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Sample records for stress responsive genes

  1. [Regulation of heat shock gene expression in response to stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuz, D G

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock (HS) genes, or stress genes, code for a number of proteins that collectively form the most ancient and universal stress defense system. The system determines the cell capability of adaptation to various adverse factors and performs a variety of auxiliary functions in normal physiological conditions. Common stress factors, such as higher temperatures, hypoxia, heavy metals, and others, suppress transcription and translation for the majority of genes, while HS genes are upregulated. Transcription of HS genes is controlled by transcription factors of the HS factor (HSF) family. Certain HSFs are activated on exposure to higher temperatures or other adverse factors to ensure stress-induced HS gene expression, while other HSFs are specifically activated at particular developmental stages. The regulation of the main mammalian stress-inducible factor HSF1 and Drosophila melanogaster HSF includes many components, such as a variety of early warning signals indicative of abnormal cell activity (e.g., increases in intracellular ceramide, cytosolic calcium ions, or partly denatured proteins); protein kinases, which phosphorylate HSFs at various Ser residues; acetyltransferases; and regulatory proteins, such as SUMO and HSBP1. Transcription factors other than HSFs are also involved in activating HS gene transcription; the set includes D. melanogaster GAF, mammalian Sp1 and NF-Y, and other factors. Transcription of several stress genes coding for molecular chaperones of the glucose-regulated protein (GRP) family is predominantly regulated by another stress-detecting system, which is known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) system and is activated in response to massive protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial matrix. A translational fine tuning of HS protein expression occurs via changing the phosphorylation status of several proteins involved in translation initiation. In addition, specific signal sequences in the 5'-UTRs of some HS

  2. Evolution and Stress Responses of Gossypium hirsutum SWEET Genes.

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    Li, Wei; Ren, Zhongying; Wang, Zhenyu; Sun, Kuan; Pei, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yangai; He, Kunlun; Zhang, Fei; Song, Chengxiang; Zhou, Xiaojian; Zhang, Wensheng; Ma, Xiongfeng; Yang, Daigang

    2018-03-08

    The SWEET (sugars will eventually be exported transporters) proteins are sugar efflux transporters containing the MtN3_saliva domain, which affects plant development as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. These proteins have not been functionally characterized in the tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum , which is a widely cultivated cotton species. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the cotton SWEET gene family. A total of 55 putative G. hirsutum SWEET genes were identified. The GhSWEET genes were classified into four clades based on a phylogenetic analysis and on the examination of gene structural features. Moreover, chromosomal localization and an analysis of homologous genes in Gossypium arboreum , Gossypium raimondii , and G. hirsutum suggested that a whole-genome duplication, several tandem duplications, and a polyploidy event contributed to the expansion of the cotton SWEET gene family, especially in Clade III and IV. Analyses of cis -acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions, expression profiles, and artificial selection revealed that the GhSWEET genes were likely involved in cotton developmental processes and responses to diverse stresses. These findings may clarify the evolution of G. hirsutum SWEET gene family and may provide a foundation for future functional studies of SWEET proteins regarding cotton development and responses to abiotic stresses.

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of salt stress responsive genes in Rhazya stricta

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    Hajrah, Nahid H.; Obaid, Abdullah Y.; Atef, Ahmed; Ramadan, Ahmed M.; Arasappan, Dhivya; Nelson, Charllotte A.; Edris, Sherif; Mutwakil, Mohammed Z.; Alhebshi, Alawia; Gadalla, Nour O.; Makki, Rania M.; Al-Kordy, Madgy A.; El-Domyati, Fotouh M.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Khiyami, Mohammad A.; Hall, Neil; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Rhazya stricta is an evergreen shrub that is widely distributed across Western and South Asia, and like many other members of the Apocynaceae produces monoterpene indole alkaloids that have anti-cancer properties. This species is adapted to very harsh desert conditions making it an excellent system for studying tolerance to high temperatures and salinity. RNA-Seq analysis was performed on R. stricta exposed to severe salt stress (500 mM NaCl) across four time intervals (0, 2, 12 and 24 h) to examine mechanisms of salt tolerance. A large number of transcripts including genes encoding tetrapyrroles and pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins were regulated only after 12 h of stress of seedlings grown in controlled greenhouse conditions. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in R. stricta may involve the upregulation of genes encoding chaperone protein Dnaj6, UDP-glucosyl transferase 85a2, protein transparent testa 12 and respiratory burst oxidase homolog protein b. Many of the highly-expressed genes act on protecting protein folding during salt stress and the production of flavonoids, key secondary metabolites in stress tolerance. Other regulated genes encode enzymes in the porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolic pathway with important roles during plant growth, photosynthesis, hormone signaling and abiotic responses. Heme biosynthesis in R. stricta leaves might add to the level of salt stress tolerance by maintaining appropriate levels of photosynthesis and normal plant growth as well as by the participation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production under stress. We speculate that the high expression levels of PPR genes may be dependent on expression levels of their targeted editing genes. Although the results of PPR gene family indicated regulation of a large number of transcripts under salt stress, PPR actions were independent of the salt stress because their RNA editing patterns were unchanged. PMID:28520766

  4. Transcriptomic analysis of salt stress responsive genes in Rhazya stricta.

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    Nahid H Hajrah

    Full Text Available Rhazya stricta is an evergreen shrub that is widely distributed across Western and South Asia, and like many other members of the Apocynaceae produces monoterpene indole alkaloids that have anti-cancer properties. This species is adapted to very harsh desert conditions making it an excellent system for studying tolerance to high temperatures and salinity. RNA-Seq analysis was performed on R. stricta exposed to severe salt stress (500 mM NaCl across four time intervals (0, 2, 12 and 24 h to examine mechanisms of salt tolerance. A large number of transcripts including genes encoding tetrapyrroles and pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins were regulated only after 12 h of stress of seedlings grown in controlled greenhouse conditions. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in R. stricta may involve the upregulation of genes encoding chaperone protein Dnaj6, UDP-glucosyl transferase 85a2, protein transparent testa 12 and respiratory burst oxidase homolog protein b. Many of the highly-expressed genes act on protecting protein folding during salt stress and the production of flavonoids, key secondary metabolites in stress tolerance. Other regulated genes encode enzymes in the porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolic pathway with important roles during plant growth, photosynthesis, hormone signaling and abiotic responses. Heme biosynthesis in R. stricta leaves might add to the level of salt stress tolerance by maintaining appropriate levels of photosynthesis and normal plant growth as well as by the participation in reactive oxygen species (ROS production under stress. We speculate that the high expression levels of PPR genes may be dependent on expression levels of their targeted editing genes. Although the results of PPR gene family indicated regulation of a large number of transcripts under salt stress, PPR actions were independent of the salt stress because their RNA editing patterns were unchanged.

  5. Gene Expression Dynamics Accompanying the Sponge Thermal Stress Response

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    Guzman, Christine; Conaco, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponges are important members of coral reef ecosystems. Thus, their responses to changes in ocean chemistry and environmental conditions, particularly to higher seawater temperatures, will have potential impacts on the future of these reefs. To better understand the sponge thermal stress response, we investigated gene expression dynamics in the shallow water sponge, Haliclona tubifera (order Haplosclerida, class Demospongiae), subjected to elevated temperature. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we show that these conditions result in the activation of various processes that interact to maintain cellular homeostasis. Short-term thermal stress resulted in the induction of heat shock proteins, antioxidants, and genes involved in signal transduction and innate immunity pathways. Prolonged exposure to thermal stress affected the expression of genes involved in cellular damage repair, apoptosis, signaling and transcription. Interestingly, exposure to sublethal temperatures may improve the ability of the sponge to mitigate cellular damage under more extreme stress conditions. These insights into the potential mechanisms of adaptation and resilience of sponges contribute to a better understanding of sponge conservation status and the prediction of ecosystem trajectories under future climate conditions. PMID:27788197

  6. Gene Expression Dynamics Accompanying the Sponge Thermal Stress Response.

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    Christine Guzman

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are important members of coral reef ecosystems. Thus, their responses to changes in ocean chemistry and environmental conditions, particularly to higher seawater temperatures, will have potential impacts on the future of these reefs. To better understand the sponge thermal stress response, we investigated gene expression dynamics in the shallow water sponge, Haliclona tubifera (order Haplosclerida, class Demospongiae, subjected to elevated temperature. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we show that these conditions result in the activation of various processes that interact to maintain cellular homeostasis. Short-term thermal stress resulted in the induction of heat shock proteins, antioxidants, and genes involved in signal transduction and innate immunity pathways. Prolonged exposure to thermal stress affected the expression of genes involved in cellular damage repair, apoptosis, signaling and transcription. Interestingly, exposure to sublethal temperatures may improve the ability of the sponge to mitigate cellular damage under more extreme stress conditions. These insights into the potential mechanisms of adaptation and resilience of sponges contribute to a better understanding of sponge conservation status and the prediction of ecosystem trajectories under future climate conditions.

  7. Stress, and pathogen response gene expression in modeled microgravity

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    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Pellis, Neal R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Immune suppression in microgravity has been well documented. With the advent of human exploration and long-term space travel, the immune system of the astronaut must be optimally maintained. It is important to investigate the expression patterns of cytokine genes, because they are directly related to immune response. Heat shock proteins (HSPs), also called stress proteins, are a group of proteins that are present in the cells of every life form. These proteins are induced when a cell responds to stressors such as heat, cold and oxygen deprivation. Microgravity is another stressor that may regulate HSPs. Heat shock proteins trigger immune response through activities that occur both inside the cell (intracellular) and outside the cell (extracellular). Knowledge about these two gene groups could lead to establishment of a blueprint of the immune response and adaptation-related genes in the microgravity environment. Methods: Human peripheral blood cells were cultured in 1g (T flask) and modeled microgravity (MMG, rotating-wall vessel) for 24 and 72 hours. Cell samples were collected and subjected to gene array analysis using the Affymetrix HG_U95 array. Data was collected and subjected to a two-way analysis of variance. The genes related to immune and stress responses were analyzed. Results and Conclusions: HSP70 was up-regulated by more than two fold in microgravity culture, while HSP90 was significantly down-regulated. HSP70 is not typically expressed in all kinds of cells, but it is expressed at high levels in stress conditions. HSP70 participates in translation, protein translocation, proteolysis and protein folding, suppressing aggregation and reactivating denatured proteins. Increased serum HSP70 levels correlate with a better outcome for heat-stroke or severe trauma patients. At the same time, elevated serum levels of HSP70 have been detected in patients with peripheral or renal vascular disease. HSP90 has been identified in the cytosol, nucleus and

  8. Plant responses to environmental stresses-from gene to biotechnology.

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    Ahanger, Mohammad Abass; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Ashraf, Muhammad; Alyemeni, Mohammed Nasser; Wijaya, Leonard; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2017-07-01

    Increasing global population, urbanization and industrialization are increasing the rate of conversion of arable land into wasteland. Supplying food to an ever-increasing population is one of the biggest challenges that agriculturalists and plant scientists are currently confronting. Environmental stresses make this situation even graver. Despite the induction of several tolerance mechanisms, sensitive plants often fail to survive under environmental extremes. New technological approaches are imperative. Conventional breeding methods have a limited potential to improve plant genomes against environmental stress. Recently, genetic engineering has contributed enormously to the development of genetically modified varieties of different crops such as cotton, maize, rice, canola and soybean. The identification of stress-responsive genes and their subsequent introgression or overexpression within sensitive crop species are now being widely carried out by plant scientists. Engineering of important tolerance pathways, like antioxidant enzymes, osmolyte accumulation, membrane-localized transporters for efficient compartmentation of deleterious ions and accumulation of essential elements and resistance against pests or pathogens is also an area that has been intensively researched. In this review, the role of biotechnology and its successes, prospects and challenges in developing stress-tolerant crop cultivars are discussed.

  9. Gene expression changes in response to aging compared to heat stress, oxidative stress and ionizing radiation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Gary; Shen, Jie; Tower, John

    2012-11-01

    Gene expression changes in response to aging, heat stress, hyperoxia, hydrogen peroxide, and ionizing radiation were compared using microarrays. A set of 18 genes were up-regulated across all conditions, indicating a general stress response shared with aging, including the heat shock protein (Hsp) genes Hsp70, Hsp83 and l(2)efl, the glutathione-S-transferase gene GstD2, and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mUPR) gene ref(2)P. Selected gene expression changes were confirmed using quantitative PCR, Northern analysis and GstD-GFP reporter constructs. Certain genes were altered in only a subset of the conditions, for example, up-regulation of numerous developmental pathway and signaling genes in response to hydrogen peroxide. While aging shared features with each stress, aging was more similar to the stresses most associated with oxidative stress (hyperoxia, hydrogen peroxide, ionizing radiation) than to heat stress. Aging is associated with down-regulation of numerous mitochondrial genes, including electron-transport-chain (ETC) genes and mitochondrial metabolism genes, and a sub-set of these changes was also observed upon hydrogen peroxide stress and ionizing radiation stress. Aging shared the largest number of gene expression changes with hyperoxia. The extensive down-regulation of mitochondrial and ETC genes during aging is consistent with an aging-associated failure in mitochondrial maintenance, which may underlie the oxidative stress-like and proteotoxic stress-like responses observed during aging.

  10. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Candidate Genes for Drought Stress Response in Abies alba (Pinaceae.

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    David Behringer

    Full Text Available Increasing drought periods as a result of global climate change pose a threat to many tree species by possibly outpacing their adaptive capabilities. Revealing the genetic basis of drought stress response is therefore implemental for future conservation strategies and risk assessment. Access to informative genomic regions is however challenging, especially for conifers, partially due to their large genomes, which puts constraints on the feasibility of whole genome scans. Candidate genes offer a valuable tool to reduce the complexity of the analysis and the amount of sequencing work and costs. For this study we combined an improved drought stress phenotyping of needles via a novel terahertz water monitoring technique with Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends to identify candidate genes for drought stress response in European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.. A pooled cDNA library was constructed from the cotyledons of six drought stressed and six well-watered silver fir seedlings, respectively. Differential expression analyses of these libraries revealed 296 candidate genes for drought stress response in silver fir (247 up- and 49 down-regulated of which a subset was validated by RT-qPCR of the twelve individual cotyledons. A majority of these genes code for currently uncharacterized proteins and hint on new genomic resources to be explored in conifers. Furthermore, we could show that some traditional reference genes from model plant species (GAPDH and eIF4A2 are not suitable for differential analysis and we propose a new reference gene, TPC1, for drought stress expression profiling in needles of conifer seedlings.

  11. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Candidate Genes for Drought Stress Response in Abies alba (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, David; Zimmermann, Heike; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Increasing drought periods as a result of global climate change pose a threat to many tree species by possibly outpacing their adaptive capabilities. Revealing the genetic basis of drought stress response is therefore implemental for future conservation strategies and risk assessment. Access to informative genomic regions is however challenging, especially for conifers, partially due to their large genomes, which puts constraints on the feasibility of whole genome scans. Candidate genes offer a valuable tool to reduce the complexity of the analysis and the amount of sequencing work and costs. For this study we combined an improved drought stress phenotyping of needles via a novel terahertz water monitoring technique with Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends to identify candidate genes for drought stress response in European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). A pooled cDNA library was constructed from the cotyledons of six drought stressed and six well-watered silver fir seedlings, respectively. Differential expression analyses of these libraries revealed 296 candidate genes for drought stress response in silver fir (247 up- and 49 down-regulated) of which a subset was validated by RT-qPCR of the twelve individual cotyledons. A majority of these genes code for currently uncharacterized proteins and hint on new genomic resources to be explored in conifers. Furthermore, we could show that some traditional reference genes from model plant species (GAPDH and eIF4A2) are not suitable for differential analysis and we propose a new reference gene, TPC1, for drought stress expression profiling in needles of conifer seedlings.

  12. Reference genes selection and normalization of oxidative stress responsive genes upon different temperature stress conditions in Hypericum perforatum L.

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    Isabel Velada

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR is a widely used technique for gene expression analysis. The reliability of this method depends largely on the suitable selection of stable reference genes for accurate data normalization. Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort is a field growing plant that is frequently exposed to a variety of adverse environmental stresses that can negatively affect its productivity. This widely known medicinal plant with broad pharmacological properties (anti-depressant, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and antibacterial has been overlooked with respect to the identification of reference genes suitable for RT-qPCR data normalization. In this study, 11 candidate reference genes were analyzed in H. perforatum plants subjected to cold and heat stresses. The expression stability of these genes was assessed using GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The results revealed that the ranking of stability among the three algorithms showed only minor differences within each treatment. The best-ranked reference genes differed between cold- and heat-treated samples; nevertheless, TUB was the most stable gene in both experimental conditions. GSA and GAPDH were found to be reliable reference genes in cold-treated samples, while GAPDH showed low expression stability in heat-treated samples. 26SrRNA and H2A had the highest stabilities in the heat assay, whereas H2A was less stable in the cold assay. Finally, AOX1, AOX2, CAT1 and CHS genes, associated with plant stress responses and oxidative stress, were used as target genes to validate the reliability of identified reference genes. These target genes showed differential expression profiles over time in treated samples. This study not only is the first systematic analysis for the selection of suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in H. perforatum subjected to temperature stress conditions, but may also provide

  13. Gene expression in the brain and kidney of rainbow trout in response to handling stress

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    Afanasyev Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technologies are rapidly becoming available for new species including teleost fishes. We constructed a rainbow trout cDNA microarray targeted at the identification of genes which are differentially expressed in response to environmental stressors. This platform included clones from normalized and subtracted libraries and genes selected through functional annotation. Present study focused on time-course comparisons of stress responses in the brain and kidney and the identification of a set of genes which are diagnostic for stress response. Results Fish were stressed with handling and samples were collected 1, 3 and 5 days after the first exposure. Gene expression profiles were analysed in terms of Gene Ontology categories. Stress affected different functional groups of genes in the tissues studied. Mitochondria, extracellular matrix and endopeptidases (especially collagenases were the major targets in kidney. Stress response in brain was characterized with dramatic temporal alterations. Metal ion binding proteins, glycolytic enzymes and motor proteins were induced transiently, whereas expression of genes involved in stress and immune response, cell proliferation and growth, signal transduction and apoptosis, protein biosynthesis and folding changed in a reciprocal fashion. Despite dramatic difference between tissues and time-points, we were able to identify a group of 48 genes that showed strong correlation of expression profiles (Pearson r > |0.65| in 35 microarray experiments being regulated by stress. We evaluated performance of the clone sets used for preparation of microarray. Overall, the number of differentially expressed genes was markedly higher in EST than in genes selected through Gene Ontology annotations, however 63% of stress-responsive genes were from this group. Conclusions 1. Stress responses in fish brain and kidney are different in function and time-course. 2. Identification of stress

  14. Characterizing gene responses to drought stress in fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh.) Nutt.)

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    Linda S. Adair; David L. Andrews; John Cairney; Edward A. Funkhouser; Ronald J. Newton; Earl F. Aldon

    1992-01-01

    New techniques in molecular biology can be used to characterize genes whose expression is induced by drought stress. These techniques can be used to understand responses of range plants to environmental stresses at the biochemical and molecular level. For example, they can be used to characterize genes that respond to drought stress conditions in the native shrub

  15. ABI3 mediates dehydration stress recovery response in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating expression of downstream genes.

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    Bedi, Sonia; Sengupta, Sourabh; Ray, Anagh; Nag Chaudhuri, Ronita

    2016-09-01

    ABI3, originally discovered as a seed-specific transcription factor is now implicated to act beyond seed physiology, especially during abiotic stress. In non-seed plants, ABI3 is known to act in desiccation stress signaling. Here we show that ABI3 plays a role in dehydration stress response in Arabidopsis. ABI3 gene was upregulated during dehydration stress and its expression was maintained during subsequent stress recovery phases. Comparative gene expression studies in response to dehydration stress and stress recovery were done with genes which had potential ABI3 binding sites in their upstream regulatory regions. Such studies showed that several genes including known seed-specific factors like CRUCIFERIN1, CRUCIFERIN3 and LEA-group of genes like LEA76, LEA6, DEHYDRIN LEA and LEA-LIKE got upregulated in an ABI3-dependent manner, especially during the stress recovery phase. ABI3 got recruited to regions upstream to the transcription start site of these genes during dehydration stress response through direct or indirect DNA binding. Interestingly, ABI3 also binds to its own promoter region during such stress signaling. Nucleosomes covering potential ABI3 binding sites in the upstream sequences of the above-mentioned genes alter positions, and show increased H3 K9 acetylation during stress-induced transcription. ABI3 thus mediates dehydration stress signaling in Arabidopsis through regulation of a group of genes that play a role primarily during stress recovery phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. BAP1 inhibits the ER stress gene regulatory network and modulates metabolic stress response.

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    Dai, Fangyan; Lee, Hyemin; Zhang, Yilei; Zhuang, Li; Yao, Hui; Xi, Yuanxin; Xiao, Zhen-Dong; You, M James; Li, Wei; Su, Xiaoping; Gan, Boyi

    2017-03-21

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is classically linked to metabolic homeostasis via the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR), which is instructed by multiple transcriptional regulatory cascades. BRCA1 associated protein 1 (BAP1) is a tumor suppressor with de-ubiquitinating enzyme activity and has been implicated in chromatin regulation of gene expression. Here we show that BAP1 inhibits cell death induced by unresolved metabolic stress. This prosurvival role of BAP1 depends on its de-ubiquitinating activity and correlates with its ability to dampen the metabolic stress-induced UPR transcriptional network. BAP1 inhibits glucose deprivation-induced reactive oxygen species and ATP depletion, two cellular events contributing to the ER stress-induced cell death. In line with this, Bap1 KO mice are more sensitive to tunicamycin-induced renal damage. Mechanically, we show that BAP1 represses metabolic stress-induced UPR and cell death through activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and reveal that BAP1 binds to ATF3 and CHOP promoters and inhibits their transcription. Taken together, our results establish a previously unappreciated role of BAP1 in modulating the cellular adaptability to metabolic stress and uncover a pivotal function of BAP1 in the regulation of the ER stress gene-regulatory network. Our study may also provide new conceptual framework for further understanding BAP1 function in cancer.

  17. Natural variation in abiotic stress responsive gene expression and local adaptation to climate in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Lasky, Jesse R; Des Marais, David L; Lowry, David B; Povolotskaya, Inna; McKay, John K; Richards, James H; Keitt, Timothy H; Juenger, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    Gene expression varies widely in natural populations, yet the proximate and ultimate causes of this variation are poorly known. Understanding how variation in gene expression affects abiotic stress tolerance, fitness, and adaptation is central to the field of evolutionary genetics. We tested the hypothesis that genes with natural genetic variation in their expression responses to abiotic stress are likely to be involved in local adaptation to climate in Arabidopsis thaliana. Specifically, we compared genes with consistent expression responses to environmental stress (expression stress responsive, "eSR") to genes with genetically variable responses to abiotic stress (expression genotype-by-environment interaction, "eGEI"). We found that on average genes that exhibited eGEI in response to drought or cold had greater polymorphism in promoter regions and stronger associations with climate than those of eSR genes or genomic controls. We also found that transcription factor binding sites known to respond to environmental stressors, especially abscisic acid responsive elements, showed significantly higher polymorphism in drought eGEI genes in comparison to eSR genes. By contrast, eSR genes tended to exhibit relatively greater pairwise haplotype sharing, lower promoter diversity, and fewer nonsynonymous polymorphisms, suggesting purifying selection or selective sweeps. Our results indicate that cis-regulatory evolution and genetic variation in stress responsive gene expression may be important mechanisms of local adaptation to climatic selective gradients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Memory responses of jasmonic acid-associated Arabidopsis genes to a repeated dehydration stress.

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    Liu, Ning; Staswick, Paul E; Avramova, Zoya

    2016-11-01

    Dehydration stress activates numerous genes co-regulated by diverse signaling pathways. Upon repeated exposures, however, a subset of these genes does not respond maintaining instead transcription at their initial pre-stressed levels ('revised-response' genes). Most of these genes are involved in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis, JA-signaling and JA-mediated stress responses. How these JA-associated genes are regulated to provide different responses to similar dehydration stresses is an enigma. Here, we investigate molecular mechanisms that contribute to this transcriptional behavior. The memory-mechanism is stress-specific: one exposure to dehydration stress or to abscisic acid (ABA) is required to prevent transcription in the second. Both ABA-mediated and JA-mediated pathways are critical for the activation of these genes, but the two signaling pathways interact differently during a single or multiple encounters with dehydration stress. Synthesis of JA during the first (S1) but not the second dehydration stress (S2) accounts for the altered transcriptional responses. We propose a model for these memory responses, wherein lack of MYC2 and of JA synthesis in S2 is responsible for the lack of expression of downstream genes. The similar length of the memory displayed by different memory-type genes suggests biological relevance for transcriptional memory as a gene-regulating mechanism during recurring bouts of drought. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Plant reference genes for development and stress response studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joyous T Joseph

    2018-02-09

    Feb 9, 2018 ... expression analysis in berry and related tissues derived from. RNA-Seq data, BMC Genomics 14 878. Goyal E, Amit SK, Singh RS, Mahato AK and Chand S 2016. Transcriptome profiling of the salt- stress response in Triticum aestivum cv. Kharchia Local. Sci. Rep. 13 27752. Guénin S, Mauriat M, Pelloux J, ...

  20. Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Candidate Genes Potentially Involved in Al Stress Response in Alfalfa

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wenxian; Xiong, Conghui; Yan, Longfeng; Zhang, Zhengshe; Ma, Lichao; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Yajie; Liu, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Alfalfa is the most extensively cultivated forage legume, yet most alfalfa cultivars are not aluminum tolerant, and the molecular mechanisms underlying alfalfa responses to Al stress are largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to understand how alfalfa responds to Al stress by identifying and analyzing Al-stress-responsive genes in alfalfa roots at the whole-genome scale. The transcriptome changes in alfalfa roots under Al stress for 4, 8, or 24 h were analyzed using Illumina high-throughput...

  1. New Genes Involved in Mild Stress Response Identified by Transposon Mutagenesis in Lactobacillus paracasei

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    Aurore Palud

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are associated with various plant, animal, and human niches and are also present in many fermented foods and beverages. Thus, they are subjected to several stress conditions and have developed advanced response mechanisms to resist, adapt, and grow. This work aimed to identify the genes involved in some stress adaptation mechanisms in LAB. For this purpose, global reverse genetics was applied by screening a library of 1287 Lactobacillus paracasei transposon mutants for mild monofactorial stresses. This library was submitted independently to heat (52°C, 30 min, ethanol (170 g.L−1, 30 min, salt (NaCl 0.8 M, 24 h, acid (pH 4.5, 24 h, and oxidative (2 mM H2O2, 24 h perturbations which trigger mild monofactorial stresses compatible with bacterial adaptation. Stress sensitivity of mutants was determined either by evaluating viability using propidium iodide (PI staining, or by following growth inhibition through turbidity measurement. The screening for heat and ethanol stresses lead respectively to the identification of 63 and 27 genes/putative promoters whose disruption lead to an increased sensitivity. Among them, 14 genes or putative promoters were common for both stresses. For salt, acid and oxidative stresses, respectively 8, 6, and 9 genes or putative promoters were identified as essential for adaptation to these unfavorable conditions, with only three genes common to at least two stresses. Then, RT-qPCR was performed on selected stress response genes identified by mutant screenings in order to evaluate if their expression was modified in response to stresses in the parental strain. Eleven genes (membrane, transposase, chaperone, nucleotide and carbohydrate metabolism, and hypothetical protein genes were upregulated during stress adaptation for at least two stresses. Seven genes, encoding membrane functions, were upregulated in response to a specific stress and thus could represent potential transcriptomic biomarkers

  2. Identification of Arabidopsis candidate genes in response to biotic and abiotic stresses using comparative microarrays.

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    Arjun Sham

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved with intricate mechanisms to cope with multiple environmental stresses. To adapt with biotic and abiotic stresses, plant responses involve changes at the cellular and molecular levels. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of combinations of different environmental stresses on the transcriptome level of Arabidopsis genome using public microarray databases. We investigated the role of cyclopentenones in mediating plant responses to environmental stress through TGA (TGACG motif-binding factor transcription factor, independently from jasmonic acid. Candidate genes were identified by comparing plants inoculated with Botrytis cinerea or treated with heat, salt or osmotic stress with non-inoculated or non-treated tissues. About 2.5% heat-, 19% salinity- and 41% osmotic stress-induced genes were commonly upregulated by B. cinerea-treatment; and 7.6%, 19% and 48% of genes were commonly downregulated by B. cinerea-treatment, respectively. Our results indicate that plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses are mediated by several common regulatory genes. Comparisons between transcriptome data from Arabidopsis stressed-plants support our hypothesis that some molecular and biological processes involved in biotic and abiotic stress response are conserved. Thirteen of the common regulated genes to abiotic and biotic stresses were studied in detail to determine their role in plant resistance to B. cinerea. Moreover, a T-DNA insertion mutant of the Responsive to Dehydration gene (rd20, encoding for a member of the caleosin (lipid surface protein family, showed an enhanced sensitivity to B. cinerea infection and drought. Overall, the overlapping of plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, coupled with the sensitivity of the rd20 mutant, may provide new interesting programs for increased plant resistance to multiple environmental stresses, and ultimately increases its chances to survive. Future research

  3. Identification of Arabidopsis candidate genes in response to biotic and abiotic stresses using comparative microarrays.

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    Sham, Arjun; Moustafa, Khaled; Al-Ameri, Salma; Al-Azzawi, Ahmed; Iratni, Rabah; AbuQamar, Synan

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved with intricate mechanisms to cope with multiple environmental stresses. To adapt with biotic and abiotic stresses, plant responses involve changes at the cellular and molecular levels. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of combinations of different environmental stresses on the transcriptome level of Arabidopsis genome using public microarray databases. We investigated the role of cyclopentenones in mediating plant responses to environmental stress through TGA (TGACG motif-binding factor) transcription factor, independently from jasmonic acid. Candidate genes were identified by comparing plants inoculated with Botrytis cinerea or treated with heat, salt or osmotic stress with non-inoculated or non-treated tissues. About 2.5% heat-, 19% salinity- and 41% osmotic stress-induced genes were commonly upregulated by B. cinerea-treatment; and 7.6%, 19% and 48% of genes were commonly downregulated by B. cinerea-treatment, respectively. Our results indicate that plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses are mediated by several common regulatory genes. Comparisons between transcriptome data from Arabidopsis stressed-plants support our hypothesis that some molecular and biological processes involved in biotic and abiotic stress response are conserved. Thirteen of the common regulated genes to abiotic and biotic stresses were studied in detail to determine their role in plant resistance to B. cinerea. Moreover, a T-DNA insertion mutant of the Responsive to Dehydration gene (rd20), encoding for a member of the caleosin (lipid surface protein) family, showed an enhanced sensitivity to B. cinerea infection and drought. Overall, the overlapping of plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, coupled with the sensitivity of the rd20 mutant, may provide new interesting programs for increased plant resistance to multiple environmental stresses, and ultimately increases its chances to survive. Future research directions towards a

  4. Plant reference genes for development and stress response studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joyous T Joseph

    2018-02-09

    Feb 9, 2018 ... and hormone treatment. Stable. Tian et al. 2015. Drought stress, salt stress, cold and heat treatment. Unstable. Drought stress, salt stress, cold, heat and hormone treatment. Dehydration stress. Biotic stress. Unstable. VATP16, 60S RPL18,. UQCC, 18S rRNA,. UBE2,39S RP. (XM_002285709.1). Leaves.

  5. Expression analysis of MYC genes from Tamarix hispida in response to different abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yucheng; Liu, Guifeng

    2012-01-01

    The MYC genes are a group of transcription factors containing both bHLH and ZIP motifs that play important roles in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes. In the present study, to investigate the roles of MYC genes under NaCl, osmotic and ABA stress conditions, nine MYC genes were cloned from Tamarix hispida. Real-time reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR showed that all nine MYC genes were expressed in root, stem and leaf tissues, but that the levels of the transcripts of these genes in the various tissues differed notably. The MYC genes were highly induced in the roots in response to ABA, NaCl and osmotic stresses after 3 h; however, in the stem and leaf tissues, MYC genes were highly induced only when exposed to these stresses for 6 h. In addition, most of these MYC genes were highly expressed in roots in comparison with stems and leaves. Furthermore, the MYC genes were more highly induced in roots than in stem and leaf tissues, indicating that these genes may play roles in stress responses mainly in the roots rather than the stems and leaves. The results of this present study suggest that MYCs are involved in salt and osmotic stress tolerances and are controlled by the ABA signal transduction pathway.

  6. Expression Analysis of MYC Genes from Tamarix hispida in Response to Different Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifeng Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The MYC genes are a group of transcription factors containing both bHLH and ZIP motifs that play important roles in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA-responsive genes. In the present study, to investigate the roles of MYC genes under NaCl, osmotic and ABA stress conditions, nine MYC genes were cloned from Tamarix hispida. Real-time reverse-transcriptase (RT-PCR showed that all nine MYC genes were expressed in root, stem and leaf tissues, but that the levels of the transcripts of these genes in the various tissues differed notably. The MYC genes were highly induced in the roots in response to ABA, NaCl and osmotic stresses after 3 h; however, in the stem and leaf tissues, MYC genes were highly induced only when exposed to these stresses for 6 h. In addition, most of these MYC genes were highly expressed in roots in comparison with stems and leaves. Furthermore, the MYC genes were more highly induced in roots than in stem and leaf tissues, indicating that these genes may play roles in stress responses mainly in the roots rather than the stems and leaves. The results of this present study suggest that MYCs are involved in salt and osmotic stress tolerances and are controlled by the ABA signal transduction pathway.

  7. A WRKY gene from Tamarix hispida, ThWRKY4, mediates abiotic stress responses by modulating reactive oxygen species and expression of stress-responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Liu, Guifeng; Meng, Xiangnan; Liu, Yujia; Ji, Xiaoyu; Li, Yanbang; Nie, Xianguang; Wang, Yucheng

    2013-07-01

    WRKY transcription factors are involved in various biological processes, such as development, metabolism and responses to stress. However, their exact roles in abiotic stress tolerance are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated a working model for the function of a WRKY gene (ThWRKY4) from Tamarix hispida in the stress response. ThWRKY4 is highly induced by abscisic acid (ABA), salt and drought in the early period of stress (stress for 3, 6, or 9 h), which can be regulated by ABF (ABRE binding factors) and Dof (DNA binding with one finger), and also can be crossregulated by other WRKYs and autoregulated as well. Overexpression of ThWRKY4 conferred tolerance to salt, oxidative and ABA treatment in transgenic plants. ThWRKY4 can improve the tolerance to salt and ABA treatment by improving activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, decreasing levels of O2 (-) and H2O2, reducing electrolyte leakage, keeping the loss of chlorophyll, and protecting cells from death. Microarray analyses showed that overexpression of ThWRKY4 in Arabidopsis leads to 165 and 100 genes significantly up- and downregulated, respectively. Promoter scanning analysis revealed that ThWRKY4 regulates the gene expression via binding to W-box motifs present in their promoter regions. This study shows that ThWRKY4 functions as a transcription factor to positively modulate abiotic stress tolerances, and is involved in modulating reactive oxygen species.

  8. DNA demethylases target promoter transposable elements to positively regulate stress responsive genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuan-Ngoc; Schumann, Ulrike; Smith, Neil A; Tiwari, Sameer; Au, Phil Chi Khang; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Taylor, Jennifer M; Kazan, Kemal; Llewellyn, Danny J; Zhang, Ren; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Wang, Ming-Bo

    2014-09-17

    DNA demethylases regulate DNA methylation levels in eukaryotes. Arabidopsis encodes four DNA demethylases, DEMETER (DME), REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1), DEMETER-LIKE 2 (DML2), and DML3. While DME is involved in maternal specific gene expression during seed development, the biological function of the remaining DNA demethylases remains unclear. We show that ROS1, DML2, and DML3 play a role in fungal disease resistance in Arabidopsis. A triple DNA demethylase mutant, rdd (ros1 dml2 dml3), shows increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. We identify 348 genes differentially expressed in rdd relative to wild type, and a significant proportion of these genes are downregulated in rdd and have functions in stress response, suggesting that DNA demethylases maintain or positively regulate the expression of stress response genes required for F. oxysporum resistance. The rdd-downregulated stress response genes are enriched for short transposable element sequences in their promoters. Many of these transposable elements and their surrounding sequences show localized DNA methylation changes in rdd, and a general reduction in CHH methylation, suggesting that RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM), responsible for CHH methylation, may participate in DNA demethylase-mediated regulation of stress response genes. Many of the rdd-downregulated stress response genes are downregulated in the RdDM mutants nrpd1 and nrpe1, and the RdDM mutants nrpe1 and ago4 show enhanced susceptibility to F. oxysporum infection. Our results suggest that a primary function of DNA demethylases in plants is to regulate the expression of stress response genes by targeting promoter transposable element sequences.

  9. Plant reference genes for development and stress response studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many reference genes are used by different laboratories for gene expression analyses to indicate the relative amount of inputRNA/DNA in the experiment. These reference genes are supposed to show least variation among the treatments and withthe control sets in a given experiment. However, expression of reference ...

  10. Differential expression of genes regulated in response to drought stress in diploid cotton (Gossypium arboreum) (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Majeed, A.; Maqbool, A.; Hussain, S.S.; Ali, T.; Riazuddin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Negative effects on the Water status of plants is one of the most common and deleterious stresses experienced by wild and cultivated plants throughout the World. Our project is designed to identify, clone and characterize gene sequences regulated in response to Water stress (e.g., drought). We used the differential-display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (DD-RT- PCA) methodology to accomplish our Objectives. Structural and functional characterization of environmental stress-induced genes has contributed to a better understanding of how plants respond and adapt to different abiotic stresses. Differential display was used to compare overall difference in gene expression between draught stressed and unstressed (control) plants of diploid Cotton (Gossypium arboreum). DDRT-PCR product from stressed and unstressed samples resolved side by side on 6% PAGE to compare qualitative and quantitative difference in mRNA expression. A total of 81 primer combinations were tested. DDRT -PCR enabled us to identify differentially expressed transcripts between water stressed and non-stressed cotton seedlings. PAGE revealed a total of 347 DNA transcripts in stressed samples (New Transcripts) while 110 down regulated and 209 up regulated DNA transcripts were also recorded. Similarly. 22 DNA transcripts were identified based on the comparative study of PAGE and Agarose gel electrophoresis. These sequences showed various degree homology With draught tolerant genes in the gene bank. (author)

  11. Evidence for adaptive evolution of low-temperature stress response genes in a Pooideae grass ancestor

    OpenAIRE

    Vigeland, Magnus Dehli; Spannagl, Manuel; Asp, Torben; Paina, Cristiana; Rudi, Heidi; Rognli, Odd Arne; Fjellheim, Siri; Sandve, Simen Rød

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to temperate environments is common in the grass subfamily Pooideae, suggesting an ancestral origin of cold climate adaptation. Here, we investigated substitution rates of genes involved in low-temperature-induced (LTI) stress responses to test the hypothesis that adaptive molecular evolution of LTI pathway genes was important for Pooideae evolution. Substitution rates and signatures of positive selection were analyzed using 4330 gene trees including three warm climate-adapted spec...

  12. Identification and expression analysis of cold and freezing stress responsive genes of Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Cho, Yong-Gu; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-01-10

    Cold and freezing stress is a major environmental constraint to the production of Brassica crops. Enhancement of tolerance by exploiting cold and freezing tolerance related genes offers the most efficient approach to address this problem. Cold-induced transcriptional profiling is a promising approach to the identification of potential genes related to cold and freezing stress tolerance. In this study, 99 highly expressed genes were identified from a whole genome microarray dataset of Brassica rapa. Blast search analysis of the Brassica oleracea database revealed the corresponding homologous genes. To validate their expression, pre-selected cold tolerant and susceptible cabbage lines were analyzed. Out of 99 BoCRGs, 43 were differentially expressed in response to varying degrees of cold and freezing stress in the contrasting cabbage lines. Among the differentially expressed genes, 18 were highly up-regulated in the tolerant lines, which is consistent with their microarray expression. Additionally, 12 BoCRGs were expressed differentially after cold stress treatment in two contrasting cabbage lines, and BoCRG54, 56, 59, 62, 70, 72 and 99 were predicted to be involved in cold regulatory pathways. Taken together, the cold-responsive genes identified in this study provide additional direction for elucidating the regulatory network of low temperature stress tolerance and developing cold and freezing stress resistant Brassica crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. MicroRNA-target gene responses to lead-induced stress in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiuling; Zhu, Shuijin; Zhang, Baohong

    2014-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in plant responses to various metal stresses. To investigate the miRNA-mediated plant response to heavy metals, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), the most important fiber crop in the world, was exposed to different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 µM) of lead (Pb) and then the toxicological effects were investigated. The expression patterns of 16 stress-responsive miRNAs and 10 target genes were monitored in cotton leaves and roots by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR); of these selected genes, several miRNAs and their target genes are involved in root development. The results show a reciprocal regulation of cotton response to lead stress by miRNAs. The characterization of the miRNAs and the associated target genes in response to lead exposure would help in defining the potential roles of miRNAs in plant adaptation to heavy metal stress and further understanding miRNA regulation in response to abiotic stress.

  14. The gene expression response of the catadromous perciform barramundi Lates calcarifer to an acute heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, J R; De Santis, C; Jerry, D R

    2012-07-01

    The acute heat-shock response of the tropical estuarine fish species barramundi Lates calcarifer as indicated by the expression of genes within stress (hsp 90AA, hsp 90AB, hsp 70 and hsc 70), metabolic (cisy, cco II and ldh) and growth (igf1 and mstn 1) related pathways was examined following an increase in water temperature from 28 to 36° C over 30 min. Lates calcarifer were maintained at the acute stress temperature of 36° C for 1 h before being returned to 28° C and allowed to recover at this temperature for a further 2 weeks. Muscle tissue sampling over the experimental period allowed for the expression quantification of stress, metabolic and growth-related genes via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qrt-PCR) where a robust and reliable normalization approach identified both α-tub and Rpl8 as appropriate genes for the analysis of gene expression in response to an acute heat stress. hsp90AA and hsp70 of the inducible heat-shock response pathway showed a massive up-regulation of gene expression in response to heat stress, whilst the constitutive heat-shock genes hsp90AB and hsp70 showed no change over the course of the experiment and a small increase after 2 weeks of recovery, respectively. Of the three genes representing the metabolic pathway (cisy, cco II and ldh) only cco II changed significantly showing a decrease in gene expression, which may suggest a small suppression of aerobic metabolism. igf1 of the growth pathway showed no significant differences in response to an acute heat stress, whilst mstn1 increased at the beginning of the heat stress but returned to basal levels soon after. Overall, the results demonstrate that an acute heat stress in L. calcarifer caused a significant increase in the expression of genes from the stress response pathway and a possible decrease in aerobic metabolism with only relatively minor changes to the growth pathway highlighting the hardy nature of L. calcarifer and its resilience in coping with sudden

  15. Analysis of Stress-Responsive Gene Expression in Cultivated and Weedy Rice Differing in Cold Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Caroline Borges; Basu, Supratim; Pereira, Andy; Tseng, Te-Ming; Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma; Burgos, Nilda Roma

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars show impairment of growth in response to environmental stresses such as cold at the early seedling stage. Locally adapted weedy rice is able to survive under adverse environmental conditions, and can emerge in fields from greater soil depth. Cold-tolerant weedy rice can be a good genetic source for developing cold-tolerant, weed-competitive rice cultivars. An in-depth analysis is presented here of diverse indica and japonica rice genotypes, mostly weedy rice, for cold stress response to provide an understanding of different stress adaptive mechanisms towards improvement of the rice crop performance in the field. We have tested a collection of weedy rice genotypes to: 1) classify the subspecies (ssp.) grouping (japonica or indica) of 21 accessions; 2) evaluate their sensitivity to cold stress; and 3) analyze the expression of stress-responsive genes under cold stress and a combination of cold and depth stress. Seeds were germinated at 25°C at 1.5- and 10-cm sowing depth for 10d. Seedlings were then exposed to cold stress at 10°C for 6, 24 and 96h, and the expression of cold-, anoxia-, and submergence-inducible genes was analyzed. Control plants were seeded at 1.5cm depth and kept at 25°C. The analysis revealed that cold stress signaling in indica genotypes is more complex than that of japonica as it operates via both the CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways, implicated through induction of transcription factors including OsNAC2, OsMYB46 and OsF-BOX28. When plants were exposed to cold + sowing depth stress, a complex signaling network was induced that involved cross talk between stresses mediated by CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways to circumvent the detrimental effects of stresses. The experiments revealed the importance of the CBF regulon for tolerance to both stresses in japonica and indica ssp. The mechanisms for cold tolerance differed among weedy indica genotypes and also between weedy indica and cultivated

  16. Analysis of Stress-Responsive Gene Expression in Cultivated and Weedy Rice Differing in Cold Stress Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Borges Bevilacqua

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars show impairment of growth in response to environmental stresses such as cold at the early seedling stage. Locally adapted weedy rice is able to survive under adverse environmental conditions, and can emerge in fields from greater soil depth. Cold-tolerant weedy rice can be a good genetic source for developing cold-tolerant, weed-competitive rice cultivars. An in-depth analysis is presented here of diverse indica and japonica rice genotypes, mostly weedy rice, for cold stress response to provide an understanding of different stress adaptive mechanisms towards improvement of the rice crop performance in the field. We have tested a collection of weedy rice genotypes to: 1 classify the subspecies (ssp. grouping (japonica or indica of 21 accessions; 2 evaluate their sensitivity to cold stress; and 3 analyze the expression of stress-responsive genes under cold stress and a combination of cold and depth stress. Seeds were germinated at 25°C at 1.5- and 10-cm sowing depth for 10d. Seedlings were then exposed to cold stress at 10°C for 6, 24 and 96h, and the expression of cold-, anoxia-, and submergence-inducible genes was analyzed. Control plants were seeded at 1.5cm depth and kept at 25°C. The analysis revealed that cold stress signaling in indica genotypes is more complex than that of japonica as it operates via both the CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways, implicated through induction of transcription factors including OsNAC2, OsMYB46 and OsF-BOX28. When plants were exposed to cold + sowing depth stress, a complex signaling network was induced that involved cross talk between stresses mediated by CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways to circumvent the detrimental effects of stresses. The experiments revealed the importance of the CBF regulon for tolerance to both stresses in japonica and indica ssp. The mechanisms for cold tolerance differed among weedy indica genotypes and also between weedy indica and

  17. Exploring valid internal-control genes in Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiaceae) during stress response conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenlei; Wu, Xiaojie; Wang, Chao; Jia, Zhaojun; He, Linwen; Wei, Yifan; Niu, Jianfeng; Wang, Guangce

    2014-07-01

    To screen the stable expression genes related to the stress (strong light, dehydration and temperature shock) we applied Absolute real-time PCR technology to determine the transcription numbers of the selected test genes in P orphyra yezoensis, which has been regarded as a potential model species responding the stress conditions in the intertidal. Absolute real-time PCR technology was applied to determine the transcription numbers of the selected test genes in P orphyra yezoensis, which has been regarded as a potential model species in stress responding. According to the results of photosynthesis parameters, we observed that Y(II) and F v/ F m were significantly affected when stress was imposed on the thalli of P orphyra yezoensis, but underwent almost completely recovered under normal conditions, which were collected for the following experiments. Then three samples, which were treated with different grade stresses combined with salinity, irradiation and temperature, were collected. The transcription numbers of seven constitutive expression genes in above samples were determined after RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. Finally, a general insight into the selection of internal control genes during stress response was obtained. We found that there were no obvious effects in terms of salinity stress (at salinity 90) on transcription of most genes used in the study. The 18S ribosomal RNA gene had the highest expression level, varying remarkably among different tested groups. RPS8 expression showed a high irregular variance between samples. GAPDH presented comparatively stable expression and could thus be selected as the internal control. EF-1α showed stable expression during the series of multiple-stress tests. Our research provided available references for the selection of internal control genes for transcripts determination of P. yezoensis.

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Proenkephalin Gene Regulation: CREB Interacts with the Proenkephalin Gene in the Mouse Hypothalamus and Is Phosphorylated in Response to Hyperosmolar Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsook, David; Konradi, Christine; Falkowski, Olga; Comb, Michael; Hyman, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    We have established a transgenic model to facilitate the study of stress-induced gene regulation in the hypothalamus. This model, which uses a human proenkephalin-β-galactosidase fusion gene, readily permits anatomic and cellular colocalization of stress-regulated immediate early gene products (e.g. Fos) and other transcription factors [e.g. cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)] with the product of a potential target gene. Moreover, Fos provides a marker of cellular activation that is independent of the transgene. Hypertonic saline stress induced Fos in almost all cells in the PVN that exhibited basal expression of the proenkephalin transgene; however, all cells in which the transgene was activated by stress also expressed Fos. CREB was found in essentially all neurons. Gel shift analysis with and without antisera to Fos and CREB showed that AP-1 binding activity, containing Fos protein, was induced by hyperosmotic stress. However, Fos was not detected binding to the proenkephalin second messenger-inducible enhancer even in hypothalamic cell extracts from stressed animals. In contrast, CREB formed specific complexes with both the proenkephalin enhancer and a cAMP- and calcium-regulated element (CaRE) within the c-fos gene. Moreover, we found that hypertonic saline induced CREB phosphorylation in cells that express the transgene within the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus. These results suggest a model in which proenkephalin gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus is regulated by CREB in response to hypertonic stress. PMID:8170480

  19. Transcriptional response of stress genes to metal exposure in zebra mussel larvae and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Anna; Faria, Melissa; Barata, Carlos; Pina, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Development of stress markers for the invader freshwater zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is of great interest for both conservation and biomonitoring purposes. Gene expression profiles of several putative or already established gene expression stress markers (Metallothionein, Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione S transferase, Glutathione peroxidase, Cytochrome c oxidase, the multixenobiotic resistance P-gp1, and heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90) were analyzed by quantitative Real-Time PCR in adults and pediveliger larvae after exposure to metals (Hg, Cu, Cd). A defined pattern of coordinated responses to metal exposure and, presumably, to oxidative stress was observed in gills and digestive gland from adults. A similar, albeit partial response was observed in larvae, indicating an early development of stress-related gene responses in zebra mussel. The tools developed in this study may be useful both for future control strategies and for the use of zebra mussel as sentinel species in water courses with stable populations. - Coordinated expression of stress genes in zebra mussel.

  20. Transcriptional response of stress genes to metal exposure in zebra mussel larvae and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Anna; Faria, Melissa; Barata, Carlos [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Pina, Benjamin, E-mail: bpcbmc@cid.csic.e [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Development of stress markers for the invader freshwater zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is of great interest for both conservation and biomonitoring purposes. Gene expression profiles of several putative or already established gene expression stress markers (Metallothionein, Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione S transferase, Glutathione peroxidase, Cytochrome c oxidase, the multixenobiotic resistance P-gp1, and heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90) were analyzed by quantitative Real-Time PCR in adults and pediveliger larvae after exposure to metals (Hg, Cu, Cd). A defined pattern of coordinated responses to metal exposure and, presumably, to oxidative stress was observed in gills and digestive gland from adults. A similar, albeit partial response was observed in larvae, indicating an early development of stress-related gene responses in zebra mussel. The tools developed in this study may be useful both for future control strategies and for the use of zebra mussel as sentinel species in water courses with stable populations. - Coordinated expression of stress genes in zebra mussel.

  1. Evidence for adaptive evolution of low-temperature stress response genes in a Pooideae grass ancestor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeland, Magnus D; Spannagl, Manuel; Asp, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to temperate environments is common in the grass subfamily Pooideae, suggesting an ancestral origin of cold climate adaptation. Here, we investigated substitution rates of genes involved in low-temperature-induced (LTI) stress responses to test the hypothesis that adaptive molecular ev...... evidence for a link between adaptation to cold habitats and adaptive evolution of LTI stress responses in early Pooideae evolution and shed light on a poorly understood chapter in the evolutionary history of some of the world's most important temperate crops......Adaptation to temperate environments is common in the grass subfamily Pooideae, suggesting an ancestral origin of cold climate adaptation. Here, we investigated substitution rates of genes involved in low-temperature-induced (LTI) stress responses to test the hypothesis that adaptive molecular...

  2. Recreational music-making modulates the human stress response: a preliminary individualized gene expression strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittman, Barry; Berk, Lee; Shannon, Mark; Sharaf, Muhammad; Westengard, Jim; Guegler, Karl J; Ruff, David W

    2005-02-01

    A central component of the complex human biological stress response is the modulation of the neuro-endocrine-immune system with its intricate feedback loops that support homeostatic regulation. Well-documented marked gene expression variability among human and animal subjects coupled with sample collection timing and delayed effects, as well as a host of molecular detection challenges renders the quest for deciphering the human biological stress response challenging from many perspectives. A novel Recreational Music-Making (RMM) program was used in combination with a new strategy for peripheral blood gene expression analysis to assess individualized genomic stress induction signatures. The expression of 45 immune response-related genes was determined using a multiplex preamplification step prior to conventional quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) mRNA analysis to characterize the multidimensional biological impact of a 2-phase controlled stress induction/amelioration experimental protocol in 32 randomly assigned individuals. In subjects performing the RMM activity following a 1-hour stress induction protocol, 19 out of 45 markers demonstrated reversal with significant (P = 0.05) Pearson correlations in contrast to 6 out of 45 markers in the resting control group and 0 out of 45 in the ongoing stressor group. The resultant amelioration of stress-induced genomic expression supports the underlying premise that RMM warrants additional consideration as a rational choice within our armamentarium of stress reduction strategies. Modulation of individualized genomic stress induction signatures in peripheral blood presents a new opportunity for elucidating the dynamics of the human stress response.

  3. Regulation of bacterial virulence gene expression by cell envelope stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Kim, Josué; Darwin, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial cytoplasm lies within a multilayered envelope that must be protected from internal and external hazards. This protection is provided by cell envelope stress responses (ESRs), which detect threats and reprogram gene expression to ensure survival. Pathogens frequently need these ESRs to survive inside the host, where their envelopes face dangerous environmental changes and attack from antimicrobial molecules. In addition, some virulence genes have become integrated into ESR regulons. This might be because these genes can protect the cell envelope from damage by host molecules, or it might help ESRs to reduce stress by moderating the assembly of virulence factors within the envelope. Alternatively, it could simply be a mechanism to coordinate the induction of virulence gene expression with entry into the host. Here, we briefly describe some of the bacterial ESRs, followed by examples where they control virulence gene expression in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens.

  4. Stress Response in Lactococcus lactis : Cloning, Expression Analysis, and Mutation of the Lactococcal Superoxide Dismutase Gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Jan Willem; Leenhouts, Kees J.; Haandrikman, Alfred J.; Venema, Gerard; Kok, Jan

    In an analysis of the stress response of Lactococcus lactis, three proteins that were induced under low pH culture conditions were detected. One of these was identified as the lactococcal superoxide dismutase (SodA) by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The gene encoding this protein,

  5. Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Candidate Genes Potentially Involved in Al Stress Response in Alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenxian; Xiong, Conghui; Yan, Longfeng; Zhang, Zhengshe; Ma, Lichao; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Yajie; Liu, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Alfalfa is the most extensively cultivated forage legume, yet most alfalfa cultivars are not aluminum tolerant, and the molecular mechanisms underlying alfalfa responses to Al stress are largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to understand how alfalfa responds to Al stress by identifying and analyzing Al-stress-responsive genes in alfalfa roots at the whole-genome scale. The transcriptome changes in alfalfa roots under Al stress for 4, 8, or 24 h were analyzed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing platforms. A total of 2464 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, and most were up-regulated at early (4 h) and/or late (24 h) Al exposure time points rather than at the middle exposure time point (8 h). Metabolic pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that the DEGs involved in ribosome, protein biosynthesis, and process, the citrate cycle, membrane transport, and hormonal regulation were preferentially enriched and regulated. Biosynthesis inhibition and signal transduction downstream of auxin- and ethylene-mediated signals occur during alfalfa responses to root growth inhibition. The internal Al detoxification mechanisms play important roles in alfalfa roots under Al stress. These findings provide valuable information for identifying and characterizing important components in the Al signaling network in alfalfa and enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying alfalfa responses to Al stress.

  6. Global analysis of transcriptome responses and gene expression profiles to cold stress of Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Jatropha curcas L., also called the Physic nut, is an oil-rich shrub with multiple uses, including biodiesel production, and is currently exploited as a renewable energy resource in many countries. Nevertheless, because of its origin from the tropical MidAmerican zone, J. curcas confers an inherent but undesirable characteristic (low cold resistance that may seriously restrict its large-scale popularization. This adaptive flaw can be genetically improved by elucidating the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to cold temperatures. The newly developed Illumina Hiseq™ 2000 RNA-seq and Digital Gene Expression (DGE are deep high-throughput approaches for gene expression analysis at the transcriptome level, using which we carefully investigated the gene expression profiles in response to cold stress to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of cold response in J. curcas. RESULTS: In total, 45,251 unigenes were obtained by assembly of clean data generated by RNA-seq analysis of the J. curcas transcriptome. A total of 33,363 and 912 complete or partial coding sequences (CDSs were determined by protein database alignments and ESTScan prediction, respectively. Among these unigenes, more than 41.52% were involved in approximately 128 known metabolic or signaling pathways, and 4,185 were possibly associated with cold resistance. DGE analysis was used to assess the changes in gene expression when exposed to cold condition (12°C for 12, 24, and 48 h. The results showed that 3,178 genes were significantly upregulated and 1,244 were downregulated under cold stress. These genes were then functionally annotated based on the transcriptome data from RNA-seq analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a global view of transcriptome response and gene expression profiling of J. curcas in response to cold stress. The results can help improve our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant cold resistance and favor the screening of

  7. Transcriptomic analysis and discovery of genes in the response of Arachis hypogaea to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobo; Li, Chunjuan; Wan, Shubo; Zhang, Tingting; Yan, Caixia; Shan, Shihua

    2018-04-01

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important crop species that is threatened by drought stress. The genome sequences of peanut, which was officially released in 2016, may help explain the molecular mechanisms that underlie drought tolerance in this species. We report here a gene expression profiling of A. hypogaea to gain a global view of its drought resistance. Using whole-transcriptome sequencing, we analysed differential gene expression in response to drought stress in the drought-resistant peanut cultivar J11. Pooled samples obtained at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h were compared with control samples at 0 h. In total, 51,554 genes were found, including 49,289 known genes and 2265 unknown genes. We identified 224 differentially expressed transcription factors, 296,335 SNPs and 28,391 InDELs. In addition, we detected significant differences in the gene expression profiles of the treatment and control groups. After comparing the two groups, 4648 genes were identified. An in-depth analysis of the data revealed that a large number of genes were associated with drought stress, including transcription factors and genes involved in photosynthesis-antenna proteins, carbon metabolism and the citrate cycle. The results of this study provide insights into the diverse mechanisms that underlie the successful establishment of drought resistance in the peanut, thereby facilitating the identification of important genes in the peanut related to drought management. Transcriptome analysis based on RNA-Seq is a powerful approach for gene discovery and molecular marker development for this species.

  8. Discovery of core biotic stress responsive genes in Arabidopsis by weighted gene co-expression network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrine, Katherine C H; Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Cantu, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Intricate signal networks and transcriptional regulators translate the recognition of pathogens into defense responses. In this study, we carried out a gene co-expression analysis of all currently publicly available microarray data, which were generated in experiments that studied the interaction of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with microbial pathogens. This work was conducted to identify (i) modules of functionally related co-expressed genes that are differentially expressed in response to multiple biotic stresses, and (ii) hub genes that may function as core regulators of disease responses. Using Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) we constructed an undirected network leveraging a rich curated expression dataset comprising 272 microarrays that involved microbial infections of Arabidopsis plants with a wide array of fungal and bacterial pathogens with biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic lifestyles. WGCNA produced a network with scale-free and small-world properties composed of 205 distinct clusters of co-expressed genes. Modules of functionally related co-expressed genes that are differentially regulated in response to multiple pathogens were identified by integrating differential gene expression testing with functional enrichment analyses of gene ontology terms, known disease associated genes, transcriptional regulators, and cis-regulatory elements. The significance of functional enrichments was validated by comparisons with randomly generated networks. Network topology was then analyzed to identify intra- and inter-modular gene hubs. Based on high connectivity, and centrality in meta-modules that are clearly enriched in defense responses, we propose a list of 66 target genes for reverse genetic experiments to further dissect the Arabidopsis immune system. Our results show that statistical-based data trimming prior to network analysis allows the integration of expression datasets generated by different groups, under different

  9. Gene expression during different periods of the handling-stress response in Pampus argenteus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Tang, Baojun; Yin, Fei

    2017-11-01

    Common aquaculture practices subject fish to a variety of acute and chronic stressors. Such stressors are inherent in aquaculture production but can adversely affect survival, growth, immune response, reproductive capacity, and behavior. Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying stress responses helps with methods to alleviate the negative effects through better aquaculture practices, resulting in improved animal welfare and production efficiency. In the present study, transcriptome sequencing of liver and kidney was performed in silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) subjected to handling stress versus controls. A total of 162.19 million clean reads were assembled to 30 339 unigenes. The quality of the assembly was high, with an N50 length of 2 472 bases. For function classification and pathway assignment, the unigenes were categorized into three GO (gene ontology) categories, twenty-six clusters of eggNOG (evolutionary genealogy of genes: non-supervised orthologous groups) function categories, and thirty-eight KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways. Stress affected different functional groups of genes in the tissues studied. Differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in metabolic pathways (carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, amino-acid metabolism, uptake of cofactors and vitamins, and biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites), environmental information processing (signaling molecules and their interactions), organismal systems (endocrine system, digestive system), and disease (immune, neurodegenerative, endocrine and metabolic diseases). This is the first reported analysis of genome-wide transcriptome in P. argenteus, and the findings expand our understanding of the silver pomfret genome and gene expression in association with stress. The results will be useful to future analyses of functional genes and studies of healthy artificial breeding in P. argenteus and other related fish species.

  10. Integrating Genetic and Gene Co-expression Analysis Identifies Gene Networks Involved in Alcohol and Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Xu, Pei; Cao, Peijian; Wan, Hongjian; Lv, Xiaonan; Xu, Shengchun; Wang, Gangjun; Cook, Melloni N; Jones, Byron C; Lu, Lu; Wang, Xusheng

    2018-01-01

    Although the link between stress and alcohol is well recognized, the underlying mechanisms of how they interplay at the molecular level remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to identify molecular networks underlying the effects of alcohol and stress responses, as well as their interaction on anxiety behaviors in the hippocampus of mice using a systems genetics approach. Here, we applied a gene co-expression network approach to transcriptomes of 41 BXD mouse strains under four conditions: stress, alcohol, stress-induced alcohol and control. The co-expression analysis identified 14 modules and characterized four expression patterns across the four conditions. The four expression patterns include up-regulation in no restraint stress and given an ethanol injection (NOE) but restoration in restraint stress followed by an ethanol injection (RSE; pattern 1), down-regulation in NOE but rescue in RSE (pattern 2), up-regulation in both restraint stress followed by a saline injection (RSS) and NOE, and further amplification in RSE (pattern 3), and up-regulation in RSS but reduction in both NOE and RSE (pattern 4). We further identified four functional subnetworks by superimposing protein-protein interactions (PPIs) to the 14 co-expression modules, including γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA) signaling, glutamate signaling, neuropeptide signaling, cAMP-dependent signaling. We further performed module specificity analysis to identify modules that are specific to stress, alcohol, or stress-induced alcohol responses. Finally, we conducted causality analysis to link genetic variation to these identified modules, and anxiety behaviors after stress and alcohol treatments. This study underscores the importance of integrative analysis and offers new insights into the molecular networks underlying stress and alcohol responses.

  11. Integrating Genetic and Gene Co-expression Analysis Identifies Gene Networks Involved in Alcohol and Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Luo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the link between stress and alcohol is well recognized, the underlying mechanisms of how they interplay at the molecular level remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to identify molecular networks underlying the effects of alcohol and stress responses, as well as their interaction on anxiety behaviors in the hippocampus of mice using a systems genetics approach. Here, we applied a gene co-expression network approach to transcriptomes of 41 BXD mouse strains under four conditions: stress, alcohol, stress-induced alcohol and control. The co-expression analysis identified 14 modules and characterized four expression patterns across the four conditions. The four expression patterns include up-regulation in no restraint stress and given an ethanol injection (NOE but restoration in restraint stress followed by an ethanol injection (RSE; pattern 1, down-regulation in NOE but rescue in RSE (pattern 2, up-regulation in both restraint stress followed by a saline injection (RSS and NOE, and further amplification in RSE (pattern 3, and up-regulation in RSS but reduction in both NOE and RSE (pattern 4. We further identified four functional subnetworks by superimposing protein-protein interactions (PPIs to the 14 co-expression modules, including γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA signaling, glutamate signaling, neuropeptide signaling, cAMP-dependent signaling. We further performed module specificity analysis to identify modules that are specific to stress, alcohol, or stress-induced alcohol responses. Finally, we conducted causality analysis to link genetic variation to these identified modules, and anxiety behaviors after stress and alcohol treatments. This study underscores the importance of integrative analysis and offers new insights into the molecular networks underlying stress and alcohol responses.

  12. Global Gene-Expression Analysis to Identify Differentially Expressed Genes Critical for the Heat Stress Response in Brassica rapa.

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    Xiangshu Dong

    Full Text Available Genome-wide dissection of the heat stress response (HSR is necessary to overcome problems in crop production caused by global warming. To identify HSR genes, we profiled gene expression in two Chinese cabbage inbred lines with different thermotolerances, Chiifu and Kenshin. Many genes exhibited >2-fold changes in expression upon exposure to 0.5- 4 h at 45°C (high temperature, HT: 5.2% (2,142 genes in Chiifu and 3.7% (1,535 genes in Kenshin. The most enriched GO (Gene Ontology items included 'response to heat', 'response to reactive oxygen species (ROS', 'response to temperature stimulus', 'response to abiotic stimulus', and 'MAPKKK cascade'. In both lines, the genes most highly induced by HT encoded small heat shock proteins (Hsps and heat shock factor (Hsf-like proteins such as HsfB2A (Bra029292, whereas high-molecular weight Hsps were constitutively expressed. Other upstream HSR components were also up-regulated: ROS-scavenging genes like glutathione peroxidase 2 (BrGPX2, Bra022853, protein kinases, and phosphatases. Among heat stress (HS marker genes in Arabidopsis, only exportin 1A (XPO1A (Bra008580, Bra006382 can be applied to B. rapa for basal thermotolerance (BT and short-term acquired thermotolerance (SAT gene. CYP707A3 (Bra025083, Bra021965, which is involved in the dehydration response in Arabidopsis, was associated with membrane leakage in both lines following HS. Although many transcription factors (TF genes, including DREB2A (Bra005852, were involved in HS tolerance in both lines, Bra024224 (MYB41 and Bra021735 (a bZIP/AIR1 [Anthocyanin-Impaired-Response-1] were specific to Kenshin. Several candidate TFs involved in thermotolerance were confirmed as HSR genes by real-time PCR, and these assignments were further supported by promoter analysis. Although some of our findings are similar to those obtained using other plant species, clear differences in Brassica rapa reveal a distinct HSR in this species. Our data could also provide a

  13. Predominant gain of promoter TATA box after gene duplication associated with stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yangyun; Huang, Wei; Gu, Zhenglong; Gu, Xun

    2011-10-01

    TATA box, the core promoter element, exists in a broad range of eukaryotes, and the expression of TATA-containing genes usually responds to various environmental stresses. Hence, the evolution of TATA-box in duplicate genes may provide some clues for the interrelationship among environmental stress, expression differentiation, and duplicate gene preservation. In the present study, we observed that the TATA box is significantly overrepresented in duplicate genes compared with singletons in human, worm, Arabidopsis, and yeast genomes. We then conducted an extensive functional genomic analysis to investigate the evolution of TATA box along over 700 yeast gene family phylogenies. After reconstructing the ancestral TATA-box states (presence or absence), we found that significantly higher numbers of TATA box gain events than loss events had occurred after yeast gene duplications-the overall gain-loss ratio is about 3-4 to 1. Interestingly, these TATA-gain duplicate genes on average have experienced greater expression divergence from the ancestral expression states than their most closely related TATA-less duplicate partners, but only under environmental stress conditions (asymmetric evolution); indeed, under normal physiological conditions, they have similar expression divergence (symmetric evolution). Moreover, we showed that TATA-gain duplicates are enriched in stress-associated functional categories but that is not the case for TATA-ancestral duplicates (those inherited from their ancestors prior to duplication). Together, we conclude that after the gene duplication, gain of the TATA box in duplicate promoters may have played an important role in yeast duplicate preservation by accelerating expression divergence that may facilitate the adaptive evolution of the organism in response to environmental changes.

  14. Expression Profiling of Abiotic Stress-Inducible Genes in response to Multiple Stresses in Rice (Oryza sativa L. Varieties with Contrasting Level of Stress Tolerance

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    Supratim Basu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study considered transcriptional profiles and protein expression analyses from shoot and/or root tissues under three abiotic stress conditions, namely, salinity, dehydration, and cold, as well as following exogenous abscisic acid treatment, at different time points of stress exposure in three indica rice varieties, IR-29 (salt sensitive, Pokkali, and Nonabokra (both salt tolerant. The candidate genes chosen for expression studies were HKT-1, SOS-3, NHX-1, SAPK5, SAPK7, NAC-1, Rab16A, OSBZ8, DREBP2, CRT/DREBP, WRKY24, and WRKY71, along with the candidate proteins OSBZ8, SAMDC, and GST. Gene expression profile revealed considerable differences between the salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant rice varieties, as the expression in the latter was higher even at the constitutive level, whereas it was inducible only by corresponding stress signals in IR-29. Whether in roots or shoots, the transcriptional responses to different stressors peaked following 24 h of stress/ABA exposure, and the transcript levels enhanced gradually with the period of exposure. The generality of stress responses at the transcriptional level was therefore time dependent. Heat map data also showed differential transcript abundance in the three varieties, correlating the observation with transcript profiling. In silico analysis of the upstream regions of all the genes represented the existence of conserved sequence motifs in single or multiple copies that are indispensable to abiotic stress response. Overall, the transcriptome and proteome analysis undertaken in the present study indicated that genes/proteins conferring tolerance, belonging to different functional classes, were overrepresented, thus providing novel insight into the functional basis of multiple stress tolerance in indica rice varieties. The present work will pave the way in future to select gene(s for overexpression, so as to generate broad spectrum resistance to multiple stresses simultaneously.

  15. A nucleotide metabolite controls stress-responsive gene expression and plant development.

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    Hao Chen

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress, such as drought and high salinity, activates a network of signaling cascades that lead to the expression of many stress-responsive genes in plants. The Arabidopsis FIERY1 (FRY1 protein is a negative regulator of stress and abscisic acid (ABA signaling and exhibits both an inositol polyphosphatase and a 3',5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase activity in vitro. The FRY1 nucleotidase degrades the sulfation byproduct 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate (PAP, yet its in vivo functions and particularly its roles in stress gene regulation remain unclear. Here we developed a LC-MS/MS method to quantitatively measure PAP levels in plants and investigated the roles of this nucleotidase activity in stress response and plant development. It was found that PAP level was tightly controlled in plants and did not accumulate to any significant level either under normal conditions or under NaCl, LiCl, cold, or ABA treatments. In contrast, high levels of PAP were detected in multiple mutant alleles of FRY1 but not in mutants of other FRY1 family members, indicating that FRY1 is the major enzyme that hydrolyzes PAP in vivo. By genetically reducing PAP levels in fry1 mutants either through overexpression of a yeast PAP nucleotidase or by generating a triple mutant of fry1 apk1 apk2 that is defective in the biosynthesis of the PAP precursor 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS, we demonstrated that the developmental defects and superinduction of stress-responsive genes in fry1 mutants correlate with PAP accumulation in planta. We also found that the hypersensitive stress gene regulation in fry1 requires ABH1 but not ABI1, two other negative regulators in ABA signaling pathways. Unlike in yeast, however, FRY1 overexpression in Arabidopsis could not enhance salt tolerance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PAP is critical for stress gene regulation and plant development, yet the FRY1 nucleotidase that catabolizes PAP may not be an in vivo salt

  16. A nucleotide metabolite controls stress-responsive gene expression and plant development

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao

    2011-10-19

    Abiotic stress, such as drought and high salinity, activates a network of signaling cascades that lead to the expression of many stress-responsive genes in plants. The Arabidopsis FIERY1 (FRY1) protein is a negative regulator of stress and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and exhibits both an inositol polyphosphatase and a 3?,5?-bisphosphate nucleotidase activity in vitro. The FRY1 nucleotidase degrades the sulfation byproduct 3?-phosphoadenosine-5?-phosphate (PAP), yet its in vivo functions and particularly its roles in stress gene regulation remain unclear. Here we developed a LC-MS/MS method to quantitatively measure PAP levels in plants and investigated the roles of this nucleotidase activity in stress response and plant development. It was found that PAP level was tightly controlled in plants and did not accumulate to any significant level either under normal conditions or under NaCl, LiCl, cold, or ABA treatments. In contrast, high levels of PAP were detected in multiple mutant alleles of FRY1 but not in mutants of other FRY1 family members, indicating that FRY1 is the major enzyme that hydrolyzes PAP in vivo. By genetically reducing PAP levels in fry1 mutants either through overexpression of a yeast PAP nucleotidase or by generating a triple mutant of fry1 apk1 apk2 that is defective in the biosynthesis of the PAP precursor 3?-phosphoadenosine-5?-phosphosulfate (PAPS), we demonstrated that the developmental defects and superinduction of stress-responsive genes in fry1 mutants correlate with PAP accumulation in planta. We also found that the hypersensitive stress gene regulation in fry1 requires ABH1 but not ABI1, two other negative regulators in ABA signaling pathways. Unlike in yeast, however, FRY1 overexpression in Arabidopsis could not enhance salt tolerance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PAP is critical for stress gene regulation and plant development, yet the FRY1 nucleotidase that catabolizes PAP may not be an in vivo salt toxicity target

  17. Ribosome Reinitiation Directs Gene-specific Translation and Regulates the Integrated Stress Response*

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    Young, Sara K.; Willy, Jeffrey A.; Wu, Cheng; Sachs, Matthew S.; Wek, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    In the integrated stress response, phosphorylation of eIF2α (eIF2α-P) reduces protein synthesis to conserve resources and facilitate preferential translation of transcripts that promote stress adaptation. Preferentially translated GADD34 (PPP1R15A) and constitutively expressed CReP (PPP1R15B) function to dephosphorylate eIF2α-P and restore protein synthesis. The 5′-leaders of GADD34 and CReP contain two upstream ORFs (uORFs). Using biochemical and genetic approaches we show that features of these uORFs are central for their differential expression. In the absence of stress, translation of an inhibitory uORF in GADD34 acts as a barrier that prevents reinitiation at the GADD34 coding region. Enhanced eIF2α-P during stress directs ribosome bypass of the uORF, facilitating translation of the GADD34 coding region. CReP expression occurs independent of eIF2α-P via an uORF that allows for translation reinitiation at the CReP coding region independent of stress. Importantly, alterations in the GADD34 uORF affect the status of eIF2α-P, translational control, and cell adaptation to stress. These results show that properties of uORFs that permit ribosome reinitiation are critical for directing gene-specific translational control in the integrated stress response. PMID:26446796

  18. Growth rate regulated genes and their wide involvement in the Lactococcus lactis stress responses

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    Redon Emma

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of transcriptomic tools has allowed exhaustive description of stress responses. These responses always superimpose a general response associated to growth rate decrease and a specific one corresponding to the stress. The exclusive growth rate response can be achieved through chemostat cultivation, enabling all parameters to remain constant except the growth rate. Results We analysed metabolic and transcriptomic responses of Lactococcus lactis in continuous cultures at different growth rates ranging from 0.09 to 0.47 h-1. Growth rate was conditioned by isoleucine supply. Although carbon metabolism was constant and homolactic, a widespread transcriptomic response involving 30% of the genome was observed. The expression of genes encoding physiological functions associated with biogenesis increased with growth rate (transcription, translation, fatty acid and phospholipids metabolism. Many phages, prophages and transposon related genes were down regulated as growth rate increased. The growth rate response was compared to carbon and amino-acid starvation transcriptomic responses, revealing constant and significant involvement of growth rate regulations in these two stressful conditions (overlap 27%. Two regulators potentially involved in the growth rate regulations, llrE and yabB, have been identified. Moreover it was established that genes positively regulated by growth rate are preferentially located in the vicinity of replication origin while those negatively regulated are mainly encountered at the opposite, thus indicating the relationship between genes expression and their location on chromosome. Although stringent response mechanism is considered as the one governing growth deceleration in bacteria, the rigorous comparison of the two transcriptomic responses clearly indicated the mechanisms are distinct. Conclusion This work of integrative biology was performed at the global level using transcriptomic analysis

  19. Rice Yellow Mottle Virus stress responsive genes from susceptible and tolerant rice genotypes

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    Siré Christelle

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of viral infection involve concomitant plant gene variations and cellular changes. A simple system is required to assess the complexity of host responses to viral infection. The genome of the Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV is a single-stranded RNA with a simple organisation. It is the most well-known monocotyledon virus model. Several studies on its biology, structure and phylogeography have provided a suitable background for further genetic studies. 12 rice chromosome sequences are now available and provide strong support for genomic studies, particularly physical mapping and gene identification. Results The present data, obtained through the cDNA-AFLP technique, demonstrate differential responses to RYMV of two different rice cultivars, i.e. susceptible IR64 (Oryza sativa indica, and partially resistant Azucena (O. s. japonica. This RNA profiling provides a new original dataset that will enable us to gain greater insight into the RYMV/rice interaction and the specificity of the host response. Using the SIM4 subroutine, we took the intron/exon structure of the gene into account and mapped 281 RYMV stress responsive (RSR transcripts on 12 rice chromosomes corresponding to 234 RSR genes. We also mapped previously identified deregulated proteins and genes involved in partial resistance and thus constructed the first global physical map of the RYMV/rice interaction. RSR transcripts on rice chromosomes 4 and 10 were found to be not randomly distributed. Seven genes were identified in the susceptible and partially resistant cultivars, and transcripts were colocalized for these seven genes in both cultivars. During virus infection, many concomitant plant gene expression changes may be associated with host changes caused by the infection process, general stress or defence responses. We noted that some genes (e.g. ABC transporters were regulated throughout the kinetics of infection and differentiated susceptible and

  20. Differential contributions to the transcriptome of duplicated genes in response to abiotic stresses in natural and synthetic polyploids.

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    Dong, Shaowei; Adams, Keith L

    2011-06-01

    Polyploidy has occurred throughout plant evolution and can result in considerable changes to gene expression when it takes place and over evolutionary time. Little is known about the effects of abiotic stress conditions on duplicate gene expression patterns in polyploid plants. We examined the expression patterns of 60 duplicated genes in leaves, roots and cotyledons of allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum in response to five abiotic stress treatments (heat, cold, drought, high salt and water submersion) using single-strand conformation polymorphism assays, and 20 genes in a synthetic allotetraploid. Over 70% of the genes showed stress-induced changes in the relative expression levels of the duplicates under one or more stress treatments with frequent variability among treatments. Twelve pairs showed opposite changes in expression levels in response to different abiotic stress treatments. Stress-induced expression changes occurred in the synthetic allopolyploid, but there was little correspondence in patterns between the natural and synthetic polyploids. Our results indicate that abiotic stress conditions can have considerable effects on duplicate gene expression in a polyploid, with the effects varying by gene, stress and organ type. Differential expression in response to environmental stresses may be a factor in the preservation of some duplicated genes in polyploids. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Comprehensive transcriptional profiling of NaCl-stressed Arabidopsis roots reveals novel classes of responsive genes

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    Deyholos Michael K

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Roots are an attractive system for genomic and post-genomic studies of NaCl responses, due to their primary importance to agriculture, and because of their relative structural and biochemical simplicity. Excellent genomic resources have been established for the study of Arabidopsis roots, however, a comprehensive microarray analysis of the root transcriptome following NaCl exposure is required to further understand plant responses to abiotic stress and facilitate future, systems-based analyses of the underlying regulatory networks. Results We used microarrays of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes representing 23,686 Arabidopsis genes to identify root transcripts that changed in relative abundance following 6 h, 24 h, or 48 h of hydroponic exposure to 150 mM NaCl. Enrichment analysis identified groups of structurally or functionally related genes whose members were statistically over-represented among up- or down-regulated transcripts. Our results are consistent with generally observed stress response themes, and highlight potentially important roles for underappreciated gene families, including: several groups of transporters (e.g. MATE, LeOPT1-like; signalling molecules (e.g. PERK kinases, MLO-like receptors, carbohydrate active enzymes (e.g. XTH18, transcription factors (e.g. members of ZIM, WRKY, NAC, and other proteins (e.g. 4CL-like, COMT-like, LOB-Class 1. We verified the NaCl-inducible expression of selected transcription factors and other genes by qRT-PCR. Conclusion Micorarray profiling of NaCl-treated Arabidopsis roots revealed dynamic changes in transcript abundance for at least 20% of the genome, including hundreds of transcription factors, kinases/phosphatases, hormone-related genes, and effectors of homeostasis, all of which highlight the complexity of this stress response. Our identification of these transcriptional responses, and groups of evolutionarily related genes with either similar or divergent

  2. Transcriptional Response of Multiple ESBL Genes Within Escherichia coli Under Oxyimino-Cephalosporin Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Anand Prakash; Chanda, Debadatta Dhar; Bora, Debajyoti; Das Talukdar, Anupam; Chakravarty, Atanu; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha

    2017-03-01

    The expression of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases directly interferes with the treatment options in a clinical setting. It is not clearly defined why bacteria acquire multiple beta-lactamases and how they are being expressed in antibiotic stress. With this key question, the study was designed to understand the transcriptional response in Escherichia coli harboring multiple bla ESBLs against different oxyimino-cephalosporin stress. A total of 169 consecutive, nonduplicate oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant isolates of E. coli were screened and were ESBL positive. Among them six isolates were found to harbor multiple beta-lactamase genes and we, as per our objective, selected them for this study. Molecular characterization was done by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration, transcriptional expression, transferability, and plasmid incompatibility typing of multiple bla ESBLs were carried out. Plasmid stability and antibiotic susceptibility of donor and transconjugants were performed. A total of six isolates were found to be harboring multiple ESBL genes and MIC above the breakpoint level against all the tested antibiotics. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that in basal level without antibiotic stress, SHV-148 expressed more, but with ceftriaxone stressed, expression of CTX-M-15 and SHV-148 was high. In case of PER-1, expression was high with ceftazidime stress. bla ESBLs were horizontally transferable and originated through multiple inc types. Plasmids were stable till 115 serial passages. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis results showed that multiple ESBL genes were spread through six pulsotypes. Our study concludes that acquisition of multiple ESBL genes in E. coli was a specific adaptation for survival against multiple oxyimino-cephalosporin stress in this clinical setting.

  3. Using Phenomic Analysis of Photosynthetic Function for Abiotic Stress Response Gene Discovery.

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    Rungrat, Tepsuda; Awlia, Mariam; Brown, Tim; Cheng, Riyan; Sirault, Xavier; Fajkus, Jiri; Trtilek, Martin; Furbank, Bob; Badger, Murray; Tester, Mark; Pogson, Barry J; Borevitz, Justin O; Wilson, Pip

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the photosynthetic performance of plants is a major key to understanding how plants adapt to their growth conditions. Stress tolerance traits have a high genetic complexity as plants are constantly, and unavoidably, exposed to numerous stress factors, which limits their growth rates in the natural environment. Arabidopsis thaliana , with its broad genetic diversity and wide climatic range, has been shown to successfully adapt to stressful conditions to ensure the completion of its life cycle. As a result, A. thaliana has become a robust and renowned plant model system for studying natural variation and conducting gene discovery studies. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) in restructured populations combining natural and recombinant lines is a particularly effective way to identify the genetic basis of complex traits. As most abiotic stresses affect photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll fluorescence measurements are a potential phenotyping technique for monitoring plant performance under stress conditions. This review focuses on the use of chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool to study genetic variation underlying the stress tolerance responses to abiotic stress in A. thaliana .

  4. Using Phenomic Analysis of Photosynthetic Function for Abiotic Stress Response Gene Discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Rungrat, Tepsuda

    2016-09-09

    Monitoring the photosynthetic performance of plants is a major key to understanding how plants adapt to their growth conditions. Stress tolerance traits have a high genetic complexity as plants are constantly, and unavoidably, exposed to numerous stress factors, which limits their growth rates in the natural environment. Arabidopsis thaliana, with its broad genetic diversity and wide climatic range, has been shown to successfully adapt to stressful conditions to ensure the completion of its life cycle. As a result, A. thaliana has become a robust and renowned plant model system for studying natural variation and conducting gene discovery studies. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) in restructured populations combining natural and recombinant lines is a particularly effective way to identify the genetic basis of complex traits. As most abiotic stresses affect photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll fluorescence measurements are a potential phenotyping technique for monitoring plant performance under stress conditions. This review focuses on the use of chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool to study genetic variation underlying the stress tolerance responses to abiotic stress in A. thaliana.

  5. Deciphering energy-associated gene networks operating in the response of Arabidopsis plants to stress and nutritional cues.

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    Avin-Wittenberg, Tamar; Tzin, Vered; Angelovici, Ruthie; Less, Hadar; Galili, Gad

    2012-06-01

    Plants need to continuously adjust their transcriptome in response to various stresses that lead to inhibition of photosynthesis and the deprivation of cellular energy. This adjustment is triggered in part by a coordinated re-programming of the energy-associated transcriptome to slow down photosynthesis and activate other energy-promoting gene networks. Therefore, understanding the stress-related transcriptional networks of genes belonging to energy-associated pathways is of major importance for engineering stress tolerance. In a bioinformatics approach developed by our group, termed 'gene coordination', we previously divided genes encoding for enzymes and transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana into three clusters, displaying altered coordinated transcriptional behaviors in response to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses (Plant Cell, 23, 2011, 1264). Enrichment analysis indicated further that genes controlling energy-associated metabolism operate as a compound network in response to stress. In the present paper, we describe in detail the network association of genes belonging to six central energy-associated pathways in each of these three clusters described in our previous paper. Our results expose extensive stress-associated intra- and inter-pathway interactions between genes from these pathways, indicating that genes encoding proteins involved in energy-associated metabolism are expressed in a highly coordinated manner. We also provide examples showing that this approach can be further utilized to elucidate candidate genes for stress tolerance and functions of isozymes. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Meta-analysis of the effect of overexpression of CBF/DREB family genes on drought stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcription factors C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding proteins (CBF/DREB) play an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. Over-expression of various CBF/DREB genes in diverse plants have been reported, but inconsistency of gene donor, recipient genus, parameters used i...

  7. Induction of the mammalian stress response gene GADD153 by oxidative stress: role of AP-1 element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, K Z; Xu, Q; Holbrook, N J

    1996-01-01

    GADD153 is a CCAAT/enhancer-binding-protein-related gene that may function to control cellular growth in response to stress signals. In this study, a variety of oxidant treatments were shown to stimulate endogenous GADD153 mRNA expression and to transcriptionally activate a GADD153 promoter-reporter gene construct in transfected HeLa cells. Both commonalities and distinctions in the induction of GADD153 by H2O2 and the thiol-reactive compound arsenite were demonstrated. GADD153 mRNA induction by both H2O2 and arsenite was potentiated by GSH depletion, and completely inhibited by N-acetyl-cysteine. o-Phenanthroline and mannitol blocked GADD153 induction by H2O2, indicating that iron-generated hydroxyl radical mediates this induction. Concordantly, GSH peroxidase overexpression in WI38 cells attenuated GADD153 mRNA induction by H2O2. However, GADD153 induction by arsenite was only modestly reduced in the same cells, suggesting a lesser contribution of peroxides to gene activation by arsenite. We also demonstrated that oxidative stress participates in the induction of GADD153 by UVC (254 nm) irradiation. Finally, both promoter-deletion analysis and point mutation of the AP-1 site in an otherwise intact promoter support a significant role for AP-1 in transcriptional activation of GADD153 by UVC or oxidant treatment. Indeed, exposure of cells to oxidants or UVC stimulated binding of Fos and Jun to the GADD153 AP-1 element. Together, these results demonstrate that both free-radical generation and thiol modification can transcriptionally activate GADD153, and that AP-1 is critical to oxidative regulation of this gene. This study further supports a role for the GADD153 gene product in the cellular response to oxidant injury. PMID:8670069

  8. Impact of rli87 gene deletion on response of Listeria monocytogenes to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Xie; Qingling, Meng; Qiao, Jun; Yelong, Peng; Tianli, Liu; Cheng, Chen; Yu, Ma; Zhengxiang, Hu; Xuepeng, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2014-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is a zoonotic pathogen that widely adapts to various environments. Recent studies have found that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play regulatory roles in LM responses to environmental stress. To understand the role of ncRNA rli87 in the response regulation, a rli87 deletion strain LM-Δrli87 was constructed by homologous recombination and tested for stress responses to high temperature, low temperature, high osmotic pressure, alcohol, acidity, alkaline and oxidative environments, along with LM EGD-e strain (control). The results showed that compared with LM EGD-e, LM-Δrli87 grew faster (P  0.05) in acidic and high osmatic pressure (10% NaCl) conditions. When cultured in medium containing 3.8% ethanol, the growth was not significantly different between the two strains (P > 0.05). When cultured at pH 9, they had similar growth rates in the first 5 h (P > 0.05), but the rates were significantly different after 6 h (P environment. Our results suggest that the rli87 gene has an important regulatory role in LM's response to temperature (30 and 42 °C), alkaline stresses. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New Insights on Drought Stress Response by Global Investigation of Gene Expression Changes in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pincang; Liu, Panpan; Yuan, Guangxiao; Jia, Junting; Li, Xiaoxia; Qi, Dongmei; Chen, Shuangyan; Ma, Tian; Liu, Gongshe; Cheng, Liqin

    2016-01-01

    Water is a critical environmental factor that restricts the geographic distribution of plants. Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis, (Trin.) Tzvel] is an important forage grass in the Eurasia Steppe and a close germplasm for wheat and barley. This native grass adapts well to adverse environments such as cold, salinity, alkalinity and drought, and it can survive when the soil moisture may be less than 6% in dry seasons. However, little is known about how sheepgrass tolerates water stress at the molecular level. Here, drought stress experiment and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed in three pools of RNA samples (control, drought stress, and rewatering). We found that sheepgrass seedlings could still survive when the soil water content (SWC) was reduced to 14.09%. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis showed that 7320 genes exhibited significant responses to drought stress. Of these DEGs, 2671 presented opposite expression trends before and after rewatering. Furthermore, ~680 putative sheepgrass-specific water responsive genes were revealed that can be studied deeply. Gene ontology (GO) annotation revealed that stress-associated genes were activated extensively by drought treatment. Interestingly, cold stress-related genes were up-regulated greatly after drought stress. The DEGs of MAPK and calcium signal pathways, plant hormone ABA, jasmonate, ethylene, brassinosteroid signal pathways, cold response CBF pathway participated coordinatively in sheepgrass drought stress response. In addition, we identified 288 putative transcription factors (TFs) involved in drought response, among them, the WRKY, NAC, AP2/ERF, bHLH, bZIP, and MYB families were enriched, and might play crucial and significant roles in drought stress response of sheepgrass. Our research provided new and valuable information for understanding the mechanism of drought tolerance in sheepgrass. Moreover, the identification of genes involved in drought response can facilitate the genetic improvement of

  10. Expression analysis in response to drought stress in soybean: Shedding light on the regulation of metabolic pathway genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães-Dias, Fábia; Neves-Borges, Anna Cristina; Viana, Antonio Americo Barbosa; Mesquita, Rosilene Oliveira; Romano, Eduardo; de Fátima Grossi-de-Sá, Maria; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio

    2012-06-01

    Metabolomics analysis of wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plants, under control and drought stress conditions revealed several metabolic pathways that are induced under water deficit. The metabolic response to drought stress is also associated with ABA dependent and independent pathways, allowing a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms in this model plant. Through combining an in silico approach and gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR, the present work aims at identifying genes of soybean metabolic pathways potentially associated with water deficit. Digital expression patterns of Arabidopsis genes, which were selected based on the basis of literature reports, were evaluated under drought stress condition by Genevestigator. Genes that showed strong induction under drought stress were selected and used as bait to identify orthologs in the soybean genome. This allowed us to select 354 genes of putative soybean orthologs of 79 Arabidopsis genes belonging to 38 distinct metabolic pathways. The expression pattern of the selected genes was verified in the subtractive libraries available in the GENOSOJA project. Subsequently, 13 genes from different metabolic pathways were selected for validation by qPCR experiments. The expression of six genes was validated in plants undergoing drought stress in both pot-based and hydroponic cultivation systems. The results suggest that the metabolic response to drought stress is conserved in Arabidopsis and soybean plants.

  11. Transcriptional responses of metallothionein gene to different stress factors in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Nam, Yoon Kwon

    2016-11-01

    A novel metallothionein (MT) gene from the Pacific abalone H. discus hannai was characterized and its mRNA expression patterns (tissue distribution, developmental expression and differential expression in responsive to various in vivo stimulatory treatments) were examined. Abalone MT shares conserved structural features with previously known gastropod orthologs at both genomic (i.e., tripartite organization) and amino acid (conserved Cys motifs) levels. The 5'-flanking regulatory region of abalone MT gene displayed various transcription factor binding motifs particularly including ones related with metal regulation and stress/immune responses. Tissue distribution and basal expression patterns of MT mRNAs indicated a potential association between ovarian MT expression and sexual maturation. Developmental expression pattern suggested the maternal contribution of MT mRNAs to embryonic and early larval developments. Abalone MT mRNAs could be significantly induced by various heavy metals in different tissues (gill, hepatopancreas, muscle and hemocyte) in a tissue- and/or metal-dependent fashion. In addition, the abalone MT gene was highly modulated in responsive to other non-metal, stimulatory treatments such as immune challenge (LPS, polyI:C and bacterial injections), hypoxia (decrease from normoxia 8 ppm-2 ppm), thermal elevation (increase from 20 °C to 30 °C), and xenobiotic exposure (250 ppb of 17α-ethynylestradiol and 0.25 ppb of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin) where differential expression patterns were toward either up- or down-regulation depending on types of stimulations and tissues examined. Taken together, our results highlight that MT is a multifunctional effector playing in wide criteria of cellular pathways especially associated with development and stress responses in this abalone species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ERK Oscillation-Dependent Gene Expression Patterns and Deregulation by Stress-Response

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    Waters, Katrina M.; Cummings, Brian S.; Shankaran, Harish; Scholpa, Natalie E.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2014-09-15

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether ERK oscillations regulate a unique subset of genes in human keratinocytes and subsequently, whether the p38 stress response inhibits ERK oscillations. A DNA microarray identified many genes that were unique to ERK oscillations, and network reconstruction predicted an important role for the mediator complex subunit 1 (MED1) node in mediating ERK oscillation-dependent gene expression. Increased ERK-dependent phosphorylation of MED1 was observed in oscillating cells compared to non-oscillating counterparts as validation. Treatment of keratinocytes with a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) increased ERK oscillation amplitudes and MED1 and phospho-MED1 protein levels. Bromate is a probable human carcinogen that activates p38. Bromate inhibited ERK oscillations in human keratinocytes and JB6 cells and induced an increase in phospho-p38 and decrease in phospho-MED1 protein levels. Treatment of normal rat kidney cells and primary salivary gland epithelial cells with bromate decreased phospho-MED1 levels in a reversible fashion upon treatment with p38 inhibitors (SB202190; SB203580). Our results indicate that oscillatory behavior in the ERK pathway alters homeostatic gene regulation patterns and that the cellular response to perturbation may manifest differently in oscillating vs non-oscillating cells.

  13. Cellular Stress Response Gene Expression During Upper and Lower Body High Intensity Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Sawczyn, Stanisław; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Mieszkowski, Jan; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to compare the effect of upper and lower body high-intensity exercise on chosen genes expression in athletes and non-athletes. Method Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (EAG) aged 20.6 ± 3.3 years and 14 physically active men (PAM) aged 19.9 ± 1.0 years performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests. Blood samples were collected before, 5 and 30 minutes after each effort to assess gene expression via PCR. Results Significantly higher mechanical parameters after lower body exercise was observed in both groups, for relative power (8.7 ± 1.2 W/kg in gymnasts, 7.2 ± 1.2 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01) and mean power (6.7 ± 0.7 W/kg in gymnasts, 5.4 ± 0.8 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01). No differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected for all tested genes as well as between gymnasts and physical active man. For IL-6 m-RNA time-dependent effect was observed. Conclusions Because of no significant differences in expression of genes associated with cellular stress response the similar adaptive effect to exercise may be obtained so by lower and upper body exercise. PMID:28141870

  14. Identification of potential internal control genes for real-time PCR analysis during stress response in Pyropia haitanensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Feng, Jianhua; Huang, Aiyou; He, Linwen; Niu, Jianfeng; Wang, Guangce

    2017-11-01

    Pyropia haitanensis has prominent stress-resistance characteristics and is endemic to China. Studies into the stress responses in these algae could provide valuable information on the stress-response mechanisms in the intertidal Rhodophyta. Here, the effects of salinity and light intensity on the quantum yield of photosystem II in Py. haitanensis were investigated using pulse-amplitude-modulation fluorometry. Total RNA and genomic DNA of the samples under different stress conditions were isolated. By normalizing to the genomic DNA quantity, the RNA content in each sample was evaluated. The cDNA was synthesized and the expression levels of seven potential internal control genes were evaluated using qRT-PCR method. Then, we used geNorm, a common statistical algorithm, to analyze the qRT-PCR data of seven reference genes. Potential genes that may constantly be expressed under different conditions were selected, and these genes showed stable expression levels in samples under a salinity treatment, while tubulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and actin showed stability in samples stressed by strong light. Based on the results of the pulse amplitude-modulation fluorometry, an absolute quantification was performed to obtain gene copy numbers in certain stress-treated samples. The stably expressed genes as determined by the absolute quantification in certain samples conformed to the results of the geNorm screening. Based on the results of the software analysis and absolute quantification, we proposed that elongation factor 3 and 18S ribosomal RNA could be used as internal control genes when the Py. haitanensis blades were subjected to salinity stress, and that α-tubulin and 18S ribosomal RNA could be used as the internal control genes when the stress was from strong light. In general, our findings provide a convenient reference for the selection of internal control genes when designing experiments related to stress responses in Py. haitanensis.

  15. Expression patterns of members of the ethylene signaling-related gene families in response to dehydration stresses in cassava.

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    Meng Yun Ren

    Full Text Available Drought is the one of the most important environment stresses that restricts crop yield worldwide. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is an important food and energy crop that has many desirable traits such as drought, heat and low nutrients tolerance. However, the mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in cassava are unclear. Ethylene signaling pathway, from the upstream receptors to the downstream transcription factors, plays important roles in environmental stress responses during plant growth and development. In this study, we used bioinformatics approaches to identify and characterize candidate Manihot esculenta ethylene receptor genes and transcription factor genes. Using computational methods, we localized these genes on cassava chromosomes, constructed phylogenetic trees and identified stress-responsive cis-elements within their 5' upstream regions. Additionally, we measured the trehalose and proline contents in cassava fresh leaves after drought, osmotic, and salt stress treatments, and then it was found that the regulation patterns of contents of proline and trehalose in response to various dehydration stresses were differential, or even the opposite, which shows that plant may take different coping strategies to deal with different stresses, when stresses come. Furthermore, expression profiles of these genes in different organs and tissues under non-stress and abiotic stress were investigated through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analyses in cassava. Expression profiles exhibited clear differences among different tissues under non-stress and various dehydration stress conditions. We found that the leaf and tuberous root tissues had the greatest and least responses, respectively, to drought stress through the ethylene signaling pathway in cassava. Moreover, tuber and root tissues had the greatest and least reponses to osmotic and salt stresses through ethylene signaling in cassava, respectively. These results show that these

  16. Expression patterns of members of the ethylene signaling–related gene families in response to dehydration stresses in cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hou Rui; Lu, Li Fang; Yun, Tian Yan; Peng, Ming; Guan, Xiao; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Jing Yi; Zhang, Xi Yan; Li, Cheng Liang; Chen, Yan Jun; He, Peng; Zhang, Yin Dong; Xie, Jiang Hui

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the one of the most important environment stresses that restricts crop yield worldwide. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food and energy crop that has many desirable traits such as drought, heat and low nutrients tolerance. However, the mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in cassava are unclear. Ethylene signaling pathway, from the upstream receptors to the downstream transcription factors, plays important roles in environmental stress responses during plant growth and development. In this study, we used bioinformatics approaches to identify and characterize candidate Manihot esculenta ethylene receptor genes and transcription factor genes. Using computational methods, we localized these genes on cassava chromosomes, constructed phylogenetic trees and identified stress-responsive cis-elements within their 5’ upstream regions. Additionally, we measured the trehalose and proline contents in cassava fresh leaves after drought, osmotic, and salt stress treatments, and then it was found that the regulation patterns of contents of proline and trehalose in response to various dehydration stresses were differential, or even the opposite, which shows that plant may take different coping strategies to deal with different stresses, when stresses come. Furthermore, expression profiles of these genes in different organs and tissues under non-stress and abiotic stress were investigated through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses in cassava. Expression profiles exhibited clear differences among different tissues under non-stress and various dehydration stress conditions. We found that the leaf and tuberous root tissues had the greatest and least responses, respectively, to drought stress through the ethylene signaling pathway in cassava. Moreover, tuber and root tissues had the greatest and least reponses to osmotic and salt stresses through ethylene signaling in cassava, respectively. These results show that these plant tissues had

  17. The mammalian circadian clock gene Per2 modulates cell death in response to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Magnone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Living in the earth’s oxygenated environment forced organisms to develop strategies to cope with the damaging effects of molecular oxygen known as reactive oxygen species (ROS. Here we show that Per2, a molecular component of the mammalian circadian clock, is involved in regulating a cell’s response to oxidative stress. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs containing a mutation in the Per2 gene are more resistant to cytotoxic effects mediated by ROS than wild type cells which is paralleled by an altered regulation of bcl-2 expression in Per2 mutant MEFs. The elevated survival rate and alteration of NADH/NAD+ ratio in the mutant cells is reversed by introduction of the wild type Per2 gene. Interestingly, clock synchronized cells display a time dependent sensitivity to paraquat, a ROS inducing agent. Our observations indicate that the circadian clock is involved in regulating the fate of a cell to survive or to die in response to oxidative stress, which could have implications for cancer development and the aging process.

  18. The Mammalian circadian clock gene per2 modulates cell death in response to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnone, Maria Chiara; Langmesser, Sonja; Bezdek, April Candice; Tallone, Tiziano; Rusconi, Sandro; Albrecht, Urs

    2014-01-01

    Living in the earth's oxygenated environment forced organisms to develop strategies to cope with the damaging effects of molecular oxygen known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we show that Per2, a molecular component of the mammalian circadian clock, is involved in regulating a cell's response to oxidative stress. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) containing a mutation in the Per2 gene are more resistant to cytotoxic effects mediated by ROS than wild-type cells, which is paralleled by an altered regulation of bcl-2 expression in Per2 mutant MEFs. The elevated survival rate and alteration of NADH/NAD(+) ratio in the mutant cells is reversed by introduction of the wild-type Per2 gene. Interestingly, clock synchronized cells display a time dependent sensitivity to paraquat, a ROS inducing agent. Our observations indicate that the circadian clock is involved in regulating the fate of a cell to survive or to die in response to oxidative stress, which could have implications for cancer development and the aging process.

  19. Correlation between desiccation stress response and epigenetic modifications of genes in Drosophila melanogaster: An example of environment-epigenome interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vineeta; Kohli, Surbhi; Brahmachari, Vani

    2017-10-01

    Animals from different phyla including arthropods tolerate water stress to different extent. This tolerance is accompanied by biochemical changes which in turn are due to transcriptional alteration. The changes in transcription can be an indirect effect on some of the genes, ensuing from the effect of stress on the regulators of transcription including epigenetic regulators. Within this paradigm, we investigated the correlation between stress response and epigenetic modification underlying gene expression modulation during desiccation stress in Canton-S. We report altered resistance of flies in desiccation stress for heterozygote mutants of PcG and TrxG members. Pc/+ mutant shows lower survival, while ash1/+ mutants show higher survival under desiccation stress as compared to Canton-S. We detect expression alteration in stress related genes as well the genes of the Polycomb and trithorax complex in Canton-S subjected to desiccation stress. Concomitant with this, there is an altered enrichment of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 at the upstream regions of the stress responsive genes. The enrichment of activating mark, H3K4me3, is higher in non-stress condition. H3K27me3, the repressive mark, is more pronounced under stress condition, which in turn, can be correlated with the binding of Pc. Our results show that desiccation stress induces dynamic switching in expression and enrichment of PcG and TrxG in the upstream region of genes, which correlates with histone modifications. We provide evidence that epigenetic modulation could be one of the mechanisms to adapt to the desiccation stress in Drosophila. Thus, our study proposes the interaction of epigenome and environmental factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transcriptome-Wide Identification of Reference Genes for Expression Analysis of Soybean Responses to Drought Stress along the Day.

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    Juliana Marcolino-Gomes

    Full Text Available The soybean transcriptome displays strong variation along the day in optimal growth conditions and also in response to adverse circumstances, like drought stress. However, no study conducted to date has presented suitable reference genes, with stable expression along the day, for relative gene expression quantification in combined studies on drought stress and diurnal oscillations. Recently, water deficit responses have been associated with circadian clock oscillations at the transcription level, revealing the existence of hitherto unknown processes and increasing the demand for studies on plant responses to drought stress and its oscillation during the day. We performed data mining from a transcriptome-wide background using microarrays and RNA-seq databases to select an unpublished set of candidate reference genes, specifically chosen for the normalization of gene expression in studies on soybean under both drought stress and diurnal oscillations. Experimental validation and stability analysis in soybean plants submitted to drought stress and sampled during a 24 h timecourse showed that four of these newer reference genes (FYVE, NUDIX, Golgin-84 and CYST indeed exhibited greater expression stability than the conventionally used housekeeping genes (ELF1-β and β-actin under these conditions. We also demonstrated the effect of using reference candidate genes with different stability values to normalize the relative expression data from a drought-inducible soybean gene (DREB5 evaluated in different periods of the day.

  1. Gene-Environment Interactions in Stress Response Contribute Additively to a Genotype-Environment Interaction.

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    Takeshi Matsui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available How combinations of gene-environment interactions collectively give rise to genotype-environment interactions is not fully understood. To shed light on this problem, we genetically dissected an environment-specific poor growth phenotype in a cross of two budding yeast strains. This phenotype is detectable when certain segregants are grown on ethanol at 37°C ('E37', a condition that differs from the standard culturing environment in both its carbon source (ethanol as opposed to glucose and temperature (37°C as opposed to 30°C. Using recurrent backcrossing with phenotypic selection, we identified 16 contributing loci. To examine how these loci interact with each other and the environment, we focused on a subset of four loci that together can lead to poor growth in E37. We measured the growth of all 16 haploid combinations of alleles at these loci in all four possible combinations of carbon source (ethanol or glucose and temperature (30 or 37°C in a nearly isogenic population. This revealed that the four loci act in an almost entirely additive manner in E37. However, we also found that these loci have weaker effects when only carbon source or temperature is altered, suggesting that their effect magnitudes depend on the severity of environmental perturbation. Consistent with such a possibility, cloning of three causal genes identified factors that have unrelated functions in stress response. Thus, our results indicate that polymorphisms in stress response can show effects that are intensified by environmental stress, thereby resulting in major genotype-environment interactions when multiple of these variants co-occur.

  2. Gene-Environment Interactions in Stress Response Contribute Additively to a Genotype-Environment Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takeshi; Ehrenreich, Ian M

    2016-07-01

    How combinations of gene-environment interactions collectively give rise to genotype-environment interactions is not fully understood. To shed light on this problem, we genetically dissected an environment-specific poor growth phenotype in a cross of two budding yeast strains. This phenotype is detectable when certain segregants are grown on ethanol at 37°C ('E37'), a condition that differs from the standard culturing environment in both its carbon source (ethanol as opposed to glucose) and temperature (37°C as opposed to 30°C). Using recurrent backcrossing with phenotypic selection, we identified 16 contributing loci. To examine how these loci interact with each other and the environment, we focused on a subset of four loci that together can lead to poor growth in E37. We measured the growth of all 16 haploid combinations of alleles at these loci in all four possible combinations of carbon source (ethanol or glucose) and temperature (30 or 37°C) in a nearly isogenic population. This revealed that the four loci act in an almost entirely additive manner in E37. However, we also found that these loci have weaker effects when only carbon source or temperature is altered, suggesting that their effect magnitudes depend on the severity of environmental perturbation. Consistent with such a possibility, cloning of three causal genes identified factors that have unrelated functions in stress response. Thus, our results indicate that polymorphisms in stress response can show effects that are intensified by environmental stress, thereby resulting in major genotype-environment interactions when multiple of these variants co-occur.

  3. Role of the Talaromyces marneffei (Penicillium marneffei) sakA gene in nitrosative stress response, conidiation and red pigment production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmanee, Panjaphorn; Tam, Emily W T; Woo, Patrick C Y; Vanittanakom, Pramote; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2017-04-01

    Stress-activated MAPK pathways are systems used to regulate the stress adaptation of most fungi. It has been shown that in Talaromyces marneffei (Penicillium marneffei), a pathogenic dimorphic fungus, the sakA gene is involved, not only in tolerance against oxidative and heat stresses, but also in playing a role in asexual development, yeast cell generation in vitro and survival inside macrophage cell lines. In this study, the role of the T. marneffei sakA gene on the nitrosative stress response and the regulation of gene expression were investigated. The susceptibility of the sakA mutant to NaNO2 was investigated using drop dilution assay and the expression of genes of interest were determined by RT-PCR, comparing them to the wild-type and complemented strains. The results demonstrated that the T. marneffei sakA gene played a role in the stress response to NaNO2, the expression of genes functioning in conidial development (brlA, abaA and wetA) and red pigment biosynthesis (pks3, rp1, rp2 and rp3). These findings suggest that T. marneffei sakA is broadly involved in a wide variety of cell activities, including stress response, cell morphogenesis, asexual development and pigmentation. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes by cDNA-AFLP Technique in Response to Drought Stress in Triticum durum

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    Marouane Melloul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the single largest abiotic stress factor leading to reduced crop yields. The identification of diff erentially expressed genes and the understanding of their functions in environmentally stressful conditions are essential to improve drought tolerance. Transcriptomics is a powerful approach for the global analysis of molecular mechanisms under abiotic stress. To identify genes that are important for drought tolerance, we analyzed mRNA populations from untreated and drought-stressed leaves of Triticum durum by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP technique. Overall, 76 transcript-derived fragments corresponding to differentially induced transcripts were successfully sequenced. Most of the transcripts identified here, using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST database, were genes belonging to different functional categories related to metabolism, energy, cellular biosynthesis, cell defense, signal transduction, transcription regulation, protein degradation and transport. The expression patterns of these genes were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR based on ten selected genes representing different patterns. These results could facilitate the understanding of cellular mechanisms involving groups of genes that act in coordination in response to stimuli of water deficit. The identification of novel stress-responsive genes will provide useful data that could help develop breeding strategies aimed at improving durum wheat tolerance to field stress.

  5. Induction of cytochrome P450 1 genes and stress response genes in developing zebrafish exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrendt, Lars [Biology Department, Redfield 352 MS-32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 45 Water Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Joensson, Maria E. [Biology Department, Redfield 352 MS-32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 45 Water Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University (Sweden); Goldstone, Jared V. [Biology Department, Redfield 352 MS-32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 45 Water Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Stegeman, John J., E-mail: jstegeman@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 352 MS-32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 45 Water Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation damages cell molecules, and has been suggested to up-regulate mammalian cytochrome P4501 (CYP1) genes through an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediated mechanism. In this study, embryos and larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to UV to determine the effects on expression of CYP1 and stress response genes in vivo in these fish. Zebrafish embryos were exposed for varying times to UV on two consecutive days, with exposure beginning at 24 and 48 h post-fertilization (hpf). Embryos exposed for 2, 4 or 6 h twice over 2 days to UVB (0.62 W/m{sup 2}; 8.9-26.7 kJ/m{sup 2}) plus UVA (2.05 W/m{sup 2}; 29.5-144.6 kJ/m{sup 2}) had moderately (2.4 {+-} 0.8-fold) but significantly up-regulated levels of CYP1A. UVA alone had no effect on CYP1A expression. Proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) transcript levels were induced (2.1 {+-} 0.2 and 2.3 {+-} 0.5-fold, respectively) in embryos exposed to two 6-h pulses of 0.62 W/m{sup 2} UVB (26.8 kJ/m{sup 2}). CYP1A was induced also in embryos exposed to higher intensity UVB (0.93 W/m{sup 2}) for two 3-h or two 4-h pulses (20.1 or 26.8 kJ/m{sup 2}). CYP1B1, SOD1 and PCNA expression was induced by the two 3-h pulses of the higher intensity UVB, but not after two 4-h pulses of the higher intensity UVB, possibly due to impaired condition of surviving embryos, reflected in a mortality of 34% at that UVB dose. A single 8-h long exposure of zebrafish larvae (8 dpf) to UVB at 0.93 W/m{sup 2} (26.8 kJ/m{sup 2}) significantly induced CYP1A and CYP1B1 expression, but other CYP1 genes (CYP1C1, CYP1C2 and CYP1D1) showed no significant increase. The results show that UVB can induce expression of CYP1 genes as well stress response genes in developing zebrafish, and that UVB intensity and duration influence the responses.

  6. De novo transcriptome sequencing of Isaria cateniannulata and comparative analysis of gene expression in response to heat and cold stresses.

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    Dingfeng Wang

    Full Text Available Isaria cateniannulata is a very important and virulent entomopathogenic fungus that infects many insect pest species. Although I. cateniannulata is commonly exposed to extreme environmental temperature conditions, little is known about its molecular response mechanism to temperature stress. Here, we sequenced and de novo assembled the transcriptome of I. cateniannulata in response to high and low temperature stresses using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. Our assembly encompassed 17,514 unigenes (mean length = 1,197 bp, in which 11,445 unigenes (65.34% showed significant similarities to known sequences in NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (Nr database. Using digital gene expression analysis, 4,483 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified after heat treatment, including 2,905 up-regulated genes and 1,578 down-regulated genes. Under cold stress, 1,927 DEGs were identified, including 1,245 up-regulated genes and 682 down-regulated genes. The expression patterns of 18 randomly selected candidate DEGs resulting from quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR were consistent with their transcriptome analysis results. Although DEGs were involved in many pathways, we focused on the genes that were involved in endocytosis: In heat stress, the pathway of clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE was active; however at low temperature stresses, the pathway of clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE was active. Besides, four categories of DEGs acting as temperature sensors were observed, including cell-wall-major-components-metabolism-related (CWMCMR genes, heat shock protein (Hsp genes, intracellular-compatible-solutes-metabolism-related (ICSMR genes and glutathione S-transferase (GST. These results enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of I. cateniannulata in response to temperature stresses and provide a valuable resource for the future investigations.

  7. Gene expression profiling of oxidative stress response of C. elegans aging defective AMPK mutants using massively parallel transcriptome sequencing

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    Baillie David L

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong association between stress resistance and longevity in multicellular organisms has been established as many mutations that extend lifespan also show increased resistance to stress. AAK-2, the C. elegans homolog of an alpha subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is an intracellular fuel sensor that regulates cellular energy homeostasis and functions in stress resistance and lifespan extension. Findings Here, we investigated global transcriptional responses of aak-2 mutants to oxidative stress and in turn identified potential downstream targets of AAK-2 involved in stress resistance in C. elegans. We employed massively parallel Illumina sequencing technology and performed comprehensive comparative transcriptome analysis. Specifically, we compared the transcriptomes of aak-2 and wild type animals under normal conditions and conditions of induced oxidative stress. This research has presented a snapshot of genome-wide transcriptional activities that take place in C. elegans in response to oxidative stress both in the presence and absence of AAK-2. Conclusions The analysis presented in this study has enabled us to identify potential genes involved in stress resistance that may be either directly or indirectly under the control of AAK-2. Furthermore, we have extended our current knowledge of general defense responses of C. elegans against oxidative stress supporting the function for AAK-2 in inhibition of biosynthetic processes, especially lipid synthesis, under oxidative stress and transcriptional regulation of genes involved in reproductive processes.

  8. Homeologous genes involved in mannitol synthesis reveal unequal contributions in response to abiotic stress in Coffea arabica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Kenia; Petkowicz, Carmen L O; Nagashima, Getulio T; Bespalhok Filho, João C; Vieira, Luiz G E; Pereira, Luiz F P; Domingues, Douglas S

    2014-10-01

    Polyploid plants can exhibit transcriptional modulation in homeologous genes in response to abiotic stresses. Coffea arabica, an allotetraploid, accounts for 75% of the world's coffee production. Extreme temperatures, salinity and drought limit crop productivity, which includes coffee plants. Mannitol is known to be involved in abiotic stress tolerance in higher plants. This study aimed to investigate the transcriptional responses of genes involved in mannitol biosynthesis and catabolism in C. arabica leaves under water deficit, salt stress and high temperature. Mannitol concentration was significantly increased in leaves of plants under drought and salinity, but reduced by heat stress. Fructose content followed the level of mannitol only in heat-stressed plants, suggesting the partitioning of the former into other metabolites during drought and salt stress conditions. Transcripts of the key enzymes involved in mannitol biosynthesis, CaM6PR, CaPMI and CaMTD, were modulated in distinct ways depending on the abiotic stress. Our data suggest that changes in mannitol accumulation during drought and salt stress in leaves of C. arabica are due, at least in part, to the increased expression of the key genes involved in mannitol biosynthesis. In addition, the homeologs of the Coffea canephora subgenome did not present the same pattern of overall transcriptional response, indicating differential regulation of these genes by the same stimulus. In this way, this study adds new information on the differential expression of C. arabica homeologous genes under adverse environmental conditions showing that abiotic stresses can influence the homeologous gene regulation pattern, in this case, mainly on those involved in mannitol pathway.

  9. De novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in response to freezing stress.

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    Sadegh Mousavi

    Full Text Available Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill., one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond's transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current research, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reproductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomly selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant.

  10. De novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in response to freezing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Sadegh; Alisoltani, Arghavan; Shiran, Behrouz; Fallahi, Hossein; Ebrahimie, Esameil; Imani, Ali; Houshmand, Saadollah

    2014-01-01

    Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond's transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current research, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reproductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary) to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE) genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomly selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant.

  11. Salt and drought stress and ABA responses related to bZIP genes from V. radiata and V. angularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanfen; Zhu, Jifeng; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Shumin; Wu, Jing

    2018-04-20

    Mung bean and adzuki bean are warm-season legumes widely cultivated in China. However, bean production in major producing regions is limited by biotic and abiotic stress, such as drought and salt stress. Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) genes play key roles in responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, only several bZIP genes involved in drought and salt stress in legumes, especially Vigna radiata and Vigna angularis, have been identified. In this study, we identified 54 and 50 bZIP proteins from whole-genome sequences of V. radiata and V. angularis, respectively. First, we comprehensively surveyed the characteristics of all bZIP genes, including their gene structure, chromosome distribution and motif composition. Phylogenetic trees showed that VrbZIP and VabZIP proteins were divided into ten clades comprising nine known and one unknown subgroup. The results of the nucleotide substitution rate of the orthologous gene pairs showed that bZIP proteins have undergone strong purifying selection: V. radiata and V. angularis diverged 1.25 million years ago (mya) to 9.20 mya (average of 4.95 mya). We also found that many cis-acting regulatory elements (CAREs) involved in abiotic stress and plant hormone responses were detected in the putative promoter regions of the bZIP genes. Finally, using the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) method, we performed expression profiling of the bZIP genes in response to drought, salt and abscisic acid (ABA). We identified several bZIP genes that may be involved in drought and salt responses. Generally, our results provided useful and rich resources of VrbZIP and VabZIP genes for the functional characterization and understanding of bZIP transcription factors (TFs) in warm-season legumes. In addition, our results revealed important and interesting data - a subset of VrbZIP and VabZIP gene expression profiles in response to drought, salt and ABA stress. These results provide gene expression evidence for the selection of

  12. DqsIR quorum sensing-mediated gene regulation of the extremophilic bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans in response to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Dai, Shang; Tian, Bing; Li, Tao; Yu, Jiangliu; Liu, Chengzhi; Wang, Liangyan; Xu, Hong; Zhao, Ye; Hua, Yuejin

    2016-05-01

    Here, we show that AHLs can be employed by Deinococcus radiodurans, which belongs to the unique phylum Deinococcus-Thermus and is known for its cellular resistance to environmental stresses. An AHL-mediated quorum-sensing system (DqsI/DqsR) was identified in D. radiodurans. We found that under non-stress conditions, the AHL level was "shielded" by quorum quenching enzymes, whereas AHLs accumulated when D. radiodurans was exposed to oxidative stress. Upon exposure to H2 O2 , AHL synthetic enzymes (DqsI) were immediately induced, while the expression of quorum-quenching enzymes began to increase approximately 30 min after exposure to H2 O2 , as shown by time-course analyses of gene expression. Both dqsI mutant (DMDqsI) and dqsR mutant (MDqsR) were more sensitive to oxidative stress compared with the wild-type strain. Exogenous AHLs (5 μM) could completely restore the survival fraction of DMDqsI under oxidative stress. RNA-seq analysis showed that a number of genes involved in stress-response, cellular cleansing, and DNA repair had altered transcriptional levels in MDqsR. The DqsR, acting as a regulator of quorum sensing, controls gene expression along with AHLs. Hence, the DqsIR-mediated quorum sensing that mediates gene regulation is an adaptive strategy for D. radiodurans in response to oxidative stresses and is conserved in the extremophilic Deinococcus bacteria. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Large Differences in Gene Expression Responses to Drought and Heat Stress between Elite Barley Cultivar Scarlett and a Spanish Landrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalapiedra, Carlos P; García-Pereira, María J; Gracia, María P; Igartua, Ernesto; Casas, Ana M; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Drought causes important losses in crop production every season. Improvement for drought tolerance could take advantage of the diversity held in germplasm collections, much of which has not been incorporated yet into modern breeding. Spanish landraces constitute a promising resource for barley breeding, as they were widely grown until last century and still show good yielding ability under stress. Here, we study the transcriptome expression landscape in two genotypes, an outstanding Spanish landrace-derived inbred line (SBCC073) and a modern cultivar (Scarlett). Gene expression of adult plants after prolonged stresses, either drought or drought combined with heat, was monitored. Transcriptome of mature leaves presented little changes under severe drought, whereas abundant gene expression changes were observed under combined mild drought and heat. Developing inflorescences of SBCC073 exhibited mostly unaltered gene expression, whereas numerous changes were found in the same tissues for Scarlett. Genotypic differences in physiological traits and gene expression patterns confirmed the different behavior of landrace SBCC073 and cultivar Scarlett under abiotic stress, suggesting that they responded to stress following different strategies. A comparison with related studies in barley, addressing gene expression responses to drought, revealed common biological processes, but moderate agreement regarding individual differentially expressed transcripts. Special emphasis was put in the search of co-expressed genes and underlying common regulatory motifs. Overall, 11 transcription factors were identified, and one of them matched cis -regulatory motifs discovered upstream of co-expressed genes involved in those responses.

  14. Overexpressing the Multiple-Stress Responsive Gene At1g74450 Reduces Plant Height and Male Fertility in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Anne M Visscher

    Full Text Available A subset of genes in Arabidopsis thaliana is known to be up-regulated in response to a wide range of different environmental stress factors. However, not all of these genes are characterized as yet with respect to their functions. In this study, we used transgenic knockout, overexpression and reporter gene approaches to try to elucidate the biological roles of five unknown multiple-stress responsive genes in Arabidopsis. The selected genes have the following locus identifiers: At1g18740, At1g74450, At4g27652, At4g29780 and At5g12010. Firstly, T-DNA insertion knockout lines were identified for each locus and screened for altered phenotypes. None of the lines were found to be visually different from wildtype Col-0. Secondly, 35S-driven overexpression lines were generated for each open reading frame. Analysis of these transgenic lines showed altered phenotypes for lines overexpressing the At1g74450 ORF. Plants overexpressing the multiple-stress responsive gene At1g74450 are stunted in height and have reduced male fertility. Alexander staining of anthers from flowers at developmental stage 12-13 showed either an absence or a reduction in viable pollen compared to wildtype Col-0 and At1g74450 knockout lines. Interestingly, the effects of stress on crop productivity are most severe at developmental stages such as male gametophyte development. However, the molecular factors and regulatory networks underlying environmental stress-induced male gametophytic alterations are still largely unknown. Our results indicate that the At1g74450 gene provides a potential link between multiple environmental stresses, plant height and pollen development. In addition, ruthenium red staining analysis showed that At1g74450 may affect the composition of the inner seed coat mucilage layer. Finally, C-terminal GFP fusion proteins for At1g74450 were shown to localise to the cytosol.

  15. Use of Heat Stress Responsive Gene Expression Levels for Early Selection of Heat Tolerant Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

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    Jun Cheul Ahn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL, “HO”, and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL, “JK”, by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13 were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS. Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress.

  16. Transcriptome profiling and validation of gene based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in sorghum genotypes with contrasting responses to cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Ratan; Burow, Gloria; Hayes, Chad; Emendack, Yves; Xin, Zhanguo; Burke, John

    2015-12-09

    Sorghum is a versatile cereal crop, with excellent heat and drought tolerance. However, it is susceptible to early-season cold stress (12-15 °C) which limits stand-establishment and seedling growth. To gain further insights on the molecular mechanism of cold tolerance in sorghum we performed transcriptome profiling between known cold sensitive and tolerant sorghum lines using RNA sequencing technology under control and cold stress treatments. Here we report on the identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between contrasting sorghum genotypes, HongkeZi (cold tolerant) and BTx623 (cold sensitive) under cool and control temperatures using RNAseq approach to elucidate the molecular basis of sorghum response to cold stress. Furthermore, we validated bi-allelic variants in the form of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) between the cold susceptible and tolerant lines of sorghum. An analysis of transcriptome profile showed that in response to cold, a total of 1910 DEGs were detected under cold and control temperatures in both genotypes. We identified a subset of genes under cold stress for downstream analysis, including transcription factors that exhibit differential abundance between the sensitive and tolerant genotypes. We identified transcription factors including Dehydration-responsive element-binding factors, C-repeat binding factors, and Ethylene responsive transcription factors as significantly upregulated during cold stress in cold tolerant HKZ. Additionally, specific genes such as plant cytochromes, glutathione s-transferases, and heat shock proteins were found differentially regulated under cold stress between cold tolerant and susceptible genotype of sorghum. A total of 41,603 SNP were identified between the cold sensitive and tolerant genotypes with minimum read of four. Approximately 89 % of the 114 SNP sites selected for evaluation were validated using endpoint genotyping technology. A new strategy which involved an integrated analysis of

  17. Two-stage gene regulation of the superoxide stress response soxRS system in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunoshiba, T

    1996-01-01

    All organisms have adapted to environmental changes by acquiring various functions controlled by gene regulation. In bacteria, a number of specific responses have been found to confer cell survival in various nutrient-limited conditions, and under physiological stresses such as high or low temperature, extreme pH, radiation, and oxidation (for review, see Neidhardt et al., 1987). In this article, I introduce an Escherichia coli (E. coli) global response induced by superoxide stress, the soxRS regulon. The functions controlled by this system consist of a wide variety of enzymes such as manganese-containing SOD (Mn-SOD); glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the DNA repair enzyme endonuclease IV, fumarase C, NADPH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and aconitase. This response is positively regulated by a two-stage control system in which SoxR iron-sulfur protein senses exposure to superoxide and nitric oxide, and then activates transcription of the soxS gene, whose product stimulates the expression of the regulon genes. Our recent finding indicates that soxS transcription is initiated in a manner dependent on the rpoS gene encoding RNA polymerase sigma factor, theta s, in response to entering the stationary phase of growth. With this information, mechanisms for prokaryotic coordinating gene expression in response to superoxide stress and in stationary phase are discussed.

  18. How stable is repression of disallowed genes in pancreatic islets in response to metabolic stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Katleen; Granvik, Mikaela; Schraenen, Anica; Goyvaerts, Lotte; Van Lommel, Leentje; Gómez-Ruiz, Ana; In 't Veld, Peter; Gilon, Patrick; Schuit, Frans

    2017-01-01

    The specific phenotype of mature differentiated beta cells not only depends on the specific presence of genes that allow beta cell function but also on the selective absence of housekeeping genes ("disallowed genes") that would interfere with this function. Recent studies have shown that both histone modifications and DNA methylation via the de novo methyltransferase DNMT3A are involved in repression of disallowed genes in neonatal beta cells when these cells acquire their mature phenotype. It is unknown, however, if the environmental influence of advanced age, pregnancy and the metabolic stress of high fat diet or diabetes could alter the repression of disallowed genes in beta cells. In the present study, we show that islet disallowed genes-which are also deeply repressed in FACS-purified beta cells-remain deeply repressed in animals of advanced age and in pregnant females. Moreover, the stability of this repression was correlated with strong and stable histone repression marks that persisted in islets isolated from 2 year old mice and with overall high expression of Dnmt3a in islets. Furthermore, repression of disallowed genes was unaffected by the metabolic stress of high fat diet. However, repression of about half of the disallowed genes was weakened in 16 week-old diabetic db/db mice. In conclusion, we show that the disallowed status of islet genes is stable under physiological challenging conditions (advanced age, pregnancy, high fat diet) but partially lost in islets from diabetic animals.

  19. Analysis of global gene expression in Brachypodium distachyon reveals extensive network plasticity in response to abiotic stress.

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    Henry D Priest

    Full Text Available Brachypodium distachyon is a close relative of many important cereal crops. Abiotic stress tolerance has a significant impact on productivity of agriculturally important food and feedstock crops. Analysis of the transcriptome of Brachypodium after chilling, high-salinity, drought, and heat stresses revealed diverse differential expression of many transcripts. Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis revealed 22 distinct gene modules with specific profiles of expression under each stress. Promoter analysis implicated short DNA sequences directly upstream of module members in the regulation of 21 of 22 modules. Functional analysis of module members revealed enrichment in functional terms for 10 of 22 network modules. Analysis of condition-specific correlations between differentially expressed gene pairs revealed extensive plasticity in the expression relationships of gene pairs. Photosynthesis, cell cycle, and cell wall expression modules were down-regulated by all abiotic stresses. Modules which were up-regulated by each abiotic stress fell into diverse and unique gene ontology GO categories. This study provides genomics resources and improves our understanding of abiotic stress responses of Brachypodium.

  20. Genome-wide expression profiling of aquaporin genes confer responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayum, Md Abdul; Park, Jong-In; Nath, Ujjal Kumar; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Kim, Hoy-Taek; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2017-01-25

    Plants contain a range of aquaporin (AQP) proteins, which act as transporter of water and nutrient molecules through living membranes. AQPs also participate in water uptake through the roots and contribute to water homeostasis in leaves. In this study, we identified 59 AQP genes in the B. rapa database and Br135K microarray dataset. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four distinct subfamilies of AQP genes: plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs) and small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs). Microarray analysis showed that the majority of PIP subfamily genes had differential transcript abundance between two B. rapa inbred lines Chiifu and Kenshin that differ in their susceptibility to cold. In addition, all BrPIP genes showed organ-specific expression. Out of 22 genes, 12, 7 and 17 were up-regulated in response to cold, drought and salt stresses, respectively. In addition, 18 BrPIP genes were up-regulated under ABA treatment and 4 BrPIP genes were up-regulated upon F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans infection. Moreover, all BrPIP genes showed down-regulation under waterlogging stress, reflecting likely the inactivation of AQPs controlling symplastic water movement. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of AQPs in B. rapa and details the expression of 22 members of the BrPIP subfamily. These results provide insight into stress-related biological functions of each PIP gene of the AQP family, which will promote B. rapa breeding programs.

  1. Copepod swimming behavior, respiration, and expression of stress-related genes in response to high stocking densities

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    Birgitte Nilsson

    2017-05-01

    None of the elevated densities caused any significant change in swimming behavior, respiration rate or gene expression level. This study suggests that adults of A. tonsa do not exhibit any measurable acute stress response when exposed to high culture densities for 12 h.

  2. TaWRKY68 responses to biotic stresses are revealed by the orthologous genes from major cereals

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    Bo Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors have been extensively characterized in the past 20 years, but in wheat, studies onWRKY genes and their function are lagging behind many other species. To explore the function of wheat WRKY genes, we identified a TaWRKY68 gene from a common wheat cultivar. It encodes a protein comprising 313 amino acids which harbors 19 conserved motifs or active sites. Gene expression patterns were determined by analyzing microarray data of TaWRKY68 in wheat and of orthologous genes from maize, rice and barley using Genevestigator. TaWRKY68 orthologs were identified and clustered using DELTA-BLAST and COBALT programs available at NCBI. The results showed that these genes, which are expressed in all tissues tested, had relatively higher levels in the roots and were up-regulated in response to biotic stresses. Bioinformatics results were confirmed by RT-PCR experiments using wheat plants infected by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Blumeria graminis, or treated with Deoxynivalenol, a Fusarium graminearum-induced mycotoxin in wheat or barley. In summary,TaWRKY68 functions differ during plant developmental stages and might be representing a hub gene function in wheat responses to various biotic stresses. It was also found that including data from major cereal genes in the bioinformatics analysis gave more accurate and comprehensive predictions of wheat gene functions.

  3. Transcriptome Profiling of Louisiana iris Root and Identification of Genes Involved in Lead-Stress Response

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    Songqing Tian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Louisiana iris is tolerant to and accumulates the heavy metal lead (Pb. However, there is limited knowledge of the molecular mechanisms behind this feature. We describe the transcriptome of Louisiana iris using Illumina sequencing technology. The root transcriptome of Louisiana iris under control and Pb-stress conditions was sequenced. Overall, 525,498 transcripts representing 313,958 unigenes were assembled using the clean raw reads. Among them, 43,015 unigenes were annotated and their functions classified using the euKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG database. They were divided into 25 molecular families. In the Gene Ontology (GO database, 50,174 unigenes were categorized into three GO trees (molecular function, cellular component and biological process. After analysis of differentially expressed genes, some Pb-stress-related genes were selected, including biosynthesis genes of chelating compounds, metal transporters, transcription factors and antioxidant-related genes. This study not only lays a foundation for further studies on differential genes under Pb stress, but also facilitates the molecular breeding of Louisiana iris.

  4. Global analysis of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in response to drought stress in Sorghum.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Anireddy [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Ben-Hur, Asa [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Abiotic stresses including drought are major limiting factors of crop yields and cause significant crop losses. Acquisition of stress tolerance to abiotic stresses requires coordinated regulation of a multitude of biochemical and physiological changes, and most of these changes depend on alterations in gene expression. The goal of this work is to perform global analysis of differential regulation of gene expression and alternative splicing, and their relationship with chromatin landscape in drought sensitive and tolerant cultivars. our Iso-Seq study revealed transcriptome-wide full-length isoforms at an unprecedented scale with over 11000 novel splice isoforms. Additionally, we uncovered alternative polyadenylation sites of ~11000 expressed genes and many novel genes. Overall, Iso-Seq results greatly enhanced sorghum gene annotations that are not only useful in analyzing all our RNA-seq, ChIP-seq and ATAC-seq data but also serve as a great resource to the plant biology community. Our studies identified differentially expressed genes and splicing events that are correlated with the drought-resistant phenotype. An association between alternative splicing and chromatin accessibility was also revealed. Several computational tools developed here (TAPIS and iDiffIR) have been made freely available to the research community in analyzing alternative splicing and differential alternative splicing.

  5. Construction of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius cDNA library and analysis of genes expressed in response to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, S; Maiti, N K

    2014-03-01

    Thermophiles exhibit various kinds of molecular mechanisms to survive in extreme environment, but their behavioral responses to long duration stress is poorly understood until date. In the present study, we have prospected for the genes differentially expressed in response to long duration heat stress in thermophilic bacteria. A cDNA library was constructed from Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius grown with a temperature upshift of 10 °C from optimum growth temperature of 45 °C for 16 h. A total of 451 clones from the library were sequenced with accurate base calling that generated 257 high quality sequences with an average read length of 350 bp. We queried our collection of single pass sequences against the NCBI non-redundant database using the BLASTX algorithm and obtained sequences that showed significant similarity (>60%) with heat shock proteins, metabolic proteins and hypothetical proteins. The expressed sequence tags (ESTs) expressed in response to heat stress were annotated that further commuted a strong interaction network among one another. The ESTs based on the best hits were validated by RT-PCR. Di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs were also found to be associated with 17 genes involved in heat shock response, metabolism, transport and transcriptional regulation. The present results provide the novel identification of the putative genes responsible for imparting tolerance to bacteria under heat stress and unveil their role for survival of life in environmental extremes.

  6. Comparative Analysis of WRKY Genes Potentially Involved in Salt Stress Responses in Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Makhloufi, Emna; Marande, William; Ghorbel, Abdel W.; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bergès, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms. This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within oceans of TEs. Each BAC clone harbored a TdWRKY gene. The study showed a very extensive conservation of genomic structure between TdWRKYs and their orthologs from Brachypodium, barley, and T. aestivum. The structural features of TdWRKY proteins suggested that they are novel members of the WRKY family in durum wheat. TdWRKY1/2/4, TdWRKY3, and TdWRKY5 belong to the group Ia, IIa, and IIc, respectively. Enrichment of cis-regulatory elements related to stress responses in the promoters of some TdWRKY genes indicated their potential roles in mediating plant responses to a wide variety of environmental stresses. TdWRKY genes displayed different expression patterns in response to salt stress that distinguishes two durum wheat genotypes with contrasting salt stress tolerance phenotypes. TdWRKY genes tended to react earlier with a down-regulation in sensitive genotype leaves and with an up-regulation in tolerant genotype leaves. The TdWRKY transcripts levels in roots increased

  7. Molecular characterization of cotton C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor genes that are involved in response to cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liu-Feng; Zhang, Jian-Min; Huang, Geng-Qing; Li, Yang; Li, Xue-Bao; Zheng, Yong

    2014-07-01

    Low temperature, drought and salinity are major abiotic stresses that influence survival, productivity and geographical distribution of many important crops across the globe. The C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding transcription factors (CBF/DREB) are important proteins involved in response to abiotic stresses in plants. In this study, twenty-one CBF genes were identified in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) by bioinformatic approach. The twenty-one CBF genes (named as GhCBF1--GhCBF21) were characterized to encode proteins that share high similarity with those plant cold stress-related CBF proteins, which contain the classic AP2 domain of 58 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolated cotton CBF genes can be classified into 4 groups: GhCBF I, GhCBF II, GhCBF III and GhCBF IV. RT-PCR analysis indicated that GhCBF genes were up-regulated in cotton plants under cold stress. Furthermore, four GhCBF genes were up-regulated in cotton under salinity and drought treatments. Our data provided valuable information for further exploring the roles of the CBF genes in cotton development and in response to cold stress.

  8. [Stress-responsive expression analysis of glutathione-S-transferase gene of Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xun; He, Bo-Wen; Zhang, Yi-Zheng

    2009-08-01

    A prokaryotic expression plasmid pET-IbGST, which contains the full encoding region of a glutathione-S- transferase (GST) gene of sweet potato, was constructed. The recombinant IBGSTU1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and found in the soluble fraction, as well as in insoluble inclusion bodies of lysed cells. Its enzymatic activity was detected using UV spectrophotometer. The protein was purified and used to prepare antibody. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses demonstrated that IBGSTU1 gene was not expressed under normal conditions. When subjected to some environ-mental stresses such as cold-stress or heavy-medal stress, the organism switches on the expression of IBGSTU1 at both mRNA and protein levels, and its expression has tissue specificity.

  9. Genome-wide characterization of the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene superfamily in soybean and its potential role in drought stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Juge; Li, Yang; Gai, Junyi; Li, Yan

    2017-07-07

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) represent a group of enzymes that detoxify aldehydes by facilitating their oxidation to carboxylic acids, and have been shown to play roles in plant response to abiotic stresses. However, the comprehensive analysis of ALDH superfamily in soybean (Glycine max) has been limited. In present study, a total of 53 GmALDHs were identified in soybean, and grouped into 10 ALDH families according to the ALDH Gene Nomenclature Committee and phylogenetic analysis. These groupings were supported by their gene structures and conserved motifs. Soybean ALDH superfamily expanded mainly by whole genome duplication/segmental duplications. Gene network analysis identified 1146 putative co-functional genes of 51 GmALDHs. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis suggested the co-functional genes of these 51 GmALDHs were enriched (FDR soybean tissues. The expression levels of 13 GmALDHs were significantly up-regulated and 14 down-regulated in response to water deficit. The occurrence frequencies of three drought-responsive cis-elements (ABRE, CRT/DRE, and GTGCnTGC/G) were compared in GmALDH genes that were up-, down-, or non-regulated by water deficit. Higher frequency of these three cis-elements was observed for the group of up-regulated GmALDH genes as compared to the group of down- or non- regulated GmALDHs by drought stress, implying their potential roles in the regulation of soybean response to drought stress. A total of 53 ALDH genes were identified in soybean genome and their phylogenetic relationships and duplication patterns were analyzed. The potential functions of GmALDHs were predicted by analyses of their co-functional gene networks, gene expression profiles, and cis-regulatory elements. Three GmALDH genes, including GmALDH3H2, GmALDH12A2 and GmALDH18B3, were highly induced by drought stress in soybean leaves. Our study provides a foundation for future investigations of GmALDH gene function in soybean.

  10. A novel role for pigment genes in the stress response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Uniza Wahid; Øverli, Øyvind; Hinkle, Patricia M.; Pasha, Farhan Ahmad; Johansen, Ida Beitnes; Berget, Ingunn; Silva, Patricia I. M.; Kittilsen, Silje; Höglund, Erik; Omholt, Stig W.; Våge, Dag Inge

    2016-01-01

    In many vertebrate species visible melanin-based pigmentation patterns correlate with high stress- and disease-resistance, but proximate mechanisms for this trait association remain enigmatic. Here we show that a missense mutation in a classical pigmentation gene, melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor (MC1R), is strongly associated with distinct differences in steroidogenic melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) mRNA expression between high- (HR) and low-responsive (LR) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We also show experimentally that cortisol implants increase the expression of agouti signaling protein (ASIP) mRNA in skin, likely explaining the association between HR-traits and reduced skin melanin patterning. Molecular dynamics simulations predict that melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP), needed for MC2R function, binds differently to the two MC1R variants. Considering that mRNA for MC2R and the MC1R variants are present in head kidney cells, we hypothesized that MC2R activity is modulated in part by different binding affinities of the MC1R variants for MRAP. Experiments in mammalian cells confirmed that trout MRAP interacts with the two trout MC1R variants and MC2R, but failed to detect regulation of MC2R signaling, possibly due to high constitutive MC1R activity. PMID:27373344

  11. A novel role for pigment genes in the stress response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Uniza Wahid

    2016-07-04

    In many vertebrate species visible melanin-based pigmentation patterns correlate with high stress- and disease-resistance, but proximate mechanisms for this trait association remain enigmatic. Here we show that a missense mutation in a classical pigmentation gene, melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor (MC1R), is strongly associated with distinct differences in steroidogenic melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) mRNA expression between high- (HR) and low-responsive (LR) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We also show experimentally that cortisol implants increase the expression of agouti signaling protein (ASIP) mRNA in skin, likely explaining the association between HR-traits and reduced skin melanin patterning. Molecular dynamics simulations predict that melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP), needed for MC2R function, binds differently to the two MC1R variants. Considering that mRNA for MC2R and the MC1R variants are present in head kidney cells, we hypothesized that MC2R activity is modulated in part by different binding affinities of the MC1R variants for MRAP. Experiments in mammalian cells confirmed that trout MRAP interacts with the two trout MC1R variants and MC2R, but failed to detect regulation of MC2R signaling, possibly due to high constitutive MC1R activity.

  12. Cloning and Expression Analysis of an AP2/ERF Gene and Its Responses to Phytohormones and Abiotic Stresses in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-li MA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene response factors (ERFs play important roles in response to plant biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a gene encoding a putative AP2/ERF domain-containing protein was isolated by screening a SSH cDNA library from rice and designated as Oryza sativa AP2/ERF-like protein (OsAP2LP gene. OsAP2LP is 1491 bp in length, interrupted by seven introns, and encodes a putative protein of 348 amino acids. Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that the OsAP2LP gene was preferentially expressed in roots, panicles, mature embryos and seeds in rice. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression levels of the OsAP2LP gene were increased under the treatments of drought and gibberellin but decreased under the treatments of low temperature, salt, abscisic acid (ABA and zeatin. Taken together, these results suggest that OsAP2LP might be involved in stress responses, and probably plays roles as a transcription regulator when plants response to cold, salt and drought stresses through ABA and gibberellin pathways.

  13. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of tomato Hsp20 gene family in response to biotic and abiotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jiahong yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hsp20 genes are involved in the response of plants to environment stresses including heat shock and also play a vital role in plant growth and development. They represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHsps in plants, but little is known about this family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, an important vegetable crop in the world. Here, we characterized heat shock protein 20 (SlHsp20 gene family in tomato through integration of gene structure, chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship and expression profile. Using bioinformatics-based methods, we identified at least 42 putative SlHsp20 genes in tomato. Sequence analysis revealed that most of SlHsp20 genes possessed no intron or a relatively short intron in length. Chromosome mapping indicated that inter-arm and intra-chromosome duplication events contributed remarkably to the expansion of SlHsp20 genes. Phylogentic tree of Hsp20 genes from tomato and other plant species revealed that SlHsp20 genes were grouped into 13 subfamilies, indicating that these genes may have a common ancestor that generated diverse subfamilies prior to the mono-dicot split. In addition, expression analysis using RNA-seq in various tissues and developmental stages of cultivated tomato and the wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium revealed that most of these genes (83% were expressed in at least one stage from at least one genotype. Out of 42 genes, 4 genes were expressed constitutively in almost all the tissues analyzed, implying that these genes might have specific housekeeping function in tomato cell under normal growth conditions. Two SlHsp20 genes displayed differential expression levels between cultivated tomato and S. pimpinellifolium in vegetative (leaf and root and reproductive organs (floral bud and flower, suggesting inter-species diversification for functional specialization during the process of domestication. Based on genome-wide microarray analysis, we showed that the transcript

  14. Response of alternative splice isoforms of OsRad9 gene from Oryza sativa to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Wang, Wenguo; Li, Fosheng; Wang, Qingwei; Wang, Shenghua; Xu, Ying; Chen, Fang

    2017-07-14

    Rad9 protein plays an important role in cell-cycle checkpoint signal transduction in human and yeast cells, but knowledge about Rad9 in plants is limited. This study reports that the Rad9 gene of rice can generate the transcript products OsRad9.1 and OsRad9.2 through alternative splicing. OsRad9.1, with all nine exons, is the main cell-cycle checkpoint protein involved in the response of rice to genotoxic stresses (ultraviolet radiation and antibiotic stress), environmental stresses (drought, salt, and heavy metal stress), and auxin stimuli (2,4-D, IAA, and IBA). Meanwhile, transcript isoform OsRad9.2, which lost exon7 and exon8, showed different preferential stimulation effects on these stresses and pollen development duration. These results might indicat that besides the monitoring and repair of DNA damage, Rad9 might involve in the development of pollen.

  15. Genome-wide identification, expression analysis of auxin-responsive GH3 family genes in maize (Zea mays L.) under abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangguo; Yue, Runqing; Tao, Sun; Yang, Yanjun; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Mingfeng; Wang, Huizhong; Shen, Chenjia

    2015-09-01

    Auxin is involved in different aspects of plant growth and development by regulating the expression of auxin-responsive family genes. As one of the three major auxin-responsive families, GH3 (Gretchen Hagen3) genes participate in auxin homeostasis by catalyzing auxin conjugation and bounding free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to amino acids. However, how GH3 genes function in responses to abiotic stresses and various hormones in maize is largely unknown. Here, the latest updated maize (Zea mays L.) reference genome sequence was used to characterize and analyze the ZmGH3 family genes from maize. The results showed that 13 ZmGH3 genes were mapped on five maize chromosomes (total 10 chromosomes). Highly diversified gene structures and tissue-specific expression patterns suggested the possibility of function diversification for these genes in response to environmental stresses and hormone stimuli. The expression patterns of ZmGH3 genes are responsive to several abiotic stresses (salt, drought and cadmium) and major stress-related hormones (abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid). Various environmental factors suppress auxin free IAA contents in maize roots suggesting that these abiotic stresses and hormones might alter GH3-mediated auxin levels. The responsiveness of ZmGH3 genes to a wide range of abiotic stresses and stress-related hormones suggested that ZmGH3s are involved in maize tolerance to environmental stresses. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Response of heat shock protein genes of the oriental fruit moth under diapause and thermal stress reveals multiple patterns dependent on the nature of stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Peng, Yu; Zheng, Jincheng; Liang, Lina; Hoffmann, Ary A; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2016-07-01

    Heat shock protein gene (Hsp) families are thought to be important in thermal adaptation, but their expression patterns under various thermal stresses have still been poorly characterized outside of model systems. We have therefore characterized Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta, a widespread global orchard pest, and compared patterns of expression in this species to that of other insects. Genes from four Hsp families showed variable expression levels among tissues and developmental stages. Members of the Hsp40, 70, and 90 families were highly expressed under short exposures to heat and cold. Expression of Hsp40, 70, and Hsc70 family members increased in OFM undergoing diapause, while Hsp90 was downregulated. We found that there was strong sequence conservation of members of large Hsp families (Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsc70) across taxa, but this was not always matched by conservation of expression patterns. When the large Hsps as well as small Hsps from OFM were compared under acute and ramping heat stress, two groups of sHsps expression patterns were apparent, depending on whether expression increased or decreased immediately after stress exposure. These results highlight potential differences in conservation of function as opposed to sequence in this gene family and also point to Hsp genes potentially useful as bioindicators of diapause and thermal stress in OFM.

  17. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis, and Stress Responses of the GRAS Gene Family in Castor Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant-specific GRAS transcription factors play important roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses. Castor beans (Ricinus communis are important non-edible oilseed plants, cultivated worldwide for its seed oils and its adaptability to growth conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a total of 48 GRAS genes based on the castor bean genome. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the castor bean GRAS members were divided into 13 distinct groups. Functional divergence analysis revealed the presence of mostly Type-I functional divergence. The gene structures and conserved motifs, both within and outside the GRAS domain, were characterized. Gene expression analysis, performed in various tissues and under a range of abiotic stress conditions, uncovered the potential functions of GRAS members in regulating plant growth development and stress responses. The results obtained from this study provide valuable information toward understanding the potential molecular mechanisms of GRAS proteins in castor beans. These findings also serve as a resource for identifying the genes that allow castor beans to grow in stressful conditions and to enable further breeding and genetic improvements in agriculture.

  18. Functional conservation analysis and expression modes of grape anthocyanin synthesis genes responsive to low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Jia, Haifeng; Wu, Weimin; Wang, Xicheng; Fang, Jinggui; Wang, Chen

    2015-12-10

    In grape cultivation, low temperature generally increases the expression of genes involved in synthesis of anthocyanin. In this study, multi-type structural analysis of the proteins encoded by five anthocyanin biosynthesis genes VvF3H, VvPAL, VvCHS3, VvCHS2 and VvLDOX, in addition to nine of their homologous genes revealed that proteins in grapevine shared a high similarity with that in kiwi, red orange and some other species in which the biosynthesis of anthocyanin significantly influenced by low temperature as proved by previous studies. Low temperature regulatory elements were also found in the promoter region of the grapevine genes VvCHS2, VvPAL and VvF3H. These findings indicate that the functions of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in grapevine are conservative and might be sensitive to low temperature. In order to identify the specific expression patterns of the five anthocyanin biosynthesis genes and the changes of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids under low temperature stress. The transcription analysis of the five genes and the content of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids in grape skins were examined, by using Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Yongyou 1' and 'Juxing' berries as experimental material and treated at 4°C and 25°C for 24h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h. The results showed that low temperature greatly enhanced the expression of the five anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. Low temperature greatly slowed down the decomposition of polyphenol, anthocyanin, and flavonoid in grape skins. Our study also found that cv. 'Juxing' responded more sensitively to low temperature than cv. 'Yongyou 1'. All the findings would provide a basis for further study on the mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis under environmental stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification and expression analyses of WRKY genes reveal their involvement in growth and abiotic stress response in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhen; Li, Hao; Yang, Yongchao; Wang, Yongqi; Mo, Yanling; Zhang, Ruimin; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Jianxiang; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2018-01-01

    Despite identification of WRKY family genes in numerous plant species, a little is known about WRKY genes in watermelon, one of the most economically important fruit crops around the world. Here, we identified a total of 63 putative WRKY genes in watermelon and classified them into three major groups (I-III) and five subgroups (IIa-IIe) in group II. The structure analysis indicated that ClWRKYs with different WRKY domains or motifs may play different roles by regulating respective target genes. The expressions of ClWRKYs in different tissues indicate that they are involved in various tissue growth and development. Furthermore, the diverse responses of ClWRKYs to drought, salt, or cold stress suggest that they positively or negatively affect plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In addition, the altered expression patterns of ClWRKYs in response to phytohormones such as, ABA, SA, MeJA, and ETH, imply the occurrence of complex cross-talks between ClWRKYs and plant hormone signals in regulating plant physiological and biological processes. Taken together, our findings provide valuable clues to further explore the function and regulatory mechanisms of ClWRKY genes in watermelon growth, development, and adaption to environmental stresses.

  20. Identification and expression analyses of WRKY genes reveal their involvement in growth and abiotic stress response in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Yang

    Full Text Available Despite identification of WRKY family genes in numerous plant species, a little is known about WRKY genes in watermelon, one of the most economically important fruit crops around the world. Here, we identified a total of 63 putative WRKY genes in watermelon and classified them into three major groups (I-III and five subgroups (IIa-IIe in group II. The structure analysis indicated that ClWRKYs with different WRKY domains or motifs may play different roles by regulating respective target genes. The expressions of ClWRKYs in different tissues indicate that they are involved in various tissue growth and development. Furthermore, the diverse responses of ClWRKYs to drought, salt, or cold stress suggest that they positively or negatively affect plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In addition, the altered expression patterns of ClWRKYs in response to phytohormones such as, ABA, SA, MeJA, and ETH, imply the occurrence of complex cross-talks between ClWRKYs and plant hormone signals in regulating plant physiological and biological processes. Taken together, our findings provide valuable clues to further explore the function and regulatory mechanisms of ClWRKY genes in watermelon growth, development, and adaption to environmental stresses.

  1. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Camelina sativa to mine drought stress-responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanth, Bashistha Kumar; Kumari, Shipra; Choi, Seo Hee; Ha, Hye-Jeong; Lee, Geung-Joo

    2015-11-06

    Camelina sativa is an oil-producing crop belonging to the family of Brassicaceae. Due to exceptionally high content of omega fatty acid, it is commercially grown around the world as edible oil, biofuel, and animal feed. A commonly referred 'false flax' or gold-of-pleasure Camelina sativa has been interested as one of biofuel feedstocks. The species can grow on marginal land due to its superior drought tolerance with low requirement of agricultural inputs. This crop has been unexploited due to very limited transcriptomic and genomic data. Use of gene-specific molecular markers is an important strategy for new cultivar development in breeding program. In this study, Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and bioinformatics tools were used to obtain expression profiling of genes responding to drought stress in Camelina sativa BN14. A total of more than 60,000 loci were assembled, corresponding to approximately 275 K transcripts. When the species was exposed to 10 kPa drought stress, 100 kPa drought stress, and rehydrated conditions, a total of 107, 2,989, and 982 genes, respectively, were up-regulated, while 146, 3,659, and 1189 genes, respectively, were down-regulated compared to control condition. Some unknown genes were found to be highly expressed under drought conditions, together with some already reported gene families such as senescence-associated genes, CAP160, and LEA under 100 kPa soil water condition, cysteine protease, 2OG, Fe(II)-dependent oxygenase, and RAD-like 1 under rehydrated condition. These genes will be further validated and mapped to determine their function and loci. This EST library will be favorably applied to develop gene-specific molecular markers and discover genes responsible for drought tolerance in Camelina species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcription factors and stress response gene alterations in human keratinocytes following Solar Simulated Ultra Violet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Thomas L Des; Kluz, Thomas; Xu, Dazhong; Zhang, Xiaoru; Gesumaria, Lisa; Matsui, Mary S; Costa, Max; Sun, Hong

    2017-10-19

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight is the major effector for skin aging and carcinogenesis. However, genes and pathways altered by solar-simulated UVR (ssUVR), a mixture of UVA and UVB, are not well characterized. Here we report global changes in gene expression as well as associated pathways and upstream transcription factors in human keratinocytes exposed to ssUVR. Human HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to either a single dose or 5 repetitive doses of ssUVR. Comprehensive analyses of gene expression profiles as well as functional annotation were performed at 24 hours post irradiation. Our results revealed that ssUVR modulated genes with diverse cellular functions changed in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression in cells exposed to a single dose of ssUVR differed significantly from those that underwent repetitive exposures. While single ssUVR caused a significant inhibition in genes involved in cell cycle progression, especially G2/M checkpoint and mitotic regulation, repetitive ssUVR led to extensive changes in genes related to cell signaling and metabolism. We have also identified a panel of ssUVR target genes that exhibited persistent changes in gene expression even at 1 week after irradiation. These results revealed a complex network of transcriptional regulators and pathways that orchestrate the cellular response to ssUVR.

  3. Compensatory evolution of gene regulation in response to stress by Escherichia coli lacking RpoS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Stoebel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The RpoS sigma factor protein of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase is the master transcriptional regulator of physiological responses to a variety of stresses. This stress response comes at the expense of scavenging for scarce resources, causing a trade-off between stress tolerance and nutrient acquisition. This trade-off favors non-functional rpoS alleles in nutrient-poor environments. We used experimental evolution to explore how natural selection modifies the regulatory network of strains lacking RpoS when they evolve in an osmotically stressful environment. We found that strains lacking RpoS adapt less variably, in terms of both fitness increase and changes in patterns of transcription, than strains with functional RpoS. This phenotypic uniformity was caused by the same adaptive mutation in every independent population: the insertion of IS10 into the promoter of the otsBA operon. OtsA and OtsB are required to synthesize the osmoprotectant trehalose, and transcription of otsBA requires RpoS in the wild-type genetic background. The evolved IS10 insertion rewires expression of otsBA from RpoS-dependent to RpoS-independent, allowing for partial restoration of wild-type response to osmotic stress. Our results show that the regulatory networks of bacteria can evolve new structures in ways that are both rapid and repeatable.

  4. Functional linkage between genes that regulate osmotic stress responses and multidrug resistance transporters: challenges and opportunities for antibiotic discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B Eleazar

    2014-01-01

    All cells need to protect themselves against the osmotic challenges of their environment by maintaining low permeability to ions across their cell membranes. This is a basic principle of cellular function, which is reflected in the interactions among ion transport and drug efflux genes that have arisen during cellular evolution. Thus, upon exposure to pore-forming antibiotics such as amphotericin B (AmB) or daptomycin (Dap), sensitive cells overexpress common resistance genes to protect themselves from added osmotic challenges. These genes share pathway interactions with the various types of multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter genes, which both preserve the native lipid membrane composition and at the same time eliminate disruptive hydrophobic molecules that partition excessively within the lipid bilayer. An increased understanding of the relationships between the genes (and their products) that regulate osmotic stress responses and MDR transporters will help to identify novel strategies and targets to overcome the current stalemate in drug discovery.

  5. Neutron Radiation Affects the Expression of Genes Involved in the Response to Auxin, Senescence and Oxidative Stress in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, A.; Tassone, P.; Migliaccio, F.

    2008-06-01

    Researches were conducted on the effect of neutron radiation on the expression of genes auxin activated or connected with the process of senescence in Arabidopsis plants. The research was done by applying the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The results indicated that the auxin response factors (ARFs) genes are clearly downregulated, whereas the indolacetic acid-induced (Aux/IAAs) genes in some cases were upregulated. By contrast in the mutants for auxin transport aux1 and eir1 the ARFs genes were upregulated. In addition, both in the wildtype and mutants, some already known genes activated by stress and senescence were significantly upregulated. On the basis of these researches we conclude that the process of senescence induced by irradiation is, at least in part, controlled by the physiology of the hormone auxin.

  6. Tomato SlGGP-LIKE gene participates in plant responses to chilling stress and pathogenic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong-Yue; Li, Meng; Ma, Na-Na; Yang, Xing-Hong; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2017-03-01

    Plants are always exposed to abiotic and biotic stresses which can adversely affect their growth and development. As an important antioxidant, AsA plays a vital role in plant defence against damage caused by stresses. In this study, we cloned a tomato GDP- L -galactose phosphorylase-like (SlGGP-LIKE) gene and investigated its role in resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses by using antisense transgenic (AS) tomato lines. The AsA content in AS plants was lower than that in WT plants. Under chilling stress, the growth of AS plants was inhibited significantly, and they yielded higher levels of ROS, REC and MDA but demonstrated weaker APX activity than that shown by WT plants. Additionally, the declined values of Pn, Fv/Fm, oxidisable P700, and D1 protein content of PSII in AS lines were significant. Furthermore, the effect on xanthophyll cycle of AS plants was more severe than that on WT plants, and the ratio of zeaxanthin (Z)/(V + A + Z) and (Z + 0.5 A)/(V + A + Z) in AS lines was lower than that in WT plants. In spite of chilling stress, under Pseudomonas syringae pv.tomato (Pst) DC3000 strain infection, AS plants showed lesser bacterial cell growth and dead cells than those shown by WT plants. This finding indicated that AS plants demonstrated stronger resistance against pathogenic infection. Results suggest that SlGGP-LIKE gene played an important role in plant defence against chilling stress and pathogenic infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise improves cognitive responses to psychological stress through enhancement of epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression in the dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Collins

    Full Text Available We have shown previously that exercise benefits stress resistance and stress coping capabilities. Furthermore, we reported recently that epigenetic changes related to gene transcription are involved in memory formation of stressful events. In view of the enhanced coping capabilities in exercised subjects we investigated epigenetic, gene expression and behavioral changes in 4-weeks voluntarily exercised rats.Exercised and control rats coped differently when exposed to a novel environment. Whereas the control rats explored the new cage for the complete 30-min period, exercised animals only did so during the first 15 min after which they returned to sleeping or resting behavior. Both groups of animals showed similar behavioral responses in the initial forced swim session. When re-tested 24 h later however the exercised rats showed significantly more immobility behavior and less struggling and swimming. If rats were killed at 2 h after novelty or the initial swim test, i.e. at the peak of histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction, then the exercised rats showed a significantly higher number of dentate granule neurons expressing the histone modifications and immediate-early gene induction.Thus, irrespective of the behavioral response in the novel cage or initial forced swim session, the impact of the event at the dentate gyrus level was greater in exercised rats than in control animals. Furthermore, in view of our concept that the neuronal response in the dentate gyrus after forced swimming is involved in memory formation of the stressful event, the observations in exercised rats of enhanced neuronal responses as well as higher immobility responses in the re-test are consistent with the reportedly improved cognitive performance in these animals. Thus, improved stress coping in exercised subjects seems to involve enhanced cognitive capabilities possibly resulting from distinct epigenetic mechanisms in dentate gyrus neurons.

  8. Gene expression dynamics in the oxidative stress response of fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil

    , is known to damage cellular components. In humans, redox imbalance is associated withaging, cancer, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease among others. Therefore, studies investigating the cellular mechanisms employed in response to oxidative stress have markedly increased in recent years...

  9. Acetylsalicylic acid enhance tolerance of Phaseolus vulgaris L. to chilling stress, improving photosynthesis, antioxidants and expression of cold stress responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Mona H; Alayafi, Aisha A M; El Kelish, Amr A; Abu-Elsaoud, Abdelghafar M

    2018-02-15

    High and low temperatures constitute the most damaging type of abiotic stress and limit the survival, and productivity of plants. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of exogenous applications of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in reducing the deleterious effects of cold stress. Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings were treated with foliar-sprayed ASA at concentrations of 0-3 mM and then subjected to chilling stress at 4 °C for 2 or 4 days. Growth, photosynthesis, biochemical alterations, oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activities as well as the expression of cold-responsive genes (CBF3-COR47), were monitored during the experiment. ASA applications substantially improved several growth and photosynthetic parameters, including shoot biomass, dry weight, and photosynthetic pigments, of P. vulgaris seedlings exposed to different durations of chilling stresses. The ASA foliar spray treatments significantly (p < 0.05) rescued the growth and photosynthetic pigments of P. vulgaris seedlings under different chilling stresses. The total soluble sugars markedly increased during 0-4 days of chilling stress following ASA foliar spraying. The exogenous application of ASA significantly (p < 0.05) increased the accumulation of proline in P. vulgaris seedlings under chilling stress. At the gene expression level, ASA significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated the cold-responsive genes CBF3 and COR47. As a result, we speculate that, the application of exogenous ASA alleviated the adverse effects of chilling stress on all measured parameters, and 1 and 2 mM ASA exhibited the greatest effects.

  10. Dietary Resveratrol Does Not Affect Life Span, Body Composition, Stress Response, and Longevity-Related Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Staats

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the effect of the stilbene resveratrol on life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and the expression of genes encoding proteins centrally involved in ageing pathways in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female w1118 D. melanogaster were fed diets based on sucrose, corn meal, and yeast. Flies either received a control diet or a diet supplemented with 500 µmol/L resveratrol. Dietary resveratrol did not affect mean, median, and maximal life span of male and female flies. Furthermore, body composition remained largely unchanged following the resveratrol supplementation. Locomotor activity, as determined by the climbing index, was not significantly different between control and resveratrol-supplemented flies. Resveratrol-fed flies did not exhibit an improved stress response towards hydrogen peroxide as compared to controls. Resveratrol did not change mRNA steady levels of antioxidant (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, NADH dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2 and longevity-related genes, including sirtuin 2, spargel, and I’m Not Dead Yet. Collectively, present data suggest that resveratrol does not affect life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and longevity-associated gene expression in w1118 D. melanogaster.

  11. SSHscreen and SSHdb, generic software for microarray based gene discovery: application to the stress response in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Nanette; Gazendam, Inge; Oelofse, Dean; Berger, Dave K

    2010-04-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization is a popular technique for gene discovery from non-model organisms without an annotated genome sequence, such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). We aimed to use this method to enrich for genes expressed during drought stress in a drought tolerant cowpea line. However, current methods were inefficient in screening libraries and management of the sequence data, and thus there was a need to develop software tools to facilitate the process. Forward and reverse cDNA libraries enriched for cowpea drought response genes were screened on microarrays, and the R software package SSHscreen 2.0.1 was developed (i) to normalize the data effectively using spike-in control spot normalization, and (ii) to select clones for sequencing based on the calculation of enrichment ratios with associated statistics. Enrichment ratio 3 values for each clone showed that 62% of the forward library and 34% of the reverse library clones were significantly differentially expressed by drought stress (adjusted p value 88% of the clones in both libraries were derived from rare transcripts in the original tester samples, thus supporting the notion that suppression subtractive hybridization enriches for rare transcripts. A set of 118 clones were chosen for sequencing, and drought-induced cowpea genes were identified, the most interesting encoding a late embryogenesis abundant Lea5 protein, a glutathione S-transferase, a thaumatin, a universal stress protein, and a wound induced protein. A lipid transfer protein and several components of photosynthesis were down-regulated by the drought stress. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR confirmed the enrichment ratio values for the selected cowpea genes. SSHdb, a web-accessible database, was developed to manage the clone sequences and combine the SSHscreen data with sequence annotations derived from BLAST and Blast2GO. The self-BLAST function within SSHdb grouped redundant clones together and illustrated that the

  12. De novo transcriptome and small RNA analysis of two Chinese willow cultivars reveals stress response genes in Salix matsudana.

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    Guodong Rao

    Full Text Available Salix matsudana Koidz. is a deciduous, rapidly growing, and drought resistant tree and is one of the most widely distributed and commonly cultivated willow species in China. Currently little transcriptomic and small RNAomic data are available to reveal the genes involve in the stress resistant in S. matsudana. Here, we report the RNA-seq analysis results of both transcriptome and small RNAome data using Illumina deep sequencing of shoot tips from two willow variants(Salix. matsudana and Salix matsudana Koidz. cultivar 'Tortuosa'. De novo gene assembly was used to generate the consensus transcriptome and small RNAome, which contained 106,403 unique transcripts with an average length of 944 bp and a total length of 100.45 MB, and 166 known miRNAs representing 35 miRNA families. Comparison of transcriptomes and small RNAomes combined with quantitative real-time PCR from the two Salix libraries revealed a total of 292 different expressed genes(DEGs and 36 different expressed miRNAs (DEMs. Among the DEGs and DEMs, 196 genes and 24 miRNAs were up regulated, 96 genes and 12 miRNA were down regulated in S. matsudana. Functional analysis of DEGs and miRNA targets showed that many genes were involved in stress resistance in S. matsudana. Our global gene expression profiling presents a comprehensive view of the transcriptome and small RNAome which provide valuable information and sequence resources for uncovering the stress response genes in S. matsudana. Moreover the transcriptome and small RNAome data provide a basis for future study of genetic resistance in Salix.

  13. De novo transcriptome and small RNA analysis of two Chinese willow cultivars reveals stress response genes in Salix matsudana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Guodong; Sui, Jinkai; Zeng, Yanfei; He, Caiyun; Duan, Aiguo; Zhang, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    Salix matsudana Koidz. is a deciduous, rapidly growing, and drought resistant tree and is one of the most widely distributed and commonly cultivated willow species in China. Currently little transcriptomic and small RNAomic data are available to reveal the genes involve in the stress resistant in S. matsudana. Here, we report the RNA-seq analysis results of both transcriptome and small RNAome data using Illumina deep sequencing of shoot tips from two willow variants(Salix. matsudana and Salix matsudana Koidz. cultivar 'Tortuosa'). De novo gene assembly was used to generate the consensus transcriptome and small RNAome, which contained 106,403 unique transcripts with an average length of 944 bp and a total length of 100.45 MB, and 166 known miRNAs representing 35 miRNA families. Comparison of transcriptomes and small RNAomes combined with quantitative real-time PCR from the two Salix libraries revealed a total of 292 different expressed genes(DEGs) and 36 different expressed miRNAs (DEMs). Among the DEGs and DEMs, 196 genes and 24 miRNAs were up regulated, 96 genes and 12 miRNA were down regulated in S. matsudana. Functional analysis of DEGs and miRNA targets showed that many genes were involved in stress resistance in S. matsudana. Our global gene expression profiling presents a comprehensive view of the transcriptome and small RNAome which provide valuable information and sequence resources for uncovering the stress response genes in S. matsudana. Moreover the transcriptome and small RNAome data provide a basis for future study of genetic resistance in Salix.

  14. Plant responses to environmental stress: regulation and functions of the Arabidopsis TCH genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, J.; Sistrunk, M. L.; Polisensky, D. H.; Xu, W.; Purugganan, M. M.; Antosiewicz, D. M.; Campbell, P.; Johnson, K. A.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Expression of the Arabidopsis TCH genes is markedly upregulated in response to a variety of environmental stimuli including the seemingly innocuous stimulus of touch. Understanding the mechanism(s) and factors that control TCH gene regulation will shed light on the signaling pathways that enable plants to respond to environmental conditions. The TCH proteins include calmodulin, calmodulin-related proteins and a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Expression analyses and localization of protein accumulation indicates that the potential sites of TCH protein function include expanding cells and tissues under mechanical strain. We hypothesize that at least a subset of the TCH proteins may collaborate in cell wall biogenesis.

  15. A novel bZIP gene from Tamarix hispida mediates physiological responses to salt stress in tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Gao, Caiqiu; Liang, Yenan; Wang, Chao; Yang, Chuanping; Liu, Guifeng

    2010-02-15

    Basic leucine zipper proteins (bZIPs) are transcription factors that bind abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive elements (ABREs) and enable plants to withstand adverse environmental conditions. In the present study, a novel bZIP gene, ThbZIP1 was cloned from Tamarix hispida. Expression studies in T. hispida showed differential regulation of ThbZIP1 in response to treatment with NaCl, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000, NaHCO(3), and CdCl(2), suggesting that ThbZIP1 is involved in abiotic stress responses. To identify the physiological responses mediated by ThbZIP1, transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing exogenous ThbZIP1 were generated. Various physiological parameters related to salt stress were measured and compared between transgenic and wild type (WT) plants. Our results indicate that overexpression of ThbZIP1 can enhance the activity of both peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase the content of soluble sugars and soluble proteins under salt stress conditions. These results suggest that ThbZIP1 contributes to salt tolerance by mediating signaling through multiple physiological pathways. Furthermore, ThbZIP1 confers stress tolerance to plants by enhancing reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, facilitating the accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and inducing and/or enhancing the biosynthesis of soluble proteins. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Response to metal stress of Nicotiana langsdorffii plants wild-type and transgenic for the rat glucocorticoid receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, Roger; Bogani, Patrizia; Capodaglio, Gabriele; Del Bubba, Massimo; Abollino, Ornella; Giannarelli, Stefania; Spiriti, Maria Michela; Muscatello, Beatrice; Doumett, Saer; Turetta, Clara; Zangrando, Roberta; Zelano, Vincenzo; Buiatti, Marcello

    2013-05-01

    Recently our findings have shown that the integration of the gene coding for the rat gluco-corticoid receptor (GR receptor) in Nicotiana langsdorffii plants induced morphophysiological effects in transgenic plants through the modification of their hormonal pattern. Phytohormones play a key role in plant responses to many different biotic and abiotic stresses since a modified hormonal profile up-regulates the activation of secondary metabolites involved in the response to stress. In this work transgenic GR plants and isogenic wild type genotypes were exposed to metal stress by treating them with 30ppm cadmium(II) or 50ppm chromium(VI). Hormonal patterns along with changes in key response related metabolites were then monitored and compared. Heavy metal up-take was found to be lower in the GR plants. The transgenic plants exhibited higher values of S-abscisic acid (S-ABA) and 3-indole acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid and total polyphenols, chlorogenic acid and antiradical activity, compared to the untransformed wild type plants. Both Cd and Cr treatments led to an increase in hormone concentrations and secondary metabolites only in wild type plants. Analysis of the results suggests that the stress responses due to changes in the plant's hormonal system may derive from the interaction between the GR receptor and phytosteroids, which are known to play a key role in plant physiology and development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolomic analysis of the selection response of Drosophila melanogaster to environmental stress: are there links to gene expression and phenotypic traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmendal, Anders; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Overgaard, Johannes; Holmstrup, Martin; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the global metabolite response to artificial selection for tolerance to stressful conditions such as cold, heat, starvation, and desiccation, and for longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. Our findings were compared to data from other levels of biological organization, including gene expression, physiological traits, and organismal stress tolerance phenotype. Overall, we found that selection for environmental stress tolerance changes the metabolomic 1H NMR fingerprint largely in a similar manner independent of the trait selected for, indicating that experimental evolution led to a general stress selection response at the metabolomic level. Integrative analyses across data sets showed little similarity when general correlations between selection effects at the level of the metabolome and gene expression were compared. This is likely due to the fact that the changes caused by these selection regimes were rather mild and/or that the dominating determinants for gene expression and metabolite levels were different. However, expression of a number of genes was correlated with the metabolite data. Many of the identified genes were general stress response genes that are down-regulated in response to selection for some of the stresses in this study. Overall, the results illustrate that selection markedly alters the metabolite profile and that the coupling between different levels of biological organization indeed is present though not very strong for stress selection at this level. The results highlight the extreme complexity of environmental stress adaptation and the difficulty of extrapolating and interpreting responses across levels of biological organization.

  18. Trait specific expression profiling of salt stress responsive genes in diverse rice genotypes as determined by modified Significance Analysis of Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rashed Hossain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress responsive gene expression is commonly profiled in a comparative manner involving different stress conditions or genotypes with contrasting reputation of tolerance/resistance. In contrast, this research exploited a wide natural variation in terms of taxonomy, origin and salt sensitivity in eight genotypes of rice to identify the trait specific patterns of gene expression under salt stress. Genome wide transcptomic responses were interrogated by the weighted continuous morpho-physiological trait responses using modified Significance Analysis of Microarrays. More number of genes was found to be differentially expressed under salt stressed compared to that of under unstressed conditions. Higher numbers of genes were observed to be differentially expressed for the traits shoot Na+/K+, shoot Na+, root K+, biomass and shoot Cl-, respectively. The results identified around sixty genes to be involved in Na+, K+ and anion homeostasis, transport and transmembrane activity under stressed conditions. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analysis identified 1.36% (578 genes of the entire transcriptome to be involved in the major molecular functions such as signal transduction (>150 genes, transcription factor (81 genes and translation factor activity (62 genes etc. under salt stress. Chromosomal mapping of the genes suggests that majority of the genes are located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6 & 7. The gene network analysis showed that the transcription factors and translation initiation factors formed the major gene networks and are mostly active in nucleus, cytoplasm and mitochondria whereas the membrane and vesicle bound proteins formed a secondary network active in plasma membrane and vacuoles. The novel genes and the genes with unknown functions thus identified provide picture of a synergistic salinity response representing the potentially fundamental mechanisms that are active in the wide natural genetic background of rice and will be of greater use once

  19. Detoxification and stress response genes expressed in a western North American bumble bee, Bombus huntii (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junhuan; Strange, James P; Welker, Dennis L; James, Rosalind R

    2013-12-12

    The Hunt bumble bee (Bombus huntii Greene, Hymenoptera: Apidae) is a holometabolous, social insect important as a pollinator in natural and agricultural ecosystems in western North America. Bumble bees spend a significant amount of time foraging on a wide variety of flowering plants, and this activity exposes them to both plant toxins and pesticides, posing a threat to individual and colony survival. Little is known about what detoxification pathways are active in bumble bees, how the expression of detoxification genes changes across life stages, or how the number of detoxification genes expressed in B. huntii compares to other insects. We found B. huntii expressed at least 584 genes associated with detoxification and stress responses. The expression levels of some of these genes, such as those encoding the cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and glycosidases, vary among different life stages to a greater extent than do other genes. We also found that the number of P450s, GSTs and esterase genes expressed by B. huntii is similar to the number of these genes found in the genomes of other bees, namely Bombus terrestris, Bombus impatiens, Apis mellifera and Megachile rotundata, but many fewer than are found in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Bombus huntii has transcripts for a large number of detoxification and stress related proteins, including oxidation and reduction enzymes, conjugation enzymes, hydrolytic enzymes, ABC transporters, cadherins, and heat shock proteins. The diversity of genes expressed within some detoxification pathways varies among the life stages and castes, and we typically identified more genes in the adult females than in larvae, pupae, or adult males, for most pathways. Meanwhile, we found the numbers of detoxification and stress genes expressed by B. huntii to be more similar to other bees than to the fruit fly. The low number of detoxification genes, first noted in the honey bee, appears to be a common phenomenon among bees

  20. The PIN gene family in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum): genome-wide identification and gene expression analyses during root development and abiotic stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peng; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Limin; Zhang, Yuzhou; Wang, Xiaosi; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Jianing; Xiao, Guanghui

    2017-07-03

    Cell elongation and expansion are significant contributors to plant growth and morphogenesis, and are often regulated by environmental cues and endogenous hormones. Auxin is one of the most important phytohormones involved in the regulation of plant growth and development and plays key roles in plant cell expansion and elongation. Cotton fiber cells are a model system for studying cell elongation due to their large size. Cotton is also the world's most utilized crop for the production of natural fibers for textile and garment industries, and targeted expression of the IAA biosynthetic gene iaaM increased cotton fiber initiation. Polar auxin transport, mediated by PIN and AUX/LAX proteins, plays a central role in the control of auxin distribution. However, very limited information about PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers in cotton is known. In this study, 17 PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carrier family members were identified in the Gossypium hirsutum (G. hirsutum) genome. We found that PIN1-3 and PIN2 genes originated from the At subgenome were highly expressed in roots. Additionally, evaluation of gene expression patterns indicated that PIN genes are differentially induced by various abiotic stresses. Furthermore, we found that the majority of cotton PIN genes contained auxin (AuxREs) and salicylic acid (SA) responsive elements in their promoter regions were significantly up-regulated by exogenous hormone treatment. Our results provide a comprehensive analysis of the PIN gene family in G. hirsutum, including phylogenetic relationships, chromosomal locations, and gene expression and gene duplication analyses. This study sheds light on the precise roles of PIN genes in cotton root development and in adaption to stress responses.

  1. Characterization of LpGPAT gene in Lilium pensylvanicum and response to cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shao-kun; Yang, Ni-na; Chen, Li-jing; Irfan, Muhammad; Zhao, Xing-hua; Li, Tian-lai

    2015-01-01

    LpGPAT was obtained from L. pensylvanicum using RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The cloned full-length cDNA was 1544 bp; it encoded 410 amino acids and had a molecular size of 46 KDa. The nucleic acid sequence analysis showed that it shared high homology with other known GPATs. SMAT result suggests that there is a PlsC that exists in 176-322 amino acid sequence of LpGAPT; it means LpGPAT protein is a member of the family of acyltransferase and has acyltransferase enzymatic activity. Result of real-time quantitative PCR and semiquantitative PCR support LpGPAT gene is definitely induced by low temperature stress.

  2. Characterization of LpGPAT Gene in Lilium pensylvanicum and Response to Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-kun Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available LpGPAT was obtained from L. pensylvanicum using RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The cloned full-length cDNA was 1544 bp; it encoded 410 amino acids and had a molecular size of 46 KDa. The nucleic acid sequence analysis showed that it shared high homology with other known GPATs. SMAT result suggests that there is a PlsC that exists in 176-322 amino acid sequence of LpGAPT; it means LpGPAT protein is a member of the family of acyltransferase and has acyltransferase enzymatic activity. Result of real-time quantitative PCR and semiquantitative PCR support LpGPAT gene is definitely induced by low temperature stress.

  3. Identification of bovine leukemia virus tax function associated with host cell transcription, signaling, stress response and immune response pathway by microarray-based gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arainga Mariluz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus type I. The Tax protein of BLV is a transcriptional activator of viral replication and a key contributor to oncogenic potential. We previously identified interesting mutant forms of Tax with elevated (TaxD247G or reduced (TaxS240P transactivation effects on BLV replication and propagation. However, the effects of these mutations on functions other than transcriptional activation are unknown. In this study, to identify genes that play a role in the cascade of signal events regulated by wild-type and mutant Tax proteins, we used a large-scale host cell gene-profiling approach. Results Using a microarray containing approximately 18,400 human mRNA transcripts, we found several alterations after the expression of Tax proteins in genes involved in many cellular functions such as transcription, signal transduction, cell growth, apoptosis, stress response, and immune response, indicating that Tax protein has multiple biological effects on various cellular environments. We also found that TaxD247G strongly regulated more genes involved in transcription, signal transduction, and cell growth functions, contrary to TaxS240P, which regulated fewer genes. In addition, the expression of genes related to stress response significantly increased in the presence of TaxS240P as compared to wild-type Tax and TaxD247G. By contrast, the largest group of downregulated genes was related to immune response, and the majority of these genes belonged to the interferon family. However, no significant difference in the expression level of downregulated genes was observed among the Tax proteins. Finally, the expression of important cellular factors obtained from the human microarray results were validated at the RNA and protein levels by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting

  4. Acidic pH shock induces the expressions of a wide range of stress-response genes

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    Hong Soon-Kwang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental signals usually enhance secondary metabolite production in Streptomycetes by initiating complex signal transduction system. It is known that different sigma factors respond to different types of stresses, respectively in Streptomyces strains, which have a number of unique signal transduction mechanisms depending on the types of environmental shock. In this study, we wanted to know how a pH shock would affect the expression of various sigma factors and shock-related proteins in S. coelicolor A3(2. Results According to the results of transcriptional and proteomic analyses, the major number of sigma factor genes were upregulated by an acidic pH shock. Well-studied sigma factor genes of sigH (heat shock, sigR (oxidative stress, sigB (osmotic shock, and hrdD that play a major role in the secondary metabolism, were all strongly upregulated by the pH shock. A number of heat shock proteins including the DnaK family and chaperones such as GroEL2 were also observed to be upregulated by the pH shock, while their repressor of hspR was strongly downregulated. Oxidative stress-related proteins such as thioredoxin, catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and osmotic shock-related protein such as vesicle synthases were also upregulated in overall. Conclusion From these observations, an acidic pH shock was considered to be one of the strongest stresses to influence a wide range of sigma factors and shock-related proteins including general stress response proteins. The upregulation of the sigma factors and shock proteins already found to be related to actinorhodin biosynthesis was considered to have contributed to enhanced actinorhodin productivity by mediating the pH shock signal to regulators or biosynthesis genes for actinorhodin production.

  5. Molecular responses during cadmium-induced stress in Daphnia magna: Integration of differential gene expression with higher-level effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetaert, Anneleen [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: anneleen.soetaert@ua.ac.be; Vandenbrouck, Tine [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Ven, Karlijn van der [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Maras, Marleen [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Remortel, Piet van [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Intelligent Systems Laboratory, University of Antwerp, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coen, Wim M. de [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-07-20

    DNA microarrays offer great potential in revealing insight into mechanistic toxicity of contaminants. The aim of the present study was (i) to gain insight in concentration- and time-dependent cadmium-induced molecular responses by using a customized Daphnia magna microarray, and (ii) to compare the gene expression profiles with effects at higher levels of biological organization (e.g. total energy budget and growth). Daphnids were exposed to three cadmium concentrations (nominal value of 10, 50, 100 {mu}g/l) for two time intervals (48 and 96 h). In general, dynamic expression patterns were obtained with a clear increase of gene expression changes at higher concentrations and longer exposure duration. Microarray analysis revealed cadmium affected molecular pathways associated with processes such as digestion, oxygen transport, cuticula metabolism and embryo development. These effects were compared with higher-level effects (energy budgets and growth). For instance, next to reduced energy budgets due to a decline in lipid, carbohydrate and protein content, we found an up-regulated expression of genes related to digestive processes (e.g. {alpha}-esterase, cellulase, {alpha}-amylase). Furthermore, cadmium affected the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in molecular pathways associated with immune response, stress response, cell adhesion, visual perception and signal transduction in the present study.

  6. Expression profiles of 12 late embryogenesis abundant protein genes from Tamarix hispida in response to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Caiqiu; Liu, Yali; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Kaimin; Wang, Yucheng

    2014-01-01

    Twelve embryogenesis abundant protein (LEA) genes (named ThLEA-1 to -12) were cloned from Tamarix hispida. The expression profiles of these genes in response to NaCl, PEG, and abscisic acid (ABA) in roots, stems, and leaves of T. hispida were assessed using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These ThLEAs all showed tissue-specific expression patterns in roots, stems, and leaves under normal growth conditions. However, they shared a high similar expression patterns in the roots, stems, and leaves when exposed to NaCl and PEG stress. Furthermore, ThLEA-1, -2, -3, -4, and -11 were induced by NaCl and PEG, but ThLEA-5, -6, -8, -10, and -12 were downregulated by salt and drought stresses. Under ABA treatment, some ThLEA genes, such as ThLEA-1, -2, and -3, were only slightly differentially expressed in roots, stems, and leaves, indicating that they may be involved in the ABA-independent signaling pathway. These findings provide a basis for the elucidation of the function of LEA genes in future work.

  7. Expression Profiles of 12 Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein Genes from Tamarix hispida in Response to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiqiu Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve embryogenesis abundant protein (LEA genes (named ThLEA-1 to -12 were cloned from Tamarix hispida. The expression profiles of these genes in response to NaCl, PEG, and abscisic acid (ABA in roots, stems, and leaves of T. hispida were assessed using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. These ThLEAs all showed tissue-specific expression patterns in roots, stems, and leaves under normal growth conditions. However, they shared a high similar expression patterns in the roots, stems, and leaves when exposed to NaCl and PEG stress. Furthermore, ThLEA-1, -2, -3, -4, and -11 were induced by NaCl and PEG, but ThLEA-5, -6, -8, -10, and -12 were downregulated by salt and drought stresses. Under ABA treatment, some ThLEA genes, such as ThLEA-1, -2, and -3, were only slightly differentially expressed in roots, stems, and leaves, indicating that they may be involved in the ABA-independent signaling pathway. These findings provide a basis for the elucidation of the function of LEA genes in future work.

  8. A Novel Gene, OZONE-RESPONSIVE APOPLASTIC PROTEIN1, Enhances Cell Death in Ozone Stress in Rice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshiaki; Siddique, Shahid; Frei, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A novel protein, OZONE-RESPONSIVE APOPLASTIC PROTEIN1 (OsORAP1), was characterized, which was previously suggested as a candidate gene underlying OzT9, a quantitative trait locus for ozone stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa). The sequence of OsORAP1 was similar to that of ASCORBATE OXIDASE (AO) proteins. It was localized in the apoplast, as shown by transient expression of an OsORAP1/green fluorescent protein fusion construct in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermal and mesophyll cells, but did not possess AO activity, as shown by heterologous expression of OsORAP1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with reduced background AO activity. A knockout rice line of OsORAP1 showed enhanced tolerance to ozone stress (120 nL L−1 average daytime concentration, 20 d), as demonstrated by less formation of leaf visible symptoms (i.e. cell death), less lipid peroxidation, and lower NADPH oxidase activity, indicating reduced active production of reactive oxygen species. In contrast, the effect of ozone on chlorophyll content was not significantly different among the lines. These observations suggested that OsORAP1 specifically induced cell death in ozone stress. Significantly enhanced expression of jasmonic acid-responsive genes in the knockout line implied the involvement of the jasmonic acid pathway in symptom mitigation. Sequence analysis revealed extensive polymorphisms in the promoter region of OsORAP1 between the ozone-susceptible cv Nipponbare and the ozone-tolerant cv Kasalath, the OzT9 donor variety, which could be responsible for the differential regulation of OsORAP1 reported earlier. These pieces of evidence suggested that OsORAP1 enhanced cell death in ozone stress, and its expression levels could explain the effect of a previously reported quantitative trait locus. PMID:26220952

  9. Stress response genes protect against lethal effects of sleep deprivation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Paul J; Tononi, Giulio; Greenspan, Ralph J; Robinson, Donald F

    2002-05-16

    Sleep is controlled by two processes: a homeostatic drive that increases during waking and dissipates during sleep, and a circadian pacemaker that controls its timing. Although these two systems can operate independently, recent studies indicate a more intimate relationship. To study the interaction between homeostatic and circadian processes in Drosophila, we examined homeostasis in the canonical loss-of-function clock mutants period (per(01)), timeless (tim(01)), clock (Clk(jrk)) and cycle (cyc(01)). cyc(01) mutants showed a disproportionately large sleep rebound and died after 10 hours of sleep deprivation, although they were more resistant than other clock mutants to various stressors. Unlike other clock mutants, cyc(01) flies showed a reduced expression of heat-shock genes after sleep loss. However, activating heat-shock genes before sleep deprivation rescued cyc(01) flies from its lethal effects. Consistent with the protective effect of heat-shock genes, was the observation that flies carrying a mutation for the heat-shock protein Hsp83 (Hsp83(08445)) showed exaggerated homeostatic response and died after sleep deprivation. These data represent the first step in identifying the molecular mechanisms that constitute the sleep homeostat.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of skeletal muscle tissue to identify genes involved in pre-slaughter stress response in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of genes and molecular processes controlling stress reactions and involved in the genetic system determining resistance to stress in pigs could be important for the improvement of meat quality. This research aimed to compare the expression profiles of skeletal muscle between physically stressed and not stressed pigs of different breeds immediately before slaughter. DNA microarray analysis showed that different functional categories of genes are up-regulated in stressed compared to not stressed pigs and relevant differences among breeds were found.

  11. Expression Profile of Stress-responsive Arabidopsis thaliana miRNAs and their Target Genes in Response to Inoculation with Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djami-Tchatchou, A T; Ntushelo, K

    2017-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) is a soft rot bacterium which upon entry into the plant macerates plant tissues by producing plant cell wall degrading enzymes. It has a wide host range which includes carrot, potato, tomato, leafy greens, squash and other cucurbits, onion, green peppers and cassava. During plant-microbe interactions, one of the ways of plant response to pathogen infection is through the small RNA silencing mechanism. Under pathogen attack the plant utilizes microRNAs to regulate gene expression by means of mediating gene silencing at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. This study aims to assess for the first time, the expression profile of some stress-responsive miRNA and differential expression pattern of their target genes in Arabidopsis thaliana inoculated with Pcc. Leaves of five weeks old Arabidopsis thaliana plants were infected with Pcc and the quantitative real time-PCR, was used to investigate after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post infection, the expression profiling of the stress-responsive miRNAs which include: miR156, miR159, miR169, miR393, miR396 miR398, miR399 and miR408 along with their target genes which include: Squamosa promoter-binding-like protein, myb domain protein 101, nuclear factor Y subunit A8, concanavalin A-like lectin protein kinase, growth regulating factor 4, copper superoxide dismutase, ubiquitin-protein ligase and plantacyanin respectively. The findings showed that the overexpression of 6 miRNAs at 24, 48 and 72 h after infection resulted in the repression of their target genes and the expression of 2 miRNAs didn't affect their target genes. These results provide the first indication of the miRNAs role in response to the infection of Pcc in A. thaliana and open new vistas for a better understanding of miRNA regulation of plant response to Pcc.

  12. The Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Gene Family in Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.: Genome-Wide Identification and Gene Expression during Flower Induction and Abiotic Stress Responses

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    Dengwei Jue

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s or UBC enzymes play vital roles in plant development and combat various biotic and abiotic stresses. Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. is an important fruit tree in the subtropical region of Southeast Asia and Australia; however the characteristics of the UBC gene family in longan remain unknown. In this study, 40 D. longan UBC genes (DlUBCs, which were classified into 15 groups, were identified in the longan genome. An RNA-seq based analysis showed that DlUBCs showed distinct expression in nine longan tissues. Genome-wide RNA-seq and qRT-PCR based gene expression analysis revealed that 11 DlUBCs were up- or down-regualted in the cultivar “Sijimi” (SJ, suggesting that these genes may be important for flower induction. Finally, qRT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of 13 DlUBCs under SA (salicylic acid treatment, seven under methyl jasmonate (MeJA treatment, 27 under heat treatment, and 16 under cold treatment were up- or down-regulated, respectively. These results indicated that the DlUBCs may play important roles in responses to abiotic stresses. Taken together, our results provide a comprehensive insight into the organization, phylogeny, and expression patterns of the longan UBC genes, and therefore contribute to the greater understanding of their biological roles in longan.

  13. Arabidopsis plastid AMOS1/EGY1 integrates abscisic acid signaling to regulate global gene expression response to ammonium stress

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baohai

    2012-10-12

    Ammonium (NH4 +) is a ubiquitous intermediate of nitrogen metabolism but is notorious for its toxic effects on most organisms. Extensive studies of the underlying mechanisms of NH4 + toxicity have been reported in plants, but it is poorly understood how plants acclimate to high levels of NH4 +. Here, we identified an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant, ammonium overly sensitive1 (amos1), that displays severe chlorosis under NH4 + stress. Map-based cloning shows amos1 to carry a mutation in EGY1 (for ethylene-dependent, gravitropism-deficient, and yellow-green-like protein1), which encodes a plastid metalloprotease. Transcriptomic analysis reveals that among the genes activated in response to NH4 +, 90% are regulated dependent on AMOS1/ EGY1. Furthermore, 63% of AMOS1/EGY1-dependent NH4 +-activated genes contain an ACGTG motif in their promoter region, a core motif of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive elements. Consistent with this, our physiological, pharmacological, transcriptomic, and genetic data show that ABA signaling is a critical, but not the sole, downstream component of the AMOS1/EGY1-dependent pathway that regulates the expression of NH4 +-responsive genes and maintains chloroplast functionality under NH4 + stress. Importantly, abi4 mutants defective in ABA-dependent and retrograde signaling, but not ABA-deficient mutants, mimic leaf NH4 + hypersensitivity of amos1. In summary, our findings suggest that an NH4 +-responsive plastid retrograde pathway, which depends on AMOS1/EGY1 function and integrates with ABA signaling, is required for the regulation of expression of the presence of high NH4 + levels. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals novel genes and regulatory mechanisms of Tetragenococcus halophilus in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Licui; Si, Lifang; Meng, Xin; Luo, Lixin

    2015-04-01

    Tetragenococcus halophilus, a moderately halophilic Gram-positive bacterium, was isolated from Chinese style soy sauce. This species is a valuable resource for investigating salt tolerance mechanisms and improving salinity resistance in microorganisms. RNA-seq was used to sequence T. halophilus samples treated with 0 M (T1), 1 M (T2), and 3.5 M NaCl (T3). Comparative transcriptomic analyses of the different treatments were performed using gene ontology and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genome. The comparison of T1 and T2 by RNA-seq revealed that genes involved in transcription, translation, membrane system, and division were highly up-regulated under optimum salt condition. The comparison of T2 and T3 showed that genes related to heat shock proteins or the ATP-binding cassette transport systems were significantly up-regulated under maximum-salt condition. In addition, a considerable proportion of the significantly differently expressed genes identified in this study are novel. These data provide a crucial resource that may determine specific responses to salt stress in T. halophilus.

  15. Transcriptomic identification of candidate genes involved in sunflower responses to chilling and salt stresses based on cDNA microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Paula; Di Rienzo, Julio; Fernandez, Luis; Hopp, H Esteban; Paniego, Norma; Heinz, Ruth A

    2008-01-26

    Considering that sunflower production is expanding to arid regions, tolerance to abiotic stresses as drought, low temperatures and salinity arises as one of the main constrains nowadays. Differential organ-specific sunflower ESTs (expressed sequence tags) were previously generated by a subtractive hybridization method that included a considerable number of putative abiotic stress associated sequences. The objective of this work is to analyze concerted gene expression profiles of organ-specific ESTs by fluorescence microarray assay, in response to high sodium chloride concentration and chilling treatments with the aim to identify and follow up candidate genes for early responses to abiotic stress in sunflower. Abiotic-related expressed genes were the target of this characterization through a gene expression analysis using an organ-specific cDNA fluorescence microarray approach in response to high salinity and low temperatures. The experiment included three independent replicates from leaf samples. We analyzed 317 unigenes previously isolated from differential organ-specific cDNA libraries from leaf, stem and flower at R1 and R4 developmental stage. A statistical analysis based on mean comparison by ANOVA and ordination by Principal Component Analysis allowed the detection of 80 candidate genes for either salinity and/or chilling stresses. Out of them, 50 genes were up or down regulated under both stresses, supporting common regulatory mechanisms and general responses to chilling and salinity. Interestingly 15 and 12 sequences were up regulated or down regulated specifically in one stress but not in the other, respectively. These genes are potentially involved in different regulatory mechanisms including transcription/translation/protein degradation/protein folding/ROS production or ROS-scavenging. Differential gene expression patterns were confirmed by qRT-PCR for 12.5% of the microarray candidate sequences. Eighty genes isolated from organ-specific cDNA libraries

  16. Transcriptomic identification of candidate genes involved in sunflower responses to chilling and salt stresses based on cDNA microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paniego Norma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that sunflower production is expanding to arid regions, tolerance to abiotic stresses as drought, low temperatures and salinity arises as one of the main constrains nowadays. Differential organ-specific sunflower ESTs (expressed sequence tags were previously generated by a subtractive hybridization method that included a considerable number of putative abiotic stress associated sequences. The objective of this work is to analyze concerted gene expression profiles of organ-specific ESTs by fluorescence microarray assay, in response to high sodium chloride concentration and chilling treatments with the aim to identify and follow up candidate genes for early responses to abiotic stress in sunflower. Results Abiotic-related expressed genes were the target of this characterization through a gene expression analysis using an organ-specific cDNA fluorescence microarray approach in response to high salinity and low temperatures. The experiment included three independent replicates from leaf samples. We analyzed 317 unigenes previously isolated from differential organ-specific cDNA libraries from leaf, stem and flower at R1 and R4 developmental stage. A statistical analysis based on mean comparison by ANOVA and ordination by Principal Component Analysis allowed the detection of 80 candidate genes for either salinity and/or chilling stresses. Out of them, 50 genes were up or down regulated under both stresses, supporting common regulatory mechanisms and general responses to chilling and salinity. Interestingly 15 and 12 sequences were up regulated or down regulated specifically in one stress but not in the other, respectively. These genes are potentially involved in different regulatory mechanisms including transcription/translation/protein degradation/protein folding/ROS production or ROS-scavenging. Differential gene expression patterns were confirmed by qRT-PCR for 12.5% of the microarray candidate sequences. Conclusion

  17. Effect of Lower and Upper Body High Intensity Training on Genes Associated with Cellular Stress Response

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    Małgorzata Żychowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effect of upper and lower body high intensity exercise (HIE on select gene expression in athletes. Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (age 20.9±2.6 years; weight 68.6±7.2 kg; fat free mass 63.6±6.7 kg; height 1.70±0.04 m performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests (WAnTs before and after eight weeks of specific HIIT. Two milliliters of blood was collected before and after (5, 30 min, resp. lower and upper body WAnTs, and select gene expression was determined by PCR. Eight weeks of HIIT caused a significant increase in maximal power (722 to 751 Wat, relative peak power in the lower body WAnTs (10.1 to 11 W/kg, mean power (444 to 464 W, and relative mean power (6.5 to 6.8 W/kg. No significant differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected after HIIT, and a significant decrease in the IL6/IL10 ratio was observed after lower (−2∧0.57 p=0.0019 and upper (−2∧0.5 p=0.03 WAnTs following eight weeks of HIIT. It is hypothesized that a similar adaptive response to exercise may be obtained by lower and upper body exercise.

  18. SSHscreen and SSHdb, generic software for microarray based gene discovery: application to the stress response in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oelofse Dean

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppression subtractive hybridization is a popular technique for gene discovery from non-model organisms without an annotated genome sequence, such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. We aimed to use this method to enrich for genes expressed during drought stress in a drought tolerant cowpea line. However, current methods were inefficient in screening libraries and management of the sequence data, and thus there was a need to develop software tools to facilitate the process. Results Forward and reverse cDNA libraries enriched for cowpea drought response genes were screened on microarrays, and the R software package SSHscreen 2.0.1 was developed (i to normalize the data effectively using spike-in control spot normalization, and (ii to select clones for sequencing based on the calculation of enrichment ratios with associated statistics. Enrichment ratio 3 values for each clone showed that 62% of the forward library and 34% of the reverse library clones were significantly differentially expressed by drought stress (adjusted p value 88% of the clones in both libraries were derived from rare transcripts in the original tester samples, thus supporting the notion that suppression subtractive hybridization enriches for rare transcripts. A set of 118 clones were chosen for sequencing, and drought-induced cowpea genes were identified, the most interesting encoding a late embryogenesis abundant Lea5 protein, a glutathione S-transferase, a thaumatin, a universal stress protein, and a wound induced protein. A lipid transfer protein and several components of photosynthesis were down-regulated by the drought stress. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR confirmed the enrichment ratio values for the selected cowpea genes. SSHdb, a web-accessible database, was developed to manage the clone sequences and combine the SSHscreen data with sequence annotations derived from BLAST and Blast2GO. The self-BLAST function within SSHdb grouped

  19. SSHscreen and SSHdb, generic software for microarray based gene discovery: application to the stress response in cowpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Suppression subtractive hybridization is a popular technique for gene discovery from non-model organisms without an annotated genome sequence, such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). We aimed to use this method to enrich for genes expressed during drought stress in a drought tolerant cowpea line. However, current methods were inefficient in screening libraries and management of the sequence data, and thus there was a need to develop software tools to facilitate the process. Results Forward and reverse cDNA libraries enriched for cowpea drought response genes were screened on microarrays, and the R software package SSHscreen 2.0.1 was developed (i) to normalize the data effectively using spike-in control spot normalization, and (ii) to select clones for sequencing based on the calculation of enrichment ratios with associated statistics. Enrichment ratio 3 values for each clone showed that 62% of the forward library and 34% of the reverse library clones were significantly differentially expressed by drought stress (adjusted p value 88% of the clones in both libraries were derived from rare transcripts in the original tester samples, thus supporting the notion that suppression subtractive hybridization enriches for rare transcripts. A set of 118 clones were chosen for sequencing, and drought-induced cowpea genes were identified, the most interesting encoding a late embryogenesis abundant Lea5 protein, a glutathione S-transferase, a thaumatin, a universal stress protein, and a wound induced protein. A lipid transfer protein and several components of photosynthesis were down-regulated by the drought stress. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR confirmed the enrichment ratio values for the selected cowpea genes. SSHdb, a web-accessible database, was developed to manage the clone sequences and combine the SSHscreen data with sequence annotations derived from BLAST and Blast2GO. The self-BLAST function within SSHdb grouped redundant clones together and

  20. Molecular identification and characterization of the pyruvate decarboxylase gene family associated with latex regeneration and stress response in rubber tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiangyu; He, Bin; Wang, Chuang; Fang, Yongjun; Qi, Jiyan; Tang, Chaorong

    2015-02-01

    In plants, ethanolic fermentation occurs not only under anaerobic conditions but also under aerobic conditions, and involves carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) is the first and the key enzyme of ethanolic fermentation, which branches off the main glycolytic pathway at pyruvate. Here, four PDC genes were isolated and identified in a rubber tree, and the protein sequences they encode are very similar. The expression patterns of HbPDC4 correlated well with tapping-simulated rubber productivity in virgin rubber trees, indicating it plays an important role in regulating glycometabolism during latex regeneration. HbPDC1, HbPDC2 and HbPDC3 had striking expressional responses in leaves and bark to drought, low temperature and high temperature stresses, indicating that the HbPDC genes are involve in self-protection and defense in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses during rubber tree growth and development. To understand ethanolic fermentation in rubber trees, it will be necessary to perform an in-depth study of the regulatory pathways controlling the HbPDCs in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. A transcriptional analysis of carotenoid, chlorophyll and plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis genes during development and osmotic stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Meier, Stuart

    2011-05-19

    Background: The carotenoids are pure isoprenoids that are essential components of the photosynthetic apparatus and are coordinately synthesized with chlorophylls in chloroplasts. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate carotenoid biosynthesis or the mechanisms that coordinate this synthesis with that of chlorophylls and other plastidial synthesized isoprenoid-derived compounds, including quinones, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid. Here, a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of individual carotenoid and isoprenoid-related biosynthesis pathway genes was performed in order to elucidate the role of transcriptional regulation in the coordinated synthesis of these compounds and to identify regulatory components that may mediate this process in Arabidopsis thaliana.Results: A global microarray expression correlation analysis revealed that the phytoene synthase gene, which encodes the first dedicated and rate-limiting enzyme of carotenogenesis, is highly co-expressed with many photosynthesis-related genes including many isoprenoid-related biosynthesis pathway genes. Chemical and mutant analysis revealed that induction of the co-expressed genes following germination was dependent on gibberellic acid and brassinosteroids (BR) but was inhibited by abscisic acid (ABA). Mutant analyses further revealed that expression of many of the genes is suppressed in dark grown plants by Phytochrome Interacting transcription Factors (PIFs) and activated by photoactivated phytochromes, which in turn degrade PIFs and mediate a coordinated induction of the genes. The promoters of PSY and the co-expressed genes were found to contain an enrichment in putative BR-auxin response elements and G-boxes, which bind PIFs, further supporting a role for BRs and PIFs in regulating expression of the genes. In osmotically stressed root tissue, transcription of Calvin cycle, methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway and carotenoid biosynthesis genes is induced and uncoupled from that of

  2. Spatio-temporal dynamics in global rice gene expression (Oryza sativa L.) in response to high ammonium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Di, Dongwei; Li, Guangjie; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2017-05-01

    Ammonium (NH 4 + ) is the predominant nitrogen (N) source in many natural and agricultural ecosystems, including flooded rice fields. While rice is known as an NH 4 + -tolerant species, it nevertheless suffers NH 4 + toxicity at elevated soil concentrations. NH 4 + excess rapidly leads to the disturbance of various physiological processes that ultimately inhibit shoot and root growth. However, the global transcriptomic response to NH 4 + stress in rice has not been examined. In this study, we mapped the spatio-temporal specificity of gene expression profiles in rice under excess NH 4 + and the changes in gene expression in root and shoot at various time points by RNA-Seq (Quantification) using Illumina HiSeqTM 2000. By comparative analysis, 307 and 675 genes were found to be up-regulated after 4h and 12h of NH 4 + exposure in the root, respectively. In the shoot, 167 genes were up-regulated at 4h, compared with 320 at 12h. According to KEGG analysis, up-regulated DEGs mainly participate in phenylpropanoid (such as flavonoid) and amino acid (such as proline, cysteine, and methionine) metabolism, which is believed to improve NH 4 + stress tolerance through adjustment of energy metabolism in the shoot, while defense and signaling pathways, guiding whole-plant acclimation, play the leading role in the root. We furthermore critically assessed the roles of key phytohormones, and found abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene (ET) to be the major regulatory molecules responding to excess NH 4 + and activating the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signal-transduction pathway. Moreover, we found up-regulated hormone-associated genes are involved in regulating flavonoid biosynthesis and are regulated by tissue flavonoid accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. De novo transcriptome sequencing and comprehensive analysis of the heat stress response genes in the basidiomycetes fungus Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoyan; Sun, Junshe; Ning, Huijuan; Qin, Zifang; Miao, Yuxin; Sun, Tian; Zhang, Xiuqing

    2018-03-29

    Ganoderma lucidum is a valuable basidiomycete with numerous pharmacological compounds, which is widely consumed throughout China. We previously found that the polysaccharide content of Ganoderma lucidum fruiting bodies could be significantly improved by 45.63% with treatment of 42 °C heat stress (HS) for 2 h. To further investigate genes involved in HS response and explore the mechanisms of HS regulating the carbohydrate metabolism in Ganoderma lucidum, high-throughput RNA-Seq was conducted to analyse the difference between control and heat-treated mycelia at transcriptome level. We sequenced six cDNA libraries with three from control group (mycelia cultivated at 28 °C) and three from heat-treated group (mycelia subjected to 42 °C for 2 h). A total of 99,899 transcripts were generated using Trinity method and 59,136 unigenes were annotated by seven public databases. Among them, 2790 genes were identified to be differential expressed genes (DEGs) under HS condition, which included 1991 up-regulated and 799 down-regulated. 176 DEGs were then manually classified into five main responsive-related categories according to their putative functions and possible metabolic pathways. These groups include stress resistance-related factors; protein assembly, transportation and degradation; signal transduction; carbohydrate metabolism and energy provision-related process; other related functions, suggesting that a series of metabolic pathways in Ganoderma lucidum are activated by HS and the response mechanism involves a complex molecular network which needs further study. Remarkably, 48 DEGs were found to regulate carbohydrate metabolism, both in carbohydrate hydrolysis for energy provision and polysaccharide synthesis. In summary, this comprehensive transcriptome analysis will provide enlarged resource for further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of basidiomycete under HS condition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. No Associations Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Corticoid Receptor Genes and Heart Rate and Cortisol Responses to a Standardized Social Stress Test in Adolescents : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Esther M. C.; Riese, Harriette; Nolte, Ilja M.; Oosterom, Elvira; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    Previously, sequence variation in the glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor genes (NR3C1 and NR3C2, respectively) have been found to be associated with physiological stress responses to social stress tests in small samples of adult men and oral contraceptives (OC) using women.

  5. The decrease in histone methyltransferase EZH2 in response to fluid shear stress alters endothelial gene expression and promotes quiescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleszewska, Monika; Vanchin, Byambasuren; Harmsen, Martin C; Krenning, Guido

    2016-01-01

    High uniform fluid shear stress (FSS) is atheroprotective and preserves the endothelial phenotype and function through activation of downstream mediators such as MAPK7 (Erk5). Endothelial cells respond to FSS thanks to mechanotransduction. However, how the resulting signaling is integrated and resolved at the epigenetic level remains elusive. We hypothesized that Polycomb methyltransferase EZH2 is involved in the effects of FSS in human endothelial cells. We showed that FSS decreases the expression of the Polycomb methyltransferase EZH2. Despite simultaneous activation of MAPK7, MAPK7 pathway does not directly influence the transcription of EZH2. Interestingly though, the knockdown of EZH2 activates the protective MAPK7 signaling in endothelial cells, even in the absence of FSS. To understand the influence of the FSS-decreased expression of EZH2 on endothelial transcriptome, we performed RNA-seq and differential gene expression analysis. We identified candidate groups of genes dependent on both EZH2 and FSS. Among those, Gene Ontology overrepresentation analysis revealed highly significant enrichment of the cell cycle-related genes, suggesting changes in proliferation. Indeed, the depletion of EZH2 strongly inhibited endothelial proliferation, indicating cell cycle arrest. The concomitant decrease in CCNA expression suggests the transition of endothelial cells into a quiescent phenotype. Further bioinformatical analysis suggested TXNIP as a possible mediator between EZH2 and cell cycle-related gene network. Our data show that EZH2 is a FSS-responsive gene. Decreased EZH2 levels enhance the activation of the atheroprotective MAPK7 signaling. Decrease in EZH2 under FSS mediates the decrease in the expression of the network of cell cycle-related genes, which allows the cells to enter quiescence. EZH2 is therefore important for the protective effects of FSS in endothelium.

  6. Increased stocking density causes changes in expression of selected stress- and immune-related genes, humoral innate immune parameters and stress responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarahmadi, Peyman; Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Fayaz, Sahel; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of various stocking densities on the health status (stress and immune responses) of rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile rainbow trout were acclimated, placed in circular tanks under stocking densities of 10, 40 and 80 kg m(-3) and reared for 30 days. The relative expression of genes involved in stress and immunity such as HSP70, LyzII, TNF-1α, IL-1β, IL-8 and IFN-γ1 in the head kidney was determined. Serum cortisol, ACTH, total antioxidant capacity, osmolality and lactate were measured after 30 days of culture at different stocking densities (D1:10 kg m(-3), D2: 40 kg m(-3) and D3: 80 kg m(-3)) as indices of stress responses. In addition, the effects of stocking densities on serum complement, bactericidal activity, agglutinating antibody titers, serum IgM, anti-protease activity, serum total protein and alkaline phosphatase of the fish were measured. HSP70 gene expression was significantly density-dependent upregulated in D2 and D3 densities compared to D1 (P < 0.05). Also, there was significant downregulation in expression of LyzII, TNF-1α, IL-1β, IL-8 and IFN-γ1 in fish reared at density of either D2 or D3 (P < 0.05). In terms of stress responses, serum ACTH, cortisol and lactate level showed significant density-dependent increase (P < 0.05) while serum osmolality and total antioxidant capacity showed significant decline (P < 0.05) in fish reared at higher densities (D2 and D3) compared to fish reared at lower density (D1) (P < 0.05). Concordant with the expression of the immune-related genes, the serum complement and bactericidal activity as well as specific antibody titer against Aeromonas hydrophila, IgM and anti-protease activity decreased along with elevation of stocking density from D1 to D3 (P < 0.05). However, different stocking densities had no significant effect on serum total protein level and alkaline phosphatase activity. These results suggested that elevation of stocking

  7. Expression Analysis of Four Peroxiredoxin Genes from Tamarix hispida in Response to Different Abiotic Stresses and Exogenous Abscisic Acid (ABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiyan Yang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Peroxiredoxins (Prxs are a recently discovered family of antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the reduction of peroxides and alkyl peroxides. In this study, four Prx genes (named as ThPrxII, ThPrxIIE, ThPrxIIF, and Th2CysPrx were cloned from Tamarix hispida. Their expression profiles in response to stimulus of NaCl, NaHCO3, PEG, CdCl2 and abscisic acid (ABA in roots, stems and leaves of T. hispida were investigated using real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that the four ThPrxs were all expressed in roots, stems and leaves. Furthermore, the transcript levels of ThPrxIIE and ThPrxII were the lowest and the highest, respectively, in all tissue types. All the ThPrx genes were induced by both NaCl and NaHCO3 and reached their highest expression levels at the onset of stress in roots. Under PEG and CdCl2 stress, the expression patterns of these ThPrxs showed temporal and spatial specificity. The expressions of the ThPrxs were all differentially regulated by ABA, indicating that they are all involved in the ABA signaling pathway. These findings reveal a complex regulation of Prxs that is dependent on the type of Prx, tissue, and the signaling molecule. The divergence of the stress-dependent transcriptional regulation of the ThPrx gene family in T. hispida may provide an essential basis for the elucidation of Prx function in future work.

  8. Expression analysis of four peroxiredoxin genes from Tamarix hispida in response to different abiotic stresses and Exogenous Abscisic Acid (ABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Caiqiu; Zhang, Kaimin; Yang, Guiyan; Wang, Yucheng

    2012-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a recently discovered family of antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the reduction of peroxides and alkyl peroxides. In this study, four Prx genes (named as ThPrxII, ThPrxIIE, ThPrxIIF, and Th2CysPrx) were cloned from Tamarix hispida. Their expression profiles in response to stimulus of NaCl, NaHCO(3), PEG, CdCl(2) and abscisic acid (ABA) in roots, stems and leaves of T. hispida were investigated using real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that the four ThPrxs were all expressed in roots, stems and leaves. Furthermore, the transcript levels of ThPrxIIE and ThPrxII were the lowest and the highest, respectively, in all tissue types. All the ThPrx genes were induced by both NaCl and NaHCO(3) and reached their highest expression levels at the onset of stress in roots. Under PEG and CdCl(2) stress, the expression patterns of these ThPrxs showed temporal and spatial specificity. The expressions of the ThPrxs were all differentially regulated by ABA, indicating that they are all involved in the ABA signaling pathway. These findings reveal a complex regulation of Prxs that is dependent on the type of Prx, tissue, and the signaling molecule. The divergence of the stress-dependent transcriptional regulation of the ThPrx gene family in T. hispida may provide an essential basis for the elucidation of Prx function in future work.

  9. Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation Exposures on Stress-Responsive Gene Expression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykyta Sokolov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great deal of uncertainty on how low (≤0.1 Gy doses of ionizing radiation (IR affect human cells, partly due to a lack of suitable experimental model systems for such studies. The uncertainties arising from low-dose IR human data undermine practical societal needs to predict health risks emerging from diagnostic medical tests’ radiation, natural background radiation, and environmental radiological accidents. To eliminate a variability associated with remarkable differences in radioresponses of hundreds of differentiated cell types, we established a novel, human embryonic stem cell (hESC-based model to examine the radiobiological effects in human cells. Our aim is to comprehensively elucidate the gene expression changes in a panel of various hESC lines following low IR doses of 0.01; 0.05; 0.1 Gy; and, as a reference, relatively high dose of 1 Gy of IR. Here, we examined the dynamics of transcriptional changes of well-established IR-responsive set of genes, including CDKN1A, GADD45A, etc. at 2 and 16 h post-IR, representing “early” and “late” radioresponses of hESCs. Our findings suggest the temporal- and hESC line-dependence of stress gene radioresponses with no statistically significant evidence for a linear dose-response relationship within the lowest doses of IR exposures.

  10. Expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response in colonies of the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri exposed to various environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasselli, Stefano; Ballin, Francesca; Franchi, Nicola; Fabbri, Elena; Ballarin, Loriano

    2017-03-01

    Environmental stress conditions are ultimately related to the induction of oxidative stress in organisms, as a consequence of an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This could be exploited to study sub-lethal effects induced by the environment in the organisms. In the present work, we evaluate the possibility to use the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri as a bioindicator, to assess the environmental quality in the Lagoon of Venice. Three colony batches were immersed, for 22 days, at two sites (1 and 2) with different grades of hydrodynamics and anthropogenic impact and physico-chemical features of seawater; a control batch was kept in a large tank with continuous seawater flow at the Marine Station of the Department of Biology, University of Padova, in Chioggia (site 3). Seawater at site 2 had higher pH and temperature than site 1. Colonies were then retrieved, their mRNA was extracted and the level of transcription of genes involved in oxidative stress response (glutathione synthase, γ-glutamyl-cysteine ligase, modulatory subunit, two isoforms of glutathione peroxidases and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase) was evaluated. In colonies from sites 1 and 2, most genes showed significantly increased transcriptional levels with respect to control values. Spectrophotometric analyses of colony homogenates revealed that the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase was higher in colonies from site 2 as compared to site 1, allowing us to speculate that colonies in site 2 were under higher stress level than those in site 1. Overall, we can conclude that B. schlosseri seems a good indicator of the ecological status of the Lagoon environment, within a range of pH and temperature in which colonies are used to live.

  11. Candida albicans response regulator gene SSK1 regulates a subset of genes whose functions are associated with cell wall biosynthesis and adaptation to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Neeraj; Inglis, Diane; Roman, Elvira; Pla, Jesus; Li, Dongmei; Calera, Jose A; Calderone, Richard

    2003-10-01

    Ssk1p of Candida albicans is a putative response regulator protein of the Hog1 two-component signal transduction system. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the phosphorylation state of Ssk1p determines whether genes that promote the adaptation of cells to osmotic stress are activated. We have previously shown that C. albicans SSK1 does not complement the ssk1 mutant of S. cerevisiae and that the ssk1 mutant of C. albicans is not sensitive to sorbitol. In this study, we show that the C. albicans ssk1 mutant is sensitive to several oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide, t-butyl hydroperoxide, menadione, and potassium superoxide when each is incorporated in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) agar medium. We used DNA microarrays to identify genes whose regulation is affected by the ssk1 mutation. RNA from mutant cells (strain CSSK21) grown in YPD medium for 3 h at 30 degrees C was reverse transcribed and then compared with similarly prepared RNA from wild-type cells (CAF2). We observed seven genes from mutant cells that were consistently up regulated (three-fold or greater compared to CAF2). In S. cerevisiae, three (AHP1, HSP12, and PYC2) of the seven genes that were up regulated provide cells with an adaptation function in response to oxidative stress; another gene (GPH1) is regulated under stress conditions by Hog1p. Three other genes that are up regulated encode a cell surface protein (FLO1), a mannosyl transferase (MNN4-4), and a putative two-component histidine kinase (CHK1) that regulates cell wall biosynthesis in C. albicans. Of the down-regulated genes, ALS1 is a known cell adhesin in C. albicans. Verification of the microarray data was obtained by reverse transcription-PCR for HSP12, AHP1, CHK1, PYC2, GPH1, ALS1, MNN4-4, and FLO1. To further determine the function of Ssk1p in the Hog1p signal transduction pathway in C. albicans, we used Western blot analysis to measure phosphorylation of Hog1p in the ssk1 mutant of C. albicans when grown under either osmotic or

  12. Bioinformatic analysis of responsive genes in two-dimension and three-dimension cultured human periodontal ligament cells subjected to compressive stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, K-L; Lee, S-W; Ahn, Y-S; Kim, S-H; Kang, Y-G

    2013-02-01

    Analyzing responses of human periodontal ligament cells to mechanical stress and mechanotransduction is important for understanding periodontal tissue physiology and remodeling. It has been shown that the cellular response to mechanical stress can vary according to the type and duration of force and to extracellular attachment conditions. This study investigated the gene-expression profile of human periodontal ligament cells cultured in two-dimension (2D) and three-dimension (3D) conditions after application of compressive stress for 2 and 48 h. Human primary periodontal ligament cells were obtained from premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes. Cells were cultured in a conventional 2D culture dish or in 3D collagen gel and compressive stress was applied for 2 and 48 h. Control cells were cultured under identical conditions but without the application of compressive stress. After the application of compressive stress, total RNA was extracted and a cDNA microarray was performed. Microarray data were analyzed using statistical methods, including david and gene set enrichment analysis to identify significant signaling pathways. Real-time PCR was performed for five mRNAs in order to confirm the cDNA microarray results. The cDNA microarray analysis revealed that after application of compressive stress for 2 h, 191 and 553 genes showed changes in their expression levels in 2D and 3D cultured cells, respectively. After application of compressive stress for 48 h, 280 and 519 genes showed changes in their expression levels in 2D and 3D cultured cells, respectively. Euclidean clustering method was used to demonstrate the gene-expression kinetics. Analysis of the results showed that several signaling pathways, including the MAPK pathway and the focal adhesion kinase pathway are relevant to the compressive force-induced cellular response. 2D and 3D cultured cells showed significantly different gene-expression profiles, suggesting that cellular attachment to extracellular

  13. Involvement of co-repressor LUH and the adapter proteins SLK1 and SLK2 in the regulation of abiotic stress response genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Barsha; Guragain, Bhuwan; Sridhar, Vaniyambadi V

    2014-02-24

    During abiotic stress many genes that are important for growth and adaptation to stress are expressed at elevated levels. However, the mechanisms that keep the stress responsive genes from expressing under non stress conditions remain elusive. Recent genetic characterization of the co-repressor LEUNIG_HOMOLOG (LUH) and transcriptional adaptor proteins SEUSS-LIKE1 (SLK1) and SLK2 have been proposed to function redundantly in diverse developmental processes; however their function in the abiotic stress response is unknown. Moreover, the molecular functions of LUH, SLK1 and SLK2 remain obscure. Here, we show the molecular function of LUH, SLK1 and SLK2 and the role of this complex in the abiotic stress response. The luh, slk1 and slk2 mutant plants shows enhanced tolerance to salt and osmotic stress conditions. SLK1 and SLK2 interact physically with the LUFS domain in LUH forming SLK1-LUH and SLK2-LUH co-repressor complexes to inhibit the transcription. LUH has repressor activity, whereas SLK1 and SLK2 function as adaptors to recruit LUH, which in turn recruits histone deacetylase to the target sequences to repress transcription. The stress response genes RD20, MYB2 and NAC019 are expressed at elevated levels in the luh, slk1 and slk2 mutant plants. Furthermore, these stress response genes are associated with decreased nucleosome density and increased acetylation levels at H3K9 and H3K14 in the luh, slk1 and slk2 mutant plants. Our results indicate that SLK1, SLK2 and LUH form a co-repressor complex. LUH represses by means of an epigenetic process involving histone modification to facilitate the condensation of chromatin thus preventing transcription at the target genes.

  14. Stress Responses of Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Lepidoptera Point to Limited Conservation of Function across Phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Jincheng; Peng, Yu; Liu, Xiaoxia; Hoffmann, Ary A; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-01-01

    The small heat shock protein (sHsp) family is thought to play an important role in protein refolding and signal transduction, and thereby protect organisms from stress. However little is known about sHsp function and conservation across phylogenies. In the current study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of small Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta. Fourteen small heat shock proteins of OFM clustered with related Hsps in other Lepidoptera despite a high level of variability among them, and in contrast to the highly conserved Hsp11.1. The only known lepidopteran sHsp ortholog (Hsp21.3) was consistently unaffected under thermal stress in Lepidoptera where it has been characterized. However the phylogenetic position of the sHsps within the Lepidoptera was not associated with conservation of induction patterns under thermal extremes or diapause. These findings suggest that the sHsps have evolved rapidly to develop new functions within the Lepidoptera.

  15. Stress Responses of Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Lepidoptera Point to Limited Conservation of Function across Phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    Full Text Available The small heat shock protein (sHsp family is thought to play an important role in protein refolding and signal transduction, and thereby protect organisms from stress. However little is known about sHsp function and conservation across phylogenies. In the current study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of small Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM, Grapholita molesta. Fourteen small heat shock proteins of OFM clustered with related Hsps in other Lepidoptera despite a high level of variability among them, and in contrast to the highly conserved Hsp11.1. The only known lepidopteran sHsp ortholog (Hsp21.3 was consistently unaffected under thermal stress in Lepidoptera where it has been characterized. However the phylogenetic position of the sHsps within the Lepidoptera was not associated with conservation of induction patterns under thermal extremes or diapause. These findings suggest that the sHsps have evolved rapidly to develop new functions within the Lepidoptera.

  16. Heat Shock Protein Genes Undergo Dynamic Alteration in Their Three-Dimensional Structure and Genome Organization in Response to Thermal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Surabhi; Kainth, Amoldeep S; Gross, David S

    2017-12-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) chromatin organization is important for proper gene regulation, yet how the genome is remodeled in response to stress is largely unknown. Here, we use a highly sensitive version of chromosome conformation capture in combination with fluorescence microscopy to investigate Heat Shock Protein ( HSP ) gene conformation and 3D nuclear organization in budding yeast. In response to acute thermal stress, HSP genes undergo intense intragenic folding interactions that go well beyond 5'-3' gene looping previously described for RNA polymerase II genes. These interactions include looping between upstream activation sequence (UAS) and promoter elements, promoter and terminator regions, and regulatory and coding regions (gene "crumpling"). They are also dynamic, being prominent within 60 s, peaking within 2.5 min, and attenuating within 30 min, and correlate with HSP gene transcriptional activity. With similarly striking kinetics, activated HSP genes, both chromosomally linked and unlinked, coalesce into discrete intranuclear foci. Constitutively transcribed genes also loop and crumple yet fail to coalesce. Notably, a missense mutation in transcription factor TFIIB suppresses gene looping, yet neither crumpling nor HSP gene coalescence is affected. An inactivating promoter mutation, in contrast, obviates all three. Our results provide evidence for widespread, transcription-associated gene crumpling and demonstrate the de novo assembly and disassembly of HSP gene foci. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Predicting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder severity from psychosocial stress and stress-response genes : a random forest regression approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, D.; Hoekstra, P. J.; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; Bralten, Janita; Oosterlaan, J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Faraone, S. V.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Hartman, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Identifying genetic variants contributing to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is complicated by the involvement of numerous common genetic variants with small effects, interacting with each other as well as with environmental factors, such as stress exposure. Random forest regression

  18. Predicting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder severity from psychosocial stress and stress-response genes : A random forest regression approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Meer, D.; Hoekstra, P. J.; Van Donkelaar, M.; Bralten, J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.; Faraone, S. V.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Hartman, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Identifying genetic variants contributing to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is complicated by the involvement of numerous common genetic variants with small effects, interacting with each other as well as with environmental factors, such as stress exposure. Random forest regression

  19. Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiling of Brachypodium distachyon L. Cystatin Genes Reveal High Evolutionary Conservation and Functional Divergence in Response to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saminathan Subburaj

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cystatin is a class of proteins mainly involved in cysteine protease inhibition and plant growth and development, as well as tolerance under various abiotic stresses. In this study, we performed the first comprehensive analysis of the molecular characterization and expression profiling in response to various abiotic stresses of the cystatin gene family in Brachypodium distachyon, a novel model plant for Triticum species with huge genomes. Comprehensive searches of the Brachypodium genome database identified 25 B. distachyon cystatin (BdC genes that are distributed unevenly on chromosomes; of these, nine and two were involved in tandem and segmental duplication events, respectively. All BdC genes had similar exon/intron structural organization, with three conserved motifs similar to those from other plant species, indicating their high evolutionary conservation. Expression profiling of 10 typical BdC genes revealed ubiquitous expression in different organs at varying expression levels. BdC gene expression in seedling leaves was particularly highly induced by various abiotic stresses, including the plant hormone abscisic acid and various environmental cues (cold, H2O2, CdCl2, salt, and drought. Interestingly, most BdC genes were significantly upregulated under multiple abiotic stresses, including BdC15 under all stresses, BdC7-2 and BdC10 under five stresses, and BdC7-1, BdC2-1, BdC14, and BdC12 under four stresses. The putative metabolic pathways of cytastin genes in response to various abiotic stresses mainly involve the aberrant protein degradation pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS-triggered programmed cell death signaling pathways. These observations provide a better understanding of the structural and functional characteristics of the plant cystatin gene family.

  20. Association study of molecular polymorphisms in candidate genes related to stress responses with production and meat quality traits in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenina, E; Babigumira, B M; Le Mignon, G; Bazovkina, D; Rousseau, S; Salin, F; Bendixen, C; Mormede, P

    2013-02-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis exerts a large range of effects on metabolism, the immune system, inflammatory processes, and brain functions. Together with the sympathetic nervous system, it is also the most important stress-responsive neuroendocrine system. Both systems influence production traits, carcass composition, and meat quality. The HPA axis may be a critical target for genetic selection of more robust animals. Indeed, numerous studies in various species have demonstrated the importance of genetic factors in shaping the individual HPA axis phenotype, and genetic polymorphism can be found at each level of the axis, including hormone production by the adrenal cortices under stimulation by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), hormone bioavailability, or receptor and postreceptor mechanisms. The aim of the present experiment was to extend these findings to the brain neurochemical systems involved in stress responses. To this end, a number of candidate genes were sequenced for molecular polymorphisms and their association was studied with stress neuroendocrine and production traits in a genetically diverse population consisting of 100 female pigs from an advanced intercross (F10-F12) between 2 highly divergent breeds, Large White (LW) and Meishan (MS). The LW breed has a high production potential for lean meat and a low HPA axis activity, and the MS breed has low growth rate, fat carcasses-but large litters of highly viable piglets-and a high HPA axis activity. Candidate genes were chosen in the catecholaminergic and serotonergic pathways, in the pituitary control of cortisol production, among genes previously demonstrated to be differentially expressed in ACTH-stimulated adrenal glands from LW and MS pigs, and in cortisol receptors. Sixty new polymorphisms were found. The association study with carcass and meat quality traits and with endocrine traits showed a number of significant results, such as monoamine oxidase (MAOA) polymorphisms with

  1. Characterization of a wheat HSP70 gene and its expression in response to stripe rust infection and abiotic stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, Y.H.; Guo, J.; Ding, K.; Wang, S.J.; Zhang, H.; Dai, X.W.; Chen, Y.Y.; Govers, F.; Huang, L.L.; Kang, Z.S.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the family of 70-kD heat shock proteins (HSP70 s) play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, a wheat HSP70 gene was isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of wheat leaves infected by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. The gene, that

  2. Neighborhood characteristics influence DNA methylation of genes involved in stress response and inflammation: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer A; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Xu; Ratliff, Scott M; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Kardia, Sharon L R; Liu, Yongmei; Roux, Ava V Diez; Needham, Belinda L

    2017-08-01

    Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with poor health outcomes even after accounting for individual-level socioeconomic factors. The chronic stress of unfavorable neighborhood conditions may lead to dysregulation of the stress reactivity and inflammatory pathways, potentially mediated through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. We used multi-level models to examine the relationship between 2 neighborhood conditions and methylation levels of 18 genes related to stress reactivity and inflammation in purified monocytes from 1,226 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population-based sample of US adults. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, a summary of 16 census-based metrics, was associated with DNA methylation [False discovery rate (FDR) q-value ≤ 0.1] in 2 out of 7 stress-related genes evaluated (CRF, SLC6A4) and 2 out of 11 inflammation-related genes (F8, TLR1). Neighborhood social environment, a summary measure of aesthetic quality, safety, and social cohesion, was associated with methylation in 4 of the 7 stress-related genes (AVP, BDNF, FKBP5, SLC6A4) and 7 of the 11 inflammation-related genes (CCL1, CD1D, F8, KLRG1, NLRP12, SLAMF7, TLR1). High socioeconomic disadvantage and worse social environment were primarily associated with increased methylation. In 5 genes with significant associations between neighborhood and methylation (FKBP5, CD1D, F8, KLRG1, NLRP12), methylation was associated with gene expression of at least one transcript. These results demonstrate that multiple dimensions of neighborhood context may influence methylation levels and subsequent gene expression of stress- and inflammation-related genes, even after accounting for individual socioeconomic factors. Further elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these relationships will be important for understanding the etiology of health disparities.

  3. Early induced protein 1 (PrELIP1) and other photosynthetic, stress and epigenetic regulation genes are involved in Pinus radiata D. don UV-B radiation response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valledor, Luis; Cañal, María Jesús; Pascual, Jesús; Rodríguez, Roberto; Meijón, Mónica

    2012-11-01

    The continuous atmospheric and environmental deterioration is likely to increase, among others, the influx of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation. The plants have photoprotective responses, which are complex mechanisms involving different physiological responses, to avoid the damages caused by this radiation that may lead to plant death. We have studied the adaptive responses to UV-B in Pinus radiata, given the importance of this species in conifer forests and reforestation programs. We analyzed the photosynthetic activity, pigments content, and gene expression of candidate genes related to photosynthesis, stress and gene regulation in needles exposed to UV-B during a 96 h time course. The results reveal a clear increase of pigments under UV-B stress while photosynthetic activity decreased. The expression levels of the studied genes drastically changed after UV-B exposure, were stress related genes were upregulated while photosynthesis (RBCA and RBCS) and epigenetic regulation were downregulated (MSI1, CSDP2, SHM4). The novel gene PrELIP1, fully sequenced for this work, was upregulated and expressed mainly in the palisade parenchyma of needles. This gene has conserved domains related to the dissipation of the UV-B radiation that give to this protein a key role during photoprotection response of the needles in Pinus radiata. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  4. Systematic Analysis of Hsf Family Genes in the Brassica napus Genome Reveals Novel Responses to Heat, Drought and High CO2 Stresses

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    Xiaoyi Zhu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought and heat stress are major causes of lost plant crop yield. In the future, high levels of CO2, in combination of other abiotic stress factors, will become a novel source of stress. Little is known of the mechanisms involved in the acclimation responses of plants to this combination of abiotic stress factors, though it has been demonstrated that heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs are involved in plant response to various abiotic stresses. In this study, we performed a genome-wide identification and a systematic analysis of genes in the Hsf gene family in Brassica napus. A total of 64 genes encoding Hsf proteins were identified and classified into 3 major classes: A, B and C. We found that, unlike in other eudicots, the A9 subclass is absent in rapeseed. Further gene structure analysis revealed a loss of the only intron in the DBD domain for BnaHsf63 and -64 within class C, which is evolutionarily conserved in all Hsf genes. Transcription profile results demonstrated that most BnaHsf family genes are upregulated by both drought and heat conditions, while some are responded to a high CO2 treatment. According to the combined RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis, the A1E/A4A/A7 subclasses were upregulated by both drought and heat treatments. Members in class C seemed to be predominantly induced only by drought. Among BnaHsf genes, the A2/A3/B2 subclasses were regulated by all three abiotic stresses. Members in A2/B2 subclasses were upregulated by drought and heat treatments, but were downregulated under high CO2 conditions. While the A3 subclass was upregulated by all the three abiotic stresses. Various stress-related cis-acting elements, enriched in promoter regions, were correlated with the transcriptional response of BnaHsfs to these abiotic stresses. Further study of these novel groups of multifunctional BnaHsf genes will improve our understanding of plant acclimation response to abiotic stresses, and may be useful for improving the abiotic

  5. Identification of Multiple Stress Responsive Genes by Sequencing a Normalized cDNA Library from Sea-Land Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    Full Text Available Plants often face multiple stresses including drought, extreme temperature, salinity, nutrition deficiency and biotic stresses during growth and development. All the stresses result in a series of physiological and metabolic reactions and then generate reversible inhibition of metabolism and growth and can cause seriously irreversible damage, even death. At each stage of cotton growth, environmental stress conditions pose devastating threats to plant growth and development, especially yield and quality. Due to the complex stress conditions and unclear molecular mechanisms of stress response, there is an urgent need to explore the mechanisms of cotton response against abiotic stresses.A normalized cDNA library was constructed using Gossypium barbadense Hai-7124 treated with different stress conditions (heat, cold, salt, drought, potassium and phosphorus deficit and Verticillium dahliae infection. Random sequencing of this library generated 6,047 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs. The ESTs were clustered and assembled into 3,135 uniESTs, composed of 2,497 contigs and 638 singletons. The blastx results demonstrated 2,746 unigenes showing significant similarity to known genes, 74 uniESTs displaying significant similarity to genes of predicted proteins, and 315 uniESTs remain uncharacterized. Functional classification unveiled the abundance of uniESTs in binding, catalytic activity, and structural molecule activity. Annotations of the uniESTs by the plant transcription factor database (PlantTFDB and Plant Stress Protein Database (PSPDB disclosed that transcription factors and stress-related genes were enriched in the current library. The expression of some transcription factors and specific stress-related genes were verified by RT-PCR under various stress conditions.Annotation results showed that a huge number of genes respond to stress in our study, such as MYB-related, C2H2, FAR1, bHLH, bZIP, MADS, and mTERF. These results will improve our

  6. A variant on the kappa opioid receptor gene (OPRK1) is associated with stress response and related drug craving, limbic brain activation and cocaine relapse risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K; Seo, D; Hodgkinson, C; Hu, Y; Goldman, D; Sinha, R

    2013-08-20

    Stress increases drug craving and relapse risk. The kappa opioid receptor gene (OPRK1) mediates stress responses. Here, we examined whether the OPRK1 rs6989250 C>G affects stress-induced cocaine craving and cortisol responses, subsequent cocaine relapse risk and the neural response to stress using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in cocaine dependence. Sixty-seven treatment-engaged, abstinent cocaine-dependent African-Americans were genotyped (CG: N=10; CC: N=57) and participated in a 3-day experiment in which they were exposed to personalized script-driven imagery of stress, drug cues and neutral scenarios, one condition per day, randomly assigned and counterbalanced across subjects. Repeated measures of craving and cortisol were obtained. The subjects were followed prospectively for 90 days to assess relapse risk. A follow-up preliminary fMRI experiment assessed neural responses to stress, drug cue and neutral conditions in matched CG (N=5) and CC (N=8) subgroups. We found greater stress-induced craving (P=0.019), higher cortisol during stress and cue relative to the neutral condition (P'scocaine relapse risk (P=0.0075) in the CG compared with the CC group. The CG relative to the CC group also showed greater activation of limbic and midbrain regions during stress and cues relative to the neutral condition with additional stress-induced activation in the right amygdala/hippocampus (Pcocaine relapse risk. Future studies to replicate these findings in a larger sample size are warranted.

  7. Profiling of differential gene expression in the hypothalamus of broiler-type Taiwan country chickens in response to acute heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wei-Lin; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Wang, Shih-Han; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Chen, Shuen-Ei; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Acute heat stress severely impacts poultry production. The hypothalamus acts as a crucial center to regulate body temperature, detect temperature changes, and modulate the autonomic nervous system and endocrine loop for heat retention and dissipation. The purpose of this study was to investigate global gene expression in the hypothalamus of broiler-type B strain Taiwan country chickens after acute heat stress. Twelve 30-week-old hens were allocated to four groups. Three heat-stressed groups were subjected to acute heat stress at 38 °C for 2 hours without recovery (H2R0), with 2 hours of recovery (H2R2), and with 6 hours of recovery (H2R6). The control hens were maintained at 25 °C. At the end, hypothalamus samples were collected for gene expression analysis. The results showed that 24, 11, and 25 genes were upregulated and 41, 15, and 42 genes were downregulated in H2R0, H2R2, and H2R6 treatments, respectively. The expressions of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1), heat shock 27-kDa protein 1 (HSPB1), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) were upregulated at all recovery times after heat exposure. Conversely, the expression of TPH2 was downregulated at all recovery times. A gene ontology analysis showed that most of the differentially expressed genes were involved in biological processes including cellular processes, metabolic processes, localization, multicellular organismal processes, developmental processes, and biological regulation. A functional annotation analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were related to the gene networks of responses to stress and reproductive functions. These differentially expressed genes might be essential and unique key factors in the heat stress response of the hypothalamus in chickens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The CarERF genes in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and the identification of CarERF116 as abiotic stress responsive transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deokar, Amit A; Kondawar, Vishwajith; Kohli, Deshika; Aslam, Mohammad; Jain, Pradeep K; Karuppayil, S Mohan; Varshney, Rajeev K; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy

    2015-01-01

    The AP2/ERF family is one of the largest transcription factor gene families that are involved in various plant processes, especially in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Complete genome sequences of one of the world's most important pulse crops chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), has provided an important opportunity to identify and characterize genome-wide ERF genes. In this study, we identified 120 putative ERF genes from chickpea. The genomic organization of the chickpea ERF genes suggested that the gene family might have been expanded through the segmental duplications. The 120 member ERF family was classified into eleven distinct groups (I-X and VI-L). Transcriptional factor CarERF116, which is differentially expressed between drought tolerant and susceptible chickpea cultivar under terminal drought stress has been identified and functionally characterized. The CarERF116 encodes a putative protein of 241 amino acids and classified into group IX of ERF family. An in vitro CarERF116 protein-DNA binding assay demonstrated that CarERF116 protein specifically interacts with GCC box. We demonstrate that CarERF116 is capable of transactivation activity of and show that the functional transcriptional domain lies at the C-terminal region of the CarERF116. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CarERF116, significant up-regulation of several stress related genes were observed. These plants also exhibit resistance to osmotic stress and reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination. Based on these findings, we conclude that CarERF116 is an abiotic stress responsive gene, which plays an important role in stress tolerance. In addition, the present study leads to genome-wide identification and evolutionary analyses of chickpea ERF gene family, which will facilitate further research on this important group of genes and provides valuable resources for comparative genomics among the grain legumes.

  9. ThERF1 regulates its target genes via binding to a novel cis-acting element in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liuqiang; Wang, Chao; Qin, Liping; Liu, Wenjin; Wang, Yucheng

    2015-10-01

    Ethylene responsive factors (ERFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that are involved in a variety of biological processes. We previously demonstrated that an ERF gene from Tamarix hispida, ThERF1, encodes a protein binding to GCC-box and DRE motifs and negatively modulates abiotic stress tolerance. In the present study, microarray analysis was performed to study the genes regulated by ThERF1 on a genomic scale. There were 154 and 307 genes (respectively representing 134 and 260 unique genes) significantly up- and downregulated by ThERF1 under salt stress conditions, respectively. A novel motif, named TTG, was identified to be recognized by ThERF1, which commonly presents in the promoters of ThERF1-targeted genes. The TTG motif is also bound by other ERFs of a different subfamily from T. hispida and Arabidopsis, indicating that it is commonly recognized by ERF proteins. The binding affinities of ERFs to the TTG motif are significantly induced by salt stress. The TTG motif is more enriched than the GCC-box and DRE motifs in the promoters of ThERF1-targeted genes. Taken together, these studies suggested that the TTG motif plays an important role in the gene expression regulated by ERFs in response to salt stress. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Vitamin D Promotes Protein Homeostasis and Longevity via the Stress Response Pathway Genes skn-1, ire-1, and xbp-1

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    Karla A. Mark

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has multiple roles, including the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis. Deficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the major circulating form of vitamin D, is associated with an increased risk of age-related chronic diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cognitive impairment, and cancer. In this study, we utilized Caenorhabditis elegans to examine the mechanism by which vitamin D influences aging. We found that vitamin-D3-induced lifespan extension requires the stress response pathway genes skn-1, ire-1, and xbp-1. Vitamin D3 (D3 induced expression of SKN-1 target genes but not canonical targets of XBP-1. D3 suppressed an important molecular pathology of aging, that of widespread protein insolubility, and prevented toxicity caused by human β-amyloid. Our observation that D3 improves protein homeostasis and slows aging highlights the importance of maintaining appropriate vitamin D serum levels and may explain why such a wide variety of human age-related diseases are associated with vitamin D deficiency.

  11. Vitamin D Promotes Protein Homeostasis and Longevity via the Stress Response Pathway Genes skn-1, ire-1, and xbp-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Karla A; Dumas, Kathleen J; Bhaumik, Dipa; Schilling, Birgit; Davis, Sonnet; Oron, Tal Ronnen; Sorensen, Dylan J; Lucanic, Mark; Brem, Rachel B; Melov, Simon; Ramanathan, Arvind; Gibson, Bradford W; Lithgow, Gordon J

    2016-10-25

    Vitamin D has multiple roles, including the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis. Deficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the major circulating form of vitamin D, is associated with an increased risk of age-related chronic diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cognitive impairment, and cancer. In this study, we utilized Caenorhabditis elegans to examine the mechanism by which vitamin D influences aging. We found that vitamin-D3-induced lifespan extension requires the stress response pathway genes skn-1, ire-1, and xbp-1. Vitamin D3 (D3) induced expression of SKN-1 target genes but not canonical targets of XBP-1. D3 suppressed an important molecular pathology of aging, that of widespread protein insolubility, and prevented toxicity caused by human β-amyloid. Our observation that D3 improves protein homeostasis and slows aging highlights the importance of maintaining appropriate vitamin D serum levels and may explain why such a wide variety of human age-related diseases are associated with vitamin D deficiency. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation and characterization of the Agvip1 gene and response to abiotic and metal ions stresses in three celery cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Chen, Yi-Yun; Wang, Feng; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Jiang, Qian; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2014-09-01

    VIP1, a VirE2-interacting protein 1, specifically interacts with VirE2 and acts as a molecular adaptor in Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. This protein is widely used in plant genetic engineering. In this study, we cloned the Agvip1 gene that encodes the AgVIP1 protein from three celery (Apium graveolens) cultivars, namely, "Liuhe Huangxinqin", "Jinnan Shiqin", and "Ventura". The sequence analysis indicated that the Agvip1 gene from the three celery cultivars contained 768 bp Open Reading Frame and encoded with 255 amino acid residues. The N-terminal of AgVIP1 contained RNA recognition motif superfamily, a conserved domain. The Agvip1 gene in three cultivars had very high homology. The phylogenetic tree of VIP1-like proteins was constructed among celery and other plant species, showing that VIP1-like proteins from Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum tuberosum in Solanaceae had the shortest evolutionary relationship with AgVIP1 from A. graveolens in Apiaceae. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that the Agvip1 gene had tissue-specific expression, mainly in the celery root. The expression analysis showed that the Agvip1 gene was induced by abiotic stresses differently in three celery cultivars. In "Liuhe Huangxinqin", the Agvip1 gene was up-regulated under hot, cold stresses. In "Jinnan Shiqin", the Agvip1 gene was up-regulated obviously under cold, drought treatments. However, in "Ventura", the Agvip1 gene was up-regulated under salt stress. The Agvip1 was also induced after metal ions treatments in three celery cultivars. These findings will provide more information on the Agvip1 gene and AgVIP1 protein, and enhance the understanding of the Agvip1 gene regulatory mechanisms under abiotic and metal ions stresses in celery.

  13. Inspection of the grapevine BURP superfamily highlights an expansion of RD22 genes with distinctive expression features in berry development and ABA-mediated stress responses.

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    José Tomás Matus

    Full Text Available The RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 22 (RD22 gene is a molecular link between abscisic acid (ABA signalling and abiotic stress responses. Its expression has been used as a reliable ABA early response marker. In Arabidopsis, the single copy RD22 gene possesses a BURP domain also located at the C-terminus of USP embryonic proteins and the beta subunit of polygalacturonases. In grapevine, a RD22 gene has been identified but putative paralogs are also found in the grape genome, possibly forming a large RD22 family in this species. In this work, we searched for annotations containing BURP domains in the Vitis vinifera genome. Nineteen proteins were defined by a comparative analysis between the two genome predictions and RNA-Seq data. These sequences were compared to other plant BURPs identified in previous genome surveys allowing us to reconceive group classifications based on phylogenetic relationships and protein motif occurrence. We observed a lineage-specific evolution of the RD22 family, with the biggest expansion in grapevine and poplar. In contrast, rice, sorghum and maize presented highly expanded monocot-specific groups. The Vitis RD22 group may have expanded from segmental duplications as most of its members are confined to a region in chromosome 4. The inspection of transcriptomic data revealed variable expression of BURP genes in vegetative and reproductive organs. Many genes were induced in specific tissues or by abiotic and biotic stresses. Three RD22 genes were further studied showing that they responded oppositely to ABA and to stress conditions. Our results show that the inclusion of RNA-Seq data is essential while describing gene families and improving gene annotations. Robust phylogenetic analyses including all BURP members from other sequenced species helped us redefine previous relationships that were erroneously established. This work provides additional evidence for RD22 genes serving as marker genes for different organs or stresses

  14. Salinity stress induces the production of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones and regulates novel classes of responsive genes involved in signal transduction in Aquilaria sinensis calli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Gao, Bowen; Liu, Xiao; Dong, Xianjuan; Zhang, Zhongxiu; Fan, Huiyan; Zhang, Le; Wang, Juan; Shi, Shepo; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-05-26

    Agarwood, is a resinous portion derived from Aquilaria sinensis, has been widely used in traditional medicine and incense. 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones are principal components responsible for the quality of agarwood. However, the molecular basis of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones biosynthesis and regulation remains almost unknown. Our research indicated that salt stress induced production of several of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones in A. sinensis calli. Transcriptome analysis of A. sinensis calli treated with NaCl is required to further facilitate the multiple signal pathways in response to salt stress and to understand the mechanism of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones biosynthesis. Forty one 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones were identified from NaCl-treated A. sinensis calli. 93 041 unigenes with an average length of 1562 nt were generated from the control and salt-treated calli by Illmunina sequencing after assembly, and the unigenes were annotated by comparing with the public databases including NR, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, and GO database. In total, 18 069 differentially expressed transcripts were identified by the transcriptome comparisons on the control calli and calli induced by 24 h or 120 h salinity stress. Numerous genes involved in signal transduction pathways including the genes responsible for hormone signal transduction, receptor-like kinases, MAPK cascades, Ca(2+) signal transduction, and transcription factors showed clear differences between the control calli and NaCl-treated calli. Furthermore, our data suggested that the genes annotated as chalcone synthases and O-methyltransferases may contribute to the biosynthesis of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones. Salinity stress could induce the production of 41 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones in A. sinensis calli. We conducted the first deep-sequencing transcriptome profiling of A. sinensis under salt stress and observed a large number of differentially expressed genes in response to salinity stress. Moreover, salt stress induced

  15. Isolation of a novel leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (OsLRR2 gene from rice and analysis of its relation to abiotic stress responses

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    Yongrong Liao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase protein (LRR-RLK is involved in a wide range of biological pathways. So far, the function of LRR-RLK in the growth, developmental processes and various external stimuli has still not been clearly elucidated in rice (Oryza sativa L.. To understand the mechanism(s underlying stress response and to discover novel stress-tolerance genes in rice, we analysed a global genome expression profiling of the indica cultivar Pei'ai 64S subjected to cold, drought or heat stresses. Expression profiles were obtained for leaf and panicle tissues at seedling, booting and heading stages from plants under no stress, or cold, drought or heat stress, using the GeneChip Rice Genome Array (Affymetrix representing 51279 transcripts from japonica and indica rice. We identified a gene, OsLRR2 (Oryza sativa L. leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase 2, GenBank accession: EAZ02952.1, which was highly up-regulated under cold and drought stress. In order to study its function in stress tolerance, we cloned the cDNA of the gene through amplification by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encodes a protein of 375 amino-acid residues with molecular weight of ≈40.62 kD and pI of ≈5.75. The sequence databases search found that the open reading frame of OsLRR2 contained a leucine-rich repeats domain. Analysis of the putative promoter region for candidate cis-regulatory elements identified five matches to cis-elements related to stress responses, suggesting that OsLRR2 could be considered a new candidate gene involved in stress tolerance in rice.

  16. Expression response of duplicated metallothionein 3 gene to copper stress in Silene vulgaris ecotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nevrtalová, Eva; Baloun, Jiří; Hudzieczek, Vojtěch; Čegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Doležel, Jaroslav; Šafář, Jan; Milde, D.; Hobza, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 251, č. 6 (2014), s. 1427-1439 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2220; GA ČR(CZ) GBP501/12/G090; GA ČR(CZ) GP13-34962P; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/09/0083 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Copper * Gene duplication * Metallothionein Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 2.651, year: 2014

  17. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Confers Tolerance to Various Abiotic Stresses and Modulates Plant Response to Phytohormones through Osmoprotection and Gene Expression Regulation in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Tiwari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Being sessile in nature, plants have to withstand various adverse environmental stress conditions including both biotic and abiotic stresses. Comparatively, abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, high temperature, and cold pose major threat to agriculture by negatively impacting plant growth and yield worldwide. Rice is one of the most widely consumed staple cereals across the globe, the production and productivity of which is also severely affected by different abiotic stresses. Therefore, several crop improvement programs are directed toward developing stress tolerant rice cultivars either through marker assisted breeding or transgenic technology. Alternatively, some known rhizospheric competent bacteria are also known to improve plant growth during abiotic stresses. A plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRI-SN13 (SN13 was previously reported by our lab to confer salt stress tolerance to rice seedlings. However, the present study investigates the role of SN13 in ameliorating various abiotic stresses such as salt, drought, desiccation, heat, cold, and freezing on a popular rice cv. Saryu-52 under hydroponic growth conditions. Apart from this, seedlings were also exogenously supplied with abscisic acid (ABA, salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethephon (ET to study the role of SN13 in phytohormone-induced stress tolerance as well as its role in abiotic and biotic stress cross-talk. All abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments significantly affected various physiological and biochemical parameters like membrane integrity and osmolyte accumulation. SN13 also positively modulated stress-responsive gene expressions under various abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments suggesting its multifaceted role in cross-talk among stresses and phytohormones in response to PGPR. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on detailed analysis of plant growth promotion and stress alleviation by a

  18. Identification of genes involved in a water stress response in timothy and mapping of orthologous loci in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonavičienė, Kristina; Studer, Bruno; Asp, Torben

    2012-01-01

    In order to characterize the response of selected grasses to water stress, relative water content (RWC) in leaves and quantum efficiency of photosystem 2 (Fv/Fm) were measured in Phleum pratense L., P. bertolonii DC. and P. phleoides H. Karst. during 6 d of water stress. The results indicated dif...

  19. Genome-wide identification of MAPKK and MAPKKK gene families in tomato and transcriptional profiling analysis during development and stress response.

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    Jian Wu

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades have important functions in plant growth, development, and response to various stresses. The MAPKK and MAPKKK gene families in tomato have never been systematically analyzed. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the MAPKK and MAPKKK gene families in tomato and identified 5 MAPKK genes and 89 MAPKKK genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the MAPKK and MAPKKK gene families showed that all the MAPKK genes formed four groups (groups A, B, C, and D, whereas all the MAPKKK genes were classified into three subfamilies, namely, MEKK, RAF, and ZIK. Evolutionary analysis showed that whole genome or chromosomal segment duplications were the main factors responsible for the expansion of the MAPKK and MAPKKK gene families in tomato. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the majority of MAPKK and MAPKKK genes were expressed in all tested organs with considerable differences in transcript levels indicating that they might be constitutively expressed. However, the expression level of most of these genes changed significantly under heat, cold, drought, salt, and Pseudomonas syringae treatment. Furthermore, their expression levels exhibited significant changes in response to salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid treatment, implying that these genes might have important roles in the plant hormone network. Our comparative analysis of the MAPKK and MAPKKK families would improve our understanding of the evolution and functional characterization of MAPK cascades in tomato.

  20. The promoters of 3 celery salt-induced phloem-specific genes as new tools for monitoring salt stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Juchaux-Cachau, Marjorie; Jeauffre, Julien; Biolley, Jean-Philippe; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi

    2011-01-01

    Genes induced by a progressive 3 week salt stress (final NaCl concentration 300 mM) were identified in the phloem of celery (Apium graveolens L., cv Vert d'Elne). A subtractive library was constructed and screened for salt-induced, phloem-specific genes. Work was focused on phloem due to its central role in inter-organ exchanges. Three genes were studied in more details, 2 coding for metallothioneins (AgMT2 and AgMT3) and one for a new mannitol transporter (AgMaT3). Expression of a reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis under control of promoter of each gene was located in the phloem. pAgMT2 has a typical phloem pattern with slight induction by salt stress. pAgMT3 and pAgMaT3 expression was induced by salt stress, except in minor veins. pAgMaT3 was highly active in stressed roots. The promoters described here could be regarded as new tools for engineering salt-resistant plants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of Stim1 as a candidate gene for exaggerated sympathetic response to stress in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat.

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    Mohammed Zubaerul Ferdaus

    Full Text Available The stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP is known to have exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity to various types of stress, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of severe hypertension and stroke observed in this strain. Previously, by using a congenic strain (called SPwch1.72 constructed between SHRSP and the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY, we showed that a 1.8-Mbp fragment on chromosome 1 (Chr1 of SHRSP harbored the responsible gene(s for the exaggerated sympathetic response to stress. To further narrow down the candidate region, in this study, another congenic strain (SPwch1.71 harboring a smaller fragment on Chr1 including two functional candidate genes, Phox2a and Ship2, was generated. Sympathetic response to cold and restraint stress was compared among SHRSP, SPwch1.71, SPwch1.72 and WKY by three different methods (urinary norepinephrine excretion, blood pressure measurement by the telemetry system and the power spectral analysis on heart rate variability. The results indicated that the response in SPwch1.71 did not significantly differ from that in SHRSP, excluding Phox2a and Ship2 from the candidate genes. As the stress response in SPwch1.72 was significantly less than that in SHRSP, it was concluded that the 1.2-Mbp congenic region covered by SPwch1.72 (and not by SPwch1.71 was responsible for the sympathetic stress response. The sequence analysis of 12 potential candidate genes in this region in WKY/Izm and SHRSP/Izm identified a nonsense mutation in the stromal interaction molecule 1 (Stim1 gene of SHRSP/Izm which was shared among 4 substrains of SHRSP. A western blot analysis confirmed a truncated form of STIM1 in SHRSP/Izm. In addition, the analysis revealed that the protein level of STIM1 in the brainstem of SHRSP/Izm was significantly lower when compared with WKY/Izm. Our results suggested that Stim1 is a strong candidate gene responsible for the exaggerated sympathetic response to stress in SHRSP.

  2. A novel role for pigment genes in the stress response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Uniza Wahid; Øverli, Øyvind; Hinkle, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    receptor (MC1R), is strongly associated with distinct differences in steroidogenic melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) mRNA expression between high- (HR) and low-responsive (LR) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We also show experimentally that cortisol implants increase the expression of agouti signaling......RNA for MC2R and the MC1R variants are present in head kidney cells, we hypothesized that MC2R activity is modulated in part by different binding affinities of the MC1R variants for MRAP. Experiments in mammalian cells confirmed that trout MRAP interacts with the two trout MC1R variants and MC2R, but failed...

  3. AtHD2D gene plays a role in plant growth, development and response to abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaofen eHan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts: The histone deacetylases play important roles in the regulation of gene expression and the subsequent control of a number of important biological processes, including those involved in the response to environmental stress. A specific group of histone deacetylase genes, HD2, is present in plants. In Arabidopsis, HD2s include HD2A, HD2B, HD2C and HD2D. Previous research showed that HD2A, HD2B and HD2C are more related in terms of expression and function, but not HD2D. In this report, we studied different aspects of AtHD2D in Arabidopsis with respect to plant response to drought and other abiotic stresses. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that HD2D is distantly related to other HD2 genes. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana and stable expression in Arabidopsis of AtHD2D fused with gfp showed that AtHD2D was expressed in the nucleus. Overexpression of AtHD2D resulted in developmental changes including fewer main roots, more lateral roots, and a higher root:shoot ratio. Seed germination and plant flowering time were delayed in transgenic plants expressing AtHD2D, but these plants exhibited higher degrees of tolerance to abiotic stresses, including drought, salt and cold stresses. Physiological studies indicated that the malondialdehyde (MDA content was high in wild-type plants but in plants overexpressing HD2D the MDA level increased slowly in response to stress conditions of drought, cold, and salt stress. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage in leaf cells of wild type plants increased but remained stable in transgenic plants. Our results indicate that AtHD2D is unique among HD2 genes and it plays a role in plant growth and development regulation and these changes can modulate plant stress responses.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of Glycine soja ubiquitin (UBQ) genes and functional analysis of GsUBQ10 in response to alkaline stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Chen, Ranran; Wu, Shengyang; Zhu, Dan; Sun, Xiaoli; Liu, Beidong; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Yanming

    2018-03-26

    Ubiquitin is a highly conserved protein with multiple essential regulation functions through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Even though its functions in the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway were very well characterized. The functions of ubiquitin genes in regulating alkaline stress response are not fully established. In this study, we identified 12 potential UBQ genes in Glycine soja genome, and analyzed their evolutionary relationship, conserved domains and promoter cis-elements. We also explored the expression profiles of G. soja UBQ genes under alkaline stress, based on the transcriptome sequencing. We found that the expression of GsUBQ10 was significantly induced by alkaline stress, and function of GsUBQ10 was characterized using overexpression transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Our results suggested that GsUBQ10 transgenic lines significantly improved the alkaline tolerance in alfalfa. The GsUBQ10 transgenic lines showed lower relative membrane permeability, lower malon dialdehyde content and higher catalase activity than in the wild-type plants. This indicates that GsUBQ10 is involved in regulating the reactive oxygen species accumulation under alkaline stress. Taken together, we identified an ubiquitin gene GsUBQ10 from G. soja, which plays a positive role in responses to alkaline stress in alfalfa. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Annotation of Differential Gene Expression in Small Yellow Follicles of a Broiler-Type Strain of Taiwan Country Chickens in Response to Acute Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tu, Wei-Lin; Wang, Shih-Han; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Chen, Shuen-Ei; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated global gene expression in the small yellow follicles (6-8 mm diameter) of broiler-type B strain Taiwan country chickens (TCCs) in response to acute heat stress. Twelve 30-wk-old TCC hens were divided into four groups: control hens maintained at 25°C and hens subjected to 38°C acute heat stress for 2 h without recovery (H2R0), with 2-h recovery (H2R2), and with 6-h recovery (H2R6). Small yellow follicles were collected for RNA isolation and microarray analysis at the end of each time point. Results showed that 69, 51, and 76 genes were upregulated and 58, 15, 56 genes were downregulated after heat treatment of H2R0, H2R2, and H2R6, respectively, using a cutoff value of two-fold or higher. Gene ontology analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes are associated with the biological processes of cell communication, developmental process, protein metabolic process, immune system process, and response to stimuli. Upregulation of heat shock protein 25, interleukin 6, metallopeptidase 1, and metalloproteinase 13, and downregulation of type II alpha 1 collagen, discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2, and Kruppel-like factor 2 suggested that acute heat stress induces proteolytic disintegration of the structural matrix and inflamed damage and adaptive responses of gene expression in the follicle cells. These suggestions were validated through gene expression, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Functional annotation clarified that interleukin 6-related pathways play a critical role in regulating acute heat stress responses in the small yellow follicles of TCC hens.

  6. Bisphenol A (BPA) modulates the expression of endocrine and stress response genes in the freshwater snail Physa acuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Mónica; Martínez-Paz, Pedro; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis

    2018-05-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a known endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can mimic the action of oestrogens by interacting with hormone receptors, is potentially able to influence reproductive functions in vertebrates and invertebrates. The freshwater pulmonate Physa acuta is a sensitive organism to xenobiotics appropriate for aquatic toxicity testing in environmental studies. This study was conducted to explore the effects of BPA on the Gastropoda endocrine system. The effects following a range of exposure times (5-96h) to BPA in P. acuta were evaluated at the molecular level by analysing changes in the transcriptional activity of the endocrine-related genes oestrogen receptor (ER), oestrogen-related receptor (ERR), and retinoid X receptor (RXR), as well as in genes involved in the stress response, such as hsp70 and hsp90. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that BPA induced a significant increase in the mRNA levels of ER, ERR, and RXR, suggesting that these receptors could be involved in similar pathways or regulation events in the endocrine disruptor activity of this chemical at the molecular level in Gastropoda. Additionally, the hsp70 expression was upregulated after 5 and 72h of BPA exposures, but hsp90 was only upregulated after 5h of BPA exposure. Finally, we assessed the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity after BPA treatment and found that it was affected after 48h. In conclusion, these data provide, for the first time, evidences of molecular effects produced by BPA in the endocrine system of Gastropoda, supporting the potential of ER, ERR and RXR as biomarkers to analyse putative EDCs in ecotoxicological studies. Moreover, our results suggest that P. acuta is an appropriate sentinel organism to evaluate the effect of EDCs in the freshwater environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Composition of the SAGA complex in plants and its role in controlling gene expression in response to abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eMoraga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein complexes involved in epigenetic regulation of transcription have evolved as molecular strategies to face environmental stress in plants. SAGA (Spt–Ada–Gcn5 Acetyltransferase is a transcriptional co-activator complex that regulates numerous cellular processes through the coordination of multiple post-translational histone modifications, including acetylation, deubiquitination, and chromatin recognition. The diverse functions of the SAGA complex involve distinct modules that are highly conserved between yeast, flies, and mammals. In this review, the composition of the SAGA complex in plants is described and its role in gene expression regulation under stress conditions summarized. Some of these proteins are likely involved in the regulation of the inducible expression of genes under light, cold, drought, salt, and iron stress, although the functions of several of its components remain unknown.

  8. Composition of the SAGA complex in plants and its role in controlling gene expression in response to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga, Felipe; Aquea, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Protein complexes involved in epigenetic regulation of transcription have evolved as molecular strategies to face environmental stress in plants. SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase) is a transcriptional co-activator complex that regulates numerous cellular processes through the coordination of multiple post-translational histone modifications, including acetylation, deubiquitination, and chromatin recognition. The diverse functions of the SAGA complex involve distinct modules that are highly conserved between yeast, flies, and mammals. In this review, the composition of the SAGA complex in plants is described and its role in gene expression regulation under stress conditions summarized. Some of these proteins are likely involved in the regulation of the inducible expression of genes under light, cold, drought, salt, and iron stress, although the functions of several of its components remain unknown.

  9. Role of an ER stress response element in regulating the bidirectional promoter of the mouse CRELD2 - ALG12 gene pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirata Yoko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, we identified cysteine-rich with EGF-like domains 2 (CRELD2 as a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-inducible gene and characterized its transcriptional regulation by ATF6 under ER stress conditions. Interestingly, the CRELD2 and asparagine-linked glycosylation 12 homolog (ALG12 genes are arranged as a bidirectional (head-to-head gene pair and are separated by less than 400 bp. In this study, we characterized the transcriptional regulation of the mouse CRELD2 and ALG12 genes that is mediated by a common bidirectional promoter. Results This short intergenic region contains an ER stress response element (ERSE sequence and is well conserved among the human, rat and mouse genomes. Microarray analysis revealed that CRELD2 and ALG12 mRNAs were induced in Neuro2a cells by treatment with thapsigargin (Tg, an ER stress inducer, in a time-dependent manner. Other ER stress inducers, tunicamycin and brefeldin A, also increased the expression of these two mRNAs in Neuro2a cells. We then tested for the possible involvement of the ERSE motif and other regulatory sites of the intergenic region in the transcriptional regulation of the mouse CRELD2 and ALG12 genes by using variants of the bidirectional reporter construct. With regards to the promoter activities of the CRELD2-ALG12 gene pair, the entire intergenic region hardly responded to Tg, whereas the CRELD2 promoter constructs of the proximal region containing the ERSE motif showed a marked responsiveness to Tg. The same ERSE motif of ALG12 gene in the opposite direction was less responsive to Tg. The direction and the distance of this motif from each transcriptional start site, however, has no impact on the responsiveness of either gene to Tg treatment. Additionally, we found three putative sequences in the intergenic region that antagonize the ERSE-mediated transcriptional activation. Conclusions These results show that the mouse CRELD2 and ALG12 genes are arranged as a

  10. Expression analysis of nine small heat shock protein genes from Tamarix hispida in response to different abiotic stresses and abscisic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guiyan; Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Kaimin; Gao, Caiqiu

    2014-03-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play important roles in protecting plants against environmental stresses. Furthermore, small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are the most ubiquitous HSP subgroup with molecular weights ranging from 15 to 42 kDa. In this study, nine sHSP genes (designated as ThsHSP1-9) were cloned from Tamarix hispida. Their expression patterns in response to cold, heat shock, NaCl, PEG and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments were investigated in the roots and leaves of T. hispida by real-time RT-PCR analysis. The results showed that most of the nine ThsHSP genes were expressed at higher levels in roots than in leaves under normal growth condition. All of ThsHSP genes were highly induced under conditions of cold (4 °C) and different heat shocks (36, 40, 44, 48 and 52 °C). Under NaCl stress, all nine ThsHSPs genes were up-regulated at least one stress time-point in both roots and leaves. Under PEG and ABA treatments, the nine ThsHSPs showed various expression patterns, indicating a complex regulation pathway among these genes. This study represents an important basis for the elucidation of ThsHSP gene function and provides essential information that can be used for stress tolerance genetic engineering in future studies.

  11. De Novo Transcriptome Characterization, Gene Expression Profiling and Ionic Responses of Nitraria sibirica Pall. under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyong Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitraria sibirica Pall., a typical halophyte of great ecological value, is widely distributed in desert, saline, and coastal saline-alkali environments. Consequently, researching the salt tolerance mechanism of N. sibirica Pall. has great significance to the cultivation and utilization of salt-tolerant plants. In this research, RNA-seq, digital gene expression (DGE, and high flux element analysis technologies were used to investigate the molecular and physiological mechanisms related to salt tolerance of N. sibirica Pall. Integrative analysis and de novo transcriptome assembly generated 137,421 unigenes. In total, 58,340 and 34,033 unigenes were annotated with gene ontology (GO terms and mapped in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, respectively. Three differentially expressed genes (DEGs libraries were subsequently constructed from the leaves of N. sibirica Pall. seedlings under different treatments: control (CK, light short-term salt stress (CL2, and heavy long-term salt stress (CL6. Eight hundred and twenty-six, and 224 differentially expressed genes were identified in CL2 and CL6 compared to CK, respectively. Finally, ionomic analysis of N. sibirica Pall. seedlings treated with 0, 100, 200 or 300 mM concentrations of NaCl for one day showed that the uptake and distribution of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and K in different organs of N. sibirica Pall. were significantly affected by salt stress. Our findings have identified potential genes involved in salt tolerance and in the reference transcriptome and have revealed the salt tolerance mechanism in N. sibirica Pall. These findings will provide further insight into the molecular and physiological mechanisms related to salt stress in N. sibirica Pall. and in other halophytes.

  12. Transcriptome-based gene profiling provides novel insights into the characteristics of radish root response to Cr stress with next-generation sequencing

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    Yang eXie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Radish (Raphanus sativus L. is an important worldwide root vegetable crop with high nutrient values and is adversely affected by non-essential heavy metals including chromium (Cr. Little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying Cr stress response in radish. In this study, RNA-Seq technique was employed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs under Cr stress. Based on de novo transcriptome assembly, there were 30,676 unigenes representing 60,881 transcripts isolated from radish root under Cr stress. Differential gene analysis revealed that 2,985 uingenes were significantly differentially expressed between Cr-free (CK and Cr-treated (Cr600 libraries, among which 1,424 were up-regulated and 1,561 down-regulated. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that these DEGs were mainly involved in primary metabolic process, response to abiotic stimulus, cellular metabolic process and small molecule metabolic process. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs were mainly involved in protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, starch and sucrose metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, drug and xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 metabolism. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the expression patterns of 12 randomly selected DEGs were highly accordant with the results from RNA-seq. Furthermore, many candidate genes including signaling protein kinases, transcription factors and metal transporters, chelate compound biosynthesis and antioxidant system, were involved in defense and detoxification mechanisms of Cr stress response regulatory networks. These results would provide novel insight into molecular mechanism underlying plant responsiveness to Cr stress and facilitate further genetic manipulation on Cr uptake and accumulation in radish.

  13. The two α-dox genes of Nicotiana attenuata: overlapping but distinct functions in development and stress responses

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    Steppuhn Anke

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant fatty acid α-dioxygenases (α-DOX are oxylipin-forming enzymes induced by biotic and abiotic stresses, which also participate in developmental processes. In Nicotiana attenuata, herbivory strongly induces the expression of an α-dox1 gene. To determine its role, we silenced its expression using Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation with an inverted repeat construct. More than half of the transformed lines showed a severe dwarf growth phenotype that was very similar to the phenotype of tomato plants mutated at a second α-dox isoform. This led us to identify the corresponding α-dox2 gene in N. attenuata and examine the regulation of both α-dox genes as well as the consequences of their silencing in plant development and anti-herbivore defense. Results The transformed lines exhibiting a dwarf growth phenotype are co-silenced for both α-dox genes resulting in a nearly complete suppression of α-DOX activity, which is associated with increases in ABA, JA and anthocyanin levels, all metabolic signatures of oxidative stress. The other lines, only silenced for α-dox1, developed similarly to wild-type plants, exhibited a 40% reduction of α-DOX activity resulting in a 50% reduction of its main product in planta (2-HOT and showed no signs of oxidative stress. In contrast to α-dox1, the expression of α-dox2 gene is not induced by wounding or elicitors in the oral secretions of Manduca sexta. Instead, α-dox2 is expressed in roots and flowers which lack α-dox1 expression, but both genes are equally regulated during leaf maturation. We transiently silenced α-dox gene copies with gene-specific constructs using virus induced gene silencing and determined the consequences for plant development and phytohormone and 2-HOT levels. While individual silencing of α-dox1 or α-dox2 had no effects on plant growth, the co-suppression of both α-dox genes decreased plant growth. Plants transiently silenced for both α-dox genes

  14. Genome-wide analysis of carotenoid cleavage oxygenase genes and their responses to various phytohormones and abiotic stresses in apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongfei; Zuo, Xiya; Shao, Hongxia; Fan, Sheng; Ma, Juanjuan; Zhang, Dong; Zhao, Caiping; Yan, Xiangyan; Liu, Xiaojie; Han, Mingyu

    2018-02-01

    Carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs) are able to cleave carotenoids to produce apocarotenoids and their derivatives, which are important for plant growth and development. In this study, 21 apple CCO genes were identified and divided into six groups based on their phylogenetic relationships. We further characterized the apple CCO genes in terms of chromosomal distribution, structure and the presence of cis-elements in the promoter. We also predicted the cellular localization of the encoded proteins. An analysis of the synteny within the apple genome revealed that tandem, segmental, and whole-genome duplication events likely contributed to the expansion of the apple carotenoid oxygenase gene family. An additional integrated synteny analysis identified orthologous carotenoid oxygenase genes between apple and Arabidopsis thaliana, which served as references for the functional analysis of the apple CCO genes. The net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance of leaves decreased, while leaf stomatal density increased under drought and saline conditions. Tissue-specific gene expression analyses revealed diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns. Finally, hormone and abiotic stress treatments indicated that many apple CCO genes are responsive to various phytohormones as well as drought and salinity stresses. The genome-wide identification of apple CCO genes and the analyses of their expression patterns described herein may provide a solid foundation for future studies examining the regulation and functions of this gene family. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of deletion of different PP2C protein phosphatase genes on stress responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmin, Dilruba; Sasano, Yu; Sugiyama, Minetaka; Harashima, Satoshi

    2014-10-01

    A key mechanism of signal transduction in eukaryotes is reversible protein phosphorylation, mediated through protein kinases and protein phosphatases (PPases). Modulation of signal transduction by this means regulates many biological processes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has 40 PPases, including seven protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C PPase) genes (PTC1-PTC7). However, their precise functions remain poorly understood. To elucidate their cellular functions and to identify those that are redundant, we constructed 127 strains with deletions of all possible combinations of the seven PP2C PPase genes. All 127 disruptants were viable under nutrient-rich conditions, demonstrating that none of the combinations induced synthetic lethality under these conditions. However, several combinations exhibited novel phenotypes, e.g. the Δptc5Δptc7 double disruptant and the Δptc2Δptc3Δptc5Δptc7 quadruple disruptant exhibited low (13°C) and high (37°C) temperature-sensitive growth, respectively. Interestingly, the septuple disruptant Δptc1Δptc2Δptc3Δptc4Δptc5Δptc6Δptc7 showed an essentially normal growth phenotype at 37°C. The Δptc2Δptc3Δptc5Δptc7 quadruple disruptant was sensitive to LiCl (0.4 m). Two double disruptants, Δptc1Δptc2 and Δptc1Δptc4, displayed slow growth and Δptc1Δptc2Δptc4 could not grow on medium containing 1.5 m NaCl. The Δptc1Δptc6 double disruptant showed increased sensitivity to caffeine, congo red and calcofluor white compared to each single deletion. Our observations indicate that S. cerevisiae PP2C PPases have a shared and important role in responses to environmental stresses. These disruptants also provide a means for exploring the molecular mechanisms of redundant PTC gene functions under defined conditions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Identification of genes potentially involved in solute stress response in Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 by transposon mutant recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith eCoronado

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The term water stress refers to the effects of low water availability on microbial growth and physiology. Water availability has been proposed as a major constraint for the use of microorganisms in contaminated sites with the purpose of bioremediation. Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 is a bacterium capable of degrading the xenobiotic compounds dibenzofuran and dibenzo-p-dioxin, and has potential to be used for targeted bioremediation. The aim of the current work was to identify genes implicated in water stress in RW1 by means of transposon mutagenesis and mutant growth experiments. Conditions of low water potential were mimicked by adding NaCl to the growth media. Three different mutant selection or separation method were tested, which, however recovered different mutants. Recovered transposon mutants with poorer growth under salt-induced water stress carried insertions in genes involved in proline and glutamate biosynthesis, and further in a gene putatively involved in aromatic compound catabolism. Transposon mutants growing poorer on medium with lowered water potential also included ones that had insertions in genes involved in more general functions such as transcriptional regulation, elongation factor, cell division protein, RNA polymerase β or an aconitase.

  17. Use of Maximum Likelihood-Mixed Models to select stable reference genes: a case of heat stress response in sheep

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    Salces Judit

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reference genes with stable expression are required to normalize expression differences of target genes in qPCR experiments. Several procedures and companion software have been proposed to find the most stable genes. Model based procedures are attractive because they provide a solid statistical framework. NormFinder, a widely used software, uses a model based method. The pairwise comparison procedure implemented in GeNorm is a simpler procedure but one of the most extensively used. In the present work a statistical approach based in Maximum Likelihood estimation under mixed models was tested and compared with NormFinder and geNorm softwares. Sixteen candidate genes were tested in whole blood samples from control and heat stressed sheep. Results A model including gene and treatment as fixed effects, sample (animal, gene by treatment, gene by sample and treatment by sample interactions as random effects with heteroskedastic residual variance in gene by treatment levels was selected using goodness of fit and predictive ability criteria among a variety of models. Mean Square Error obtained under the selected model was used as indicator of gene expression stability. Genes top and bottom ranked by the three approaches were similar; however, notable differences for the best pair of genes selected for each method and the remaining genes of the rankings were shown. Differences among the expression values of normalized targets for each statistical approach were also found. Conclusions Optimal statistical properties of Maximum Likelihood estimation joined to mixed model flexibility allow for more accurate estimation of expression stability of genes under many different situations. Accurate selection of reference genes has a direct impact over the normalized expression values of a given target gene. This may be critical when the aim of the study is to compare expression rate differences among samples under different environmental

  18. Alternative Respiratory Pathway Component Genes (AOX and ND in Rice and Barley and Their Response to Stress

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    Vajira R. Wanniarachchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have a non-energy conserving bypass of the classical mitochondrial cytochrome c pathway, known as the alternative respiratory pathway (AP. This involves type II NAD(PH dehydrogenases (NDs on both sides of the mitochondrial inner membrane, ubiquinone, and the alternative oxidase (AOX. The AP components have been widely characterised from Arabidopsis, but little is known for monocot species. We have identified all the genes encoding components of the AP in rice and barley and found the key genes which respond to oxidative stress conditions. In both species, AOX is encoded by four genes; in rice OsAOX1a, 1c, 1d and 1e representing four clades, and in barley, HvAOX1a, 1c, 1d1 and 1d2, but no 1e. All three subfamilies of plant ND genes, NDA, NDB and NDC are present in both rice and barley, but there are fewer NDB genes compared to Arabidopsis. Cyanide treatment of both species, along with salt treatment of rice and drought treatment of barley led to enhanced expression of various AP components; there was a high level of co-expression of AOX1a and AOX1d, along with NDB3 during the stress treatments, reminiscent of the co-expression that has been well characterised in Arabidopsis for AtAOX1a and AtNDB2.

  19. Gene expression and yeast two-hybrid studies of transcription factors mediating drought stress response in root tissues of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

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    Abirami eRamalingam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress has been one of the serious constraints affecting chickpea productivity to a great extent. Genomic assisted breeding in chickpea has been effective in providing a yield advantage of up to 24 %, thus having a potential to accelerate breeding precisely and efficiently. In order to do so, understanding the molecular mechanisms for drought tolerance and identification of candidate genes are crucial. Transcription factors (TFs have important roles in the regulation of plant stress related genes. In this context, quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR was used to study the differential gene expression of selected TFs, identified from large-scale gene expression analysis, in contrasting drought responsive genotypes. Root tissues of ICC 4958 (tolerant, ICC 1882 (sensitive, JG 11 (elite and JG 11+ (introgression line were used for the study. Subsequently, a candidate single repeat MYB gene (1R-MYB that was remarkably induced in the drought tolerant genotypes under drought stress was cloned and subjected to Y2H analysis by screening a root cDNA library. The protein-protein interaction study identified three interacting peptides, a galactinol-sucrose galactosyltransferase 2, a CBL (Calcineurin B-like-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 25 and an ABA responsive 17-like, which were confirmed by the co-transformation of candidate plasmids in yeast. These findings provide preliminary insights into the ability of 1R-MYB TF to co-regulate drought tolerance mechanism in chickpea roots.

  20. Weak Organic Acids Decrease Borrelia burgdorferi Cytoplasmic pH, Eliciting an Acid Stress Response and Impacting RpoN- and RpoS-Dependent Gene Expression

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    Daniel P. Dulebohn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi survives in its tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, or within various hosts. To transition between and survive in these distinct niches, B. burgdorferi changes its gene expression in response to environmental cues, both biochemical and physiological. Exposure of B. burgdorferi to weak monocarboxylic organic acids, including those detected in the blood meal of fed ticks, decreased the cytoplasmic pH of B. burgdorferi in vitro. A decrease in the cytoplasmic pH induced the expression of genes encoding enzymes that have been shown to restore pH homeostasis in other bacteria. These include putative coupled proton/cation exchangers, a putative Na+/H+ antiporter, a neutralizing buffer transporter, an amino acid deaminase and a proton exporting vacuolar-type VoV1 ATPase. Data presented in this report suggested that the acid stress response triggered the expression of RpoN- and RpoS-dependent genes including important virulence factors such as outer surface protein C (OspC, BBA66, and some BosR (Borreliaoxidative stress regulator-dependent genes. Because the expression of virulence factors, like OspC, are so tightly connected by RpoS to general cellular stress responses and cell physiology, it is difficult to separate transmission-promoting conditions in what is clearly a multifactorial and complex regulatory web.

  1. Analysis of global gene expression profile of rice in response to methylglyoxal indicates its possible role as a stress signal molecule

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    Charanpreet eKaur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylglyoxal (MG is a toxic metabolite produced primarily as a byproduct of glycolysis. Being a potent glycating agent, it can readily bind macromolecules like DNA, RNA or proteins, modulating their expression and activity. In plants, despite the known inhibitory effects of MG on growth and development, still limited information is available about the molecular mechanisms and response pathways elicited upon elevation in MG levels. To gain insight into the molecular basis of MG response, we have investigated changes in global gene expression profiles in rice upon exposure to exogenous MG using GeneChip microarrays. Initially, growth of rice seedlings was monitored in response to increasing MG concentrations which could retard plant growth in a dose-dependent manner. Upon exposure to 10 mM concentration of MG, a total of 1685 probe sets were up- or down-regulated by more than 1.5-fold in shoot tissues within 16 h. These were classified into ten functional categories. The genes involved in signal transduction such as, protein kinases and transcription factors, were significantly over-represented in the perturbed transcriptome, of which several are known to be involved in abiotic and biotic stress response indicating a cross-talk between MG-responsive and stress-responsive signal transduction pathways. Through in silico studies, we could predict 7-8 bp long conserved motif as a possible MG-responsive element (MGRE in the 1 kb upstream region of genes that were more than ten-fold up- or down-regulated in the analysis. Since several perturbations were found in signaling cascades in response to MG, we hereby suggest that it plays an important role in signal transduction probably acting as a stress signal molecule.

  2. Abiotic stress signaling and responses in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Summary As sessile organisms, plants must cope with abiotic stress such as soil salinity, drought, and extreme temperatures. Core stress signaling pathways involve protein kinases related to the yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK, suggesting that stress signaling in plants evolved from energy sensing. Stress signaling regulates proteins critical for ion and water transport and for metabolic and gene-expression reprogramming to bring about ionic and water homeostasis and cellular stability under stress conditions. Understanding stress signaling and responses will increase our ability to improve stress resistance in crops to achieve agricultural sustainability and food security for a growing world population. PMID:27716505

  3. Water stress-responsive genes in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) roots identified by analyses of expressed sequence tag libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, W Walter; Sun, Feng; Liang, Chun; Kolychev, Dmitri; Wang, Haiming; Zhao, Xin; Cordonnier-Pratt, Marie-Michele; Pratt, Lee H; Dean, Jeffrey F D

    2006-01-01

    Drought stress is the principal cause of seedling mortality in pine forests of the southeastern United States and in many other forested regions around the globe. As part of a larger effort to discover loblolly pine genes, this study subjected rooted cuttings of three unrelated pine genotypes to three watering regimens. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained from both the 3' and 5' ends of 12,918 randomly selected cDNAs generated from root tissues. These ESTs were clustered to identify 6,765 unique transcripts (UniScripts) derived from 6,202 putative unique genes (UniGenes-S). Tentative annotations were assigned on the basis of BLASTX comparisons to the Protein Information Resource Nonredundant Reference (PIR-NREF) database. Expression levels of 42 UniScripts varied with high statistical significance with respect to treatment. Many of them resembled gene products shown to be important for drought tolerance in other species, including dehydrins, endochitinases, cytochrome P450 enzymes, pathogenesis-related proteins and various late-embryogenesis abundant (LEA) gene products. Similarly, expression levels of 110 UniScripts varied with high statistical significance among genotypes, indicating that gene expression patterns in this species are much more dependent on genotype than on treatment. Most of the water stress-induced pine UniScripts that appeared to encode products resembling drought tolerance factors in other species were most highly induced in a single genotype, suggesting that particularly useful adaptive alleles for drought tolerance might exist within the collection of cDNAs characterized from this genotype. Mining and visualizing the complete data set, as well as downloading of both EST and UniScript contig sequences, are possible using MAGIC Gene Discovery at http://fungen.org/genediscovery/.

  4. Copepod swimming behavior, respiration, and expression of stress-related genes in response to high stocking densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Birgitte; Jakobsen, Hans; Stief, Peter

    2017-01-01

    is problematic for calanoid copepod species like Acartia tonsa. In the present study, we evaluated the response of copepods experiencing stress under high-density conditions by assessing the acute stress level of A. tonsa. Control density was at 100 ind. L−1 while the treatments were increased stepwise up to 10......Using copepod nauplii as live feed in aquaculture hatcheries could solve high mortality rates of first-feeding fish larvae due to malnutrition. However, implementing the use of copepod nauplii on an intensive production scale requires a stable production at preferably high densities, which...... that adults of A. tonsa do not exhibit any measurable acute stress response when exposed to high culture densities for 12 h....

  5. Global Gene-expression Analysis of the Response of Salmonella Enteritidis to Egg White Exposure Reveals Multiple Egg White-imposed Stress Responses

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    Florence Baron

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chicken egg white protects the embryo from bacterial invaders by presenting an assortment of antagonistic activities that combine together to both kill and inhibit growth. The key features of the egg white anti-bacterial system are iron restriction, high pH, antibacterial peptides and proteins, and viscosity. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the major pathogen responsible for egg-borne infection in humans, which is partly explained by its exceptional capacity for survival under the harsh conditions encountered within egg white. However, at temperatures up to 42°C, egg white exerts a much stronger bactericidal effect on S. Enteritidis than at lower temperatures, although the mechanism of egg white-induced killing is only partly understood. Here, for the first time, the impact of exposure of S. Enteritidis to egg white under bactericidal conditions (45°C is explored by global-expression analysis. A large-scale (18.7% of genome shift in transcription is revealed suggesting major changes in specific aspects of S. Enteritidis physiology: induction of egg white related stress-responses (envelope damage, exposure to heat and alkalinity, and translation shutdown; shift in energy metabolism from respiration to fermentation; and enhanced micronutrient provision (due to iron and biotin restriction. Little evidence of DNA damage or redox stress was obtained. Instead, data are consistent with envelope damage resulting in cell death by lysis. A surprise was the high degree of induction of hexonate/hexuronate utilization genes, despite no evidence indicating the presence of these substrates in egg white.

  6. Global Gene-expression Analysis of the Response ofSalmonellaEnteritidis to Egg White Exposure Reveals Multiple Egg White-imposed Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Florence; Bonnassie, Sylvie; Alabdeh, Mariah; Cochet, Marie-Françoise; Nau, Françoise; Guérin-Dubiard, Catherine; Gautier, Michel; Andrews, Simon C; Jan, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Chicken egg white protects the embryo from bacterial invaders by presenting an assortment of antagonistic activities that combine together to both kill and inhibit growth. The key features of the egg white anti-bacterial system are iron restriction, high pH, antibacterial peptides and proteins, and viscosity. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the major pathogen responsible for egg-borne infection in humans, which is partly explained by its exceptional capacity for survival under the harsh conditions encountered within egg white. However, at temperatures up to 42°C, egg white exerts a much stronger bactericidal effect on S . Enteritidis than at lower temperatures, although the mechanism of egg white-induced killing is only partly understood. Here, for the first time, the impact of exposure of S . Enteritidis to egg white under bactericidal conditions (45°C) is explored by global-expression analysis. A large-scale (18.7% of genome) shift in transcription is revealed suggesting major changes in specific aspects of S . Enteritidis physiology: induction of egg white related stress-responses (envelope damage, exposure to heat and alkalinity, and translation shutdown); shift in energy metabolism from respiration to fermentation; and enhanced micronutrient provision (due to iron and biotin restriction). Little evidence of DNA damage or redox stress was obtained. Instead, data are consistent with envelope damage resulting in cell death by lysis. A surprise was the high degree of induction of hexonate/hexuronate utilization genes, despite no evidence indicating the presence of these substrates in egg white.

  7. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  8. Identification and characterization of nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha from Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis): A novel stress and immune response gene in crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Peng, Weijiao; Chen, Xiaoli; Geng, Xuyun; Sun, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    Disease in aquatic animals is tightly linked to environmental challenges and their immune responses are greatly modified by their external environment. The chaperone protein nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha (NACA) has been suggested to play important roles in the cellular response to stress and immune challenges, while the related biological functions remain largely unknown in invertebrates. In the present study we identified a NACA gene (termed EsNACA) from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis and analyzed its expression changes in response to ambient (salinity and pH) stresses and immune challenges. The EsNACA protein is comprised of 209 amino acid residues with a conserved DNA binding domain, a C-Jun binding domain, a NAC domain and an ubiquitin-associated domain and shows the highest sequence identity (87%) with its counterpart in shrimp Penaeus monodon. EsNACA mRNA transcripts are presented in all tested normal tissues with predominant expression in hepatopancreas and lower expression in hemocytes. In addition, EsNACA expression was significantly altered in response to the ambient salinity (15‰ and 30‰ salinities) and pH (pH 6 and 8.5) stresses in gill, hepatopancreas, muscle, hemocytes and intestine tissues. Furthermore, EsNACA gene expression was substantially induced upon LPS and Poly(I:C) immune stimulations in E. sinensis hemocytes in vitro. Finally, EsNACA expression was up-regulated in E. sinensis hemocytes, gill, hepatopancreas, intestine and muscle tissues in response to Vibrio anguillarum challenges in vivo. Taken together, our findings for the first time show that EsNACA is an inducible gene involved in stress and immune response in crustaceans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aquaporin gene expression and physiological responses of Robinia pseudoacacia L. to the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis and drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Zhang, Haoqiang; Tang, Ming

    2016-05-01

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and drought stress on aquaporin (AQP) gene expression, water status, and photosynthesis was investigated in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.). Seedlings were grown in potted soil inoculated without or with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, under well-watered and drought stress conditions. Six full-length AQP complementary DNAs (cDNAs) were isolated from Robinia pseudoacacia, named RpTIP1;1, RpTIP1;3, RpTIP2;1, RpPIP1;1, RpPIP1;3, and RpPIP2;1. A phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences demonstrated that putative proteins coded by these RpAQP genes belong to the water channel protein family. Expression analysis revealed higher RpPIP expression in roots while RpTIP expression was higher in leaves, except for RpTIP1;3. AM symbiosis regulated host plant AQPs, and the expression of RpAQP genes in mycorrhizal plants depended on soil water condition and plant tissue. Positive effects were observed for plant physiological parameters in AM plants, which had higher dry mass and lower water saturation deficit and electrolyte leakage than non-AM plants. Rhizophagus irregularis inoculation also slightly increased leaf net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance under well-watered and drought stress conditions. These findings suggest that AM symbiosis can enhance the drought tolerance in Robinia pseudoacacia plants by regulating the expression of RpAQP genes, and by improving plant biomass, tissue water status, and leaf photosynthesis in host seedlings.

  10. Suppressing Sorbitol Synthesis Substantially Alters the Global Expression Profile of Stress Response Genes in Apple (Malus domestica) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Xu, Kenong; Han, Zhenhai; Cheng, Lailiang

    2015-09-01

    Sorbitol is a major product of photosynthesis in apple (Malus domestica) that is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and stress tolerance. However, little is known about how the global transcript levels in apple leaves respond to decreased sorbitol synthesis. In this study we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling to characterize the transcriptome of leaves from transgenic lines of the apple cultivar 'Greensleeves' exhibiting suppressed expression of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) to gain insights into sorbitol function and the consequences of decreased sorbitol synthesis on gene expression. We observed that, although the leaves of the low sorbitol transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of various primary metabolites, only very limited changes were found in the levels of transcripts associated with primary metabolism. We suggest that this is indicative of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of primary metabolite accumulation and central carbon metabolism. However, we identified significantly enriched gene ontology terms belonging to the 'stress related process' category in the antisense lines (P-value apple trees to abiotic and biotic stresses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Arabidopsis Qc-SNARE gene AtSFT12 is involved in salt and osmotic stress responses and Na(+) accumulation in vacuoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarte, Vaishali N; Seok, Hye-Yeon; Woo, Dong-Hyuk; Le, Dinh Huan; Tran, Huong T; Baik, Ji-Won; Kang, In Soon; Lee, Sun-Young; Chung, Taijoon; Moon, Yong-Hwan

    2015-07-01

    AtSFT12, an Arabidopsis Qc-SNARE protein, is localized to Golgi organelles and is involved in salt and osmotic stress responses via accumulation of Na (+) in vacuoles. To reduce the detrimental effects of environmental stresses, plants have evolved many defense mechanisms. Here, we identified an Arabidopsis Qc-SNARE gene, AtSFT12, involved in salt and osmotic stress responses using an activation-tagging method. Both activation-tagged plants and overexpressing transgenic plants (OXs) of the AtSFT12 gene were tolerant to high concentrations of NaCl, LiCl, and mannitol, whereas loss-of-function mutants were sensitive to NaCl, LiCl, and mannitol. AtSFT12 transcription increased under NaCl, ABA, cold, and mannitol stresses but not MV treatment. GFP-fusion AtSFT12 protein was juxtaposed with Golgi marker, implying that its function is associated with Golgi-mediated transport. Quantitative measurement of Na(+) using induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy revealed that AtSFT12 OXs accumulated significantly more Na(+) than WT plants. In addition, Na(+)-dependent fluorescence analysis of Sodium Green showed comparatively higher Na(+) accumulation in vacuoles of AtSFT12 OX cells than in those of WT plant cells after salt treatments. Taken together, our findings suggest that AtSTF12, a Golgi Qc-SNARE protein, plays an important role in salt and osmotic stress responses and functions in the salt stress response via sequestration of Na(+) in vacuoles.

  12. How the nucleus and mitochondria communicate in energy production during stress: nuclear MtATP6, an early-stress responsive gene, regulates the mitochondrial F₁F₀-ATP synthase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Ali Asghar; Ebrahimie, Eemaeil; Taghavi, Seyed Mohsen; Niazi, Ali; Babgohari, Mahbobeh Zamani; Deihimi, Tahereh; Djavaheri, Mohammad; Ramezani, Amin

    2013-07-01

    A small number of stress-responsive genes, such as those of the mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase complex, are encoded by both the nucleus and mitochondria. The regulatory mechanism of these joint products is mysterious. The expression of 6-kDa subunit (MtATP6), a relatively uncharacterized nucleus-encoded subunit of F0 part, was measured during salinity stress in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivated wheat genotypes, as well as in the wild wheat genotypes, Triticum and Aegilops using qRT-PCR. The MtATP6 expression was suddenly induced 3 h after NaCl treatment in all genotypes, indicating an early inducible stress-responsive behavior. Promoter analysis showed that the MtATP6 promoter includes cis-acting elements such as ABRE, MYC, MYB, GTLs, and W-boxes, suggesting a role for this gene in abscisic acid-mediated signaling, energy metabolism, and stress response. It seems that 6-kDa subunit, as an early response gene and nuclear regulatory factor, translocates to mitochondria and completes the F1F0-ATP synthase complex to enhance ATP production and maintain ion homeostasis under stress conditions. These communications between nucleus and mitochondria are required for inducing mitochondrial responses to stress pathways. Dual targeting of 6-kDa subunit may comprise as a mean of inter-organelle communication and save energy for the cell. Interestingly, MtATP6 showed higher and longer expression in the salt-tolerant wheat and the wild genotypes compared to the salt-sensitive genotype. Apparently, salt-sensitive genotypes have lower ATP production efficiency and weaker energy management than wild genotypes; a stress tolerance mechanism that has not been transferred to cultivated genotypes.

  13. Identification of Scedosporium boydii catalase A1 gene, a reactive oxygen species detoxification factor highly expressed in response to oxidative stress and phagocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Sara; Staerck, Cindy; d'Almeida, Sènan M; Marot, Agnès; Delneste, Yves; Calenda, Alphonse; Tabiasco, Julie; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Fleury, Maxime J J

    2015-12-01

    Scedosporium boydii is an opportunistic filamentous fungus which may be responsible for a large variety of infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. This fungus belongs to the Scedosporium apiospermum species complex which usually ranks second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Species of the S. apiospermum complex are able to chronically colonize the CF airways suggesting pathogenic mechanisms allowing persistence and growth of these fungi in the respiratory tract. Few putative virulence factors have been purified and characterized so far in the S. apiospermum complex including a cytosolic Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a monofunctional catalase (catalase A1). Upon microbial infection, host phagocytes release reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, as part of the antimicrobial response. Catalases are known to protect pathogens against ROS by degradation of the hydrogen peroxide. Here, we identified the S. boydii catalase A1 gene (CATA1) and investigated its expression in response to the environmental conditions encountered in the CF airways and to the oxidative stress. Results showed that S. boydii CATA1 gene expression is not affected by hypoxia, hypercapnia or pH changes. In contrast, CATA1 gene was overexpressed in response to a chemically induced oxidative stress with a relative gene expression 37-fold higher in the presence of 250 μM H(2)O(2), 20-fold higher with 250 μM menadione and 5-fold higher with 2 mM paraquat. Moreover, S. boydii CATA1 gene expression progressively increased upon exposure to activated THP-1-derived macrophages, reaching a maximum after 12 h (26 fold). Activated HL60-derived neutrophils and activated human peripheral blood neutrophils more rapidly induced S. boydii CATA1 gene overexpression, a maximum gene expression level being reached at 75 min (17 fold) and 60 min (15 fold), respectively. In contrast expression of the gene

  14. Longevity and the stress response in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    to affect lifespan. The progress in modern genetic techniques has allowed researchers to test this idea. The general stress response involves the expression of stress proteins, such as chaperones and antioxidative proteins, downregulation of genes involved in energy metabolism and the release of protective......The concept that lifespan is a function of the capacity to withstand extrinsic stress is very old. In concordance with this, long-lived individuals often have increased resistance against a variety of stresses throughout life. Genes underlying the stress response may therefore have the ability...... briefly review the state of the art of research on ageing and longevity in the model organism Drosophila, with focus on the role of the general stress response. We will conclude by contemplating some of the implications of the findings in this research and will suggest several directions for future...

  15. The Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Gene Family in Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.): Genome-Wide Identification and Gene Expression during Flower Induction and Abiotic Stress Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dengwei Jue; Xuelian Sang; Liqin Liu; Bo Shu; Yicheng Wang; Jianghui Xie; Chengming Liu; Shengyou Shi

    2018-01-01

    Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s or UBC enzymes) play vital roles in plant development and combat various biotic and abiotic stresses. Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) is an important fruit tree in the subtropical region of Southeast Asia and Australia; however the characteristics of the UBC gene family in longan remain unknown. In this study, 40 D. longan UBC genes (DlUBCs), which were classified into 15 groups, were identified in the longan genome. An RNA-seq based analysis showed that Dl...

  16. Deletion of an Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Element in a ZmPP2C-A Gene Facilitates Drought Tolerance of Maize Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yanli; Sun, Xiaopeng; Gao, Shan; Qin, Feng; Dai, Mingqiu

    2017-03-06

    Drought is a major abiotic stress that causes the yearly yield loss of maize, a crop cultured worldwide. Breeding drought-tolerant maize cultivars is a priority requirement of world agriculture. Clade A PP2C phosphatases (PP2C-A), which are conserved in most plant species, play important roles in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and plant drought response. However, natural variations of PP2C-A genes that are directly associated with drought tolerance remain to be elucidated. Here, we conducted a candidate gene association analysis of the ZmPP2C-A gene family in a maize panel consisting of 368 varieties collected worldwide, and identified a drought responsive gene ZmPP2C-A10 that is tightly associated with drought tolerance. We found that the degree of drought tolerance of maize cultivars negatively correlates with the expression levels of ZmPP2C-A10. ZmPP2C-A10, like its Arabidopsis orthologs, interacts with ZmPYL ABA receptors and ZmSnRK2 kinases, suggesting that ZmPP2C-A10 is involved in mediating ABA signaling in maize. Transgenic studies in maize and Arabidopsis confirmed that ZmPP2C-A10 functions as a negative regulator of drought tolerance. Further, a causal natural variation, deletion allele-338, which bears a deletion of ERSE (endoplasmic reticulum stress response element) in the 5'-UTR region of ZmPP2C-A10, was detected. This deletion causes the loss of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced expression of ZmPP2C-A10, leading to increased plant drought tolerance. Our study provides direct evidence linking ER stress signaling with drought tolerance and genetic resources that can be used directly in breeding drought-tolerant maize cultivars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in the rubber tree: indicative of roles in stress response and sucrose utilization in the laticifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaohu; Tang, Chaorong; Fang, Yongjun; Yang, Meng; Zhou, Binhui; Qi, Jiyan; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely recognized as a key enzyme in sucrose metabolism in plants. However, nothing is known about this gene family in Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree). Here, we identified six Sus genes in H. brasiliensis that comprise the entire Sus family in this species. Analysis of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrates evolutionary conservation in the Sus families across Hevea and other plant species. The expression of Sus genes was investigated via Solexa sequencing and quantitative PCR in various tissues, at various phases of leaf development, and under abiotic stresses and ethylene treatment. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles. Each tissue has one abundant Sus isoform, with HbSus3, 4 and 5 being the predominant isoforms in latex (cytoplasm of rubber-producing laticifers), bark and root, respectively. HbSus1 and 6 were barely expressed in any tissue examined. In mature leaves (source), all HbSus genes were expressed at low levels, but HbSus3 and 4 were abundantly expressed in immature leaves (sink). Low temperature and drought treatments conspicuously induced HbSus5 expression in root and leaf, suggesting a role in stress responses. HbSus2 and 3 transcripts were decreased by ethylene treatment, consistent with the reduced sucrose-synthesizing activity of Sus enzymes in the latex in response to ethylene stimulation. Our results are beneficial to further determination of functions for the Sus genes in Hevea trees, especially roles in regulating latex regeneration. © 2013 FEBS.

  18. DNA Sequence Variation and Selection of Tag Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms at Candidate Genes for Drought-Stress Response in Pinus taeda L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, Santiago C.; Ersoz, Elhan; Brown, Garth R.; Wheeler, Nicholas C.; Neale, David B.

    2006-01-01

    Genetic association studies are rapidly becoming the experimental approach of choice to dissect complex traits, including tolerance to drought stress, which is the most common cause of mortality and yield losses in forest trees. Optimization of association mapping requires knowledge of the patterns of nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium and the selection of suitable polymorphisms for genotyping. Moreover, standard neutrality tests applied to DNA sequence variation data can be used to select candidate genes or amino acid sites that are putatively under selection for association mapping. In this article, we study the pattern of polymorphism of 18 candidate genes for drought-stress response in Pinus taeda L., an important tree crop. Data analyses based on a set of 21 putatively neutral nuclear microsatellites did not show population genetic structure or genomewide departures from neutrality. Candidate genes had moderate average nucleotide diversity at silent sites (πsil = 0.00853), varying 100-fold among single genes. The level of within-gene LD was low, with an average pairwise r2 of 0.30, decaying rapidly from ∼0.50 to ∼0.20 at 800 bp. No apparent LD among genes was found. A selective sweep may have occurred at the early-response-to-drought-3 (erd3) gene, although population expansion can also explain our results and evidence for selection was not conclusive. One other gene, ccoaomt-1, a methylating enzyme involved in lignification, showed dimorphism (i.e., two highly divergent haplotype lineages at equal frequency), which is commonly associated with the long-term action of balancing selection. Finally, a set of haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPs) was selected. Using htSNPs, a reduction of genotyping effort of ∼30–40%, while sampling most common allelic variants, can be gained in our ongoing association studies for drought tolerance in pine. PMID:16387885

  19. Expression of four phosphate transporter genes from Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) in response to mycorrhizal colonization and Pi stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudake, Ramesh Namdeo; Mehta, Chandra Mohan; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Sharma, Suvigya; Varma, Ajit; Sharma, Anil Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a vital nutrient for plant growth and development, and is absorbed in cells with the help of membrane-spanning inorganic phosphate transporter (Pht) protein. Symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) also helps in transporting P from the soil to plant and Pht proteins play an important role in it. To understand this phenomenon in Finger Mille plant, we have cloned four Pht genes from Finger millet, which shares the homology with Pht1 protein family of cereals. Expression pattern analysis during the AM infection indicated that EcPT4 gene was AM specific, and its expression was higher in roots where AM colonization percentage was high. The expression level of EcPT1-4 gene under the phosphorous (Pi) stress in seedlings was found to be consistent with its role in acquisition of phosphorus. Homology study of the EcPt proteins with Pht proteins of cereals shows close relationship. The findings of the study indicate that Pht1 family genes from finger millet can serve to be an important resource for the better understanding of phosphorus use efficiency.

  20. Molecular cloning of class III chitinase gene from Avicennia marina and its expression analysis in response to cadmium and lead stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ying; Wang, You-Shao; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Mangrove species have high tolerance to heavy metal pollution. Chitinases have been widely reported as defense proteins in response to heavy metal stress in terrestrial plants. In this study, a full-length cDNA sequence encoding an acidic and basic class III chitinase (AmCHI III) was cloned by using RT-PCR and RACE methods in Avicennia marina. AmCHI III mRNA expression in leaf of A. marina were investigated under Cd, Pb stresses on using real-time quantitative PCR. The deduced AmCHI III protein consists of 302 amino acids, including a signal putative peptide region, and a catalytic domain. Homology modeling of the catalytic domain revealed a typical molecular structure of class III plant chitinases. Results further demonstrated that the regulation of AmCHI III mRNA expression in leaves was strongly dependent on Cd, Pb stresses. AmCHI III mRNA expressions were significantly increased in response to Cd, Pb, and peaked at 7 days Cd-exposure, 7 days Pb-exposure, respectively. AmCHI III mRNA expression exhibited more sensitive to Pb stress than Cd stress. This work was the first time cloing chitinase from A. marina, and it brought evidence on chitinase gene involving in heavy metals (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) resistance or detoxification in plants. Further studies including the promoter and upstream regulation, gene over-expression and the response of mangrove chitinases to other stresses will shed more light on the role of chitinase in mangrove plants.

  1. In vivo shear stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, Stuart

    2011-12-01

    EC (endothelial cell) responses to shear stress generated by vascular perfusion play an important role in circulatory homoeostasis, whereas abnormal responses are implicated in vascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. ECs subjected to high shear stress in vitro alter their morphology, function and gene expression. The molecular basis for mechanotransduction of a shear stress signal, and the identity of the sensing mechanisms, remain unclear with many candidates under investigation. Translating these findings in vivo has proved difficult. The role of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) flow-dependent nitric oxide release in remodelling skeletal muscle microcirculation is established for elevated (activity, dilatation) and reduced (overload, ischaemia) shear stress, although their temporal relationship to angiogenesis varies. It is clear that growth factor levels may offer only a permissive environment, and alteration of receptor levels may be a viable therapeutic target. Angiogenesis in vivo appears to be a graded phenomenon, and capillary regression on withdrawal of stimulus may be rapid. Combinations of physiological angiogenic stimuli appear not to be additive.

  2. Synthetic Lethality of the bfr and mbfA Genes Reveals a Functional Relationship between Iron Storage and Iron Export in Managing Stress Responses in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Sankari

    Full Text Available An mbfA mutant of Bradyrhizobium japonicum defective in iron export is sensitive to short term exposure to high levels iron or H2O2. Here, we found that the mbfA strain grown in elevated iron media (100 μM became resistant to those treatments, suggesting a stress response adaptation. The bfr gene encodes the iron storage protein bacterioferritin, and its expression is derepressed by iron. An mbfA bfr double mutant showed a loss of stress adaptation, and had a severe growth phenotype in high iron media. Moreover, a bfrup allele in which bfr is constitutively derepressed conferred stress tolerance on an mbfA mutant without elevating the iron content in the growth media. The intracellular iron content of the mbfA bfr double mutant was substantially higher than that found in the wild type, even when grown in relatively low iron media (5 μM. Under that condition, iron-responsive gene expression was aberrant in the mbfA bfr strain. Moreover, the double mutant was sensitive to the iron-activated antibiotic streptonigrin. We conclude that MbfA and Bfr work in concert to manage iron and oxidative stresses. In addition, the need for iron detoxification is not limited to extreme environments, but is also required for normal cellular function.

  3. Expression patterns and promoter characteristics of the Vitis quinquangularis VqSTS36 gene involved in abiotic and biotic stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiangjing; Huang, Li; Zhang, Xiuming; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Hao; Li, Zhi; Wang, Xiping

    2017-11-01

    Resveratrol is a stilbene compound that is synthesized by plants in response to biotic stress and has been linked to health benefits associated with the consumption of certain foods and food products, such as grapes and wine. The final step in the biosynthesis of resveratrol is catalyzed by the enzyme stilbene synthase (STS). Here, we assessed the expression of two STS genes (VqSTS36 and VpSTS36) from the wild grape species Vitis quinquangularis (accession 'Shang-24'; powdery mildew (PM) resistant) and Vitis pseudoreticulata (accession 'Hunan-1'; PM susceptible) following infection by Uncinula necator (Schw.) Burr, the causal agent of PM disease. Some correlation was observed between the relative levels of STS36 transcript and disease resistance. We also cloned the 5' upstream sequence of both VpSTS36 and VqSTS36 and generated a series of 5' VqSTS36 promoter deletions fused to the GUS reporter gene in order to analyze expression in response to wounding, the application of exogenous stress-associated hormones, and biotic stress in tobacco leaves. The promoter was shown to be induced by the hormone salicylic acid (SA), inoculation with the fungal pathogen Erysiphe cichoracearum, and by wounding. These results suggest that VqSTS36 is regulated by biotic stresses and that it plays an important role in mediating disease resistance in grape.

  4. Genome-Wide Identification of the Alba Gene Family in Plants and Stress-Responsive Expression of the Rice Alba Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Wardhan, Vijay; Singh, Deepali; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2018-03-28

    Architectural proteins play key roles in genome construction and regulate the expression of many genes, albeit the modulation of genome plasticity by these proteins is largely unknown. A critical screening of the architectural proteins in five crop species, viz., Oryza sativa , Zea mays , Sorghum bicolor , Cicer arietinum , and Vitis vinifera , and in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana along with evolutionary relevant species such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , Physcomitrella patens , and Amborella trichopoda , revealed 9, 20, 10, 7, 7, 6, 1, 4, and 4 Alba (acetylation lowers binding affinity) genes, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the genes and of their counterparts in other plant species indicated evolutionary conservation and diversification. In each group, the structural components of the genes and motifs showed significant conservation. The chromosomal location of the Alba genes of rice ( OsAlba ), showed an unequal distribution on 8 of its 12 chromosomes. The expression profiles of the OsAlba genes indicated a distinct tissue-specific expression in the seedling, vegetative, and reproductive stages. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of the OsAlba genes confirmed their stress-inducible expression under multivariate environmental conditions and phytohormone treatments. The evaluation of the regulatory elements in 68 Alba genes from the 9 species studied led to the identification of conserved motifs and overlapping microRNA (miRNA) target sites, suggesting the conservation of their function in related proteins and a divergence in their biological roles across species. The 3D structure and the prediction of putative ligands and their binding sites for OsAlba proteins offered a key insight into the structure-function relationship. These results provide a comprehensive overview of the subtle genetic diversification of the OsAlba genes, which will help in elucidating their functional role in plants.

  5. Wheat hypersensitive-induced reaction genes TaHIR1 and TaHIR3 are involved in response to stripe rust fungus infection and abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yinghui; Guo, Jun; Shi, Xuexia; Guan, Xiangnan; Liu, Furong; Bai, Pengfei; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2013-02-01

    KEY MESSAGE : TaHIR1 and TaHIR3 play positive roles in resistance to the stripe rust fungus via inducing HR and regulating defense-related genes, but are negatively regulated by various abiotic stimuli. Plant hypersensitive-induced reaction (HIR) genes are known to be associated with the hypersensitive response and disease defense. In wheat, two HIR genes, TaHIR1 and TaHIR3, have been identified and found to be up-regulated after infection with the stripe rust fungus. Here, we further determined their roles in defense against abiotic stresses and the stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. TaHIR1 and TaHIR3 proteins were localized in the plasma membrane of tobacco cells. The expression of TaHIR1 and TaHIR3 was reduced by the environmental stimuli, including low temperature, drought, and high salinity stresses. In addition, the expression of TaHIR1 and TaHIR3 was down-regulated by exogenously applied ethrel and abscisic acid, whereas expression was not affected by treatments with salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate. Furthermore, barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing of TaHIR1 and TaHIR3 reduced resistance in wheat cultivar Suwon11 against an avirulent stripe rust pathotype CYR23 and area of necrotic cells neighboring the infection sites, and altered the expression levels of defense-related genes. These results suggest that TaHIR1 and TaHIR3 function positively in the incompatible interaction of wheat-stripe rust fungus, but exhibit negative transcriptional response to abiotic stresses.

  6. Transcription of putative tonoplast transporters in response to glyphosate and paraquat stress in Conyza bonariensis and Conyza canadensis and selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Marcelo L; Alárcon-Reverte, Rocio; Pearce, Stephen; Morran, Sarah; Hanson, Bradley D

    2017-01-01

    . Transcription of ABC transporters also increased after paraquat treatment in all three lines of C. bonariensis. However, in C. canadensis, paraquat treatment increased transcription of only one ABC transporter gene in the susceptible line. The increase in transcription of ABC transporters after herbicide treatment is likely a stress response based on similar response observed across all Conyza lines regardless of resistance or sensitivity to glyphosate or paraquat, thus these genes do not appear to be directly involved in the mechanism of resistance in Conyza spp.

  7. Role of csp genes in NaCl, pH, and ethanol stress response and motility in Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Yağmur; Söderholm, Henna; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2015-04-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a notable food pathogen and responsible for botulism due to production of botulinum neurotoxin. Strains of C. botulinum can adapt to and survive in stress conditions and food processing. The cold shock protein coding genes (csp) are involved in growth at low temperature, but they may also possess other functions. In this mutational analysis we show that cspB and cspC, but not cspA, are important for NaCl, pH and ethanol stress responses and for motility of C. botulinum ATCC 3502. In all NaCl concentrations tested, the cspB mutant had lower maximum growth rate and, together with the cspC mutant, a longer lag phase compared to the wild-type strain. At low pH, the cspB and cspC mutants showed either lower maximum growth rates or longer lag phases compared to the wild type. In all ethanol concentrations tested, the cspB mutant had lower maximum growth rates and the cspC mutant had a longer lag phase than the wild-type strain. Motility was reduced in cspA and cspC mutants, and flagella formation was affected. The results suggest that cspB plays a universal role in stress response and cspC aids C. botulinum in NaCl, pH and ethanol stress in C. botulinum ATCC 3502. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Retrotransposon and gene activation in wheat in response to mycotoxigenic and non-mycotoxigenic-associated Fusarium stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari, Khairul Islam; Walter, Stephanie; Brennan, Josephine M.

    2007-01-01

    that these transcripts were responsive to both mycotoxigenic- and non-mycotoxigenic-associated Fusarium stress. In tests using the parents 'CyCM82036', 'Remus' and 14 double-haploid progeny that segregated for quantitative trait locus (QTL) Fhb1 on chromosome 3BS (syn. Qfhs.ndsu-3BS) (from 'CyCM82036' that confers DON...... not below) the treated spikelets (AUDPC(DON)) (r = -0.41, -0.75 and -0.72, respectively; P Chinese spring' and its 3BS deletion derivatives indicated that bZIP is located in chromosomal region(s) other than 3BS. These results, and the fact that a homologous cold...

  9. Evolution of stress-regulated gene expression in duplicate genes of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zou

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the selection pressure imposed by highly variable environmental conditions, stress sensing and regulatory response mechanisms in plants are expected to evolve rapidly. One potential source of innovation in plant stress response mechanisms is gene duplication. In this study, we examined the evolution of stress-regulated gene expression among duplicated genes in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Key to this analysis was reconstructing the putative ancestral stress regulation pattern. By comparing the expression patterns of duplicated genes with the patterns of their ancestors, duplicated genes likely lost and gained stress responses at a rapid rate initially, but the rate is close to zero when the synonymous substitution rate (a proxy for time is > approximately 0.8. When considering duplicated gene pairs, we found that partitioning of putative ancestral stress responses occurred more frequently compared to cases of parallel retention and loss. Furthermore, the pattern of stress response partitioning was extremely asymmetric. An analysis of putative cis-acting DNA regulatory elements in the promoters of the duplicated stress-regulated genes indicated that the asymmetric partitioning of ancestral stress responses are likely due, at least in part, to differential loss of DNA regulatory elements; the duplicated genes losing most of their stress responses were those that had lost more of the putative cis-acting elements. Finally, duplicate genes that lost most or all of the ancestral responses are more likely to have gained responses to other stresses. Therefore, the retention of duplicates that inherit few or no functions seems to be coupled to neofunctionalization. Taken together, our findings provide new insight into the patterns of evolutionary changes in gene stress responses after duplication and lay the foundation for testing the adaptive significance of stress regulatory changes under highly variable biotic and abiotic environments.

  10. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of glyoxalase gene families in soybean (Glycine max) indicate their development and abiotic stress specific response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ajit; Islam, Tahmina

    2016-04-16

    Glyoxalase pathway consists of two enzymes, glyoxalase I (GLYI) and glyoxalase II (GLYII) which detoxifies a highly cytotoxic metabolite methylglyoxal (MG) to its non-toxic form. MG may form advanced glycation end products with various cellular macro-molecules such as proteins, DNA and RNA; that ultimately lead to their inactivation. Role of glyoxalase enzymes has been extensively investigated in various plant species which showed their crucial role in salinity, drought and heavy metal stress tolerance. Previously genome-wide analysis of glyoxalase genes has been conducted in model plants Arabidopsis and rice, but no such study was performed in any legume species. In the present study, a comprehensive genome database analysis of soybean was performed and identified a total of putative 41 GLYI and 23 GLYII proteins encoded by 24 and 12 genes, respectively. Detailed analysis of these identified members was conducted including their nomenclature and classification, chromosomal distribution and duplication, exon-intron organization, and protein domain(s) and motifs identification. Expression profiling of these genes has been performed in different tissues and developmental stages as well as under salinity and drought stresses using publicly available RNAseq and microarray data. The study revealed that GmGLYI-7 and GmGLYII-8 have been expressed intensively in all the developmental stages and tissues; while GmGLYI-6, GmGLYI-9, GmGLYI-20, GmGLYII-5 and GmGLYII-10 were highly abiotic stress responsive members. The present study identifies the largest family of glyoxalase proteins to date with 41 GmGLYI and 23 GmGLYII members in soybean. Detailed analysis of GmGLYI and GmGLYII genes strongly indicates the genome-wide segmental and tandem duplication of the glyoxalase members. Moreover, this study provides a strong basis about the biological role and function of GmGLYI and GmGLYII members in soybean growth, development and stress physiology.

  11. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of stress response in a spinal cord clip compression injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamankhah, Mahmood; Eftekharpour, Eftekhar; Karimi-Abdolrezaee, Soheila; Boutros, Paul C; San-Marina, Serban; Fehlings, Michael G

    2013-08-28

    The aneurysm clip impact-compression model of spinal cord injury (SCI) is a standard injury model in animals that closely mimics the primary mechanism of most human injuries: acute impact and persisting compression. Its histo-pathological and behavioural outcomes are extensively similar to human SCI. To understand the distinct molecular events underlying this injury model we analyzed global mRNA abundance changes during the acute, subacute and chronic stages of a moderate to severe injury to the rat spinal cord. Time-series expression analyses resulted in clustering of the majority of deregulated transcripts into eight statistically significant expression profiles. Systematic application of Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment pathway analysis allowed inference of biological processes participating in SCI pathology. Temporal analysis identified events specific to and common between acute, subacute and chronic time-points. Processes common to all phases of injury include blood coagulation, cellular extravasation, leukocyte cell-cell adhesion, the integrin-mediated signaling pathway, cytokine production and secretion, neutrophil chemotaxis, phagocytosis, response to hypoxia and reactive oxygen species, angiogenesis, apoptosis, inflammatory processes and ossification. Importantly, various elements of adaptive and induced innate immune responses span, not only the acute and subacute phases, but also persist throughout the chronic phase of SCI. Induced innate responses, such as Toll-like receptor signaling, are more active during the acute phase but persist throughout the chronic phase. However, adaptive immune response processes such as B and T cell activation, proliferation, and migration, T cell differentiation, B and T cell receptor-mediated signaling, and B cell- and immunoglobulin-mediated immune response become more significant during the chronic phase. This analysis showed that, surprisingly, the diverse series of molecular events that occur in the acute and subacute

  12. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of stress response in a spinal cord clip compression injury model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The aneurysm clip impact-compression model of spinal cord injury (SCI) is a standard injury model in animals that closely mimics the primary mechanism of most human injuries: acute impact and persisting compression. Its histo-pathological and behavioural outcomes are extensively similar to human SCI. To understand the distinct molecular events underlying this injury model we analyzed global mRNA abundance changes during the acute, subacute and chronic stages of a moderate to severe injury to the rat spinal cord. Results Time-series expression analyses resulted in clustering of the majority of deregulated transcripts into eight statistically significant expression profiles. Systematic application of Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment pathway analysis allowed inference of biological processes participating in SCI pathology. Temporal analysis identified events specific to and common between acute, subacute and chronic time-points. Processes common to all phases of injury include blood coagulation, cellular extravasation, leukocyte cell-cell adhesion, the integrin-mediated signaling pathway, cytokine production and secretion, neutrophil chemotaxis, phagocytosis, response to hypoxia and reactive oxygen species, angiogenesis, apoptosis, inflammatory processes and ossification. Importantly, various elements of adaptive and induced innate immune responses span, not only the acute and subacute phases, but also persist throughout the chronic phase of SCI. Induced innate responses, such as Toll-like receptor signaling, are more active during the acute phase but persist throughout the chronic phase. However, adaptive immune response processes such as B and T cell activation, proliferation, and migration, T cell differentiation, B and T cell receptor-mediated signaling, and B cell- and immunoglobulin-mediated immune response become more significant during the chronic phase. Conclusions This analysis showed that, surprisingly, the diverse series of molecular events that

  13. Estrogen induces apoptosis in estrogen deprivation-resistant breast cancer through stress responses as identified by global gene expression across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariazi, Eric A; Cunliffe, Heather E; Lewis-Wambi, Joan S; Slifker, Michael J; Willis, Amanda L; Ramos, Pilar; Tapia, Coya; Kim, Helen R; Yerrum, Smitha; Sharma, Catherine G N; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Ross, Eric A; Jordan, V Craig

    2011-11-22

    In laboratory studies, acquired resistance to long-term antihormonal therapy in breast cancer evolves through two phases over 5 y. Phase I develops within 1 y, and tumor growth occurs with either 17β-estradiol (E(2)) or tamoxifen. Phase II resistance develops after 5 y of therapy, and tamoxifen still stimulates growth; however, E(2) paradoxically induces apoptosis. This finding is the basis for the clinical use of estrogen to treat advanced antihormone-resistant breast cancer. We interrogated E(2)-induced apoptosis by analysis of gene expression across time (2-96 h) in MCF-7 cell variants that were estrogen-dependent (WS8) or resistant to estrogen deprivation and refractory (2A) or sensitive (5C) to E(2)-induced apoptosis. We developed a method termed differential area under the curve analysis that identified genes uniquely regulated by E(2) in 5C cells compared with both WS8 and 2A cells and hence, were associated with E(2)-induced apoptosis. Estrogen signaling, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), and inflammatory response genes were overrepresented among the 5C-specific genes. The identified ERS genes indicated that E(2) inhibited protein folding, translation, and fatty acid synthesis. Meanwhile, the ERS-associated apoptotic genes Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death (BIM; BCL2L11) and caspase-4 (CASP4), among others, were induced. Evaluation of a caspase peptide inhibitor panel showed that the CASP4 inhibitor z-LEVD-fmk was the most active at blocking E(2)-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, z-LEVD-fmk completely prevented poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, E(2)-inhibited growth, and apoptotic morphology. The up-regulated proinflammatory genes included IL, IFN, and arachidonic acid-related genes. Functional testing showed that arachidonic acid and E(2) interacted to superadditively induce apoptosis. Therefore, these data indicate that E(2) induced apoptosis through ERS and inflammatory responses in advanced antihormone-resistant breast cancer.

  14. Effect of cyclical cold stress during embryonic development on aspects of physiological responses and HSP70 gene expression of chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminoroaya, Keyvan; Sadeghi, Ali Asghar; Ansari-Pirsaraei, Zarbakht; Kashan, Nasser

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cyclical lower incubation temperature at different embryonic ages on the hatchability, body and organs weights, thyroid hormones, and liver HSP70 gene expression of newly hatched chicks. In a completely randomized design, fertile eggs of a broiler breeder (34 weeks of age) were assigned to three treatment groups with six replicates and 145 eggs per each. The treatment groups were as: control group (C) that eggs were incubated at 37.6°C during the whole incubation period; incubation temperature was decreased to 36°C for 3h per day at embryonic age from 12 to 14 (T1); and incubation temperature was decreased to 36°C for 3h per day at embryonic age from 15 to 17 (T2). No significant difference was found among treatments for hatchability (P>0.05). There were no differences (P>0.05) among treatments for body weight and liver weight, while heart weight of chicks in T1 and T2 groups were significantly higher than the control group (P0.05) among treatments for the levels of thyroid hormones, however, the levels of both hormones tended to increase in chicks exposed to cold stress (T1 and T2). Chicks in T2 group had higher liver HSP70 gene expression compared with those in T1 and the control group (Pperiods had no significant effect on the plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. Treatments had no effect on the plasma levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride. The results of this study suggest that cyclical lower incubation temperatures (36°C) at the embryonic age from day 15-17 could induce the liver HSP70 gene expression, without negative effects on the hatchability and body weight of hatched chicks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of the mussel Elliptio complanata identifies candidate stress-response genes and an abundance of novel or noncoding transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Robert S.; Robertson, Laura S.; Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.

    2014-01-01

    Mussels are useful indicator species of environmental stress and degradation, and the global decline in freshwater mussel diversity and abundance is of conservation concern. Elliptio complanata is a common freshwater mussel of eastern North America that can serve both as an indicator and as an experimental model for understanding mussel physiology and genetics. To support genetic components of these research goals, we assembled transcriptome contigs from Illumina paired-end reads. Despite efforts to collapse similar contigs, the final assembly was in excess of 136,000 contigs with an N50 of 982 bp. Even so, comparisons to the CEGMA database of conserved eukaryotic genes indicated that ∼20% of genes remain unrepresented. However, numerous candidate stress-response genes were present, and we identified lineage-specific patterns of diversification among molluscs for cytochrome P450 detoxification genes and two saccharide-modifying enzymes: 1,3 beta-galactosyltransferase and fucosyltransferase. Less than a quarter of contigs had protein-level similarity based on modest BLAST and Hmmer3 statistical thresholds. These results add comparative genomic resources for molluscs and suggest a wealth of novel proteins and noncoding transcripts.

  16. Halophytes: Potential Resources for Salt Stress Tolerance Genes and Promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Avinash; Tanna, Bhakti

    2017-01-01

    Halophytes have demonstrated their capability to thrive under extremely saline conditions and thus considered as one of the best germplasm for saline agriculture. Salinity is a worldwide problem, and the salt-affected areas are increasing day-by-day because of scanty rainfall, poor irrigation system, salt ingression, water contamination, and other environmental factors. The salinity stress tolerance mechanism is a very complex phenomenon, and some pathways are coordinately linked for imparting salinity tolerance. Though a number of salt responsive genes have been reported from the halophytes, there is always a quest for promising stress-responsive genes that can modulate plant physiology according to the salt stress. Halophytes such as Aeluropus, Mesembryanthemum, Suaeda, Atriplex, Thellungiella, Cakile , and Salicornia serve as a potential candidate for the salt-responsive genes and promoters. Several known genes like antiporters ( NHX, SOS, HKT, VTPase ), ion channels (Cl - , Ca 2+ , aquaporins), antioxidant encoding genes ( APX, CAT, GST, BADH, SOD ) and some novel genes such as USP, SDR1, SRP etc. were isolated from halophytes and explored for developing stress tolerance in the crop plants (glycophytes). It is evidenced that stress triggers salt sensors that lead to the activation of stress tolerance mechanisms which involve multiple signaling proteins, up- or down-regulation of several genes, and finally the distinctive or collective effects of stress-responsive genes. In this review, halophytes are discussed as an excellent platform for salt responsive genes which can be utilized for developing salinity tolerance in crop plants through genetic engineering.

  17. Halophytes: Potential Resources for Salt Stress Tolerance Genes and Promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Mishra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes have demonstrated their capability to thrive under extremely saline conditions and thus considered as one of the best germplasm for saline agriculture. Salinity is a worldwide problem, and the salt-affected areas are increasing day-by-day because of scanty rainfall, poor irrigation system, salt ingression, water contamination, and other environmental factors. The salinity stress tolerance mechanism is a very complex phenomenon, and some pathways are coordinately linked for imparting salinity tolerance. Though a number of salt responsive genes have been reported from the halophytes, there is always a quest for promising stress-responsive genes that can modulate plant physiology according to the salt stress. Halophytes such as Aeluropus, Mesembryanthemum, Suaeda, Atriplex, Thellungiella, Cakile, and Salicornia serve as a potential candidate for the salt-responsive genes and promoters. Several known genes like antiporters (NHX, SOS, HKT, VTPase, ion channels (Cl−, Ca2+, aquaporins, antioxidant encoding genes (APX, CAT, GST, BADH, SOD and some novel genes such as USP, SDR1, SRP etc. were isolated from halophytes and explored for developing stress tolerance in the crop plants (glycophytes. It is evidenced that stress triggers salt sensors that lead to the activation of stress tolerance mechanisms which involve multiple signaling proteins, up- or down-regulation of several genes, and finally the distinctive or collective effects of stress-responsive genes. In this review, halophytes are discussed as an excellent platform for salt responsive genes which can be utilized for developing salinity tolerance in crop plants through genetic engineering.

  18. Intra-specific variations in expression of stress-related genes in beech progenies are stronger than drought-induced responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsjens, Caroline; Nguyen Ngoc, Quynh; Guzy, Jonas; Knutzen, Florian; Meier, Ina Christin; Müller, Markus; Finkeldey, Reiner; Leuschner, Christoph; Polle, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Rapidly decreasing water availability as a consequence of climate change is likely to endanger the range of long-lived tree species. A pressing question is, therefore, whether adaptation to drought exists in important temperate tree species like European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), a wide-spread, dominant forest tree in Central Europe. Here, five beech stands were selected along a precipitation gradient from moist to dry conditions. Neutral genetic markers revealed strong variation within and little differentiation between the populations. Natural regeneration from these stands was transferred to a common garden and used to investigate the expression of genes for abscisic acid (ABA)-related drought signaling [9-cis-epoxy-dioxygenase (NCED), protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C), early responsive to dehydration (ERD)] and stress protection [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), glutamine amidotransferase (GAT)] that are involved in drought acclimation. We hypothesized that progenies from dry sites exhibit constitutively higher expression levels of ABA- and stress-related genes and are less drought responsive than progenies from moist sites. Transcript levels and stress responses (leaf area loss, membrane integrity) of well-irrigated and drought-stressed plants were measured during the early, mid- and late growing season. Principal component (PC) analysis ordered the beech progenies according to the mean annual precipitation at tree origin by the transcript levels of SOD, ALDH, GAT and ERD as major loadings along PC1. PC2 separated moist and drought treatments with PP2C levels as important loading. These results suggest that phosphatase-mediated signaling is flexibly acclimated to the current requirements, whereas stress compensatory measures exhibited genotypic variation, apparently underlying climate selection. In contrast to expectation, the drought responses were less pronounced than the progeny-related differences and the

  19. The Populus superoxide dismutase gene family and its responses to drought stress in transgenic poplar overexpressing a pine cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Molina-Rueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutamine synthetase (GS plays a central role in plant nitrogen assimilation, a process intimately linked to soil water availability. We previously showed that hybrid poplar (Populus tremula X alba, INRA 717-1B4 expressing ectopically a pine cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene (GS1a display enhanced tolerance to drought. Preliminary transcriptome profiling revealed that during drought, members of the superoxide dismutase (SOD family were reciprocally regulated in GS poplar when compared with the wild-type control, in all tissues examined. SOD was the only gene family found to exhibit such patterns. RESULTS: In silico analysis of the Populus genome identified 12 SOD genes and two genes encoding copper chaperones for SOD (CCSs. The poplar SODs form three phylogenetic clusters in accordance with their distinct metal co-factor requirements and gene structure. Nearly all poplar SODs and CCSs are present in duplicate derived from whole genome duplication, in sharp contrast to their predominantly single-copy Arabidopsis orthologs. Drought stress triggered plant-wide down-regulation of the plastidic copper SODs (CSDs, with concomitant up-regulation of plastidic iron SODs (FSDs in GS poplar relative to the wild type; this was confirmed at the activity level. We also found evidence for coordinated down-regulation of other copper proteins, including plastidic CCSs and polyphenol oxidases, in GS poplar under drought conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Both gene duplication and expression divergence have contributed to the expansion and transcriptional diversity of the Populus SOD/CCS families. Coordinated down-regulation of major copper proteins in drought-tolerant GS poplars supports the copper cofactor economy model where copper supply is preferentially allocated for plastocyanins to sustain photosynthesis during drought. Our results also extend previous findings on the compensatory regulation between chloroplastic CSDs and FSDs, and suggest that this

  20. Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response associated genes in seed stratification and bud endodormancy during chilling accumulation in Prunus persica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Ling Fu

    Full Text Available Dormancy mechanisms in seeds and buds arrest growth until environmental conditions are optimal for development. A genotype-specific period of chilling is usually required to release dormancy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. To discover transcriptional pathways associated with dormancy release common to seed stratification and bud endodormancy, we explored the chilling-dependent expression of 11 genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response signal pathways. We propose that endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response impact on seed as well as bud germination and development by chilling-dependent mechanisms. The emerging discovery of similarities between seed stratification and bud endodormancy status indicate that these two processes are probably regulated by common endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response signalling pathways. Clarification of regulatory pathways common to both seed and bud dormancy may enhance understanding of the mechanisms underlying dormancy and breeding programs may benefit from earlier prediction of chilling requirements for uniform blooming of novel genotypes of deciduous fruit tree species.

  1. Molecular Cloning and mRNA Expression of Heat Shock Protein Genes and Their Response to Cadmium Stress in the Grasshopper Oxya chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Zhang

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (Hsps are highly conserved molecular chaperones that are synthesized in response to stress. In this study, we cloned the full-length sequences of the Grp78 (glucose-regulated protein 78, Hsp70, Hsp90, and Hsp40 genes from the Chinese rice grasshopper Oxya chinensis. The full-length cDNA sequences of OcGrp78, OcHsp70, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 contain open reading frames of 1947, 1920, 2172, and 1042 bp that encode proteins of 649, 640, 724, and 347 amino acids, respectively. Fluorescent real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR was performed to quantify the relative transcript levels of these Hsp genes in different tissues and developmental stages. The mRNAs encoding these four Hsp genes were present at all developmental stages and in all tissues examined but were expressed at varying levels. Additionally, we investigated the mRNA expression profiles of these four Hsps in O. chinensis subjected to Cadmium (Cd stress. OcGrp78, OcHsp70, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 mRNA expression was induced under acute Cd stress; the levels reached a maximum within a short time (6 h, were reduced significantly at 12 h, and were lowered to or below control levels by 48 h. Regarding induction efficiency, OcHsp70 was the most sensitive gene to acute Cd stress. Chronic Cd exposure showed that dietary Cd treatment induced increased OcGrp78, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 expression. However, dietary Cd induced a significant reduction of OcHsp70 expression. In the period tested, no significant difference in the mortality of the grasshoppers was observed. Our results suggest that these four Hsps genes, especially OcHsp70, are sensitive to acute Cd stress and could be used as molecular markers for toxicology studies. However, our results also indicate that OcHsp70 is not suitable for use as a molecular marker of chronic Cd contamination.

  2. Molecular Cloning and mRNA Expression of Heat Shock Protein Genes and Their Response to Cadmium Stress in the Grasshopper Oxya chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Liu, Yaoming; Zhang, Jianzhen; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are highly conserved molecular chaperones that are synthesized in response to stress. In this study, we cloned the full-length sequences of the Grp78 (glucose-regulated protein 78), Hsp70, Hsp90, and Hsp40 genes from the Chinese rice grasshopper Oxya chinensis. The full-length cDNA sequences of OcGrp78, OcHsp70, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 contain open reading frames of 1947, 1920, 2172, and 1042 bp that encode proteins of 649, 640, 724, and 347 amino acids, respectively. Fluorescent real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to quantify the relative transcript levels of these Hsp genes in different tissues and developmental stages. The mRNAs encoding these four Hsp genes were present at all developmental stages and in all tissues examined but were expressed at varying levels. Additionally, we investigated the mRNA expression profiles of these four Hsps in O. chinensis subjected to Cadmium (Cd) stress. OcGrp78, OcHsp70, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 mRNA expression was induced under acute Cd stress; the levels reached a maximum within a short time (6 h), were reduced significantly at 12 h, and were lowered to or below control levels by 48 h. Regarding induction efficiency, OcHsp70 was the most sensitive gene to acute Cd stress. Chronic Cd exposure showed that dietary Cd treatment induced increased OcGrp78, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 expression. However, dietary Cd induced a significant reduction of OcHsp70 expression. In the period tested, no significant difference in the mortality of the grasshoppers was observed. Our results suggest that these four Hsps genes, especially OcHsp70, are sensitive to acute Cd stress and could be used as molecular markers for toxicology studies. However, our results also indicate that OcHsp70 is not suitable for use as a molecular marker of chronic Cd contamination.

  3. Identification of genes induced by salt stress from Medicago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... In order to identify genes induced during the salt stress response in barrel medic (Medicago truncatula L) seedlings, a cDNA library ... involved in salt stress were isolated from M. truncatula L. They are superoxide dimutase (SOD)-1, gene ..... Diatchenko L, Chrislau YF, Campbell AP, Chenchik A, Moadam F,.

  4. Gene Expression Responses to FUS, EWS, and TAF15 Reduction and Stress Granule Sequestration Analyses Identifies FET-Protein Non-Redundant Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blechingberg, Jenny; Luo, Yonglun; Bolund, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The FET family of proteins is composed of FUS/TLS, EWS/EWSR1, and TAF15 and possesses RNA- and DNA-binding capacities. The FET-proteins are involved in transcriptional regulation and RNA processing, and FET-gene deregulation is associated with development of cancer and protein granule formations...... in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases. We here describe a comparative characterization of FET-protein localization and gene regulatory functions. We show that FUS and TAF15 locate to cellular stress granules to a larger extend than EWS...... is relatively similar whereas EWS reduction resulted in a more unique response. The presented data support that FUS and TAF15 are more functionally related to each other, and that the FET-proteins have distinct functions in cellular signaling pathways which could have implications for the neurological disease...

  5. Cytotoxicity and expression of genes involved in the cellular stress response and apoptosis in mammalian fibroblast exposed to cotton cellulose nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. M.; Raposo, N. R. B.; Brayner, R.; Teixeira, E. M.; Oliveira, V.; Quintão, C. C. R.; Camargo, L. S. A.; Mattoso, L. H. C.; Brandão, H. M.

    2013-02-01

    Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) have mechanical properties that make them very attractive for applications in the construction of polymeric matrices, drug delivery and tissue engineering. However, little is known about their impact on mammalian cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of CNF and their effect on gene expression of fibroblasts cultured in vitro. The morphology of CNF was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and the surface charge by Zeta potential. Cell viability was analyzed by flow cytometry assay and gene expression of biomarkers focused on cell stress response such as Heat shock protein 70.1 (HSP70.1) and Peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) and apoptosis as B-cell leukemia (BCL-2) and BCL-2 associated X protein (BAX) by RT-PCR assay. Low concentrations of CNF (0.02-100 μg ml-1) did not cause cell death; however, at concentrations above 200 μg ml-1, the nanofibers significantly decreased cell viability (86.41 ± 5.37%). The exposure to high concentrations of CNF (2000 and 5000 μg ml-1) resulted in increased HSP70.1, PRDX1 and BAX gene expression. The current study concludes that, under the conditions tested, high concentrations (2000 and 5000 μg ml-1) of CNF cause decreased cell viability and affect the expression of stress- and apoptosis-associated molecular markers.

  6. Characterization of a Decapentapletic Gene (AccDpp from Apis cerana cerana and Its Possible Involvement in Development and Response to Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilin Li

    Full Text Available To tolerate many acute and chronic oxidative stress-producing agents that exist in the environment, organisms have evolved many classes of signal transduction pathways, including the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ signal pathway. Decapentapletic gene (Dpp belongs to the TGFβ superfamily, and studies on Dpp have mainly focused on its role in the regulation of development. No study has investigated the response of Dpp to oxidative pressure in any organism, including Apis cerana cerana (A. cerana cerana. In this study, we identified a Dpp gene from A. cerana cerana named AccDpp. The 5΄ flanking region of AccDpp had many transcription factor binding sites that relevant to development and stress response. AccDpp was expressed at all stages of A. cerana cerana, with its highest expression in 15-day worker bees. The mRNA level of AccDpp was higher in the poison gland and midgut than other tissues. Furthermore, the transcription of AccDpp could be repressed by 4°C and UV, but induced by other treatments, according to our qRT-PCR analysis. It is worth noting that the expression level of AccDpp protein was increased after a certain time when A. cerana cerana was subjected to all simulative oxidative stresses, a finding that was not completely consistent with the result from qRT-PCR. It is interesting that recombinant AccDpp restrained the growth of Escherichia coli, a function that might account for the role of the antimicrobial peptides of AccDpp. In conclusion, these results provide evidence that AccDpp might be implicated in the regulation of development and the response of oxidative pressure. The findings may lay a theoretical foundation for further genetic studies of Dpp.

  7. Identification of a melatonin receptor type 1A gene ( AccMTNR1A) in Apis cerana cerana and its possible involvement in the response to low temperature stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guilin; Zhang, Yanming; Ni, Yong; Wang, Ying; Xu, Baohua; Guo, Xingqi

    2018-04-01

    It is known that melatonin plays an indispensable role in the defense against some environment-induced stresses. The melatonin receptor (MTNR) is also closely linked to the environmental stress response in mammals. However, little is known about the function of the MTNR in insects, including honeybees. In this study, we identified a MTNR from Apis cerana cerana named AccMTNR1A, which contained a typical seven-transmembrane domain common to this family of receptors. A subcellular localization analysis showed that AccMTNR1A was localized in the cytomembrane. Additionally, we found that cold stress apparently boosted AccMTNR1A transcription, indicating that AccMTNR1A possibly connects to the cold stress response. The knockdown of AccMTNR1A attenuated the expression level of some genes associated with the cold stress response, suggesting that AccMTNR1A likely plays an analogous role with these genes during low temperature stress response. Moreover, silencing of AccMTNR1A also suppressed the transcription of some antioxidant genes, prompting the possibility that the response of AccMTNR1A to cold stress response may be related to antioxidant signaling pathways. Collectively, the findings presented here provide evidence that AccMTNR1A may play essential roles in protecting Apis cerana cerana from cold stress.

  8. Drosophila larvae fed palm fruit juice (PFJ) delay pupation via expression regulation of hormetic stress response genes linked to ageing and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Soon-Sen; Luu, Alice; Shrestha, Swechhya; Hayes, K C; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2018-03-15

    adult flies, suggesting that larval expression of hormetic stress response genes was linked to subsequent ageing and longevity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A NAC transcription factor gene of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum), CarNAC3, is involved in drought stress response and various developmental processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Cheng, Hui-Ying; Chen, Chen; Yu, Xin-Wang; Yang, Jia-Ni; Gao, Wen-Rui; Shi, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Hua; Li, Jian-Gui; Ma, Hao

    2009-11-15

    NAC transcription factors have been found to play important roles in plant development and responses to environmental stresses. Based on two cDNA libraries constructed from the PEG-treated and -nontreated seedling leaves of chickpea, a NAC gene, CarNAC3, was isolated and characterized. The results indicated that CarNAC3 contained 285 amino acids and had a conserved NAC domain. It was localized in the nucleus and possessed trans-activation activity in the C-terminus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CarNAC3 belonged to the NAP (NAC-like, activated by APETALA3/PISTILLATA) subgroup of the NAC protein family. CarNAC3 exhibited organ-specific expression and its induction was strongly dependent on leaf age. CarNAC3 showed differential expression patterns during seed development and germination, and could be significantly induced by drought stress, abscisic acid (ABA), ethephon (Et) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), but was inhibited by N-6-benzyl-adenine (6-BA). Our data suggest that CarNAC3 may be a transcriptional activator involved in drought stress response and various developmental processes.

  10. Cloning and functional characterization of HKT1 and AKT1 genes of Fragaria spp.-Relationship to plant response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Miguel; Raddatz, Natalia; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Sentenac, Hervé; Rubio-Meléndez, María E; González, Wendy; Dreyer, Ingo

    2017-03-01

    Commercial strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duch., is a species sensitive to salinity. Under saline conditions, Na + uptake by the plant is increased, while K + uptake is significantly reduced. Maintaining an adequate K + /Na + cytosolic ratio determines the ability of the plant to survive in saline environments. The goal of the present work was to clone and functionally characterize the genes AKT1 and HKT1 involved in K + and Na + transport in strawberry and to determine the relationship of these genes with the responses of three Fragaria spp. genotypes having different ecological adaptations to salt stress. FaHKT1 and FcHKT1 proteins from F. x ananassa and F. chiloensis have 98.1% of identity, while FaAKT1 and FcAKT1 identity is 99.7%. FaHKT1 and FaAKT1 from F. x ananassa, were functionally characterized in Xenopus oocytes. FaHKT1, belongs to the group I of HKT transporters and is selective for Na + . Expression of FaAKT1 in oocytes showed that the protein is a typical inward-rectifying and highly K + -selective channel. The relative expression of Fragaria HKT1 and AKT1 genes was studied in roots of F. x ananassa cv. Camarosa and of F. chiloensis (accessions Bau and Cucao) grown under salt stress. The expression of AKT1 was transiently increased in 'Camarosa', decreased in 'Cucao' and was not affected in 'Bau' upon salt stress. HKT1 expression was significantly increased in roots of 'Cucao' and was not affected in the other two genotypes. The increased relative expression of HKT1 and decreased expression of AKT1 in 'Cucao' roots correlates with the higher tolerance to salinity of this genotype in comparison with 'Camarosa' and 'Bau'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Real-time cell analysis and heat shock protein gene expression in the TcA Tribolium castaneum cell line in response to environmental stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Reina, Andrés; Rodríguez-García, María Juliana; Ramis, Guillermo; Galián, José

    2017-06-01

    The rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a pest of stored grain and one of the most studied insect model species. Some of the previous studies involved heat response studies in terms of survival and heat shock protein expression, which are regulated to protect other proteins against environmental stress conditions. In the present study, we characterize the impedance profile with the xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analyzer and study the effect of increased temperature in cell growth and viability in the cell line BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 (TcA) of T. castaneum. This novel system measures cells behavior in real time and is applied for the first time to insect cells. Additionally, cells are exposed to heat shock, increased salinity, acidic pH and UV-A light with the aim of measuring the expression levels of Hsp27, Hsp68a, and Hsp83 genes. Results show a high thermotolerance of TcA in terms of cell growth and viability. This result is likely related to gene expression results in which a significant up-regulation of all studied Hsp genes is observed after 1 h of exposure to 40 °C and UV light. All 3 genes show similar expression patterns, but Hsp27 seems to be the most affected. The results of this study validate the RTCA method and reveal the utility of insect cell lines, real-time analysis and gene expression studies to better understand the physiological response of insect cells, with potential applications in different fields of biology such as conservation biology and pest management. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Transcriptome Responses to Combinations of Stresses in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Barah, Pankaj; Suarez-Rodriguez, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the response of the majority of the genes cannot be predicted from single stress experiments and only a small fraction of the genes have potential antagonistic responses, indicating that plants have evolved to cope with combinations of stresses and therefore may be bred to endure...

  13. Characterization of a novel wheat NAC transcription factor gene involved in defense response against stripe rust pathogen infection and abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ning; Zhang, Gang; Liu, Xin-Ying; Deng, Lin; Cai, Gao-Lei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Jie; Zhao, Jie; Huang, Li-Li; Kang, Zhen-Sheng

    2010-12-01

    Proteins encoded by the NAC gene family constitute one of the largest plant-specific transcription factors, which have been identified to play many important roles in both abiotic and biotic stress adaptation, as well as in plant development regulation. In the current paper, a full-length cDNA sequence of a novel wheat NAC gene, designated as TaNAC4, was isolated using in silico cloning and the reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) methods. TaNAC4 sharing high homology with rice OsNAC4 gene was predicted to encode a protein of 308 amino acid residues, which contained a plant-specific NAC domain in the N-terminus. Transient expression analysis indicated that the deduced TaNAC4 protein was localized in the nucleus of onion epidemical cells. Yeast one-hybrid assay revealed that the C-terminal region of the TaNAC4 protein had transcriptional activity. The expression of TaNAC4 was largely higher in the wheat seedling roots, than that in leaves and stems. TaNAC4 transcript in wheat leaves was induced by the infection of strip rust pathogen, and also by exogenous applied methyl jasmonate (MeJA), ABA and ethylene. However, salicylic acid (SA) had no obvious effect on TaNAC4 expression. Environmental stimuli, including high salinity, wounding, and low-temperature also induced TaNAC4 expression. These results indicate that this novel TaNAC4 gene functions as a transcriptional activator involved in wheat response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  14. Oxidative stress response in sugarcane

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    Luis Eduardo Soares Netto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress response in plants is still poorly understood in comparison with the correspondent phenomenon in bacteria, yeast and mammals. For instance, nitric oxide is assumed to play various roles in plants although no nitric oxide synthase gene has yet been isolated. This research reports the results of a search of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for homologous sequences involved in the oxidative stress response. I have not found any gene similar to nitric oxide synthase in the SUCEST database although an alternative pathway for nitric oxide synthesis was proposed. I have also found several genes involved in antioxidant defense, e.g. metal chelators, low molecular weight compounds, antioxidant enzymes and repair systems. Ascorbate (vitamin C is a key antioxidant in plants because it reaches high concentrations in cells and is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase, an enzyme that I found in different isoforms in the SUCEST database. I also found many enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of low molecular weight antioxidants, which may be potential targets for genetic manipulation. The engineering of plants for increased vitamin C and E production may lead to improvements in the nutritional value and stress tolerance of sugarcane. The components of the antioxidant defense system interact and their synthesis is probably closely regulated. Transcription factors involved in regulation of the oxidative stress response in bacteria, yeast and mammals differ considerably among themselves and when I used them to search the SUCEST database only genes with weak similarities were found, suggesting that these transcription regulators are not very conserved. The involvement of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in plant defense against pathogens is also discussed.A resposta ao estresse oxidativo não é bem conhecida em plantas como em bactérias, leveduras e humanos. Por exemplo, assume-se que óxido nítrico tem várias fun

  15. Toxicological responses of environmental mixtures: Environmental metal mixtures display synergistic induction of metal-responsive and oxidative stress genes in placental cells.

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    Adebambo, Oluwadamilare A; Ray, Paul D; Shea, Damian; Fry, Rebecca C

    2015-12-15

    Exposure to elevated levels of the toxic metals inorganic arsenic (iAs) and cadmium (Cd) represents a major global health problem. These metals often occur as mixtures in the environment, creating the potential for interactive or synergistic biological effects different from those observed in single exposure conditions. In the present study, environmental mixtures collected from two waste sites in China and comparable mixtures prepared in the laboratory were tested for toxicogenomic response in placental JEG-3 cells. These cells serve as a model for evaluating cellular responses to exposures during pregnancy. One of the mixtures was predominated by iAs and one by Cd. Six gene biomarkers were measured in order to evaluate the effects from the metal mixtures using dose and time-course experiments including: heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and metallothionein isoforms (MT1A, MT1F and MT1G) previously shown to be preferentially induced by exposure to either iAs or Cd, and metal transporter genes aquaporin-9 (AQP9) and ATPase, Cu(2+) transporting, beta polypeptide (ATP7B). There was a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of ATP7B, HO-1, MT1A, MT1F, and MT1G in mixture-treated cells compared to the iAs or Cd only-treated cells. Notably, the genomic responses were observed at concentrations significantly lower than levels found at the environmental collection sites. These data demonstrate that metal mixtures increase the expression of gene biomarkers in placental JEG-3 cells in a synergistic manner. Taken together, the data suggest that toxic metals that co-occur may induce detrimental health effects that are currently underestimated when analyzed as single metals. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Genome Wide Identification of LIM Genes in Cicer arietinum and Response of Ca-2LIMs in Development, Hormone and Pathogenic Stress.

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    Vikas Srivastava

    Full Text Available The eukaryotic lineage-specific LIM protein (LIN11, ISL1, and MEC3 family play pivotal role in modulation of actin dynamics and transcriptional regulation. The systematic investigation of this family has not been carried in detail and rare in legumes. Current study involves the mining of Cicer arietinum genome for the genes coding for LIM domain proteins and displayed significant homology with LIM genes of other species. The analysis led to the identification of 15 members, which were positioned on chickpea chromosomes. The phylogenetic and motif analysis suggested their categorization into two sub-families i.e., Ca-2LIMs and Ca-DA1/DAR, which comprised of nine and six candidates, respectively. Further sub-categories of Ca-2LIMs were recognised as αLIM, βLIM, δLIM and γLIM. The LIM genes within their sub-families displayed conserved genomic and motif organization. The expression pattern of Ca-2LIMs across developmental and reproductive tissues demonstrated strong correlation with established consensus. The Ca-2LIM belongs to PLIM and GLIM (XLIM was found highly expressed in floral tissue. Others showed ubiquitous expression pattern with their dominance in stem. Under hormonal and pathogenic conditions these LIMs were found to up-regulate during salicylic acid, abscisic acid and Ascochyta rabiei treatment or infection; and down-regulated in response to jasmonic acid treatment. The findings of this work, particularly in terms of modulation of LIM genes under biotic stress will open up the way to further explore and establish the role of chickpea LIMs in plant defense response.

  17. Genome Wide Identification of LIM Genes in Cicer arietinum and Response of Ca-2LIMs in Development, Hormone and Pathogenic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vikas; Verma, Praveen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic lineage-specific LIM protein (LIN11, ISL1, and MEC3) family play pivotal role in modulation of actin dynamics and transcriptional regulation. The systematic investigation of this family has not been carried in detail and rare in legumes. Current study involves the mining of Cicer arietinum genome for the genes coding for LIM domain proteins and displayed significant homology with LIM genes of other species. The analysis led to the identification of 15 members, which were positioned on chickpea chromosomes. The phylogenetic and motif analysis suggested their categorization into two sub-families i.e., Ca-2LIMs and Ca-DA1/DAR, which comprised of nine and six candidates, respectively. Further sub-categories of Ca-2LIMs were recognised as αLIM, βLIM, δLIM and γLIM. The LIM genes within their sub-families displayed conserved genomic and motif organization. The expression pattern of Ca-2LIMs across developmental and reproductive tissues demonstrated strong correlation with established consensus. The Ca-2LIM belongs to PLIM and GLIM (XLIM) was found highly expressed in floral tissue. Others showed ubiquitous expression pattern with their dominance in stem. Under hormonal and pathogenic conditions these LIMs were found to up-regulate during salicylic acid, abscisic acid and Ascochyta rabiei treatment or infection; and down-regulated in response to jasmonic acid treatment. The findings of this work, particularly in terms of modulation of LIM genes under biotic stress will open up the way to further explore and establish the role of chickpea LIMs in plant defense response. PMID:26418014

  18. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Eucalyptus grandis: an intriguing over-representation of stress-responsive DREB1/CBF genes.

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    P B Cao

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF family includes a large number of developmentally and physiologically important transcription factors sharing an AP2 DNA-binding domain. Among them DREB1/CBF and DREB2 factors are known as master regulators respectively of cold and heat/osmotic stress responses.The manual annotation of AP2/ERF family from Eucalyptus grandis, Malus, Populus and Vitis genomes allowed a complete phylogenetic study for comparing the structure of this family in woody species and the model Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiles of the whole groups of EgrDREB1 and EgrDREB2 were investigated through RNAseq database survey and RT-qPCR analyses.The structure and the size of the AP2/ERF family show a global conservation for the plant species under comparison. In addition to an expansion of the ERF subfamily, the tree genomes mainly differ with respect to the group representation within the subfamilies. With regard to the E. grandis DREB subfamily, an obvious feature is the presence of 17 DREB1/CBF genes, the maximum reported to date for dicotyledons. In contrast, only six DREB2 have been identified, which is similar to the other plants species under study, except for Malus. All the DREB1/CBF and DREB2 genes from E. grandis are expressed in at least one condition and all are heat-responsive. Regulation by cold and drought depends on the genes but is not specific of one group; DREB1/CBF group is more cold-inducible than DREB2 which is mainly drought responsive.These features suggest that the dramatic expansion of the DREB1/CBF group might be related to the adaptation of this evergreen tree to climate changes when it expanded in Australia.

  19. Tomato plants overexpressing cryptochrome 2 reveal altered expression of energy and stress-related gene products in response to diurnal cues.

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    Lopez, Loredana; Carbone, Fabrizio; Bianco, Linda; Giuliano, Giovanni; Facella, Paolo; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2012-05-01

    In order to sense and respond to the fluctuating light conditions, higher plants possess several families of photoreceptors, such as phytochromes (PHYs), cryptochromes (CRYs) and phototropins. CRYs are responsible for photomorphogenesis and play a role in circadian, developmental and adaptive growth regulation of plants. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), CRY2 controls vegetative development, flowering time, fruit antioxidant content as well as the diurnal transcription of several other photoreceptor genes. We applied large-scale molecular approaches to identify altered transcripts and proteins in tomato wild-type (WT) versus a CRY2 overexpressing transgenic genotype, under a diurnal rhythm. Our results showed that tomato CRY2 profoundly affects both gene and protein expression in response to daily light cycle. Particularly altered molecular pathways are related to biotic/abiotic stress, photosynthesis, including components of the light and dark reactions and of starch and sucrose biosynthesis, as well as to secondary metabolism, such as phenylpropanoid, phenolic and flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthesis pathways. One of the most interesting results is the coordinated up-regulation, in the transgenic genotype, of a consistent number of transcripts and proteins involved in photorespiration and photosynthesis. It is conceivable that light modulates the energetic metabolism of tomato through a fine CRY2-mediated transcriptional control. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Effect of secondary organic aerosol from isoprene-derived hydroxyhydroperoxides on the expression of oxidative stress response genes in human bronchial epithelial cells.

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    Arashiro, Maiko; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Zhang, Zhenfa; Sexton, Kenneth G; Gold, Avram; Jaspers, Ilona; Fry, Rebecca C; Surratt, Jason D

    2018-02-21

    Isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which comprise a large portion of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), can be formed through various gaseous precursors, including isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX), methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE), and isoprene hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). The composition of the isoprene-derived SOA affects its reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation potential and its ability to alter oxidative stress-related gene expression. In this study we assess effects of isoprene SOA derived solely from ISOPOOH oxidation on human bronchial epithelial cells by measuring the gene expression changes in 84 oxidative stress-related genes. In addition, the thiol reactivity of ISOPOOH-derived SOA was measured through the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Our findings show that ISOPOOH-derived SOA alter more oxidative-stress related genes than IEPOX-derived SOA but not as many as MAE-derived SOA on a mass basis exposure. More importantly, we found that the different types of SOA derived from the various gaseous precursors (MAE, IEPOX, and ISOPOOH) have unique contributions to changes in oxidative stress-related genes that do not total all gene expression changes seen in exposures to atmospherically relevant compositions of total isoprene-derived SOA mixtures. This study suggests that amongst the different types of known isoprene-derived SOA, MAE-derived SOA are the most potent inducer of oxidative stress-related gene changes but highlights the importance of considering isoprene-derived SOA as a total mixture for pollution controls and exposure studies.

  1. Differential expression analysis of boron transporters and some stress-related genes in response to 24-epibrassinolide and boron by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh

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    Surgun Yonca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant steroidal hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs, promote plant developmental processes and enhance tolerance to several abiotic stresses including high boron (B stress. To examine the possible role of BR in high B-induced stress at the transcriptional level, we investigated the response of B transporter genes (BOR1-4, high B-induced genes (MATE, Hsp-like, BR-induced genes (Hsp70-4, Hsp90-1 and other stress-related genes (LTI/COR78, LEA4-5 upon exogenous treatments of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL on Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh exposed to high concentrations of boric acid (BA using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. BA treatments led to down regulation of BOR1 and BOR3 genes in leaf and root tissues and higher concentration of EBL further decreased expression of these genes in roots. The expression of high B-induced genes was observed to be upregulated by 1 μM EBL treatment under high B stress in both tissues of the seedlings. The upregulation of BR-induced genes were clearly evident in root tissues co-treated with 1 μM EBL and BA as compared to BA alone. Higher concentration of EBL was found to be more effective in increasing expression of LTI/COR78 gene in root and LEA4-5 gene in shoot tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report how exogenous application of EBL modulates high B stress responses at molecular level in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

  2. Identification of multiple small heat-shock protein genes in Plutella xylostella (L.) and their expression profiles in response to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi'en; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    We identify and characterize 14 small heat-shock protein (sHSP) genes from the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), a destructive pest. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that, except for sHSP18.8 and sHSP19.22, the other 12 DBM sHSPs belong to five known insect sHSP groups. Developmental expression analysis revealed that most sHSPs peaked in the pupal and adult stages. The transcripts of sHSPs display tissue specificity with two exhibiting constitutive expression in four tested tissues. Expression of sHSP18.8 in fourth instar larvae is not induced by the tested abiotic stressors, and unless sHSP21.8 is not sensitive to thermal stress, 12 sHSPs are significantly up-regulated. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of all sHSPs are reduced under oxidative stress. Food deprivation leads to significant down-regulation of three sHSPs. The majority of sHSPs show expression variation to various heavy metals, whereas mRNA abundances of sHSP22.1 and sHSP 28.9 are reduced by four heavy metals. The responses of sHSPs to indoxacarb and cantharidin are varied. Beta-cypermethrin and chlorfenapyr exposure results in an increase of 13 sHSP transcripts and a reduction of 12 sHSP transcripts, respectively. These results show that different sHSPs might play distinct roles in the development and regulation of physiological activities, as well as in response to various abiotic stresses of DBM.

  3. Gene characteristics, immune and stress responses of PmPrx1 in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon): Insights from exposure to pathogenic bacteria and toxic environmental stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Ruiqian; Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Chao; Bao, Weiyang; Qiu, Lihua

    2017-12-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous, multifunctional and evolutionarily conserved enzymes that can protect cells from oxidative damage caused by ROS and play a vital role in immune responses. Here, a full-length Prx1 cDNA sequence (PmPrx1) was isolated from Penaeus monodon. The PmPrx1 cDNA was 951 base pairs (bp), encoding 198 amino acid polypeptides. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the PmPrx1 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues tested and had a comparatively high expression level in immune-associated tissues (gill, hepatopancreas). To explore the immune and anti-stress roles of PmPrx1, the gills and hepatopancreas were chosen as target tissues in Penaeus monodon and were challenged with bacteria (Vibrio harveyi and Streptococcus agalactiae) and toxic environmental stresses. To further clarify the immune function of PmPrx1 after bacterial challenge, the recombinant PmPrx1 protein was acquired using a prokaryotic expression method. The antioxidant activity of the recombinant PmPrx1 was assessed by the catalyzing hydrogen peroxide assay method, and the results showed obvious antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent and temperature-dependent manner. The antimicrobial activity of purified PmPrx1 protein was evaluated and further studied in vitro relying on a bacterial growth inhibition test which was conducted in both liquid and solid cultures. Furthermore, E. coli transferred with pRSET-PmPrx1 was dramatically protected in response to metal toxicity and H 2 O 2 oxidative stress. In summary, this study provides useful information about the role of the Prx1 gene in defense against a variety of toxic factors in shrimps that help to further clarify the functional mechanism of Prx. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The BPA-substitute bisphenol S alters the transcription of genes related to endocrine, stress response and biotransformation pathways in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae.

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    Óscar Herrero

    Full Text Available Bisphenol S (BPS is an industrial alternative to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA, and can be found in many products labeled "BPA-free". Its use has grown in recent years, and presently it is considered a ubiquitous emerging pollutant. To date there is a lack of information on the effects of BPS on invertebrates, although they represent more than 95% of known species in the animal kingdom and are crucial for the structure and proper function of ecosystems. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the early detrimental effects of BPS on the transcriptional rate of genes in the model species Chironomus riparius, specifically those related to the ecdysone pathway (EcR, ERR, E74, Vtg, cyp18a1 crucial for insect development and metamorphosis, stress and biotransformation mechanisms (hsp70, hsp40, cyp4g, GPx, GSTd3 that regulate adaptive responses and determine survival, and ribosome biogenesis (its2, rpL4, rpL13 which is essential for protein synthesis and homeostasis. While 24-hour exposure to 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L BPS had no effect on larval survival, almost all the studied genes were upregulated following a non-monotonic dose-response curve. Genes with the greatest increases in transcriptional activity (fold change relative to control were EcR (3.8, ERR (2, E74 (2.4, cyp18a1 (2.5, hsp70 (1.7, hsp40 (2.5, cyp4g (6.4, GPx (1.8, and GST (2.1, while others including Vtg, GAPDH, and selected ribosomal genes remained stable. We also measured the transcriptional activity of these genes 24 hours after BPS withdrawal and a general downregulation compared to controls was observed, though not significant in most cases. Our findings showed that BPS exposure altered the transcriptional profile of these genes, which may have consequences for the hormone system and several metabolic pathways. Although further research is needed to elucidate its mode of action, these results raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives.

  5. The BPA-substitute bisphenol S alters the transcription of genes related to endocrine, stress response and biotransformation pathways in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Óscar; Aquilino, Mónica; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Planelló, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    Bisphenol S (BPS) is an industrial alternative to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA), and can be found in many products labeled "BPA-free". Its use has grown in recent years, and presently it is considered a ubiquitous emerging pollutant. To date there is a lack of information on the effects of BPS on invertebrates, although they represent more than 95% of known species in the animal kingdom and are crucial for the structure and proper function of ecosystems. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the early detrimental effects of BPS on the transcriptional rate of genes in the model species Chironomus riparius, specifically those related to the ecdysone pathway (EcR, ERR, E74, Vtg, cyp18a1) crucial for insect development and metamorphosis, stress and biotransformation mechanisms (hsp70, hsp40, cyp4g, GPx, GSTd3) that regulate adaptive responses and determine survival, and ribosome biogenesis (its2, rpL4, rpL13) which is essential for protein synthesis and homeostasis. While 24-hour exposure to 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L BPS had no effect on larval survival, almost all the studied genes were upregulated following a non-monotonic dose-response curve. Genes with the greatest increases in transcriptional activity (fold change relative to control) were EcR (3.8), ERR (2), E74 (2.4), cyp18a1 (2.5), hsp70 (1.7), hsp40 (2.5), cyp4g (6.4), GPx (1.8), and GST (2.1), while others including Vtg, GAPDH, and selected ribosomal genes remained stable. We also measured the transcriptional activity of these genes 24 hours after BPS withdrawal and a general downregulation compared to controls was observed, though not significant in most cases. Our findings showed that BPS exposure altered the transcriptional profile of these genes, which may have consequences for the hormone system and several metabolic pathways. Although further research is needed to elucidate its mode of action, these results raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives.

  6. The decrease in histone methyltransferase EZH2 in response to fluid shear stress alters endothelial gene expression and promotes quiescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maleszewska, Monika; Vanchin, Byambasuren; Harmsen, Martin C.; Krenning, Guido

    High uniform fluid shear stress (FSS) is atheroprotective and preserves the endothelial phenotype and function through activation of downstream mediators such as MAPK7 (Erk5). Endothelial cells respond to FSS thanks to mechanotransduction. However, how the resulting signaling is integrated and

  7. The wheat mutant DELLA-encoding gene (Rht-B1c) affects plant photosynthetic responses to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrikova, Anelia G; Yotsova, Ekaterina K; Börner, Andreas; Landjeva, Svetlana P; Apostolova, Emilia L

    2017-05-01

    Тhe sensitivity to cadmium (Cd) stress of two near-isogenic wheat lines with differences at the Rht-B1 locus, Rht-B1a (tall wild type, encoding DELLA proteins) and Rht-B1c (dwarf mutant, encoding modified DELLA proteins), was investigated. The effects of 100 μM CdCl 2 on plant growth, pigment content and functional activity of the photosynthetic apparatus of wheat seedlings grown on a nutrient solution were evaluated through a combination of PAM chlorophyll fluorescence, oxygen evolution, oxidation-reduction kinetics of P700 and 77 K fluorescence. The results showed that the wheat mutant (Rht-B1c) was more tolerant to Cd stress compared to the wild type (Rht-B1a), as evidenced by the lower reductions in plant growth and pigment content, lower inhibition of photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and of the oxygen evolution measured with Clark-type and Joliot-type electrodes. Furthermore, the enhanced Cd tolerance was accompanied by increased Cd accumulation within mutant plant tissues. The molecular mechanisms through which the Rht-B1c mutation improves plant tolerance to Cd stress involve structural alterations in the mutant photosynthetic membranes leading to better protection of the Mn cluster of oxygen-evolving complex and increased capacity for PSI cyclic electron transport, protecting photochemical activity of the photosynthetic apparatus under stress. This study suggests a role for the Rht-B1c-encoded DELLA proteins in protective mechanisms and tolerance of the photosynthetic apparatus in wheat plants exposed to heavy metals stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular phylogenetic study and expression analysis of ATP-binding cassette transporter gene family in Oryza sativa in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Jayita; Sengupta, Atreyee; Gupta, Kamala; Gupta, Bhaskar

    2015-02-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter is a large gene superfamily that utilizes the energy released from ATP hydrolysis for transporting myriad of substrates across the biological membranes. Although many investigations have been done on the structural and functional analysis of the ABC transporters in Oryza sativa, much less is known about molecular phylogenetic and global expression pattern of the complete ABC family in rice. In this study, we have carried out a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis constructing neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood trees based on various statistical methods of different ABC protein subfamily of five plant lineages including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (green algae), Physcomitrella patens (moss), Selaginella moellendorffii (lycophyte), Arabidopsis thaliana (dicot) and O. sativa (monocot) to explore the origin and evolutionary patterns of these ABC genes. We have identified several conserved motifs in nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of ABC proteins among all plant lineages during evolution. Amongst the different ABC protein subfamilies, 'ABCE' has not yet been identified in lower plant genomes (algae, moss and lycophytes). The result indicated that gene duplication and diversification process acted upon these genes as a major operative force creating new groups and subgroups and functional divergence during evolution. We have demonstrated that rice ABCI subfamily consists of only half size transporters that represented highly dynamic members showing maximum sequence variations among the other rice ABC subfamilies. The evolutionary and the expression analysis contribute to a deep insight into the evolution and diversity of rice ABC proteins and their roles in response to salt stress that facilitate our further understanding on rice ABC transporters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of low Ca(2+) stress-induced embryo apoptosis response genes in Arachis hypogaea by SSH-associated library lift (SSHaLL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Zhang, Chong; Cai, Tie Cheng; Deng, Ye; Zhou, Shuangbiao; Zheng, Yixiong; Ma, Shiwei; Tang, Ronghua; Varshney, Rajeev K; Zhuang, Weijian

    2016-02-01

    Calcium is a universal signal in the regulation of wide aspects in biology, but few are known about the function of calcium in the control of early embryo development. Ca(2+) deficiency in soil induces early embryo abortion in peanut, producing empty pods, which is a general problem; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, embryo abortion was characterized to be caused by apoptosis marked with cell wall degradation. Using a method of SSH cDNA libraries associated with library lift (SSHaLL), 62 differentially expressed genes were isolated from young peanut embryos. These genes were classified to be stress responses, catabolic process, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, embryo morphogenesis, regulation, etc. The cell retardation with cell wall degradation was caused by up-regulated cell wall hydrolases and down-regulated cellular synthases genes. HsfA4a, which was characterized to be important to embryo development, was significantly down-regulated under Ca(2+) -deficient conditions from 15 days after pegging (DAP) to 30 DAP. Two AhCYP707A4 genes, encoding abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylases, key enzymes for ABA catabolism, were up-regulated by 21-fold under Ca(2+) -deficient conditions upstream of HsfA4a, reducing the ABA level in early embryos. Over-expression of AhCYP707A4 in Nicotiana benthamiana showed a phenotype of low ABA content with high numbers of aborted embryos, small pods and less seeds, which confirms that AhCYP707A4 is a key player in regulation of Ca(2+) deficiency-induced embryo abortion via ABA-mediated apoptosis. The results elucidated the mechanism of low Ca(2+) -induced embryo abortion and described the method for other fields of study. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of stress and MDMA on hippocampal gene expression.

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    Weber, Georg F; Johnson, Bethann N; Yamamoto, Bryan K; Gudelsky, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a substituted amphetamine and popular drug of abuse. Its mood-enhancing short-term effects may prompt its consumption under stress. Clinical studies indicate that MDMA treatment may mitigate the symptoms of stress disorders such as posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). On the other hand, repeated administration of MDMA results in persistent deficits in markers of serotonergic (5-HT) nerve terminals that have been viewed as indicative of 5-HT neurotoxicity. Exposure to chronic stress has been shown to augment MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity. Here, we examine the transcriptional responses in the hippocampus to MDMA treatment of control rats and rats exposed to chronic stress. MDMA altered the expression of genes that regulate unfolded protein binding, protein folding, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity, and neuropeptide signaling. In stressed rats, the gene expression profile in response to MDMA was altered to affect sensory processing and responses to tissue damage in nerve sheaths. Subsequent treatment with MDMA also markedly altered the genetic responses to stress such that the stress-induced downregulation of genes related to the circadian rhythm was reversed. The data support the view that MDMA-induced transcriptional responses accompany the persistent effects of this drug on neuronal structure/function. In addition, MDMA treatment alters the stress-induced transcriptional signature.

  11. Effects of Stress and MDMA on Hippocampal Gene Expression

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    Georg F. Weber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine is a substituted amphetamine and popular drug of abuse. Its mood-enhancing short-term effects may prompt its consumption under stress. Clinical studies indicate that MDMA treatment may mitigate the symptoms of stress disorders such as posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD. On the other hand, repeated administration of MDMA results in persistent deficits in markers of serotonergic (5-HT nerve terminals that have been viewed as indicative of 5-HT neurotoxicity. Exposure to chronic stress has been shown to augment MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity. Here, we examine the transcriptional responses in the hippocampus to MDMA treatment of control rats and rats exposed to chronic stress. MDMA altered the expression of genes that regulate unfolded protein binding, protein folding, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity, and neuropeptide signaling. In stressed rats, the gene expression profile in response to MDMA was altered to affect sensory processing and responses to tissue damage in nerve sheaths. Subsequent treatment with MDMA also markedly altered the genetic responses to stress such that the stress-induced downregulation of genes related to the circadian rhythm was reversed. The data support the view that MDMA-induced transcriptional responses accompany the persistent effects of this drug on neuronal structure/function. In addition, MDMA treatment alters the stress-induced transcriptional signature.

  12. Mechanical stress induces biotic and abiotic stress responses via a novel cis-element.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Walley

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants are continuously exposed to a myriad of abiotic and biotic stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these stress signals are perceived and transduced are poorly understood. To begin to identify primary stress signal transduction components, we have focused on genes that respond rapidly (within 5 min to stress signals. Because it has been hypothesized that detection of physical stress is a mechanism common to mounting a response against a broad range of environmental stresses, we have utilized mechanical wounding as the stress stimulus and performed whole genome microarray analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissue. This led to the identification of a number of rapid wound responsive (RWR genes. Comparison of RWR genes with published abiotic and biotic stress microarray datasets demonstrates a large overlap across a wide range of environmental stresses. Interestingly, RWR genes also exhibit a striking level and pattern of circadian regulation, with induced and repressed genes displaying antiphasic rhythms. Using bioinformatic analysis, we identified a novel motif overrepresented in the promoters of RWR genes, herein designated as the Rapid Stress Response Element (RSRE. We demonstrate in transgenic plants that multimerized RSREs are sufficient to confer a rapid response to both biotic and abiotic stresses in vivo, thereby establishing the functional involvement of this motif in primary transcriptional stress responses. Collectively, our data provide evidence for a novel cis-element that is distributed across the promoters of an array of diverse stress-responsive genes, poised to respond immediately and coordinately to stress signals. This structure suggests that plants may have a transcriptional network resembling the general stress signaling pathway in yeast and that the RSRE element may provide the key to this coordinate regulation.

  13. Differences in salinity tolerance and gene expression between two populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in response to salinity stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Foged; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Meier, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    in salinity tolerance and gene expression among Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from two populations distributed across a steep salinity gradient, we observed high mortality (45% North Sea cod and 80% Baltic Sea cod) in a reciprocal common garden setup. Quantitative RT-PCR assays for expression of hsp70 and Na....... The findings strongly suggest that Atlantic cod are adapted to local saline conditions, despite relatively low levels of neutral genetic divergence between populations...

  14. Identification of genes induced by salt stress from Medicago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to identify genes induced during the salt stress response in barrel medic (Medicago truncatula L) seedlings, a cDNA library by salt stress was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Total RNA from 15-day-old seedlings was used as a 'driver', and total RNA from seedlings induced by salt was ...

  15. Psychological stress, cocaine and natural reward each induce endoplasmic reticulum stress genes in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovsky, A A; Boehning, D; Li, D; Zhang, Y; Fan, X; Green, T A

    2013-08-29

    Our prior research has shown that the transcription of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transcription factors activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and ATF4 are induced by amphetamine and restraint stress in rat striatum. However, presently the full extent of ER stress responses to psychological stress or cocaine, and which of the three ER stress pathways is activated is unknown. The current study examines transcriptional responses of key ER stress target genes subsequent to psychological stress or cocaine. Rats were subjected to acute or repeated restraint stress or cocaine treatment and mRNA was isolated from dorsal striatum, medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens brain tissue. ER stress gene mRNA expression was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and RNA sequencing. Restraint stress and cocaine-induced transcription of the classic ER stress-induced genes (BIP, CHOP, ATF3 and GADD34) and of two other ER stress components x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and ATF6. In addition, rats living in an enriched environment (large group cage with novel toys changed daily) exhibited rapid induction of GADD34 and ATF3 after 30 min of exploring novel toys, suggesting these genes are also involved in normal non-pathological signaling. However, environmental enrichment, a paradigm that produces protective addiction and depression phenotypes in rats, attenuated the rapid induction of ATF3 and GADD34 after restraint stress. These experiments provide a sensitive measure of ER stress and, more importantly, these results offer good evidence of the activation of ER stress mechanisms from psychological stress, cocaine and natural reward. Thus, ER stress genes may be targets for novel therapeutic targets for depression and addiction. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Individual heat stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.

    1997-01-01

    In 5 experiments, heterogeneous subject groups (large variations in _VO2 max, regular daily activity level, mass, body surface area (AD), % body fat, and AD/mass ratio) were tested for their physiological response while exercising on a cycle ergometer at a relative (45% _VO2 max; REL) or an absolute

  17. Central gene expression changes associated with enhanced neuroendocrine and autonomic response habituation to repeated noise stress after voluntary wheel running in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K eSasse

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that regular physical exercise benefits health in part by counteracting some of the negative physiological impacts of stress. While some studies identified reductions in some measures of acute stress responses with prior exercise, limited data were available concerning effects on cardiovascular function, and reported effects on HPA axis responses were largely inconsistent. Given that exposure to repeated or prolonged stress is strongly implicated in the precipitation and exacerbation of illness, we proposed the novel hypothesis that physical exercise might facilitate adaptation to repeated stress, and subsequently demonstrated significant enhancement of both HPA axis (glucocorticoid and cardiovascular (tachycardia response habituation to repeated noise stress in rats with long-term access to running wheels compared to sedentary controls. Stress habituation has been attributed to modifications of brain circuits, but the specific sites of adaptation and the molecular changes driving its expression remain unclear. Here, in situ hybridization histochemistry was used to examine regulation of select stress-associated signaling systems in brain regions representing likely candidates to underlie exercise-enhanced stress habituation. Analyzed brains were collected from active (6 weeks of wheel running and sedentary rats following control, acute, or repeated noise exposures that induced a significantly faster rate of glucocorticoid response habituation in active animals but preserved acute noise responsiveness. Nearly identical experimental manipulations also induce a faster rate of cardiovascular response habituation in exercised, repeatedly stressed rats. The observed regulation of the corticotropin-releasing factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor systems across several brain regions suggests widespread effects of voluntary exercise on central functions and related adaptations to stress across multiple response

  18. Central gene expression changes associated with enhanced neuroendocrine and autonomic response habituation to repeated noise stress after voluntary wheel running in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Sarah K; Nyhuis, Tara J; Masini, Cher V; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that regular physical exercise benefits health in part by counteracting some of the negative physiological impacts of stress. While some studies identified reductions in some measures of acute stress responses with prior exercise, limited data were available concerning effects on cardiovascular function, and reported effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses were largely inconsistent. Given that exposure to repeated or prolonged stress is strongly implicated in the precipitation and exacerbation of illness, we proposed the novel hypothesis that physical exercise might facilitate adaptation to repeated stress, and subsequently demonstrated significant enhancement of both HPA axis (glucocorticoid) and cardiovascular (tachycardia) response habituation to repeated noise stress in rats with long-term access to running wheels compared to sedentary controls. Stress habituation has been attributed to modifications of brain circuits, but the specific sites of adaptation and the molecular changes driving its expression remain unclear. Here, in situ hybridization histochemistry was used to examine regulation of select stress-associated signaling systems in brain regions representing likely candidates to underlie exercise-enhanced stress habituation. Analyzed brains were collected from active (6 weeks of wheel running) and sedentary rats following control, acute, or repeated noise exposures that induced a significantly faster rate of glucocorticoid response habituation in active animals but preserved acute noise responsiveness. Nearly identical experimental manipulations also induce a faster rate of cardiovascular response habituation in exercised, repeatedly stressed rats. The observed regulation of the corticotropin-releasing factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor systems across several brain regions suggests widespread effects of voluntary exercise on central functions and related adaptations to stress across

  19. Identification and analysis of glutathione S-transferase gene family in sweet potato reveal divergent GST-mediated networks in aboveground and underground tissues in response to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Na; Wang, Aimin; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wu, Yunxiang; Wang, Ruyuan; Cui, Huihui; Huang, Rulin; Luo, Yonghai

    2017-11-28

    Sweet potato, a hexaploid species lacking a reference genome, is one of the most important crops in many developing countries, where abiotic stresses are a primary cause of reduction of crop yield. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes that play important roles in oxidative stress tolerance and cellular detoxification. A total of 42 putative full-length GST genes were identified from two local transcriptome databases and validated by molecular cloning and Sanger sequencing. Sequence and intraspecific phylogenetic analyses revealed extensive differentiation in their coding sequences and divided them into eight subfamilies. Interspecific phylogenetic and comparative analyses indicated that most examined GST paralogs might originate and diverge before the speciation of sweet potato. Results from large-scale RNA-seq and quantitative real-time PCR experiments exhibited extensive variation in gene-expression profiles across different tissues and varieties, which implied strong evolutionary divergence in their gene-expression regulation. Moreover, we performed five manipulated stress experiments and uncovered highly divergent stress-response patterns of sweet potato GST genes in aboveground and underground tissues. Our study identified a large number of sweet potato GST genes, systematically investigated their evolutionary diversification, and provides new insights into the GST-mediated stress-response mechanisms in this worldwide crop.

  20. Plant Nucleolar Stress Response, a New Face in the NAC-Dependent Cellular Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwai Ohbayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleolus is the most prominent nuclear domain, where the core processes of ribosome biogenesis occur vigorously. All these processes are finely orchestrated by many nucleolar factors to build precisely ribosome particles. In animal cells, perturbations of ribosome biogenesis, mostly accompanied by structural disorders of the nucleolus, cause a kind of cellular stress to induce cell cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, which is called nucleolar stress response. The best-characterized pathway of this stress response involves p53 and MDM2 as key players. p53 is a crucial transcription factor that functions in response to not only nucleolar stress but also other cellular stresses such as DNA damage stress. These cellular stresses release p53 from the inhibition by MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting p53, in various ways, which leads to p53-dependent activation of a set of genes. In plants, genetic impairments of ribosome biogenesis factors or ribosome components have been shown to cause characteristic phenotypes, including a narrow and pointed leaf shape, implying a common signaling pathway connecting ribosomal perturbations and certain aspects of growth and development. Unlike animals, however, plants have neither p53 nor MDM2 family proteins. Then the question arises whether plant cells have a nucleolar stress response pathway. In recent years, it has been reported that several members of the plant-specific transcription factor family NAC play critical roles in the pathways responsive to various cellular stresses. In this mini review, we outline the plant cellular stress response pathways involving NAC transcription factors with reference to the p53-MDM2-dependent pathways of animal cells, and discuss the possible involvement of a plant-unique, NAC-mediated pathway in the nucleolar stress response in plants.

  1. Transcriptomic identification of candidate genes involved in sunflower responses to chilling and salt stresses based on cDNA microarray analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Paniego Norma; Hopp H Esteban; Fernandez Luis; Di Rienzo Julio; Fernandez Paula; Heinz Ruth A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Considering that sunflower production is expanding to arid regions, tolerance to abiotic stresses as drought, low temperatures and salinity arises as one of the main constrains nowadays. Differential organ-specific sunflower ESTs (expressed sequence tags) were previously generated by a subtractive hybridization method that included a considerable number of putative abiotic stress associated sequences. The objective of this work is to analyze concerted gene expression profi...

  2. Abiotic stressors and stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulmon, Cecile; Van Baaren, Joan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental......Abstract Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we...... review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact...

  3. GsCML27, a Gene Encoding a Calcium-Binding Ef-Hand Protein from Glycine soja, Plays Differential Roles in Plant Responses to Bicarbonate, Salt and Osmotic Stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    Full Text Available Calcium, as the most widely accepted messenger, plays an important role in plant stress responses through calcium-dependent signaling pathways. The calmodulin-like family genes (CMLs encode Ca2+ sensors and function in signaling transduction in response to environmental stimuli. However, until now, the function of plant CML proteins, especially soybean CMLs, is largely unknown. Here, we isolated a Glycine soja CML protein GsCML27, with four conserved EF-hands domains, and identified it as a calcium-binding protein through far-UV CD spectroscopy. We further found that expression of GsCML27 was induced by bicarbonate, salt and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, ectopic expression of GsCML27 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to bicarbonate stress, but decreased the salt and osmotic tolerance during the seed germination and early growth stages. Furthermore, we found that ectopic expression of GsCML27 decreases salt tolerance through modifying both the cellular ionic (Na+, K+ content and the osmotic stress regulation. GsCML27 ectopic expression also decreased the expression levels of osmotic stress-responsive genes. Moreover, we also showed that GsCML27 localized in the whole cell, including cytoplasm, plasma membrane and nucleus in Arabidopsis protoplasts and onion epidermal cells, and displayed high expression in roots and embryos. Together, these data present evidence that GsCML27 as a Ca2+-binding EF-hand protein plays a role in plant responses to bicarbonate, salt and osmotic stresses.

  4. GsCML27, a Gene Encoding a Calcium-Binding Ef-Hand Protein from Glycine soja, Plays Differential Roles in Plant Responses to Bicarbonate, Salt and Osmotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Sun, Xiaoli; Duanmu, Huizi; Zhu, Dan; Yu, Yang; Cao, Lei; Liu, Ailin; Jia, Bowei; Xiao, Jialei; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Calcium, as the most widely accepted messenger, plays an important role in plant stress responses through calcium-dependent signaling pathways. The calmodulin-like family genes (CMLs) encode Ca2+ sensors and function in signaling transduction in response to environmental stimuli. However, until now, the function of plant CML proteins, especially soybean CMLs, is largely unknown. Here, we isolated a Glycine soja CML protein GsCML27, with four conserved EF-hands domains, and identified it as a calcium-binding protein through far-UV CD spectroscopy. We further found that expression of GsCML27 was induced by bicarbonate, salt and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, ectopic expression of GsCML27 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to bicarbonate stress, but decreased the salt and osmotic tolerance during the seed germination and early growth stages. Furthermore, we found that ectopic expression of GsCML27 decreases salt tolerance through modifying both the cellular ionic (Na+, K+) content and the osmotic stress regulation. GsCML27 ectopic expression also decreased the expression levels of osmotic stress-responsive genes. Moreover, we also showed that GsCML27 localized in the whole cell, including cytoplasm, plasma membrane and nucleus in Arabidopsis protoplasts and onion epidermal cells, and displayed high expression in roots and embryos. Together, these data present evidence that GsCML27 as a Ca2+-binding EF-hand protein plays a role in plant responses to bicarbonate, salt and osmotic stresses.

  5. Induction of a bZIP Type Transcription Factor and Amino Acid Catabolism-Related Genes in Soybean Seedling in Response to Starvation Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yuasa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To address roles of bZIP transcription factors on regulation of amino acid catabolism under autophagy-induced plant cells, we examined the effect of nutrient starvation on the expression of low energy stress-related transcription factor homologs, GmbZIP53A and GmbZIP53B, and amino acid catabolism-related genes in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr.. Sucrose starvation treatment significantly enhanced the expressions of GmbZIP53A, but not GmbZIP53B asparagine synthase (GmASN1, proline dehydrogenase1 (GmProDH, and branched chain amino acid transaminase 3 (GmBCAT3. GmbZIP53-related immunoreactive signals were upregulated under severe starvation with sucrose starvation and protease inhibitors, while 3% sucrose and sucrose starvation had no or marginal effects on the signal. Profiles of induction of GmASN1, GmProDH and GmBCAT3 under various nutrient conditions were consistent with the profiles of GmbZIP53 protein levels but not with those of GmbZIP mRNA levels. These results indicate that GmbZIP53 proteins levels are regulated by posttranslational mechanism in response to severe starvation stress and that the increased protein of GmbZIP53 under severe starvation accelerates transcriptional induction of GmASN1, GmProDH, and GmBCAT3. Furthermore, it is conceivable that decrease of branched chain amino acid level by the BCAT-mediated degradation eventually enhances autophagy under severe starvation.

  6. Integrated mRNA and microRNA analysis identifies genes and small miRNA molecules associated with transcriptional and post-transcriptional-level responses to both drought stress and re-watering treatment in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiansi; Li, Meng; Zhang, Zhongchun; Tie, Weiwei; Chen, Xia; Jin, Lifeng; Zhai, Niu; Zheng, Qingxia; Zhang, Jianfeng; Wang, Ran; Xu, Guoyun; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Pingping; Zhou, Huina

    2017-01-10

    Drought stress is one of the most severe problem limited agricultural productivity worldwide. It has been reported that plants response to drought-stress by sophisticated mechanisms at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. However, the precise molecular mechanisms governing the responses of tobacco leaves to drought stress and water status are not well understood. To identify genes and miRNAs involved in drought-stress responses in tobacco, we performed both mRNA and small RNA sequencing on tobacco leaf samples from the following three treatments: untreated-control (CL), drought stress (DL), and re-watering (WL). In total, we identified 798 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the DL and CL (DL vs. CL) treatments and identified 571 DEGs between the WL and DL (WL vs. DL) treatments. Further analysis revealed 443 overlapping DEGs between the DL vs. CL and WL vs. DL comparisons, and, strikingly, all of these genes exhibited opposing expression trends between these two comparisons, strongly suggesting that these overlapping DEGs are somehow involved in the responses of tobacco leaves to drought stress. Functional annotation analysis showed significant up-regulation of genes annotated to be involved in responses to stimulus and stress, (e.g., late embryogenesis abundant proteins and heat-shock proteins) antioxidant defense (e.g., peroxidases and glutathione S-transferases), down regulation of genes related to the cell cycle pathway, and photosynthesis processes. We also found 69 and 56 transcription factors (TFs) among the DEGs in, respectively, the DL vs. CL and the WL vs. DL comparisons. In addition, small RNA sequencing revealed 63 known microRNAs (miRNA) from 32 families and 368 novel miRNA candidates in tobacco. We also found that five known miRNA families (miR398, miR390, miR162, miR166, and miR168) showed differential regulation under drought conditions. Analysis to identify negative correlations between the differentially expressed mi

  7. Diurnal Oscillations of Soybean Circadian Clock and Drought Responsive Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolino-Gomes, Juliana; Rodrigues, Fabiana Aparecida; Fuganti-Pagliarini, Renata; Bendix, Claire; Nakayama, Thiago Jonas; Celaya, Brandon; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa; de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Neves; Harmon, Frank G.; Nepomuceno, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Rhythms produced by the endogenous circadian clock play a critical role in allowing plants to respond and adapt to the environment. While there is a well-established regulatory link between the circadian clock and responses to abiotic stress in model plants, little is known of the circadian system in crop species like soybean. This study examines how drought impacts diurnal oscillation of both drought responsive and circadian clock genes in soybean. Drought stress induced marked changes in gene expression of several circadian clock-like components, such as LCL1-, GmELF4- and PRR-like genes, which had reduced expression in stressed plants. The same conditions produced a phase advance of expression for the GmTOC1-like, GmLUX-like and GmPRR7-like genes. Similarly, the rhythmic expression pattern of the soybean drought-responsive genes DREB-, bZIP-, GOLS-, RAB18- and Remorin-like changed significantly after plant exposure to drought. In silico analysis of promoter regions of these genes revealed the presence of cis-elements associated both with stress and circadian clock regulation. Furthermore, some soybean genes with upstream ABRE elements were responsive to abscisic acid treatment. Our results indicate that some connection between the drought response and the circadian clock may exist in soybean since (i) drought stress affects gene expression of circadian clock components and (ii) several stress responsive genes display diurnal oscillation in soybeans. PMID:24475115

  8. Diurnal oscillations of soybean circadian clock and drought responsive genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marcolino-Gomes

    Full Text Available Rhythms produced by the endogenous circadian clock play a critical role in allowing plants to respond and adapt to the environment. While there is a well-established regulatory link between the circadian clock and responses to abiotic stress in model plants, little is known of the circadian system in crop species like soybean. This study examines how drought impacts diurnal oscillation of both drought responsive and circadian clock genes in soybean. Drought stress induced marked changes in gene expression of several circadian clock-like components, such as LCL1-, GmELF4- and PRR-like genes, which had reduced expression in stressed plants. The same conditions produced a phase advance of expression for the GmTOC1-like, GmLUX-like and GmPRR7-like genes. Similarly, the rhythmic expression pattern of the soybean drought-responsive genes DREB-, bZIP-, GOLS-, RAB18- and Remorin-like changed significantly after plant exposure to drought. In silico analysis of promoter regions of these genes revealed the presence of cis-elements associated both with stress and circadian clock regulation. Furthermore, some soybean genes with upstream ABRE elements were responsive to abscisic acid treatment. Our results indicate that some connection between the drought response and the circadian clock may exist in soybean since (i drought stress affects gene expression of circadian clock components and (ii several stress responsive genes display diurnal oscillation in soybeans.

  9. Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress Regulated by Histone Deacetylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Luo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, histone acetylation and deacetylation play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. Histone acetylation levels are modulated by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs. Recent studies indicate that HDACs play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression in plant response to environmental stress. In this review, we discussed the recent advance regarding the plant HDACs and their functions in the regulation of abiotic stress responses. The role of HDACs in autophagy was also discussed.

  10. Heat stress and sudden infant death syndrome--stress gene expression after exposure to moderate heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Marianne Cathrine; Corydon, Thomas Juhl; Hansen, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    time points measured, and may be less related to heat stress. Being found dead in the prone position (a known risk factor for SIDS) was related to a lower HSPA1B up-regulation in SIDS compared to SIDS found on their side or back. The study demonstrates the potential usefulness of gene expression......The aim of the present study was to investigate stress gene expression in cultured primary fibroblasts established from Achilles tendons collected during autopsies from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases, and age-matched controls (infants dying in a traumatic event). Expression of 4 stress...... responsive genes, HSPA1B, HSPD1, HMOX1, and SOD2, was studied by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of RNA purified from cells cultured under standard or various thermal stress conditions. The expression of all 4 genes was highly influenced by thermal stress in both SIDS and control cells. High...

  11. Influence of Nitrate and Nitrite on Thyroid Hormone Responsive and Stress-Associated Gene Expression in Cultured Rana catesbeiana Tadpole Tail Fin Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinther, Ashley; Edwards, Thea M.; Guillette, Louis J.; Helbing, Caren C.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signaling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin) assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 and 50 mg/L nitrate (NO3–N) and 0.5 and 5 mg/L nitrite (NO2–N) in the absence and presence of 10 nM T3. Thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI), both of which are TH-responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signaling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30, and catalase (CAT) transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TRβ and RLKI transcripts to T3. Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action. PMID:22493607

  12. Influence of nitrate and nitrite on thyroid hormone-responsive and stress-associated gene expression in cultured Rana catesbeiana tadpole tail fin tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eHinther

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signalling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 mg/L and 50 mg/L nitrate (NO3-N and 0.5 mg/L and 5 mg/L nitrite (NO2-N in the absence and presence of 10 nM T3. Thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI, both of which are thyroid hormone responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signalling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30 (HSP30 and catalase (CAT transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TRβ and RLKI transcripts to T3. Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action.

  13. Influence of Nitrate and Nitrite on Thyroid Hormone Responsive and Stress-Associated Gene Expression in Cultured Rana catesbeiana Tadpole Tail Fin Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinther, Ashley; Edwards, Thea M; Guillette, Louis J; Helbing, Caren C

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signaling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin) assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 and 50 mg/L nitrate (NO(3)-N) and 0.5 and 5 mg/L nitrite (NO(2)-N) in the absence and presence of 10 nM T(3). Thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI), both of which are TH-responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signaling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30, and catalase (CAT) transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TRβ and RLKI transcripts to T(3). Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action.

  14. Oligo-dT anchored cDNA-SCoT: a novel differential display method for analyzing differential gene expression in response to several stress treatments in mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cong; He, Xin-Hua; Hu, Ying; Yu, Hai-xia; Ou, Shi-Jin; Fang, Zhong-Bin

    2014-09-15

    Differential display is a powerful technique for analyzing differences in gene expression. Oligo-dT cDNAstart codon targeted marker (cDNA-SCoT) technique is a novel, simple, cheap, rapid, and efficient method for differential gene expression research. In the present study, the oligo-dT anchored cDNA-SCoT technique was exploited to identify differentially expressed genes during several stress treatments in mango. A total of 37 primers combined with oligo-dT anchor primers 3side amplified approximately 150 fragments of 150 bp to 1500 bp in length. Up to 100 fragments were differentially expressed among the stress treatments and control samples, among which 92 were obtained and sequenced. Out of the 92 transcript derived fragments (TDFs), 70% were highly homologous to known genes, and 30% encoded unclassified proteins with unknown functions. The expression pattern of nine genes with known functions involved in several abiotic stresses in other species was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) under cold (4 °C), salinity (NaCl), polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 6000), and heavy metal treatments in leaves and stems at different time points (0, 24, 48, and 72 h). The expression patterns of the genes (TDF4, TDF7, TDF23, TDF45, TDF49, TDF50, TDF57, TDF91 and TDF92) that had direct or indirect relationships with cold, salinity, drought and heavy metal stress response were analyzed through qRT-PCR. The possible roles of these genes are discussed. This study suggests that the oligo-dT anchored cDNA-SCoT differential display method is a useful tool to serve as an initial step for characterizing transcriptional changes induced by abiotic stresses and provide gene information for further study and application in genetic improvement and breeding in mango. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prion switching in response to environmental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Tyedmers

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Evolution depends on the manner in which genetic variation is translated into new phenotypes. There has been much debate about whether organisms might have specific mechanisms for "evolvability," which would generate heritable phenotypic variation with adaptive value and could act to enhance the rate of evolution. Capacitor systems, which allow the accumulation of cryptic genetic variation and release it under stressful conditions, might provide such a mechanism. In yeast, the prion [PSI(+] exposes a large array of previously hidden genetic variation, and the phenotypes it thereby produces are advantageous roughly 25% of the time. The notion that [PSI(+] is a mechanism for evolvability would be strengthened if the frequency of its appearance increased with stress. That is, a system that mediates even the haphazard appearance of new phenotypes, which have a reasonable chance of adaptive value would be beneficial if it were deployed at times when the organism is not well adapted to its environment. In an unbiased, high-throughput, genome-wide screen for factors that modify the frequency of [PSI(+] induction, signal transducers and stress response genes were particularly prominent. Furthermore, prion induction increased by as much as 60-fold when cells were exposed to various stressful conditions, such as oxidative stress (H2O2 or high salt concentrations. The severity of stress and the frequency of [PSI(+] induction were highly correlated. These findings support the hypothesis that [PSI(+] is a mechanism to increase survival in fluctuating environments and might function as a capacitor to promote evolvability.

  16. Transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to As (V stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Joshua S

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is toxic to plants and a common environmental pollutant. There is a strong chemical similarity between arsenate [As (V] and phosphate (Pi. Whole genome oligonucleotide microarrays were employed to investigate the transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to As (V stress. Results Antioxidant-related genes (i.e. coding for superoxide dismutases and peroxidases play prominent roles in response to arsenate. The microarray experiment revealed induction of chloroplast Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD (at2g28190, Cu/Zn SOD (at1g08830, as well as an SOD copper chaperone (at1g12520. On the other hand, Fe SODs were strongly repressed in response to As (V stress. Non-parametric rank product statistics were used to detect differentially expressed genes. Arsenate stress resulted in the repression of numerous genes known to be induced by phosphate starvation. These observations were confirmed with qRT-PCR and SOD activity assays. Conclusion Microarray data suggest that As (V induces genes involved in response to oxidative stress and represses transcription of genes induced by phosphate starvation. This study implicates As (V as a phosphate mimic in the cell by repressing genes normally induced when available phosphate is scarce. Most importantly, these data reveal that arsenate stress affects the expression of several genes with little or unknown biological functions, thereby providing new putative gene targets for future research.

  17. Putative 3-nitrotyrosine detoxifying genes identified in the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii: In silico search of regulatory sequences responsive to salt and nitrogen stress

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    Daniela E. Castro

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: D. hansenii can grow in the presence of 3-nitrotyrosine as the only nitrogen source and has a high specific denitrase activity to degrade 3-nitrotyrosine in 1 and 2 M NaCl stress conditions. The results suggest that given the lack of information on transcriptional factors in D. hansenii, the genes identified in our in silico analysis may help explain 3-nitrotyrosine assimilation mechanisms.

  18. Differential responses of CO2 assimilation, carbohydrate allocation and gene expression to NaCl stress in perennial ryegrass with different salt tolerance.

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    Tao Hu

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of NaCl stress on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. photosynthesis and carbohydrate flux. The objective of this study was to understand the carbohydrate metabolism and identify the gene expression affected by salinity stress. Seventy-four days old seedlings of two perennial ryegrass accessions (salt-sensitive 'PI 538976' and salt-tolerant 'Overdrive' were subjected to three levels of salinity stress for 5 days. Turf quality in all tissues (leaves, stems and roots of both grass accessions negatively and significantly correlated with GFS (Glu+Fru+Suc content, except for 'Overdrive' stems. Relative growth rate (RGR in leaves negatively and significantly correlated with GFS content in 'Overdrive' (P0.05 for turf quality. A greater up-regulation in the expression of SPS, SS, SI, 6-SFT gene was observed in 'Overdrive' than 'PI 538976'. A higher level of SPS and SS expression in leaves was found in 'PI 538976' relative to 'Overdrive'. Accumulation of hexoses in roots, stems and leaves can induce a feedback repression to photosynthesis in salt-stressed perennial ryegrass and the salt tolerance may be changed with the carbohydrate allocation in leaves and stems.

  19. STRESS RESPONSE STUDIES USING ANIMAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.

  20. Regulation of gene expression in roots of the pH-sensitive Vaccinium corymbosum and the pH-tolerant Vaccinium arboreum in response to near neutral pH stress using RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payá-Milans, Miriam; Nunez, Gerardo H; Olmstead, James W; Rinehart, Timothy A; Staton, Margaret

    2017-08-07

    Blueberries are one of the few horticultural crops adapted to grow in acidic soils. Neutral to basic soil pH is detrimental to all commonly cultivated blueberry species, including Vaccinium corymbosum (VC). In contrast, the wild species V. arboreum (VA) is able to tolerate a wider range of soil pH. To assess the molecular mechanisms involved in near neutral pH stress response, plants from pH-sensitive VC (tetraploid) and pH-tolerant VA (diploid) were grown at near neutral pH 6.5 and at the preferred pH of 4.5. Transcriptome sequencing of root RNA was performed for 4 biological replications per species x pH level interaction, for a total of 16 samples. Reads were mapped to the reference genome from diploid V. corymbosum, transforming ~55% of the reads to gene counts. A quasi-likelihood F test identified differential expression due to pH stress in 337 and 4867 genes in VA and VC, respectively. Both species shared regulation of genes involved in nutrient homeostasis and cell wall metabolism. VA and VC exhibited differential regulation of signaling pathways related to abiotic/biotic stress, cellulose and lignin biosynthesis, and nutrient uptake. The specific responses in VA likely facilitate tolerance to higher soil pH. In contrast, response in VC, despite affecting a greater number of genes, is not effective overcoming the stress induced by pH. Further inspection of those genes with differential expression that are specific in VA may provide insight on the mechanisms towards tolerance.

  1. The BTB and CNC homology 1 (BACH1) target genes are involved in the oxidative stress response and in control of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Schmidt, Dominic; Manke, Thomas; Piccini, Ilaria; Sultan, Marc; Borodina, Tatiana; Balzereit, Daniela; Wruck, Wasco; Soldatov, Alexey; Vingron, Martin; Lehrach, Hans; Yaspo, Marie-Laure

    2011-07-01

    The regulation of gene expression in response to environmental signals and metabolic imbalances is a key step in maintaining cellular homeostasis. BTB and CNC homology 1 (BACH1) is a heme-binding transcription factor repressing the transcription from a subset of MAF recognition elements at low intracellular heme levels. Upon heme binding, BACH1 is released from the MAF recognition elements, resulting in increased expression of antioxidant response genes. To systematically address the gene regulatory networks involving BACH1, we combined chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis of BACH1 target genes in HEK 293 cells with knockdown of BACH1 using three independent types of small interfering RNAs followed by transcriptome profiling using microarrays. The 59 BACH1 target genes identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing were found highly enriched in genes showing expression changes after BACH1 knockdown, demonstrating the impact of BACH1 repression on transcription. In addition to known and new BACH1 targets involved in heme degradation (HMOX1, FTL, FTH1, ME1, and SLC48A1) and redox regulation (GCLC, GCLM, and SLC7A11), we also discovered BACH1 target genes affecting cell cycle and apoptosis pathways (ITPR2, CALM1, SQSTM1, TFE3, EWSR1, CDK6, BCL2L11, and MAFG) as well as subcellular transport processes (CLSTN1, PSAP, MAPT, and vault RNA). The newly identified impact of BACH1 on genes involved in neurodegenerative processes and proliferation provides an interesting basis for future dissection of BACH1-mediated gene repression in neurodegeneration and virus-induced cancerogenesis.

  2. Effects of {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ion radiation and ferulic acid on the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic oxidative stress response and gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Jing [Department of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Hong, E-mail: zhangh@impcas.ac.cn [Department of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Zhenhua; Wu, Zhenhua [Department of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lu, Jiang [Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Phytomedicine Resources, College of Pharmacy, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832002 (China); Di, Cuixia; Zhou, Xin [Department of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Xiaowei [Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Phytomedicine Resources, College of Pharmacy, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832002 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: • Carbon ion radiation increased the oxidative stress in zebrafish embryos. • Carbon ion radiation induced transcriptional level effects. • The transcriptional level displayed more sensitivity to low dose radiation than the antioxidant enzyme activities. • FA induced radioprotective effects by the inhibition of oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of carbon ion irradiation and ferulic acid (FA) on the induction of oxidative stress and alteration of gene expression were studied in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Zebrafish embryos at 8 hpf were divided into seven groups: the control group; the 1 Gy, 3 Gy and 7 Gy irradiation groups; and three FA-pre-treated irradiation groups. In the irradiated groups, a significant increase in the teratogenesis of the zebrafish embryos and oxidative stress was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content, decreased glutathione (GSH) content and alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities (such as catalase [CAT] and superoxide dismutase [SOD]). Moreover, the mRNA levels for Cu/Zn–sod, Mn–sod, cat and gpx, the genes encoding these antioxidant proteins, were altered significantly. However, the mRNA expression patterns were not in accordance with those of the antioxidant enzymes and were more sensitive under low-dose irradiation. In addition, we detected the mRNA expression of ucp-2 and bcl-2, which are located at the mitochondrial inner membrane and related to reactive oxidative species (ROS) production. In the irradiated groups, the mRNA level of ucp-2 was significantly increased, whereas the mRNA level of bcl-2 was significantly decreased. Supplementation with FA, an antioxidant, was better able to reduce the irradiation-induced oxidative damage marked by changes in mortality, morphology, antioxidant enzyme activities and the MDA and GSH content, as well as in the mRNA expression levels. Overall, this study provided helpful information about the transcriptional effects of irradiation to better

  3. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of three ThERFs involved in the response to waterlogging stress of Taxodium ‘Zhongshanshan406’, and subcellular localization of the gene products

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    Wencai Fan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As a subfamily of the APETALA 2/ethylene response element binding protein (AP2/EREBP transcription factor superfamily, the ethylene response factor (ERF is widely involved in the regulation of growth and response to various abiotic stresses in plants, and has been shown to be the main transcription factor regulating transcription of the genes related to hypoxia and waterlogging stress. In this study, three ThERF genes, with significant differences in expression profile in response to flooding stress, were identified from the transcriptomics data acquired from Taxodium hybrid ‘Zhongshanshan 406’ (T. mucronatum Tenore × T. distichum (L. Rich under waterlogging stress: ThERF15, ThERF39 and ThRAP2.3 (GenBank ID: KY463467, KY463468 and KY463470, respectively.The full-length cDNA of each of the three ERFs was obtained using the RACE (rapid amplification cDNA ends method, and all three were intron-free. Multiple protein sequence alignments indicated that ThERF15, ThERF39 and ThRAP2.3 proteins all had only one AP2-ERF domain and belonged to the ERF subfamily. A transient gene expression assay demonstrated that ThERF15, ThERF39 and ThRAP2.3 were all localized to the nucleus. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR revealed that the expression of ThERF15, ThERF39 and ThRAP2.3 exhibited significant differences, compared with the control, in response to two levels of flooding treatment (half-flooding or total-submergence of ‘Zhongshanshan 406’. Quantification of ethylene concentration revealed that ethylene was more relevant to the level of expression than the period of flooding treatment. Based on the experimental results above, ThERF15, ThERF39 and ThRAP2.3 were identified as being related to the regulation of downstream flooding- responsive gene expression in ‘Zhongshanshan 406’. ThRAP2.3 is most likely to be a key downstream-response ERF gene to respond to the output of the ethylene signal generated by flooding stress.

  4. An adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) gene from Apostichopus japonicus; molecular cloning and expression analysis in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Chai, Xin-Yue; Tu, Jie; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Li, Chao-Feng; Jiang, Sen-Hao; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-02-01

    The adenine nucleotide translocases (ANTs) play a vital role in energy metabolism via ADP/ATP exchange in eukaryotic cells. Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) is an important economic species in China. Here, a cDNA representing an ANT gene of A. japonicus was isolated and characterized from respiratory tree and named AjANT. The full-length AjANT cDNA is 1924 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 38 bp, 3'-UTR of 980 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 906 bp encoding a polypeptide of 301 amino acids. The protein contains three homologous repeat Mito_carr domains (Pfam00153). The deduced AjANT protein sequence has 49-81% in comparison to ANT proteins from other individuals. The predicted tertiary structure of AjANT protein is highly similar to animal ANT proteins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AjANT is closely related to Holothuroidea ANT genes. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that AjANT expression is higher in the respiratory tree than in other examined tissues. After thermal stress or LPS challenge, expression of AjANT was significantly fluctuant compared to the control. These results suggested that changes in the expression of ANT gene might be involved in immune defense and in protecting A. japonicus against thermal stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcriptome-Based Identification of the Desiccation Response Genes in Marine Red Algae Pyropia tenera (Rhodophyta) and Enhancement of Abiotic Stress Tolerance by PtDRG2 in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sungoh; Lee, Ha-Nul; Jung, Hyun Shin; Yang, Sunghwan; Park, Eun-Jeong; Hwang, Mi Sook; Jeong, Won-Joong; Choi, Dong-Woog

    2017-06-01

    Pyropia tenera (Kjellman) are marine red algae that grow in the intertidal zone and lose more than 90% of water during hibernal low tides every day. In order to identify the desiccation response gene (DRG) in P. tenera, we generated 1,444,210 transcriptome sequences using the 454-FLX platform from the gametophyte under control and desiccation conditions. De novo assembly of the transcriptome reads generated 13,170 contigs, covering about 12 Mbp. We selected 1160 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to desiccation stress based on reads per kilobase per million reads (RPKM) expression values. As shown in green higher plants, DEGs under desiccation are composed of two groups of genes for gene regulation networks and functional proteins for carbohydrate metabolism, membrane perturbation, compatible solutes, and specific proteins similar to higher plants. DEGs that show no significant homology with known sequences in public databases were selected as DRGs in P. tenera. PtDRG2 encodes a novel polypeptide of 159 amino acid residues locating chloroplast. When PtDRG2 was overexpressed in Chlamydomonas, the PtDRG2 confer mannitol and salt tolerance in transgenic cells. These results suggest that Pyropia may possess novel genes that differ from green plants, although the desiccation tolerance mechanism in red algae is similar to those of higher green plants. These transcriptome sequences will facilitate future studies to understand the common processes and novel mechanisms involved in desiccation stress tolerance in red algae.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of Enterococcus faecalis in response to alkaline stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Shujun; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Wei; Sun, Zhe; Liang, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly isolated species from endodontic failure root canals; its persistence in treated root canals has been attributed to its ability to resist high pH stress. The goal of this study was to characterize the E. faecalis transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to alkaline stress using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing. We found that E. faecalis could survive and form biofilms in a pH 10 environment and that alkaline stress had a great impact on the transcription of many genes in the E. faecalis genome. The transcriptome sequencing results revealed that 613 genes were differentially expressed (DEGs) for E. faecalis grown in pH 10 medium; 211 genes were found to be differentially up-regulated and 402 genes differentially down-regulated. Many of the down-regulated genes found are involved in cell energy production and metabolism and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the up-regulated genes are mostly related to nucleotide transport and metabolism. The results presented here reveal that cultivation of E. faecalis in alkaline stress has a profound impact on its transcriptome. The observed regulation of genes and pathways revealed that E. faecalis reduced its carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and increased nucleotide synthesis to adapt and grow in alkaline stress. A number of the regulated genes may be useful candidates for the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of E. faecalis infections.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Enterococcus faecalis in Response to Alkaline Stress

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    Ran eshujun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available E. faecalis is the most commonly isolated species from endodontic failure root canals; its persistence in treated root canals has been attributed to its ability to resist high pH stress. The goal of this study was to characterize the E. faecalis transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to alkaline stress using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing.We found that E. faecalis could survive and form biofilms in a pH 10 environment and that alkaline stress had a great impact on the transcription of many genes in the E. faecalis genome. The transcriptome sequencing results revealed that 613 genes were differentially expressed (DEGs for E. faecalis grown in pH 10 medium; 211 genes were found to be differentially up-regulated and 402 genes differentially down-regulated. Many of the down-regulated genes found are involved in cell energy production and metabolism and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the up-regulated genes are mostly related to nucleotide transport and metabolism. The results presented here reveal that cultivation of E. faecalis in alkaline stress has a profound impact on its transcriptome. The observed regulation of genes and pathways revealed that E. faecalis reduced its carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and increased nucleotide synthesis to adapt and grow in alkaline stress. A number of the regulated genes may be useful candidates for the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of E. faecalis infections.

  8. Visual expression analysis of the responses of the alternative oxidase gene (aox1) to heat shock, oxidative, and osmotic stresses in conidia of citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yuki; Hattori, Takasumi; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2012-03-01

    The citric acid-producing filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger WU-2223L shows cyanide-insensitive respiration catalyzed by alternative oxidase in addition to the cytochrome pathway. Sequence analysis of the 5' flanking region of the alternative oxidase gene (aox1) revealed a potential heat shock element (HSE) and a stress response element (STRE). We have previously confirmed aox1 expression in conidia. In this study, to confirm whether the upstream region of aox1 responds to various stresses, we used a visual expression analysis system for single-cell conidia of the A. niger strain AOXEGFP-1. This strain harbored a fusion gene comprising aox1 and egfp, which encodes the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The fluorescence intensity of EGFP increased in conidia of A. niger AOXEGFP-1 that were subjected to heat shock at 35-45 °C, oxidative stress by exposure to 5mM paraquat or 1 mM t-butylhydroperoxide, or osmotic stresses by exposure to 0.5 M KCl or 1.0 M mannitol. These results indicate that the putative HSE and STRE in the upstream region of aox1 directly or indirectly respond to heat shock, oxidative, and osmotic stresses. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethanol-induced stress response of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando, Jasmine M; Pfeltz, Richard F; Cuaron, Jesus A; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Mishra, Mukti N; Torres, Nathanial J; Elasri, Mohamed O; Wilkinson, Brian J; Gustafson, John E

    2017-09-01

    Transcriptional profiles of 2 unrelated clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates were analyzed following 10% (v/v) ethanol challenge (15 min), which arrested growth but did not reduce viability. Ethanol-induced stress (EIS) resulted in differential gene expression of 1091 genes, 600 common to both strains, of which 291 were upregulated. With the exception of the downregulation of genes involved with osmotic stress functions, EIS resulted in the upregulation of genes that contribute to stress response networks, notably those altered by oxidative stress, protein quality control in general, and heat shock in particular. In addition, genes involved with transcription, translation, and nucleotide biosynthesis were downregulated. relP, which encodes a small alarmone synthetase (RelP), was highly upregulated in both MRSA strains following ethanol challenge, and relP inactivation experiments indicated that this gene contributed to EIS growth arrest. A number of persistence-associated genes were also upregulated during EIS, including those that encode toxin-antitoxin systems. Overall, transcriptional profiling indicated that the MRSA investigated responded to EIS by entering a state of dormancy and by altering the expression of elements from cross protective stress response systems in an effort to protect preexisting proteins.

  10. Cloning and characterization of a novel stress-responsive WRKY transcription factor gene (MusaWRKY71) from Musa spp. cv. Karibale Monthan (ABB group) using transformed banana cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R; Srinivas, Lingam

    2011-08-01

    WRKY transcription factor proteins play significant roles in plant stress responses. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a novel WRKY gene, MusaWRKY71 isolated from an edible banana cultivar Musa spp. Karibale Monthan (ABB group). MusaWRKY71, initially identified using in silico approaches from an abiotic stress-related EST library, was later extended towards the 3' end using rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The 1299-bp long cDNA of MusaWRKY71 encodes a protein with 280 amino acids and contains a characteristic WRKY domain in the C-terminal half. Although MusaWRKY71 shares good similarity with other monocot WRKY proteins the substantial size difference makes it a unique member of the WRKY family in higher plants. The 918-bp long 5' proximal region determined using thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction has many putative cis-acting elements and transcription factor binding motifs. Subcellular localization assay of MusaWRKY71 performed using a GFP-fusion platform confirmed its nuclear targeting in transformed banana suspension cells. Importantly, MusaWRKY71 expression in banana plantlets was up-regulated manifold by cold, dehydration, salt, ABA, H2O2, ethylene, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate treatment indicating its involvement in response to a variety of stress conditions in banana. Further, transient overexpression of MusaWRKY71 in transformed banana cells led to the induction of several genes, homologues of which have been proven to be involved in diverse stress responses in other important plants. The present study is the first report on characterization of a banana stress-related transcription factor using transformed banana cells.

  11. Association among clinical response, hippocampal volume, and FKBP5 gene expression in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder receiving cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Szabó, Csilla; Kelemen, Oguz; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2013-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by a reduced expression of FKBP5, a key modulator of the glucocorticoid receptor. Smaller hippocampal volume has also been documented in PTSD. We explored possible changes in FKBP5 gene expression and brain structure in patients with PTSD after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). We measured peripheral FKBP5 RNA and volumes of the hippocampus, amygdala, and medial orbitofrontal cortex in 39 patients with PTSD before and after CBT. The control subjects were 31 trauma-exposed individuals without PTSD who were also assessed twice. Gene expression changes were screened with a microarray toolkit, which was followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for FKBP5 RNA. Brain volumes were measured using FreeSurfer. At baseline, patients with PTSD showed lower FKBP5 gene expression and smaller hippocampal and medial orbitofrontal cortex, but not amygdala, volumes relative to control subjects. At follow-up, we found significantly increased FKBP5 expression and increased hippocampal volume in patients with PTSD. At follow-up, patients did not differ from control subjects in hippocampal volume. Improvement in PTSD symptoms was predicted by increased FKBP5 expression and increased hippocampal volume, but the primary predictor was FKBP5 expression. The most significantly altered gene expression in patients with PTSD relative to control subjects was found for ribosomal protein S6 kinase, which did not change after CBT and did not correlate with hippocampal volume. Clinical improvement in individuals with PTSD was associated with increased expression of FKBP5 and increased hippocampal volume, which were positively correlated. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc on behalf of Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  12. Coral thermal tolerance: tuning gene expression to resist thermal stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Bellantuono

    Full Text Available The acclimatization capacity of corals is a critical consideration in the persistence of coral reefs under stresses imposed by global climate change. The stress history of corals plays a role in subsequent response to heat stress, but the transcriptomic changes associated with these plastic changes have not been previously explored. In order to identify host transcriptomic changes associated with acquired thermal tolerance in the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora, corals preconditioned to a sub-lethal temperature of 3°C below bleaching threshold temperature were compared to both non-preconditioned corals and untreated controls using a cDNA microarray platform. After eight days of hyperthermal challenge, conditions under which non-preconditioned corals bleached and preconditioned corals (thermal-tolerant maintained Symbiodinium density, a clear differentiation in the transcriptional profiles was revealed among the condition examined. Among these changes, nine differentially expressed genes separated preconditioned corals from non-preconditioned corals, with 42 genes differentially expressed between control and preconditioned treatments, and 70 genes between non-preconditioned corals and controls. Differentially expressed genes included components of an apoptotic signaling cascade, which suggest the inhibition of apoptosis in preconditioned corals. Additionally, lectins and genes involved in response to oxidative stress were also detected. One dominant pattern was the apparent tuning of gene expression observed between preconditioned and non-preconditioned treatments; that is, differences in expression magnitude were more apparent than differences in the identity of genes differentially expressed. Our work revealed a transcriptomic signature underlying the tolerance associated with coral thermal history, and suggests that understanding the molecular mechanisms behind physiological acclimatization would be critical for the modeling of reefs

  13. Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase genes isolated from purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.): expression in different tissues and response to cold and wound stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Monica C; Carvalho, Isabel S; Brodelius, Maria

    2010-02-10

    Two full-length cDNA clones PoleFAD7 and PoleFAD8, encoding plastidial omega-3 fatty acid desaturases were isolated from purslane (Portulaca oleracea). The encoded enzymes convert linoleic to alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3). Three histidine clusters characteristic of fatty acid desaturases, a putative chloroplast transit peptide in the N-terminal, and three putative transmembrane domains were identified in the sequence. Both genes were expressed in all analyzed tissues showing different levels of expression. PoleFAD7 was up-regulated by wounding but not by low temperature. PoleFAD8 was up-regulated by cold stress but not by wounding. Total fatty acid and linolenic acid content were higher both, in wounded and intact leaves of plants exposed to low temperature.

  14. Disruption of rcsB by a duplicated sequence in a curli-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 results in differential gene expression in relation to biofilm formation, stress responses and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V K; Bayles, D O; Alt, D P; Looft, T; Brunelle, B W; Stasko, J A

    2017-03-08

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) strain 86-24, linked to a 1986 disease outbreak, displays curli- and biofilm-negative phenotypes that are correlated with the lack of Congo red (CR) binding and formation of white colonies (CR - ) on a CR-containing medium. However, on a CR medium this strain produces red isolates (CR + ) capable of producing curli fimbriae and biofilms. To identify genes controlling differential expression of curli fimbriae and biofilm formation, the RNA-Seq profile of a CR + isolate was compared to the CR - parental isolate. Of the 242 genes expressed differentially in the CR + isolate, 201 genes encoded proteins of known functions while the remaining 41 encoded hypothetical proteins. Among the genes with known functions, 149 were down- and 52 were up-regulated. Some of the upregulated genes were linked to biofilm formation through biosynthesis of curli fimbriae and flagella. The genes encoding transcriptional regulators, such as CsgD, QseB, YkgK, YdeH, Bdm, CspD, BssR and FlhDC, which modulate biofilm formation, were significantly altered in their expression. Several genes of the envelope stress (cpxP), heat shock (rpoH, htpX, degP), oxidative stress (ahpC, katE), nutrient limitation stress (phoB-phoR and pst) response pathways, and amino acid metabolism were downregulated in the CR + isolate. Many genes mediating acid resistance and colanic acid biosynthesis, which influence biofilm formation directly or indirectly, were also down-regulated. Comparative genomics of CR + and CR - isolates revealed the presence of a short duplicated sequence in the rcsB gene of the CR + isolate. The alignment of the amino acid sequences of RcsB of the two isolates showed truncation of RcsB in the CR + isolate at the insertion site of the duplicated sequence. Complementation of CR + isolate with rcsB of the CR - parent restored parental phenotypes to the CR + isolate. The results of this study indicate that RcsB is a global regulator affecting bacterial survival in

  15. Microarray Analysis of Transcriptional Responses to Abscisic Acid and Salt Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA plays a crucial role in plant responses to abiotic stress. To investigate differences in plant responses to salt and ABA stimulus, differences in gene expression in Arabidopsis in response to salt and ABA were compared using an Agilent oligo microarray. A total of 144 and 139 genes were significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, under NaCl stress, while 406 and 381 genes were significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, under ABA stress conditions. In addition, 31 genes were upregulated by both NaCl and ABA stresses, and 23 genes were downregulated by these stressors, suggesting that these genes may play similar roles in plant responses to salt and ABA stress. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed four subgroups of genes, including genes in the GO categories “Molecular transducer activity”, “Growth”, “Biological adhesion” and “Pigmentation”, which were expressed in response to ABA stress but not NaCl stress. In addition, genes that play specific roles during salt or ABA stress were identified. Our results may help elucidate differences in the response of plants to salt and ABA stress.

  16. Recent Molecular Advances on Downstream Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

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    Cláudia Regina Batista de Souza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as extremes of temperature and pH, high salinity and drought, comprise some of the major factors causing extensive losses to crop production worldwide. Understanding how plants respond and adapt at cellular and molecular levels to continuous environmental changes is a pre-requisite for the generation of resistant or tolerant plants to abiotic stresses. In this review we aimed to present the recent advances on mechanisms of downstream plant responses to abiotic stresses and the use of stress-related genes in the development of genetically engineered crops.

  17. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged ...

  18. Oxidative stress provokes distinct transcriptional responses in the stress-tolerant atr7 and stress-sensitive loh2 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants as revealed by multi-parallel quantitative real-time PCR analysis of ROS marker and antioxidant genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehterov, Nikolay; Balazadeh, Salma; Hille, Jacques; Toneva, Valentina; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Gechev, Tsanko

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana atr7 mutant is tolerant to oxidative stress induced by paraquat (PQ) or the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole (AT), while its original background loh2 and wild-type plants are sensitive. Both, AT and PQ which stimulate the intracellular formation of H2O2 or superoxide anions,

  19. Chromatin changes in response to drought, salinity, heat, and cold stresses in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Myong eKim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin regulation is essential to regulate genes and genome activities. In plants, the alteration of histone modification and DNA methylation are coordinated with changes in the expression of stress-responsive genes to adapt to environmental changes. Several chromatin regulators have been shown to be involved in the regulation of stress-responsive gene networks under abiotic stress conditions. Specific histone modification sites and the histone modifiers that regulate key stress-responsive genes have been identified by genetic and biochemical approaches, revealing the importance of chromatin regulation in plant stress responses. Recent studies have also suggested that histone modification plays an important role in plant stress memory. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the regulation and alteration of histone modification (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, and SUMOylation in response to the abiotic stresses, drought, high-salinity, heat, and cold in plants.

  20. Dehydration stress memory genes of Zea mays; comparison with Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre-exposing plants to diverse abiotic stresses may alter their physiological and transcriptional responses to a subsequent stress, suggesting a form of “stress memory”. Arabidopsis thaliana plants that have experienced multiple exposures to dehydration stress display transcriptional behavior suggesting “memory” from an earlier stress. Genes that respond to a first stress by up-regulating or down-regulating their transcription but in a subsequent stress provide a significantly different response define the ‘memory genes’ category. Genes responding similarly to each stress form the ‘non-memory’ category. It is unknown whether such memory responses exists in other Angiosperm lineages and whether memory is an evolutionarily conserved response to repeated dehydration stresses. Results Here, we determine the transcriptional responses of maize (Zea mays L.) plants that have experienced repeated exposures to dehydration stress in comparison with plants encountering the stress for the first time. Four distinct transcription memory response patterns similar to those displayed by A. thaliana were revealed. The most important contribution is the evidence that monocot and eudicot plants, two lineages that have diverged 140 to 200 M years ago, display similar abilities to ‘remember’ a dehydration stress and to modify their transcriptional responses, accordingly. The highly sensitive RNA-Seq analyses allowed to identify genes that function similarly in the two lineages, as well as genes that function in species-specific ways. Memory transcription patterns indicate that the transcriptional behavior of responding genes under repeated stresses is different from the behavior during an initial dehydration stress, suggesting that stress memory is a complex phenotype resulting from coordinated responses of multiple signaling pathways. Conclusions Structurally related genes displaying the same memory responses in the two species would suggest conservation

  1. Gene therapy to target ER stress in brain diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Vicente; Martínez, Gabriela; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Hetz, Claudio

    2016-10-01

    Gene therapy based on the use of Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) is emerging as a safe and stable strategy to target molecular pathways involved in a variety of brain diseases. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is proposed as a transversal feature of most animal models and clinical samples from patients affected with neurodegenerative diseases. Manipulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a major homeostatic reaction under ER stress conditions, had proved beneficial in diverse models of neurodegeneration. Although increasing number of drugs are available to target ER stress, the use of small molecules to treat chronic brain diseases is challenging because of poor blood brain barrier permeability and undesirable side effects due to the role of the UPR in the physiology of peripheral organs. Gene therapy is currently considered a possible future alternative to circumvent these problems by the delivery of therapeutic agents to selective regions and cell types of the nervous system. Here we discuss current efforts to design gene therapy strategies to alleviate ER stress on a disease context. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:ER stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification and expression analysis of WRKY family genes under biotic and abiotic stresses in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayum, Md Abdul; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Saha, Gopal; Yang, Tae-Jin; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-02-01

    WRKY proteins constitute one of the largest transcription factor families in higher plants, and they are involved in multiple biological processes such as plant development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Genes of this family have been well documented in response to many abiotic and biotic stresses in many plant species, but not yet against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans in any of the plants. Moreover, potentiality of a specific gene may vary depending on stress conditions and genotypes. To identify stress resistance-related potential WRKY genes of Brassica rapa, we analyzed their expressions against above-mentioned pathogens and cold, salt, and drought stresses in B. rapa. Stress resistance-related functions of all Brassica rapa WRKY (BrWRKY) genes were firstly analyzed through homology study with existing biotic and abiotic stress resistance-related WRKY genes of other plant species and found a high degree of homology. We then identified all BrWRKY genes in a Br135K microarray dataset, which was created by applying low-temperature stresses to two contrasting Chinese cabbage doubled haploid (DH) lines, Chiifu and Kenshin, and selected 41 BrWRKY genes with high and differential transcript abundance levels. These selected genes were further investigated under cold, salt, and drought stresses as well as after infection with P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and F. oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans in B. rapa. The selected genes showed an organ-specific expression, and 22 BrWRKY genes were differentially expressed in Chiifu compared to Kenshin under cold and drought stresses. Six BrWRKY genes were more responsive in Kenshin compared to Chiffu under salt stress. In addition, eight BrWRKY genes showed differential expression after P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum infection and five genes after F. oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans infection in B. rapa. Thus, the differentially expressed Br

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Spartina pectinata in Response to Freezing Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyoungju Nah

    Full Text Available Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata, a perennial C4 grass native to the North American prairie, has several distinctive characteristics that potentially make it a model crop for production in stressful environments. However, little is known about the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass despite its unique freezing stress tolerance. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to explore the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass in response to freezing stress at -5°C for 5 min and 30 min. We used a RNA-sequencing method to assemble the S. pectinata leaf transcriptome and performed gene-expression profiling of the transcripts under freezing treatment. Six differentially expressed gene (DEG groups were categorized from the profiling. In addition, two major consecutive orders of gene expression were observed in response to freezing; the first being the acute up-regulation of genes involved in plasma membrane modification, calcium-mediated signaling, proteasome-related proteins, and transcription regulators (e.g., MYB and WRKY. The follow-up and second response was of genes involved in encoding the putative anti-freezing protein and the previously known DNA and cell-damage-repair proteins. Moreover, we identified the genes involved in epigenetic regulation and circadian-clock expression. Our results indicate that freezing response in S. pectinata reflects dynamic changes in rapid-time duration, as well as in metabolic, transcriptional, post-translational, and epigenetic regulation.

  4. Glycerol stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Cellular responses and evolved adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattenberger, Florian; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Hallsworth, John E; Fares, Mario A

    2017-03-01

    Glycerol synthesis is key to central metabolism and stress biology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yet the cellular adjustments needed to respond and adapt to glycerol stress are little understood. Here, we determined impacts of acute and chronic exposures to glycerol stress in S. cerevisiae. Glycerol stress can result from an increase of glycerol concentration in the medium due to the S. cerevisiae fermenting activity or other metabolic activities. Acute glycerol-stress led to a 50% decline in growth rate and altered transcription of more than 40% of genes. The increased genetic diversity in S. cerevisiae population, which had evolved in the standard nutrient medium for hundreds of generations, led to an increase in growth rate and altered transcriptome when such population was transferred to stressful media containing a high concentration of glycerol; 0.41 M (0.990 water activity). Evolution of S. cerevisiae populations during a 10-day period in the glycerol-containing medium led to transcriptome changes and readjustments to improve control of glycerol flux across the membrane, regulation of cell cycle, and more robust stress response; and a remarkable increase of growth rate under glycerol stress. Most of the observed regulatory changes arose in duplicated genes. These findings elucidate the physiological mechanisms, which underlie glycerol-stress response, and longer-term adaptations, in S. cerevisiae; they also have implications for enigmatic aspects of the ecology of this otherwise well-characterized yeast. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Transcriptome analysis reveals genes commonly induced by Botrytis cinerea infection, cold, drought and oxidative stresses in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Sham

    Full Text Available Signaling pathways controlling biotic and abiotic stress responses may interact synergistically or antagonistically. To identify the similarities and differences among responses to diverse stresses, we analyzed previously published microarray data on the transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis to infection with Botrytis cinerea (a biotic stress, and to cold, drought, and oxidative stresses (abiotic stresses. Our analyses showed that at early stages after B. cinerea inoculation, 1498 genes were up-regulated (B. cinerea up-regulated genes; BUGs and 1138 genes were down-regulated (B. cinerea down-regulated genes; BDGs. We showed a unique program of gene expression was activated in response each biotic and abiotic stress, but that some genes were similarly induced or repressed by all of the tested stresses. Of the identified BUGs, 25%, 6% and 12% were also induced by cold, drought and oxidative stress, respectively; whereas 33%, 7% and 5.5% of the BDGs were also down-regulated by the same abiotic stresses. Coexpression and protein-protein interaction network analyses revealed a dynamic range in the expression levels of genes encoding regulatory proteins. Analysis of gene expression in response to electrophilic oxylipins suggested that these compounds are involved in mediating responses to B. cinerea infection and abiotic stress through TGA transcription factors. Our results suggest an overlap among genes involved in the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. Changes in the transcript levels of genes encoding components of the cyclopentenone signaling pathway in response to biotic and abiotic stresses suggest that the oxylipin signal transduction pathway plays a role in plant defense. Identifying genes that are commonly expressed in response to environmental stresses, and further analyzing the functions of their encoded products, will increase our understanding of the plant stress response. This information could identify targets

  6. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Genes Commonly Induced by Botrytis cinerea Infection, Cold, Drought and Oxidative Stresses in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ameri, Salma; Al-Mahmoud, Bassam; Awwad, Falah; Al-Rawashdeh, Ahmed; Iratni, Rabah; AbuQamar, Synan

    2014-01-01

    Signaling pathways controlling biotic and abiotic stress responses may interact synergistically or antagonistically. To identify the similarities and differences among responses to diverse stresses, we analyzed previously published microarray data on the transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis to infection with Botrytis cinerea (a biotic stress), and to cold, drought, and oxidative stresses (abiotic stresses). Our analyses showed that at early stages after B. cinerea inoculation, 1498 genes were up-regulated (B. cinerea up-regulated genes; BUGs) and 1138 genes were down-regulated (B. cinerea down-regulated genes; BDGs). We showed a unique program of gene expression was activated in response each biotic and abiotic stress, but that some genes were similarly induced or repressed by all of the tested stresses. Of the identified BUGs, 25%, 6% and 12% were also induced by cold, drought and oxidative stress, respectively; whereas 33%, 7% and 5.5% of the BDGs were also down-regulated by the same abiotic stresses. Coexpression and protein-protein interaction network analyses revealed a dynamic range in the expression levels of genes encoding regulatory proteins. Analysis of gene expression in response to electrophilic oxylipins suggested that these compounds are involved in mediating responses to B. cinerea infection and abiotic stress through TGA transcription factors. Our results suggest an overlap among genes involved in the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. Changes in the transcript levels of genes encoding components of the cyclopentenone signaling pathway in response to biotic and abiotic stresses suggest that the oxylipin signal transduction pathway plays a role in plant defense. Identifying genes that are commonly expressed in response to environmental stresses, and further analyzing the functions of their encoded products, will increase our understanding of the plant stress response. This information could identify targets for genetic

  7. Stress-Induced Eating Dampens Physiological and Behavioral Stress Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, LE; Tomiyama, AJ

    2014-01-01

    Both psychological and physical stressors induce the secretion of glucocorticoids and insulin, which increase the consumption of palatable high-fat, high-sugar "comfort foods." Chronic engagement in stress-induced eating behavior leads to visceral fat accumulation, which in turn dampens hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. The joint role of stress-induced eating and abdominal fat stores in attenuating physiological stress responses has been well characterized in nonhuman animal model...

  8. Conditional response to stress in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siderius, M.H.; Mager, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    All living cells respond to sudden, adverse changes in their environment by evoking a stress response. Here we focus mainly on the response of the model eukaryotic organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) to an increase in external osmolarity. We summarize data demonstrating that stress

  9. Systems responses to progressive water stress in durum wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimah Z Habash

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is susceptible to terminal drought which can greatly decrease grain yield. Breeding to improve crop yield is hampered by inadequate knowledge of how the physiological and metabolic changes caused by drought are related to gene expression. To gain better insight into mechanisms defining resistance to water stress we studied the physiological and transcriptome responses of three durum breeding lines varying for yield stability under drought. Parents of a mapping population (Lahn x Cham1 and a recombinant inbred line (RIL2219 showed lowered flag leaf relative water content, water potential and photosynthesis when subjected to controlled water stress time transient experiments over a six-day period. RIL2219 lost less water and showed constitutively higher stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, abscisic acid content and enhanced osmotic adjustment at equivalent leaf water compared to parents, thus defining a physiological strategy for high yield stability under water stress. Parallel analysis of the flag leaf transcriptome under stress uncovered global trends of early changes in regulatory pathways, reconfiguration of primary and secondary metabolism and lowered expression of transcripts in photosynthesis in all three lines. Differences in the number of genes, magnitude and profile of their expression response were also established amongst the lines with a high number belonging to regulatory pathways. In addition, we documented a large number of genes showing constitutive differences in leaf transcript expression between the genotypes at control non-stress conditions. Principal Coordinates Analysis uncovered a high level of structure in the transcriptome response to water stress in each wheat line suggesting genome-wide co-ordination of transcription. Utilising a systems-based approach of analysing the integrated wheat's response to water stress, in terms of biological robustness theory, the findings suggest that each durum

  10. Systems Responses to Progressive Water Stress in Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash, Dimah Z.; Baudo, Marcela; Hindle, Matthew; Powers, Stephen J.; Defoin-Platel, Michael; Mitchell, Rowan; Saqi, Mansoor; Rawlings, Chris; Latiri, Kawther; Araus, Jose L.; Abdulkader, Ahmad; Tuberosa, Roberto; Lawlor, David W.; Nachit, Miloudi M.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is susceptible to terminal drought which can greatly decrease grain yield. Breeding to improve crop yield is hampered by inadequate knowledge of how the physiological and metabolic changes caused by drought are related to gene expression. To gain better insight into mechanisms defining resistance to water stress we studied the physiological and transcriptome responses of three durum breeding lines varying for yield stability under drought. Parents of a mapping population (Lahn x Cham1) and a recombinant inbred line (RIL2219) showed lowered flag leaf relative water content, water potential and photosynthesis when subjected to controlled water stress time transient experiments over a six-day period. RIL2219 lost less water and showed constitutively higher stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, abscisic acid content and enhanced osmotic adjustment at equivalent leaf water compared to parents, thus defining a physiological strategy for high yield stability under water stress. Parallel analysis of the flag leaf transcriptome under stress uncovered global trends of early changes in regulatory pathways, reconfiguration of primary and secondary metabolism and lowered expression of transcripts in photosynthesis in all three lines. Differences in the number of genes, magnitude and profile of their expression response were also established amongst the lines with a high number belonging to regulatory pathways. In addition, we documented a large number of genes showing constitutive differences in leaf transcript expression between the genotypes at control non-stress conditions. Principal Coordinates Analysis uncovered a high level of structure in the transcriptome response to water stress in each wheat line suggesting genome-wide co-ordination of transcription. Utilising a systems-based approach of analysing the integrated wheat’s response to water stress, in terms of biological robustness theory, the findings suggest that each durum line

  11. Salinity Response in Chloroplasts: Insights from Gene Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Suo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a severe abiotic stress limiting agricultural yield and productivity. Plants have evolved various strategies to cope with salt stress. Chloroplasts are important photosynthesis organelles, which are sensitive to salinity. An understanding of molecular mechanisms in chloroplast tolerance to salinity is of great importance for genetic modification and plant breeding. Previous studies have characterized more than 53 salt-responsive genes encoding important chloroplast-localized proteins, which imply multiple vital pathways in chloroplasts in response to salt stress, such as thylakoid membrane organization, the modulation of photosystem II (PS II activity, carbon dioxide (CO2 assimilation, photorespiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging, osmotic and ion homeostasis, abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis and signaling, and gene expression regulation, as well as protein synthesis and turnover. This review presents an overview of salt response in chloroplasts revealed by gene characterization efforts.

  12. Molecular and biochemical responses of Volvox carteri to oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingappa, U.; Rankin-Gee, E. K.; Lera, M.; Bebour, B.; Marcu, O.

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the intracellular response to environmental stresses is a key aspect to understanding the limits of habitability for life as we know it. A wide range of relevant stressors, from heat shock to radiation, result in the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are used physiologically as signaling molecules to cause changes in gene expression and metabolism. However, ROS, including superoxide (O2-) and peroxides, are also highly reactive molecules that cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. Here we studied stress response in the multicellular, eukaryotic green alga Volvox carteri, after exposure to heat shock conditions. We show that the ROS response to heat stress is paralleled by changes in photosynthetic metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression, and fluctuations in the elemental composition of cells. Metabolism, as measured by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry over two hours of heat stress, showed a linear decrease in the photosynthetic efficiency of Volvox. ROS quantification uncovered an increase in ROS in the culture medium, paralleled by a decrease in ROS within the Volvox colonies, suggesting an export mechanism is utilized to mitigate stress. Enzyme kinetics indicated an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity over the heat stress timecourse. Using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, we show that these changes coincide with cell-specific import/export and intracellular redistribution of transition elements and halides, suggesting that the cellular metallome is also engaged in mediating oxidative stress in Volvox.

  13. Stress responses in probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Nezhad, Marzieh; Hussain, Malik Altaf; Britz, Margaret Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Survival in harsh environments is critical to both the industrial performance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their competitiveness in complex microbial ecologies. Among the LAB, members of the Lactobacillus casei group have industrial applications as acid-producing starter cultures for milk fermentations and as specialty cultures for the intensification and acceleration of flavor development in certain bacterial-ripened cheese varieties. They are amongst the most common organisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and other animals, and have the potential to function as probiotics. Whether used in industrial or probiotic applications, environmental stresses will affect the physiological status and properties of cells, including altering their functionality and biochemistry. Understanding the mechanisms of how LAB cope with different environments is of great biotechnological importance, from both a fundamental and applied perspective: hence, interaction between these strains and their environment has gained increased interest in recent years. This paper presents an overview of the important features of stress responses in Lb. casei, and related proteomic or gene expression patterns that may improve their use as starter cultures and probiotics.

  14. Multidimensional patterns of metabolic response in abiotic stress-induced growth of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Brijesh S; Lahav, Tamar; Reuveni, Eli; Chamovitz, Daniel A; Freilich, Shiri

    2016-12-01

    Contextualization of specific transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis within the stress-tissue-time perspective provides a simplified representation of the cellular transcriptional response pathways to abiotic stress, while reducing the dimensions in gene-oriented response description. Crops resistant to abiotic stresses are a long-term goal of many research programs, thus understanding the progression of stress responses is of great interest. We reanalyzed the AtGenExpress transcription dataset to go beyond gene-level characterization, and to contextualize the discrete information into (1) a process-level signature of stress-specific, time-specific, and tissue-specific responses and (2) identify patterns of response progression across a time axis. To gain a functional perspective, ∼1000 pathways associated with the differentially-expressed genes were characterized across all experiments. We find that the global response of pathways to stress is multi-dimensional and does not obviously cluster according to stress, time or tissue. The early response to abiotic stress typically involves induction of genes involved in transcription, hormone synthesis and signaling modules; a later response typically involves metabolism of amino acids and secondary metabolites. By linking specific primary and secondary response pathways, we outline possible stress-associated routes of response progression. The contextualization of specific processes within stress-tissue-time perspective provides a simplified representation of cellular response while reducing the dimensions in gene-oriented response description. Such simplified representation allows finding stress-specific markers based on process-combinations pointing whether a stress-specific response was invoked as well as provide a reference point for the conductance of comparative inter-plant study of stress response, bypassing the need in detailed orthologous mapping.

  15. Induction of apoptotic genes by a p73-phosphatase and tensin homolog (p73-PTEN) protein complex in response to genotoxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Jason A; Waning, David L; Batuello, Christopher N; Cipriano, Rocky; Kadakia, Madhavi P; Mayo, Lindsey D

    2011-10-21

    The p53 family member, p73, has been characterized as a tumor suppressor and functions in a similar manner as p53 to induce cellular death. The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) can function as a dual specificity lipid/protein phosphatase. However, recent data have described multiple roles for nuclear PTEN independent of its lipid phosphatase activity. PTEN can directly or indirectly activate p53 to promote apoptosis. We examined whether PTEN would interact and regulate p73 independent of p53. Co-localization in the nucleus and complex formation of p73/PTEN were observed after DNA damage. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that p73α/PTEN proteins directly bind one another. Both overexpressed and endogenous p73-PTEN interactions were determined to be the strongest in the nuclear fraction after DNA damage, which suggested formation of a transcriptional complex. We employed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and found that p73 and PTEN were associated with the PUMA promoter after genotoxic stress in TP53-null cells. We found that another p73 target, BAX, had an increased expression in the presence of p73 and PTEN. In addition, in virus-transduced cell lines stably expressing p73, PTEN, or both p73/PTEN, we found that the p73/PTEN cells were more sensitive to genotoxic stress and cellular death as measured by increased poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and PUMA/Bax induction. Conversely, knockdown of PTEN dramatically reduced Bax and PUMA levels. Thus, a p73-PTEN protein complex is engaged to induce apoptosis independent of p53 in response to DNA damage.

  16. Transcriptomic responses to aluminum stress in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Manjeet; Taylor, Gregory J; Deyholos, Michael K

    2008-04-01

    To help characterize the cellular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of Al to plants, we present the first large-scale, transcriptomic analysis of root responses to Al, using a microarray representing approximately 93% of the predicted genes in the genome of Arabidopsis. More transcripts were responsive to Al (25 microM) during long (48 h, 1,114 genes), as compared to short (6 h, 401 genes) exposures, which contrasts with previous microarray analyses of plant responses to other types of abiotic stress. Exposure to Al triggered changes in the transcript levels for several genes related to oxidative stress pathway, membrane transporters, cell wall, energy, and polysaccharide metabolism. Interestingly, lack of abundance of transcripts encoding TCA cycle enzymes, except for malate dehydrogenase, suggested that synthesis of organic anions in response to Al may not be transcriptionally regulated. Al exposures induced differential abundance of transcripts for several ribosomal proteins, peptidases and protein phosphatases mostly after 48 h. We also detected increased abundance of transcripts for several membrane receptor kinases and non-membrane calcium response kinases, which could play a role in transmission of Al-stress signals. Among Al responsive transcription factors, the most predominant families identified were AP2/EREBP, MYB and bHLH. Further, we studied the kinetics of Al stress responses for class III peroxidases using Q-RT-PCR. Our results indicated that Al triggered dynamic changes in transcript abundance of various peroxidases within 1 h. The results of this screen contribute to the identification of candidate genes for the generation of Al-tolerant transgenic plants.

  17. Ethylene Response Factor Sl-ERF.B.3 Is Responsive to Abiotic Stresses and Mediates Salt and Cold Stress Response Regulation in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Klay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sl-ERF.B.3 (Solanum lycopersicum ethylene response factor B.3 gene encodes for a tomato transcription factor of the ERF (ethylene responsive factor family. Our results of real-time RT-PCR showed that Sl-ERF.B.3 is an abiotic stress responsive gene, which is induced by cold, heat, and flooding, but downregulated by salinity and drought. To get more insight into the role of Sl-ERF.B.3 in plant response to separate salinity and cold, a comparative study between wild type and two Sl-ERF.B.3 antisense transgenic tomato lines was achieved. Compared with wild type, Sl-ERF.B.3 antisense transgenic plants exhibited a salt stress dependent growth inhibition. This inhibition was significantly enhanced in shoots but reduced in roots, leading to an increased root to shoot ratio. Furthermore, the cold stress essay clearly revealed that introducing antisense Sl-ERF.B.3 in transgenic tomato plants reduces their cell injury and enhances their tolerance against 14 d of cold stress. All these results suggest that Sl-ERF.B.3 gene is involved in plant response to abiotic stresses and may play a role in the layout of stress symptoms under cold stress and in growth regulation under salinity.

  18. Identification of differentially expressed genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) under saline-alkaline stress by digital gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Huang, Wengong; Chen, Hongyu; Wu, Guangwen; Yuan, Hongmei; Song, Xixia; Kang, Qinghua; Zhao, Dongsheng; Jiang, Weidong; Liu, Yan; Wu, Jianzhong; Cheng, Lili; Yao, Yubo; Guan, Fengzhi

    2014-10-01

    The salinization and alkalization of soil are widespread environmental problems, and alkaline salt stress is more destructive than neutral salt stress. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to saline-alkaline stress has become a major challenge. However, little attention has been paid to the mechanism of plant alkaline salt tolerance. In this study, gene expression profiling of flax was analyzed under alkaline-salt stress (AS2), neutral salt stress (NSS) and alkaline stress (AS) by digital gene expression. Three-week-old flax seedlings were placed in 25 mM Na2CO3 (pH11.6) (AS2), 50mM NaCl (NSS) and NaOH (pH11.6) (AS) for 18 h. There were 7736, 1566 and 454 differentially expressed genes in AS2, NSS and AS compared to CK, respectively. The GO category gene enrichment analysis revealed that photosynthesis was particularly affected in AS2, carbohydrate metabolism was particularly affected in NSS, and the response to biotic stimulus was particularly affected in AS. We also analyzed the expression pattern of five categories of genes including transcription factors, signaling transduction proteins, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species proteins and transporters under these three stresses. Some key regulatory gene families involved in abiotic stress, such as WRKY, MAPKKK, ABA, PrxR and ion channels, were differentially expressed. Compared with NSS and AS, AS2 triggered more differentially expressed genes and special pathways, indicating that the mechanism of AS2 was more complex than NSS and AS. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first transcriptome analysis of flax in response to saline-alkaline stress. These data indicate that common and diverse features of saline-alkaline stress provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of plant saline-alkaline tolerance and offer a number of candidate genes as potential markers of tolerance to saline-alkaline stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Epigenetic modulation of gene expression governs the brain���s response to injury

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Roger P.

    2015-01-01

    Mild stress from ischemia, seizure, hypothermia, or infection can produce a transient neuroprotected state in the brain. In the neuroprotected state, the brain responds differently to a severe stress and sustains less injury. At the genomic level, the response of the neuroprotected brain to a severe stress is characterized by widespread differential regulation of genes with diverse functions. This reprogramming of gene expression observed in the neuroprotected brain in response to a stress is...

  20. Comparative effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius based on gene expression assays related to the endocrine system, the stress response and ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planelló, Rosario; Herrero, Oscar; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2011-09-01

    In this work, the effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), two of the most extensively used phthalates, were studied in Chironomus riparius under acute short-term treatments, to compare their relative toxicities and identify genes sensitive to exposure. The ecotoxicity of these phthalates was assessed by analysis of the alterations in gene expression profiles of selected inducible and constitutive genes related to the endocrine system, the cellular stress response and the ribosomal machinery. Fourth instar larvae, a model system in aquatic toxicology, were experimentally exposed to five increasing concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100mg/L) of DEHP and BBP for 24h. Gene expression was analysed by the changes in levels of transcripts, using RT-PCR techniques with specific gene probes. The exposures to DEHP or BBP were able to rapidly induce the hsp70 gene in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the cognate form hsc70 was not altered by either of these chemicals. Transcription of ribosomal RNA as a measure of cell viability, quantified by the levels of ITS2, was not affected by DEHP, but was slightly, yet significantly, downregulated by BBP at the highest concentrations tested. Finally, as these phthalates are classified as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), their potential effect on the ecdysone endocrine system was studied by analysing the two genes, EcR and usp, of the heterodimeric ecdysone receptor complex. It was found that BBP provoked the overexpression of the EcR gene, with significant increases from exposures of 0.1mg/L and above, while DEHP significantly decreased the activity of this gene at the highest concentration. These data are relevant as they show for the first time the ability of phthalates to interfere with endocrine marker genes in invertebrates, demonstrating their potential capacity to alter the ecdysone signalling pathway. Overall, the study clearly shows a differential gene-toxin interaction

  1. Process Control Minitoring by Stress Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.; Stahl, David A.

    2006-04-17

    Environmental contamination with a variety of pollutants hasprompted the development of effective bioremediation strategies. But howcan these processes be best monitored and controlled? One avenue underinvestigation is the development of stress response systems as tools foreffective and general process control. Although the microbial stressresponse has been the subject of intensive laboratory investigation, theenvironmental reflection of the laboratory response to specific stresseshas been little explored. However, it is only within an environmentalcontext, in which microorganisms are constantly exposed to multiplechanging environmental stresses, that there will be full understanding ofmicrobial adaptive resiliency. Knowledge of the stress response in theenvironment will facilitate the control of bioremediation and otherprocesses mediated by complex microbial communities.

  2. Chicken domestication changes expression of stress-related genes in brain, pituitary and adrenals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Løtvedt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated species have an attenuated behavioral and physiological stress response compared to their wild counterparts, but the genetic mechanisms underlying this change are not fully understood. We investigated gene expression of a panel of stress response-related genes in five tissues known for their involvement in the stress response: hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal glands and liver of domesticated White Leghorn chickens and compared it with the wild ancestor of all domesticated breeds, the Red Junglefowl. Gene expression was measured both at baseline and after 45 min of restraint stress. Most of the changes in gene expression related to stress were similar to mammals, with an upregulation of genes such as FKBP5, C-FOS and EGR1 in hippocampus and hypothalamus and StAR, MC2R and TH in adrenal glands. We also found a decrease in the expression of CRHR1 in the pituitary of chickens after stress, which could be involved in negative feedback regulation of the stress response. Furthermore, we observed a downregulation of EGR1 and C-FOS in the pituitary following stress, which could be a potential link between stress and its effects on reproduction and growth in chickens.We also found changes in the expression of important genes between breeds such as GR in the hypothalamus, POMC and PC1 in the pituitary and CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 in the adrenal glands. These results suggest that the domesticated White Leghorn may have a higher capacity for negative feedback of the HPA axis, a lower capacity for synthesis of ACTH in the pituitary and a reduced synthesis rate of corticosterone in the adrenal glands compared to Red Junglefowl. All of these findings could explain the attenuated stress response in the domesticated birds. Keywords: Animal domestication, Stress response, HPA axis, Glucocorticoid receptor, Gene expression, Chicken

  3. Negative affectivity moderated by BDNF and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, C S; Paternina, A C; Gomez, Y; Lattig, M C

    2012-02-01

    Gene×environment (G×E) interactions are known to predict susceptibility to disorders such as depression and anxiety. Adverse experiences in childhood and number of stressful life events (SLEs) have been widely studied as environmental risk factors; however, SLE response has not yet been studied. Here we present a first attempt at the analysis of the interaction between the response to personal and academic stressful events during different life stages and the gene polymorphisms 5-HTTLPR, 5-HTTVNTR (STin2), HTR1A C(-1019)G, and BDNF Val66Met in the prediction of negative affectivity (NA). Standardized questionnaires (ST-DEP and STAI) were used to measure negative affectivity derived from depression and anxiety in a sample of 303 undergraduate students. Response to stressful events during childhood, high school and college years was evaluated together with a self-report personal history form. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to perform association and G×E analysis. Negative affectivity is strongly associated with childhood maltreatment and stress response. Gene associations were observed between 5-HTTVNTR allele 12 and the S_12 haplotype with NA derived from high scores in both depression and anxiety. The BDNF gene variant was not associated with NA derived from depression or anxiety alone, but it was associated with the comorbid presentation. A significant G×E interaction was observed between the BDNF Val66Met and stress response during childhood and college years although the risk for negative affectivity conferred by stress response during childhood was only significant among the Met allele carriers, while stress response during college years was a significant risk factor regardless of the BDNF Val66Met genotype. A significant G×E interaction was also found between the HTR1A C(-1019)G variant and childhood maltreatment. The study has two main limitations, sample size is low and retrospective recognition of SLEs is a concern. Altogether, our

  4. The nature of electron acceptor (MnIV/NO3) triggers differential expression of genes associated with stress and ammonium limitation responses in Shewanella algae C6G3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigle, Axel; Bonin, Patricia; -Nunez, Nicolas Fernandez; Loriod, Béatrice; Guasco, Sophie; Bergon, Aurélie; Armougom, Fabrice; Iobbi-Nivol, Chantal; Imbert, Jean; Michotey, Valérie

    2018-03-16

    Shewanella algae C6G3 can reduce dissimilatively nitrate into ammonium and manganese-oxide (MnIV) into MnII. It has the unusual ability to produce anaerobically nitrite from ammonium in the presence of MnIV. To gain insight into their metabolic capabilities, global mRNA expression patterns were investigated by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR in cells growing with lactate and ammonium as carbon and nitrogen sources and with either MnIV or nitrate as electron acceptors. Gene exhibiting higher expression levels in the presence of MnIV belonged to functional categories of carbohydrate, coenzyme, lipid metabolisms and inorganic ion transport. Comparative transcriptomic pattern between MnIV and NO3 revealed that the strain presented an ammonium limitation status with MnIV, despite the presence of non-limiting concentration of ammonium under both culture conditions. In addition, in presence of MnIV, ntrB/nrtC regulators, ammonium channel, nitrogen regulatory protein P-II, glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase glutamine dependent genes were over-represented. Under nitrate condition, the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of several amino acids was increased. Finally, expression level of genes associated with the general stress response was also amplified and among them, katE, a putative catalase/peroxidase present on several Shewanella genomes, was highly expressed with a relative median value higher in MnIV condition.

  5. Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Central Nervous System and Peripheral Organs of Stramonita haemastoma: Protein Distribution and Gene Expression in Response to Thermal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Mattia; De Angelis, Federica; Bonaccorsi di Patti, Maria Carmela; Cioni, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is generated via the oxidation of l-arginine by the enzyme NO synthase (NOS) both in vertebrates and invertebrates. Three NOS isoforms, nNOS, iNOS and eNOS, are known in vertebrates, whereas a single NOS isoform is usually expressed in invertebrates, sharing structural and functional characteristics with nNOS or iNOS depending on the species. The present paper is focused on the constitutive Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent nNOS recently sequenced by our group in the neogastropod Stramonita haemastoma (ShNOS). In this paper we provide new data on cellular distribution of ShNOS in the CNS (pedal ganglion) and peripheral organs (osphradium, tentacle, eye and foot) obtained by WB, IF, CM and NADPHd. Results demonstrated that NOS-like proteins are widely expressed in sensory receptor elements, neurons and epithelial cells. The detailed study of NOS distribution in peripheral and central neurons suggested that NOS is both intracellular and presynaptically located. Present findings confirm that NO may have a key role in the central neuronal circuits of gastropods and in sensory perception. The physiological relevance of NOS enzymes in the same organs was suggested by thermal stress experiments demonstrating that the constitutive expression of ShNOS is modulated in a time- and organ-dependent manner in response to environmental stressors. PMID:26528988

  6. Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Central Nervous System and Peripheral Organs of Stramonita haemastoma: Protein Distribution and Gene Expression in Response to Thermal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Toni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is generated via the oxidation of l-arginine by the enzyme NO synthase (NOS both in vertebrates and invertebrates. Three NOS isoforms, nNOS, iNOS and eNOS, are known in vertebrates, whereas a single NOS isoform is usually expressed in invertebrates, sharing structural and functional characteristics with nNOS or iNOS depending on the species. The present paper is focused on the constitutive Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent nNOS recently sequenced by our group in the neogastropod Stramonita haemastoma (ShNOS. In this paper we provide new data on cellular distribution of ShNOS in the CNS (pedal ganglion and peripheral organs (osphradium, tentacle, eye and foot obtained by WB, IF, CM and NADPHd. Results demonstrated that NOS-like proteins are widely expressed in sensory receptor elements, neurons and epithelial cells. The detailed study of NOS distribution in peripheral and central neurons suggested that NOS is both intracellular and presynaptically located. Present findings confirm that NO may have a key role in the central neuronal circuits of gastropods and in sensory perception. The physiological relevance of NOS enzymes in the same organs was suggested by thermal stress experiments demonstrating that the constitutive expression of ShNOS is modulated in a time- and organ-dependent manner in response to environmental stressors.

  7. PARK2, a Large Common Fragile Site Gene, is Part of a Stress Response Network in Normal Cells That is Disrupted During the Development of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, David I; Zhu, Yu

    2007-01-01

    .... The central two questions that we want to address with this work are what role does inactivation of Parkin and other large CFS genes play in the development of ovarian cancer and whether these genes...

  8. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The transcriptional regulatory network in the drought response and its crosstalk in abiotic stress responses including drought, cold and heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo eNakashima

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops around the world. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the drought response is important for improvement of drought tolerance using molecular techniques. In plants, abscisic acid (ABA is accumulated under osmotic stress conditions caused by drought, and has a key role in stress responses and tolerance. Comprehensive molecular analyses have shown that ABA regulates the expression of many genes under osmotic stress conditions, and the ABA-responsive element (ABRE is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. Transcription factors (TFs are master regulators of gene expression. ABRE-binding protein (AREB and ABRE-binding factor (ABF TFs control gene expression in an ABA-dependent manner. SNF1-related protein kinases 2, group A 2C-type protein phosphatases, and ABA receptors were shown to control the ABA signaling pathway. ABA-independent signaling pathways such as dehydration-responsive element-binding protein (DREB TFs and NAC TFs are also involved in stress responses including drought, heat and cold. Recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress responses. The important roles of these transcription factors in crosstalk among abiotic stress responses will be discussed. Control of ABA or stress signaling factor expression can improve tolerance to environmental stresses. Recent studies using crops have shown that stress-specific overexpression of TFs improves drought tolerance and grain yield compared with controls in the field.

  10. Gene transcription from the linear plasmid pBClin15 leads to cell lysis and extracellular DNA-dependent aggregation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 in response to quinolone-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Aniko; Simm, Roger; Kroeger, Jasmin K; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2013-11-01

    The Bacillus cereus type strain ATCC 14579 harbours pBClin15, a linear plasmid with similar genome organization to tectiviruses. Since phage morphogenesis is not known to occur it has been suggested that pBClin15 may be a defect relic of a tectiviral prophage without relevance for the bacterial physiology. However, in this paper, we demonstrate that a pBClin15-cured strain is more tolerant to antibiotics interfering with DNA integrity than the WT strain. Growth in the presence of crystal violet or the quinolones nalidixic acid, norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin resulted in aggregation and lysis of the WT strain, whereas the pBClin15-cured strain was unaffected. Microarray analysis comparing the gene expression in the WT and pBClin15-cured strains showed that pBClin15 gene expression was strongly upregulated in response to norfloxacin stress, and coincided with lysis and aggregation of the WT strain. The aggregating bacteria experienced a significant survival benefit compared with the planktonic counterparts in the presence of norfloxacin. There was no difference between the WT and pBClin15-cured strains during growth in the absence of norfloxacin, the pBClin15 genes were moderately expressed, and no effect was observed on chromosomal gene expression. These data demonstrate for the first time that although pBClin15 may be a remnant of a temperate phage, it negatively affects the DNA stress tolerance of B. cereus ATCC 14579. Furthermore, our results warrant a recommendation to always verify the presence of pBClin15 following genetic manipulation of B. cereus ATCC 14579.

  11. Analysis of resistance to antimicrobials and presence of virulence/stress response genes in Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghunaim, Haitham; Behnke, Jerzy M; Aigha, Idil; Sharma, Aarti; Doiphode, Sanjay H; Deshmukh, Anand; Abu-Madi, Marawan M

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter infections are a major cause of diarrhoea world-wide and two of the antimicrobials used for their control (erythromycin and ciprofloxacin) have been losing efficacy in recent years. In a sample of 174 genotyped isolates from the stools of patients with severe diarrhoea in Qatar, collected between 2005 and 2012, 63.2% showed resistance to ciprofloxacin, 8.6% to erythromycin, 0.57% to chloramphenicol and all were sensitive to gentamycin. While 33.9% of isolates were sensitive to all four antimicrobials, 59.8% were resistant to at least one, 6.3% were resistant to two and none showed resistance to three antimicrobials. There was no host sex- or age-dependence among isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin and no significant variation was found with the region of origin of the patients. All isolates were screened for the presence of 3 virulence factors (ciaB, cadF and cdtB) and two stress-response factors (htrB and clpP), all of which were present in more than 50% of the isolates. Host sex-, age- and region of origin-dependent variations in prevalence were found for some of these factors. Data analysis for the combination of virulence factors and their effect on antimicrobial resistance indicated that the prevalence of resistance to both erythromycin and ciprofloxacin was higher in isolates harbouring ciaB but not clpP. Prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin was similar in clpP positive and negative isolates also possessing htrB, while for htrB-negative isolates prevalence was higher in the absence of clpP. These results are discussed and their implications are highlighted.

  12. Genome-wide investigation of pentatricopeptide repeat gene family in poplar and their expression analysis in response to biotic and abiotic stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Haitao; Fu, Xiaokang; Yang, Chen; Tang, Xiaofeng; Guo, Li; Li, Chaofeng; Xu, Changzheng; Luo, Keming

    2018-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, which are characterized by tandem 30–40 amino acid sequence motifs, constitute of a large gene family in plants. Some PPR proteins have been identified to play important roles in organellar RNA metabolism and organ development in Arabidopsis and rice. However, functions of PPR genes in woody species remain largely unknown. Here, we identified and characterized a total of 626 PPR genes containing PPR motifs in the Populus trichocarpa genome. A comprehen...

  13. Four distinct types of dehydration stress memory genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Liu, Ning; Virlouvet, Laetitia; Riethoven, Jean-Jack; Fromm, Michael; Avramova, Zoya

    2013-12-30

    How plants respond to dehydration stress has been extensively researched. However, how plants respond to multiple consecutive stresses is virtually unknown. Pre-exposure to various abiotic stresses (including dehydration) may alter plants' subsequent responses by improving resistance to future exposures. These observations have led to the concept of 'stress memory' implying that during subsequent exposures plants provide responses that are different from those during their first encounter with the stress. Genes that provide altered responses in a subsequent stress define the 'memory genes' category; genes responding similarly to each stress form the 'non-memory' category. Using a genome-wide RNA-Seq approach we determine the transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis plants that have experienced multiple exposures to dehydration stress and compare them with the transcriptional behavior of plants encountering the stress for the first time. The major contribution of this study is the revealed existence of four distinct, previously unknown, transcription memory response patterns of dehydration stress genes in A.thaliana. The biological relevance for each of the four memory types is considered in the context of four overlapping strategies employed by a plant to improve its stress tolerance and/or survival: 1) increased synthesis of protective, damage-repairing, and detoxifying functions; 2) coordinating photosynthesis and growth under repetitive stress; 3) re-adjusting osmotic and ionic equilibrium to maintain homeostasis; and 4) re-adjusting interactions between dehydration and other stress/hormone regulated pathways. The results reveal the unknown, hitherto, existence of four distinct transcription memory response types in a plant and provide genome-wide characterization of memory and non-memory dehydration stress response genes in A.thaliana. The transcriptional responses during repeated exposures to stress are different from known responses occurring during a single

  14. Selection of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Analysis of Gene Expression in Stipa grandis during Environmental Stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli Wan

    Full Text Available Stipa grandis P. Smirn. is a dominant plant species in the typical steppe of the Xilingole Plateau of Inner Mongolia. Selection of suitable reference genes for the quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is important for gene expression analysis and research into the molecular mechanisms underlying the stress responses of S. grandis. In the present study, 15 candidate reference genes (EF1 beta, ACT, GAPDH, SamDC, CUL4, CAP, SNF2, SKIP1, SKIP5, SKIP11, UBC2, UBC15, UBC17, UCH, and HERC2 were evaluated for their stability as potential reference genes for qRT-PCR under different stresses. Four algorithms were used: GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The results showed that the most stable reference genes were different under different stress conditions: EF1beta and UBC15 during drought and salt stresses; ACT and GAPDH under heat stress; SKIP5 and UBC17 under cold stress; UBC15 and HERC2 under high pH stress; UBC2 and UBC15 under wounding stress; EF1beta and UBC17 under jasmonic acid treatment; UBC15 and CUL4 under abscisic acid treatment; and HERC2 and UBC17 under salicylic acid treatment. EF1beta and HERC2 were the most suitable genes for the global analysis of all samples. Furthermore, six target genes, SgPOD, SgPAL, SgLEA, SgLOX, SgHSP90 and SgPR1, were selected to validate the most and least stable reference genes under different treatments. Our results provide guidelines for reference gene selection for more accurate qRT-PCR quantification and will promote studies of gene expression in S. grandis subjected to environmental stress.

  15. Stress-induced gene expression profiling in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Enrique; Hall, Michael R; Wilson, Kate J; Reverter, Antonio; Woods, Rick G; Degnan, Bernard M

    2007-09-19

    Cultured shrimp are continuously exposed to variable environmental conditions that have been associated with stress and subsequent outbreaks of disease. To investigate the effect of environmental stress on Penaeus monodon gene expression, a 3,853 random cDNA microarray chip was generated with clones originating from six stress-enriched hemocyte libraries generated by suppression subtractive hybridization and a normal hemocyte cDNA library. Changes in temporal gene expression were analyzed from shrimp exposed to hypoxic, hyperthermic, and hypoosmotic conditions; 3.1% of the cDNAs were differentially expressed in response to at least one of the environmental stressors, and 72% of the differentially expressed clones had no significant sequence similarity to previously known genes. Among those genes with high identity to known sequences, the most common functional groups were immune-related genes and non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons. Hierarchical clustering revealed a set of cDNAs with temporal and stress-specific gene expression profiles as well as a set of cDNAs indicating a common stress response between stressors. Hypoxic and hyperthermic stressors induced the most severe short-term response in terms of gene regulation, and the osmotic stress had the least variation in expression profiles relative to the control. These expression data agree with observed differences in shrimp physical appearance and behavior following exposure to stress conditions.

  16. Regulation of plant stress response by dehydration responsive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant growth and productivity are greatly affected by environmental stresses such as dehydration, high salinity, low temperature and biotic pathogen infection. Plant adaptation to these environmental stresses is controlled by cascades of molecular networks. The dehydration responsive element binding (DREB) transcription ...

  17. Effects of inhaled (S)-linalool on hypothalamic gene expression in rats under restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoto; Fujiwara, Satoshi; Saito-Iizumi, Kana; Kamei, Asuka; Shinozaki, Fumika; Watanabe, Yuki; Abe, Keiko; Nakamura, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Linalool has two enantiomers, (R)-linalool and (S)-linalool. Both are known to possess several biological activities in stressed animals. Our previous work revealed that inhalation of (R)-linalool altered hypothalamic gene expression in rats under stress. In the present study, we monitored hypothalamic gene expression in restrained rats with and without (S)-linalool inhalation by DNA microarray. The entire gene expression profile showed that inhalation of (S)-linalool significantly changed the expression levels of 316 hypothalamic genes in the restrained rats. The differentially expressed genes (e.g., App, Avp, Igf2, Igfbp2, Sst and Syt5) were found to relate to cell-to-cell signaling and nervous system development. These results indicate that (S)-linalool influences hypothalamic gene expression in restrained rats, and that inhalation of (S)-linalool under the stressed condition has some effects on stress-related biological responses.

  18. Zinc homeostasis is involved in unfolded protein response under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Miaoying; Xu, Qiangyi; Yuan, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of unfolded protein or misfolded protein causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Increased salt concentration activates a stress response pathway in the ER in Arabidopsis thaliana to induce the expression of several salt stress response genes, leading to a more optimal protein folding environment in the ER. In addition, some salt stress-regulated proteins require zinc for their activity, including some zinc-dependent DNA binding proteins and zinc-finger proteins. In a recent st...

  19. Four distinct types of dehydration stress memory genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background How plants respond to dehydration stress has been extensively researched. However, how plants respond to multiple consecutive stresses is virtually unknown. Pre-exposure to various abiotic stresses (including dehydration) may alter plants’ subsequent responses by improving resistance to future exposures. These observations have led to the concept of ‘stress memory’ implying that during subsequent exposures plants provide responses that are different from those during their first encounter with the stress. Genes that provide altered responses in a subsequent stress define the ‘memory genes’ category; genes responding similarly to each stress form the ‘non-memory’ category. Results Using a genome-wide RNA-Seq approach we determine the transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis plants that have experienced multiple exposures to dehydration stress and compare them with the transcriptional behavior of plants encountering the stress for the first time. The major contribution of this study is the revealed existence of four distinct, previously unknown, transcription memory response patterns of dehydration stress genes in A.thaliana. The biological relevance for each of the four memory types is considered in the context of four overlapping strategies employed by a plant to improve its stress tolerance and/or survival: 1) increased synthesis of protective, damage-repairing, and detoxifying functions; 2) coordinating photosynthesis and growth under repetitive stress; 3) re-adjusting osmotic and ionic equilibrium to maintain homeostasis; and 4) re-adjusting interactions between dehydration and other stress/hormone regulated pathways. Conclusions The results reveal the unknown, hitherto, existence of four distinct transcription memory response types in a plant and provide genome-wide characterization of memory and non-memory dehydration stress response genes in A.thaliana. The transcriptional responses during repeated exposures to stress are different

  20. Stress response signaling and virulence: insights from entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Urquiza, Almudena; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2015-08-01

    The Ascomycete fungal insect pathogens, Beauveria and Metarhizium spp. have emerged as model systems with which to probe diverse aspects of fungal growth, stress response, and pathogenesis. Due to the availability of genomic resources and the development of robust methods for genetic manipulation, the last 5 years have witnessed a rapid increase in the molecular characterization of genes and their pathways involved in stress response and signal transduction in these fungi. These studies have been performed mainly via characterization of gene deletion/knockout mutants and have included the targeting of general proteins involved in stress response and/or virulence, e.g. catalases, superoxide dismutases, and osmolyte balance maintenance enzymes, membrane proteins and signaling pathways including GPI anchored proteins and G-protein coupled membrane receptors, MAPK pathways, e.g. (i) the pheromone/nutrient sensing, Fus3/Kss1, (ii) the cell wall integrity, Mpk1, and (iii) the high osmolarity, Hog1, the PKA/adenyl cyclase pathway, and various downstream transcription factors, e.g. Msn2, CreA and Pac1. Here, we will discuss current research that strongly suggests extensive underlying contributions of these biochemical and signaling pathways to both abiotic stress response and virulence.

  1. PARK2, a Large Common Fragile Site Gene, is Part of a Stress Response Network in Normal Cells that is Disrupted During the Development of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, David I

    2005-01-01

    .... The central two questions that we want to address with this work are what role does the inactivation of Parkin play in the development of ovarian cancer and whether this gene functions as part...

  2. Proteomics studies on stress responses in diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhseen, Ziyad Tariq; Xiong, Qian; Chen, Zhuo; Ge, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Diatoms are a highly diverse group of eukaryotic phytoplankton that are distributed throughout marine and freshwater environments and are believed to be responsible for approximately 40% of the total marine primary productivity. The ecological success of diatoms suggests that they have developed a range of strategies to cope with various biotic and abiotic stress factors. It is of great interest to understand the adaptive responses of diatoms to different stresses in the marine environment. Proteomic technologies have been applied to the adaptive responses of marine diatoms under different growth conditions in recent years such as nitrogen starvation, iron limitation and phosphorus deficiency. These studies have provided clues to elucidate the sophisticated sensing mechanisms that control their adaptive responses. Although only a very limited number of proteomic studies were conducted in diatoms, the obtained data have led to a better understanding of the biochemical processes that contribute to their ecological success. This review presents the current status of proteomic studies of diatom stress responses and discusses the novel developments and applications for the analysis of protein post-translational modification in diatoms. The potential future application of proteomics could contribute to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying diatom acclimation to a given stress and the acquisition of an enhanced diatom stress tolerance. Future challenges and research opportunities in the proteomics studies of diatoms are also discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Stress, stress-induced cortisol responses, and eyewitness identification performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerland, Melanie; Raymaekers, Linsey H C; Otgaar, Henry; Memon, Amina; Waltjen, Thijs T; Nivo, Maud; Slegers, Chiel; Broers, Nick J; Smeets, Tom

    2016-07-01

    In the eyewitness identification literature, stress and arousal at the time of encoding are considered to adversely influence identification performance. This assumption is in contrast with findings from the neurobiology field of learning and memory, showing that stress and stress hormones are critically involved in forming enduring memories. This discrepancy may be related to methodological differences between the two fields of research, such as the tendency for immediate testing or the use of very short (1-2 hours) retention intervals in eyewitness research, while neurobiology studies insert at least 24 hours. Other differences refer to the extent to which stress-responsive systems (i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) are stimulated effectively under laboratory conditions. The aim of the current study was to conduct an experiment that accounts for the contemporary state of knowledge in both fields. In all, 123 participants witnessed a live staged theft while being exposed to a laboratory stressor that reliably elicits autonomic and glucocorticoid stress responses or while performing a control task. Salivary cortisol levels were measured to control for the effectiveness of the stress induction. One week later, participants attempted to identify the thief from target-present and target-absent line-ups. According to regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses, stress did not have robust detrimental effects on identification performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 The Authors Behavioral Sciences & the Law Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors Behavioral Sciences & the Law Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Tonic immobility differentiates stress responses in PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, Iro; Stins, John; Roelofs, Karin; Jongedijk, Ruud A; Hagenaars, Muriel A

    2016-11-01

    Tonic immobility (TI) is a state of physical immobility associated with extreme stress and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether TI is associated with a distinct actual stress response, i.e., objective immobility measured by a stabilometric platform. This study made a first step in exploring this as well as differences in body sway responses between PTSD patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that PTSD would be related to increased body sway under stress, whereas TI would be related to decreased body sway under stress. Eye closure was selected as a PTSD-relevant stress induction procedure. Body sway and heart rate (HR) were measured in 12 PTSD patients and 12 healthy controls in four conditions: (1) maintaining a stable stance with eyes open, (2) with eyes closed, (3) during a mental arithmetic task with eyes open, and (4) with eyes closed. As predicted, PTSD patients showed increased body sway from eyes open to eyes closed compared to controls and this effect was eliminated by executing the arithmetic task. Most importantly, retrospective self-reported TI was associated with lower body sway increases in PTSD and higher body sway decreases in controls from eyes-open to eyes-closed conditions. These preliminary findings suggest that eye closure has a different effect on PTSD patients than controls and that high self-reported TI might indicate a distinct stress response pattern, i.e., a proneness for immobility. It may be relevant to take such individual differences in stress-response into account in PTSD treatment.

  5. Menin links the stress response to genome stability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papaconstantinou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The multiple endocrine neoplasia type I gene functions as a tumor suppressor gene in humans and mouse models. In Drosophila melanogaster, mutants of the menin gene (Mnn1 are hypersensitive to mutagens or gamma irradiation and have profound defects in the response to several stresses including heat shock, hypoxia, hyperosmolarity and oxidative stress. However, it is not known if the function of menin in the stress response contributes to genome stability. The objective of this study was to examine the role of menin in the control of the stress response and genome stability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a test of loss-of-heterozygosity, we show that Drosophila strains lacking a functional Mnn1 gene or expressing a Mnn1 dsRNA display increased genome instability in response to non-lethal heat shock or hypoxia treatments. This is also true for strains lacking all Hsp70 genes, implying that a precise control of the stress response is required for genome stability. While menin is required for Hsp70 expression, the results of epistatic studies indicate that the increase in genome instability observed in Mnn1 lack-of-function mutants cannot be accounted for by mis-expression of Hsp70. Therefore, menin may promote genome stability by controlling the expression of other stress-responsive genes. In agreement with this notion, gene profiling reveals that Mnn1 is required for sustained expression of all heat shock protein genes but is dispensable for early induction of the heat shock response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mutants of the Mnn1 gene are hypersensitive to several stresses and display increased genome instability when subjected to conditions, such as heat shock, generally regarded as non-genotoxic. In this report, we describe a role for menin as a global regulator of heat shock gene expression and critical factor in the maintenance of genome integrity. Therefore, menin links the stress response to the control of genome stability

  6. Is annexin 1 a multifunctional protein during stress responses?

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Greg; Konopka-Postupolska, Dorota; Hennig, Jacek; Roux, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that certain annexins can play a role in abiotic stress responses in plants. We found that for one member of the Arabidopsis thaliana annexin gene family, annexin 1 (AnnAt1), loss-of-function mutants are more sensitive to drought stress and gain-of-function mutants are more tolerant.1 We also found that AnnAt1 is able to regulate accumulation of H2O2 in vivo in Arabidopsis cells based on the observation that the level of ROS accumulation following induction by AB...

  7. Understanding the Posttranscriptional Regulation of Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    KAUST Repository

    AlShareef, Sahar A.

    2017-06-01

    Constitutive and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs from multiexonic genes controls the diversity of the proteome; these precisely regulated processes also fine-tune responses to cues related to growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent work showed that AS is pervasive across plant species, with more than 60% of intron-containing genes producing different isoforms. Mammalian cell-based assays have discovered various AS small-molecule inhibitors that perturb splicing and thereby provide invaluable tools for use as chemical probes to uncover the molecular underpinnings of splicing regulation and as potential anticancer compounds. Here, I show that the macrolide Pladienolide B (PB) and herboxidiene (GEX1A) inhibits both constitutive and alternative splicing, mimics an abiotic stress signal, and activates the abscisic acid (ABA) pathway in plants. Moreover, PB and GEX1A activate genome-wide transcriptional patterns involved in abiotic stress responses in plants. PB and GEX1A treatment triggered the ABA signaling pathway, activated ABA-inducible promoters, and led to stomatal closure. Interestingly, PB and GEX1A elicited similar cellular changes, including alterations in the patterns of transcription and splicing, suggesting that these compounds might target the same spliceosome complex in plant cells. This work establishes PB and GEX1A as potent splicing inhibitors in plants that can be used to probe the assembly, dynamics, and molecular functions of the spliceosome and to study the interplay between splicing stress and abiotic stresses, as well as having potential biotechnological applications.

  8. The War Fighter's Stress Response: Telemetric and Noninvasive Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Donnell, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    ... and biological responses to stress. Specifically, stress-hardy individuals retain mental focus and clarity of memory under stress, commit fewer errors during stress, experience less burnout, demonstrate better navigational skills...

  9. Phenotypic impact of regulatory noise in cellular stress-response pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravel, Daniil; Fraser, Dawn; St-Pierre, Simon; Tepliakova, Lioudmila; Pang, Wyming L; Hasty, Jeff; Kærn, Mads

    2010-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that intrinsic promoter-mediated gene expression noise can confer a selective advantage under acute environmental stress by providing beneficial phenotypic diversity within cell populations. To investigate how extrinsic gene expression noise impacts the fitness of cell populations under stress, we engineered two nearly isogenic budding yeast strains; one carrying a two-step regulatory cascade that allows for precise control of the noise transmitted from a transcriptional regulator to a downstream stress-inducing gene, and one carrying a network with low constant upstream noise. The fitness and gene expression of these strains were compared under acute and prolonged stress exposure. Using a phenomenological modeling approach, we predicted that increased noise should confer a fitness advantage under high stress conditions, but reciprocally reduce the resistance of the population to low stress. The model also predicted that extrinsic noise might serve as a basis for phenotypic plasticity whereby gene expression distributions are modulated in response to prolonged stress. Experimentally, we confirmed the predicted differential fitness advantage of extrinsic noise under acute stress, as well as the predicted modulation of gene expression under prolonged stress. However, contrary to model predictions, strains with low and high extrinsic noise showed very similar adaptive responses to prolonged stress. This suggests that while phenotypic heterogeneity generated by noise in regulatory signals can confer increased robustness to acute stress, it is not a requirement for the observed long-term phenotypic plasticity.

  10. Isolation of a novel abscisic acid stress ripening ( OsASR ) gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The expression profile of OsASR obtained by the microarray analysis was confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of the gene. The two sets of data matched very well, suggesting that OsASR is a multiple stresses responsive gene in rice. Based on the sequence ...

  11. Regulation of Plastid Gene Expression during Photooxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkyn, J C; Deng, X W; Gruissem, W

    1992-08-01

    We have used the carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor norflurazon to study the relationship between chloroplast and nuclear gene expression and the mechanisms by which plastid mRNA accumulation is regulated in response to photooxidative stress. By treating 4-week-old hydroponic spinach plants (Spinacea oleracea), we were able to determine the response at two distinct stages of chloroplast development. For all parameters studied, differences were found between the norflurazon-treated young and mature leaves. Young leaves lost essentially all pigment content in the presence of norflurazon, whereas mature leaves retained more than 60% of their chlorophyll and carotenoids. The accumulation of plastid mRNA was determined for several genes, and we found a decrease in mRNA levels for all genes except psbA in herbicide-treated young leaves. For genes such as atpB, psbB, and psaA, there was a corresponding change in the relative level of transcription, but for psbA and rbcL, transcription and mRNA accumulation were uncoupled. In norflurazon-treated mature leaves, all plastid mRNAs except psaA accumulated to normal levels, and transcription levels were either normal or higher than corresponding controls. This led to the conclusion that plastid mRNA accumulation is regulated both transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally in response to photooxidative stress. Although direct photooxidative damage is confined to the plastid and peroxisome, there is a feedback of information controlling the transcription of nuclear-encoded plastid proteins. Considerable evidence has accumulated implicating a "plastid factor" in this control. Therefore, the expression of several nuclear-encoded plastid proteins and the corresponding mRNAs were determined. Although the levels of both the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and the light harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein and corresponding mRNAs were reduced, a 28-kilodalton chloroplast RNA-binding protein and

  12. Regulation of Plastid Gene Expression during Photooxidative Stress 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkyn, John C.; Deng, Xing-Wang; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    1992-01-01

    We have used the carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor norflurazon to study the relationship between chloroplast and nuclear gene expression and the mechanisms by which plastid mRNA accumulation is regulated in response to photooxidative stress. By treating 4-week-old hydroponic spinach plants (Spinacea oleracea), we were able to determine the response at two distinct stages of chloroplast development. For all parameters studied, differences were found between the norflurazon-treated young and mature leaves. Young leaves lost essentially all pigment content in the presence of norflurazon, whereas mature leaves retained more than 60% of their chlorophyll and carotenoids. The accumulation of plastid mRNA was determined for several genes, and we found a decrease in mRNA levels for all genes except psbA in herbicide-treated young leaves. For genes such as atpB, psbB, and psaA, there was a corresponding change in the relative level of transcription, but for psbA and rbcL, transcription and mRNA accumulation were uncoupled. In norflurazon-treated mature leaves, all plastid mRNAs except psaA accumulated to normal levels, and transcription levels were either normal or higher than corresponding controls. This led to the conclusion that plastid mRNA accumulation is regulated both transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally in response to photooxidative stress. Although direct photooxidative damage is confined to the plastid and peroxisome, there is a feedback of information controlling the transcription of nuclear-encoded plastid proteins. Considerable evidence has accumulated implicating a “plastid factor” in this control. Therefore, the expression of several nuclear-encoded plastid proteins and the corresponding mRNAs were determined. Although the levels of both the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and the light harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein and corresponding mRNAs were reduced, a 28-kilodalton chloroplast RNA-binding protein and

  13. A Network Biology Approach to Decipher Stress Response in Bacteria Using Escherichia coli As a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Shashwat Deepali; Aggarwal, Bhavye; Joon, Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The development of drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria poses challenges to global health for their treatment and control. In this context, stress response enables bacterial populations to survive extreme perturbations in the environment but remains poorly understood. Specific modules are activated for unique stressors with few recognized global regulators. The phenomenon of cross-stress protection strongly suggests the presence of central proteins that control the diverse stress responses. In this work, Escherichia coli was used to model the bacterial stress response. A Protein-Protein Interaction Network was generated by integrating differentially expressed genes in eight stress conditions of pH, temperature, and antibiotics with relevant gene ontology terms. Topological analysis identified 24 central proteins. The well-documented role of 16 central proteins in stress indicates central control of the response, while the remaining eight proteins may have a novel role in stress response. Cluster analysis of the generated network implicated RNA binding, flagellar assembly, ABC transporters, and DNA repair as important processes during response to stress. Pathway analysis showed crosstalk of Two Component Systems with metabolic processes, oxidative phosphorylation, and ABC transporters. The results were further validated by analysis of an independent cross-stress protection dataset. This study also reports on the ways in which bacterial stress response can progress to biofilm formation. In conclusion, we suggest that drug targets or pathways disrupting bacterial stress responses can potentially be exploited to combat antibiotic tolerance and multidrug resistance in the future. PMID:27195968

  14. CANDIDATE GENE ANALYSIS IN ISRAELI SOLDIERS WITH STRESS FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Yanovich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the association of polymorphisms within candidate genes which we hypothesized may contribute to stress fracture predisposition, a case-control, cross- sectional study design was employed. Genotyping 268 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms- SNPs within 17 genes in 385 Israeli young male and female recruits (182 with and 203 without stress fractures. Twenty-five polymorphisms within 9 genes (NR3C1, ANKH, VDR, ROR2, CALCR, IL6, COL1A2, CBG, and LRP4 showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05 in the distribution between stress fracture cases and non stress fracture controls. Seventeen genetic variants were associated with an increased stress fracture risk, and eight variants with a decreased stress fracture risk. None of the SNP associations remained significant after correcting for multiple comparisons (false discovery rate- FDR. Our findings suggest that genes may be involved in stress fracture pathogenesis. Specifically, the CALCR and the VDR genes are intriguing candidates. The putative involvement of these genes in stress fracture predisposition requires analysis of more cases and controls and sequencing the relevant genomic regions, in order to define the specific gene mutations

  15. Regulation of mRNA decay in plant responses to salt and osmotic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawa, D.; Testerink, C.

    Plant acclimation to environmental stresses requires fast signaling to initiate changes in developmental and metabolic responses. Regulation of gene expression by transcription factors and protein kinases acting upstream are important elements of responses to salt and drought. Gene expression can be

  16. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response in disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These proteins are essential for cell survival, and intuitively the ER must activate stress responses to evade immediate cell dysfunction as the cell processes lag behind. This review will discuss mainly the ER and its role in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of epidemiologically-relevant diseases, as well as updates on ...

  17. Responses of Cymbopogon schoenanthus to salt stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-27

    Mar 27, 2012 ... Responses of Cymbopogon schoenanthus to salt stress. Ayda Khadhri1*, Ridha El Mokni2, Khaled Mguis3, Mohamed Neffati4 and Samira Smiti1. 1Research Unit of ... medium (Garg et al., 2002; Moinuddin et al., 2005), and measures their ..... The ability of a plant to survive under restrictive environmental.

  18. Transgenerational stress memory is not a general response in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pecinka

    Full Text Available Adverse conditions can trigger DNA damage as well as DNA repair responses in plants. A variety of stress factors are known to stimulate homologous recombination, the most accurate repair pathway, by increasing the concentration of necessary enzymatic components and the frequency of events. This effect has been reported to last into subsequent generations not exposed to the stress. To establish a basis for a genetic analysis of this transgenerational stress memory, a broad range of treatments was tested for quantitative effects on homologous recombination in the progeny. Several Arabidopsis lines, transgenic for well-established recombination traps, were exposed to 10 different physical and chemical stress treatments, and scored for the number of somatic homologous recombination (SHR events in the treated generation as well as in the two subsequent generations that were not treated. These numbers were related to the expression level of genes involved in homologous recombination and repair. SHR was enhanced after the majority of treatments, confirming previous data and adding new effective stress types, especially interference with chromatin. Compounds that directly modify DNA stimulated SHR to values exceeding previously described induction rates, concomitant with an induction of genes involved in SHR. In spite of the significant stimulation in the stressed generations, the two subsequent non-treated generations only showed a low and stochastic increase in SHR that did not correlate with the degree of stimulation in the parental plants. Transcripts coding for SHR enzymes generally returned to pre-treatment levels in the progeny. Thus, transgenerational effects on SHR frequency are not a general response to abiotic stress in Arabidopsis and may require special conditions.

  19. Brain Region-Specific Expression of Genes Mapped within Quantitative Trait Loci for Behavioral Responsiveness to Acute Stress in Fisher 344 and Wistar Kyoto Male Rats (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    before [16, 19]. The N15 generation of F344.WKY-Stresp10 congenic male animals 96 (approximately 3 months old) were used for experimentation . After 15...regulatory complex subunit 1) paralleled that of WKY in the 36 F344.WKY-Stresp10 strain matching the behavioral profiles of WKY as opposed to F344 parental 37...the F344, suggest that the SVs within these genes 81 might contribute to the Stresp10 QTL. 82 83 Materials and methods 84 Animal care and treatment

  20. Identification of multiple small heat-shock protein genes in Plutella xylostella (L.) and their expression profiles in response to abiotic stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xi’en; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    We identify and characterize 14 small heat-shock protein (sHSP) genes from the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), a destructive pest. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that, except for sHSP18.8 and sHSP19.22, the other 12 DBM sHSPs belong to five known insect sHSP groups. Developmental expression analysis revealed that most sHSPs peaked in the pupal and adult stages. The transcripts of sHSPs display tissue specificity with two exhibiting constitutive expression in four tested tiss...

  1. Gene-environment correlations in the stress-depression relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittker, Jason

    2010-09-01

    A critical feature of the social stress model is the apparent relationship between stress and de