletes.Methods: The participants comprised of twenty athletes (male = 14; female = 6; age range = 21–36 years who had severe injuries, preventing their participation in sport for more than 3 months. Prior to their injury, the participants had trained regularly with their University teams and participated in official university championships. Both groups followed their normal physiotherapy treatment, but in addition, the intervention group practised mindfulness meditation for 8 weeks (one 90-min session/week. A Cold Pressor Test (CPT was used to assess pain tolerance. In contrast, the perception of pain was measured using a Visual Analogue Scale. Other measurements used were the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS, and Profile of Mood States (POMS.Results: Our results demonstrated an increase in pain tolerance for the intervention group and an increase in mindful awareness for injured athletes. Moreover, our findings observed a promising change in positive mood for both groups. Regarding the Stress/Anxiety scores, our findings showed a notable decrease across sessions; however, no significant changes were observed in other main and interaction effects in both groups.Conclusion: Injured athletes can benefit from using mindfulness as part of the
Seo, Seung Beom
Although water is one of the most essential natural resources, human activities have been exerting pressure on water resources. In order to reduce these stresses on water resources, two key issues threatening water resources sustainability - interaction between surface water and groundwater resources and groundwater withdrawal impacts of streamflow depletion - were investigated in this study. First, a systematic decomposition procedure was proposed for quantifying the errors arising from various sources in the model chain in projecting the changes in hydrologic attributes using near-term climate change projections. Apart from the unexplained changes by GCMs, the process of customizing GCM projections to watershed scale through a model chain - spatial downscaling, temporal disaggregation and hydrologic model - also introduces errors, thereby limiting the ability to explain the observed changes in hydrologic variability. Towards this, we first propose metrics for quantifying the errors arising from different steps in the model chain in explaining the observed changes in hydrologic variables (streamflow, groundwater). The proposed metrics are then evaluated using a detailed retrospective analyses in projecting the changes in streamflow and groundwater attributes in four target basins that span across a diverse hydroclimatic regimes over the US Sunbelt. Our analyses focused on quantifying the dominant sources of errors in projecting the changes in eight hydrologic variables - mean and variability of seasonal streamflow, mean and variability of 3-day peak seasonal streamflow, mean and variability of 7-day low seasonal streamflow and mean and standard deviation of groundwater depth - over four target basins using an Penn state Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM) between the period 1956-1980 and 1981-2005. Retrospective analyses show that small/humid (large/arid) basins show increased (reduced) uncertainty in projecting the changes in hydrologic attributes. Further
Caroline Di Bernardi Luft
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traduzir a Escala de Estresse Percebido para a língua portuguesa do Brasil e verificar sua validade para mensurar o estresse percebido de idosos brasileiros. MÉTODOS: A escala foi traduzida e testada em sua versão completa, com 14 questões e na reduzida, com dez questões. A tradução obedeceu às etapas de tradução, tradução reversa e revisão por um comitê. A escala traduzida foi aplicada, por meio de entrevista, a 76 idosos com idade média de 70,04 anos (DP=6,34; mín: 60; máx: 84. A consistência interna foi verificada por meio do coeficiente alfa de Cronbach e a validade de construto, por análise fatorial exploratória com rotação ortogonal pelo método varimax. As médias das versões completa e reduzida foram analisadas comparando o estresse percebido em função da auto-avaliação da saúde, nível econômico percebido, estado civil, condições de residência, entre outras. RESULTADOS: Quanto à confiabilidade, a versão completa apresentou consistência interna semelhante (r=0,82 à reduzida (r=0,83. A análise fatorial revelou a existência de dois fatores para a completa e um para a reduzida. A questão 12 apresentou as menores cargas fatoriais. Ao analisar a possibilidade de a escala diferenciar o estresse percebido em função das variáveis, verificou-se que a versão completa obteve maiores diferenças no estresse do que a reduzida. CONCLUSÕES: A Escala de Estresse Percebido mostrou-se clara e confiável para mensurar o estresse percebido de idosos brasileiros, apresentando qualidades psicométricas adequadas.OBJECTIVE: To translate the Perceived Stress Scale into Brazilian Portuguese, and to assess its validity for measuring perceived stress of Brazilian elderly. METHODS: The scale was translated and tested in its full version including 14 questions and in a shortened version including ten questions. The whole translation process consisted of translation, back-translation and committee review. The
Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri
. A multilevel optimization strategy is adopted using a customized genetic algorithm developed for optimizing cellular scanning strategy for selective laser melting, with an objective of reducing residual stresses and deformations. The resulting thermo-mechanically optimized cellular scanning strategies......, a calibrated, fast, multiscale thermal model coupled with a 3D finite element mechanical model is used to simulate residual stress formation and deformations during selective laser melting. The resulting reduction in thermal model computation time allows evolutionary algorithm-based optimization of the process...
Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and ... stress triggers, it's often helpful to improve time management skills — especially if you tend to feel overwhelmed ...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Childhood Stress KidsHealth / For Parents / Childhood Stress What's in this ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...
Liu, P. F.; Li, X. K.
The purpose of this paper is to study micromechanical progressive failure properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites with thermal residual stress by finite element analysis (FEA). Composite microstructures with hexagonal fiber distribution are used for the representative volume element (RVE), where an initial fiber breakage is assumed. Fiber breakage with random fiber strength is predicted using Monte Carlo simulation, progressive matrix damage is predicted by proposing a continuum damage mechanics model and interface failure is simulated using Xu and Needleman's cohesive model. Temperature dependent thermal expansion coefficients for epoxy matrix are used. FEA by developing numerical codes using ANSYS finite element software is divided into two steps: 1. Thermal residual stresses due to mismatch between fiber and matrix are calculated; 2. Longitudinal tensile load is further exerted on the RVE to perform progressive failure analysis of carbon fiber/epoxy composites. Numerical convergence is solved by introducing the viscous damping effect properly. The extended Mori-Tanaka method that considers interface debonding is used to get homogenized mechanical responses of composites. Three main results by FEA are obtained: 1. the real-time matrix cracking, fiber breakage and interface debonding with increasing tensile strain is simulated. 2. the stress concentration coefficients on neighbouring fibers near the initial broken fiber and the axial fiber stress distribution along the broken fiber are predicted, compared with the results using the global and local load-sharing models based on the shear-lag theory. 3. the tensile strength of composite by FEA is compared with those by the shear-lag theory and experiments. Finally, the tensile stress-strain curve of composites by FEA is applied to the progressive failure analysis of composite pressure vessel.
A Framework for Assessing Soil Moisture Deficit and Crop Water Stress at Multiple Space and Time Scales Under Climate Change Scenarios Using Model Platform, Satellite Remote Sensing, and Decision Support System
Mohanty, Binayak P.
Better understanding of water cycle at different space–time scales would be a key for sustainable water resources, agricultural production, and ecosystems health in the twenty-first century. Efficient agricultural water management is necessary for sustainability of the growing global population. This warrants better predictive tools for aridity (based on precipitation, temperature, land use, and land cover), root zone (~top 1 m) soil moisture deficit, and crop water stress at farm, county, state, region, and national level, where decisions are made to allocate and manage the water resources. It will provide useful strategies for not only efficient water use but also for reducing potential risk of crop failure due to agricultural drought. Leveraging heavily on ongoing multiscale hydrologic modeling, data assimilation, soil moisture dynamics, and inverse model development research activities, and ongoing Land Data Assimilation (LDAS) and National Climate Assessment (NCA) indexing efforts we are developing a drought assessment framework. The drought assessment platform includes: (1) developing disaggregation methods for extracting various field-scale (1-km or less) climate indicators from the (SMOS, VIIRS, SMAP, AMSR-2) satellite / LDAS-based soil moisture in conjunction with a multimodel simulation–optimization approach using ensemble of Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer, SVAT (Noah, CLM, VIC, Mosaic in LIS) models; (2) predicting farm/field-scale long-term root zone soil moisture status under various land management and climate scenarios for the past decades in hindcast mode and for the next decades in forecast mode across the USA using effective land surface parameters and meteorological input from Global Circulation Model (GCM) outputs; (3) assessing the potential risk of agricultural drought at different space–time scales across the USA based on predicted root zone soil moisture; and (4) evaluating various water management and cropping practices (e
Anfodillo, Tommaso; Petit, Giai; Sterck, Frank; Lechthaler, Silvia; Olson, Mark E.
The term "stress" is an important but vague term in plant biology. We show situations in which thinking in terms of "stress" is profitably replaced by quantifying distance from functionally optimal scaling relationships between plant parts. These relationships include, for example, the
Full Text Available The educational stress is an investigation topic that monopolizes or great number of studies. In the work that here is presented, the psychometrics properties of the scale ED-6 are analyzed. This scale was elaborated ad hoc to measure the stress or educational discomfort of face to their use in a wider frame of investigations on this phenomenon. As he/she will be able to be proven, the results show a reliability and acceptable validity, being conformed for 77 ítems and 6 dimensions: Anxiety, Depression, Pressures, Beliefs, Amotivation and Bad confrontation. It is expected that its use in future investigations is of great profit. El estrés docente es un tema de investigación que acapara un gran número de estudios. En el trabajo que aquí se presenta, se analizan las propiedades psicométricas de la escala ED-6,elaborada ad hoc para medir el estrés o malestar docente de cara a su utilización en un marco más amplio de investigaciones sobre este fenómeno. Como se podrá comprobar, los resultados muestran una fiabilidad y validez aceptable, quedando conformada por 77 ítems y 6 dimensiones: Ansiedad, Depresión, Presiones, Creencias, Desmotivación y Mal afrontamiento. Se espera que su uso en futuras investigaciones resulte de gran provecho
Annabattula, R. K.; Huck, W. T. S.; Onck, P. R.
Buckling of thin films on a rigid substrate during use or fabrication is a well-known but unwanted phenomenon. However, this phenomenon can also be exploited to generate well-controlled patterns at the micro and nano-scale. These patterned surfaces find various technological applications such as
Healthy Lifestyle Stress management By Mayo Clinic Staff Stress basics Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to the demands of life. ... some people's alarm systems rarely shut off. Stress management gives you a range of tools to reset ...
... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... and Health Effects What are the signs of stress? When people are under stress, they may feel: ...
Stress incontinence Overview Urinary incontinence is the unintentional loss of urine. Stress incontinence happens when physical movement or activity — such ... coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting — puts pressure (stress) on your bladder. Stress incontinence is not related ...
Measuring symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in people with intellectual disabilities: the development and psychometric properties of the Impact of Event Scale-Intellectual Disabilities (IES-IDs).
Hall, James C; Jobson, Laura; Langdon, Peter E
The aims of the study were to (1) revise the Impact of Event Scale-Revised for use with people with intellectual disabilities (IDs), creating the Impact of Event Scale-Intellectual Disabilities (IES-IDs), (2) assess the reliability of the IES-IDs, and (3) compare the IES-IDs to an existing measure trauma-related symptomatology, namely the Lancaster and Northgate Trauma Scale (LANTS), along with measures of anxiety and depression. Forty adults with IDs who had experienced at least one traumatic event were recruited and completed the IES-IDs and the LANTS on two occasions, separated by 2 weeks. Participants also completed the Glasgow Depression Scale and the Glasgow Anxiety Scale, along with the Trauma Information Form which was used to collect information about trauma history. Fifteen per cent of the sample had encountered five or more traumatic events. The IES-IDs and the LANTS had good to excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Both measures correlated with self-report measures of depression and anxiety, although the strength of this correlation was greater with the LANTS. There was a significant positive correlation between trauma frequency and the IES-IDs, while trauma frequency did not correlate with the LANTS. Both the IES-IDs and the LANTS appear to have good reliability. There is a lack of well-developed questionnaires that can be used to assess symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in people with intellectual disabilities. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised was augmented creating the Impact of Event Scale-Intellectual Disabilities (IES-IDs). The IES-IDs was shown to have good psychometric properties. The IES-IDs was compared to the Lancaster and Northgate Trauma Scale (LANTS), but the LANTS did not correlate with trauma frequency. However, this study had a small sample size, and a much larger study is needed to examine the factor structure of both the IES-IDs and the LANTS. Future studies should attempt to recruit people with
Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou; Howell, Gary L.
Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structu......Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams...... for structural integrity. The paper presents the results and the analyses of model tests with 200 kg and 200 g load-cell instrumented Dolosse. Static stresses and wave generated stresses were studied as well as model and scale effects. A preliminary design diagram for Dolosse is presented as well....
... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...
Martin, L; Fincham, D; Kagee, A
The identification of HIV-positive patients who exhibit criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and related trauma symptomatology is of clinical importance in the maintenance of their overall wellbeing. This study assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the 17-item Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), a self-report instrument, in the detection of HIV-related PTSD. An adapted version of the PTSD module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) served as the gold standard. 85 HIV-positive patients diagnosed with HIV within the year preceding data collection were recruited by means of convenience sampling from three HIV clinics within primary health care facilities in the Boland region of South Africa. A significant association was found between the 17-item PDS and the adapted PTSD module of the CIDI. A ROC curve analysis indicated that the 17-item PDS correctly discriminated between PTSD caseness and non-caseness 74.9% of the time. Moreover, a PDS cut-off point of > or = 15 yielded adequate sensitivity (68%) and 1-specificity (65%). The 17-item PDS demonstrated a PPV of 76.0% and a NPV of 56.7%. The 17-item PDS can be used as a brief screening measure for the detection of HIV-related PTSD among HIV-positive patients in South Africa.
Kerkhof, K.; Bezdikian, G.; Moinereau, D.; Dahl, A; Wadier, Y.; Gilles, P.; Keim, E.; Chapuliot, S.; Taylor, N.; Lidbury, D.; Sharples, J.; Budden, P.; Siegele, D.; Nagel, G.; Bass, R.; Emond, D.
The Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) is an essential component, which is liable to limit the lifetime duration of PWR plants. The assessment of defects in RPV subjected to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) transients made at an European level generally does not necessarily consider the beneficial effect of the load history (Warm Pre-stress, WPS). The SMILE project - Structural Margin Improvements in aged embrittled RPV with Load history Effects-aims to give sufficient elements to demonstrate, to model and to validate the beneficial WPS effect. It also aims to harmonize the different approaches in the national codes and standards regarding the inclusion of the WPS effect in a RPV structural integrity assessment. The project includes significant experimental work on WPS type experiments with C(T) specimens and a PTS type transient experiment on a large component. This paper deals with the results of the PTS type transient experiment on a component-like specimen subjected to WPS- loading, the so called Validation Test, carried out within the framework of work package WP4. The test specimen consists of a cylindrical thick walled specimen with a thickness of 40 mm and an outer diameter of 160 mm, provided with an internal fully circumferential crack with a depth of about 15 mm. The specified load path type is Load-Cool-Unload-Fracture (LCUF). No crack initiation occurred during cooling (thermal shock loading) although the loading path crossed the fracture toughness curve in the transition region. The benefit of the WPS-effect by final re-loading up to fracture in the lower shelf region, was shown clearly. The corresponding fracture load during reloading in the lower shelf region was significantly higher than the crack initiation values of the original material in the lower shelf region. The post test fractographic evaluation showed that the fracture mode was predominantly cleavage fracture also with some secondary cracks emanating from major crack. (authors)
Delorey, A. A.; Maceira, M.; Johnson, P. A.; Coblentz, D. D.
The state of stress in the Earth's crust is a fundamental physical property that controls both engineered and natural systems. Engineered environments including those for hydrocarbon, geothermal energy, and mineral extraction, as well those for storage of wastewater, carbon dioxide, and nuclear fuel are as important as ever to our economy and environment. Yet, it is at spatial scales relevant to these activities where stress is least understood. Additionally, in engineered environments the rate of change in the stress field can be much higher than that of natural systems. In order to use subsurface resources more safely and effectively, we need to understand stress at the relevant temporal and spatial scales. We will present our latest results characterizing the state of stress in the Earth at scales relevant to engineered environments. Two important components of the state of stress are the orientation and magnitude of the stress tensor, and a measure of how close faults are to failure. The stress tensor at any point in a reservoir or repository has contributions from both far-field tectonic stress and local density heterogeneity. We jointly invert seismic (body and surface waves) and gravity data for a self-consistent model of elastic moduli and density and use the model to calculate the contribution of local heterogeneity to the total stress field. We then combine local and plate-scale contributions, using local indicators for calibration and ground-truth. In addition, we will present results from an analysis of the quantity and pattern of microseismicity as an indicator of critically stressed faults. Faults are triggered by transient stresses only when critically stressed (near failure). We show that tidal stresses can trigger earthquakes in both tectonic and reservoir environments and can reveal both stress and poroelastic conditions.
Lammers, Karl Christian
Undersøgelse af den danske gesandt i Berlin Herluf Zahles beretning om og vurdering af forholdet mellem Hitler og tyskerne.......Undersøgelse af den danske gesandt i Berlin Herluf Zahles beretning om og vurdering af forholdet mellem Hitler og tyskerne....
Julie A. Onton
Full Text Available Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD often report suboptimal sleep quality, often described as lack of restfulness for unknown reasons. These experiences are sometimes difficult to objectively quantify in sleep lab assessments. Here, we used a streamlined sleep assessment tool to record in-home 2-channel electroencephalogram (EEG with concurrent collection of electrodermal activity (EDA and acceleration. Data from a single forehead channel were transformed into a whole-night spectrogram, and sleep stages were classified using a fully automated algorithm. For this study, 71 control subjects and 60 military-related PTSD subjects were analyzed for percentage of time spent in Light, Hi Deep (1–3 Hz, Lo Deep (<1 Hz, and rapid eye movement (REM sleep stages, as well as sleep efficiency and fragmentation. The results showed a significant tendency for PTSD sleepers to spend a smaller percentage of the night in REM (p < 0.0001 and Lo Deep (p = 0.001 sleep, while spending a larger percentage of the night in Hi Deep (p < 0.0001 sleep. The percentage of combined Hi+Lo Deep sleep did not differ between groups. All sleepers usually showed EDA peaks during Lo, but not Hi, Deep sleep; however, PTSD sleepers were more likely to lack EDA peaks altogether, which usually coincided with a lack of Lo Deep sleep. Linear regressions with all subjects showed that a decreased percentage of REM sleep in PTSD sleepers was accounted for by age, prazosin, SSRIs and SNRIs (p < 0.02, while decreased Lo Deep and increased Hi Deep in the PTSD group could not be accounted for by any factor in this study (p < 0.005. Linear regression models with only the PTSD group showed that decreased REM correlated with self-reported depression, as measured with the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS; p < 0.00001. DASS anxiety was associated with increased REM time (p < 0.0001. This study shows altered sleep patterns in sleepers with PTSD that can be partially accounted
J. Julio Camarero
Full Text Available Drought-triggered declines in forest productivity and associated die-off events have increased considerably due to climate warming in the last decades. There is an increasing interest in quantifying the resilience capacity of forests against climate warming and drought to uncover how different stands and tree species will resist and recover after more frequent and intense droughts. Trees form annual growth rings that represent an accurate record of how forest growth responded to past droughts. Here we use dendrochronology to quantify the radial growth of different forests subjected to contrasting climatic conditions in Spain during the last half century. Particularly, we considered four climatically contrasting areas where dominant forests showed clear signs of drought-induced dieback. Studied forests included wet sites dominated by silver fir (Abies alba in the Pyrenees and beech (Fagus sylvatica stands in northern Spain, and drought-prone sites dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris in eastern Spain and black pine (Pinus nigra in the semi-arid south-eastern Spain. We quantified the growth reduction caused by different droughts and assessed the short-and long-term resilience capacity of declining vs. non-declining trees in each forest. In all cases, drought induced a marked growth reduction regardless tree vigor. However, the capacity to recover after drought (resilience at short- and long-term scales varied greatly between declining and non-declining individuals. In the case of beech and silver fir, non-declining individuals presented greater growth rates and capacity to recover after drought than declining individuals. For Scots pine, the resilience to drought was found to be lower in recent years regardless the tree vigor, but the growth reduction caused by successive droughts was more pronounced in declining than in non-declining individuals. In the black pine forest an extreme drought induced a marked growth reduction in declining
Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women: Shedding ... and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21. ... and which had negative effects on the quality of life among Arabian women.
The thesis deals with load, stress and related questions of the working life. Work-related stress brings numerous difficulties not only to affected individuals, but as a result also to organizations. The thesis follows symptoms, impacts, somatic and mental aspects of stress, its types and also types of stressors, which cause this problem. It is concentrated on workload as a specific area of work-related stress, individual resistance to the load, factors of workload and work-related stress and...
Watanabe, Jun-Ichiro; Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo
We study the nature of workplace stress from the aspect of human-human interactions. We investigated the distribution of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores, a measure of the degree of stress, in workplaces. We found that the degree of stress people experience when around other highly stressed people tends to be low, and vice versa. A simulation based on a model describing microlevel human-human interaction reproduced this observed phenomena and revealed that the energy state of a face-to-face communication network correlates with workplace stress macroscopically.
Bujang, Mohamad A; Musa, Ramli; Liu, Wen J; Chew, Thian F; Lim, Christopher T S; Morad, Zaki
Studies addressing the nature of relationship between psychological symptoms and quality of life among dialysis patients in Malaysia are scarce. Hence, this study is intended to investigate the association between psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety and stress on the quality of life in dialysis patients. A cross sectional multicentre study was conducted from May to October 2012 at 15 centres that provide haemodialysis and/or peritoneal dialysis. Apart from socio-demographic profile data collection, WHOQOL-BREF and DASS21 questionnaires were administered to study subjects. All three psychological symptoms had significant impact on quality of life domains of physical health, psychological health, social impact, perceived environment and overall quality of life. These findings suggest that subjects with symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress had poorer quality of life than those without, highlighting the negative impact of psychological symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background The study on Clustering of Lifestyle risk factors and Understanding its association with Stress on health and wellbeing among school Teachers in Malaysia (CLUSTer) is a prospective cohort study which aims to extensively study teachers in Malaysia with respect to clustering of lifestyle risk factors and stress, and subsequently, to follow-up the population for important health outcomes. Method/design This study is being conducted in six states within Peninsular Malaysia. From each state, schools from each district are randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Once the schools agree to participate, all teachers who fulfilled the inclusion criteria are invited to participate. Data collection includes a questionnaire survey and health assessment. Information collected in the questionnaire includes socio-demographic characteristics, participants’ medical history and family history of chronic diseases, teaching characteristics and burden, questions on smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activities (IPAQ); a food frequency questionnaire, the job content questionnaire (JCQ); depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS21); health related quality of life (SF12-V2); Voice Handicap Index 10 on voice disorder, questions on chronic pain, sleep duration and obstetric history for female participants. Following blood drawn for predefined clinical tests, additional blood and urine specimens are collected and stored for future analysis. Active follow up of exposure and health outcomes will be carried out every two years via telephone or face to face contact. Data collection started in March 2013 and as of the end of March 2014 has been completed for four states: Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Melaka and Penang. Approximately 6580 participants have been recruited. The first round of data collection and blood sampling is expected to be completed by the end of 2014 with an expected 10,000 participants recruited. Discussion Our study will provide a good basis
Li, Hong; Lin, Chong-De; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.
The "Chinese College Stress Scale" was developed to ascertain stress in university students. Results suggested that the psychometric properties of the "Chinese College Stress Scale" were satisfactory. Overall, student stress was primarily related to academic, personal, and negative life events. Approximately 8% of Chinese…
Cappe, É; Poirier, N; Boujut, É; Nader-Grosbois, N; Dionne, C; Boulard, A
Autism and related disorders are grouped into the category of « Autism Spectrum Disorder » (ASD) in the DSM-5. This appellation reflects the idea of a dimensional representation of autism that combines symptoms and characteristics that vary in severity and intensity. Despite common characteristics, there are varying degrees in intensity and in the onset of symptoms, ranging from a disability that can be very heavy with a total lack of communication and major disorders associated with the existence of a relative autonomy associated, sometimes, with extraordinary intellectual abilities. Parents are faced with several difficult situations, such as sleep disturbances, agitation, shouting, hetero violence, self-harm, learning difficulties, stereotyping, lack of social and emotional reciprocity, inappropriate behavior, etc. They can feel helpless and may experience stress related to these developmental and behavioral difficulties. The heterogeneity of symptoms, the presence of behavioral problems, the lack of reciprocity and autonomy also represent a challenge for practitioners in institutions and teachers at school. The objective of this research is to present the validation of a French translation of the Appraisal of Life Events Scale (ALES-vf) from Ferguson, Matthex and Cox, specifically adapted to the context of ASD. ALES was originally developed to operationalize the three dimensions of perceived stress (threat, loss and challenge) described by Lazarus and Folkman. ALES-vf was initially translated into French and adapted to the situation of parents of children with ASD. It was subsequently administered to 343 parents, 150 paramedical professionals involved with people with ASD, and 155 teachers from an ordinary school environment and from specialized schools, welcoming in their classroom at least one child with ASD. An exploratory factor analysis performed on data from 170 parents highlighted two exploratory models with four and three factors, slightly different
A EBRAHIMI; SG MOOSAVI; R SAMOOEIE; A ,HASAN ZADEH
Introduction. Stress coping skills is one of the most important factors in prediction of addictive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine this pattern and to compare them with those of non-addicts. Methods. One hundred subjects with substance dependency and 100 non-addict subjects were selected. Both groups were matched on the basis of their socioeconomic state. Stress coping skills of study participants were examined using CS-R scale. Results. Stress coping skills in ...
... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...
... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir OSHA-NIOSH ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...
White, Timothy P.; Kern, Marialice
Discusses exercise-induced stress that results from motor unit recruitment, the impact of recruitment on selected systemic support systems, and some of the environmental overlays that affect the degree of physiological stress. Adaptations to sustained changes in physical activity and muscle and myotendinous injury induced by stress are examined.…
Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...
Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Viswasam, Kirupamani; Hannan, Anthony; Milicevic, Denise; Brakoulias, Vlasios; Dale, Erin
Dysphoria has recently been conceptualized as a