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Sample records for stress responses expression

  1. [Regulation of heat shock gene expression in response to stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuz, D G

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock (HS) genes, or stress genes, code for a number of proteins that collectively form the most ancient and universal stress defense system. The system determines the cell capability of adaptation to various adverse factors and performs a variety of auxiliary functions in normal physiological conditions. Common stress factors, such as higher temperatures, hypoxia, heavy metals, and others, suppress transcription and translation for the majority of genes, while HS genes are upregulated. Transcription of HS genes is controlled by transcription factors of the HS factor (HSF) family. Certain HSFs are activated on exposure to higher temperatures or other adverse factors to ensure stress-induced HS gene expression, while other HSFs are specifically activated at particular developmental stages. The regulation of the main mammalian stress-inducible factor HSF1 and Drosophila melanogaster HSF includes many components, such as a variety of early warning signals indicative of abnormal cell activity (e.g., increases in intracellular ceramide, cytosolic calcium ions, or partly denatured proteins); protein kinases, which phosphorylate HSFs at various Ser residues; acetyltransferases; and regulatory proteins, such as SUMO and HSBP1. Transcription factors other than HSFs are also involved in activating HS gene transcription; the set includes D. melanogaster GAF, mammalian Sp1 and NF-Y, and other factors. Transcription of several stress genes coding for molecular chaperones of the glucose-regulated protein (GRP) family is predominantly regulated by another stress-detecting system, which is known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) system and is activated in response to massive protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial matrix. A translational fine tuning of HS protein expression occurs via changing the phosphorylation status of several proteins involved in translation initiation. In addition, specific signal sequences in the 5'-UTRs of some HS

  2. Gene Expression Dynamics Accompanying the Sponge Thermal Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Christine; Conaco, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponges are important members of coral reef ecosystems. Thus, their responses to changes in ocean chemistry and environmental conditions, particularly to higher seawater temperatures, will have potential impacts on the future of these reefs. To better understand the sponge thermal stress response, we investigated gene expression dynamics in the shallow water sponge, Haliclona tubifera (order Haplosclerida, class Demospongiae), subjected to elevated temperature. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we show that these conditions result in the activation of various processes that interact to maintain cellular homeostasis. Short-term thermal stress resulted in the induction of heat shock proteins, antioxidants, and genes involved in signal transduction and innate immunity pathways. Prolonged exposure to thermal stress affected the expression of genes involved in cellular damage repair, apoptosis, signaling and transcription. Interestingly, exposure to sublethal temperatures may improve the ability of the sponge to mitigate cellular damage under more extreme stress conditions. These insights into the potential mechanisms of adaptation and resilience of sponges contribute to a better understanding of sponge conservation status and the prediction of ecosystem trajectories under future climate conditions.

  3. Stress, and pathogen response gene expression in modeled microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Pellis, Neal R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Immune suppression in microgravity has been well documented. With the advent of human exploration and long-term space travel, the immune system of the astronaut must be optimally maintained. It is important to investigate the expression patterns of cytokine genes, because they are directly related to immune response. Heat shock proteins (HSPs), also called stress proteins, are a group of proteins that are present in the cells of every life form. These proteins are induced when a cell responds to stressors such as heat, cold and oxygen deprivation. Microgravity is another stressor that may regulate HSPs. Heat shock proteins trigger immune response through activities that occur both inside the cell (intracellular) and outside the cell (extracellular). Knowledge about these two gene groups could lead to establishment of a blueprint of the immune response and adaptation-related genes in the microgravity environment. Methods: Human peripheral blood cells were cultured in 1g (T flask) and modeled microgravity (MMG, rotating-wall vessel) for 24 and 72 hours. Cell samples were collected and subjected to gene array analysis using the Affymetrix HG_U95 array. Data was collected and subjected to a two-way analysis of variance. The genes related to immune and stress responses were analyzed. Results and Conclusions: HSP70 was up-regulated by more than two fold in microgravity culture, while HSP90 was significantly down-regulated. HSP70 is not typically expressed in all kinds of cells, but it is expressed at high levels in stress conditions. HSP70 participates in translation, protein translocation, proteolysis and protein folding, suppressing aggregation and reactivating denatured proteins. Increased serum HSP70 levels correlate with a better outcome for heat-stroke or severe trauma patients. At the same time, elevated serum levels of HSP70 have been detected in patients with peripheral or renal vascular disease. HSP90 has been identified in the cytosol, nucleus and

  4. ABI3 mediates dehydration stress recovery response in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating expression of downstream genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Sonia; Sengupta, Sourabh; Ray, Anagh; Nag Chaudhuri, Ronita

    2016-09-01

    ABI3, originally discovered as a seed-specific transcription factor is now implicated to act beyond seed physiology, especially during abiotic stress. In non-seed plants, ABI3 is known to act in desiccation stress signaling. Here we show that ABI3 plays a role in dehydration stress response in Arabidopsis. ABI3 gene was upregulated during dehydration stress and its expression was maintained during subsequent stress recovery phases. Comparative gene expression studies in response to dehydration stress and stress recovery were done with genes which had potential ABI3 binding sites in their upstream regulatory regions. Such studies showed that several genes including known seed-specific factors like CRUCIFERIN1, CRUCIFERIN3 and LEA-group of genes like LEA76, LEA6, DEHYDRIN LEA and LEA-LIKE got upregulated in an ABI3-dependent manner, especially during the stress recovery phase. ABI3 got recruited to regions upstream to the transcription start site of these genes during dehydration stress response through direct or indirect DNA binding. Interestingly, ABI3 also binds to its own promoter region during such stress signaling. Nucleosomes covering potential ABI3 binding sites in the upstream sequences of the above-mentioned genes alter positions, and show increased H3 K9 acetylation during stress-induced transcription. ABI3 thus mediates dehydration stress signaling in Arabidopsis through regulation of a group of genes that play a role primarily during stress recovery phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification and expression analysis of cold and freezing stress responsive genes of Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Cho, Yong-Gu; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-01-10

    Cold and freezing stress is a major environmental constraint to the production of Brassica crops. Enhancement of tolerance by exploiting cold and freezing tolerance related genes offers the most efficient approach to address this problem. Cold-induced transcriptional profiling is a promising approach to the identification of potential genes related to cold and freezing stress tolerance. In this study, 99 highly expressed genes were identified from a whole genome microarray dataset of Brassica rapa. Blast search analysis of the Brassica oleracea database revealed the corresponding homologous genes. To validate their expression, pre-selected cold tolerant and susceptible cabbage lines were analyzed. Out of 99 BoCRGs, 43 were differentially expressed in response to varying degrees of cold and freezing stress in the contrasting cabbage lines. Among the differentially expressed genes, 18 were highly up-regulated in the tolerant lines, which is consistent with their microarray expression. Additionally, 12 BoCRGs were expressed differentially after cold stress treatment in two contrasting cabbage lines, and BoCRG54, 56, 59, 62, 70, 72 and 99 were predicted to be involved in cold regulatory pathways. Taken together, the cold-responsive genes identified in this study provide additional direction for elucidating the regulatory network of low temperature stress tolerance and developing cold and freezing stress resistant Brassica crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of Stress-Responsive Gene Expression in Cultivated and Weedy Rice Differing in Cold Stress Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Borges Bevilacqua

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars show impairment of growth in response to environmental stresses such as cold at the early seedling stage. Locally adapted weedy rice is able to survive under adverse environmental conditions, and can emerge in fields from greater soil depth. Cold-tolerant weedy rice can be a good genetic source for developing cold-tolerant, weed-competitive rice cultivars. An in-depth analysis is presented here of diverse indica and japonica rice genotypes, mostly weedy rice, for cold stress response to provide an understanding of different stress adaptive mechanisms towards improvement of the rice crop performance in the field. We have tested a collection of weedy rice genotypes to: 1 classify the subspecies (ssp. grouping (japonica or indica of 21 accessions; 2 evaluate their sensitivity to cold stress; and 3 analyze the expression of stress-responsive genes under cold stress and a combination of cold and depth stress. Seeds were germinated at 25°C at 1.5- and 10-cm sowing depth for 10d. Seedlings were then exposed to cold stress at 10°C for 6, 24 and 96h, and the expression of cold-, anoxia-, and submergence-inducible genes was analyzed. Control plants were seeded at 1.5cm depth and kept at 25°C. The analysis revealed that cold stress signaling in indica genotypes is more complex than that of japonica as it operates via both the CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways, implicated through induction of transcription factors including OsNAC2, OsMYB46 and OsF-BOX28. When plants were exposed to cold + sowing depth stress, a complex signaling network was induced that involved cross talk between stresses mediated by CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways to circumvent the detrimental effects of stresses. The experiments revealed the importance of the CBF regulon for tolerance to both stresses in japonica and indica ssp. The mechanisms for cold tolerance differed among weedy indica genotypes and also between weedy indica and

  7. Differential expression of genes regulated in response to drought stress in diploid cotton (Gossypium arboreum) (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Majeed, A.; Maqbool, A.; Hussain, S.S.; Ali, T.; Riazuddin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Negative effects on the Water status of plants is one of the most common and deleterious stresses experienced by wild and cultivated plants throughout the World. Our project is designed to identify, clone and characterize gene sequences regulated in response to Water stress (e.g., drought). We used the differential-display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (DD-RT- PCA) methodology to accomplish our Objectives. Structural and functional characterization of environmental stress-induced genes has contributed to a better understanding of how plants respond and adapt to different abiotic stresses. Differential display was used to compare overall difference in gene expression between draught stressed and unstressed (control) plants of diploid Cotton (Gossypium arboreum). DDRT-PCR product from stressed and unstressed samples resolved side by side on 6% PAGE to compare qualitative and quantitative difference in mRNA expression. A total of 81 primer combinations were tested. DDRT -PCR enabled us to identify differentially expressed transcripts between water stressed and non-stressed cotton seedlings. PAGE revealed a total of 347 DNA transcripts in stressed samples (New Transcripts) while 110 down regulated and 209 up regulated DNA transcripts were also recorded. Similarly. 22 DNA transcripts were identified based on the comparative study of PAGE and Agarose gel electrophoresis. These sequences showed various degree homology With draught tolerant genes in the gene bank. (author)

  8. Changes in Liver Proteome Expression of Senegalese Sole (Solea senegalensis) in Response to Repeated Handling Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordeiro, O. D.; Silva, Tomé Santos; Alves, R. N.

    2012-01-01

    The Senegalese sole, a high-value flatfish, is a good candidate for aquaculture production. Nevertheless, there are still issues regarding this species’ sensitivity to stress in captivity. We aimed to characterize the hepatic proteome expression for this species in response to repeated handling...... and identify potential molecular markers that indicate a physiological response to chronic stress. Two groups of fish were reared in duplicate for 28 days, one of them weekly exposed to handling stress (including hypoxia) for 3 min, and the other left undisturbed. Two-dimensional electrophoresis enabled...... the detection of 287 spots significantly affected by repeated handling stress (Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney U test, p stress seems to have affected protein synthesis, folding and turnover (40S ribosomal protein S12...

  9. Physiological and psychological responses to expressions of emotion and empathy in post-stress communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Makiko; Fujita, Mizuho; Yamada, Shigeyuki

    2009-01-01

    The effects of communicating during and after expressing emotions and receiving empathy after exposure to stress were investigated for 18 female students (9 pairs). After mental and physical tasks, a subject spoke to a listener about the stress task. In Experiment 1, responses to speaking about negative emotions aroused by the task (the "with emotion" condition) were compared to speaking about only objective facts about the task (the control). In Experiment 2, responses to empathetic reactions from the listener (the "with empathy" condition) were compared to no reaction (the control). Electroencephalograms were recorded, and heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated from electrocardiogram data. Subjective stress was estimated by a visual analog scale. Experiment 1 demonstrated that expressing emotions activated the left temporal region (T3) in the "with emotion" condition. In Experiment 2, physiological responses depended on cognition of different elements of empathy. During communication, feeling that the listener had the same emotion decreased the subject's T3 activity and sympathetic activity balance indicated by HRV. After communication, feeling that the listener understood her emotions decreased bilateral frontal and temporal activity. On the other hand, subjective stress did not differ between conditions in both experiments. These findings indicate that the comfort of having shared a message reduced physiological activity, especially in the "with empathy" condition. Conversely, even in the "with empathy" condition, not sharing a message can result in more discomfort or stress than the control. Sharing might be associated with cognition of the degree of success of communication, which reflected in the physiological responses. In communication, therefore, expressing emotions and receiving empathy did not in themselves reduce stress, and the level of cognition of having shared a message is a key factor in reducing stress.

  10. Spaceflight Modifies Escherichia coli Gene Expression in Response to Antibiotic Exposure and Reveals Role of Oxidative Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Aunins

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria grown in space experiments under microgravity conditions have been found to undergo unique physiological responses, ranging from modified cell morphology and growth dynamics to a putative increased tolerance to antibiotics. A common theory for this behavior is the loss of gravity-driven convection processes in the orbital environment, resulting in both reduction of extracellular nutrient availability and the accumulation of bacterial byproducts near the cell. To further characterize the responses, this study investigated the transcriptomic response of Escherichia coli to both microgravity and antibiotic concentration. E. coli was grown aboard International Space Station in the presence of increasing concentrations of the antibiotic gentamicin with identical ground controls conducted on Earth. Here we show that within 49 h of being cultured, E. coli adapted to grow at higher antibiotic concentrations in space compared to Earth, and demonstrated consistent changes in expression of 63 genes in response to an increase in drug concentration in both environments, including specific responses related to oxidative stress and starvation response. Additionally, we find 50 stress-response genes upregulated in response to the microgravity when compared directly to the equivalent concentration in the ground control. We conclude that the increased antibiotic tolerance in microgravity may be attributed not only to diminished transport processes, but also to a resultant antibiotic cross-resistance response conferred by an overlapping effect of stress response genes. Our data suggest that direct stresses of nutrient starvation and acid-shock conveyed by the microgravity environment can incidentally upregulate stress response pathways related to antibiotic stress and in doing so contribute to the increased antibiotic stress tolerance observed for bacteria in space experiments. These results provide insights into the ability of bacteria to adapt under

  11. Spaceflight Modifies Escherichia coli Gene Expression in Response to Antibiotic Exposure and Reveals Role of Oxidative Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunins, Thomas R; Erickson, Keesha E; Prasad, Nripesh; Levy, Shawn E; Jones, Angela; Shrestha, Shristi; Mastracchio, Rick; Stodieck, Louis; Klaus, David; Zea, Luis; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2018-01-01

    Bacteria grown in space experiments under microgravity conditions have been found to undergo unique physiological responses, ranging from modified cell morphology and growth dynamics to a putative increased tolerance to antibiotics. A common theory for this behavior is the loss of gravity-driven convection processes in the orbital environment, resulting in both reduction of extracellular nutrient availability and the accumulation of bacterial byproducts near the cell. To further characterize the responses, this study investigated the transcriptomic response of Escherichia coli to both microgravity and antibiotic concentration. E. coli was grown aboard International Space Station in the presence of increasing concentrations of the antibiotic gentamicin with identical ground controls conducted on Earth. Here we show that within 49 h of being cultured, E. coli adapted to grow at higher antibiotic concentrations in space compared to Earth, and demonstrated consistent changes in expression of 63 genes in response to an increase in drug concentration in both environments, including specific responses related to oxidative stress and starvation response. Additionally, we find 50 stress-response genes upregulated in response to the microgravity when compared directly to the equivalent concentration in the ground control. We conclude that the increased antibiotic tolerance in microgravity may be attributed not only to diminished transport processes, but also to a resultant antibiotic cross-resistance response conferred by an overlapping effect of stress response genes. Our data suggest that direct stresses of nutrient starvation and acid-shock conveyed by the microgravity environment can incidentally upregulate stress response pathways related to antibiotic stress and in doing so contribute to the increased antibiotic stress tolerance observed for bacteria in space experiments. These results provide insights into the ability of bacteria to adapt under extreme stress

  12. Spaceflight Modifies Escherichia coli Gene Expression in Response to Antibiotic Exposure and Reveals Role of Oxidative Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunins, Thomas R.; Erickson, Keesha E.; Prasad, Nripesh; Levy, Shawn E.; Jones, Angela; Shrestha, Shristi; Mastracchio, Rick; Stodieck, Louis; Klaus, David; Zea, Luis; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2018-01-01

    Bacteria grown in space experiments under microgravity conditions have been found to undergo unique physiological responses, ranging from modified cell morphology and growth dynamics to a putative increased tolerance to antibiotics. A common theory for this behavior is the loss of gravity-driven convection processes in the orbital environment, resulting in both reduction of extracellular nutrient availability and the accumulation of bacterial byproducts near the cell. To further characterize the responses, this study investigated the transcriptomic response of Escherichia coli to both microgravity and antibiotic concentration. E. coli was grown aboard International Space Station in the presence of increasing concentrations of the antibiotic gentamicin with identical ground controls conducted on Earth. Here we show that within 49 h of being cultured, E. coli adapted to grow at higher antibiotic concentrations in space compared to Earth, and demonstrated consistent changes in expression of 63 genes in response to an increase in drug concentration in both environments, including specific responses related to oxidative stress and starvation response. Additionally, we find 50 stress-response genes upregulated in response to the microgravity when compared directly to the equivalent concentration in the ground control. We conclude that the increased antibiotic tolerance in microgravity may be attributed not only to diminished transport processes, but also to a resultant antibiotic cross-resistance response conferred by an overlapping effect of stress response genes. Our data suggest that direct stresses of nutrient starvation and acid-shock conveyed by the microgravity environment can incidentally upregulate stress response pathways related to antibiotic stress and in doing so contribute to the increased antibiotic stress tolerance observed for bacteria in space experiments. These results provide insights into the ability of bacteria to adapt under extreme stress

  13. Expression Analysis of MYC Genes from Tamarix hispida in Response to Different Abiotic Stresses

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    Guifeng Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The MYC genes are a group of transcription factors containing both bHLH and ZIP motifs that play important roles in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA-responsive genes. In the present study, to investigate the roles of MYC genes under NaCl, osmotic and ABA stress conditions, nine MYC genes were cloned from Tamarix hispida. Real-time reverse-transcriptase (RT-PCR showed that all nine MYC genes were expressed in root, stem and leaf tissues, but that the levels of the transcripts of these genes in the various tissues differed notably. The MYC genes were highly induced in the roots in response to ABA, NaCl and osmotic stresses after 3 h; however, in the stem and leaf tissues, MYC genes were highly induced only when exposed to these stresses for 6 h. In addition, most of these MYC genes were highly expressed in roots in comparison with stems and leaves. Furthermore, the MYC genes were more highly induced in roots than in stem and leaf tissues, indicating that these genes may play roles in stress responses mainly in the roots rather than the stems and leaves. The results of this present study suggest that MYCs are involved in salt and osmotic stress tolerances and are controlled by the ABA signal transduction pathway.

  14. Expression analysis of MYC genes from Tamarix hispida in response to different abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yucheng; Liu, Guifeng

    2012-01-01

    The MYC genes are a group of transcription factors containing both bHLH and ZIP motifs that play important roles in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes. In the present study, to investigate the roles of MYC genes under NaCl, osmotic and ABA stress conditions, nine MYC genes were cloned from Tamarix hispida. Real-time reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR showed that all nine MYC genes were expressed in root, stem and leaf tissues, but that the levels of the transcripts of these genes in the various tissues differed notably. The MYC genes were highly induced in the roots in response to ABA, NaCl and osmotic stresses after 3 h; however, in the stem and leaf tissues, MYC genes were highly induced only when exposed to these stresses for 6 h. In addition, most of these MYC genes were highly expressed in roots in comparison with stems and leaves. Furthermore, the MYC genes were more highly induced in roots than in stem and leaf tissues, indicating that these genes may play roles in stress responses mainly in the roots rather than the stems and leaves. The results of this present study suggest that MYCs are involved in salt and osmotic stress tolerances and are controlled by the ABA signal transduction pathway.

  15. WRKY proteins: signaling and regulation of expression during abiotic stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditya; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep

    2015-01-01

    WRKY proteins are emerging players in plant signaling and have been thoroughly reported to play important roles in plants under biotic stress like pathogen attack. However, recent advances in this field do reveal the enormous significance of these proteins in eliciting responses induced by abiotic stresses. WRKY proteins act as major transcription factors, either as positive or negative regulators. Specific WRKY factors which help in the expression of a cluster of stress-responsive genes are being targeted and genetically modified to induce improved abiotic stress tolerance in plants. The knowledge regarding the signaling cascade leading to the activation of the WRKY proteins, their interaction with other proteins of the signaling pathway, and the downstream genes activated by them are altogether vital for justified targeting of the WRKY genes. WRKY proteins have also been considered to generate tolerance against multiple abiotic stresses with possible roles in mediating a cross talk between abiotic and biotic stress responses. In this review, we have reckoned the diverse signaling pattern and biological functions of WRKY proteins throughout the plant kingdom along with the growing prospects in this field of research.

  16. Gene expression dynamics in the oxidative stress response of fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil

    Changes in the environment continuously challenge living organisms during their lifetime. A cell’s survival depends on its ability to coordinate a rapid and successful stress response when exposed to acute doses of damaging agents. Oxidative stress caused by an excess of reactive oxygen species......, especially using model organisms. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a unicellular eukaryotic organism that possesses genome features and molecular pathways that are highly conserved in humans. Moreover, the limited redundancy of its genome make S. pombe well suited for phenotypic studies...... (HP, 0.5 mM). The applied experimental design allowed us to measure both the activation and recovery phases of the response at a sufficiently high time resolution to model transcription and translation dynamics. Absolute expression levels (copies per cell) and time-resolved expression profiles for 4...

  17. Grin and bear it: the influence of manipulated facial expression on the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Tara L; Pressman, Sarah D

    2012-01-01

    In the study reported here, we investigated whether covertly manipulating positive facial expressions would influence cardiovascular and affective responses to stress. Participants (N = 170) naive to the purpose of the study completed two different stressful tasks while holding chopsticks in their mouths in a manner that produced a Duchenne smile, a standard smile, or a neutral expression. Awareness was manipulated by explicitly asking half of all participants in the smiling groups to smile (and giving the other half no instructions related to smiling). Findings revealed that all smiling participants, regardless of whether they were aware of smiling, had lower heart rates during stress recovery than the neutral group did, with a slight advantage for those with Duchenne smiles. Participants in the smiling groups who were not explicitly asked to smile reported less of a decrease in positive affect during a stressful task than did the neutral group. These findings show that there are both physiological and psychological benefits from maintaining positive facial expressions during stress.

  18. Identification and Expression Profiling of the Auxin Response Factors in Dendrobium officinale under Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhehao; Yuan, Ye; Fu, Di; Shen, Chenjia; Yang, Yanjun

    2017-05-04

    Auxin response factor (ARF) proteins play roles in plant responses to diverse environmental stresses by binding specifically to the auxin response element in the promoters of target genes. Using our latest public Dendrobium transcriptomes, a comprehensive characterization and analysis of 14 DnARF genes were performed. Three selected DnARFs , including DnARF1 , DnARF4 , and DnARF6 , were confirmed to be nuclear proteins according to their transient expression in epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Furthermore, the transcription activation abilities of DnARF1 , DnARF4 , and DnARF6 were tested in a yeast system. Our data showed that DnARF6 is a transcriptional activator in Dendrobium officinale . To uncover the basic information of DnARF gene responses to abiotic stresses, we analyzed their expression patterns under various hormones and abiotic treatments. Based on our data, several hormones and significant stress responsive DnARF genes have been identified. Since auxin and ARF genes have been identified in many plant species, our data is imperative to reveal the function of ARF mediated auxin signaling in the adaptation to the challenging Dendrobium environment.

  19. Transcriptome Expression Profiling in Response to Drought Stress in Paulownia australis

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    Yanpeng Dong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The response and adaptation to drought remains poorly understood for Paulownia australis. To investigate this issue, transcriptome profiling of four P. australis accessions (two diploid and the other two autotetraploid under water stress condition were studied using Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx analysis. The current study aimed to identify genes of P. australis metabolism pathways that might be involved in this plant’s response to water deficit. Potted seedlings were subjected to well-watered conditions and drought stress, respectively. More than 290 million raw transcript reads were assembled into 111,660 unigenes, with a mean length of 1013 bp. Clusters of orthologous groups, gene ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations analyses were performed on the unigenes. Many differentially expressed genes and several metabolic pathways were identified. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to verify the expression patterns of 14 genes. Our study identified altered gene expression in P. australis induced by drought stress and provided a comprehensive map of drought-responsive genes and pathways in this species. To our knowledge, this is the first publicly available global transcriptome study of P. australis. This study provides a valuable genetic resource for this species.

  20. Expression and Enzyme Activity of Catalase in Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Is Responsive to Environmental Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanhui; Bai, Qi; Zheng, Xusong; Lu, Zhongxian

    2017-08-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme that protects organisms against oxidative stresses by eliminating hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we cloned and characterized a full-length cDNA of CAT from Chilo suppressalis (CsCAT) and examined the influence of environmental stresses on CsCAT expression and enzyme activity. The cDNA contains a 1659-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 553 amino acids most closely related (90.14%) to Papilio polytes catalases. The CsCAT was expressed in all developmental stages with the highest expression in the fat body, and the CsCAT enzyme activity closely mirrored its observed mRNA expression patterns. The CsCAT mRNA was up-regulated when the larvae were exposed to high temperature (≥30 °C), insecticides (abamectin and chlorantraniliprole), chemicals (H2O2, CHP, CdCl2, and CuSO4), and a dead-end trap plant (vetiver grass), and the CsCAT enzyme activity again mirrored the observed CsCAT expression patterns. These results suggest that up-regulation of CsCAT may enhance the defense response of C. suppressalis by weakening the effects of environmental stresses, and provide insight into the role of CsCAT during development of C. suppressalis. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Global analysis of transcriptome responses and gene expression profiles to cold stress of Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibo; Zou, Zhurong; Wang, Shasha; Gong, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., also called the Physic nut, is an oil-rich shrub with multiple uses, including biodiesel production, and is currently exploited as a renewable energy resource in many countries. Nevertheless, because of its origin from the tropical MidAmerican zone, J. curcas confers an inherent but undesirable characteristic (low cold resistance) that may seriously restrict its large-scale popularization. This adaptive flaw can be genetically improved by elucidating the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to cold temperatures. The newly developed Illumina Hiseq™ 2000 RNA-seq and Digital Gene Expression (DGE) are deep high-throughput approaches for gene expression analysis at the transcriptome level, using which we carefully investigated the gene expression profiles in response to cold stress to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of cold response in J. curcas. In total, 45,251 unigenes were obtained by assembly of clean data generated by RNA-seq analysis of the J. curcas transcriptome. A total of 33,363 and 912 complete or partial coding sequences (CDSs) were determined by protein database alignments and ESTScan prediction, respectively. Among these unigenes, more than 41.52% were involved in approximately 128 known metabolic or signaling pathways, and 4,185 were possibly associated with cold resistance. DGE analysis was used to assess the changes in gene expression when exposed to cold condition (12°C) for 12, 24, and 48 h. The results showed that 3,178 genes were significantly upregulated and 1,244 were downregulated under cold stress. These genes were then functionally annotated based on the transcriptome data from RNA-seq analysis. This study provides a global view of transcriptome response and gene expression profiling of J. curcas in response to cold stress. The results can help improve our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant cold resistance and favor the screening of crucial genes for genetically enhancing cold resistance

  2. Global analysis of transcriptome responses and gene expression profiles to cold stress of Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Jatropha curcas L., also called the Physic nut, is an oil-rich shrub with multiple uses, including biodiesel production, and is currently exploited as a renewable energy resource in many countries. Nevertheless, because of its origin from the tropical MidAmerican zone, J. curcas confers an inherent but undesirable characteristic (low cold resistance that may seriously restrict its large-scale popularization. This adaptive flaw can be genetically improved by elucidating the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to cold temperatures. The newly developed Illumina Hiseq™ 2000 RNA-seq and Digital Gene Expression (DGE are deep high-throughput approaches for gene expression analysis at the transcriptome level, using which we carefully investigated the gene expression profiles in response to cold stress to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of cold response in J. curcas. RESULTS: In total, 45,251 unigenes were obtained by assembly of clean data generated by RNA-seq analysis of the J. curcas transcriptome. A total of 33,363 and 912 complete or partial coding sequences (CDSs were determined by protein database alignments and ESTScan prediction, respectively. Among these unigenes, more than 41.52% were involved in approximately 128 known metabolic or signaling pathways, and 4,185 were possibly associated with cold resistance. DGE analysis was used to assess the changes in gene expression when exposed to cold condition (12°C for 12, 24, and 48 h. The results showed that 3,178 genes were significantly upregulated and 1,244 were downregulated under cold stress. These genes were then functionally annotated based on the transcriptome data from RNA-seq analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a global view of transcriptome response and gene expression profiling of J. curcas in response to cold stress. The results can help improve our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant cold resistance and favor the screening of

  3. A nucleotide metabolite controls stress-responsive gene expression and plant development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress, such as drought and high salinity, activates a network of signaling cascades that lead to the expression of many stress-responsive genes in plants. The Arabidopsis FIERY1 (FRY1 protein is a negative regulator of stress and abscisic acid (ABA signaling and exhibits both an inositol polyphosphatase and a 3',5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase activity in vitro. The FRY1 nucleotidase degrades the sulfation byproduct 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate (PAP, yet its in vivo functions and particularly its roles in stress gene regulation remain unclear. Here we developed a LC-MS/MS method to quantitatively measure PAP levels in plants and investigated the roles of this nucleotidase activity in stress response and plant development. It was found that PAP level was tightly controlled in plants and did not accumulate to any significant level either under normal conditions or under NaCl, LiCl, cold, or ABA treatments. In contrast, high levels of PAP were detected in multiple mutant alleles of FRY1 but not in mutants of other FRY1 family members, indicating that FRY1 is the major enzyme that hydrolyzes PAP in vivo. By genetically reducing PAP levels in fry1 mutants either through overexpression of a yeast PAP nucleotidase or by generating a triple mutant of fry1 apk1 apk2 that is defective in the biosynthesis of the PAP precursor 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS, we demonstrated that the developmental defects and superinduction of stress-responsive genes in fry1 mutants correlate with PAP accumulation in planta. We also found that the hypersensitive stress gene regulation in fry1 requires ABH1 but not ABI1, two other negative regulators in ABA signaling pathways. Unlike in yeast, however, FRY1 overexpression in Arabidopsis could not enhance salt tolerance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PAP is critical for stress gene regulation and plant development, yet the FRY1 nucleotidase that catabolizes PAP may not be an in vivo salt

  4. A nucleotide metabolite controls stress-responsive gene expression and plant development

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao

    2011-10-19

    Abiotic stress, such as drought and high salinity, activates a network of signaling cascades that lead to the expression of many stress-responsive genes in plants. The Arabidopsis FIERY1 (FRY1) protein is a negative regulator of stress and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and exhibits both an inositol polyphosphatase and a 3?,5?-bisphosphate nucleotidase activity in vitro. The FRY1 nucleotidase degrades the sulfation byproduct 3?-phosphoadenosine-5?-phosphate (PAP), yet its in vivo functions and particularly its roles in stress gene regulation remain unclear. Here we developed a LC-MS/MS method to quantitatively measure PAP levels in plants and investigated the roles of this nucleotidase activity in stress response and plant development. It was found that PAP level was tightly controlled in plants and did not accumulate to any significant level either under normal conditions or under NaCl, LiCl, cold, or ABA treatments. In contrast, high levels of PAP were detected in multiple mutant alleles of FRY1 but not in mutants of other FRY1 family members, indicating that FRY1 is the major enzyme that hydrolyzes PAP in vivo. By genetically reducing PAP levels in fry1 mutants either through overexpression of a yeast PAP nucleotidase or by generating a triple mutant of fry1 apk1 apk2 that is defective in the biosynthesis of the PAP precursor 3?-phosphoadenosine-5?-phosphosulfate (PAPS), we demonstrated that the developmental defects and superinduction of stress-responsive genes in fry1 mutants correlate with PAP accumulation in planta. We also found that the hypersensitive stress gene regulation in fry1 requires ABH1 but not ABI1, two other negative regulators in ABA signaling pathways. Unlike in yeast, however, FRY1 overexpression in Arabidopsis could not enhance salt tolerance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PAP is critical for stress gene regulation and plant development, yet the FRY1 nucleotidase that catabolizes PAP may not be an in vivo salt toxicity target

  5. Gene expression during different periods of the handling-stress response in Pampus argenteus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Tang, Baojun; Yin, Fei

    2017-11-01

    Common aquaculture practices subject fish to a variety of acute and chronic stressors. Such stressors are inherent in aquaculture production but can adversely affect survival, growth, immune response, reproductive capacity, and behavior. Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying stress responses helps with methods to alleviate the negative effects through better aquaculture practices, resulting in improved animal welfare and production efficiency. In the present study, transcriptome sequencing of liver and kidney was performed in silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) subjected to handling stress versus controls. A total of 162.19 million clean reads were assembled to 30 339 unigenes. The quality of the assembly was high, with an N50 length of 2 472 bases. For function classification and pathway assignment, the unigenes were categorized into three GO (gene ontology) categories, twenty-six clusters of eggNOG (evolutionary genealogy of genes: non-supervised orthologous groups) function categories, and thirty-eight KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways. Stress affected different functional groups of genes in the tissues studied. Differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in metabolic pathways (carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, amino-acid metabolism, uptake of cofactors and vitamins, and biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites), environmental information processing (signaling molecules and their interactions), organismal systems (endocrine system, digestive system), and disease (immune, neurodegenerative, endocrine and metabolic diseases). This is the first reported analysis of genome-wide transcriptome in P. argenteus, and the findings expand our understanding of the silver pomfret genome and gene expression in association with stress. The results will be useful to future analyses of functional genes and studies of healthy artificial breeding in P. argenteus and other related fish species.

  6. Gene-expression analysis of cold-stress response in the sexually transmitted protist Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi-Kai; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Huang, Po-Jung; Lin, Rose; Chao, Mei; Tang, Petrus

    2015-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease in the world. This infection affects millions of individuals worldwide annually. Although direct sexual contact is the most common mode of transmission, increasing evidence indicates that T. vaginalis can survive in the external environment and can be transmitted by contaminated utensils. We found that the growth of T. vaginalis under cold conditions is greatly inhibited, but recovers after placing these stressed cells at the normal cultivation temperature of 37 °C. However, the mechanisms by which T. vaginalis regulates this adaptive process are unclear. An expressed sequence tag (EST) database generated from a complementary DNA library of T. vaginalis messenger RNAs expressed under cold-culture conditions (4 °C, TvC) was compared with a previously published normal-cultured EST library (37 °C, TvE) to assess the cold-stress responses of T. vaginalis. A total of 9780 clones were sequenced from the TvC library and were mapped to 2934 genes in the T. vaginalis genome. A total of 1254 genes were expressed in both the TvE and TvC libraries, and 1680 genes were only found in the TvC library. A functional analysis showed that cold temperature has effects on many cellular mechanisms, including increased H2O2 tolerance, activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, induction of iron-sulfur cluster assembly, and reduced energy metabolism and enzyme expression. The current study is the first large-scale transcriptomic analysis in cold-stressed T. vaginalis and the results enhance our understanding of this important protist. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The grapevine kinome: annotation, classification and expression patterns in developmental processes and stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kaikai; Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Jinyi; Tang, Jun; Cheng, Qunkang; Chen, Jin-Gui; Cheng, Zong-Ming Max

    2018-01-01

    Protein kinases (PKs) have evolved as the largest family of molecular switches that regulate protein activities associated with almost all essential cellular functions. Only a fraction of plant PKs, however, have been functionally characterized even in model plant species. In the present study, the entire grapevine kinome was identified and annotated using the most recent version of the grapevine genome. A total of 1168 PK-encoding genes were identified and classified into 20 groups and 121 families, with the RLK-Pelle group being the largest, with 872 members. The 1168 kinase genes were unevenly distributed over all 19 chromosomes, and both tandem and segmental duplications contributed to the expansion of the grapevine kinome, especially of the RLK-Pelle group. Ka/Ks values indicated that most of the tandem and segmental duplication events were under purifying selection. The grapevine kinome families exhibited different expression patterns during plant development and in response to various stress treatments, with many being coexpressed. The comprehensive annotation of grapevine kinase genes, their patterns of expression and coexpression, and the related information facilitate a more complete understanding of the roles of various grapevine kinases in growth and development, responses to abiotic stress, and evolutionary history.

  8. Global Gene-Expression Analysis to Identify Differentially Expressed Genes Critical for the Heat Stress Response in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangshu Dong

    Full Text Available Genome-wide dissection of the heat stress response (HSR is necessary to overcome problems in crop production caused by global warming. To identify HSR genes, we profiled gene expression in two Chinese cabbage inbred lines with different thermotolerances, Chiifu and Kenshin. Many genes exhibited >2-fold changes in expression upon exposure to 0.5- 4 h at 45°C (high temperature, HT: 5.2% (2,142 genes in Chiifu and 3.7% (1,535 genes in Kenshin. The most enriched GO (Gene Ontology items included 'response to heat', 'response to reactive oxygen species (ROS', 'response to temperature stimulus', 'response to abiotic stimulus', and 'MAPKKK cascade'. In both lines, the genes most highly induced by HT encoded small heat shock proteins (Hsps and heat shock factor (Hsf-like proteins such as HsfB2A (Bra029292, whereas high-molecular weight Hsps were constitutively expressed. Other upstream HSR components were also up-regulated: ROS-scavenging genes like glutathione peroxidase 2 (BrGPX2, Bra022853, protein kinases, and phosphatases. Among heat stress (HS marker genes in Arabidopsis, only exportin 1A (XPO1A (Bra008580, Bra006382 can be applied to B. rapa for basal thermotolerance (BT and short-term acquired thermotolerance (SAT gene. CYP707A3 (Bra025083, Bra021965, which is involved in the dehydration response in Arabidopsis, was associated with membrane leakage in both lines following HS. Although many transcription factors (TF genes, including DREB2A (Bra005852, were involved in HS tolerance in both lines, Bra024224 (MYB41 and Bra021735 (a bZIP/AIR1 [Anthocyanin-Impaired-Response-1] were specific to Kenshin. Several candidate TFs involved in thermotolerance were confirmed as HSR genes by real-time PCR, and these assignments were further supported by promoter analysis. Although some of our findings are similar to those obtained using other plant species, clear differences in Brassica rapa reveal a distinct HSR in this species. Our data could also provide a

  9. Arterial response to shear stress critically depends on endothelial TRPV4 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Hartmannsgruber

    . CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Genetically encoded loss-of-function of trpv4 results in a loss of shear stress-induced vasodilation, a response pattern critically dependent on endothelial TRPV4 expression. Thus, Ca(2+-influx through endothelial TRPV4 channels is a molecular mechanism contributing significantly to endothelial mechanotransduction.

  10. Arterial Response to Shear Stress Critically Depends on Endothelial TRPV4 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacik, Michael; Kaistha, Anuradha; Grgic, Ivica; Harteneck, Christian; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Hoyer, Joachim; Köhler, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    /Significance Genetically encoded loss-of-function of trpv4 results in a loss of shear stress-induced vasodilation, a response pattern critically dependent on endothelial TRPV4 expression. Thus, Ca2+-influx through endothelial TRPV4 channels is a molecular mechanism contributing significantly to endothelial mechanotransduction. PMID:17786199

  11. Cellular Stress Response Gene Expression During Upper and Lower Body High Intensity Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Sawczyn, Stanisław; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Mieszkowski, Jan; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Żychowska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effect of upper and lower body high-intensity exercise on chosen genes expression in athletes and non-athletes. Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (EAG) aged 20.6 ± 3.3 years and 14 physically active men (PAM) aged 19.9 ± 1.0 years performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests. Blood samples were collected before, 5 and 30 minutes after each effort to assess gene expression via PCR. Significantly higher mechanical parameters after lower body exercise was observed in both groups, for relative power (8.7 ± 1.2 W/kg in gymnasts, 7.2 ± 1.2 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01) and mean power (6.7 ± 0.7 W/kg in gymnasts, 5.4 ± 0.8 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01). No differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected for all tested genes as well as between gymnasts and physical active man. For IL-6 m-RNA time-dependent effect was observed. Because of no significant differences in expression of genes associated with cellular stress response the similar adaptive effect to exercise may be obtained so by lower and upper body exercise.

  12. Genes and co-expression modules common to drought and bacterial stress responses in Arabidopsis and rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafi Shaik

    Full Text Available Plants are simultaneously exposed to multiple stresses resulting in enormous changes in the molecular landscape within the cell. Identification and characterization of the synergistic and antagonistic components of stress response mechanisms contributing to the cross talk between stresses is of high priority to explore and enhance multiple stress responses. To this end, we performed meta-analysis of drought (abiotic, bacterial (biotic stress response in rice and Arabidopsis by analyzing a total of 386 microarray samples belonging to 20 microarray studies and identified approximately 3100 and 900 DEGs in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. About 38.5% (1214 and 28.7% (272 DEGs were common to drought and bacterial stresses in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. A majority of these common DEGs showed conserved expression status in both stresses. Gene ontology enrichment analysis clearly demarcated the response and regulation of various plant hormones and related biological processes. Fatty acid metabolism and biosynthesis of alkaloids were upregulated and, nitrogen metabolism and photosynthesis was downregulated in both stress conditions. WRKY transcription family genes were highly enriched in all upregulated gene sets while 'CO-like' TF family showed inverse relationship of expression between drought and bacterial stresses. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis divided DEG sets into multiple modules that show high co-expression and identified stress specific hub genes with high connectivity. Detection of consensus modules based on DEGs common to drought and bacterial stress revealed 9 and 4 modules in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively, with conserved and reversed co-expression patterns.

  13. A WRKY gene from Tamarix hispida, ThWRKY4, mediates abiotic stress responses by modulating reactive oxygen species and expression of stress-responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Liu, Guifeng; Meng, Xiangnan; Liu, Yujia; Ji, Xiaoyu; Li, Yanbang; Nie, Xianguang; Wang, Yucheng

    2013-07-01

    WRKY transcription factors are involved in various biological processes, such as development, metabolism and responses to stress. However, their exact roles in abiotic stress tolerance are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated a working model for the function of a WRKY gene (ThWRKY4) from Tamarix hispida in the stress response. ThWRKY4 is highly induced by abscisic acid (ABA), salt and drought in the early period of stress (stress for 3, 6, or 9 h), which can be regulated by ABF (ABRE binding factors) and Dof (DNA binding with one finger), and also can be crossregulated by other WRKYs and autoregulated as well. Overexpression of ThWRKY4 conferred tolerance to salt, oxidative and ABA treatment in transgenic plants. ThWRKY4 can improve the tolerance to salt and ABA treatment by improving activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, decreasing levels of O2 (-) and H2O2, reducing electrolyte leakage, keeping the loss of chlorophyll, and protecting cells from death. Microarray analyses showed that overexpression of ThWRKY4 in Arabidopsis leads to 165 and 100 genes significantly up- and downregulated, respectively. Promoter scanning analysis revealed that ThWRKY4 regulates the gene expression via binding to W-box motifs present in their promoter regions. This study shows that ThWRKY4 functions as a transcription factor to positively modulate abiotic stress tolerances, and is involved in modulating reactive oxygen species.

  14. Iron is a signal for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia biofilm formation, oxidative stress response, OMPs expression and virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Adrian Garcia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging nosocomial pathogen. In many bacteria iron availability regulates, trough the Fur system, not only iron homeostasis but also virulence. The aim of this work was to assess the role of iron on S. maltophilia biofilm formation, EPS production, oxidative stress response, OMPs regulation, quorum sensing (QS, and virulence. Studies were done on K279 and its isogenic fur mutant F60 cultured in the presence or absence of dipyridyl. This is the first report of spontaneous fur mutants obtained in S. maltophilia. F60 produced higher amounts of biofilms than K279a and CLSM analysis demonstrated improved adherence and biofilm organization. Under iron restricted conditions, K279a produced biofilms with more biomass and enhanced thickness. In addition, F60 produced higher amounts of EPS than K279a but with a similar composition, as revealed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. With respect to the oxidative stress response, MnSOD was the only SOD isoenzyme detected in K279a. F60 presented higher SOD activity than the wt strain in planktonic and biofilm cultures, and iron deprivation increased K279a SOD activity. Under iron starvation, SDS-PAGE profile from K279a presented two iron-repressed proteins. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed homology with FepA and another putative TonB-dependent siderophore receptor of K279a. In silico analysis allowed the detection of potential Fur boxes in the respective coding genes. K279a encodes the QS diffusible signal factor (DSF. Under iron restriction K279a produced higher amounts of DSF than under iron rich condition. Finally, F60 was more virulent than K279a in the Galleria mellonella killing assay. These results put in evidence that iron levels regulate, likely through the Fur system, S. maltophilia biofilm formation, oxidative stress response, OMPs expression, DSF production and virulence.

  15. Integrating Genetic and Gene Co-expression Analysis Identifies Gene Networks Involved in Alcohol and Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Xu, Pei; Cao, Peijian; Wan, Hongjian; Lv, Xiaonan; Xu, Shengchun; Wang, Gangjun; Cook, Melloni N; Jones, Byron C; Lu, Lu; Wang, Xusheng

    2018-01-01

    Although the link between stress and alcohol is well recognized, the underlying mechanisms of how they interplay at the molecular level remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to identify molecular networks underlying the effects of alcohol and stress responses, as well as their interaction on anxiety behaviors in the hippocampus of mice using a systems genetics approach. Here, we applied a gene co-expression network approach to transcriptomes of 41 BXD mouse strains under four conditions: stress, alcohol, stress-induced alcohol and control. The co-expression analysis identified 14 modules and characterized four expression patterns across the four conditions. The four expression patterns include up-regulation in no restraint stress and given an ethanol injection (NOE) but restoration in restraint stress followed by an ethanol injection (RSE; pattern 1), down-regulation in NOE but rescue in RSE (pattern 2), up-regulation in both restraint stress followed by a saline injection (RSS) and NOE, and further amplification in RSE (pattern 3), and up-regulation in RSS but reduction in both NOE and RSE (pattern 4). We further identified four functional subnetworks by superimposing protein-protein interactions (PPIs) to the 14 co-expression modules, including γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA) signaling, glutamate signaling, neuropeptide signaling, cAMP-dependent signaling. We further performed module specificity analysis to identify modules that are specific to stress, alcohol, or stress-induced alcohol responses. Finally, we conducted causality analysis to link genetic variation to these identified modules, and anxiety behaviors after stress and alcohol treatments. This study underscores the importance of integrative analysis and offers new insights into the molecular networks underlying stress and alcohol responses.

  16. Integrating Genetic and Gene Co-expression Analysis Identifies Gene Networks Involved in Alcohol and Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Luo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the link between stress and alcohol is well recognized, the underlying mechanisms of how they interplay at the molecular level remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to identify molecular networks underlying the effects of alcohol and stress responses, as well as their interaction on anxiety behaviors in the hippocampus of mice using a systems genetics approach. Here, we applied a gene co-expression network approach to transcriptomes of 41 BXD mouse strains under four conditions: stress, alcohol, stress-induced alcohol and control. The co-expression analysis identified 14 modules and characterized four expression patterns across the four conditions. The four expression patterns include up-regulation in no restraint stress and given an ethanol injection (NOE but restoration in restraint stress followed by an ethanol injection (RSE; pattern 1, down-regulation in NOE but rescue in RSE (pattern 2, up-regulation in both restraint stress followed by a saline injection (RSS and NOE, and further amplification in RSE (pattern 3, and up-regulation in RSS but reduction in both NOE and RSE (pattern 4. We further identified four functional subnetworks by superimposing protein-protein interactions (PPIs to the 14 co-expression modules, including γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA signaling, glutamate signaling, neuropeptide signaling, cAMP-dependent signaling. We further performed module specificity analysis to identify modules that are specific to stress, alcohol, or stress-induced alcohol responses. Finally, we conducted causality analysis to link genetic variation to these identified modules, and anxiety behaviors after stress and alcohol treatments. This study underscores the importance of integrative analysis and offers new insights into the molecular networks underlying stress and alcohol responses.

  17. Gene expression and stress response mediated by the epigenetic regulation of a transposable element small RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D McCue

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The epigenetic activity of transposable elements (TEs can influence the regulation of genes; though, this regulation is confined to the genes, promoters, and enhancers that neighbor the TE. This local cis regulation of genes therefore limits the influence of the TE's epigenetic regulation on the genome. TE activity is suppressed by small RNAs, which also inhibit viruses and regulate the expression of genes. The production of TE heterochromatin-associated endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana is mechanistically distinct from gene-regulating small RNAs, such as microRNAs or trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs. Previous research identified a TE small RNA that potentially regulates the UBP1b mRNA, which encodes an RNA-binding protein involved in stress granule formation. We demonstrate that this siRNA, siRNA854, is under the same trans-generational epigenetic control as the Athila family LTR retrotransposons from which it is produced. The epigenetic activation of Athila elements results in a shift in small RNA processing pathways, and new 21-22 nucleotide versions of Athila siRNAs are produced by protein components normally not responsible for processing TE siRNAs. This processing results in siRNA854's incorporation into ARGONAUTE1 protein complexes in a similar fashion to gene-regulating tasiRNAs. We have used reporter transgenes to demonstrate that the UPB1b 3' untranslated region directly responds to the epigenetic status of Athila TEs and the accumulation of siRNA854. The regulation of the UPB1b 3' untranslated region occurs both on the post-transcriptional and translational levels when Athila TEs are epigenetically activated, and this regulation results in the phenocopy of the ubp1b mutant stress-sensitive phenotype. This demonstrates that a TE's epigenetic activity can modulate the host organism's stress response. In addition, the ability of this TE siRNA to regulate a gene's expression in trans blurs

  18. Genome-wide expression analysis offers new insights into the origin and evolution of Physcomitrella patens stress response

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2015-11-30

    Changes in the environment, such as those caused by climate change, can exert stress on plant growth, diversity and ultimately global food security. Thus, focused efforts to fully understand plant response to stress are urgently needed in order to develop strategies to cope with the effects of climate change. Because Physcomitrella patens holds a key evolutionary position bridging the gap between green algae and higher plants, and because it exhibits a well-developed stress tolerance, it is an excellent model for such exploration. Here, we have used Physcomitrella patens to study genome-wide responses to abiotic stress through transcriptomic analysis by a high-throughput sequencing platform. We report a comprehensive analysis of transcriptome dynamics, defining profiles of elicited gene regulation responses to abiotic stress-associated hormone Abscisic Acid (ABA), cold, drought, and salt treatments. We identified more than 20,000 genes expressed under each aforementioned stress treatments, of which 9,668 display differential expression in response to stress. The comparison of Physcomitrella patens stress regulated genes with unicellular algae, vascular and flowering plants revealed genomic delineation concomitant with the evolutionary movement to land, including a general gene family complexity and loss of genes associated with different functional groups.

  19. Differential expression of calcium/calmodulin-regulated SlSRs in response to abiotic and biotic stresses in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianbao; Peng, Hui; Whitaker, Bruce D; Jurick, Wayne M

    2013-07-01

    Calcium has been shown to enhance stress tolerance, maintain firmness and reduce decay in fruits. Previously we reported that seven tomato SlSRs encode calcium/calmodulin-regulated proteins, and that their expressions are developmentally regulated during fruit development and ripening, and are also responsive to ethylene. To study their expressions in response to stresses encountered during postharvest handling, tomato fruit at the mature-green stage was subjected to chilling and wounding injuries, infected with Botrytis cinerea and treated with salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate. Gene expression studies revealed that the seven SlSRs differentially respond to different stress signals. SlSR2 was the only gene upregulated by all the treatments. SlSR4 acted as a late pathogen-induced gene; it was upregulated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, but downregulated by cold treatment. SlSR3L was cold- and wound-responsive and was also induced by salicylic acid. SlSR1 and SlSR1L were repressed by cold, wounding and pathogen infection, but were upregulated by salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate. Overall, results of these expression studies indicate that individual SlSRs have distinct roles in responses to the specific stress signals, and SlSRs may act as a coordinator(s) connecting calcium-mediated signaling with other stress signal transduction pathways during fruit ripening and storage. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  20. Analysis of global gene expression in Brachypodium distachyon reveals extensive network plasticity in response to abiotic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry D Priest

    Full Text Available Brachypodium distachyon is a close relative of many important cereal crops. Abiotic stress tolerance has a significant impact on productivity of agriculturally important food and feedstock crops. Analysis of the transcriptome of Brachypodium after chilling, high-salinity, drought, and heat stresses revealed diverse differential expression of many transcripts. Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis revealed 22 distinct gene modules with specific profiles of expression under each stress. Promoter analysis implicated short DNA sequences directly upstream of module members in the regulation of 21 of 22 modules. Functional analysis of module members revealed enrichment in functional terms for 10 of 22 network modules. Analysis of condition-specific correlations between differentially expressed gene pairs revealed extensive plasticity in the expression relationships of gene pairs. Photosynthesis, cell cycle, and cell wall expression modules were down-regulated by all abiotic stresses. Modules which were up-regulated by each abiotic stress fell into diverse and unique gene ontology GO categories. This study provides genomics resources and improves our understanding of abiotic stress responses of Brachypodium.

  1. Copepod swimming behavior, respiration, and expression of stress-related genes in response to high stocking densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Birgitte; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Stief, Peter

    2017-01-01

    is problematic for calanoid copepod species like Acartia tonsa. In the present study, we evaluated the response of copepods experiencing stress under high-density conditions by assessing the acute stress level of A. tonsa. Control density was at 100 ind. L−1 while the treatments were increased stepwise up to 10......,000 ind. L−1. Three biological/physiological end-points were studied: swimming behavior, respiration rate and expression level of stress-related genes. None of the elevated densities caused any significant change in swimming behavior, respiration rate or gene expression level. This study suggests...... that adults of A. tonsa do not exhibit any measurable acute stress response when exposed to high culture densities for 12 h....

  2. Identification of PEG-induced water stress responsive transcripts using co-expression network in Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh Dasgupta, Modhumita; Dharanishanthi, Veeramuthu

    2017-09-05

    Ecophysiological studies in Eucalyptus have shown that water is the principal factor limiting stem growth. Effect of water deficit conditions on physiological and biochemical parameters has been extensively reported in Eucalyptus. The present study was conducted to identify major polyethylene glycol induced water stress responsive transcripts in Eucalyptus grandis using gene co-expression network. A customized array representing 3359 water stress responsive genes was designed to document their expression in leaves of E. grandis cuttings subjected to -0.225MPa of PEG treatment. The differentially expressed transcripts were documented and significantly co-expressed transcripts were used for construction of network. The co-expression network was constructed with 915 nodes and 3454 edges with degree ranging from 2 to 45. Ninety four GO categories and 117 functional pathways were identified in the network. MCODE analysis generated 27 modules and module 6 with 479 nodes and 1005 edges was identified as the biologically relevant network. The major water responsive transcripts represented in the module included dehydrin, osmotin, LEA protein, expansin, arabinogalactans, heat shock proteins, major facilitator proteins, ARM repeat proteins, raffinose synthase, tonoplast intrinsic protein and transcription factors like DREB2A, ARF9, AGL24, UNE12, WLIM1 and MYB66, MYB70, MYB 55, MYB 16 and MYB 103. The coordinated analysis of gene expression patterns and coexpression networks developed in this study identified an array of transcripts that may regulate PEG induced water stress responses in E. grandis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals differential gene expression in response to salt stress in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Ananthi; Puranik, Swati; Rai, Neeraj Kumar; Vidapu, Sudhakar; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Lata, Charu; Prasad, Manoj

    2008-11-01

    Plant growth and productivity are affected by various abiotic stresses such as heat, drought, cold, salinity, etc. The mechanism of salt tolerance is one of the most important subjects in plant science as salt stress decreases worldwide agricultural production. In our present study we used cDNA-AFLP technique to compare gene expression profiles of a salt tolerant and a salt-sensitive cultivar of foxtail millet (Seteria italica) in response to salt stress to identify early responsive differentially expressed transcripts accumulated upon salt stress and validate the obtained result through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression profile was compared between a salt tolerant (Prasad) and susceptible variety (Lepakshi) of foxtail millet in both control condition (L0 and P0) and after 1 h (L1 and P1) of salt stress. We identified 90 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) that are differentially expressed, out of which 86 TDFs were classified on the basis of their either complete presence or absence (qualitative variants) and 4 on differential expression pattern levels (quantitative variants) in the two varieties. Finally, we identified 27 non-redundant differentially expressed cDNAs that are unique to salt tolerant variety which represent different groups of genes involved in metabolism, cellular transport, cell signaling, transcriptional regulation, mRNA splicing, seed development and storage, etc. The expression patterns of seven out of nine such genes showed a significant increase of differential expression in tolerant variety after 1 h of salt stress in comparison to salt-sensitive variety as analyzed by qRT-PCR. The direct and indirect relationship of identified TDFs with salinity tolerance mechanism is discussed.

  4. Identification and expression of the WRKY transcription factors of Carica papaya in response to abiotic and biotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lin-Jie; Jiang, Ling

    2014-03-01

    The WRKY transcription factor (TF) plays a very important role in the response of plants to various abiotic and biotic stresses. A local papaya database was built according to the GenBank expressed sequence tag database using the BioEdit software. Fifty-two coding sequences of Carica papaya WRKY TFs were predicted using the tBLASTn tool. The phylogenetic tree of the WRKY proteins was classified. The expression profiles of 13 selected C. papaya WRKY TF genes under stress induction were constructed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of these WRKY genes in response to 3 abiotic and 2 biotic stresses were evaluated. TF807.3 and TF72.14 are upregulated by low temperature; TF807.3, TF43.76, TF12.199 and TF12.62 are involved in the response to drought stress; TF9.35, TF18.51, TF72.14 and TF12.199 is involved in response to wound; TF12.199, TF807.3, TF21.156 and TF18.51 was induced by PRSV pathogen; TF72.14 and TF43.76 are upregulated by SA. The regulated expression levels of above eight genes normalized against housekeeping gene actin were significant at probability of 0.01 levels. These WRKY TFs could be related to corresponding stress resistance and selected as the candidate genes, especially, the two genes TF807.3 and TF12.199, which were regulated notably by four stresses respectively. This study may provide useful information and candidate genes for the development of transgenic stress tolerant papaya varieties.

  5. Differential gene expressions in testes of L2 strain Taiwan country chicken in response to acute heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2013-01-15

    Acute heat stress affects genes involved in spermatogenesis in mammals. However, there is apparently no elaborate research on the effects of acute heat stress on gene expression in avian testes. The purpose of this study was to investigate global gene expression in testes of the L2 strain of Taiwan country chicken after acute heat stress. Twelve roosters, 45 weeks old, were allocated into four groups, including control roosters kept at 25 °C, roosters subjected to 38 °C acute heat stress for 4 hours without recovery, with 2-hour recovery, and with 6-hour recovery, respectively. Testis samples were collected for RNA isolation and microarray analysis. Based on gene expression profiles, 169 genes were upregulated and 140 genes were downregulated after heat stress using a cutoff value of twofold or greater change. Based on gene ontology analysis, differentially expressed genes were mainly related to response to stress, transport, signal transduction, and metabolism. A functional network analysis displayed that heat shock protein genes and related chaperones were the major upregulated groups in chicken testes after acute heat stress. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of mRNA expressions of HSP70, HSP90AA1, BAG3, SERPINB2, HSP25, DNAJA4, CYP3A80, CIRBP, and TAGLN confirmed the results of the microarray analysis. Because the HSP genes (HSP25, HSP70, and HSP90AA1) and the antiapoptotic BAG3 gene were dramatically altered in heat-stressed chicken testes, we concluded that these genes were important factors in the avian testes under acute heat stress. Whether these genes could be candidate genes for thermotolerance in roosters requires further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Global analysis of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in response to drought stress in Sorghum.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Anireddy [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Ben-Hur, Asa [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Abiotic stresses including drought are major limiting factors of crop yields and cause significant crop losses. Acquisition of stress tolerance to abiotic stresses requires coordinated regulation of a multitude of biochemical and physiological changes, and most of these changes depend on alterations in gene expression. The goal of this work is to perform global analysis of differential regulation of gene expression and alternative splicing, and their relationship with chromatin landscape in drought sensitive and tolerant cultivars. our Iso-Seq study revealed transcriptome-wide full-length isoforms at an unprecedented scale with over 11000 novel splice isoforms. Additionally, we uncovered alternative polyadenylation sites of ~11000 expressed genes and many novel genes. Overall, Iso-Seq results greatly enhanced sorghum gene annotations that are not only useful in analyzing all our RNA-seq, ChIP-seq and ATAC-seq data but also serve as a great resource to the plant biology community. Our studies identified differentially expressed genes and splicing events that are correlated with the drought-resistant phenotype. An association between alternative splicing and chromatin accessibility was also revealed. Several computational tools developed here (TAPIS and iDiffIR) have been made freely available to the research community in analyzing alternative splicing and differential alternative splicing.

  7. Comparing genomic expression patterns across plant species reveals highly diverged transcriptional dynamics in response to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Close Timothy J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice and barley are both members of Poaceae (grass family but have a marked difference in salt tolerance. The molecular mechanism underlying this difference was previously unexplored. This study employs a comparative genomics approach to identify analogous and contrasting gene expression patterns between rice and barley. Results A hierarchical clustering approach identified several interesting expression trajectories among rice and barley genotypes. There were no major conserved expression patterns between the two species in response to salt stress. A wheat salt-stress dataset was queried for comparison with rice and barley. Roughly one-third of the salt-stress responses of barley were conserved with wheat while overlap between wheat and rice was minimal. These results demonstrate that, at transcriptome level, rice is strikingly different compared to the more closely related barley and wheat. This apparent lack of analogous transcriptional programs in response to salt stress is further highlighted through close examination of genes associated with root growth and development. Conclusion The analysis provides support for the hypothesis that conservation of transcriptional signatures in response to environmental cues depends on the genetic similarity among the genotypes within a species, and on the phylogenetic distance between the species.

  8. Differential expression of poplar sucrose nonfermenting1-related protein kinase 2 genes in response to abiotic stress and abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Takebayashi, Arika; Demura, Taku; Ohtani, Misato

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge on the responses of woody plants to abiotic stress can inform strategies to breed improved tree varieties and to manage tree species for environmental conservation and the production of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we examined the expression patterns of poplar (Populus trichocarpa) genes encoding members of the sucrose nonfermenting1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family, which are core components of the abiotic stress response. The P. trichocarpa genome contains twelve SnRK2 genes (PtSnRK2.1- PtSnRK2.12) that can be divided into three subclasses (I-III) based on the structures of their encoded kinase domains. We found that PtSnRK2s are differentially expressed in various organs. In MS medium-grown plants, all of the PtSnRK2 genes were significantly upregulated in response to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, whereas osmotic and salt stress treatments induced only some (four and seven, respectively) of the PtSnRK2 genes. By contrast, soil-grown plants showed increased expression of most PtSnRK2 genes under drought and salt treatments, but not under ABA treatment. In soil-grown plants, drought stress induced SnRK2 subclass II genes in all tested organs (leaves, stems, and roots), whereas subclass III genes tended to be upregulated in leaves only. These results suggest that the PtSnRK2 genes are involved in abiotic stress responses, are at least partially activated by ABA, and show organ-specific responses.

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis accompanies enhanced expression of multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase 1 (Minpp1): a possible role for Minpp1 in cellular stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilaparty, Surya P; Agarwal, Rakhee; Singh, Pooja; Kannan, Krishnaswamy; Ali, Nawab

    2016-07-01

    Inositol polyphosphates represent a group of differentially phosphorylated inositol metabolites, many of which are implicated to regulate diverse cellular processes such as calcium mobilization, vesicular trafficking, differentiation, apoptosis, etc. The metabolic network of these compounds is complex and tightly regulated by various kinases and phosphatases present predominantly in the cytosol. Multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase 1 (Minpp1) is the only known endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal enzyme that hydrolyzes various inositol polyphosphates in vitro as well as in vivo conditions. However, access of the Minpp1 to cytosolic substrates has not yet been demonstrated clearly and hence its physiological function. In this study, we examined a potential role for Minpp1 in ER stress-induced apoptosis. We generated a custom antibody and characterized its specificity to study the expression of Minpp1 protein in multiple mammalian cells under experimentally induced cellular stress conditions. Our results demonstrate a significant increase in the expression of Minpp1 in response to a variety of cellular stress conditions. The protein expression was corroborated with the expression of its mRNA and enzymatic activity. Further, in an attempt to link the role of Minpp1 to apoptotic stress, we studied the effect of Minpp1 expression on apoptosis following silencing of the Minpp1 gene by its specific siRNA. Our results suggest an attenuation of apoptotic parameters following knockdown of Minpp1. Thus, in addition to its known role in inositol polyphosphate metabolism, we have identified a novel role for Minpp1 as a stress-responsive protein. In summary, our results provide, for the first time, a probable link between ER stress-induced apoptosis and Minpp1 expression.

  10. Cloning and Expression Analysis of an AP2/ERF Gene and Its Responses to Phytohormones and Abiotic Stresses in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-li MA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene response factors (ERFs play important roles in response to plant biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a gene encoding a putative AP2/ERF domain-containing protein was isolated by screening a SSH cDNA library from rice and designated as Oryza sativa AP2/ERF-like protein (OsAP2LP gene. OsAP2LP is 1491 bp in length, interrupted by seven introns, and encodes a putative protein of 348 amino acids. Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that the OsAP2LP gene was preferentially expressed in roots, panicles, mature embryos and seeds in rice. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression levels of the OsAP2LP gene were increased under the treatments of drought and gibberellin but decreased under the treatments of low temperature, salt, abscisic acid (ABA and zeatin. Taken together, these results suggest that OsAP2LP might be involved in stress responses, and probably plays roles as a transcription regulator when plants response to cold, salt and drought stresses through ABA and gibberellin pathways.

  11. De novo transcriptome sequencing of Isaria cateniannulata and comparative analysis of gene expression in response to heat and cold stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingfeng Wang

    Full Text Available Isaria cateniannulata is a very important and virulent entomopathogenic fungus that infects many insect pest species. Although I. cateniannulata is commonly exposed to extreme environmental temperature conditions, little is known about its molecular response mechanism to temperature stress. Here, we sequenced and de novo assembled the transcriptome of I. cateniannulata in response to high and low temperature stresses using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. Our assembly encompassed 17,514 unigenes (mean length = 1,197 bp, in which 11,445 unigenes (65.34% showed significant similarities to known sequences in NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (Nr database. Using digital gene expression analysis, 4,483 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified after heat treatment, including 2,905 up-regulated genes and 1,578 down-regulated genes. Under cold stress, 1,927 DEGs were identified, including 1,245 up-regulated genes and 682 down-regulated genes. The expression patterns of 18 randomly selected candidate DEGs resulting from quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR were consistent with their transcriptome analysis results. Although DEGs were involved in many pathways, we focused on the genes that were involved in endocytosis: In heat stress, the pathway of clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE was active; however at low temperature stresses, the pathway of clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE was active. Besides, four categories of DEGs acting as temperature sensors were observed, including cell-wall-major-components-metabolism-related (CWMCMR genes, heat shock protein (Hsp genes, intracellular-compatible-solutes-metabolism-related (ICSMR genes and glutathione S-transferase (GST. These results enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of I. cateniannulata in response to temperature stresses and provide a valuable resource for the future investigations.

  12. Thermotolerant yeasts selected by adaptive evolution express heat stress response at 30ºC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    to grow at increased temperature, activated a constitutive heat stress response when grown at the optimal ancestral temperature, and that this is associated with a reduced growth rate. This preventive response was perfected by additional transcriptional changes activated when the cultivation temperature...... is increased. Remarkably, the sum of global transcriptional changes activated in the thermotolerant strains when transferred from the optimal to the high temperature, corresponded, in magnitude and direction, to the global changes observed in the ancestral strain exposed to the same transition....... This demonstrates robustness of the yeast transcriptional program when exposed to heat, and that the thermotolerant strains streamlined their path to rapidly and optimally reach post-stress transcriptional and metabolic levels. Thus, long-term adaptation to heat improved yeasts ability to rapidly adapt to increased...

  13. Dehydrins in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and their expression related to drought stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco-Conde, Tania; Yakovlev, Igor; Majada, J.P. (Juan); Johnsen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) is an important commercial species throughout its Atlantic distribution. With the anticipated increase in desiccation of its habitat as a result of climate change, the selection of genotypes with increased survival and growth capability under these conditions for breeding programs is of great interest for this species. We aimed to study the response to a realistic drought stress under controlled conditions, looked for a method to measure dehydration resistance, ...

  14. Exercise improves cognitive responses to psychological stress through enhancement of epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression in the dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Collins

    Full Text Available We have shown previously that exercise benefits stress resistance and stress coping capabilities. Furthermore, we reported recently that epigenetic changes related to gene transcription are involved in memory formation of stressful events. In view of the enhanced coping capabilities in exercised subjects we investigated epigenetic, gene expression and behavioral changes in 4-weeks voluntarily exercised rats.Exercised and control rats coped differently when exposed to a novel environment. Whereas the control rats explored the new cage for the complete 30-min period, exercised animals only did so during the first 15 min after which they returned to sleeping or resting behavior. Both groups of animals showed similar behavioral responses in the initial forced swim session. When re-tested 24 h later however the exercised rats showed significantly more immobility behavior and less struggling and swimming. If rats were killed at 2 h after novelty or the initial swim test, i.e. at the peak of histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction, then the exercised rats showed a significantly higher number of dentate granule neurons expressing the histone modifications and immediate-early gene induction.Thus, irrespective of the behavioral response in the novel cage or initial forced swim session, the impact of the event at the dentate gyrus level was greater in exercised rats than in control animals. Furthermore, in view of our concept that the neuronal response in the dentate gyrus after forced swimming is involved in memory formation of the stressful event, the observations in exercised rats of enhanced neuronal responses as well as higher immobility responses in the re-test are consistent with the reportedly improved cognitive performance in these animals. Thus, improved stress coping in exercised subjects seems to involve enhanced cognitive capabilities possibly resulting from distinct epigenetic mechanisms in dentate gyrus neurons.

  15. Transgenerational changes in plant physiology and in transposon expression in response to UV-C stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migicovsky, Zoe; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Stress has a negative impact on crop yield by altering a gain in biomass and affecting seed set. Recent reports suggest that exposure to stress also influences the response of the progeny. In this paper, we analyzed seed size, leaf size, bolting time and transposon expression in 2 consecutive generations of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to moderate UV-C stress. Since previous reports suggested a potential role of Dicer-like (DCL) proteins in the establishment of transgenerational response, we used dcl2, dcl3 and dcl4 mutants in parallel with wild-type plants. These studies revealed that leaf number decreased in the progeny of UV-C stressed plants, and bolting occurred later. Transposons were also re-activated in the progeny of stressed plants. Changes in the dcl mutants were less prominent than in wild-type plants. DCL2 and DCL3 appeared to be more important in the transgenerational stress memory than DCL4 because transgenerational changes were less profound in the dcl2 and dcl3 mutants.

  16. De novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in response to freezing stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Mousavi

    Full Text Available Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill., one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond's transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current research, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reproductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomly selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant.

  17. De novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in response to freezing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Sadegh; Alisoltani, Arghavan; Shiran, Behrouz; Fallahi, Hossein; Ebrahimie, Esameil; Imani, Ali; Houshmand, Saadollah

    2014-01-01

    Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond's transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current research, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reproductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary) to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE) genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomly selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant.

  18. Dietary Resveratrol Does Not Affect Life Span, Body Composition, Stress Response, and Longevity-Related Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Staats

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the effect of the stilbene resveratrol on life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and the expression of genes encoding proteins centrally involved in ageing pathways in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female w1118 D. melanogaster were fed diets based on sucrose, corn meal, and yeast. Flies either received a control diet or a diet supplemented with 500 µmol/L resveratrol. Dietary resveratrol did not affect mean, median, and maximal life span of male and female flies. Furthermore, body composition remained largely unchanged following the resveratrol supplementation. Locomotor activity, as determined by the climbing index, was not significantly different between control and resveratrol-supplemented flies. Resveratrol-fed flies did not exhibit an improved stress response towards hydrogen peroxide as compared to controls. Resveratrol did not change mRNA steady levels of antioxidant (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, NADH dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2 and longevity-related genes, including sirtuin 2, spargel, and I’m Not Dead Yet. Collectively, present data suggest that resveratrol does not affect life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and longevity-associated gene expression in w1118 D. melanogaster.

  19. Dietary Resveratrol Does Not Affect Life Span, Body Composition, Stress Response, and Longevity-Related Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Stefanie; Wagner, Anika E; Kowalewski, Bianca; Rieck, Florian T; Soukup, Sebastian T; Kulling, Sabine E; Rimbach, Gerald

    2018-01-11

    In this study, we tested the effect of the stilbene resveratrol on life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and the expression of genes encoding proteins centrally involved in ageing pathways in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster . Male and female w 1118 D. melanogaster were fed diets based on sucrose, corn meal, and yeast. Flies either received a control diet or a diet supplemented with 500 µmol/L resveratrol. Dietary resveratrol did not affect mean, median, and maximal life span of male and female flies. Furthermore, body composition remained largely unchanged following the resveratrol supplementation. Locomotor activity, as determined by the climbing index, was not significantly different between control and resveratrol-supplemented flies. Resveratrol-fed flies did not exhibit an improved stress response towards hydrogen peroxide as compared to controls. Resveratrol did not change mRNA steady levels of antioxidant ( catalase , glutathione-S-transferase , NADH dehydrogenase , glutathione peroxidase , superoxide dismutase 2 ) and longevity-related genes, including sirtuin 2 , spargel , and I'm Not Dead Yet . Collectively, present data suggest that resveratrol does not affect life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and longevity-associated gene expression in w 1118 D. melanogaster .

  20. Impact of short-term heat stress on physiological responses and expression profile of HSPs in Barbari goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Satyaveer Singh; Gupta, Mahesh; Nagar, Vimla; Yadav, Vijay Pratap; Dangi, Saroj K.; Shankar, Om; Chouhan, Vikrant Singh; Kumar, Puneet; Singh, Gyanendra; Sarkar, Mihir

    2014-12-01

    Six, nonpregnant, Barbari goats aged 4-5 years were selected for the study. For the first 6 days, the animals were kept in psychrometric chamber at thermoneutral temperature for 6 h each day to make them acclimated to climatic chamber. On the 7th day, the animals were exposed to 41 °C temperature for 3 h and then to 45 °C for the next 3 h. Cardinal physiological responses were measured, and blood samples (3 ml) were collected at 1-h interval during the heat exposure period and then once after 6 h of the heat exposure. The rectal temperature (RT) and respiratory rate (RR) increased significantly ( P < 0.05) during the heat exposure compared to pre- and postexposure. The relative messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of heat shock protein (HSP)60, HSP70, and HSP90 increased significantly ( P < 0.05) within 1 h after exposure to heat stress at 41 and 45 °C and decreased significantly ( P < 0.05) in next 2 h but remain significantly ( P < 0.05) elevated from preexposure. HSP105/110 relative mRNA expression level remained unchanged during the first 4 h, and thereafter, it increased significantly ( P < 0.05) and reached the peak at 6 h. Relative protein expression pattern of HSPs during exposure to heat stress showed similar trend as observed for the relative mRNA expression. Given the response sensitivity and intensity of HSP genes to environmental stresses, HSP70 was found to be the most sensitive to temperature fluctuation, and it could be used as an important molecular biomarker to heat stress in animals.

  1. Bruxism affects stress responses in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Chikatoshi; Sato, Sadao; Takashina, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hidenori; Onozuka, Minoru; Sasaguri, Kenichi

    2010-04-01

    It has been proposed that suppression of stress-related emotional responses leads to the simultaneous activation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and that the expression of these emotional states has a protective effect against ulcerogenesis. In the present study, we investigated whether stress-induced bruxism activity (SBA) has a physiological effect of on the stress-induced changes of the stomach, thymus, and spleen as well as blood leukocytes, cortisol, and adrenaline. This study demonstrated that SBA attenuated the stress-induced ulcer genesis as well as degenerative changes of thymus and spleen. SBA also attenuated increases of adrenaline, cortisol, and neutrophils in the blood. In conclusion, expression of aggression through SBA during stress exposure attenuates both stress-induced ANS response, including gastric ulcer formation.

  2. Insight into small RNA abundance and expression in high- and low-temperature stress response using deep sequencing in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baev, Vesselin; Milev, Ivan; Naydenov, Mladen; Vachev, Tihomir; Apostolova, Elena; Mehterov, Nikolay; Gozmanva, Mariyana; Minkov, Georgi; Sablok, Gaurav; Yahubyan, Galina

    2014-11-01

    Small RNA profiling and assessing its dependence on changing environmental factors have expanded our understanding of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of plant stress responses. Insufficient data have been documented earlier to depict the profiling of small RNA classes in temperature-associated stress which has a wide implication for climate change biology. In the present study, we report a comparative assessment of the genome-wide profiling of small RNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana using two conditional responses, induced by high- and low-temperature. Genome-wide profiling of small RNAs revealed an abundance of 21 nt small RNAs at low temperature, while high temperature showed an abundance of 21 nt and 24 nt small RNAs. The two temperature treatments altered the expression of a specific subset of mature miRNAs and displayed differential expression of a number of miRNA isoforms (isomiRs). Comparative analysis demonstrated that a large number of protein-coding genes can give rise to differentially expressed small RNAs following temperature shifts. Low temperature caused accumulation of small RNAs, corresponding to the sense strand of a number of cold-responsive genes. In contrast, high temperature stimulated the production of small RNAs of both polarities from genes encoding functionally diverse proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular responses during cadmium-induced stress in Daphnia magna: Integration of differential gene expression with higher-level effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetaert, Anneleen [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: anneleen.soetaert@ua.ac.be; Vandenbrouck, Tine [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Ven, Karlijn van der [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Maras, Marleen [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Remortel, Piet van [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Intelligent Systems Laboratory, University of Antwerp, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coen, Wim M. de [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-07-20

    DNA microarrays offer great potential in revealing insight into mechanistic toxicity of contaminants. The aim of the present study was (i) to gain insight in concentration- and time-dependent cadmium-induced molecular responses by using a customized Daphnia magna microarray, and (ii) to compare the gene expression profiles with effects at higher levels of biological organization (e.g. total energy budget and growth). Daphnids were exposed to three cadmium concentrations (nominal value of 10, 50, 100 {mu}g/l) for two time intervals (48 and 96 h). In general, dynamic expression patterns were obtained with a clear increase of gene expression changes at higher concentrations and longer exposure duration. Microarray analysis revealed cadmium affected molecular pathways associated with processes such as digestion, oxygen transport, cuticula metabolism and embryo development. These effects were compared with higher-level effects (energy budgets and growth). For instance, next to reduced energy budgets due to a decline in lipid, carbohydrate and protein content, we found an up-regulated expression of genes related to digestive processes (e.g. {alpha}-esterase, cellulase, {alpha}-amylase). Furthermore, cadmium affected the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in molecular pathways associated with immune response, stress response, cell adhesion, visual perception and signal transduction in the present study.

  4. Expression of hilA in response to mild acid stress in Salmonella enterica is serovar and strain dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gil, Francisco; Le Bolloch, Alexandre; Pendleton, Sean; Zhang, Nan; Wallis, Audra; Hanning, Irene

    2012-05-01

    Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of foodborne illness with poultry and poultry products being primary sources of infection. The 2 most common S. enterica serovars associated with human infection are Typhimurium and Enteritidis. However, Kentucky and Heidelburg and the 2 most prevalent serovars isolated from poultry environments. Given the prevalence of other serovars in poultry products and environments, research is needed to understand virulence modulation in response to stress in serovars other than Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Thus, the objective of this research was to compare hilA gene expression (a master regulator of the virulence pathogenicity island) in response to acid stress among different strains and serovars of Salmonella. A total of 11 serovars consisting of 15 strains of S. enterica were utilized for these experiments. Cultures were suspended in tryptic soy broth (TSB) adjusted to pH 7.2, 6.2, or 5.5 with HCl or acetic acid. Total RNA was extracted from cultures at specific time points (0, 2, 4, and 24 h). Gene expression of hilA was measured with quantitative reverse transcriptase real time PCR (qRT-PCR). Growth and pH were measured throughout the 24 h time frame. Regulation of hilA in response to acid stress varied by serovar and strain and type of acid. The results of these experiments indicate that hilA regulation may have some impact on virulence and colonization of S. enterica. However, these results warrant further research to more fully understand the significance of hilA regulation in response to mild acid stress in S. enterica. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Identification and expression analyses of WRKY genes reveal their involvement in growth and abiotic stress response in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhen; Li, Hao; Yang, Yongchao; Wang, Yongqi; Mo, Yanling; Zhang, Ruimin; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Jianxiang; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2018-01-01

    Despite identification of WRKY family genes in numerous plant species, a little is known about WRKY genes in watermelon, one of the most economically important fruit crops around the world. Here, we identified a total of 63 putative WRKY genes in watermelon and classified them into three major groups (I-III) and five subgroups (IIa-IIe) in group II. The structure analysis indicated that ClWRKYs with different WRKY domains or motifs may play different roles by regulating respective target genes. The expressions of ClWRKYs in different tissues indicate that they are involved in various tissue growth and development. Furthermore, the diverse responses of ClWRKYs to drought, salt, or cold stress suggest that they positively or negatively affect plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In addition, the altered expression patterns of ClWRKYs in response to phytohormones such as, ABA, SA, MeJA, and ETH, imply the occurrence of complex cross-talks between ClWRKYs and plant hormone signals in regulating plant physiological and biological processes. Taken together, our findings provide valuable clues to further explore the function and regulatory mechanisms of ClWRKY genes in watermelon growth, development, and adaption to environmental stresses.

  6. Identification and expression analyses of WRKY genes reveal their involvement in growth and abiotic stress response in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Yang

    Full Text Available Despite identification of WRKY family genes in numerous plant species, a little is known about WRKY genes in watermelon, one of the most economically important fruit crops around the world. Here, we identified a total of 63 putative WRKY genes in watermelon and classified them into three major groups (I-III and five subgroups (IIa-IIe in group II. The structure analysis indicated that ClWRKYs with different WRKY domains or motifs may play different roles by regulating respective target genes. The expressions of ClWRKYs in different tissues indicate that they are involved in various tissue growth and development. Furthermore, the diverse responses of ClWRKYs to drought, salt, or cold stress suggest that they positively or negatively affect plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In addition, the altered expression patterns of ClWRKYs in response to phytohormones such as, ABA, SA, MeJA, and ETH, imply the occurrence of complex cross-talks between ClWRKYs and plant hormone signals in regulating plant physiological and biological processes. Taken together, our findings provide valuable clues to further explore the function and regulatory mechanisms of ClWRKY genes in watermelon growth, development, and adaption to environmental stresses.

  7. Multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to study the expression of virulence and stress response genes in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrihari, Rohinishree Yadahalli; Singh, Negi Pradeep

    2012-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus survives well in different stress conditions. The ability of this organism to adapt to various stresses is the result of a complex regulatory response, which is attributed to regulation of multiple genes. The aims of the present study were (1) to develop a multiplex PCR for the detection of genes which are involved in stress adaptation (asp23, dnaK, and groEL); alternative sigma factor (sigB) and virulence determination (entB and spa) and (2) to study the expression of these genes during stress conditions for S. aureus culture collection strains (FRI 722 and ATCC 6538) and S. aureus food isolates at mRNA level using multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). During heat shock treatment groEL, dnaK, asp23, sodA, entB, spa, and sigB genes were up regulated up to 2.58, 2.07, 2.76, 2.55, 3.55, 2.71, and 2.62- folds, respectively, whereas in acid shock treatment, sodA and groEL were up regulated; dnaK was downregulated; and entB and sigB genes were not expressed in food isolates. Multiplex PCR assay standardized in this study offers an inexpensive alternative to uniplex PCR for detection of various virulence and stress response genes. This study is relevant to rapid and accurate detection of potential pathogenic S. aureus in foods. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Expression Profiles of 12 Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein Genes from Tamarix hispida in Response to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiqiu Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve embryogenesis abundant protein (LEA genes (named ThLEA-1 to -12 were cloned from Tamarix hispida. The expression profiles of these genes in response to NaCl, PEG, and abscisic acid (ABA in roots, stems, and leaves of T. hispida were assessed using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. These ThLEAs all showed tissue-specific expression patterns in roots, stems, and leaves under normal growth conditions. However, they shared a high similar expression patterns in the roots, stems, and leaves when exposed to NaCl and PEG stress. Furthermore, ThLEA-1, -2, -3, -4, and -11 were induced by NaCl and PEG, but ThLEA-5, -6, -8, -10, and -12 were downregulated by salt and drought stresses. Under ABA treatment, some ThLEA genes, such as ThLEA-1, -2, and -3, were only slightly differentially expressed in roots, stems, and leaves, indicating that they may be involved in the ABA-independent signaling pathway. These findings provide a basis for the elucidation of the function of LEA genes in future work.

  9. Expression profiles of 12 late embryogenesis abundant protein genes from Tamarix hispida in response to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Caiqiu; Liu, Yali; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Kaimin; Wang, Yucheng

    2014-01-01

    Twelve embryogenesis abundant protein (LEA) genes (named ThLEA-1 to -12) were cloned from Tamarix hispida. The expression profiles of these genes in response to NaCl, PEG, and abscisic acid (ABA) in roots, stems, and leaves of T. hispida were assessed using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These ThLEAs all showed tissue-specific expression patterns in roots, stems, and leaves under normal growth conditions. However, they shared a high similar expression patterns in the roots, stems, and leaves when exposed to NaCl and PEG stress. Furthermore, ThLEA-1, -2, -3, -4, and -11 were induced by NaCl and PEG, but ThLEA-5, -6, -8, -10, and -12 were downregulated by salt and drought stresses. Under ABA treatment, some ThLEA genes, such as ThLEA-1, -2, and -3, were only slightly differentially expressed in roots, stems, and leaves, indicating that they may be involved in the ABA-independent signaling pathway. These findings provide a basis for the elucidation of the function of LEA genes in future work.

  10. Expression Analysis of Four Peroxiredoxin Genes from Tamarix hispida in Response to Different Abiotic Stresses and Exogenous Abscisic Acid (ABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiyan Yang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Peroxiredoxins (Prxs are a recently discovered family of antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the reduction of peroxides and alkyl peroxides. In this study, four Prx genes (named as ThPrxII, ThPrxIIE, ThPrxIIF, and Th2CysPrx were cloned from Tamarix hispida. Their expression profiles in response to stimulus of NaCl, NaHCO3, PEG, CdCl2 and abscisic acid (ABA in roots, stems and leaves of T. hispida were investigated using real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that the four ThPrxs were all expressed in roots, stems and leaves. Furthermore, the transcript levels of ThPrxIIE and ThPrxII were the lowest and the highest, respectively, in all tissue types. All the ThPrx genes were induced by both NaCl and NaHCO3 and reached their highest expression levels at the onset of stress in roots. Under PEG and CdCl2 stress, the expression patterns of these ThPrxs showed temporal and spatial specificity. The expressions of the ThPrxs were all differentially regulated by ABA, indicating that they are all involved in the ABA signaling pathway. These findings reveal a complex regulation of Prxs that is dependent on the type of Prx, tissue, and the signaling molecule. The divergence of the stress-dependent transcriptional regulation of the ThPrx gene family in T. hispida may provide an essential basis for the elucidation of Prx function in future work.

  11. Expression analysis of four peroxiredoxin genes from Tamarix hispida in response to different abiotic stresses and Exogenous Abscisic Acid (ABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Caiqiu; Zhang, Kaimin; Yang, Guiyan; Wang, Yucheng

    2012-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a recently discovered family of antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the reduction of peroxides and alkyl peroxides. In this study, four Prx genes (named as ThPrxII, ThPrxIIE, ThPrxIIF, and Th2CysPrx) were cloned from Tamarix hispida. Their expression profiles in response to stimulus of NaCl, NaHCO(3), PEG, CdCl(2) and abscisic acid (ABA) in roots, stems and leaves of T. hispida were investigated using real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that the four ThPrxs were all expressed in roots, stems and leaves. Furthermore, the transcript levels of ThPrxIIE and ThPrxII were the lowest and the highest, respectively, in all tissue types. All the ThPrx genes were induced by both NaCl and NaHCO(3) and reached their highest expression levels at the onset of stress in roots. Under PEG and CdCl(2) stress, the expression patterns of these ThPrxs showed temporal and spatial specificity. The expressions of the ThPrxs were all differentially regulated by ABA, indicating that they are all involved in the ABA signaling pathway. These findings reveal a complex regulation of Prxs that is dependent on the type of Prx, tissue, and the signaling molecule. The divergence of the stress-dependent transcriptional regulation of the ThPrx gene family in T. hispida may provide an essential basis for the elucidation of Prx function in future work.

  12. Toxicity of Tributyltin in Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio): Physiological Responses, Hepatic Gene Expression, and Stress Protein Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Li-Qiao; Mu, Wei-Na; Wu, Yan-Hua

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the effects of tributyltin (TBT) on biochemical parameters (antioxidant responses and Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase) in different tissues were investigated by using juvenile common carp (Cyprinus Carpio) as well as growth and ion regulation-related genes expression and stress-related proteins profiling in fish liver. Oxidative stress indices and Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase showed tissues-specific responses in fish exposed to different TBT concentrations. All tested genes related to GH/IGF-I axis and ion-regulation were significantly induced in the TBT group with lower concentrations (except for the igfbp3 in 10 μg/L) and were inhibited in 20 μg/L. In addition, the profiling of two proteins Hsp 70 and MT were increasing in a dose-dependent manner under TBT stress. In short, TBT-induced biochemical and molecular responses in different tissues were reflected in the measured parameters in the test. On the basis of TBT residue levels in the natural environment, more long-term experiments at lower concentrations will be necessary in the future. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Apelin-APJ system is responsible for stress-induced increase in atrial natriuretic peptide expression in rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izgut-Uysal, Vecihe Nimet; Acar, Nuray; Birsen, Ilknur; Ozcan, Filiz; Ozbey, Ozlem; Soylu, Hakan; Avci, Sema; Tepekoy, Filiz; Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Yucel, Gultekin; Ustunel, Ismail

    2018-04-01

    The cardiovascular system is a primary target of stress and stress is the most important etiologic factor in cardiovascular diseases. Stressors increase expressions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and apelin in cardiac tissue. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether stress-induced apelin has an effect on the expression of ANP in the right atrium of rat heart. The rats were divided into the control, stress and F13A+stress groups. In the stress and F13A+stress groups, the rats were subjected to water immersion and restraint stress (WIRS) for 6h. In the F13A+stress group, apelin receptor antagonist F13A, was injected intravenously immediately before application of WIRS. The plasma samples were obtained for the measurement of corticosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide. The atrial samples were used for immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. F13A administration prevented the rise of plasma corticosterone and ANP levels induced by WIRS. While WIRS application increased the expressions of apelin, HIF-1α and ANP in atrial tissue, while F13A prevented the stress-induced increase in the expression of HIF-1α and ANP. Stress-induced apelin induces ANP expression in atrial tissue and may play a role in cardiovascular homeostasis by increasing ANP expression under WIRS conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stress Responses in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Ingmer, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    stress responses allowing it to sense and adapt to its very different niches. The stress responses often involve dramatic cellular reprogramming, and the technological advances provided by the access to whole genome sequences have let to an unprecedented insight into the global reorganization of gene...... and protein expression following stress-exposure. Characterization of global gene responses has been very helpful both in identifying regulators sensing specific environmental stress signals and overlaps between different stress responses. In this chapter we review the recent progress in our understanding...... of the specific and general S. aureusstress responses, with a special emphasis on how stress responses contribute to virulence and antibiotic resistance in this important human pathogen....

  15. Suppressing Sorbitol Synthesis Substantially Alters the Global Expression Profile of Stress Response Genes in Apple (Malus domestica) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Xu, Kenong; Han, Zhenhai; Cheng, Lailiang

    2015-09-01

    Sorbitol is a major product of photosynthesis in apple (Malus domestica) that is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and stress tolerance. However, little is known about how the global transcript levels in apple leaves respond to decreased sorbitol synthesis. In this study we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling to characterize the transcriptome of leaves from transgenic lines of the apple cultivar 'Greensleeves' exhibiting suppressed expression of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) to gain insights into sorbitol function and the consequences of decreased sorbitol synthesis on gene expression. We observed that, although the leaves of the low sorbitol transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of various primary metabolites, only very limited changes were found in the levels of transcripts associated with primary metabolism. We suggest that this is indicative of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of primary metabolite accumulation and central carbon metabolism. However, we identified significantly enriched gene ontology terms belonging to the 'stress related process' category in the antisense lines (P-value sorbitol plays a role in the responses of apple trees to abiotic and biotic stresses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Identification and Expression Profiling of the Auxin Response Factors in Capsicum annuum L. under Abiotic Stress and Hormone Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenliang Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Auxin response factors (ARFs play important roles in regulating plant growth and development and response to environmental stress. An exhaustive analysis of the CaARF family was performed using the latest publicly available genome for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. In total, 22 non-redundant CaARF gene family members in six classes were analyzed, including chromosome locations, gene structures, conserved motifs of proteins, phylogenetic relationships and Subcellular localization. Phylogenetic analysis of the ARFs from pepper (Capsicum annuum L., tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa L. revealed both similarity and divergence between the four ARF families, and aided in predicting biological functions of the CaARFs. Furthermore, expression profiling of CaARFs was obtained in various organs and tissues using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. Expression analysis of these genes was also conducted with various hormones and abiotic treatments using qRT-PCR. Most CaARF genes were regulated by exogenous hormone treatments at the transcriptional level, and many CaARF genes were altered by abiotic stress. Systematic analysis of CaARF genes is imperative to elucidate the roles of CaARF family members in mediating auxin signaling in the adaptation of pepper to a challenging environment.

  17. Differential Expression of Histone H3.3 Genes and Their Role in Modulating Temperature Stress Response in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Kamila; Mailler, Jonathan; Wenda, Joanna M; Gabus, Caroline; Steiner, Florian A

    2018-04-10

    Replication-independent variant histones replace canonical histones in nucleosomes and act as important regulators of chromatin function. H3.3 is a major variant of histone H3 that is remarkably conserved across all taxa and is distinguished from canonical H3 by just four key amino acids. Most genomes contain two or more genes expressing H3.3, and complete loss of the protein usually causes sterility or embryonic lethality. Here we investigated the developmental expression pattern of the five Caenorhabditis elegans H3.3 homologues and identified two previously uncharacterized homologues to be restricted to the germ line. We demonstrate an essential role for the conserved histone chaperone HIRA in the nucleosomal loading of all H3.3 variants. This requirement can be bypassed by mutation of the H3.3-specific residues to those found in H3. Analysis of H3.3 knockout mutants revealed a surprising absence of developmental phenotypes. While removal of all H3.3 homologues did not result in lethality, it led to reduced fertility and viability in response to high temperature stress. Our results thus show that H3.3 is non-essential in C. elegans , but is critical for ensuring adequate response to stress. Copyright © 2018, Genetics.

  18. Metabolomic analysis of the selection response of Drosophila melanogaster to environmental stress: are there links to gene expression and phenotypic traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmendal, Anders; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Overgaard, Johannes; Holmstrup, Martin; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the global metabolite response to artificial selection for tolerance to stressful conditions such as cold, heat, starvation, and desiccation, and for longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. Our findings were compared to data from other levels of biological organization, including gene expression, physiological traits, and organismal stress tolerance phenotype. Overall, we found that selection for environmental stress tolerance changes the metabolomic 1H NMR fingerprint largely in a similar manner independent of the trait selected for, indicating that experimental evolution led to a general stress selection response at the metabolomic level. Integrative analyses across data sets showed little similarity when general correlations between selection effects at the level of the metabolome and gene expression were compared. This is likely due to the fact that the changes caused by these selection regimes were rather mild and/or that the dominating determinants for gene expression and metabolite levels were different. However, expression of a number of genes was correlated with the metabolite data. Many of the identified genes were general stress response genes that are down-regulated in response to selection for some of the stresses in this study. Overall, the results illustrate that selection markedly alters the metabolite profile and that the coupling between different levels of biological organization indeed is present though not very strong for stress selection at this level. The results highlight the extreme complexity of environmental stress adaptation and the difficulty of extrapolating and interpreting responses across levels of biological organization.

  19. Liposome-based DNA carriers may induce cellular stress response and change gene expression pattern in transfected cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background During functional studies on the rat stress-inducible Hspa1b (hsp70.1) gene we noticed that some liposome-based DNA carriers, which are used for transfection, induce its promoter activity. This observation concerned commercial liposome formulations (LA), Lipofectin and Lipofectamine 2000. This work was aimed to understand better the mechanism of this phenomenon and its potential biological and practical consequences. Results We found that a reporter gene driven by Hspa1b promoter is activated both in the case of transient transfections and in the stably transfected cells treated with LA. Using several deletion clones containing different fragments of Hspa1b promoter, we found that the regulatory elements responsible for most efficient LA-driven inducibility were located between nucleotides -269 and +85, relative to the transcription start site. Further studies showed that the induction mechanism was independent of the classical HSE-HSF interaction that is responsible for gene activation during heat stress. Using DNA microarrays we also detected significant activation of the endogenous Hspa1b gene in cells treated with Lipofectamine 2000. Several other stress genes were also induced, along with numerous genes involved in cellular metabolism, cell cycle control and pro-apoptotic pathways. Conclusions Our observations suggest that i) some cationic liposomes may not be suitable for functional studies on hsp promoters, ii) lipofection may cause unintended changes in global gene expression in the transfected cells. PMID:21663599

  20. Liposome-based DNA carriers may induce cellular stress response and change gene expression pattern in transfected cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisowska Katarzyna Marta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During functional studies on the rat stress-inducible Hspa1b (hsp70.1 gene we noticed that some liposome-based DNA carriers, which are used for transfection, induce its promoter activity. This observation concerned commercial liposome formulations (LA, Lipofectin and Lipofectamine 2000. This work was aimed to understand better the mechanism of this phenomenon and its potential biological and practical consequences. Results We found that a reporter gene driven by Hspa1b promoter is activated both in the case of transient transfections and in the stably transfected cells treated with LA. Using several deletion clones containing different fragments of Hspa1b promoter, we found that the regulatory elements responsible for most efficient LA-driven inducibility were located between nucleotides -269 and +85, relative to the transcription start site. Further studies showed that the induction mechanism was independent of the classical HSE-HSF interaction that is responsible for gene activation during heat stress. Using DNA microarrays we also detected significant activation of the endogenous Hspa1b gene in cells treated with Lipofectamine 2000. Several other stress genes were also induced, along with numerous genes involved in cellular metabolism, cell cycle control and pro-apoptotic pathways. Conclusions Our observations suggest that i some cationic liposomes may not be suitable for functional studies on hsp promoters, ii lipofection may cause unintended changes in global gene expression in the transfected cells.

  1. Detoxification and stress response genes expressed in a western North American bumble bee, Bombus huntii (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junhuan; Strange, James P; Welker, Dennis L; James, Rosalind R

    2013-12-12

    The Hunt bumble bee (Bombus huntii Greene, Hymenoptera: Apidae) is a holometabolous, social insect important as a pollinator in natural and agricultural ecosystems in western North America. Bumble bees spend a significant amount of time foraging on a wide variety of flowering plants, and this activity exposes them to both plant toxins and pesticides, posing a threat to individual and colony survival. Little is known about what detoxification pathways are active in bumble bees, how the expression of detoxification genes changes across life stages, or how the number of detoxification genes expressed in B. huntii compares to other insects. We found B. huntii expressed at least 584 genes associated with detoxification and stress responses. The expression levels of some of these genes, such as those encoding the cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and glycosidases, vary among different life stages to a greater extent than do other genes. We also found that the number of P450s, GSTs and esterase genes expressed by B. huntii is similar to the number of these genes found in the genomes of other bees, namely Bombus terrestris, Bombus impatiens, Apis mellifera and Megachile rotundata, but many fewer than are found in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Bombus huntii has transcripts for a large number of detoxification and stress related proteins, including oxidation and reduction enzymes, conjugation enzymes, hydrolytic enzymes, ABC transporters, cadherins, and heat shock proteins. The diversity of genes expressed within some detoxification pathways varies among the life stages and castes, and we typically identified more genes in the adult females than in larvae, pupae, or adult males, for most pathways. Meanwhile, we found the numbers of detoxification and stress genes expressed by B. huntii to be more similar to other bees than to the fruit fly. The low number of detoxification genes, first noted in the honey bee, appears to be a common phenomenon among bees

  2. Genome-wide expression analysis offers new insights into the origin and evolution of Physcomitrella patens stress response

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel; Qudeimat, Enas; Thimma, Manjula; Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Jijakli, Kenan; Alzahmi, Amnah; Arnoux, Marc; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the environment, such as those caused by climate change, can exert stress on plant growth, diversity and ultimately global food security. Thus, focused efforts to fully understand plant response to stress are urgently needed in order

  3. Stress-responsive expression patterns and functional characterization of cold shock domain proteins in cabbage (Brassica rapa) under abiotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Ji; Park, Ye Rin; Park, Su Jung; Kang, Hunseung

    2015-11-01

    Although the functional roles of cold shock domain proteins (CSDPs) have been demonstrated during the growth, development, and stress adaptation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), the functions of CSDPs in other plants species, including cabbage (Brassica rapa), are largely unknown. To gain insight into the roles of CSDPs in cabbage under stress conditions, the genes encoding CSDPs in cabbage were isolated, and the functional roles of CSDPs in response to environmental stresses were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the levels of BrCSDP transcripts increased during cold, salt, or drought stress, as well as upon ABA treatment. Among the five BrCSDP genes found in the cabbage genome, one CSDP (BRU12051), named BrCSDP3, was unique in that it is localized to the chloroplast as well as to the nucleus. Ectopic expression of BrCSDP3 in Arabidopsis resulted in accelerated seed germination and better seedling growth compared to the wild-type plants under high salt or dehydration stress conditions, and in response to ABA treatment. BrCSDP3 did not affect the splicing of intron-containing genes and processing of rRNAs in the chloroplast. BrCSDP3 had the ability to complement RNA chaperone-deficient Escherichia coli mutant cells under low temperatures as well as DNA- and RNA-melting abilities, suggesting that it possesses RNA chaperone activity. Taken together, these results suggest that BrCSDP3, harboring RNA chaperone activity, plays a role as a positive regulator in seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression Profile of Stress-responsive Arabidopsis thaliana miRNAs and their Target Genes in Response to Inoculation with Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djami-Tchatchou, A T; Ntushelo, K

    2017-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) is a soft rot bacterium which upon entry into the plant macerates plant tissues by producing plant cell wall degrading enzymes. It has a wide host range which includes carrot, potato, tomato, leafy greens, squash and other cucurbits, onion, green peppers and cassava. During plant-microbe interactions, one of the ways of plant response to pathogen infection is through the small RNA silencing mechanism. Under pathogen attack the plant utilizes microRNAs to regulate gene expression by means of mediating gene silencing at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. This study aims to assess for the first time, the expression profile of some stress-responsive miRNA and differential expression pattern of their target genes in Arabidopsis thaliana inoculated with Pcc. Leaves of five weeks old Arabidopsis thaliana plants were infected with Pcc and the quantitative real time-PCR, was used to investigate after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post infection, the expression profiling of the stress-responsive miRNAs which include: miR156, miR159, miR169, miR393, miR396 miR398, miR399 and miR408 along with their target genes which include: Squamosa promoter-binding-like protein, myb domain protein 101, nuclear factor Y subunit A8, concanavalin A-like lectin protein kinase, growth regulating factor 4, copper superoxide dismutase, ubiquitin-protein ligase and plantacyanin respectively. The findings showed that the overexpression of 6 miRNAs at 24, 48 and 72 h after infection resulted in the repression of their target genes and the expression of 2 miRNAs didn't affect their target genes. These results provide the first indication of the miRNAs role in response to the infection of Pcc in A. thaliana and open new vistas for a better understanding of miRNA regulation of plant response to Pcc.

  5. Increased stocking density causes changes in expression of selected stress- and immune-related genes, humoral innate immune parameters and stress responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarahmadi, Peyman; Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Fayaz, Sahel; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of various stocking densities on the health status (stress and immune responses) of rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile rainbow trout were acclimated, placed in circular tanks under stocking densities of 10, 40 and 80 kg m(-3) and reared for 30 days. The relative expression of genes involved in stress and immunity such as HSP70, LyzII, TNF-1α, IL-1β, IL-8 and IFN-γ1 in the head kidney was determined. Serum cortisol, ACTH, total antioxidant capacity, osmolality and lactate were measured after 30 days of culture at different stocking densities (D1:10 kg m(-3), D2: 40 kg m(-3) and D3: 80 kg m(-3)) as indices of stress responses. In addition, the effects of stocking densities on serum complement, bactericidal activity, agglutinating antibody titers, serum IgM, anti-protease activity, serum total protein and alkaline phosphatase of the fish were measured. HSP70 gene expression was significantly density-dependent upregulated in D2 and D3 densities compared to D1 (P < 0.05). Also, there was significant downregulation in expression of LyzII, TNF-1α, IL-1β, IL-8 and IFN-γ1 in fish reared at density of either D2 or D3 (P < 0.05). In terms of stress responses, serum ACTH, cortisol and lactate level showed significant density-dependent increase (P < 0.05) while serum osmolality and total antioxidant capacity showed significant decline (P < 0.05) in fish reared at higher densities (D2 and D3) compared to fish reared at lower density (D1) (P < 0.05). Concordant with the expression of the immune-related genes, the serum complement and bactericidal activity as well as specific antibody titer against Aeromonas hydrophila, IgM and anti-protease activity decreased along with elevation of stocking density from D1 to D3 (P < 0.05). However, different stocking densities had no significant effect on serum total protein level and alkaline phosphatase activity. These results suggested that elevation of stocking

  6. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of tomato Hsp20 gene family in response to biotic and abiotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jiahong yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hsp20 genes are involved in the response of plants to environment stresses including heat shock and also play a vital role in plant growth and development. They represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHsps in plants, but little is known about this family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, an important vegetable crop in the world. Here, we characterized heat shock protein 20 (SlHsp20 gene family in tomato through integration of gene structure, chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship and expression profile. Using bioinformatics-based methods, we identified at least 42 putative SlHsp20 genes in tomato. Sequence analysis revealed that most of SlHsp20 genes possessed no intron or a relatively short intron in length. Chromosome mapping indicated that inter-arm and intra-chromosome duplication events contributed remarkably to the expansion of SlHsp20 genes. Phylogentic tree of Hsp20 genes from tomato and other plant species revealed that SlHsp20 genes were grouped into 13 subfamilies, indicating that these genes may have a common ancestor that generated diverse subfamilies prior to the mono-dicot split. In addition, expression analysis using RNA-seq in various tissues and developmental stages of cultivated tomato and the wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium revealed that most of these genes (83% were expressed in at least one stage from at least one genotype. Out of 42 genes, 4 genes were expressed constitutively in almost all the tissues analyzed, implying that these genes might have specific housekeeping function in tomato cell under normal growth conditions. Two SlHsp20 genes displayed differential expression levels between cultivated tomato and S. pimpinellifolium in vegetative (leaf and root and reproductive organs (floral bud and flower, suggesting inter-species diversification for functional specialization during the process of domestication. Based on genome-wide microarray analysis, we showed that the transcript

  7. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of Tomato Hsp20 Gene Family in Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Feng, Kun; Ruan, Meiying; Ye, Qingjing; Wang, Rongqing; Li, Zhimiao; Zhou, Guozhi; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    The Hsp20 genes are involved in the response of plants to environment stresses including heat shock and also play a vital role in plant growth and development. They represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHsps) in plants, but little is known about this family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), an important vegetable crop in the world. Here, we characterized heat shock protein 20 (SlHsp20) gene family in tomato through integration of gene structure, chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship, and expression profile. Using bioinformatics-based methods, we identified at least 42 putative SlHsp20 genes in tomato. Sequence analysis revealed that most of SlHsp20 genes possessed no intron or a relatively short intron in length. Chromosome mapping indicated that inter-arm and intra-chromosome duplication events contributed remarkably to the expansion of SlHsp20 genes. Phylogentic tree of Hsp20 genes from tomato and other plant species revealed that SlHsp20 genes were grouped into 13 subfamilies, indicating that these genes may have a common ancestor that generated diverse subfamilies prior to the mono-dicot split. In addition, expression analysis using RNA-seq in various tissues and developmental stages of cultivated tomato and the wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium revealed that most of these genes (83%) were expressed in at least one stage from at least one genotype. Out of 42 genes, 4 genes were expressed constitutively in almost all the tissues analyzed, implying that these genes might have specific housekeeping function in tomato cell under normal growth conditions. Two SlHsp20 genes displayed differential expression levels between cultivated tomato and S. pimpinellifolium in vegetative (leaf and root) and reproductive organs (floral bud and flower), suggesting inter-species diversification for functional specialization during the process of domestication. Based on genome-wide microarray analysis, we showed that the transcript levels of SlHsp20

  8. Arabidopsis plastid AMOS1/EGY1 integrates abscisic acid signaling to regulate global gene expression response to ammonium stress

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baohai

    2012-10-12

    Ammonium (NH4 +) is a ubiquitous intermediate of nitrogen metabolism but is notorious for its toxic effects on most organisms. Extensive studies of the underlying mechanisms of NH4 + toxicity have been reported in plants, but it is poorly understood how plants acclimate to high levels of NH4 +. Here, we identified an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant, ammonium overly sensitive1 (amos1), that displays severe chlorosis under NH4 + stress. Map-based cloning shows amos1 to carry a mutation in EGY1 (for ethylene-dependent, gravitropism-deficient, and yellow-green-like protein1), which encodes a plastid metalloprotease. Transcriptomic analysis reveals that among the genes activated in response to NH4 +, 90% are regulated dependent on AMOS1/ EGY1. Furthermore, 63% of AMOS1/EGY1-dependent NH4 +-activated genes contain an ACGTG motif in their promoter region, a core motif of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive elements. Consistent with this, our physiological, pharmacological, transcriptomic, and genetic data show that ABA signaling is a critical, but not the sole, downstream component of the AMOS1/EGY1-dependent pathway that regulates the expression of NH4 +-responsive genes and maintains chloroplast functionality under NH4 + stress. Importantly, abi4 mutants defective in ABA-dependent and retrograde signaling, but not ABA-deficient mutants, mimic leaf NH4 + hypersensitivity of amos1. In summary, our findings suggest that an NH4 +-responsive plastid retrograde pathway, which depends on AMOS1/EGY1 function and integrates with ABA signaling, is required for the regulation of expression of the presence of high NH4 + levels. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Arabidopsis plastid AMOS1/EGY1 integrates abscisic acid signaling to regulate global gene expression response to ammonium stress

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Xiong, Liming; Kronzucker, Herbert J.; Krä mer, Ute; Shi, Weiming

    2012-01-01

    Ammonium (NH4 +) is a ubiquitous intermediate of nitrogen metabolism but is notorious for its toxic effects on most organisms. Extensive studies of the underlying mechanisms of NH4 + toxicity have been reported in plants, but it is poorly understood how plants acclimate to high levels of NH4 +. Here, we identified an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant, ammonium overly sensitive1 (amos1), that displays severe chlorosis under NH4 + stress. Map-based cloning shows amos1 to carry a mutation in EGY1 (for ethylene-dependent, gravitropism-deficient, and yellow-green-like protein1), which encodes a plastid metalloprotease. Transcriptomic analysis reveals that among the genes activated in response to NH4 +, 90% are regulated dependent on AMOS1/ EGY1. Furthermore, 63% of AMOS1/EGY1-dependent NH4 +-activated genes contain an ACGTG motif in their promoter region, a core motif of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive elements. Consistent with this, our physiological, pharmacological, transcriptomic, and genetic data show that ABA signaling is a critical, but not the sole, downstream component of the AMOS1/EGY1-dependent pathway that regulates the expression of NH4 +-responsive genes and maintains chloroplast functionality under NH4 + stress. Importantly, abi4 mutants defective in ABA-dependent and retrograde signaling, but not ABA-deficient mutants, mimic leaf NH4 + hypersensitivity of amos1. In summary, our findings suggest that an NH4 +-responsive plastid retrograde pathway, which depends on AMOS1/EGY1 function and integrates with ABA signaling, is required for the regulation of expression of the presence of high NH4 + levels. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Characterization and expression of glutamate dehydrogenase in response to acute salinity stress in the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueru Wang

    Full Text Available Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH is a key enzyme for the synthesis and catabolism of glutamic acid, proline and alanine, which are important osmolytes in aquatic animals. However, the response of GDH gene expression to salinity alterations has not yet been determined in macro-crustacean species.GDH cDNA was isolated from Eriocheir sinensis. Then, GDH gene expression was analyzed in different tissues from normal crabs and the muscle of crabs following transfer from freshwater (control directly to water with salinities of 16‰ and 30‰, respectively. Full-length GDH cDNA is 2,349 bp, consisting of a 76 bp 5'- untranslated region, a 1,695 bp open reading frame encoding 564 amino acids and a 578 bp 3'- untranslated region. E. sinensis GDH showed 64-90% identity with protein sequences of mammalian and crustacean species. Muscle was the dominant expression source among all tissues tested. Compared with the control, GDH expression significantly increased at 6 h in crabs transferred to 16‰ and 30‰ salinity, and GDH expression peaked at 48 h and 12 h, respectively, with levels approximately 7.9 and 8.5 fold higher than the control. The free amino acid (FAA changes in muscle, under acute salinity stress (16‰ and 30‰ salinities, correlated with GDH expression levels. Total FAA content in the muscle, which was based on specific changes in arginine, proline, glycine, alanine, taurine, serine and glutamic acid, tended to increase in crabs following transfer to salt water. Among these, arginine, proline and alanine increased significantly during salinity acclimation and accounted for the highest proportion of total FAA.E. sinensis GDH is a conserved protein that serves important functions in controlling osmoregulation. We observed that higher GDH expression after ambient salinity increase led to higher FAA metabolism, especially the synthesis of glutamic acid, which increased the synthesis of proline and alanine to meet the demand of osmoregulation at

  11. Modifications of glucocorticoid receptors mRNA expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to early-life stress in female Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, C; Spencer, K A

    2014-12-01

    Stress exposure during early-life development can programme individual brain and physiology. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the primary targets of this programming, which is generally associated with a hyperactive HPA axis, indicative of a reduced negative-feedback. This reduced feedback efficiency usually results from a reduced level of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and/or the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) within the HPA axis. However, a few studies have shown that early-life stress exposure results in an attenuated physiological stress response, suggesting an enhance feedback efficiency. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether early-life stress had long-term consequences on GR and MR levels in quail and whether the effects on the physiological response to acute stress observed in prenatally stressed individuals were underpinned by changes in GR and/or MR levels in one or more HPA axis components. We determined GR and MR mRNA expression in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary gland in quail exposed to elevated corticosterone during prenatal development, postnatal development, or both, and in control individuals exposed to none of the stressors. We showed that prenatal stress increased the GR:MR ratio in the hippocampus, GR and MR expression in the hypothalamus and GR expression in the pituitary gland. Postnatal stress resulted in a reduced MR expression in the hippocampus. Both early-life treatments permanently affected the expression of both receptor types in HPA axis regions. The effects of prenatal stress are in accordance with a more efficient negative-feedback within the HPA axis and thus can explain the attenuated stress response observed in these birds. Therefore, these changes in receptor density or number as a consequence of early-life stress exposure might be the mechanism that allows an adaptive response to later-life stressful conditions. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology published by

  12. Acidic pH shock induces the expressions of a wide range of stress-response genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Soon-Kwang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental signals usually enhance secondary metabolite production in Streptomycetes by initiating complex signal transduction system. It is known that different sigma factors respond to different types of stresses, respectively in Streptomyces strains, which have a number of unique signal transduction mechanisms depending on the types of environmental shock. In this study, we wanted to know how a pH shock would affect the expression of various sigma factors and shock-related proteins in S. coelicolor A3(2. Results According to the results of transcriptional and proteomic analyses, the major number of sigma factor genes were upregulated by an acidic pH shock. Well-studied sigma factor genes of sigH (heat shock, sigR (oxidative stress, sigB (osmotic shock, and hrdD that play a major role in the secondary metabolism, were all strongly upregulated by the pH shock. A number of heat shock proteins including the DnaK family and chaperones such as GroEL2 were also observed to be upregulated by the pH shock, while their repressor of hspR was strongly downregulated. Oxidative stress-related proteins such as thioredoxin, catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and osmotic shock-related protein such as vesicle synthases were also upregulated in overall. Conclusion From these observations, an acidic pH shock was considered to be one of the strongest stresses to influence a wide range of sigma factors and shock-related proteins including general stress response proteins. The upregulation of the sigma factors and shock proteins already found to be related to actinorhodin biosynthesis was considered to have contributed to enhanced actinorhodin productivity by mediating the pH shock signal to regulators or biosynthesis genes for actinorhodin production.

  13. Apoptosis in response to heat stress is positively associated with heat-shock protein 90 expression in chicken myocardial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Hong; Tang, Shu; Li, Qiao-Ning; Xu, Jiao; Zhang, Miao; Su, Ya-Nan; Yin, Bin; Zhao, Qi-Ling; Kemper, Nicole; Hartung, Joerg; Bao, En-Dong

    2017-06-30

    To determine heat-shock protein (Hsp)90 expression is connected with cellular apoptotic response to heat stress and its mechanism, chicken ( Gallus gallus ) primary myocardial cells were treated with the Hsp90 promoter, aspirin, and its inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA), before heat stress. Cellular viability, heat-stressed apoptosis and reactive oxygen species level under different treatments were measured, and the expression of key proteins of the signaling pathway related to Hsp90 and their colocalization with Hsp90 were detected. The results showed that aspirin treatment increased the expression of protein kinase B (Akt), the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 and p-IKKα/β and the colocalization of Akt and STAT-3 with Hsp90 during heat stress, which was accompanied by improved viability and low apoptosis. GA significantly inhibited Akt expression and p-IKKα/β level, but not STAT-3 quantity, while the colocalization of Akt and STAT-3 with Hsp90 was weakened, followed by lower cell viability and higher apoptosis. Aspirin after GA treatment partially improved the stress response and apoptosis rate of tested cells caused by the recovery of Akt expression and colocalization, rather than the level of STAT-3 (including its co-localization with Hsp90) and p-IKKα/β. Therefore, Hsp90 expression has a positive effect on cellular capacity to resist heat-stressed injury and apoptosis. Moreover, inhibition of Hsp90 before stress partially attenuated its positive effects.

  14. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Camelina sativa to mine drought stress-responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanth, Bashistha Kumar; Kumari, Shipra; Choi, Seo Hee; Ha, Hye-Jeong; Lee, Geung-Joo

    2015-11-06

    Camelina sativa is an oil-producing crop belonging to the family of Brassicaceae. Due to exceptionally high content of omega fatty acid, it is commercially grown around the world as edible oil, biofuel, and animal feed. A commonly referred 'false flax' or gold-of-pleasure Camelina sativa has been interested as one of biofuel feedstocks. The species can grow on marginal land due to its superior drought tolerance with low requirement of agricultural inputs. This crop has been unexploited due to very limited transcriptomic and genomic data. Use of gene-specific molecular markers is an important strategy for new cultivar development in breeding program. In this study, Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and bioinformatics tools were used to obtain expression profiling of genes responding to drought stress in Camelina sativa BN14. A total of more than 60,000 loci were assembled, corresponding to approximately 275 K transcripts. When the species was exposed to 10 kPa drought stress, 100 kPa drought stress, and rehydrated conditions, a total of 107, 2,989, and 982 genes, respectively, were up-regulated, while 146, 3,659, and 1189 genes, respectively, were down-regulated compared to control condition. Some unknown genes were found to be highly expressed under drought conditions, together with some already reported gene families such as senescence-associated genes, CAP160, and LEA under 100 kPa soil water condition, cysteine protease, 2OG, Fe(II)-dependent oxygenase, and RAD-like 1 under rehydrated condition. These genes will be further validated and mapped to determine their function and loci. This EST library will be favorably applied to develop gene-specific molecular markers and discover genes responsible for drought tolerance in Camelina species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of bovine leukemia virus tax function associated with host cell transcription, signaling, stress response and immune response pathway by microarray-based gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arainga Mariluz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus type I. The Tax protein of BLV is a transcriptional activator of viral replication and a key contributor to oncogenic potential. We previously identified interesting mutant forms of Tax with elevated (TaxD247G or reduced (TaxS240P transactivation effects on BLV replication and propagation. However, the effects of these mutations on functions other than transcriptional activation are unknown. In this study, to identify genes that play a role in the cascade of signal events regulated by wild-type and mutant Tax proteins, we used a large-scale host cell gene-profiling approach. Results Using a microarray containing approximately 18,400 human mRNA transcripts, we found several alterations after the expression of Tax proteins in genes involved in many cellular functions such as transcription, signal transduction, cell growth, apoptosis, stress response, and immune response, indicating that Tax protein has multiple biological effects on various cellular environments. We also found that TaxD247G strongly regulated more genes involved in transcription, signal transduction, and cell growth functions, contrary to TaxS240P, which regulated fewer genes. In addition, the expression of genes related to stress response significantly increased in the presence of TaxS240P as compared to wild-type Tax and TaxD247G. By contrast, the largest group of downregulated genes was related to immune response, and the majority of these genes belonged to the interferon family. However, no significant difference in the expression level of downregulated genes was observed among the Tax proteins. Finally, the expression of important cellular factors obtained from the human microarray results were validated at the RNA and protein levels by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting

  16. Reliable reference miRNAs for quantitative gene expression analysis of stress responses in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Podolska, Agnieszka; Pocock, Roger David John

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has become the "gold standard" for measuring expression levels of individual miRNAs. However, little is known about the validity of reference miRNAs, the improper use of which can result in misleading interpretation of data.......Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has become the "gold standard" for measuring expression levels of individual miRNAs. However, little is known about the validity of reference miRNAs, the improper use of which can result in misleading interpretation of data....

  17. Copepod swimming behavior, respiration, and expression of stress-related genes in response to high stocking densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Birgitte; Jakobsen, Hans H.; Stief, Peter

    2017-01-01

    ,000 ind. L−1. Three biological/physiological end-points were studied: swimming behavior, respiration rate and expression level of stress-related genes. None of the elevated densities caused any significant change in swimming behavior, respiration rate or gene expression level. This study suggests...

  18. Defective Lipoprotein Sorting Induces lolA Expression through the Rcs Stress Response Phosphorelay System

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Kazuyuki; Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    The Escherichia coli LolA protein is a lipoprotein-specific chaperone that carries lipoproteins from the inner to the outer membrane. A dominant negative LolA mutant, LolA(I93C/F140C), in which both 93Ile and 140Phe are replaced by Cys, binds tightly to the lipoprotein-dedicated ABC transporter LolCDE complex on the inner membrane and therefore inhibits the detachment of outer membrane-specific lipoproteins from the inner membrane. We found that the expression of this mutant strongly induced ...

  19. Expression of antisense small RNAs in response to stress in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Lozano, María; Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise

    2014-01-01

    Background: RNA sequencing technologies reveal that bacteria express RNA molecules other than mRNA, rRNA or tRNA. During the last years genome-wide bacterial transcriptomes have been shown to comprise intergenic RNA, antisense RNA, and untranslated regions, all capable of performing diverse...... that the extent of overlap between the studies is very limited. Conclusions: RNA-seq experiments are revealing hundreds of novel transcripts in all bacterial genomes investigated. The comparison between independent studies that used RNA-seq to detect novel asRNAs in P. aeruginosa shows that the overlap between...

  20. Mechanism of Gene Expression of Arabidopsis Glutathione S-Transferase, AtGST1, and AtGST11 in Response to Aluminum Stress1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Bunichi; Suzuki, Masakatsu; Motoda, Hirotoshi; Kawamura, Masako; Nakashima, Susumu; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2004-01-01

    The gene expression of two Al-induced Arabidopsis glutathione S-transferase genes, AtGST1 and AtGST11, was analyzed to investigate the mechanism underlying the response to Al stress. An approximately 1-kb DNA fragment of the 5′-upstream region of each gene was fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene (pAtGST1::GUS and pAtGST11::GUS) and introduced into Arabidopsis ecotype Landsberg erecta. The constructed transgenic lines showed a time-dependent gene expression to a different degree in the root and/or leaf by Al stress. The pAtGST1::GUS gene was induced after a short Al treatment (maximum expression after a 2-h exposure), while the pAtGST11::GUS gene was induced by a longer Al treatment (approximately 8 h for maximum expression). Since the gene expression was observed in the leaf when only the root was exposed to Al stress, a signaling system between the root and shoot was suggested in Al stress. A GUS staining experiment using an adult transgenic line carrying the pAtGST11::GUS gene supported this suggestion. Furthermore, Al treatment simultaneously with various Ca depleted conditions in root region enhanced the gene expression of the pAtGST11::GUS in the shoot region. This result suggested that the degree of Al toxicity in the root reflects the gene response of pAtGST11::GUS in the shoot via the deduced signaling system. Both transgenic lines also showed an increase of GUS activity after cold stress, heat stress, metal toxicity, and oxidative damages, suggesting a common induction mechanism in response to the tested stresses including Al stress. PMID:15047894

  1. Changes in protein expression in testes of L2 strain Taiwan country chickens in response to acute heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Chen, Chao-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Heat stress causes a decrease of fertility in roosters. Yet, the way acute heat stress affects protein expression remains poorly understood. This study investigated differential protein expression in testes of the L2 strain of Taiwan country chickens following acute heat stress. Twelve 45-week-old roosters were allocated into four groups, including control roosters kept at 25 °C, roosters subjected to 38 °C acute heat stress for 4 hours without recovery, with 2 hours of recovery, and with 6 hours of recovery. Testis samples were collected for morphologic assay and protein analysis. Some of the differentially expressed proteins were validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Abnormal and apoptotic spermatogenic cells were observed at 2 hours of recovery after acute heat stress, especially among the spermatocytes. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed that 119 protein spots were differentially expressed in chicken testes following heat stress, and peptide mass fingerprinting revealed that these spots contained 92 distinct proteins. In the heat-stressed samples, the heat shock proteins, chaperonin containing t-complex, and proteasome subunits were downregulated, and glutathione S-transferase, transgelin, and DJ-1 were upregulated. Our results demonstrate that acute heat stress impairs the processes of translation, protein folding, and protein degradation, and thus results in apoptosis and interferes with spermatogenesis. On the other hand, the increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione S-transferase and DJ-1, may attenuate heat-induced damage. These findings may have implications for breeding chickens that can tolerate more extreme conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene Expression Responses to FUS, EWS, and TAF15 Reduction and Stress Granule Sequestration Analyses Identifies FET-Protein Non-Redundant Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blechingberg, Jenny; Luo, Yonglun; Bolund, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The FET family of proteins is composed of FUS/TLS, EWS/EWSR1, and TAF15 and possesses RNA- and DNA-binding capacities. The FET-proteins are involved in transcriptional regulation and RNA processing, and FET-gene deregulation is associated with development of cancer and protein granule formations...... in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases. We here describe a comparative characterization of FET-protein localization and gene regulatory functions. We show that FUS and TAF15 locate to cellular stress granules to a larger extend than EWS....... FET-proteins have no major importance for stress granule formation and cellular stress responses, indicating that FET-protein stress granule association most likely is a downstream response to cellular stress. Gene expression analyses showed that the cellular response towards FUS and TAF15 reduction...

  3. Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation Exposures on Stress-Responsive Gene Expression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykyta Sokolov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great deal of uncertainty on how low (≤0.1 Gy doses of ionizing radiation (IR affect human cells, partly due to a lack of suitable experimental model systems for such studies. The uncertainties arising from low-dose IR human data undermine practical societal needs to predict health risks emerging from diagnostic medical tests’ radiation, natural background radiation, and environmental radiological accidents. To eliminate a variability associated with remarkable differences in radioresponses of hundreds of differentiated cell types, we established a novel, human embryonic stem cell (hESC-based model to examine the radiobiological effects in human cells. Our aim is to comprehensively elucidate the gene expression changes in a panel of various hESC lines following low IR doses of 0.01; 0.05; 0.1 Gy; and, as a reference, relatively high dose of 1 Gy of IR. Here, we examined the dynamics of transcriptional changes of well-established IR-responsive set of genes, including CDKN1A, GADD45A, etc. at 2 and 16 h post-IR, representing “early” and “late” radioresponses of hESCs. Our findings suggest the temporal- and hESC line-dependence of stress gene radioresponses with no statistically significant evidence for a linear dose-response relationship within the lowest doses of IR exposures.

  4. Transplastomic expression of bacterial L-aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase enhances photosynthesis and biomass production in response to high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, W M; Altpeter, F

    2009-10-01

    Metabolic engineering for beta-alanine over-production in plants is expected to enhance environmental stress tolerance. The Escherichia coli L-aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase (AspDC) encoded by the panD gene, catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-aspartate to generate beta-alanine and carbon dioxide. The constitutive E. coli panD expression cassette was co-introduced with the constitutive, selectable aadA expression cassette into the chloroplast genome of tobacco via biolistic gene transfer and homologous recombination. Site specific integration of the E. coli panD expression cassette into the chloroplast genome and generation of homotransplastomic plants were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, respectively, following plant regeneration and germination of seedlings on selective media. PanD expression was verified by assays based on transcript detection and in vitro enzyme activity. The AspDC activities in transplastomic plants expressing panD were drastically increased by high-temperature stress. beta-Alanine accumulated in transplastomic plants at levels four times higher than in wildtype plants. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence on plants subjected to severe heat stress at 45 degrees C under light verified that photosystem II (PSII) in transgenic plants had higher thermotolerance than in wildtype plants. The CO(2) assimilation of transplastomic plants expressing panD was more tolerant to high temperature stress than that of wildtype plants, resulting in the production of 30-40% more above ground biomass than wildtype control. The results presented indicate that chloroplast engineering of the beta-alanine pathway by over-expression of the E. coli panD enhances thermotolerance of photosynthesis and biomass production following high temperature stress.

  5. Comparative transcriptome and gene co-expression network analysis reveal genes and signaling pathways adaptively responsive to varied adverse stresses in the insect fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhangjiang; Zhao, Xin; Lu, Zhuoyue; Wang, Huifang; Liu, Pengfei; Zeng, Fanqin; Zhang, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Sensing, responding, and adapting to the surrounding environment are crucial for all living organisms to survive, proliferate, and differentiate in their biological niches. Beauveria bassiana is an economically important insect-pathogenic fungus which is widely used as a biocontrol agent to control a variety of insect pests. The fungal pathogen unavoidably encounters a variety of adverse environmental stresses and defense response from the host insects during application of the fungal agents. However, few are known about the transcription response of the fungus to respond or adapt varied adverse stresses. Here, we comparatively analyzed the transcriptome of B. bassiana in globe genome under the varied stationary-phase stresses including osmotic agent (0.8 M NaCl), high temperature (32 °C), cell wall-perturbing agent (Congo red), and oxidative agents (H 2 O 2 or menadione). Total of 12,412 reads were obtained, and mapped to the 6767 genes of the B. bassiana. All of these stresses caused transcription responses involved in basal metabolism, cell wall construction, stress response or cell rescue/detoxification, signaling transduction and gene transcription regulation, and likely other cellular processes. An array of genes displayed similar transcription patterns in response to at least two of the five stresses, suggesting a shared transcription response to varied adverse stresses. Gene co-expression network analysis revealed that mTOR signaling pathway, but not HOG1 MAP kinase pathway, played a central role in regulation the varied adverse stress responses, which was verified by RNAi-mediated knockdown of TOR1. Our findings provided an insight of transcription response and gene co-expression network of B. bassiana in adaptation to varied environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Confers Tolerance to Various Abiotic Stresses and Modulates Plant Response to Phytohormones through Osmoprotection and Gene Expression Regulation in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Tiwari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Being sessile in nature, plants have to withstand various adverse environmental stress conditions including both biotic and abiotic stresses. Comparatively, abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, high temperature, and cold pose major threat to agriculture by negatively impacting plant growth and yield worldwide. Rice is one of the most widely consumed staple cereals across the globe, the production and productivity of which is also severely affected by different abiotic stresses. Therefore, several crop improvement programs are directed toward developing stress tolerant rice cultivars either through marker assisted breeding or transgenic technology. Alternatively, some known rhizospheric competent bacteria are also known to improve plant growth during abiotic stresses. A plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRI-SN13 (SN13 was previously reported by our lab to confer salt stress tolerance to rice seedlings. However, the present study investigates the role of SN13 in ameliorating various abiotic stresses such as salt, drought, desiccation, heat, cold, and freezing on a popular rice cv. Saryu-52 under hydroponic growth conditions. Apart from this, seedlings were also exogenously supplied with abscisic acid (ABA, salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethephon (ET to study the role of SN13 in phytohormone-induced stress tolerance as well as its role in abiotic and biotic stress cross-talk. All abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments significantly affected various physiological and biochemical parameters like membrane integrity and osmolyte accumulation. SN13 also positively modulated stress-responsive gene expressions under various abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments suggesting its multifaceted role in cross-talk among stresses and phytohormones in response to PGPR. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on detailed analysis of plant growth promotion and stress alleviation by a

  7. Silver nanoparticles and dissolved silver activate contrasting immune responses and stress-induced heat shock protein expression in sea urchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magesky, Adriano; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro A; Beaulieu, Lucie; Pelletier, Émilien

    2017-07-01

    Using immune cells of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in early development as a model, the cellular protective mechanisms against ionic and poly(allylamine)-coated silver nanoparticle (AgNPs; 14 ± 6 nm) treatments at 100 μg L -1 were investigated. Oxidative stress, heat shock protein expression, and pigment production by spherulocytes were determined as well as AgNP translocation pathways and their multiple effects on circulating coelomocytes. Sea urchins showed an increasing resilience to Ag over time because ionic Ag is accumulated in a steady way, although nanoAg levels dropped between 48 h and 96 h. A clotting reaction emerged on tissues injured by dissolved Ag (present as chloro-complexes in seawater) between 12 h and 48 h. Silver contamination and nutritional state influenced the production of reactive oxygen species. After passing through coelomic sinuses and gut, AgNPs were found in coelomocytes. Inside blood vessels, apoptosis-like processes appeared in coelomocytes highly contaminated by poly(allylamine)-coated AgNPs. Increasing levels of Ag accumulated by urchins once exposed to AgNPs pointed to a Trojan-horse mechanism operating over 12-d exposure. However, under short-term treatments, physical interactions of poly(allylamine)-coated AgNPs with cell structures might be, at some point, predominant and responsible for the highest levels of stress-related proteins detected. The present study is the first report detailing nano-translocation in a marine organism and multiple mechanisms by which sea urchin cells can deal with toxic AgNPs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1872-1886. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  8. Soybean DREB1/CBF-type transcription factors function in heat and drought as well as cold stress-responsive gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidokoro, Satoshi; Watanabe, Keitaro; Ohori, Teppei; Moriwaki, Takashi; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Mizoi, Junya; Myint Phyu Sin Htwe, Nang; Fujita, Yasunari; Sekita, Sachiko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2015-02-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is a globally important crop, and its growth and yield are severely reduced by abiotic stresses, such as drought, heat, and cold. The cis-acting element DRE (dehydration-responsive element)/CRT plays an important role in activating gene expression in response to these stresses. The Arabidopsis DREB1/CBF genes that encode DRE-binding proteins function as transcriptional activators in the cold stress responsive gene expression. In this study, we identified 14 DREB1-type transcription factors (GmDREB1s) from a soybean genome database. The expression of most GmDREB1 genes in soybean was strongly induced by a variety of abiotic stresses, such as cold, drought, high salt, and heat. The GmDREB1 proteins activated transcription via DREs (dehydration-responsive element) in Arabidopsis and soybean protoplasts. Transcriptome analyses using transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GmDREB1s indicated that many of the downstream genes are cold-inducible and overlap with those of Arabidopsis DREB1A. We then comprehensively analyzed the downstream genes of GmDREB1B;1, which is closely related to DREB1A, using a transient expression system in soybean protoplasts. The expression of numerous genes induced by various abiotic stresses were increased by overexpressing GmDREB1B;1 in soybean, and DREs were the most conserved element in the promoters of these genes. The downstream genes of GmDREB1B;1 included numerous soybean-specific stress-inducible genes that encode an ABA receptor family protein, GmPYL21, and translation-related genes, such as ribosomal proteins. We confirmed that GmDREB1B;1 directly activates GmPYL21 expression and enhances ABRE-mediated gene expression in an ABA-independent manner. These results suggest that GmDREB1 proteins activate the expression of numerous soybean-specific stress-responsive genes under diverse abiotic stress conditions. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Expression quantitative trait loci and genetic regulatory network analysis reveals that Gabra2 is involved in stress responses in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiajuan; Wang, Xusheng; Chen, Ying; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhu, Jun; Lu, Lu

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies have revealed that the subunit alpha 2 (Gabra2) of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor plays a critical role in the stress response. However, little is known about the gentetic regulatory network for Gabra2 and the stress response. We combined gene expression microarray analysis and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping to characterize the genetic regulatory network for Gabra2 expression in the hippocampus of BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mice. Our analysis found that the expression level of Gabra2 exhibited much variation in the hippocampus across the BXD RI strains and between the parental strains, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J. Expression QTL (eQTL) mapping showed three microarray probe sets of Gabra2 to have highly significant linkage likelihood ratio statistic (LRS) scores. Gene co-regulatory network analysis showed that 10 genes, including Gria3, Chka, Drd3, Homer1, Grik2, Odz4, Prkag2, Grm5, Gabrb1, and Nlgn1 are directly or indirectly associated with stress responses. Eleven genes were implicated as Gabra2 downstream genes through mapping joint modulation. The genetical genomics approach demonstrates the importance and the potential power of the eQTL studies in identifying genetic regulatory networks that contribute to complex traits, such as stress responses.

  10. Expressive stress relievers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruns Alonso, M.; Varkevisser, M.; Keyson, D.V.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe three tangible interfaces that recognize stress by how they are manipulated and provide tactile feedback to support stress reduction. They were developed following a research through design methodology, in an iterative process of observing behavior, building prototypes, and

  11. Composition of the SAGA complex in plants and its role in controlling gene expression in response to abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eMoraga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein complexes involved in epigenetic regulation of transcription have evolved as molecular strategies to face environmental stress in plants. SAGA (Spt–Ada–Gcn5 Acetyltransferase is a transcriptional co-activator complex that regulates numerous cellular processes through the coordination of multiple post-translational histone modifications, including acetylation, deubiquitination, and chromatin recognition. The diverse functions of the SAGA complex involve distinct modules that are highly conserved between yeast, flies, and mammals. In this review, the composition of the SAGA complex in plants is described and its role in gene expression regulation under stress conditions summarized. Some of these proteins are likely involved in the regulation of the inducible expression of genes under light, cold, drought, salt, and iron stress, although the functions of several of its components remain unknown.

  12. Enantioselective effect of bifenthrin on antioxidant enzyme gene expression and stress protein response in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xianting

    2013-07-01

    Enantioselectivity in toxicology and the health risk of chiral xenobiotics have become frontier topics interfacing chemistry and toxicology. Our previous results showed that cis-bifenthrin (cis-BF) induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in vitro in an enantioselective manner. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of synthetic pyrethroid-induced enantioselective apoptosis and cytotoxicity have so far received limited research attention. In the present study, the expression patterns of different genes encoding heat shock protein and antioxidant enzymes were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells after exposure to cis-BF and its enantiomers. The results showed that exposure to 1S-cis-BF resulted in increased transcription of HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase, Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-s-transferase at a concentration of 5 µm and above, while exposure to 1R-cis-BF and rac-cis-BF exhibited these effects to lesser degrees. In addition, induction of antioxidant enzyme gene expression produced by 1S-cis-BF might occur, at least in part, through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and extracellular regulated kinases, while increase in stress protein response produced by 1S-cis-BF might occur through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. The results not only suggest that enantioselectivity should be considered in evaluating the ecotoxicological effects and health risk of chiral contaminants, but also will improve the understanding of molecular mechanism for chiral chemical-induced cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. African-American esophageal squamous cell carcinoma expression profile reveals dysregulation of stress response and detox networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkizan, Hayriye Verda; Johnson, Kory; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana; Karkera, Deepa; Trachiotis, Gregory; Adib, Houtan; Hoffman, Eric P; Wadleigh, Robert G

    2017-06-19

    Esophageal carcinoma is the third most common gastrointestinal malignancy worldwide and is largely unresponsive to therapy. African-Americans have an increased risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the subtype that shows marked variation in geographic frequency. The molecular architecture of African-American ESCC is still poorly understood. It is unclear why African-American ESCC is more aggressive and the survival rate in these patients is worse than those of other ethnic groups. To begin to define genetic alterations that occur in African-American ESCC we conducted microarray expression profiling in pairs of esophageal squamous cell tumors and matched control tissues. We found significant dysregulation of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and stress response components of the NRF2- mediated oxidative damage pathway, potentially representing key genes in African-American esophageal squamous carcinogenesis. Loss of activity of drug metabolizing enzymes would confer increased sensitivity of esophageal cells to xenobiotics, such as alcohol and tobacco smoke, and may account for the high incidence and aggressiveness of ESCC in this ethnic group. To determine whether certain genes are uniquely altered in African-American ESCC we performed a meta-analysis of ESCC expression profiles in our African-American samples and those of several Asian samples. Down-regulation of TP53 pathway components represented the most common feature in ESCC of all ethnic groups. Importantly, this analysis revealed a potential distinctive molecular underpinning of African-American ESCC, that is, a widespread and prominent involvement of the NRF2 pathway. Taken together, these findings highlight the remarkable interplay of genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of African-American ESCC.

  14. Profiling of differential gene expression in the hypothalamus of broiler-type Taiwan country chickens in response to acute heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wei-Lin; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Wang, Shih-Han; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Chen, Shuen-Ei; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Acute heat stress severely impacts poultry production. The hypothalamus acts as a crucial center to regulate body temperature, detect temperature changes, and modulate the autonomic nervous system and endocrine loop for heat retention and dissipation. The purpose of this study was to investigate global gene expression in the hypothalamus of broiler-type B strain Taiwan country chickens after acute heat stress. Twelve 30-week-old hens were allocated to four groups. Three heat-stressed groups were subjected to acute heat stress at 38 °C for 2 hours without recovery (H2R0), with 2 hours of recovery (H2R2), and with 6 hours of recovery (H2R6). The control hens were maintained at 25 °C. At the end, hypothalamus samples were collected for gene expression analysis. The results showed that 24, 11, and 25 genes were upregulated and 41, 15, and 42 genes were downregulated in H2R0, H2R2, and H2R6 treatments, respectively. The expressions of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1), heat shock 27-kDa protein 1 (HSPB1), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) were upregulated at all recovery times after heat exposure. Conversely, the expression of TPH2 was downregulated at all recovery times. A gene ontology analysis showed that most of the differentially expressed genes were involved in biological processes including cellular processes, metabolic processes, localization, multicellular organismal processes, developmental processes, and biological regulation. A functional annotation analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were related to the gene networks of responses to stress and reproductive functions. These differentially expressed genes might be essential and unique key factors in the heat stress response of the hypothalamus in chickens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptome, expression, and activity analyses reveal a vital heat shock protein 70 in the stress response of stony coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yidan; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingui; Huang, Bo

    2018-02-12

    Coral bleaching occurs worldwide with increasing frequencies and intensities, which is caused by the stress response of stony coral to environmental change, especially increased sea surface temperature. In the present study, transcriptome, expression, and activity analyses were employed to illustrate the underlying molecular mechanisms of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the stress response of coral to environmental changes. The domain analyses of assembled transcripts revealed 30 HSP70 gene contigs in stony coral Pocillopora damicornis. One crucial HSP70 (PdHSP70) was observed, whose expressions were induced by both elevated temperature and ammonium after expression difference analysis. The complete complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence of PdHSP70 was identified, which encoded a polypeptide of 650 amino acids with a molecular weight of 71.93 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of PdHSP70 contained a HSP70 domain (from Pro8 to Gly616), and it shared the highest similarity (95%) with HSP70 from Stylophora pistillata. The expression level of PdHSP70 gene increased significantly at 12 h, and returned to the initial level at 24 h after the stress of high temperature (32 °C). The cDNA fragment encoding the mature peptide of PdHSP70 was recombined and expressed in the prokaryotic expression system. The ATPase activity of recombinant PdHSP70 protein was determined, and it did not change significantly in a wide range of temperature from 25 to 40 °C. These results collectively suggested that PdHSP70 was a vital heat shock protein 70 in the stony coral P. damicornis, whose mRNA expression could be induced by diverse environmental stress and whose activity could remain stable under heat stress. PdHSP70 might be involved in the regulation of the bleaching owing to heat stress in the stony coral P. damicornis.

  16. Trait specific expression profiling of salt stress responsive genes in diverse rice genotypes as determined by modified Significance Analysis of Microarrays

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    Mohammad Rashed Hossain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress responsive gene expression is commonly profiled in a comparative manner involving different stress conditions or genotypes with contrasting reputation of tolerance/resistance. In contrast, this research exploited a wide natural variation in terms of taxonomy, origin and salt sensitivity in eight genotypes of rice to identify the trait specific patterns of gene expression under salt stress. Genome wide transcptomic responses were interrogated by the weighted continuous morpho-physiological trait responses using modified Significance Analysis of Microarrays. More number of genes was found to be differentially expressed under salt stressed compared to that of under unstressed conditions. Higher numbers of genes were observed to be differentially expressed for the traits shoot Na+/K+, shoot Na+, root K+, biomass and shoot Cl-, respectively. The results identified around sixty genes to be involved in Na+, K+ and anion homeostasis, transport and transmembrane activity under stressed conditions. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analysis identified 1.36% (578 genes of the entire transcriptome to be involved in the major molecular functions such as signal transduction (>150 genes, transcription factor (81 genes and translation factor activity (62 genes etc. under salt stress. Chromosomal mapping of the genes suggests that majority of the genes are located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6 & 7. The gene network analysis showed that the transcription factors and translation initiation factors formed the major gene networks and are mostly active in nucleus, cytoplasm and mitochondria whereas the membrane and vesicle bound proteins formed a secondary network active in plasma membrane and vacuoles. The novel genes and the genes with unknown functions thus identified provide picture of a synergistic salinity response representing the potentially fundamental mechanisms that are active in the wide natural genetic background of rice and will be of greater use once

  17. Salt Stress Effects on Secondary Metabolites of Cotton in Relation to Gene Expression Responsible for Aphid Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available Many secondary metabolites have insecticidal efficacy against pests and may be affected by abiotic stress. However, little is known of how plants may respond to such stress as pertains the growth and development of pests. The objective of this study was to determine if and how salt stress on cotton plants affects the population dynamics of aphids. The NaCl treatment (50 mM, 100 mM, 150 mM and 200 mM increased contents of gossypol in cotton by 26.8-51.4%, flavonoids by 22.5-37.6% and tannic by 15.1-24.3% at 7-28 d after salt stress. Compared with non-stressed plants, the population of aphids on 150 and 200 mM NaCl stressed plants was reduced by 46.4 and 65.4% at 7d and by 97.3 and 100% at 14 days after infestation. Reductions in aphid population were possibly attributed to the elevated secondary metabolism under salt stress. A total of 796 clones for aphids transcriptome, 412 clones in the positive- library (TEST and 384 clones in the reverse-library (Ck, were obtained from subtracted cDNA libraries and sequenced. Gene ontology (GO functional classification and KEGG pathway analysis showed more genes related to fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis, and fewer genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism and cell motility pathways in TEST than in Ck library, which might be the reason of aphids population reduction. A comparative analysis with qRT-PCR indicated high expression of transcripts CYP6A14, CYP6A13, CYP303A1, NADH dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase in the TEST group. However, CYP307A1 and two ecdysone-induced protein genes were down regulated. The results indicate that genes of aphids related to growth and development can express at a higher level in reaction to the enhanced secondary metabolism in cotton under salinity stress. The expression of CYP307A1 was positively correlated with the population dynamics of aphids since it was involved in ecdysone synthesis.

  18. Akt/FOXO3a signaling modulates the endothelial stress response through regulation of heat shock protein 70 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Soo; Skurk, Carsten; Maatz, Henrike; Shiojima, Ichiro; Ivashchenko, Yuri; Yoon, Suk-Won; Park, Young-Bae; Walsh, Kenneth

    2005-06-01

    To identify new antiapoptotic targets of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in endothelial cells, adenovirus-mediated Akt1 gene transfer and oligonucleotide microarrays were used to examine Akt-regulated transcripts. DNA microarray analysis revealed that HSP70 expression underwent the greatest fold activation of 12,532 transcripts examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) transduced with constitutively active Akt1. Akt1 gene transfer increased HSP70 transcript expression by 24.8-fold as determined by quantitative PCR and promoted a dose-dependent up-regulation of HSP70 protein as determined by Western immunoblot analysis. Gene transfer of FOXO3a, a downstream target of Akt in endothelial cells, significantly suppressed both basal and stress-induced HSP70 protein expression. FOXO3a induced caspase-9-dependent apoptosis in HUVEC, and cotransduction with Ad-HSP70 rescued endothelial cells from FOXO3a-induced apoptosis under basal and stress conditions. Our results identify HSP70 as a new antiapoptotic target of Akt-FOXO3a signaling in endothelial cells that controls viability through modulation of the stress-induced intrinsic cell death pathway.

  19. QsMYB1 expression is modulated in response to heat and drought stresses and during plant recovery in Quercus suber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Tânia; Pinto, Glória; Correia, Barbara; Santos, Conceição; Gonçalves, Sónia

    2013-12-01

    Cork oak is an economically important forest species showing a great tolerance to high temperatures and shortage of water. However, the mechanisms underlying this plasticity are still poorly understood. Among the stress regulators, transcription factors (TFs) are especially important since they can control a wide range of stress-inducible genes, which make them powerful targets for genetic engineering of stress tolerance. Here we evaluated the influence of increasing temperatures (up to 55 °C) or drought (18% field capacity, FC) on the expression profile of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor of cork oak, the QsMYB1. QsMYB1 was previously identified as being preferentially expressed in cork tissues and as having an associated alternative splicing mechanism, which results in two different transcripts (QsMYB1.1 and QsMYB1.2). Expression analysis by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that increasing temperatures led to a gradual down-regulation of QsMYB1 transcripts with more effect on QsMYB1.1 abundance. On the other hand, under drought condition, expression of QsMYB1 variants, mainly the QsMYB1.2, was transiently up-regulated shortly after the stress imposition. Recovery from each stress has also resulted in a differential response by both QsMYB1 transcripts. Several physiological and biochemical parameters (plant water status, chlorophyll fluorescence, lipid peroxidation and proline content) were determined in order to monitor the plant performance under stress and recovery. In conclusion, this report provides the first evidence that QsMYB1 TF may have a putative function in the regulatory network of cork oak response to heat and drought stresses and during plant recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression Patterns and Identified Protein-Protein Interactions Suggest That Cassava CBL-CIPK Signal Networks Function in Responses to Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Chunyan; Wan, Shumin; Xia, Youquan; Ren, Ning; Zhou, Yang; Jiang, Xingyu

    2018-01-01

    Cassava is an energy crop that is tolerant of multiple abiotic stresses. It has been reported that the interaction between Calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) is implicated in plant development and responses to various stresses. However, little is known about their functions in cassava. Herein, 8 CBL ( MeCBL ) and 26 CIPK ( MeCIPK ) genes were isolated from cassava by genome searching and cloning of cDNA sequences of Arabidopsis CBL s and CIPK s. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression levels of MeCBL and MeCIPK genes were different in different tissues throughout the life cycle. The expression patterns of 7 CBL and 26 CIPK genes in response to NaCl, PEG, heat and cold stresses were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and it was found that the expression of each was induced by multiple stimuli. Furthermore, we found that many pairs of CBLs and CIPKs could interact with each other via investigating the interactions between 8 CBL and 25 CIPK proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. Yeast cells co-transformed with cassava MeCIPK24, MeCBL10 , and Na + /H + antiporter MeSOS1 genes exhibited higher salt tolerance compared to those with one or two genes. These results suggest that the cassava CBL-CIPK signal network might play key roles in response to abiotic stresses.

  1. Hsf and Hsp gene families in Populus: genome-wide identification, organization and correlated expression during development and in stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Bobin; Li, Jianbo; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Huanquan; Lu, Mengzhu; Chen, Jun

    2015-03-14

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are molecular chaperones that are involved in many normal cellular processes and stress responses, and heat shock factors (Hsfs) are the transcriptional activators of Hsps. Hsfs and Hsps are widely coordinated in various biological processes. Although the roles of Hsfs and Hsps in stress responses have been well characterized in Arabidopsis, their roles in perennial woody species undergoing various environmental stresses remain unclear. Here, a comprehensive identification and analysis of Hsf and Hsp families in poplars is presented. In Populus trichocarpa, we identified 42 paralogous pairs, 66.7% resulting from a whole genome duplication. The gene structure and motif composition are relatively conserved in each subfamily. Microarray and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that most of the Populus Hsf and Hsp genes are differentially expressed upon exposure to various stresses. A coexpression network between Populus Hsf and Hsp genes was generated based on their expression. Coordinated relationships were validated by transient overexpression and subsequent qPCR analyses. The comprehensive analysis indicates that different sets of PtHsps are downstream of particular PtHsfs and provides a basis for functional studies aimed at revealing the roles of these families in poplar development and stress responses.

  2. Weak Organic Acids Decrease Borrelia burgdorferi Cytoplasmic pH, Eliciting an Acid Stress Response and Impacting RpoN- and RpoS-Dependent Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Dulebohn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi survives in its tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, or within various hosts. To transition between and survive in these distinct niches, B. burgdorferi changes its gene expression in response to environmental cues, both biochemical and physiological. Exposure of B. burgdorferi to weak monocarboxylic organic acids, including those detected in the blood meal of fed ticks, decreased the cytoplasmic pH of B. burgdorferi in vitro. A decrease in the cytoplasmic pH induced the expression of genes encoding enzymes that have been shown to restore pH homeostasis in other bacteria. These include putative coupled proton/cation exchangers, a putative Na+/H+ antiporter, a neutralizing buffer transporter, an amino acid deaminase and a proton exporting vacuolar-type VoV1 ATPase. Data presented in this report suggested that the acid stress response triggered the expression of RpoN- and RpoS-dependent genes including important virulence factors such as outer surface protein C (OspC, BBA66, and some BosR (Borreliaoxidative stress regulator-dependent genes. Because the expression of virulence factors, like OspC, are so tightly connected by RpoS to general cellular stress responses and cell physiology, it is difficult to separate transmission-promoting conditions in what is clearly a multifactorial and complex regulatory web.

  3. Characterization of VuMATE1 expression in response to iron nutrition and aluminum stress reveals adaptation of rice bean (Vigna umbellata to acid soils through cis regulation

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    Meiya eLiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice bean (Vigna umbellata VuMATE1 appears to be constitutively expressed at vascular system but root apex, and Al stress extends its expression to root apex. Whether VuMATE1 participates in both Al tolerance and Fe nutrition, and how VuMATE1 expression is regulated is of great interest. In this study, the role of VuMATE1 in Fe nutrition was characterized through in planta complementation assays. The transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 was investigated through promoter analysis and promoter-GUS reporter assays. The results showed that the expression of VuMATE1 was regulated by Al stress but not Fe status. Complementation of frd3-1 with VuMATE1 under VuMATE1 promoter could not restore phenotype, but restored with 35SCaMV promoter. Immunostaining of VuMATE1 revealed abnormal localization of VuMATE1 in vasculature. In planta GUS reporter assay identified Al-responsive cis-acting elements resided between -1228 and -574 bp. Promoter analysis revealed several cis-acting elements, but transcription is not simply regulated by one of these elements. We demonstrated that cis regulation of VuMATE1 expression is involved in Al tolerance mechanism, while not involved in Fe nutrition. These results reveal the evolution of VuMATE1 expression for better adaptation of rice bean to acidic soils where Al stress imposed but Fe deficiency pressure released.

  4. Ectopic Expression of GsSRK in Medicago sativa Reveals Its Involvement in Plant Architecture and Salt Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingzhe; Qian, Xue; Chen, Chao; Cheng, Shufei; Jia, Bowei; Zhu, Yanming; Sun, Xiaoli

    2018-01-01

    Receptor-like kinases (RLK) play fundamental roles in plant growth and stress responses. Compared with other RLKs, little information is provided concerning the S-locus LecRLK subfamily, which is characterized by an extracellular G-type lectin domain and an S-locus-glycop domain. Until now, the function of the G-type lectin domain is still unknown. In a previous research, we identified a Glycine soja S-locus LecRLK gene GsSRK , which conferred increased salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis . In this study, to investigate the role of the G-type lectin domain and to breed transgenic alfalfa with superior salt stress tolerance, we transformed the full-length GsSRK ( GsSRK-f ) and a truncated version of GsSRK ( GsSRK-t ) deleting the G-type lectin domain into alfalfa. Our results showed that overexpression of GsSRK-t , but not GsSRK-f , resulted in changes of plant architecture, as evidenced by more branches but shorter shoots of GsSRK-t transgenic alfalfa, indicating a potential role of the extracellular G-type lectin domain in regulating plant architecture. Furthermore, we also found that transgenic alfalfa overexpressing either GsSRK-f or GsSRK-t showed increased salt stress tolerance, and GsSRK-t transgenic alfalfa displayed better growth (more branches and higher fresh weight) than GsSRK-f lines under salt stress. In addition, our results suggested that both GsSRK-f and GsSRK-t were involved in ion homeostasis, ROS scavenging, and osmotic regulation. Under salt stress, the Na + content in the transgenic lines was significantly lower, while the K + content was slightly higher than that in WT. Moreover, the transgenic lines displayed reduced ion leakage and MDA content, but increased SOD activity and proline content than WT. Notably, no obvious difference in these physiological indices was observed between GsSRK-f and GsSRK-t transgenic lines, implying that deletion of the GsSRK G-type lectin domain does not affect its physiological function in salt

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus using 454 pyrosequencing: comparison with A. tuberculatus, expression profiling in stems and in response to biotic and abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas-Ortiz Erandi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a grain amaranth, is a C4 plant noted by its ability to tolerate stressful conditions and produce highly nutritious seeds. These possess an optimal amino acid balance and constitute a rich source of health-promoting peptides. Although several recent studies, mostly involving subtractive hybridization strategies, have contributed to increase the relatively low number of grain amaranth expressed sequence tags (ESTs, transcriptomic information of this species remains limited, particularly regarding tissue-specific and biotic stress-related genes. Thus, a large scale transcriptome analysis was performed to generate stem- and (abiotic stress-responsive gene expression profiles in grain amaranth. Results A total of 2,700,168 raw reads were obtained from six 454 pyrosequencing runs, which were assembled into 21,207 high quality sequences (20,408 isotigs + 799 contigs. The average sequence length was 1,064 bp and 930 bp for isotigs and contigs, respectively. Only 5,113 singletons were recovered after quality control. Contigs/isotigs were further incorporated into 15,667 isogroups. All unique sequences were queried against the nr, TAIR, UniRef100, UniRef50 and Amaranthaceae EST databases for annotation. Functional GO annotation was performed with all contigs/isotigs that produced significant hits with the TAIR database. Only 8,260 sequences were found to be homologous when the transcriptomes of A. tuberculatus and A. hypochondriacus were compared, most of which were associated with basic house-keeping processes. Digital expression analysis identified 1,971 differentially expressed genes in response to at least one of four stress treatments tested. These included several multiple-stress-inducible genes that could represent potential candidates for use in the engineering of stress-resistant plants. The transcriptomic data generated from pigmented stems shared similarity with findings reported in developing

  6. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of Small RNA Biogenesis Purveyors Reveal Their Role in Regulation of Biotic Stress Responses in Three Legume Crops

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    Rajeev K. Varshney

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biotic stress in legume crops is one of the major threats to crop yield and productivity. Being sessile organisms, plants have evolved a myriad of mechanisms to combat different stresses imposed on them. One such mechanism, deciphered in the last decade, is small RNA (sRNA mediated defense in plants. Small RNAs (sRNAs have emerged as one of the major players in gene expression regulation in plants during developmental stages and under stress conditions. They are known to act both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Dicer-like (DCL, Argonaute (AGO, and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RDR constitute the major components of sRNA biogenesis machinery and are known to play a significant role in combating biotic and abiotic stresses. This study is, therefore, focused on identification and characterization of sRNA biogenesis proteins in three important legume crops, namely chickpea, pigeonpea, and groundnut. Phylogenetic analysis of these proteins between legume species classified them into distinct clades and suggests the evolutionary conservation of these genes across the members of Papillionidoids subfamily. Variable expression of sRNA biogenesis genes in response to the biotic stresses among the three legumes indicate the possible existence of specialized regulatory mechanisms in different legumes. This is the first ever study to understand the role of sRNA biogenesis genes in response to pathogen attacks in the studied legumes.

  7. Annotation of Differential Gene Expression in Small Yellow Follicles of a Broiler-Type Strain of Taiwan Country Chickens in Response to Acute Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tu, Wei-Lin; Wang, Shih-Han; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Chen, Shuen-Ei; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated global gene expression in the small yellow follicles (6-8 mm diameter) of broiler-type B strain Taiwan country chickens (TCCs) in response to acute heat stress. Twelve 30-wk-old TCC hens were divided into four groups: control hens maintained at 25°C and hens subjected to 38°C acute heat stress for 2 h without recovery (H2R0), with 2-h recovery (H2R2), and with 6-h recovery (H2R6). Small yellow follicles were collected for RNA isolation and microarray analysis at the end of each time point. Results showed that 69, 51, and 76 genes were upregulated and 58, 15, 56 genes were downregulated after heat treatment of H2R0, H2R2, and H2R6, respectively, using a cutoff value of two-fold or higher. Gene ontology analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes are associated with the biological processes of cell communication, developmental process, protein metabolic process, immune system process, and response to stimuli. Upregulation of heat shock protein 25, interleukin 6, metallopeptidase 1, and metalloproteinase 13, and downregulation of type II alpha 1 collagen, discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2, and Kruppel-like factor 2 suggested that acute heat stress induces proteolytic disintegration of the structural matrix and inflamed damage and adaptive responses of gene expression in the follicle cells. These suggestions were validated through gene expression, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Functional annotation clarified that interleukin 6-related pathways play a critical role in regulating acute heat stress responses in the small yellow follicles of TCC hens.

  8. Genome-wide characterization of differentially expressed genes provides insights into regulatory network of heat stress response in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghua; Mei, Yi; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jun; Liu, Liwang

    2018-03-01

    Heat stress (HS) causes detrimental effects on plant morphology, physiology, and biochemistry that lead to drastic reduction in plant biomass production and economic yield worldwide. To date, little is known about HS-responsive genes involved in thermotolerance mechanism in radish. In this study, a total of 6600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the control and Heat24 cDNA libraries of radish were isolated by high-throughput sequencing. With Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, some genes including MAPK, DREB, ERF, AP2, GST, Hsf, and Hsp were predominantly assigned in signal transductions, metabolic pathways, and biosynthesis and abiotic stress-responsive pathways. These pathways played significant roles in reducing stress-induced damages and enhancing heat tolerance in radish. Expression patterns of 24 candidate genes were validated by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Based mainly on the analysis of DEGs combining with the previous miRNAs analysis, the schematic model of HS-responsive regulatory network was proposed. To counter the effects of HS, a rapid response of the plasma membrane leads to the opening of specific calcium channels and cytoskeletal reorganization, after which HS-responsive genes are activated to repair damaged proteins and ultimately facilitate further enhancement of thermotolerance in radish. These results could provide fundamental insight into the regulatory network underlying heat tolerance in radish and facilitate further genetic manipulation of thermotolerance in root vegetable crops.

  9. Expression of three topologically distinct membrane proteins elicits unique stress response pathways in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Teresa M; Jordan, Rick; Lyons-Weiler, James; Adelman, Joshua L; Needham, Patrick G; Kleyman, Thomas R; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2015-06-01

    Misfolded membrane proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are subject to ER-associated degradation, which clears the secretory pathway of potentially toxic species. While the transcriptional response to environmental stressors has been extensively studied, limited data exist describing the cellular response to misfolded membrane proteins. To this end, we expressed and then compared the transcriptional profiles elicited by the synthesis of three ER retained, misfolded ion channels: The α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel, ENaC, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, CFTR, and an inwardly rectifying potassium channel, Kir2.1, which vary in their mass, membrane topologies, and quaternary structures. To examine transcriptional profiles in a null background, the proteins were expressed in yeast, which was previously used to examine the degradation requirements for each substrate. Surprisingly, the proteins failed to induce a canonical unfolded protein response or heat shock response, although messages encoding several cytosolic and ER lumenal protein folding factors rose when αENaC or CFTR was expressed. In contrast, the levels of these genes were unaltered by Kir2.1 expression; instead, the yeast iron regulon was activated. Nevertheless, a significant number of genes that respond to various environmental stressors were upregulated by all three substrates, and compared with previous microarray data we deduced the existence of a group of genes that reflect a novel misfolded membrane protein response. These data indicate that aberrant proteins in the ER elicit profound yet unique cellular responses. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Response of three broccoli cultivars to salt stress, in relation to water status and expression of two leaf aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muries, Beatriz; Carvajal, Micaela; Martínez-Ballesta, María Del Carmen

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare differences in water relations in the leaves of three broccoli cultivars and differential induction of the expression of PIP2 aquaporin isoforms under salt stress. Although broccoli is known to be moderately tolerant to salinity, scarce information exists about the involvement of leaf aquaporins in its adaptation to salinity. Thus, leaf water relations, leaf cell hydraulic conductivity (Lpc), gas exchange parameters and the PIP2 expression pattern were determined for short- (15 h) and long- (15 days) term NaCl treatments. In the long term, the lower half-time of water exchange in the cells of cv. Naxos, compared with Parthenon and Chronos, and its increased PIP2 abundance may have contributed to its Lpc maintenance. This unmodified Lpc in cv. Naxos under prolonged salinity may have diluted NaCl in the leaves, as suggested by lower Na(+) concentrations in the leaf sap. By contrast, the increase in the half-time of water exchange and the lower PIP2 abundance in cvs. Chronos and Parthenon would have contributed to the reduced Lpc values. In cv. Parthenon, there were no differences between the ε values of control and salt-stressed plants; in consequence, cell turgor was enhanced. Also, the increases in BoPIP2;2 and BoPIP2;3 expression in cv. Chronos for the short-term NaCl treatment suggest that these isoforms are involved in osmotic regulation as downstream factors in this cultivar, in fact, in the short-term, Chronos had a significantly reduced osmotic potential and higher PIP2 isoforms expression.

  11. Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahed Hossain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed substantially in understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against various stresses by providing a link between gene expression and cell metabolism. As the coding regions of genome are responsible for plant adaptation to adverse conditions, protein signatures provide insights into the phytotoxicity of NPs at proteome level. This review summarizes the recent contributions of plant proteomic research to elaborate the complex molecular pathways of plant response to NPs stress.

  12. Heat adaptation from regular hot water immersion decreases proinflammatory responses, HSP70 expression, and physical heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fwu-Lin; Lee, Chia-Chi; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Lee, Chung-Jen; Ke, Chun-Yen; Lee, Ru-Ping

    2017-10-01

    Hot-water immersion (HWI) is a type of thermal therapy for treating various diseases. In our study, the physiological responses to occasional and regular HWI have been explored. The rats were divided into a control group, occasional group (1D), and regular group (7D). The 1D and 7D groups received 42°C during 15mins HWI for 1 and 7 days, respectively. The blood samples were collected for proinflammatory cytokines examinations, the heart, liver and kidney were excised for subsequent IHC analysis to measure the level of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). The results revealed that the body temperature increased significantly during HWI on Day 3 and significantly declined on Days 6 and 7. For the 7D group, body weight, heart rate, hematocrit, platelet, osmolarity, and lactate level were lower than those in the 1D group. Furthermore, the levels of granulocyte counts, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 were lower in the 7D group than in the 1D group. The induction of HSP70 in the 1D group was higher than in the other groups. Physiological responses to occasional HWI are disadvantageous because of heat stress. However, adaptation to heat from regular HWI resulted in decreased proinflammatory responses and physical heat stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression analysis of nine small heat shock protein genes from Tamarix hispida in response to different abiotic stresses and abscisic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guiyan; Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Kaimin; Gao, Caiqiu

    2014-03-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play important roles in protecting plants against environmental stresses. Furthermore, small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are the most ubiquitous HSP subgroup with molecular weights ranging from 15 to 42 kDa. In this study, nine sHSP genes (designated as ThsHSP1-9) were cloned from Tamarix hispida. Their expression patterns in response to cold, heat shock, NaCl, PEG and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments were investigated in the roots and leaves of T. hispida by real-time RT-PCR analysis. The results showed that most of the nine ThsHSP genes were expressed at higher levels in roots than in leaves under normal growth condition. All of ThsHSP genes were highly induced under conditions of cold (4 °C) and different heat shocks (36, 40, 44, 48 and 52 °C). Under NaCl stress, all nine ThsHSPs genes were up-regulated at least one stress time-point in both roots and leaves. Under PEG and ABA treatments, the nine ThsHSPs showed various expression patterns, indicating a complex regulation pathway among these genes. This study represents an important basis for the elucidation of ThsHSP gene function and provides essential information that can be used for stress tolerance genetic engineering in future studies.

  14. Yak response to high-altitude hypoxic stress by altering mRNA expression and DNA methylation of hypoxia-inducible factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xianrong; Fu, Mei; Lan, Daoliang; Li, Jian; Zi, Xiangdong; Zhong, Jincheng

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are oxygen-dependent transcriptional activators, which play crucial roles in tumor angiogenesis and mammalian development, and regulate the transcription of genes involved in oxygen homeostasis in response to hypoxia. However, information on HIF-1α and HIF-2α in yak (Bos grunniens) is scarce. The complete coding region of yak HIF-2α was cloned, its mRNA expression in several tissues were determined, and the expression levels were compared with those of closely related low-altitude cattle (Bos taurus), and the methylation status of promoter regions were analyzed to better understand the roles of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in domesticated yak. The yak HIF-2α cDNA was cloned and sequenced in the present work reveals the evolutionary conservation through multiple sequence alignment, although 15 bases changed, resulting in 8 amino acid substitutions in the translated proteins in cattle. The tissue-specific expression results showed that HIF-1α is ubiquitously expressed, whereas HIF-2α expression is limited to endothelial tissues (kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and liver) and blood in yak. Both HIF-1α and HIF-2α expressions were higher in yak tissues than in cattle. The HIF-1α expression level is much higher in yak than cattle in these organs, except for the lung (P hypoxic stress response mechanism and may assist current medical research to understand hypoxia-related diseases.

  15. Expression of four phosphate transporter genes from Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) in response to mycorrhizal colonization and Pi stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudake, Ramesh Namdeo; Mehta, Chandra Mohan; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Sharma, Suvigya; Varma, Ajit; Sharma, Anil Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a vital nutrient for plant growth and development, and is absorbed in cells with the help of membrane-spanning inorganic phosphate transporter (Pht) protein. Symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) also helps in transporting P from the soil to plant and Pht proteins play an important role in it. To understand this phenomenon in Finger Mille plant, we have cloned four Pht genes from Finger millet, which shares the homology with Pht1 protein family of cereals. Expression pattern analysis during the AM infection indicated that EcPT4 gene was AM specific, and its expression was higher in roots where AM colonization percentage was high. The expression level of EcPT1-4 gene under the phosphorous (Pi) stress in seedlings was found to be consistent with its role in acquisition of phosphorus. Homology study of the EcPt proteins with Pht proteins of cereals shows close relationship. The findings of the study indicate that Pht1 family genes from finger millet can serve to be an important resource for the better understanding of phosphorus use efficiency.

  16. Analysis of global gene expression profile of rice in response to methylglyoxal indicates its possible role as a stress signal molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charanpreet eKaur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylglyoxal (MG is a toxic metabolite produced primarily as a byproduct of glycolysis. Being a potent glycating agent, it can readily bind macromolecules like DNA, RNA or proteins, modulating their expression and activity. In plants, despite the known inhibitory effects of MG on growth and development, still limited information is available about the molecular mechanisms and response pathways elicited upon elevation in MG levels. To gain insight into the molecular basis of MG response, we have investigated changes in global gene expression profiles in rice upon exposure to exogenous MG using GeneChip microarrays. Initially, growth of rice seedlings was monitored in response to increasing MG concentrations which could retard plant growth in a dose-dependent manner. Upon exposure to 10 mM concentration of MG, a total of 1685 probe sets were up- or down-regulated by more than 1.5-fold in shoot tissues within 16 h. These were classified into ten functional categories. The genes involved in signal transduction such as, protein kinases and transcription factors, were significantly over-represented in the perturbed transcriptome, of which several are known to be involved in abiotic and biotic stress response indicating a cross-talk between MG-responsive and stress-responsive signal transduction pathways. Through in silico studies, we could predict 7-8 bp long conserved motif as a possible MG-responsive element (MGRE in the 1 kb upstream region of genes that were more than ten-fold up- or down-regulated in the analysis. Since several perturbations were found in signaling cascades in response to MG, we hereby suggest that it plays an important role in signal transduction probably acting as a stress signal molecule.

  17. Expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in response to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Arun; Shriram, Ananganallur Nagarajan; Muruganandam, Nagarajan; Thamizhmani, Ramanathan

    2017-03-01

    Climatic changes are responsible, to a certain extent for the occurrence and spread of arboviral pathogens world over. Temperature is one of the important abiotic factors influencing the physiological processes of mosquitoes. Several genes of heat shock protein (HSP) families are known to be expressed in mosquitoes, which aid in overcoming stress induced by elevated temperature. In order to understand expression of HSP family genes in the Andaman population of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, we used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to examine expression levels of HSPs in response to thermal stress under laboratory and in actual field conditions. HSP genes AeaHsp26, AeaHsp83 and AeaHsc70 were examined by comparing relative transcript expression levels at 31°C, 33°C, 34°C, 37°C and 39°C respectively. Enhanced up-regulation of HSPs was evident in third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti with rise in water temperatures (31°C, 33°C, 34°C) in the containers in the nature and thermally stressed (37°C and 39°C) in laboratory conditions. In Ae. albopictus up-regulation of HSPs was observed in field conditions at 34°C only and when thermally treated at 37°C, while down regulation was evident in larvae subjected to thermal stress in laboratory at 39°C. Data on expression levels revealed that larvae of Ae. aegypti was tolerant to thermal stress, while Ae. albopictus larvae was sensitive to heat shock treatment. Statistical analysis indicated that AeaHsp83 genes were significantly up-regulated in Ae. aegypti larvae after 360min exposure to high temperature (39°C). The difference in expression levels of AeaHsp26, AeaHsc70 and AeaHsp83 genes in Ae. albopictus larvae was statistically significant between different exposure temperatures. All of these genes were significantly up-regulated at 37°C. These results indicate that AeaHsp26, AeaHsc70 and AeaHsp83 are important markers of stress and perhaps function as proteins conferring protection and

  18. Effect of cadmium exposure on hepatopancreas and gills of the estuary mud crab (Scylla paramamosain): Histopathological changes and expression characterization of stress response genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qi-Hui; Zhou, Zhong-Kai; Tu, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Yi-Lian; Wang, Cong; Liu, Ze-Peng; Gu, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yu-Yin; Shu, Miao-An

    2018-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that accumulates easily in organisms and causes several detrimental effects, including tissue damage. Cd contamination from anthropogenic terrestrial sources flows into rivers, and through estuaries to the ocean. To evaluate the toxic effects of Cd on estuary crustaceans, we exposed the mud crab Scylla paramamosain to various Cd concentrations (0, 10.0, 20.0, and 40.0mg/L) for 24h. We also exposed mud crabs to a fixed Cd concentration (20.0mg/L) for various periods of time (0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72h). We observed that after exposure to Cd, the surfaces of the gill lamellae were wrinkled, and the morphologies of the nuclei and mitochondria in the hepatopancreas were altered. We analyzed the expression profiles of 36 stress-related genes after Cd exposure, including those encoding metallothioneins, heat shock proteins, apoptosis-related proteins, and antioxidant proteins, with quantitative reverse transcription PCR. We found that exposure to Cd altered gene expression, and that some genes might be suitable bioindicators of Cd stress. Gene expression profiles were organ-, duration-, and concentration-dependent, suggesting that stress-response genes might be involved in an innate defense system for handling heavy metal exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one of histopathology and stress-response gene expression pattern of Scylla paramamosain after Cd exposure. Our work could increase our understanding of the effect of environmental toxins on estuary crustaceans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response in colonies of the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri exposed to various environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasselli, Stefano; Ballin, Francesca; Franchi, Nicola; Fabbri, Elena; Ballarin, Loriano

    2017-03-01

    Environmental stress conditions are ultimately related to the induction of oxidative stress in organisms, as a consequence of an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This could be exploited to study sub-lethal effects induced by the environment in the organisms. In the present work, we evaluate the possibility to use the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri as a bioindicator, to assess the environmental quality in the Lagoon of Venice. Three colony batches were immersed, for 22 days, at two sites (1 and 2) with different grades of hydrodynamics and anthropogenic impact and physico-chemical features of seawater; a control batch was kept in a large tank with continuous seawater flow at the Marine Station of the Department of Biology, University of Padova, in Chioggia (site 3). Seawater at site 2 had higher pH and temperature than site 1. Colonies were then retrieved, their mRNA was extracted and the level of transcription of genes involved in oxidative stress response (glutathione synthase, γ-glutamyl-cysteine ligase, modulatory subunit, two isoforms of glutathione peroxidases and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase) was evaluated. In colonies from sites 1 and 2, most genes showed significantly increased transcriptional levels with respect to control values. Spectrophotometric analyses of colony homogenates revealed that the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase was higher in colonies from site 2 as compared to site 1, allowing us to speculate that colonies in site 2 were under higher stress level than those in site 1. Overall, we can conclude that B. schlosseri seems a good indicator of the ecological status of the Lagoon environment, within a range of pH and temperature in which colonies are used to live.

  20. Effect of space flight on the frequency of micronuclei and expression of stress-responsive proteins in cultured mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikenaga, Mituo; Hirayama, Jun; Kato, Tomohisa [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Radiation Biology Center] [and others

    2002-12-01

    Results of past space experiments suggest that the biological effect of space radiation could been hanced under microgravity in some cases, especially ininsects. To examine if such a synergistic effect of radiation and microgravity also exists in human cells, frequencies of chromosome instability and cellular levels of several stress-responsive proteins were analyzed incultured human and rodent cells afterspace flight. Human (MCF7 and ataxia telangiectasia(AT)2KY), mouse (m5S) and hamster (Syrian hamster embryo (SHE)) cell lines were loaded on the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-95 mission) and grown during a 9-daymission. After landing, the micronuclei resulting from abnormal nuclear division and accumulationof stress-responsive proteins such as p53 and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which are involved in radiation-induced signal transduction cascades, were analyzed. The frequencies of micronucleiin all the four mammalian cell strains tested were not significantly different between flight and ground control samples. Also, the cellular amounts of p53, p21 (WAF1/SDI1/CIP1) and activated (phosphorylated) forms of three distinct MAPKs in MCF7 and m5S cells of flight samples were similar to those of ground control samples. These results indicated that anyeffect of space radiation, microgravity, or combination of both were not detectable, at least under thepresent experimental conditions. (author)

  1. Expression Patterns and Identified Protein-Protein Interactions Suggest That Cassava CBL-CIPK Signal Networks Function in Responses to Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Mo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is an energy crop that is tolerant of multiple abiotic stresses. It has been reported that the interaction between Calcineurin B-like (CBL protein and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK is implicated in plant development and responses to various stresses. However, little is known about their functions in cassava. Herein, 8 CBL (MeCBL and 26 CIPK (MeCIPK genes were isolated from cassava by genome searching and cloning of cDNA sequences of Arabidopsis CBLs and CIPKs. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of MeCBL and MeCIPK genes were different in different tissues throughout the life cycle. The expression patterns of 7 CBL and 26 CIPK genes in response to NaCl, PEG, heat and cold stresses were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, and it was found that the expression of each was induced by multiple stimuli. Furthermore, we found that many pairs of CBLs and CIPKs could interact with each other via investigating the interactions between 8 CBL and 25 CIPK proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. Yeast cells co-transformed with cassava MeCIPK24, MeCBL10, and Na+/H+ antiporter MeSOS1 genes exhibited higher salt tolerance compared to those with one or two genes. These results suggest that the cassava CBL-CIPK signal network might play key roles in response to abiotic stresses.

  2. Gene expression and yeast two-hybrid studies of transcription factors mediating drought stress response in root tissues of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami eRamalingam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress has been one of the serious constraints affecting chickpea productivity to a great extent. Genomic assisted breeding in chickpea has been effective in providing a yield advantage of up to 24 %, thus having a potential to accelerate breeding precisely and efficiently. In order to do so, understanding the molecular mechanisms for drought tolerance and identification of candidate genes are crucial. Transcription factors (TFs have important roles in the regulation of plant stress related genes. In this context, quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR was used to study the differential gene expression of selected TFs, identified from large-scale gene expression analysis, in contrasting drought responsive genotypes. Root tissues of ICC 4958 (tolerant, ICC 1882 (sensitive, JG 11 (elite and JG 11+ (introgression line were used for the study. Subsequently, a candidate single repeat MYB gene (1R-MYB that was remarkably induced in the drought tolerant genotypes under drought stress was cloned and subjected to Y2H analysis by screening a root cDNA library. The protein-protein interaction study identified three interacting peptides, a galactinol-sucrose galactosyltransferase 2, a CBL (Calcineurin B-like-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 25 and an ABA responsive 17-like, which were confirmed by the co-transformation of candidate plasmids in yeast. These findings provide preliminary insights into the ability of 1R-MYB TF to co-regulate drought tolerance mechanism in chickpea roots.

  3. Identification of multiple small heat-shock protein genes in Plutella xylostella (L.) and their expression profiles in response to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi'en; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    We identify and characterize 14 small heat-shock protein (sHSP) genes from the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), a destructive pest. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that, except for sHSP18.8 and sHSP19.22, the other 12 DBM sHSPs belong to five known insect sHSP groups. Developmental expression analysis revealed that most sHSPs peaked in the pupal and adult stages. The transcripts of sHSPs display tissue specificity with two exhibiting constitutive expression in four tested tissues. Expression of sHSP18.8 in fourth instar larvae is not induced by the tested abiotic stressors, and unless sHSP21.8 is not sensitive to thermal stress, 12 sHSPs are significantly up-regulated. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of all sHSPs are reduced under oxidative stress. Food deprivation leads to significant down-regulation of three sHSPs. The majority of sHSPs show expression variation to various heavy metals, whereas mRNA abundances of sHSP22.1 and sHSP 28.9 are reduced by four heavy metals. The responses of sHSPs to indoxacarb and cantharidin are varied. Beta-cypermethrin and chlorfenapyr exposure results in an increase of 13 sHSP transcripts and a reduction of 12 sHSP transcripts, respectively. These results show that different sHSPs might play distinct roles in the development and regulation of physiological activities, as well as in response to various abiotic stresses of DBM.

  4. Responses of transgenic Arabidopsis plants and recombinant yeast cells expressing a novel durum wheat manganese superoxide dismutase TdMnSOD to various abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaouthar, Feki; Ameny, Farhat-Khemakhem; Yosra, Kamoun; Walid, Saibi; Ali, Gargouri; Faiçal, Brini

    2016-07-01

    In plant cells, the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) plays an elusive role in the response to oxidative stress. In this study, we describe the isolation and functional characterization of a novel Mn-SOD from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum), named TdMnSOD. Molecular phylogeny analysis showed that the durum TdMnSOD exhibited high amino acids sequence identity with other Mn-SOD plants. The three-dimensional structure showed that TdMnSOD forms a homotetramer and each subunit is composed of a predominantly α-helical N-terminal domain and a mixed α/β C-terminal domain. TdMnSOD gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdMnSOD enhances tolerance of the transformed yeast cells to salt, osmotic, cold and H2O2-induced oxidative stresses. Moreover, the analysis of TdMnSOD transgenic Arabidopsis plants subjected to different environmental stresses revealed low H2O2 and high proline levels as compared to the wild-type plants. Compared with the non-transformed plants, an increase in the total SOD and two other antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT) and peroxidases (POD) was observed in the three transgenic lines subjected to abiotic stress. Taken together, these data provide evidence for the involvement of durum wheat TdMnSOD in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. In tobacco BY-2 cells xyloglucan oligosaccharides alter the expression of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, signalling, stress responses, cell division and transcriptional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Lien; Perrotta, Lara; Acosta, Alexis; Orellana, Esteban; Spadafora, Natasha; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Beatrice M; Albani, Diego; Cabrera, Juan Carlos; Francis, Dennis; Rogers, Hilary J

    2014-10-01

    Xyloglucan oligosaccharides (XGOs) are breakdown products of XGs, the most abundant hemicelluloses of the primary cell walls of non-Poalean species. Treatment of cell cultures or whole plants with XGOs results in accelerated cell elongation and cell division, changes in primary root growth, and a stimulation of defence responses. They may therefore act as signalling molecules regulating plant growth and development. Previous work suggests an interaction with auxins and effects on cell wall loosening, however their mode of action is not fully understood. The effect of an XGO extract from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) on global gene expression was therefore investigated in tobacco BY-2 cells using microarrays. Over 500 genes were differentially regulated with similar numbers and functional classes of genes up- and down-regulated, indicating a complex interaction with the cellular machinery. Up-regulation of a putative XG endotransglycosylase/hydrolase-related (XTH) gene supports the mechanism of XGO action through cell wall loosening. Differential expression of defence-related genes supports a role for XGOs as elicitors. Changes in the expression of genes related to mitotic control and differentiation also support previous work showing that XGOs are mitotic inducers. XGOs also affected expression of several receptor-like kinase genes and transcription factors. Hence, XGOs have significant effects on expression of genes related to cell wall metabolism, signalling, stress responses, cell division and transcriptional control.

  6. Inspection of the grapevine BURP superfamily highlights an expansion of RD22 genes with distinctive expression features in berry development and ABA-mediated stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tomás Matus

    Full Text Available The RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 22 (RD22 gene is a molecular link between abscisic acid (ABA signalling and abiotic stress responses. Its expression has been used as a reliable ABA early response marker. In Arabidopsis, the single copy RD22 gene possesses a BURP domain also located at the C-terminus of USP embryonic proteins and the beta subunit of polygalacturonases. In grapevine, a RD22 gene has been identified but putative paralogs are also found in the grape genome, possibly forming a large RD22 family in this species. In this work, we searched for annotations containing BURP domains in the Vitis vinifera genome. Nineteen proteins were defined by a comparative analysis between the two genome predictions and RNA-Seq data. These sequences were compared to other plant BURPs identified in previous genome surveys allowing us to reconceive group classifications based on phylogenetic relationships and protein motif occurrence. We observed a lineage-specific evolution of the RD22 family, with the biggest expansion in grapevine and poplar. In contrast, rice, sorghum and maize presented highly expanded monocot-specific groups. The Vitis RD22 group may have expanded from segmental duplications as most of its members are confined to a region in chromosome 4. The inspection of transcriptomic data revealed variable expression of BURP genes in vegetative and reproductive organs. Many genes were induced in specific tissues or by abiotic and biotic stresses. Three RD22 genes were further studied showing that they responded oppositely to ABA and to stress conditions. Our results show that the inclusion of RNA-Seq data is essential while describing gene families and improving gene annotations. Robust phylogenetic analyses including all BURP members from other sequenced species helped us redefine previous relationships that were erroneously established. This work provides additional evidence for RD22 genes serving as marker genes for different organs or stresses

  7. Inspection of the grapevine BURP superfamily highlights an expansion of RD22 genes with distinctive expression features in berry development and ABA-mediated stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Espinoza, Carmen; Vega, Andrea; Cavallini, Erika; Dal Santo, Silvia; Cañón, Paola; Rodríguez-Hoces de la Guardia, Amparo; Serrano, Jennifer; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    The RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 22 (RD22) gene is a molecular link between abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and abiotic stress responses. Its expression has been used as a reliable ABA early response marker. In Arabidopsis, the single copy RD22 gene possesses a BURP domain also located at the C-terminus of USP embryonic proteins and the beta subunit of polygalacturonases. In grapevine, a RD22 gene has been identified but putative paralogs are also found in the grape genome, possibly forming a large RD22 family in this species. In this work, we searched for annotations containing BURP domains in the Vitis vinifera genome. Nineteen proteins were defined by a comparative analysis between the two genome predictions and RNA-Seq data. These sequences were compared to other plant BURPs identified in previous genome surveys allowing us to reconceive group classifications based on phylogenetic relationships and protein motif occurrence. We observed a lineage-specific evolution of the RD22 family, with the biggest expansion in grapevine and poplar. In contrast, rice, sorghum and maize presented highly expanded monocot-specific groups. The Vitis RD22 group may have expanded from segmental duplications as most of its members are confined to a region in chromosome 4. The inspection of transcriptomic data revealed variable expression of BURP genes in vegetative and reproductive organs. Many genes were induced in specific tissues or by abiotic and biotic stresses. Three RD22 genes were further studied showing that they responded oppositely to ABA and to stress conditions. Our results show that the inclusion of RNA-Seq data is essential while describing gene families and improving gene annotations. Robust phylogenetic analyses including all BURP members from other sequenced species helped us redefine previous relationships that were erroneously established. This work provides additional evidence for RD22 genes serving as marker genes for different organs or stresses in grapevine.

  8. Differential effects of metal contamination on the transcript expression of immune- and stress-response genes in the Sydney Rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Daisy A.; Thompson, Emma L.; Nair, Sham V.; Raftos, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental contamination by metals is a serious threat to the biological sustainability of coastal ecosystems. Our current understanding of the potential biological effects of metals in these ecosystems is limited. This study tested the transcriptional expression of immune- and stress-response genes in Sydney Rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata). Oysters were exposed to four metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) commonly associated with anthropogenic pollution in coastal waterways. Seven target genes (superoxide dismutase, ferritin, ficolin, defensin, HSP70, HSP90 and metallothionein) were selected. Quantitative (real-time) PCR analyses of the transcript expression of these genes showed that each of the different metals elicited unique transcriptional profiles. Significant changes in transcription were found for 18 of the 28 combinations tested (4 metals × 7 genes). Of these, 16 reflected down-regulation of gene transcription. HSP90 was the only gene significantly up-regulated by metal contamination (cadmium and zinc only), while defensin expression was significantly down-regulated by exposure to all four metals. This inhibition could have a significant negative effect on the oyster immune system, promoting susceptibility to opportunistic infections and disease. -- Highlights: ► Oysters were exposed to Cd, Cu, Pb or Zn, all commonly associated with coastal pollution. ► qPCR identified significant down-regulation in stress- and immune-response genes in oysters exposed to these metals. ► qPCR showed that each of the different metals elicited unique transcriptional profiles. ► The genes identified have the potential to lead to increased disease susceptibility in oysters. -- qPCR identified significant down-regulation in stress- and immune-response genes in oysters exposed to metals, which could lead to increased disease susceptibility

  9. Expression of the stress-response regulators CtsR and HrcA in the uropathogen Staphylococcus saprophyticus during heat shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ciro César; de Oliveira, Lorayne Lauria; de Carvalho Rodrigues, Deivid; Ürményi, Turán Peter; Laport, Marinella Silva; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia

    2017-08-01

    The uropathogen Staphylococcus saprophyticus is an ubiquitous bacterium but little is known about mechanisms that allow its persistence in diverse environments. Here we evaluated S. saprophyticus growth and survival during heat shock, the expression of stress response regulators ctsR and hrcA through qRT-PCR and heat shock protein synthesis through 35 S-Met metabolic labeling. S. saprophyticus does not tolerate temperatures much higher than the optimal 37 °C, as its growth is greatly affected at 42 °C, though viability is maintained up to 48 °C. At 42 °C, the expression of ctsR and hrcA repressor genes approximately triple when compared to 37 °C and continue to increase together with temperature till 48 °C. Expression of hrcA peaks after 20 min of heat shock and decreases significantly after 30 min, indicating that heat stress response regulated by this gene may last 20-30 min. An increase in temperature is accompanied by the synthesis of at least eight proteins, three of which are likely the chaperones DnaK, GroEL and ClpB. In silico analysis indicate that the groEL gene may be regulated by HrcA, clpB by CtsR and dnaK by both repressors. This is the first work to discuss heat stress response in S. saprophyticus and a step forward in the understanding of mechanisms that make this a widespread and emergent pathogen.

  10. A Comparison of Petiole Hydraulics and Aquaporin Expression in an Anisohydric and Isohydric Cultivar of Grapevine in Response to Water-Stress Induced Cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Megan C; Vandeleur, Rebecca; Kaiser, Brent N; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    We report physiological, anatomical and molecular differences in two economically important grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars cv. Grenache (near-isohydric) and Chardonnay (anisohydric) in their response to water-stress induced cavitation. The aim of the study was to compare organ vulnerability (petiole and stem) to cavitation by measuring ultrasonic acoustic emissions (UAE) and percent loss of conductance of potted grapevines subject to the onset of water-stress. Leaf (ψ L ) and stem water potential (ψ S ), stomatal conductance ( g s ), transpiration ( E ), petiole hydraulics ( K Pet ), and xylem diameter were also measured. Chardonnay displayed hydraulic segmentation based on UAE, with cavitation occurring at a less negative ψ L in the petiole than in the stem. Vulnerability segmentation was not observed in Grenache, with both petioles and stems equally vulnerable to cavitation. Leaf water potential that induced 50% of maximum UAE was significantly different between petioles and stems in Chardonnay (ψ 50Petiole = -1.14 and ψ 50Stem = -2.24 MPa) but not in Grenache (ψ 50Petiole = -0.73 and ψ 50Stem = -0.78 MPa). Grenache stems appeared more susceptible to water-stress induced cavitation than Chardonnay stems. Grenache displayed (on average) a higher K Pet likely due to the presence of larger xylem vessels. A close relationship between petiole hydraulic properties and vine water status was observed in Chardonnay but not in Grenache. Transcriptional analysis of aquaporins in the petioles and leaves ( VvPIP1;1, VvPIP2;1, VvPIP2;2 VvPIP2;3, VvTIP1;1 , and VvTIP2;1 ) showed differential regulation diurnally and in response to water-stress. VvPIP2;1 showed strong diurnal regulation in the petioles and leaves of both cultivars with expression highest predawn. Expression of VvPIP2;1 and VvPIP2;2 responded to ψ L and ψ S in both cultivars indicating the expression of these two genes are closely linked to vine water status. Expression of several aquaporin

  11. Intra-specific variations in expression of stress-related genes in beech progenies are stronger than drought-induced responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsjens, Caroline; Nguyen Ngoc, Quynh; Guzy, Jonas; Knutzen, Florian; Meier, Ina Christin; Müller, Markus; Finkeldey, Reiner; Leuschner, Christoph; Polle, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Rapidly decreasing water availability as a consequence of climate change is likely to endanger the range of long-lived tree species. A pressing question is, therefore, whether adaptation to drought exists in important temperate tree species like European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), a wide-spread, dominant forest tree in Central Europe. Here, five beech stands were selected along a precipitation gradient from moist to dry conditions. Neutral genetic markers revealed strong variation within and little differentiation between the populations. Natural regeneration from these stands was transferred to a common garden and used to investigate the expression of genes for abscisic acid (ABA)-related drought signaling [9-cis-epoxy-dioxygenase (NCED), protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C), early responsive to dehydration (ERD)] and stress protection [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), glutamine amidotransferase (GAT)] that are involved in drought acclimation. We hypothesized that progenies from dry sites exhibit constitutively higher expression levels of ABA- and stress-related genes and are less drought responsive than progenies from moist sites. Transcript levels and stress responses (leaf area loss, membrane integrity) of well-irrigated and drought-stressed plants were measured during the early, mid- and late growing season. Principal component (PC) analysis ordered the beech progenies according to the mean annual precipitation at tree origin by the transcript levels of SOD, ALDH, GAT and ERD as major loadings along PC1. PC2 separated moist and drought treatments with PP2C levels as important loading. These results suggest that phosphatase-mediated signaling is flexibly acclimated to the current requirements, whereas stress compensatory measures exhibited genotypic variation, apparently underlying climate selection. In contrast to expectation, the drought responses were less pronounced than the progeny-related differences and the

  12. Genome-Wide Characterization of Heat-Shock Protein 70s from Chenopodium quinoa and Expression Analyses of Cqhsp70s in Response to Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianxia; Wang, Runmei; Liu, Wenying; Zhang, Hongli; Guo, Yaodong; Wen, Riyu

    2018-01-23

    Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are ubiquitous proteins with important roles in response to biotic and abiotic stress. The 70-kDa heat-shock genes ( Hsp70s ) encode a group of conserved chaperone proteins that play central roles in cellular networks of molecular chaperones and folding catalysts across all the studied organisms including bacteria, plants and animals. Several Hsp70s involved in drought tolerance have been well characterized in various plants, whereas no research on Chenopodium quinoa HSPs has been completed. Here, we analyzed the genome of C. quinoa and identified sixteen Hsp70 members in quinoa genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the independent origination of those Hsp70 members, with eight paralogous pairs comprising the Hsp70 family in quinoa. While the gene structure and motif analysis showed high conservation of those paralogous pairs, the synteny analysis of those paralogous pairs provided evidence for expansion coming from the polyploidy event. With several subcellular localization signals detected in CqHSP70 protein paralogous pairs, some of the paralogous proteins lost the localization information, indicating the diversity of both subcellular localizations and potential functionalities of those HSP70s. Further gene expression analyses revealed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis illustrated the significant variations of Cqhsp70s in response to drought stress. In conclusion, the sixteen Cqhsp70 s undergo lineage-specific expansions and might play important and varied roles in response to drought stress.

  13. Molecular characterization of three Hsp90 from Pieris and expression patterns in response to cold and thermal stress in summer and winter diapause of Pieris melete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue-Kun; Zou, Chao; Fu, Dao-Meng; Zhang, Wan-Na; Xiao, Hai-Jun

    2018-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) have been linked to stresses and winter diapause in insects, but whether they are components of summer diapause is still unknown. In this study, complementary DNAs of Hsp90 from Pieris melete, Pieris rapae and Pieris canidia named PmHsp90, PrHsp90 and PcHsp90, respectively, were cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence consisted of 718 amino acid residues with a putative molecular mass of 82.6, 82.6 and 82.7 kDa, respectively. The amino acid sequences contained all of the five conserved signature motifs in the Hsp90 family and a bHLH protein folding activity region. The differential expression pattern of PmHsp90 in response to summer diapause and winter diapause, which are related to heat/cold stress, was investigated. Cold stress induced Hsp90 up-regulation in summer and winter diapause pupae, but not in non-diapause individuals. Heat shock up-regulated PmHsp90 gradually with an increase in temperature in summer diapause, and PmHsp90 was rapidly up-regulated in winter diapause. After 30 min heat shock at 39°C, substantial up-regulation of PmHsp90 transcript levels were observed both in summer and winter diapause. However, in non-diapause a relatively stable expression was found under different durations of 39°C heat shock. Compared to the optimal treatment of 18°C for diapause development, a high temperature acclimation of 31°C induced PmHsp90 up-regulation in summer diapause, whereas a low temperature acclimation of 4°C induced up-regulation in winter diapause. The current results indicate that Hsp90 may play an important role in response to heat/cold stress both in summer and winter diapause. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Molecular Cloning and mRNA Expression of Heat Shock Protein Genes and Their Response to Cadmium Stress in the Grasshopper Oxya chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Zhang

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (Hsps are highly conserved molecular chaperones that are synthesized in response to stress. In this study, we cloned the full-length sequences of the Grp78 (glucose-regulated protein 78, Hsp70, Hsp90, and Hsp40 genes from the Chinese rice grasshopper Oxya chinensis. The full-length cDNA sequences of OcGrp78, OcHsp70, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 contain open reading frames of 1947, 1920, 2172, and 1042 bp that encode proteins of 649, 640, 724, and 347 amino acids, respectively. Fluorescent real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR was performed to quantify the relative transcript levels of these Hsp genes in different tissues and developmental stages. The mRNAs encoding these four Hsp genes were present at all developmental stages and in all tissues examined but were expressed at varying levels. Additionally, we investigated the mRNA expression profiles of these four Hsps in O. chinensis subjected to Cadmium (Cd stress. OcGrp78, OcHsp70, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 mRNA expression was induced under acute Cd stress; the levels reached a maximum within a short time (6 h, were reduced significantly at 12 h, and were lowered to or below control levels by 48 h. Regarding induction efficiency, OcHsp70 was the most sensitive gene to acute Cd stress. Chronic Cd exposure showed that dietary Cd treatment induced increased OcGrp78, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 expression. However, dietary Cd induced a significant reduction of OcHsp70 expression. In the period tested, no significant difference in the mortality of the grasshoppers was observed. Our results suggest that these four Hsps genes, especially OcHsp70, are sensitive to acute Cd stress and could be used as molecular markers for toxicology studies. However, our results also indicate that OcHsp70 is not suitable for use as a molecular marker of chronic Cd contamination.

  15. Molecular Cloning and mRNA Expression of Heat Shock Protein Genes and Their Response to Cadmium Stress in the Grasshopper Oxya chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Liu, Yaoming; Zhang, Jianzhen; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are highly conserved molecular chaperones that are synthesized in response to stress. In this study, we cloned the full-length sequences of the Grp78 (glucose-regulated protein 78), Hsp70, Hsp90, and Hsp40 genes from the Chinese rice grasshopper Oxya chinensis. The full-length cDNA sequences of OcGrp78, OcHsp70, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 contain open reading frames of 1947, 1920, 2172, and 1042 bp that encode proteins of 649, 640, 724, and 347 amino acids, respectively. Fluorescent real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to quantify the relative transcript levels of these Hsp genes in different tissues and developmental stages. The mRNAs encoding these four Hsp genes were present at all developmental stages and in all tissues examined but were expressed at varying levels. Additionally, we investigated the mRNA expression profiles of these four Hsps in O. chinensis subjected to Cadmium (Cd) stress. OcGrp78, OcHsp70, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 mRNA expression was induced under acute Cd stress; the levels reached a maximum within a short time (6 h), were reduced significantly at 12 h, and were lowered to or below control levels by 48 h. Regarding induction efficiency, OcHsp70 was the most sensitive gene to acute Cd stress. Chronic Cd exposure showed that dietary Cd treatment induced increased OcGrp78, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 expression. However, dietary Cd induced a significant reduction of OcHsp70 expression. In the period tested, no significant difference in the mortality of the grasshoppers was observed. Our results suggest that these four Hsps genes, especially OcHsp70, are sensitive to acute Cd stress and could be used as molecular markers for toxicology studies. However, our results also indicate that OcHsp70 is not suitable for use as a molecular marker of chronic Cd contamination.

  16. Differential expression of molecular markers of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala in response to spatial learning, predator exposure, and stress-induced amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Park, Collin R; Halonen, Joshua D; Salim, Samina; Alzoubi, Karem H; Srivareerat, Marisa; Fleshner, Monika; Alkadhi, Karim A; Diamond, David M

    2012-03-01

    We have studied the effects of spatial learning and predator stress-induced amnesia on the expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and calcineurin in the hippocampus, basolateral amygdala (BLA), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Adult male rats were given a single training session in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM) composed of 12 trials followed by a 30-min delay period, during which rats were either returned to their home cages or given inescapable exposure to a cat. Immediately following the 30-min delay period, the rats were given a single test trial in the RAWM to assess their memory for the hidden platform location. Under control (no stress) conditions, rats exhibited intact spatial memory and an increase in phosphorylated CaMKII (p-CaMKII), total CaMKII, and BDNF in dorsal CA1. Under stress conditions, rats exhibited impaired spatial memory and a suppression of all measured markers of molecular plasticity in dorsal CA1. The molecular profiles observed in the BLA, mPFC, and ventral CA1 were markedly different from those observed in dorsal CA1. Stress exposure increased p-CaMKII in the BLA, decreased p-CaMKII in the mPFC, and had no effect on any of the markers of molecular plasticity in ventral CA1. These findings provide novel observations regarding rapidly induced changes in the expression of molecular plasticity in response to spatial learning, predator exposure, and stress-induced amnesia in brainregions involved in different aspects of memory processing. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Gene Family in Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.: Genome-Wide Identification and Gene Expression during Flower Induction and Abiotic Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengwei Jue

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s or UBC enzymes play vital roles in plant development and combat various biotic and abiotic stresses. Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. is an important fruit tree in the subtropical region of Southeast Asia and Australia; however the characteristics of the UBC gene family in longan remain unknown. In this study, 40 D. longan UBC genes (DlUBCs, which were classified into 15 groups, were identified in the longan genome. An RNA-seq based analysis showed that DlUBCs showed distinct expression in nine longan tissues. Genome-wide RNA-seq and qRT-PCR based gene expression analysis revealed that 11 DlUBCs were up- or down-regualted in the cultivar “Sijimi” (SJ, suggesting that these genes may be important for flower induction. Finally, qRT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of 13 DlUBCs under SA (salicylic acid treatment, seven under methyl jasmonate (MeJA treatment, 27 under heat treatment, and 16 under cold treatment were up- or down-regulated, respectively. These results indicated that the DlUBCs may play important roles in responses to abiotic stresses. Taken together, our results provide a comprehensive insight into the organization, phylogeny, and expression patterns of the longan UBC genes, and therefore contribute to the greater understanding of their biological roles in longan.

  18. Expression and characterization analysis of type 2 metallothionein from grey mangrove species (Avicennia marina) in response to metal stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Guoyong, E-mail: huang_gyh@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang Youshao [Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301 (China)

    2010-08-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of low-molecular-weight cysteine-rich proteins and are thought to play possible roles in metal metabolism or detoxification. To evaluate the roles of metallothioneins in metal homeostasis or tolerance in Avicennia marina, a real-time quantitative PCR protocol was developed to directly evaluate the expression of AmMT2 mRNA, when A. marina seedlings were exposed to different concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) or lead (Pb) for 3 and 7 d. Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that the regulation of AmMT2 mRNA expression by Zn, Cu and Pb was strongly dependent on concentration and time of exposure. A significant increase in the transcripts of AmMT2 gene was also found in response to Zn, Cu and Pb, at least under some experimental conditions. When AmMT2 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 as a carboxy-terminal extension of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), the transgenic bacteria showed an increased tolerance to Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd exposure as compared to control strains. Moreover, GST-AmMT2 was purified from E. coli cells grown in the presence of 400 {mu}M Zn, Cu, Pb or Cd. The purified GST-AmMT2 fusion protein could bind higher levels of all four metals than GST alone. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that AmMT2 may be involved in processes of metal homeostasis or tolerance in A. marina.

  19. The PIN gene family in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum): genome-wide identification and gene expression analyses during root development and abiotic stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peng; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Limin; Zhang, Yuzhou; Wang, Xiaosi; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Jianing; Xiao, Guanghui

    2017-07-03

    Cell elongation and expansion are significant contributors to plant growth and morphogenesis, and are often regulated by environmental cues and endogenous hormones. Auxin is one of the most important phytohormones involved in the regulation of plant growth and development and plays key roles in plant cell expansion and elongation. Cotton fiber cells are a model system for studying cell elongation due to their large size. Cotton is also the world's most utilized crop for the production of natural fibers for textile and garment industries, and targeted expression of the IAA biosynthetic gene iaaM increased cotton fiber initiation. Polar auxin transport, mediated by PIN and AUX/LAX proteins, plays a central role in the control of auxin distribution. However, very limited information about PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers in cotton is known. In this study, 17 PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carrier family members were identified in the Gossypium hirsutum (G. hirsutum) genome. We found that PIN1-3 and PIN2 genes originated from the At subgenome were highly expressed in roots. Additionally, evaluation of gene expression patterns indicated that PIN genes are differentially induced by various abiotic stresses. Furthermore, we found that the majority of cotton PIN genes contained auxin (AuxREs) and salicylic acid (SA) responsive elements in their promoter regions were significantly up-regulated by exogenous hormone treatment. Our results provide a comprehensive analysis of the PIN gene family in G. hirsutum, including phylogenetic relationships, chromosomal locations, and gene expression and gene duplication analyses. This study sheds light on the precise roles of PIN genes in cotton root development and in adaption to stress responses.

  20. Genome-wide analysis of the potato Hsp20 gene family: identification, genomic organization and expression profiles in response to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Wang, Dongdong; Wang, Ruoqiu; Kong, Nana; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Chenghui; Wu, Wentao; Ma, Haoli; Chen, Qin

    2018-01-18

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are essential components in plant tolerance mechanism under various abiotic stresses. Hsp20 is the major family of heat shock proteins, but little of Hsp20 family is known in potato (Solanum tuberosum), which is an important vegetable crop that is thermosensitive. To reveal the mechanisms of potato Hsp20s coping with abiotic stresses, analyses of the potato Hsp20 gene family were conducted using bioinformatics-based methods. In total, 48 putative potato Hsp20 genes (StHsp20s) were identified and named according to their chromosomal locations. A sequence analysis revealed that most StHsp20 genes (89.6%) possessed no, or only one, intron. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that all of the StHsp20 genes, except 10, were grouped into 12 subfamilies. The 48 StHsp20 genes were randomly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Nineteen tandem duplicated StHsp20s and one pair of segmental duplicated genes (StHsp20-15 and StHsp20-48) were identified. A cis-element analysis inferred that StHsp20s, except for StHsp20-41, possessed at least one stress response cis-element. A heatmap of the StHsp20 gene family showed that the genes, except for StHsp20-2 and StHsp20-45, were expressed in various tissues and organs. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression level of StHsp20 genes and demonstrated that the genes responded to multiple abiotic stresses, such as heat, salt or drought stress. The relative expression levels of 14 StHsp20 genes (StHsp20-4, 6, 7, 9, 20, 21, 33, 34, 35, 37, 41, 43, 44 and 46) were significantly up-regulated (more than 100-fold) under heat stress. These results provide valuable information for clarifying the evolutionary relationship of the StHsp20 family and in aiding functional characterization of StHsp20 genes in further research.

  1. Early Transcriptome Response of Lactococcus lactis to Environmental Stresses Reveals Differentially Expressed Small Regulatory RNAs and tRNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Sjoerd B.; de Jong, Anne; Kok, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria can deploy various mechanisms to combat environmental stresses. Many genes have previously been identified in Lactococcus lactis that are involved in sensing the stressors and those that are involved in regulating and mounting a defense against the stressful conditions. However, the

  2. Genome Wide Identification and Characterization of Apple bHLH Transcription Factors and Expression Analysis in Response to Drought and Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ke; Dong, Qinglong; Li, Chao; Liu, Changhai; Ma, Fengwang

    2017-01-01

    The bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factor family is the second largest in plants. It occurs in all three eukaryotic kingdoms, and plays important roles in regulating growth and development. However, family members have not previously been studied in apple. Here, we identified 188 MdbHLH proteins in apple "Golden Delicious" ( Malus × domestica Borkh.), which could be classified into 18 groups. We also investigated the gene structures and 12 conserved motifs in these MdbHLH s. Coupled with expression analysis and protein interaction network prediction, we identified several genes that might be responsible for abiotic stress responses. This study provides insight and rich resources for subsequent investigations of such proteins in apple.

  3. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the heat stress response of Daphnia pulex: ROS-mediated activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) and the clustered expression of stress genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpen, Eva; Hoffschröer, Nadine; Zeis, Bettina; Gigengack, Ulrike; Dohmen, Elias; Paul, Rüdiger J

    2017-01-01

    fluctuations to stress gene expression. The frequency of ROS fluctuations seemed to integrate information about ROS productionrate and GSH antioxidant buffer capacity, resulting in stress protein expression of different speed. Results of this study suggest ROS as early (pre-damage) and protein defects as later (post-damage) stress signals to trigger heat stress responses. © 2016 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Alternative Splicing Control of Abiotic Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloum, Tom; Martín, Guiomar; Duque, Paula

    2018-02-01

    Alternative splicing, which generates multiple transcripts from the same gene, is an important modulator of gene expression that can increase proteome diversity and regulate mRNA levels. In plants, this post-transcriptional mechanism is markedly induced in response to environmental stress, and recent studies have identified alternative splicing events that allow rapid adjustment of the abundance and function of key stress-response components. In agreement, plant mutants defective in splicing factors are severely impaired in their response to abiotic stress. Notably, mounting evidence indicates that alternative splicing regulates stress responses largely by targeting the abscisic acid (ABA) pathway. We review here current understanding of post-transcriptional control of plant stress tolerance via alternative splicing and discuss research challenges for the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Real-time cell analysis and heat shock protein gene expression in the TcA Tribolium castaneum cell line in response to environmental stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Reina, Andrés; Rodríguez-García, María Juliana; Ramis, Guillermo; Galián, José

    2017-06-01

    The rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a pest of stored grain and one of the most studied insect model species. Some of the previous studies involved heat response studies in terms of survival and heat shock protein expression, which are regulated to protect other proteins against environmental stress conditions. In the present study, we characterize the impedance profile with the xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analyzer and study the effect of increased temperature in cell growth and viability in the cell line BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 (TcA) of T. castaneum. This novel system measures cells behavior in real time and is applied for the first time to insect cells. Additionally, cells are exposed to heat shock, increased salinity, acidic pH and UV-A light with the aim of measuring the expression levels of Hsp27, Hsp68a, and Hsp83 genes. Results show a high thermotolerance of TcA in terms of cell growth and viability. This result is likely related to gene expression results in which a significant up-regulation of all studied Hsp genes is observed after 1 h of exposure to 40 °C and UV light. All 3 genes show similar expression patterns, but Hsp27 seems to be the most affected. The results of this study validate the RTCA method and reveal the utility of insect cell lines, real-time analysis and gene expression studies to better understand the physiological response of insect cells, with potential applications in different fields of biology such as conservation biology and pest management. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Genome-wide identification of WRKY transcription factors in kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) and analysis of WRKY expression in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Zhaobin; Liu, Zhande

    2018-04-01

    As one of the largest transcriptional factor families in plants, WRKY transcription factors play important roles in various biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date, WRKY genes in kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) remain poorly understood. In our study, o total of 97 AcWRKY genes have been identified in the kiwifruit genome. An overview of these AcWRKY genes is analyzed, including the phylogenetic relationships, exon-intron structures, synteny and expression profiles. The 97 AcWRKY genes were divided into three groups based on the conserved WRKY domain. Synteny analysis indicated that segmental duplication events contributed to the expansion of the kiwifruit AcWRKY family. In addition, the synteny analysis between kiwifruit and Arabidopsis suggested that some of the AcWRKY genes were derived from common ancestors before the divergence of these two species. Conserved motifs outside the AcWRKY domain may reflect their functional conservation. Genome-wide segmental and tandem duplication were found, which may contribute to the expansion of AcWRKY genes. Furthermore, the analysis of selected AcWRKY genes showed a variety of expression patterns in five different organs as well as during biotic and abiotic stresses. The genome-wide identification and characterization of kiwifruit WRKY transcription factors provides insight into the evolutionary history and is a useful resource for further functional analyses of kiwifruit.

  7. Redox modulation of cellular stress response and lipoxin A4 expression by Hericium Erinaceus in rat brain: relevance to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, A; Siracusa, R; Di Paola, R; Scuto, M; Ontario, M L; Bua, Ornella; Di Mauro, Paola; Toscano, M A; Petralia, C C T; Maiolino, L; Serra, A; Cuzzocrea, S; Calabrese, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent upsurge of interest in complementary medicine, especially dietary supplements and foods functional in delaying the onset of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Mushrooms have long been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years, being now increasingly recognized as antitumor, antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial and hepatoprotective agent also capable to stimulate host immune responses. Here we provide evidence of neuroprotective action of Hericium Herinaceus when administered orally to rat. Expression of Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) was measured in different brain regions after oral administration of a biomass Hericium preparation, given for 3 month. LXA4 up-regulation was associated with an increased content of redox sensitive proteins involved in cellular stress response, such as Hsp72, Heme oxygenase -1 and Thioredoxin. In the brain of rats receiving Hericium, maximum induction of LXA4 was observed in cortex, and hippocampus followed by substantia Nigra, striatum and cerebellum. Increasing evidence supports the notion that oxidative stress-driven neuroinflammation is a fundamental cause in neurodegenerative diseases. As prominent intracellular redox system involved in neuroprotection, the vitagene system is emerging as a neurohormetic potential target for novel cytoprotective interventions. Vitagenes encode for cytoprotective heat shock proteins 70, heme oxygenase-1, thioredoxin and Lipoxin A4. Emerging interest is now focussing on molecules capable of activating the vitagene system as novel therapeutic target to minimize deleterious consequences associated with free radical-induced cell damage, such as in neurodegeneration. LXA4 is an emerging endogenous eicosanoid able to promote resolution of inflammation, acting as an endogenous "braking signal" in the inflammatory process. In addition, Hsp system is emerging as key pathway for modulation to prevent neuronal dysfunction, caused by protein misfolding. Conceivably, activation of

  8. Staphylococcal response to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmarie eGaupp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are a versatile genus of bacteria that are capable of causing acute and chronic infections in diverse host species. The success of staphylococci as pathogens is due in part to their ability to mitigate endogenous and exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress. Endogenous oxidative stress is a consequence of life in an aerobic environment; whereas, exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress are often due to the bacteria’s interaction with host immune systems. To overcome the deleterious effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress, staphylococci have evolved protection, detoxification, and repair mechanisms that are controlled by a network of regulators. In this review, we summarize the cellular targets of oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which staphylococci sense oxidative stress and damage, oxidative stress protection and repair mechanisms, and regulation of the oxidative stress response. When possible, special attention is given to how the oxidative stress defense mechanisms help staphylococci control oxidative stress in the host.

  9. RNA-Seq analysis of D. radiodurans find non coding RNAs expressed in response to radiation stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadewal, Nikhil; Mukhopadhyaya, Rita

    2015-01-01

    In bacteria discovery of functional RNA molecules that are not translated into protein, noncoding RNAs, became possible with advent of Next Generation Sequencing technology. Bacterial non coding RNAs are typically 50-300 nucleotides long and work as internal signals controlling various levels of gene expression. Deep sequencing of total cellular RNA captures all coding and noncoding transcripts with their differential levels of expression in the transcriptome. It provides a powerful approach to study bacterial gene expression and mechanisms of gene regulation. We subjected the 3 h transcriptome of Deinococcus radiodurans R1 cells post exposure to 6 KGy gamma radiation to 100 x 2 cycles of deep sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 to look for ncRNA transcripts. Bioinformatics pipeline for analysis and interpretation of RNA Seq data was done in house using Softwares available in public domains. Our sequence data aligned with 21 putative ncRNAs expressed in the intergenic regions of annotated genome of D radiodurans. Verification of 2 ncRNA candidates and 3 transcription factor genes by Real Time PCR confirmed presence of these transcripts in the 3 h transcriptome sequenced by us. Any relationship between ncRNAs and control of radiation induced gene expression in D radiodurans can be proved only after specific gene knock outs in future. (author)

  10. D-Serine exposure resulted in gene expression changes indicative of activation of fibrogenic pathways and down-regulation of energy metabolism and oxidative stress response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Armando; DelRaso, Nicholas J.; Schlager, John J.; Chan, Victor T.

    2008-01-01

    , metabolism and transport, inflammatory response, proteasome-mediated degradation of oxidatively damaged cytosolic proteins, Ras protein signal transduction, TGF-beta signaling pathway and mRNA transcription, processing, splicing and transport. On the other hand, major metabolic pathways, which include carbohydrate metabolism, TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthesis coupled electron transport, amino acid metabolism and transport, lipid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, and vitamin metabolism, and oxidative stress response including induction of antioxidant genes and glutathione metabolism are down-regulated. As tubular epithelia have strong energy demand for normal functions, down-regulation of energy metabolism after D-serine treatment may be related to the mechanism of its nephrotoxicity. In addition, hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species, is produced as a byproduct of the metabolism of D-serine by D-amino acid oxidase in the peroxisomes of the tubular epithelia. Down-regulation of pathways for antioxidant genes induction and glutathione metabolism will likely exacerbate the cytotoxicity of this reactive oxygen species. The observation that the genes involved in apoptosis, DNA repair, proteasome pathway for the degradation of oxidatively damaged cytosolic proteins were up-regulated lends some supports to this premise. Up-regulation of pathways of cell proliferation cycle, DNA replication and gene expression process, including mRNA transcription, processing, splicing, transport, translation initiation, and protein transport along with protein complex assembly, suggests ongoing tissue repair and regeneration. Consistent with the fibrogenic function of the TGF-beta signaling pathway in various experimental renal diseases, genes encoding major extracellular matrix components such as collagens, laminins, fibronectin 1 and tenascins are also strongly up-regulated. Taken together, the results of this study provide important insights into the molecular mechanism

  11. Resveratrol induces antioxidant and heat shock protein mRNA expression in response to heat stress in black-boned chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L L; He, J H; Xie, H B; Yang, Y S; Li, J C; Zou, Y

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary resveratrol at 0, 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg of diet on the performance, immune organ growth index, serum parameters, and expression levels of heat shock protein (Hsp) 27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 mRNA in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen of 42-d-old female black-boned chickens exposed to heat stress at 37 ± 2°C for 15 d. The results showed that heat stress reduced daily feed intake and BW gain; decreased serum glutathione (GSH), growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels; and inhibited GSH peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities compared with birds subjected to thermo-neutral circumstances. Chickens that were fed diets supplemented with resveratrol exhibited a linear increase in feed intake and BW gain (P stress. In contrast, serum malonaldehyde concentrations were decreased (P stress also reduced (P stress and coincided with an increase in supplemental resveratrol levels. The expression of Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 mRNA in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen were increased (P stress compared with no heat stress. Resveratrol attenuated the heat stress-induced overexpression of Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 mRNA in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen and increased the low expression of Hsp27 and Hsp90 mRNA in thymus upon heat stress. The results suggest that supplemental resveratrol improves growth performance and reduces oxidative stress in heat-stressed black-boned chickens by increasing serum growth hormone concentrations and modulating the expression of heat shock genes in organs of the immune system.

  12. Light and abiotic stresses regulate the expression of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase and levels of ascorbic acid in two kiwifruit genotypes via light-responsive and stress-inducible cis-elements in their promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Liang, Dong; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-09-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) plays an essential role in plants by protecting cells against oxidative damage. GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) is the first committed gene for AsA synthesis. Our research examined AsA levels, regulation of GGP gene expression, and how these are related to abiotic stresses in two species of Actinidia (kiwifruit). When leaves were subjected to continuous darkness or light, ABA or MeJA, heat, or a hypoxic environment, we found some correlation between the relative levels of GGP mRNA and AsA concentrations. In transformed tobacco plants, activity of the GGP promoter was induced by all of these treatments. However, the degree of inducibility in the two kiwifruit species differed among the GGP promoter deletions. We deduced that the G-box motif, a light-responsive element, may have an important function in regulating GGP transcripts under various light conditions in both A. deliciosa and A. eriantha. Other elements such as ABRE, the CGTCA motif, and HSE might also control the promoter activities of GGP in kiwifruit. Altogether, these data suggest that GGP expression in the two kiwifruit species is regulated by light or abiotic stress via the relative cis-elements in their promoters. Furthermore, GGP has a critical role in modulating AsA concentrations in kiwifruit species under abiotic stresses.

  13. Expression of CdDHN4, a Novel YSK2-Type Dehydrin Gene from Bermudagrass, Responses to Drought Stress through the ABA-Dependent Signal Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Aimin; Fan, Nana; Xie, Jianping; Yuan, Shili; An, Yuan; Zhou, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Dehydrin improves plant resistance to many abiotic stresses. In this study, the expression profiles of a dehydrin gene, CdDHN4, were estimated under various stresses and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments in two bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon L.): Tifway (drought-tolerant) and C299 (drought-sensitive). The expression of CdDHN4 was up-regulated by high temperatures, low temperatures, drought, salt and ABA. The sensitivity of CdDHN4 to ABA and the expression of CdDHN4 under drought conditions wer...

  14. Expression of FlHMA3, a P1B2-ATPase from Festulolium loliaceum, correlates with response to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Meng, Lin; Humphreys, Mike W; Scullion, John; Mur, Luis A J

    2017-03-01

    Heavy metal ATPase 3 (HMA3), a P 1B2 -ATPase, is a key tonoplast transporter involved in mediating the vacuolar sequestration of cadmium (Cd) to detoxify the intake of this element by plants. HMA3 expression in response to Cd stress has not been previously examined in the grass hybrid species Festulolium loliaceum (Huds.) P. Fourn. In this study, FlHMA3 isolated from F. loliaceum was found to comprise 833 amino acid residues with 77% homology to the rice OsHMA3. Transient expression of FlHMA3 fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts suggested its localization to vacuolar membranes. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of F. loliaceum revealed that FlHMA3 is expressed predominantly within roots and up-regulated by excess Cd. Over the 168 h treatment, Cd content of F. loliaceum roots was significantly higher than that of shoots, regardless of external CdCl 2 concentrations. A significant positive correlation was found between FlHMA3 expression and Cd accumulation in roots of F. loliaceum seedlings subjected to 10-100 mg L -1 CdCl 2 for 168 h or, in a separate experiment, to 25 or 100 mg L -1 CdCl 2 for the same duration. These findings provide evidence that FlHMA3 encodes a vacuolar P 1B2 -ATPase that may play an important role in Cd 2+ sequestration into root cell vacuoles, thereby limiting the entry of Cd 2+ into the cytoplasm and reducing Cd 2+ toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Genome-wide identification and characterization of the apple (Malus domestica) HECT ubiquitin-protein ligase family and expression analysis of their responsiveness to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianing; Xing, Shanshan; Cui, Haoran; Chen, Xuesen; Wang, Xiaoyun

    2016-04-01

    The ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s) directly participate in ubiquitin (Ub) transferring to the target proteins in the ubiquitination pathway. The HECT ubiquitin-protein ligase (UPL), one type of E3s, is characterized as containing a conserved HECT domain of approximately 350 amino acids in the C terminus. Some UPLs were found to be involved in trichome development and leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. However, studies on plant UPLs, such as characteristics of the protein structure, predicted functional motifs of the HECT domain, and the regulatory expression of UPLs have all been limited. Here, we present genome-wide identification of the genes encoding UPLs (HECT gene) in apple. The 13 genes (named as MdUPL1-MdUPL13) from ten different chromosomes were divided into four groups by phylogenetic analysis. Among these groups, the encoding genes in the intron-exon structure and the included additional functional domains were quite different. Notably, the F-box domain was first found in MdUPL7 in plant UPLs. The HECT domain in different MdUPL groups also presented different spatial features and three types of conservative motifs were identified. The promoters of each MdUPL member carried multiple stress-response related elements by cis-acting element analysis. Experimental results demonstrated that the expressions of several MdUPLs were quite sensitive to cold-, drought-, and salt-stresses by qRT-PCR assay. The results of this study helped to elucidate the functions of HECT proteins, especially in Rosaceae plants.

  16. An ABRE promoter sequence is involved in osmotic stress-responsive expression of the DREB2A gene, which encodes a transcription factor regulating drought-inducible genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, June-Sik; Mizoi, Junya; Yoshida, Takuya; Fujita, Yasunari; Nakajima, Jun; Ohori, Teppei; Todaka, Daisuke; Nakashima, Kazuo; Hirayama, Takashi; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2011-12-01

    In plants, osmotic stress-responsive transcriptional regulation depends mainly on two major classes of cis-acting elements found in the promoter regions of stress-inducible genes: ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) and dehydration-responsive elements (DREs). ABRE has been shown to perceive ABA-mediated osmotic stress signals, whereas DRE is known to be involved in an ABA-independent pathway. Previously, we reported that the transcription factor DRE-BINDING PROTEIN 2A (DREB2A) regulates DRE-mediated transcription of target genes under osmotic stress conditions in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the transcriptional regulation of DREB2A itself remains largely uncharacterized. To elucidate the transcriptional mechanism associated with the DREB2A gene under osmotic stress conditions, we generated a series of truncated and base-substituted variants of the DREB2A promoter and evaluated their transcriptional activities individually. We found that both ABRE and coupling element 3 (CE3)-like sequences located approximately -100 bp from the transcriptional initiation site are necessary for the dehydration-responsive expression of DREB2A. Coupling our transient expression analyses with yeast one-hybrid and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays indicated that the ABRE-BINDING PROTEIN 1 (AREB1), AREB2 and ABRE-BINDING FACTOR 3 (ABF3) bZIP transcription factors can bind to and activate the DREB2A promoter in an ABRE-dependent manner. Exogenous ABA application induced only a modest accumulation of the DREB2A transcript when compared with the osmotic stress treatment. However, the osmotic stress-induced DREB2A expression was found to be markedly impaired in several ABA-deficient and ABA-insensitive mutants. These results suggest that in addition to an ABA-independent pathway, the ABA-dependent pathway plays a positive role in the osmotic stress-responsive expression of DREB2A.

  17. Effects of stress and MDMA on hippocampal gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Georg F; Johnson, Bethann N; Yamamoto, Bryan K; Gudelsky, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a substituted amphetamine and popular drug of abuse. Its mood-enhancing short-term effects may prompt its consumption under stress. Clinical studies indicate that MDMA treatment may mitigate the symptoms of stress disorders such as posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). On the other hand, repeated administration of MDMA results in persistent deficits in markers of serotonergic (5-HT) nerve terminals that have been viewed as indicative of 5-HT neurotoxicity. Exposure to chronic stress has been shown to augment MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity. Here, we examine the transcriptional responses in the hippocampus to MDMA treatment of control rats and rats exposed to chronic stress. MDMA altered the expression of genes that regulate unfolded protein binding, protein folding, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity, and neuropeptide signaling. In stressed rats, the gene expression profile in response to MDMA was altered to affect sensory processing and responses to tissue damage in nerve sheaths. Subsequent treatment with MDMA also markedly altered the genetic responses to stress such that the stress-induced downregulation of genes related to the circadian rhythm was reversed. The data support the view that MDMA-induced transcriptional responses accompany the persistent effects of this drug on neuronal structure/function. In addition, MDMA treatment alters the stress-induced transcriptional signature.

  18. Effects of Stress and MDMA on Hippocampal Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F. Weber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine is a substituted amphetamine and popular drug of abuse. Its mood-enhancing short-term effects may prompt its consumption under stress. Clinical studies indicate that MDMA treatment may mitigate the symptoms of stress disorders such as posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD. On the other hand, repeated administration of MDMA results in persistent deficits in markers of serotonergic (5-HT nerve terminals that have been viewed as indicative of 5-HT neurotoxicity. Exposure to chronic stress has been shown to augment MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity. Here, we examine the transcriptional responses in the hippocampus to MDMA treatment of control rats and rats exposed to chronic stress. MDMA altered the expression of genes that regulate unfolded protein binding, protein folding, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity, and neuropeptide signaling. In stressed rats, the gene expression profile in response to MDMA was altered to affect sensory processing and responses to tissue damage in nerve sheaths. Subsequent treatment with MDMA also markedly altered the genetic responses to stress such that the stress-induced downregulation of genes related to the circadian rhythm was reversed. The data support the view that MDMA-induced transcriptional responses accompany the persistent effects of this drug on neuronal structure/function. In addition, MDMA treatment alters the stress-induced transcriptional signature.

  19. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses......Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged...... by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner...

  20. Expression patterns of WRKY genes in di-haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra in response to salinity stress revealed by quantitative real-time PCR and RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengji; Wang, Jiying; Yao, Wenjing; Zhou, Boru; Li, Renhua; Jiang, Tingbo

    2014-10-01

    Spatio-temporal expression patterns of 13 out of 119 poplar WRKY genes indicated dynamic and tissue-specific roles of WRKY family proteins in salinity stress tolerance. To understand the expression patterns of poplar WRKY genes under salinity stress, 51 of the 119 WRKY genes were selected from di-haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). We used qRT-PCR to profile the expression of the top 13 genes under salinity stress across seven time points, and employed RNA-Seq platforms to cross-validate it. Results demonstrated that all the 13 WRKY genes were expressed in root, stem, and leaf tissues, but their expression levels and overall patterns varied notably in these tissues. Regarding overall gene expression in roots, the 13 genes were significantly highly expressed at all six time points after the treatment, reaching the plateau of expression at hour 9. In leaves, the 13 genes were similarly up-regulated from 3 to 12 h in response to NaCl treatment. In stems, however, expression levels of the 13 genes did not show significant changes after the NaCl treatment. Regarding individual gene expression across the time points and the three tissues, the 13 genes can be classified into three clusters: the lowly expressed Cluster 1 containing PthWRKY28, 45 and 105; intermediately expressed Clusters 2 including PthWRKY56, 88 and 116; and highly expressed Cluster 3 consisting of PthWRKY41, 44, 51, 61, 62, 75 and 106. In general, genes in Cluster 2 and 3 displayed a dynamic pattern of "induced amplification-recovering", suggesting that these WRKY genes and corresponding pathways may play a critical role in mediating salt response and tolerance in a dynamic and tissue-specific manner.

  1. GEM2Net: from gene expression modeling to -omics networks, a new CATdb module to investigate Arabidopsis thaliana genes involved in stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaag, Rim; Tamby, Jean Philippe; Guichard, Cécile; Tariq, Zakia; Rigaill, Guillem; Delannoy, Etienne; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Balzergue, Sandrine; Mary-Huard, Tristan; Aubourg, Sébastien; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Brunaud, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    CATdb (http://urgv.evry.inra.fr/CATdb) is a database providing a public access to a large collection of transcriptomic data, mainly for Arabidopsis but also for other plants. This resource has the rare advantage to contain several thousands of microarray experiments obtained with the same technical protocol and analyzed by the same statistical pipelines. In this paper, we present GEM2Net, a new module of CATdb that takes advantage of this homogeneous dataset to mine co-expression units and decipher Arabidopsis gene functions. GEM2Net explores 387 stress conditions organized into 18 biotic and abiotic stress categories. For each one, a model-based clustering is applied on expression differences to identify clusters of co-expressed genes. To characterize functions associated with these clusters, various resources are analyzed and integrated: Gene Ontology, subcellular localization of proteins, Hormone Families, Transcription Factor Families and a refined stress-related gene list associated to publications. Exploiting protein-protein interactions and transcription factors-targets interactions enables to display gene networks. GEM2Net presents the analysis of the 18 stress categories, in which 17,264 genes are involved and organized within 681 co-expression clusters. The meta-data analyses were stored and organized to compose a dynamic Web resource. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Plant responses to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Rup Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial plants most often encounter drought stress because of erratic rainfall which has become compounded due to present climatic changes.Responses of plants to water stress may be assigned as either injurious change or tolerance index. One of the primary and cardinal changes in response to drought stress is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is being considered as the cause of cellular damage. However, recently a signaling role of such ROS in triggering the ROS scavenging system that may confer protection or tolerance against stress is emerging. Such scavenging system consists of antioxidant enzymes like SOD, catalase and peroxidases, and antioxidant compounds like ascorbate, reduced glutathione; a balance between ROS generation and scavenging ultimately determines the oxidative load. As revealed in case of defence against pathogen, signaling via ROS is initiated by NADPH oxidase-catalyzed superoxide generation in the apoplastic space (cell wall) followed by conversion to hydrogen peroxide by the activity of cell wall-localized SOD. Wall peroxidase may also play role in ROS generation for signaling. Hydrogen peroxide may use Ca2+ and MAPK pathway as downstream signaling cascade. Plant hormones associated with stress responses like ABA and ethylene play their role possibly via a cross talk with ROS towards stress tolerance, thus projecting a dual role of ROS under drought stress. PMID:22057331

  3. Individual heat stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.

    1997-01-01

    In 5 experiments, heterogeneous subject groups (large variations in _VO2 max, regular daily activity level, mass, body surface area (AD), % body fat, and AD/mass ratio) were tested for their physiological response while exercising on a cycle ergometer at a relative (45% _VO2 max; REL) or an absolute

  4. Abiotic stressors and stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulmon, Cecile; Van Baaren, Joan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we...... review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact...... life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental...

  5. Effects of {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ion radiation and ferulic acid on the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic oxidative stress response and gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Jing [Department of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Hong, E-mail: zhangh@impcas.ac.cn [Department of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Zhenhua; Wu, Zhenhua [Department of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lu, Jiang [Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Phytomedicine Resources, College of Pharmacy, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832002 (China); Di, Cuixia; Zhou, Xin [Department of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Xiaowei [Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Phytomedicine Resources, College of Pharmacy, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832002 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: • Carbon ion radiation increased the oxidative stress in zebrafish embryos. • Carbon ion radiation induced transcriptional level effects. • The transcriptional level displayed more sensitivity to low dose radiation than the antioxidant enzyme activities. • FA induced radioprotective effects by the inhibition of oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of carbon ion irradiation and ferulic acid (FA) on the induction of oxidative stress and alteration of gene expression were studied in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Zebrafish embryos at 8 hpf were divided into seven groups: the control group; the 1 Gy, 3 Gy and 7 Gy irradiation groups; and three FA-pre-treated irradiation groups. In the irradiated groups, a significant increase in the teratogenesis of the zebrafish embryos and oxidative stress was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content, decreased glutathione (GSH) content and alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities (such as catalase [CAT] and superoxide dismutase [SOD]). Moreover, the mRNA levels for Cu/Zn–sod, Mn–sod, cat and gpx, the genes encoding these antioxidant proteins, were altered significantly. However, the mRNA expression patterns were not in accordance with those of the antioxidant enzymes and were more sensitive under low-dose irradiation. In addition, we detected the mRNA expression of ucp-2 and bcl-2, which are located at the mitochondrial inner membrane and related to reactive oxidative species (ROS) production. In the irradiated groups, the mRNA level of ucp-2 was significantly increased, whereas the mRNA level of bcl-2 was significantly decreased. Supplementation with FA, an antioxidant, was better able to reduce the irradiation-induced oxidative damage marked by changes in mortality, morphology, antioxidant enzyme activities and the MDA and GSH content, as well as in the mRNA expression levels. Overall, this study provided helpful information about the transcriptional effects of irradiation to better

  6. The significance of translation regulation in the stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Flora; Loubière, Pascal; Girbal, Laurence; Bousquet, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    Background: The stress response in bacteria involves the multistage control of gene expression but is not entirely understood. To identify the translational response of bacteria in stress conditions and assess its contribution to the regulation of gene expression, the translational states of all mRNAs were compared under optimal growth condition and during nutrient (isoleucine) starvation. Results: A genome-scale study of the translational response to nutritional limitation was performed in t...

  7. Heat stress and sudden infant death syndrome--stress gene expression after exposure to moderate heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Marianne Cathrine; Corydon, Thomas Juhl; Hansen, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate stress gene expression in cultured primary fibroblasts established from Achilles tendons collected during autopsies from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases, and age-matched controls (infants dying in a traumatic event). Expression of 4 stress...... responsive genes, HSPA1B, HSPD1, HMOX1, and SOD2, was studied by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of RNA purified from cells cultured under standard or various thermal stress conditions. The expression of all 4 genes was highly influenced by thermal stress in both SIDS and control cells. High...... interpersonal variance found in the SIDS group indicated that they represented a more heterogeneous group than controls. The SIDS group responded to thermal stress with a higher expression of the HSPA1B and HSPD1 genes compared to the control group, whereas no significant difference was observed...

  8. Dual Functions in Response to Heat Stress and Spermatogenesis: Characterization of Expression Profile of Small Heat Shock Proteins 9 and 10 in Goat Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Xun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins 9 and 10 (HSPB9 and HSPB10 are two testis-specific expressed sHsps. The objective of this study was to investigate the mRNA expression profile of HSPB9 and HSPB10 in goat testis among the different seasons, ages, and environmental temperatures. Allocation of the two sHsps was also performed by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the transcript levels of HSPB9 and HSPB10 were extremely high in the testis (P<0.01. The relative expression of HSBP9 and HSPB10 in testis showed a tendency to increase with age and then is maintained at the constant level after sexual maturity. HSPB9 and HSPB10 have significantly higher expression in the breeding season  (P<0.05 and hot season (P<0.01. Both HSPB9 and HSPB10 were found to be upregulated by high-temperature stress in testis (P<0.05, and the expressions of Hsp70 and Hsp90 were also increased simultaneously (P<0.01. Immunohistochemistry analysis localized HSPB9 expressed in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and round spermatids and HSPB10 expressed in the elongate spermatids. In epididymis, strongly staining signal of HSPB10 was detected in pseudostratified columnar epithelium. In conclusion, the two testis-specific sHsps are closely related to male reproduction and heat tolerance. The results could provide valuable data for the further studies on HSPB9 and HSPB10.

  9. Physiological response and microRNA expression profiles in head kidney of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to acute cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Jun; Cui, Yan T; Tao, Fan Y; Bao, Wen J; He, Jie; Li, Xia H; Xu, Pao; Sun, Lan Y

    2018-01-09

    Cold stress has a serious impact on the overwintering survival and yield of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus). Understanding the physiological and molecular regulation mechanisms of low-temperature adaptation is necessary to help breed new tolerant strains. The semi-lethal low temperature of juvenile GIFT at 96 h was determined as 9.4 °C. We constructed and sequenced two small RNA libraries from head kidney tissues, one for the control (CO) group and one for the 9.4 °C-stressed (LTS) group, and identified 1736 and 1481 known microRNAs (miRNAs), and 164 and 152 novel miRNAs in the CO and LTS libraries, respectively. We verify the expression of nine up-regulated miRNAs and eight down-regulation miRNAs by qRT-PCR, and found their expression patterns were consistent with the sequencing results. We found that cold stress may have produced dysregulation of free radical and lipid metabolism, decreased superoxide dismutase activity, reduced respiratory burst and phagocytic activity of macrophages, increased malondialdehyde content, and adversely affected the physiological adaptation of GIFT, eventually leading to death. This study revealed interactions among miRNAs and signal regulated pathways in GIFT under cold stress that may help to understand the pathways involved in cold resistance.

  10. Expression of CdDHN4, a Novel YSK2-Type Dehydrin Gene from Bermudagrass, Responses to Drought Stress through the ABA-Dependent Signal Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Aimin; Fan, Nana; Xie, Jianping; Yuan, Shili; An, Yuan; Zhou, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Dehydrin improves plant resistance to many abiotic stresses. In this study, the expression profiles of a dehydrin gene, CdDHN4 , were estimated under various stresses and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments in two bermudagrasses ( Cynodon dactylon L.): Tifway (drought-tolerant) and C299 (drought-sensitive). The expression of CdDHN4 was up-regulated by high temperatures, low temperatures, drought, salt and ABA. The sensitivity of CdDHN4 to ABA and the expression of CdDHN4 under drought conditions were higher in Tifway than in C299. A 1239-bp fragment, CdDHN4-P, the partial upstream sequence of the CdDHN4 gene, was cloned by genomic walking from Tifway. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the CdDHN4-P sequence possessed features typical of a plant promoter and contained many typical cis elements, including a transcription initiation site, a TATA-box, an ABRE, an MBS, a MYC, an LTRE, a TATC-box and a GT1-motif. Transient expression in tobacco leaves demonstrated that the promoter CdDHN4-P can be activated by ABA, drought and cold. These results indicate that CdDHN4 is regulated by an ABA-dependent signal pathway and that the high sensitivity of CdDHN4 to ABA might be an important mechanism enhancing the drought tolerance of bermudagrass.

  11. Expression of CdDHN4, a Novel YSK2-Type Dehydrin Gene from Bermudagrass, Responses to Drought Stress through the ABA-Dependent Signal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimin Lv

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrin improves plant resistance to many abiotic stresses. In this study, the expression profiles of a dehydrin gene, CdDHN4, were estimated under various stresses and abscisic acid (ABA treatments in two bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon L.: Tifway (drought-tolerant and C299 (drought-sensitive. The expression of CdDHN4 was up-regulated by high temperatures, low temperatures, drought, salt and ABA. The sensitivity of CdDHN4 to ABA and the expression of CdDHN4 under drought conditions were higher in Tifway than in C299. A 1239-bp fragment, CdDHN4-P, the partial upstream sequence of the CdDHN4 gene, was cloned by genomic walking from Tifway. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the CdDHN4-P sequence possessed features typical of a plant promoter and contained many typical cis elements, including a transcription initiation site, a TATA-box, an ABRE, an MBS, a MYC, an LTRE, a TATC-box and a GT1-motif. Transient expression in tobacco leaves demonstrated that the promoter CdDHN4-P can be activated by ABA, drought and cold. These results indicate that CdDHN4 is regulated by an ABA-dependent signal pathway and that the high sensitivity of CdDHN4 to ABA might be an important mechanism enhancing the drought tolerance of bermudagrass.

  12. Characterization of heat shock cognate protein 70 gene and its differential expression in response to thermal stress between two wing morphs of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wenting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences in thermotolerance between two wing morphs of Nilaparvata lugens, the most serious pest of rice across the Asia. To reveal the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying the differential thermal resistance abilities between two wing morphs, a full-length of transcript encoding heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) was cloned, and its expression patterns across temperature gradients were analyzed. The results showed that the expression levels of NlHsc70 in macropters increased dramatically after heat shock from 32 to 38°C, while NlHsc70 transcripts in brachypters remained constant under different temperature stress conditions. In addition, NlHsc70 expression in the macropters was significantly higher than that in brachypters at 1 and 2h recovery from 40°C heat shock. There was no significant difference in NlHsc70 mRNA expression between brachypters and macropters under cold shock conditions. Therefore, NlHsc70 was indeed a constitutively expressed member of the Hsp70 family in brachypters of N. lugens, while it was heat-inducible in macropters. Furthermore, the survival rates of both morphs injected with NlHsc70 dsRNA were significantly decreased following heat shock at 40°C or cold shock at 0°C for 1h. These results suggested that the up-regulation of NlHsc70 is possibly related to the thermal resistance, and the more effective inducement expression of NlHsc70 in macropters promotes a greater thermal tolerance under temperature stress conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. PEP-1-SIRT2 inhibits inflammatory response and oxidative stress-induced cell death via expression of antioxidant enzymes in murine macrophages.

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    Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Dae Won; Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Chi Hern; Yong, Ji In; Ryu, Eun Ji; Cho, Su Bin; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Hyeon, Jiye; Cho, Sung-Woo; Kim, Duk-Soo; Son, Ora; Park, Jinseu; Han, Kyu Hyung; Cho, Yoon Shin; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2013-10-01

    Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, plays an important role in cell survival. However, the biological function of SIRT2 protein is unclear with respect to inflammation and oxidative stress. In this study, we examined the protective effects of SIRT2 on inflammation and oxidative stress-induced cell damage using a cell permeative PEP-1-SIRT2 protein. Purified PEP-1-SIRT2 was transduced into RAW 264.7 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and protected against lipopolysaccharide- and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced cell death and cytotoxicity. Also, transduced PEP-1-SIRT2 significantly inhibited the expression of cytokines as well as the activation of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In addition, PEP-1-SIRT2 decreased cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of cleaved caspase-3, whereas it elevated the expression of antioxidant enzymes such as MnSOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Furthermore, topical application of PEP-1-SIRT2 to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-treated mouse ears markedly inhibited expression levels of COX-2 and proinflammatory cytokines as well as the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs. These results demonstrate that PEP-1-SIRT2 inhibits inflammation and oxidative stress by reducing the levels of expression of cytokines and ROS, suggesting that PEP-1-SIRT2 may be a potential therapeutic agent for various disorders related to ROS, including skin inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dysfunctional stress responses in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Alain; Picard, Pascale; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Many dysfunctional and chronic pain conditions overlap. This review describes the different modes of chronic deregulation of the adaptive response to stress which may be a common factor for these conditions. Several types of dysfunction can be identified within the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis: basal hypercortisolism, hyper-reactivity, basal hypocortisolism and hypo-reactivity. Neuroactive steroid synthesis is another component of the adaptive response to stress. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form DHEA-S, and progesterone and its derivatives are synthetized in cutaneous, nervous, and adipose cells. They are neuroactive factors that act locally. They may have a role in the localization of the symptoms and their levels can vary both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Persistent changes in neuroactive steroid levels or precursors can induce localized neurodegeneration. The autonomic nervous system is another component of the stress response. Its dysfunction in chronic stress responses can be expressed by decreased basal parasympathethic activity, increased basal sympathetic activity or sympathetic hyporeactivity to a stressful stimulus. The immune and genetic systems also participate. The helper-T cells Th1 secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1-β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, whereas Th2 secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-10, IGF-10, IL-13. Chronic deregulation of the Th1/Th2 balance can occur in favor of anti- or pro-inflammatory direction, locally or systemically. Individual vulnerability to stress can be due to environmental factors but can also be genetically influenced. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetics are the main keys to understanding the influence of genetics on the response of individuals to constraints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenotypic Plasticity of HSP70s Gene Expression during Diapause: Signs of Evolutionary Responses to Cold Stress among Soybean Pod Borer Populations (Leguminivora glycinivorella) in Northeast of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lanlan; Fan, Dong; Zhao, Kuijun

    2014-01-01

    The soybean pod borer (Leguminivora glycinivorella Matsumura) successfully survives the winter because of its high expression of 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70s) during its overwintering diapause. The amount of HSP70s is different under different environmental stresses. In this study, inducible heat shock protein 70 and its constitutive heat shock cognate 70 were cloned by RT-PCR and RACE. These genes were named Lg-hsp70 and Lg-hsc70, respectively. Gene transcription and protein expression after cold stress treatment (5°C to −5°C) were analyzed by western blotting and by qRT-PCR for four populations that were sampled in the northeast region of China, including Shenyang, Gongzhuling, Harbin and Heihe, when the soybean pod borer was in diapause. As the cold shock temperature decreased, the levels of Lg-HSP70s were significantly up-regulated. The amount of cold-induced Lg-HSP70s was highest in the southernmost population (Shenyang, 41°50′N) and lowest in the northernmost population (Heihe, 50°22′N). These results support the hypothesis that the soybean pod borer in the northeast region of China displays phenotypic plasticity, and the accumulation of Lg-HSP70s is a strategy for overcoming environmental stress. These results also suggest that the induction of HSP70 synthesis, which is a complex physiological adaptation, can evolve quickly and inherit stability. PMID:25330365

  16. Cold Responsive Gene Expression Profiling of Sugarcane and Saccharum spontaneum with Functional Analysis of a Cold Inducible Saccharum Homolog of NOD26-Like Intrinsic Protein to Salt and Water Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Won Park

    Full Text Available Transcriptome analysis of sugarcane hybrid CP72-1210 (cold susceptible and Saccharum spontaneum TUS05-05 (cold tolerant using Sugarcane Assembled Sequences (SAS from SUCEST-FUN Database showed that a total of 35,340 and 34,698 SAS genes, respectively, were expressed before and after chilling stress. The analysis revealed that more than 600 genes are differentially expressed in each genotype after chilling stress. Blast2Go annotation revealed that the major difference in gene expression profiles between CP72-1210 and TUS05-05 after chilling stress are present in the genes related to the transmembrane transporter activity. To further investigate the relevance of transmembrane transporter activity against abiotic stress tolerance, a S. spontaneum homolog of a NOD26-like major intrinsic protein gene (SspNIP2 was selected for functional analysis, of which expression was induced after chilling stress in the cold tolerant TUS05-05. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that SspNIP2 expression was increased ~2.5 fold at 30 minutes after cold treatment and stayed induced throughout the 24 hours of cold treatment. The amino acid sequence analysis of the cloned SspNIP2 confirmed the presence of six transmembrane domains and two NPA (Asn-Pro-Ala motifs, signature features of major intrinsic protein families. Amino acid analysis confirmed that four amino acids, comprising the ar/R (aromatic residue/arginine region responsible for the substrate specificity among MIPs, are conserved among monocot silicon transporters and SspNIP2. Salinity stress test on SspNIP2 transgenic tobacco plants resulted in more vigorous transgenic lines than the non-transgenic tobacco plants, suggesting some degree of tolerance to salt stress conferred by SspNIP2. SspNIP2-transgenic plants, exposed to 2 weeks of water stress without irrigation, developed various degrees of water stress symptom. The water stress test confirmed that the SspNIP2 transgenic lines had lower evapotranspiration

  17. Genome-wide expression analysis of rice ABC transporter family across spatio-temporal samples and in response to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Ngoc Tuyet; Moon, Sunok; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Although the super family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins plays key roles in the physiology and development of plants, the functions of members of this interesting family mostly remain to be clarified, especially in crop plants. Thus, systematic analysis of this family in rice (Oryza sativa), a major model crop plant, will be helpful in the design of effective strategies for functional analysis. Phylogenomic analysis that integrates anatomy and stress meta-profiling data based on a large collection of rice Affymetrix array data into the phylogenic context provides useful clues into the functions for each of the ABC transporter family members in rice. Using anatomy data, we identified 17 root-preferred and 16-shoot preferred genes at the vegetative stage, and 3 pollen, 2 embryo, 2 ovary, 2 endosperm, and 1 anther-preferred gene at the reproductive stage. The stress data revealed significant up-regulation or down-regulation of 47 genes under heavy metal treatment, 16 genes under nutrient deficient conditions, and 51 genes under abiotic stress conditions. Of these, we confirmed the differential expression patterns of 14 genes in root samples exposed to drought stress using quantitative real-time PCR. Network analysis using RiceNet suggests a functional gene network involving nine rice ABC transporters that are differentially regulated by drought stress in root, further enhancing the prediction of biological function. Our analysis provides a molecular basis for the study of diverse biological phenomena mediated by the ABC family in rice and will contribute to the enhancement of crop yield and stress tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. ABA signaling in stress-response and seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2013-07-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We review the recent progress on ABA signaling, especially ABA signaling for ABA-dependent gene expression, including the AREB/ABF regulon, SnRK2 protein kinase, 2C-type protein phosphatases and ABA receptors. Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops. Drought causes osmotic stress to organisms, and the osmotic stress causes dehydration in plant cells. Abscisic acid (ABA) is produced under osmotic stress conditions, and it plays an important role in the stress response and tolerance of plants. ABA regulates many genes under osmotic stress conditions. It also regulates gene expression during seed development and germination. The ABA-responsive element (ABRE) is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. ABRE-binding protein (AREB)/ABRE-binding factor (ABF) transcription factors (TFs) regulate ABRE-dependent gene expression. Other TFs are also involved in ABA-responsive gene expression. SNF1-related protein kinases 2 are the key regulators of ABA signaling including the AREB/ABF regulon. Recently, ABA receptors and group A 2C-type protein phosphatases were shown to govern the ABA signaling pathway. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress-response and seed development. The control of the expression of ABA signaling factors may improve tolerance to environmental stresses.

  19. Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress Regulated by Histone Deacetylases

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    Ming Luo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, histone acetylation and deacetylation play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. Histone acetylation levels are modulated by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs. Recent studies indicate that HDACs play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression in plant response to environmental stress. In this review, we discussed the recent advance regarding the plant HDACs and their functions in the regulation of abiotic stress responses. The role of HDACs in autophagy was also discussed.

  20. Oligo-dT anchored cDNA-SCoT: a novel differential display method for analyzing differential gene expression in response to several stress treatments in mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cong; He, Xin-Hua; Hu, Ying; Yu, Hai-xia; Ou, Shi-Jin; Fang, Zhong-Bin

    2014-09-15

    Differential display is a powerful technique for analyzing differences in gene expression. Oligo-dT cDNAstart codon targeted marker (cDNA-SCoT) technique is a novel, simple, cheap, rapid, and efficient method for differential gene expression research. In the present study, the oligo-dT anchored cDNA-SCoT technique was exploited to identify differentially expressed genes during several stress treatments in mango. A total of 37 primers combined with oligo-dT anchor primers 3side amplified approximately 150 fragments of 150 bp to 1500 bp in length. Up to 100 fragments were differentially expressed among the stress treatments and control samples, among which 92 were obtained and sequenced. Out of the 92 transcript derived fragments (TDFs), 70% were highly homologous to known genes, and 30% encoded unclassified proteins with unknown functions. The expression pattern of nine genes with known functions involved in several abiotic stresses in other species was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) under cold (4 °C), salinity (NaCl), polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 6000), and heavy metal treatments in leaves and stems at different time points (0, 24, 48, and 72 h). The expression patterns of the genes (TDF4, TDF7, TDF23, TDF45, TDF49, TDF50, TDF57, TDF91 and TDF92) that had direct or indirect relationships with cold, salinity, drought and heavy metal stress response were analyzed through qRT-PCR. The possible roles of these genes are discussed. This study suggests that the oligo-dT anchored cDNA-SCoT differential display method is a useful tool to serve as an initial step for characterizing transcriptional changes induced by abiotic stresses and provide gene information for further study and application in genetic improvement and breeding in mango. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional and DNA-protein binding studies of WRKY transcription factors and their expression analysis in response to biotic and abiotic stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Lopamudra; Kumar, Dhananjay; Kumar, Manish; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2018-01-01

    WRKY, a plant-specific transcription factor family, plays vital roles in pathogen defense, abiotic stress, and phytohormone signalling. Little is known about the roles and function of WRKY transcription factors in response to rust diseases in wheat. In the present study, three TaWRKY genes encoding complete protein sequences were cloned. They belonged to class II and III WRKY based on the number of WRKY domains and the pattern of zinc finger structures. Twenty-two DNA-protein binding docking complexes predicted stable interactions of WRKY domain with W-box. Quantitative real-time-PCR using wheat near-isogenic lines with or without Lr28 gene revealed differential up- or down-regulation in response to biotic and abiotic stress treatments which could be responsible for their functional divergence in wheat. TaWRKY62 was found to be induced upon treatment with JA, MJ, and SA and reduced after ABA treatments. Maximum induction of six out of seven genes occurred at 48 h post inoculation due to pathogen inoculation. Hence, TaWRKY (49, 50 , 52 , 55 , 57, and 62 ) can be considered as potential candidate genes for further functional validation as well as for crop improvement programs for stress resistance. The results of the present study will enhance knowledge towards understanding the molecular basis of mode of action of WRKY transcription factor genes in wheat and their role during leaf rust pathogenesis in particular.

  2. Cloning of three heat shock protein genes (HSP70, HSP90α and HSP90β) and their expressions in response to thermal stress in loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) fed with different levels of vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie; Liang, Xiao; Zhang, Yin; Li, Yang; Cao, Xiaojuan; Gao, Jian

    2017-07-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and 90 (HSP90) are the most broadly studied proteins in HSP families. They play key roles in cells as molecular chaperones, in response to stress conditions such as thermal stress. In this study, full-length cDNA sequences of HSP70, HSP90α and HSP90β from loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus were cloned. The full-length cDNA of HSP70 in loach was 2332bp encoding 644 amino acids, while HSP90α and HSP90β were 2586bp and 2678bp in length, encoding 729 and 727 amino acids, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of HSP70 in loach shared the highest identity with those of Megalobrama amblycephala and Cyprinus carpio. The deduced amino acid sequences of HSP90α and HSP90β in loach both shared the highest identity with those of M. amblycephala. Their mRNA tissue expression results showed that the maximum expressions of HSP70, HSP90α and HSP90β were respectively present in the intestine, brain and kidney of loach. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to analyze the temporal expressions of HSP70, HSP90α and HSP90β in livers of loaches fed with different levels of vitamin C under thermal stress. Expression levels of the three HSP genes in loach fed the diet without vitamin C supplemented at 0 h of thermal stress were significantly lower than those at 2 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h of thermal stress. It indicated that expressions of the three HSP genes were sensitive to thermal stress in loach. The three HSP genes in loaches fed with 1000 mg/kg vitamin C expressed significantly lower than other vitamin C groups at many time points of thermal stress, suggesting 1000 mg/kg dietary vitamin C might decrease the body damages caused by the thermal stress. This study will be of value for further studies into thermal stress tolerance in loach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase genes isolated from purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.): expression in different tissues and response to cold and wound stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Monica C; Carvalho, Isabel S; Brodelius, Maria

    2010-02-10

    Two full-length cDNA clones PoleFAD7 and PoleFAD8, encoding plastidial omega-3 fatty acid desaturases were isolated from purslane (Portulaca oleracea). The encoded enzymes convert linoleic to alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3). Three histidine clusters characteristic of fatty acid desaturases, a putative chloroplast transit peptide in the N-terminal, and three putative transmembrane domains were identified in the sequence. Both genes were expressed in all analyzed tissues showing different levels of expression. PoleFAD7 was up-regulated by wounding but not by low temperature. PoleFAD8 was up-regulated by cold stress but not by wounding. Total fatty acid and linolenic acid content were higher both, in wounded and intact leaves of plants exposed to low temperature.

  4. Differential expression analysis of boron transporters and some stress-related genes in response to 24-epibrassinolide and boron by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh

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    Surgun Yonca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant steroidal hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs, promote plant developmental processes and enhance tolerance to several abiotic stresses including high boron (B stress. To examine the possible role of BR in high B-induced stress at the transcriptional level, we investigated the response of B transporter genes (BOR1-4, high B-induced genes (MATE, Hsp-like, BR-induced genes (Hsp70-4, Hsp90-1 and other stress-related genes (LTI/COR78, LEA4-5 upon exogenous treatments of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL on Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh exposed to high concentrations of boric acid (BA using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. BA treatments led to down regulation of BOR1 and BOR3 genes in leaf and root tissues and higher concentration of EBL further decreased expression of these genes in roots. The expression of high B-induced genes was observed to be upregulated by 1 μM EBL treatment under high B stress in both tissues of the seedlings. The upregulation of BR-induced genes were clearly evident in root tissues co-treated with 1 μM EBL and BA as compared to BA alone. Higher concentration of EBL was found to be more effective in increasing expression of LTI/COR78 gene in root and LEA4-5 gene in shoot tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report how exogenous application of EBL modulates high B stress responses at molecular level in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

  5. STRESS RESPONSE STUDIES USING ANIMAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.

  6. Characterization of Rice Homeobox Genes, OsHOX22 and OsHOX24, and Over-expression of OsHOX24 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Suggest their Role in Abiotic Stress Response

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    Annapurna eBhattacharjee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Homeobox transcription factors are well known regulators of plant growth and development. In this study, we carried out functional analysis of two candidate stress-responsive HD-ZIP I class homeobox genes from rice, OsHOX22 and OsHOX24. These genes were highly upregulated under various abiotic stress conditions at different stages of rice development, including seedling, mature and reproductive stages. The transcript levels of these genes were enhanced significantly in the presence of plant hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA, auxin, salicylic acid and gibberellic acid. The recombinant full-length and truncated homeobox proteins were found to be localized in the nucleus. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay established the binding of these homeobox proteins with specific DNA sequences, AH1 (CAAT(A/TATTG and AH2 (CAAT(C/GATTG. Transactivation assays in yeast revealed the transcriptional activation potential of full-length OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 proteins. Homo- and hetero-dimerization capabilities of these proteins have also been demonstrated. Further, we identified putative novel interacting proteins of OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 via yeast-two hybrid analysis. Over-expression of OsHOX24 imparted higher sensitivity to stress hormone, ABA, and abiotic stresses in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants as revealed by various physiological and phenotypic assays. Microarray analysis revealed differential expression of several stress-responsive genes in transgenic lines as compared to wild-type. Many of these genes were found to be involved in transcriptional regulation and various metabolic pathways. Altogether, our results suggest the possible role of OsHOX22/OsHOX24 homeobox proteins as negative regulators in abiotic stress responses.

  7. Visual expression analysis of the responses of the alternative oxidase gene (aox1) to heat shock, oxidative, and osmotic stresses in conidia of citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yuki; Hattori, Takasumi; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2012-03-01

    The citric acid-producing filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger WU-2223L shows cyanide-insensitive respiration catalyzed by alternative oxidase in addition to the cytochrome pathway. Sequence analysis of the 5' flanking region of the alternative oxidase gene (aox1) revealed a potential heat shock element (HSE) and a stress response element (STRE). We have previously confirmed aox1 expression in conidia. In this study, to confirm whether the upstream region of aox1 responds to various stresses, we used a visual expression analysis system for single-cell conidia of the A. niger strain AOXEGFP-1. This strain harbored a fusion gene comprising aox1 and egfp, which encodes the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The fluorescence intensity of EGFP increased in conidia of A. niger AOXEGFP-1 that were subjected to heat shock at 35-45 °C, oxidative stress by exposure to 5mM paraquat or 1 mM t-butylhydroperoxide, or osmotic stresses by exposure to 0.5 M KCl or 1.0 M mannitol. These results indicate that the putative HSE and STRE in the upstream region of aox1 directly or indirectly respond to heat shock, oxidative, and osmotic stresses. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome-Wide Identification of the Alba Gene Family in Plants and Stress-Responsive Expression of the Rice Alba Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Wardhan, Vijay; Singh, Deepali; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2018-03-28

    Architectural proteins play key roles in genome construction and regulate the expression of many genes, albeit the modulation of genome plasticity by these proteins is largely unknown. A critical screening of the architectural proteins in five crop species, viz., Oryza sativa , Zea mays , Sorghum bicolor , Cicer arietinum , and Vitis vinifera , and in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana along with evolutionary relevant species such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , Physcomitrella patens , and Amborella trichopoda , revealed 9, 20, 10, 7, 7, 6, 1, 4, and 4 Alba (acetylation lowers binding affinity) genes, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the genes and of their counterparts in other plant species indicated evolutionary conservation and diversification. In each group, the structural components of the genes and motifs showed significant conservation. The chromosomal location of the Alba genes of rice ( OsAlba ), showed an unequal distribution on 8 of its 12 chromosomes. The expression profiles of the OsAlba genes indicated a distinct tissue-specific expression in the seedling, vegetative, and reproductive stages. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of the OsAlba genes confirmed their stress-inducible expression under multivariate environmental conditions and phytohormone treatments. The evaluation of the regulatory elements in 68 Alba genes from the 9 species studied led to the identification of conserved motifs and overlapping microRNA (miRNA) target sites, suggesting the conservation of their function in related proteins and a divergence in their biological roles across species. The 3D structure and the prediction of putative ligands and their binding sites for OsAlba proteins offered a key insight into the structure-function relationship. These results provide a comprehensive overview of the subtle genetic diversification of the OsAlba genes, which will help in elucidating their functional role in plants.

  9. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and expression analyses of the 14-3-3 family reveal their involvement in the development, ripening and abiotic stress response in banana

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    meiying li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana.

  10. The stress response system of proteins: Implications for bioreactor scaleup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goochee, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    Animal cells face a variety of environmental stresses in large scale bioreactors, including periodic variations in shear stress and dissolved oxygen concentration. Diagnostic techniques were developed for identifying the particular sources of environmental stresses for animal cells in a given bioreactor configuration. The mechanisms by which cells cope with such stresses was examined. The individual concentrations and synthesis rates of hundreds of intracellular proteins are affected by the extracellular environment (medium composition, dissolved oxygen concentration, ph, and level of surface shear stress). Techniques are currently being developed for quantifying the synthesis rates and concentrations of the intracellular proteins which are most sensitive to environmental stress. Previous research has demonstrated that a particular set of stress response proteins are synthesized by mammalian cells in response to temperature fluctuations, dissolved oxygen deprivation, and glucose deprivation. Recently, it was demonstrated that exposure of human kidney cells to high shear stress results in expression of a completely distinct set of intracellular proteins.

  11. Proteomic studies of drought stress response in Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja ZADRAŽNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a serious threat to crop production that influences plant growth and development and subsequently causes reduced quantity and quality of the yield. Plant stress induces changes in cell metabolism, which includes differential expression of proteins. Proteomics offer a powerful approach to analyse proteins involved in drought stress response of plants. Analyses of changes in protein abundance of legumes under drought stress are very important, as legumes play an important role in human and animal diet and are often exposed to drought. The presented results of proteomic studies of selected legumes enable better understanding of molecular mechanisms of drought stress response. The study of drought stress response of plants with proteomic approach may contribute to the development of potential drought-response markers and to the development of drought-tolerant cultivars of different legume crop species.

  12. Influence of Moringa oleifera extract, vitamin C, and sodium bicarbonate on heat stress-induced HSP70 expression and cellular immune response in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Mahmoud; Sakran, Thabet; Badawi, Yasser K; Abdel-Hady, Doaa S

    2018-05-04

    The current study aimed to test the effect of Moringa oleifera extract (MOE), vitamin (Vit) C, and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) on heat stress (HS)-induced alterations in rabbits. Five groups of rabbits were designed as control, HS, HS + MOE, HS + Vit C, and HS + NaHCO 3 . HS groups were exposed to high temperatures, while treatments were given in drinking water for 6 weeks. Levels of blood cortisol, leptin, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 were assayed using ELISA, while adrenaline was assayed calorimetrically. Expression of HSP70, FOXP3, T cell receptor (TCR) γ, and δ mRNA was tested using real-time (RT)-PCR, while HSP70 protein expression was tested using western blotting in liver and kidney tissues. Infiltration of regulatory T cells (Treg; CD25 + ) and NK (CD56 + ) cells were tested using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The levels of liver enzymes (ALT & AST), urea, and creatinine were assayed calorimetrically, while body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. The results showed increased levels of cortisol, adrenaline, leptin, IFN-γ, TNF-α, ALT, AST, urea, and creatinine but decreased IL-10 in the HS group. Increased expression of HSP70 on both mRNA and protein levels was associated with increased NK and γδ T cells versus decreased Treg cell infiltration in liver and kidney tissues of the HS group. In the same group, BWG was decreased, while FCR was increased with respect to the control group. All treatments used in this study reversed the effects of HS significantly. In conclusion, MOE, Vit C, and NaHCO 3 can be added to rabbit diets for the amelioration of HS-induced symptoms.

  13. Longevity and the stress response in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    briefly review the state of the art of research on ageing and longevity in the model organism Drosophila, with focus on the role of the general stress response. We will conclude by contemplating some of the implications of the findings in this research and will suggest several directions for future...... research. Keywords: Ageing; Stress response; Hsp; Drosophila; Stress......The concept that lifespan is a function of the capacity to withstand extrinsic stress is very old. In concordance with this, long-lived individuals often have increased resistance against a variety of stresses throughout life. Genes underlying the stress response may therefore have the ability...

  14. Coral thermal tolerance: tuning gene expression to resist thermal stress.

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    Anthony J Bellantuono

    Full Text Available The acclimatization capacity of corals is a critical consideration in the persistence of coral reefs under stresses imposed by global climate change. The stress history of corals plays a role in subsequent response to heat stress, but the transcriptomic changes associated with these plastic changes have not been previously explored. In order to identify host transcriptomic changes associated with acquired thermal tolerance in the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora, corals preconditioned to a sub-lethal temperature of 3°C below bleaching threshold temperature were compared to both non-preconditioned corals and untreated controls using a cDNA microarray platform. After eight days of hyperthermal challenge, conditions under which non-preconditioned corals bleached and preconditioned corals (thermal-tolerant maintained Symbiodinium density, a clear differentiation in the transcriptional profiles was revealed among the condition examined. Among these changes, nine differentially expressed genes separated preconditioned corals from non-preconditioned corals, with 42 genes differentially expressed between control and preconditioned treatments, and 70 genes between non-preconditioned corals and controls. Differentially expressed genes included components of an apoptotic signaling cascade, which suggest the inhibition of apoptosis in preconditioned corals. Additionally, lectins and genes involved in response to oxidative stress were also detected. One dominant pattern was the apparent tuning of gene expression observed between preconditioned and non-preconditioned treatments; that is, differences in expression magnitude were more apparent than differences in the identity of genes differentially expressed. Our work revealed a transcriptomic signature underlying the tolerance associated with coral thermal history, and suggests that understanding the molecular mechanisms behind physiological acclimatization would be critical for the modeling of reefs

  15. Regulation of gene expression in roots of the pH-sensitive Vaccinium corymbosum and the pH-tolerant Vaccinium arboreum in response to near neutral pH stress using RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payá-Milans, Miriam; Nunez, Gerardo H; Olmstead, James W; Rinehart, Timothy A; Staton, Margaret

    2017-08-07

    Blueberries are one of the few horticultural crops adapted to grow in acidic soils. Neutral to basic soil pH is detrimental to all commonly cultivated blueberry species, including Vaccinium corymbosum (VC). In contrast, the wild species V. arboreum (VA) is able to tolerate a wider range of soil pH. To assess the molecular mechanisms involved in near neutral pH stress response, plants from pH-sensitive VC (tetraploid) and pH-tolerant VA (diploid) were grown at near neutral pH 6.5 and at the preferred pH of 4.5. Transcriptome sequencing of root RNA was performed for 4 biological replications per species x pH level interaction, for a total of 16 samples. Reads were mapped to the reference genome from diploid V. corymbosum, transforming ~55% of the reads to gene counts. A quasi-likelihood F test identified differential expression due to pH stress in 337 and 4867 genes in VA and VC, respectively. Both species shared regulation of genes involved in nutrient homeostasis and cell wall metabolism. VA and VC exhibited differential regulation of signaling pathways related to abiotic/biotic stress, cellulose and lignin biosynthesis, and nutrient uptake. The specific responses in VA likely facilitate tolerance to higher soil pH. In contrast, response in VC, despite affecting a greater number of genes, is not effective overcoming the stress induced by pH. Further inspection of those genes with differential expression that are specific in VA may provide insight on the mechanisms towards tolerance.

  16. Coping as a mediator of the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress response: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Aoki, Shuntaro; Yoneda, Kenichiro; Sawaguchi, Yusuke

    2018-01-01

    Coping, the cognitive and behavioral effort required to manage the effects of stressors, is important in determining psychological stress responses (ie, the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stressors). Coping was classified into categories of emotional expression (eg, negative feelings and thoughts), emotional support seeking (eg, approaching loved ones to request encouragement), cognitive reinterpretation (eg, reframing a problem positively), and problem solving (eg, working to solve the problem). Stress mindset refers to the belief that stress has enhancing (stress-is-enhancing mindset) or debilitating consequences (stress-is-debilitating mindset). This study examined whether coping mediated the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress responses. Psychological stress responses were conceptualized as depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness. The following two hypotheses were tested: 1) a stronger stress-is-enhancing mindset is associated with less frequent use of emotional expression, emotional support seeking, and problem solving, which in turn is associated with lower levels of depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness; 2) a stronger stress-is-debilitating mindset is associated with more frequent use of these coping strategies, which in turn is associated with higher levels of these psychological stress responses. The participants were 30 male and 94 female undergraduate and graduate students (mean age =20.4 years). Stress mindset, coping, and psychological stress responses were measured using self-report questionnaires. Six mediation analyses were performed with stress-is-enhancing mindset or stress-is-debilitating mindset as the independent variable, one of the psychological stress responses as the dependent variable, and the four coping strategies as mediators. Emotional expression partially mediated the relationship between a strong stress-is-debilitating mindset and higher irritability

  17. Depletion of abscisic acid levels in roots of flooded Carrizo citrange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. × Citrus sinensis L. Osb.) plants is a stress-specific response associated to the differential expression of PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Vicent; Zandalinas, Sara I; Manzi, Matías; González-Guzmán, Miguel; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2017-04-01

    Soil flooding reduces root abscisic acid (ABA) levels in citrus, conversely to what happens under drought. Despite this reduction, microarray analyses suggested the existence of a residual ABA signaling in roots of flooded Carrizo citrange seedlings. The comparison of ABA metabolism and signaling in roots of flooded and water stressed plants of Carrizo citrange revealed that the hormone depletion was linked to the upregulation of CsAOG, involved in ABA glycosyl ester (ABAGE) synthesis, and to a moderate induction of catabolism (CsCYP707A, an ABA 8'-hydroxylase) and buildup of dehydrophaseic acid (DPA). Drought strongly induced both ABA biosynthesis and catabolism (CsNCED1, 9-cis-neoxanthin epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1, and CsCYP707A) rendering a significant hormone accumulation. In roots of flooded plants, restoration of control ABA levels after stress release was associated to the upregulation of CsBGLU18 (an ABA β-glycosidase) that cleaves ABAGE. Transcriptional profile of ABA receptor genes revealed a different induction in response to soil flooding (CsPYL5) or drought (CsPYL8). These two receptor genes along with CsPYL1 were cloned and expressed in a heterologous system. Recombinant CsPYL5 inhibited ΔNHAB1 activity in vitro at lower ABA concentrations than CsPYL8 or CsPYL1, suggesting its better performance under soil flooding conditions. Both stress conditions induced ABA-responsive genes CsABI5 and CsDREB2A similarly, suggesting the occurrence of ABA signaling in roots of flooded citrus seedlings. The impact of reduced ABA levels in flooded roots on CsPYL5 expression along with its higher hormone affinity reinforce the role of this ABA receptor under soil-flooding conditions and explain the expression of certain ABA-responsive genes.

  18. Expression profiling of Ribosomal Protein gene family in dehydration stress responses and characterization of transgenic rice plants overexpressing RPL23A for water-use efficiency and tolerance to drought and salt stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Mazahar; Bakshi, Achala; Madhav, M. S.; Kirti, P. B.

    2017-11-01

    Our previous findings on the screening of a large-pool of activation tagged rice plants grown under limited water conditions revealed the activation of Ribosomal Protein Large (RPL) subunit genes, RPL6 and RPL23A in two mutants that exhibited high water-use efficiency (WUE) with the genes getting activated by the integrated 4x enhancers (Moin et al., 2016a). In continuation of these findings, we have comprehensively characterized the Ribosomal Protein (RP) gene family including both small (RPS) and large (RPL) subunits, which have been identified to be encoded by at least 70 representative genes; RP-genes exist as multiple expressed copies with high nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarity. The differential expression of all the representative genes in rice was performed under limited water and drought conditions at progressive time intervals in the present study. More than 50% of the RP genes were upregulated in both shoot and root tissues. Some of them exhibited an overlap in the upregulation under both the treatments indicating that they might have a common role in inducing tolerance under limited water and drought conditions. Among the genes that became significantly upregulated in both the tissues and under both the treatments are RPL6, 7, 23A, 24 and 31 and RPS4, 10 and 18a. To further validate the role of RP genes in WUE and inducing tolerance to other stresses, we have raised transgenic plants overexpressing RPL23A in rice. The high expression lines of RPL23A exhibited low Δ13C, increased quantum efficiency along with suitable growth and yield parameters with respect to negative control under the conditions of limited water availability. The constitutive expression of RPL23A was also associated with transcriptional upregulation of many other RPL and RPS genes. The seedlings of RPL23A high expression lines also showed a significant increase in fresh weight, root length, proline and chlorophyll contents under simulated drought and salt stresses. Taken

  19. Interaction between two cis-acting elements, ABRE and DRE, in ABA-dependent expression of Arabidopsis rd29A gene in response to dehydration and high-salinity stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Nakashima, Kazuo; Shinwari, Zabta K; Sakuma, Yoh; Furihata, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Narusaka, Mari; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2003-04-01

    Many abiotic stress-inducible genes contain two cis-acting elements, namely a dehydration-responsive element (DRE; TACCGACAT) and an ABA-responsive element (ABRE; ACGTGG/TC), in their promoter regions. We precisely analyzed the 120 bp promoter region (-174 to -55) of the Arabidopsis rd29A gene whose expression is induced by dehydration, high-salinity, low-temperature, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments and whose 120 bp promoter region contains the DRE, DRE/CRT-core motif (A/GCCGAC), and ABRE sequences. Deletion and base substitution analyses of this region showed that the DRE-core motif functions as DRE and that the DRE/DRE-core motif could be a coupling element of ABRE. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that DRE-binding proteins (DREB1s/CBFs and DREB2s) bind to both DRE and the DRE-core motif and that ABRE-binding proteins (AREBs/ABFs) bind to ABRE in the 120 bp promoter region. In addition, transactivation experiments using Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts showed that DREBs and AREBs cumulatively transactivate the expression of a GUS reporter gene fused to the 120 bp promoter region of rd29A. These results indicate that DRE and ABRE are interdependent in the ABA-responsive expression of the rd29A gene in response to ABA in Arabidopsis.

  20. Agreeableness, Extraversion, Stressor and Physiological Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyuan Chu; Zhentao Ma; Yuan Li; Jing Han

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theoretical analysis, with first-hand data collection and using multiple regression models, this study explored the relationship between agreeableness, extraversion, stressor and stress response and figured out interactive effect of agreeableness, extraversion, and stressor on stress response. We draw on the following conclusions: (1) the interaction term of stressor (work) and agreeableness can negatively predict physiological stress response; (2) the interaction term of stresso...

  1. Influence of Nitrate and Nitrite on Thyroid Hormone Responsive and Stress-Associated Gene Expression in Cultured Rana catesbeiana Tadpole Tail Fin Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinther, Ashley; Edwards, Thea M.; Guillette, Louis J.; Helbing, Caren C.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signaling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin) assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 and 50 mg/L nitrate (NO3–N) and 0.5 and 5 mg/L nitrite (NO2–N) in the absence and presence of 10 nM T3. Thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI), both of which are TH-responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signaling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30, and catalase (CAT) transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TRβ and RLKI transcripts to T3. Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action. PMID:22493607

  2. Influence of nitrate and nitrite on thyroid hormone-responsive and stress-associated gene expression in cultured Rana catesbeiana tadpole tail fin tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eHinther

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signalling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 mg/L and 50 mg/L nitrate (NO3-N and 0.5 mg/L and 5 mg/L nitrite (NO2-N in the absence and presence of 10 nM T3. Thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI, both of which are thyroid hormone responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signalling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30 (HSP30 and catalase (CAT transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TRβ and RLKI transcripts to T3. Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action.

  3. Tonic immobility differentiates stress responses in PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragkaki, I; Stins, J.F.; Roelofs, K.; Jongedijk, R.A.; Hagenaars, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tonic immobility (TI) is a state of physical immobility associated with extreme stress and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether TI is associated with a distinct actual stress response, i.e., objective immobility measured by a

  4. Systems responses to progressive water stress in durum wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimah Z Habash

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is susceptible to terminal drought which can greatly decrease grain yield. Breeding to improve crop yield is hampered by inadequate knowledge of how the physiological and metabolic changes caused by drought are related to gene expression. To gain better insight into mechanisms defining resistance to water stress we studied the physiological and transcriptome responses of three durum breeding lines varying for yield stability under drought. Parents of a mapping population (Lahn x Cham1 and a recombinant inbred line (RIL2219 showed lowered flag leaf relative water content, water potential and photosynthesis when subjected to controlled water stress time transient experiments over a six-day period. RIL2219 lost less water and showed constitutively higher stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, abscisic acid content and enhanced osmotic adjustment at equivalent leaf water compared to parents, thus defining a physiological strategy for high yield stability under water stress. Parallel analysis of the flag leaf transcriptome under stress uncovered global trends of early changes in regulatory pathways, reconfiguration of primary and secondary metabolism and lowered expression of transcripts in photosynthesis in all three lines. Differences in the number of genes, magnitude and profile of their expression response were also established amongst the lines with a high number belonging to regulatory pathways. In addition, we documented a large number of genes showing constitutive differences in leaf transcript expression between the genotypes at control non-stress conditions. Principal Coordinates Analysis uncovered a high level of structure in the transcriptome response to water stress in each wheat line suggesting genome-wide co-ordination of transcription. Utilising a systems-based approach of analysing the integrated wheat's response to water stress, in terms of biological robustness theory, the findings suggest that each durum

  5. Plant Core Environmental Stress Response Genes Are Systemically Coordinated during Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Berendzen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying plant stress responses is an important issue in a world threatened by global warming. Unfortunately, comparative analyses are hampered by varying experimental setups. In contrast, the AtGenExpress abiotic stress experiment displays intercomparability. Importantly, six of the nine stresses (wounding, genotoxic, oxidative, UV-B light, osmotic and salt can be examined for their capacity to generate systemic signals between the shoot and root, which might be essential to regain homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We classified the systemic responses into two groups: genes that are regulated in the non-treated tissue only are defined as type I responsive and, accordingly, genes that react in both tissues are termed type II responsive. Analysis of type I and II systemic responses suggest distinct functionalities, but also significant overlap between different stresses. Comparison with salicylic acid (SA and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA responsive genes implies that MeJA is involved in the systemic stress response. Certain genes are predominantly responding in only one of the categories, e.g., WRKY genes respond mainly non-systemically. Instead, genes of the plant core environmental stress response (PCESR, e.g., ZAT10, ZAT12, ERD9 or MES9, are part of different response types. Moreover, several PCESR genes switch between the categories in a stress-specific manner.

  6. Reconstructing a Network of Stress-Response Regulators via Dynamic System Modeling of Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Sheng Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unicellular organisms such as yeasts have evolved mechanisms to respond to environmental stresses by rapidly reorganizing the gene expression program. Although many stress-response genes in yeast have been discovered by DNA microarrays, the stress-response transcription factors (TFs that regulate these stress-response genes remain to be investigated. In this study, we use a dynamic system model of gene regulation to describe the mechanism of how TFs may control a gene’s expression. Then, based on the dynamic system model, we develop the Stress Regulator Identification Algorithm (SRIA to identify stress-response TFs for six kinds of stresses. We identified some general stress-response TFs that respond to various stresses and some specific stress-response TFs that respond to one specifi c stress. The biological significance of our findings is validated by the literature. We found that a small number of TFs is probably suffi cient to control a wide variety of expression patterns in yeast under different stresses. Two implications can be inferred from this observation. First, the response mechanisms to different stresses may have a bow-tie structure. Second, there may be regulatory cross-talks among different stress responses. In conclusion, this study proposes a network of stress-response regulators and the details of their actions.

  7. Histopathological effects, responses of oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis biomarkers and alteration of gene expressions related to apoptosis, oxidative stress, and reproductive system in chlorpyrifos-exposed common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Serdar; Özdemir, Selçuk; Arslan, Harun

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we aimed to identify the toxic effects of chlorpyrifos exposure on the tissues of common carp. For this purpose, we evaluated histopathological changes in the brain, gills, liver, kidney, testis, and ovaries after 21 days of chlorpyrifos exposure. Activation of 8-OHdG, cleaved caspase-3, and iNOS were assesed by immunofluorescence assay in chlorpyrifos-exposed brain and liver tissue. Additionally, we measured the expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-8, iNOS, MT1, CYP1A, and CYP3A genes in chlorpyrifos-exposed brain tissue, as well as the expression levels of FSH and LH genes in chlorpyrifos-exposed ovaries, using qRT-PCR. We observed severe histopathological lesions, including inflammation, degeneration, necrosis, and hemorrhage, in the evaluated tissues of common carp after both high and low levels of exposure to chlorpyrifos. We detected strong and diffuse signs of immunofluorescence reaction for 8-OHdG, iNOS, and cleaved caspase-3 in the chlorpyrifos-exposed brain and liver tissues. Furthermore, we found that chlorpyrifos exposure significantly upregulated the expressions of caspase-3, caspase-8, iNOS, and MT1, and also moderately upregulated CYP1A and CYP3A in the brain tissue of exposed carp. We also noted downregulation of FSH and LH gene expressions in chlorpyrifos-exposed ovary tissues. Based on our results, chlorpyrifos toxication caused crucial histopathological lesions in vital organs, induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in liver and brain tissues, and triggered reproductive sterility in common carp. Therefore, we can propose that chlorpyrifos toxication is highly dangerous to the health of common carp. Moreover, chlorpyrifos pollution in the water could threaten the common carp population. Use of chlorpyrifos should be restricted, and aquatic systems should be monitored for chlorpyrifos pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A role for SR proteins in plant stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Members of the SR (serine/arginine-rich) protein gene family are key players in the regulation of alternative splicing, an important means of generating proteome diversity and regulating gene expression. In plants, marked changes in alternative splicing are induced by a wide variety of abiotic stresses, suggesting a role for this highly versatile gene regulation mechanism in the response to environmental cues. In support of this notion, the expression of plant SR proteins is stress-regulated at multiple levels, with environmental signals controlling their own alternative splicing patterns, phosphorylation status and subcellular distribution. Most importantly, functional links between these RNA-binding proteins and plant stress tolerance are beginning to emerge, including a role in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Future identification of the physiological mRNA targets of plant SR proteins holds much promise for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying their role in the response to abiotic stress.

  9. Proteomics analysis of alfalfa response to heat stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Li

    Full Text Available The proteome responses to heat stress have not been well understood. In this study, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Huaiyin seedlings were exposed to 25 °C (control and 40 °C (heat stress in growth chambers, and leaves were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. The morphological, physiological and proteomic processes were negatively affected under heat stress. Proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE, and differentially expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry (MS. Totally, 81 differentially expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF. These proteins were categorized into nine classes: including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis, protein destination/storage, transporters, intracellular traffic, cell structure, signal transduction and disease/defence. Five proteins were further analyzed for mRNA levels. The results of the proteomics analyses provide a better understanding of the molecular basis of heat-stress responses in alfalfa.

  10. Enterovirus Control of Translation and RNA Granule Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Richard E

    2016-03-30

    Enteroviruses such as poliovirus (PV) and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) have evolved several parallel strategies to regulate cellular gene expression and stress responses to ensure efficient expression of the viral genome. Enteroviruses utilize their encoded proteinases to take over the cellular translation apparatus and direct ribosomes to viral mRNAs. In addition, viral proteinases are used to control and repress the two main types of cytoplasmic RNA granules, stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (P-bodies, PBs), which are stress-responsive dynamic structures involved in repression of gene expression. This review discusses these processes and the current understanding of the underlying mechanisms with respect to enterovirus infections. In addition, the review discusses accumulating data suggesting linkage exists between RNA granule formation and innate immune sensing and activation.

  11. General Stress Responses in the Honey Bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naïla Even

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which underlies the “fight-or-flight” response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine, neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone. Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop. We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress.

  12. Coping as a mediator of the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress response: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horiuchi S

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Horiuchi,1 Akira Tsuda,2 Shuntaro Aoki,3,4 Kenichiro Yoneda,5 Yusuke Sawaguchi6 1Faculty of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, 2Department of Psychology, Kurume University, Fukuoka, 3Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, 4Graduate School of Psychological Science, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Hokkaido, 5Graduate School of Psychology, Kurume University, Fukuoka, 6Graduate School of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, Japan Background: Coping, the cognitive and behavioral effort required to manage the effects of stressors, is important in determining psychological stress responses (ie, the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stressors. Coping was classified into categories of emotional expression (eg, negative feelings and thoughts, emotional support seeking (eg, approaching loved ones to request encouragement, cognitive reinterpretation (eg, reframing a problem positively, and problem solving (eg, working to solve the problem. Stress mindset refers to the belief that stress has enhancing (stress-is-enhancing mindset or debilitating consequences (stress-is-debilitating mindset. This study examined whether coping mediated the relationship between stress mindset and psychological stress responses. Psychological stress responses were conceptualized as depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness. The following two hypotheses were tested: 1 a stronger stress-is-enhancing mindset is associated with less frequent use of emotional expression, emotional support seeking, and problem solving, which in turn is associated with lower levels of depression-anxiety, irritability-anger, and helplessness; 2 a stronger stress-is-debilitating mindset is associated with more frequent use of these coping strategies, which in turn is associated with higher levels of these psychological stress responses. Materials and methods: The participants were 30 male and

  13. Stress responses in probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Nezhad, Marzieh; Hussain, Malik Altaf; Britz, Margaret Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Survival in harsh environments is critical to both the industrial performance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their competitiveness in complex microbial ecologies. Among the LAB, members of the Lactobacillus casei group have industrial applications as acid-producing starter cultures for milk fermentations and as specialty cultures for the intensification and acceleration of flavor development in certain bacterial-ripened cheese varieties. They are amongst the most common organisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and other animals, and have the potential to function as probiotics. Whether used in industrial or probiotic applications, environmental stresses will affect the physiological status and properties of cells, including altering their functionality and biochemistry. Understanding the mechanisms of how LAB cope with different environments is of great biotechnological importance, from both a fundamental and applied perspective: hence, interaction between these strains and their environment has gained increased interest in recent years. This paper presents an overview of the important features of stress responses in Lb. casei, and related proteomic or gene expression patterns that may improve their use as starter cultures and probiotics.

  14. Associations Between Paternal Responsiveness and Stress Responsiveness in the Biparental California Mouse, Peromyscus californicus

    OpenAIRE

    Chauke, Miyetani

    2012-01-01

    The mechanistic basis of paternal behavior in mammals is poorly understood. Assuming there are parallels between the factors mediating maternal and paternal behavior, it can be expected that the onset of paternal behavior is facilitated by reductions in stress responsiveness, as occurs in females of several mammalian species. This dissertation describes studies investigating the role of stress responsiveness in the expression of paternal behavior in biparental, monogamous California mice (Per...

  15. Chicken domestication changes expression of stress-related genes in brain, pituitary and adrenals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Løtvedt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated species have an attenuated behavioral and physiological stress response compared to their wild counterparts, but the genetic mechanisms underlying this change are not fully understood. We investigated gene expression of a panel of stress response-related genes in five tissues known for their involvement in the stress response: hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal glands and liver of domesticated White Leghorn chickens and compared it with the wild ancestor of all domesticated breeds, the Red Junglefowl. Gene expression was measured both at baseline and after 45 min of restraint stress. Most of the changes in gene expression related to stress were similar to mammals, with an upregulation of genes such as FKBP5, C-FOS and EGR1 in hippocampus and hypothalamus and StAR, MC2R and TH in adrenal glands. We also found a decrease in the expression of CRHR1 in the pituitary of chickens after stress, which could be involved in negative feedback regulation of the stress response. Furthermore, we observed a downregulation of EGR1 and C-FOS in the pituitary following stress, which could be a potential link between stress and its effects on reproduction and growth in chickens.We also found changes in the expression of important genes between breeds such as GR in the hypothalamus, POMC and PC1 in the pituitary and CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 in the adrenal glands. These results suggest that the domesticated White Leghorn may have a higher capacity for negative feedback of the HPA axis, a lower capacity for synthesis of ACTH in the pituitary and a reduced synthesis rate of corticosterone in the adrenal glands compared to Red Junglefowl. All of these findings could explain the attenuated stress response in the domesticated birds. Keywords: Animal domestication, Stress response, HPA axis, Glucocorticoid receptor, Gene expression, Chicken

  16. Identification of differentially expressed genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) under saline-alkaline stress by digital gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Huang, Wengong; Chen, Hongyu; Wu, Guangwen; Yuan, Hongmei; Song, Xixia; Kang, Qinghua; Zhao, Dongsheng; Jiang, Weidong; Liu, Yan; Wu, Jianzhong; Cheng, Lili; Yao, Yubo; Guan, Fengzhi

    2014-10-01

    The salinization and alkalization of soil are widespread environmental problems, and alkaline salt stress is more destructive than neutral salt stress. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to saline-alkaline stress has become a major challenge. However, little attention has been paid to the mechanism of plant alkaline salt tolerance. In this study, gene expression profiling of flax was analyzed under alkaline-salt stress (AS2), neutral salt stress (NSS) and alkaline stress (AS) by digital gene expression. Three-week-old flax seedlings were placed in 25 mM Na2CO3 (pH11.6) (AS2), 50mM NaCl (NSS) and NaOH (pH11.6) (AS) for 18 h. There were 7736, 1566 and 454 differentially expressed genes in AS2, NSS and AS compared to CK, respectively. The GO category gene enrichment analysis revealed that photosynthesis was particularly affected in AS2, carbohydrate metabolism was particularly affected in NSS, and the response to biotic stimulus was particularly affected in AS. We also analyzed the expression pattern of five categories of genes including transcription factors, signaling transduction proteins, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species proteins and transporters under these three stresses. Some key regulatory gene families involved in abiotic stress, such as WRKY, MAPKKK, ABA, PrxR and ion channels, were differentially expressed. Compared with NSS and AS, AS2 triggered more differentially expressed genes and special pathways, indicating that the mechanism of AS2 was more complex than NSS and AS. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first transcriptome analysis of flax in response to saline-alkaline stress. These data indicate that common and diverse features of saline-alkaline stress provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of plant saline-alkaline tolerance and offer a number of candidate genes as potential markers of tolerance to saline-alkaline stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The transcriptional regulatory network in the drought response and its crosstalk in abiotic stress responses including drought, cold and heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo eNakashima

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops around the world. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the drought response is important for improvement of drought tolerance using molecular techniques. In plants, abscisic acid (ABA is accumulated under osmotic stress conditions caused by drought, and has a key role in stress responses and tolerance. Comprehensive molecular analyses have shown that ABA regulates the expression of many genes under osmotic stress conditions, and the ABA-responsive element (ABRE is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. Transcription factors (TFs are master regulators of gene expression. ABRE-binding protein (AREB and ABRE-binding factor (ABF TFs control gene expression in an ABA-dependent manner. SNF1-related protein kinases 2, group A 2C-type protein phosphatases, and ABA receptors were shown to control the ABA signaling pathway. ABA-independent signaling pathways such as dehydration-responsive element-binding protein (DREB TFs and NAC TFs are also involved in stress responses including drought, heat and cold. Recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress responses. The important roles of these transcription factors in crosstalk among abiotic stress responses will be discussed. Control of ABA or stress signaling factor expression can improve tolerance to environmental stresses. Recent studies using crops have shown that stress-specific overexpression of TFs improves drought tolerance and grain yield compared with controls in the field.

  18. The transcriptional regulatory network in the drought response and its crosstalk in abiotic stress responses including drought, cold, and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops around the world. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the drought response is important for improvement of drought tolerance using molecular techniques. In plants, abscisic acid (ABA) is accumulated under osmotic stress conditions caused by drought, and has a key role in stress responses and tolerance. Comprehensive molecular analyses have shown that ABA regulates the expression of many genes under osmotic stress conditions, and the ABA-responsive element (ABRE) is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. Transcription factors (TFs) are master regulators of gene expression. ABRE-binding protein and ABRE-binding factor TFs control gene expression in an ABA-dependent manner. SNF1-related protein kinases 2, group A 2C-type protein phosphatases, and ABA receptors were shown to control the ABA signaling pathway. ABA-independent signaling pathways such as dehydration-responsive element-binding protein TFs and NAC TFs are also involved in stress responses including drought, heat, and cold. Recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress responses. The important roles of these TFs in crosstalk among abiotic stress responses will be discussed. Control of ABA or stress signaling factor expression can improve tolerance to environmental stresses. Recent studies using crops have shown that stress-specific overexpression of TFs improves drought tolerance and grain yield compared with controls in the field.

  19. Dehydrin from citrus, which confers in vitro dehydration and freezing protection activity, is constitutive and highly expressed in the flavedo of fruit but responsive to cold and water stress in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ballesta, Maria Teresa; Rodrigo, Maria Jesus; Lafuente, Maria Teresa; Granell, Antonio; Zacarias, Lorenzo

    2004-04-07

    A cDNA encoding a dehydrin was isolated from the flavedo of the chilling-sensitive Fortune mandarin fruit (Citrus clementina Hort. Ex Tanaka x Citrus reticulata Blanco) and designed as Crcor15. The predicted CrCOR15 protein is a K2S member of a closely related dehydrin family from Citrus, since it contains two tandem repeats of the unusual Citrus K-segment and one S-segment (serine cluster) at an unusual C-terminal position. Crcor15 mRNA is consistently and highly expressed in the flavedo during fruit development and maturation. The relative abundance of Crcor15 mRNA in the flavedo was estimated to be higher than 1% of total RNA. The high mRNA level remained unchanged during fruit storage at chilling (2 degrees C) and nonchilling (12 degrees C) temperatures, and it was depressed by a conditioning treatment (3 days at 37 degrees C) that induced chilling tolerance. Therefore, the expression of Crcor15 appears not to be related to the acquisition of chilling tolerance in mandarin fruits. However, Crcor15, which was barely detected in unstressed mandarin leaves, was rapidly induced in response to both low temperature and water stress. COR15 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified protein conferred in vitro protection against freezing and dehydration inactivation. The potential role of Citrus COR15 is discussed.

  20. Expression profiling on soybean leaves reveals integration of ER- and osmotic-stress pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewey Ralph E

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the potential of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response to accommodate adaptive pathways, its integration with other environmental-induced responses is poorly understood in plants. We have previously demonstrated that the ER-stress sensor binding protein (BiP from soybean exhibits an unusual response to drought. The members of the soybean BiP gene family are differentially regulated by osmotic stress and soybean BiP confers tolerance to drought. While these results may reflect crosstalk between the osmotic and ER-stress signaling pathways, the lack of mutants, transcriptional response profiles to stresses and genome sequence information of this relevant crop has limited our attempts to identify integrated networks between osmotic and ER stress-induced adaptive responses. As a fundamental step towards this goal, we performed global expression profiling on soybean leaves exposed to polyethylene glycol treatment (osmotic stress or to ER stress inducers. Results The up-regulated stress-specific changes unmasked the major branches of the ER-stress response, which include enhancing protein folding and degradation in the ER, as well as specific osmotically regulated changes linked to cellular responses induced by dehydration. However, a small proportion (5.5% of total up-regulated genes represented a shared response that seemed to integrate the two signaling pathways. These co-regulated genes were considered downstream targets based on similar induction kinetics and a synergistic response to the combination of osmotic- and ER-stress-inducing treatments. Genes in this integrated pathway with the strongest synergistic induction encoded proteins with diverse roles, such as plant-specific development and cell death (DCD domain-containing proteins, an ubiquitin-associated (UBA protein homolog and NAC domain-containing proteins. This integrated pathway diverged further from characterized specific branches of ER-stress as

  1. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response in disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rafael Vincent M. Manalo

    2017-07-12

    Jul 12, 2017 ... Review. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response in disease pathogenesis and pathophysiology .... This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ... chain binding protein (BIP); however, ER stress permits the release, .... drugs designed to alleviate it often cause more harm long-term.

  2. Identification of multiple small heat-shock protein genes in Plutella xylostella (L.) and their expression profiles in response to abiotic stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xi’en; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    We identify and characterize 14 small heat-shock protein (sHSP) genes from the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), a destructive pest. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that, except for sHSP18.8 and sHSP19.22, the other 12 DBM sHSPs belong to five known insect sHSP groups. Developmental expression analysis revealed that most sHSPs peaked in the pupal and adult stages. The transcripts of sHSPs display tissue specificity with two exhibiting constitutive expression in four tested tiss...

  3. Evolution of stress-regulated gene expression in duplicate genes of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zou

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the selection pressure imposed by highly variable environmental conditions, stress sensing and regulatory response mechanisms in plants are expected to evolve rapidly. One potential source of innovation in plant stress response mechanisms is gene duplication. In this study, we examined the evolution of stress-regulated gene expression among duplicated genes in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Key to this analysis was reconstructing the putative ancestral stress regulation pattern. By comparing the expression patterns of duplicated genes with the patterns of their ancestors, duplicated genes likely lost and gained stress responses at a rapid rate initially, but the rate is close to zero when the synonymous substitution rate (a proxy for time is > approximately 0.8. When considering duplicated gene pairs, we found that partitioning of putative ancestral stress responses occurred more frequently compared to cases of parallel retention and loss. Furthermore, the pattern of stress response partitioning was extremely asymmetric. An analysis of putative cis-acting DNA regulatory elements in the promoters of the duplicated stress-regulated genes indicated that the asymmetric partitioning of ancestral stress responses are likely due, at least in part, to differential loss of DNA regulatory elements; the duplicated genes losing most of their stress responses were those that had lost more of the putative cis-acting elements. Finally, duplicate genes that lost most or all of the ancestral responses are more likely to have gained responses to other stresses. Therefore, the retention of duplicates that inherit few or no functions seems to be coupled to neofunctionalization. Taken together, our findings provide new insight into the patterns of evolutionary changes in gene stress responses after duplication and lay the foundation for testing the adaptive significance of stress regulatory changes under highly variable biotic and abiotic environments.

  4. Sex differences in the stress response in SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wu, Xue-Yan; Zhu, Qiong-Bin; Li, Jia; Shi, Li-Gen; Wu, Juan-Li; Zhang, Qi-Jun; Huang, Man-Li; Bao, Ai-Min

    2015-05-01

    Sex differences play an important role in depression, the basis of which is an excessive stress response. We aimed at revealing the neurobiological sex differences in the same study in acute- and chronically-stressed rats. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), acute foot shock (FS) and controls, animals in all 3 groups were sacrificed in proestrus or diestrus. Male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: CUMS, FS and controls. Comparisons were made of behavioral changes in CUMS and control rats, plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), and of the hypothalamic mRNA-expression of stress-related molecules, i.e. estrogen receptor α and β, androgen receptor, aromatase, mineralocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin. CUMS resulted in disordered estrus cycles, more behavioral and hypothalamic stress-related molecules changes and a stronger CORT response in female rats compared with male rats. Female rats also showed decreased E2 and T levels after FS and CUMS, while male FS rats showed increased E2 and male CUMS rats showed decreased T levels. Stress affects the behavioral, endocrine and the molecular response of the stress systems in the hypothalamus of SD rats in a clear sexual dimorphic way, which has parallels in human data on stress and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress and Bronchodilator Response in Children with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, John M; Ramratnam, Sima K; Tse, Sze Man; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Litonjua, Augusto A; Raby, Benjamin A; Boutaoui, Nadia; Han, Yueh-Ying; Chen, Wei; Forno, Erick; Marsland, Anna L; Nugent, Nicole R; Eng, Celeste; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Alvarez, María; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Spear, Melissa L; Martinez, Fernando D; Avila, Lydiana; Weiss, Scott T; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan L; Barnes, Kathleen C; Lemanske, Robert F; Strunk, Robert C; Liu, Andrew; London, Stephanie J; Gilliland, Frank; Sleiman, Patrick; March, Michael; Hakonarson, Hakon; Duan, Qing Ling; Kolls, Jay K; Fritz, Gregory K; Hu, Donglei; Fani, Negar; Stevens, Jennifer S; Almli, Lynn M; Burchard, Esteban G; Shin, Jaemin; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Ressler, Kerry; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-07-01

    Stress is associated with asthma morbidity in Puerto Ricans (PRs), who have reduced bronchodilator response (BDR). To examine whether stress and/or a gene regulating anxiety (ADCYAP1R1) is associated with BDR in PR and non-PR children with asthma. This was a cross-sectional study of stress and BDR (percent change in FEV1 after BD) in 234 PRs ages 9-14 years with asthma. We assessed child stress using the Checklist of Children's Distress Symptoms, and maternal stress using the Perceived Stress Scale. Replication analyses were conducted in two cohorts. Polymorphisms in ADCYAP1R1 were genotyped in our study and six replication studies. Multivariable models of stress and BDR were adjusted for age, sex, income, environmental tobacco smoke, and use of inhaled corticosteroids. High child stress was associated with reduced BDR in three cohorts. PR children who were highly stressed (upper quartile, Checklist of Children's Distress Symptoms) and whose mothers had high stress (upper quartile, Perceived Stress Scale) had a BDR that was 10.2% (95% confidence interval, 6.1-14.2%) lower than children who had neither high stress nor a highly stressed mother. A polymorphism in ADCYAP1R1 (rs34548976) was associated with reduced BDR. This single-nucleotide polymorphism is associated with reduced expression of the gene for the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) in CD4(+) lymphocytes of subjects with asthma, and it affects brain connectivity of the amygdala and the insula (a biomarker of anxiety). High child stress and an ADCYAP1R1 single-nucleotide polymorphism are associated with reduced BDR in children with asthma. This is likely caused by down-regulation of ADRB2 in highly stressed children.

  6. Brain Region-Specific Expression of Genes Mapped within Quantitative Trait Loci for Behavioral Responsiveness to Acute Stress in Fisher 344 and Wistar Kyoto Male Rats (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-12

    stress in Fisher 344 and Wistar Kyoto male rats. PLoS ONE 13(3): e0194293. https://doi. org /10.1371/journal.pone.0194293 Editor: Alexandra Kavushansky...complex traits in outbred rats. Nature genetics. 2013; 45(7): https://doi. org /10.1038/ng.2644 PMC3821058. PMID: 23708188 15. Ahmadiyeh N, Churchill GA...congenic mouse strains. Nature Genetics. 1997; 17:280. https://doi. org /10.1038/ng1197-280 PMID: 9354790 21. The SC. SNP and haplotype mapping for genetic

  7. Differential Gene Expression of Longan Under Simulated Acid Rain Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shan; Pan, Tengfei; Ma, Cuilan; Qiu, Dongliang

    2017-05-01

    Differential gene expression profile was studied in Dimocarpus longan Lour. in response to treatments of simulated acid rain with pH 2.5, 3.5, and a control (pH 5.6) using differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR). Results showed that mRNA differential display conditions were optimized to find an expressed sequence tag (EST) related with acid rain stress. The potential encoding products had 80% similarity with a transcription initiation factor IIF of Gossypium raimondii and 81% similarity with a protein product of Theobroma cacao. This fragment is the transcription factor activated by second messenger substances in longan leaves after signal perception of acid rain.

  8. Does Osmotic Stress Affect Natural Product Expression in Fungi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, David; Correa, Hebelin; Roullier, Catherine; Chi, Wei-Chiung; Pang, Ka-Lai; Rateb, Mostafa; Ebel, Rainer; Shang, Zhuo; Capon, Rob; Bills, Gerald; Kerr, Russell

    2017-08-13

    The discovery of new natural products from fungi isolated from the marine environment has increased dramatically over the last few decades, leading to the identification of over 1000 new metabolites. However, most of the reported marine-derived species appear to be terrestrial in origin yet at the same time, facultatively halo- or osmotolerant. An unanswered question regarding the apparent chemical productivity of marine-derived fungi is whether the common practice of fermenting strains in seawater contributes to enhanced secondary metabolism? To answer this question, a terrestrial isolate of Aspergillus aculeatus was fermented in osmotic and saline stress conditions in parallel across multiple sites. The ex-type strain of A. aculeatus was obtained from three different culture collections. Site-to-site variations in metabolite expression were observed, suggesting that subculturing of the same strain and subtle variations in experimental protocols can have pronounced effects upon metabolite expression. Replicated experiments at individual sites indicated that secondary metabolite production was divergent between osmotic and saline treatments. Titers of some metabolites increased or decreased in response to increasing osmolite (salt or glycerol) concentrations. Furthermore, in some cases, the expression of some secondary metabolites in relation to osmotic and saline stress was attributed to specific sources of the ex-type strains.

  9. Transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to As (V stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Joshua S

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is toxic to plants and a common environmental pollutant. There is a strong chemical similarity between arsenate [As (V] and phosphate (Pi. Whole genome oligonucleotide microarrays were employed to investigate the transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to As (V stress. Results Antioxidant-related genes (i.e. coding for superoxide dismutases and peroxidases play prominent roles in response to arsenate. The microarray experiment revealed induction of chloroplast Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD (at2g28190, Cu/Zn SOD (at1g08830, as well as an SOD copper chaperone (at1g12520. On the other hand, Fe SODs were strongly repressed in response to As (V stress. Non-parametric rank product statistics were used to detect differentially expressed genes. Arsenate stress resulted in the repression of numerous genes known to be induced by phosphate starvation. These observations were confirmed with qRT-PCR and SOD activity assays. Conclusion Microarray data suggest that As (V induces genes involved in response to oxidative stress and represses transcription of genes induced by phosphate starvation. This study implicates As (V as a phosphate mimic in the cell by repressing genes normally induced when available phosphate is scarce. Most importantly, these data reveal that arsenate stress affects the expression of several genes with little or unknown biological functions, thereby providing new putative gene targets for future research.

  10. Stress proteins and the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, P

    2000-07-25

    The heat shock or stress response is one of the most highly conserved adaptive responses in nature. In single cell organisms, the stress response confers tolerance to a variety of stresses including hyperthermia, hyperoxia, hypoxia, and other perturbations, which alter protein synthesis. This tolerance phenomenon is also extremely important in the multicellular organism, resulting in not only thermal tolerance, but also resistance to stresses of the whole organism such as ischemia-reperfusion injury. Moreover, recent data indicates that these stress proteins have the ability to modulate the cellular immune response. Although the terms heat shock proteins (HSPs) and stress proteins are often used interchangeably, the term stress proteins includes the HSPs, the glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs) and ubiquitin. The stress proteins may be grouped by molecular weight ranging from the large 110 kDa HSP110 to ubiquitin at 8 kDa. These proteins serve as cellular chaperones, participating in protein synthesis and transport through the various cellular compartments. Because these proteins have unique cellular localizations, the chaperone function of the stress proteins often involves a transfer of peptides between stress proteins as the peptide is moved between cellular compartments. For example, HSP70 is a cytosolic and nuclear chaperone, which is critical for the transfer of cellular peptides in the mitochondrion through a hand-off that involves mitochondrial HSP60 at the inner mitochondrial membrane. Similarly, cytosolic proteins are transferred from HSP70 to gp96 as they move into the endoplasmic reticulum. The central role of the stress proteins in the transfer of peptides through the cell may be responsible for the recently recognized importance of the stress proteins in the modulation of the immune system [Feder, M.E., Hofmann, G.E., 1999. Heat-shock proteins, molecular chaperones, and the stress response: evolutionary and ecological physiology. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 61

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Spartina pectinata in Response to Freezing Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyoungju Nah

    Full Text Available Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata, a perennial C4 grass native to the North American prairie, has several distinctive characteristics that potentially make it a model crop for production in stressful environments. However, little is known about the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass despite its unique freezing stress tolerance. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to explore the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass in response to freezing stress at -5°C for 5 min and 30 min. We used a RNA-sequencing method to assemble the S. pectinata leaf transcriptome and performed gene-expression profiling of the transcripts under freezing treatment. Six differentially expressed gene (DEG groups were categorized from the profiling. In addition, two major consecutive orders of gene expression were observed in response to freezing; the first being the acute up-regulation of genes involved in plasma membrane modification, calcium-mediated signaling, proteasome-related proteins, and transcription regulators (e.g., MYB and WRKY. The follow-up and second response was of genes involved in encoding the putative anti-freezing protein and the previously known DNA and cell-damage-repair proteins. Moreover, we identified the genes involved in epigenetic regulation and circadian-clock expression. Our results indicate that freezing response in S. pectinata reflects dynamic changes in rapid-time duration, as well as in metabolic, transcriptional, post-translational, and epigenetic regulation.

  12. Auxin Response Factors (ARFs are potential mediators of auxin action in tomato response to biotic and abiotic stress (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bouzroud

    Full Text Available Survival biomass production and crop yield are heavily constrained by a wide range of environmental stresses. Several phytohormones among which abscisic acid (ABA, ethylene and salicylic acid (SA are known to mediate plant responses to these stresses. By contrast, the role of the plant hormone auxin in stress responses remains so far poorly studied. Auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development, and Auxin Response Factors play a key role in the transcriptional activation or repression of auxin-responsive genes through direct binding to their promoters. As a mean to gain more insight on auxin involvement in a set of biotic and abiotic stress responses in tomato, the present study uncovers the expression pattern of SlARF genes in tomato plants subjected to biotic and abiotic stresses. In silico mining of the RNAseq data available through the public TomExpress web platform, identified several SlARFs as responsive to various pathogen infections induced by bacteria and viruses. Accordingly, sequence analysis revealed that 5' regulatory regions of these SlARFs are enriched in biotic and abiotic stress-responsive cis-elements. Moreover, quantitative qPCR expression analysis revealed that many SlARFs were differentially expressed in tomato leaves and roots under salt, drought and flooding stress conditions. Further pointing to the putative role of SlARFs in stress responses, quantitative qPCR expression studies identified some miRNA precursors as potentially involved in the regulation of their SlARF target genes in roots exposed to salt and drought stresses. These data suggest an active regulation of SlARFs at the post-transcriptional level under stress conditions. Based on the substantial change in the transcript accumulation of several SlARF genes, the data presented in this work strongly support the involvement of auxin in stress responses thus enabling to identify a set of candidate SlARFs as potential mediators of biotic and abiotic

  13. WRKY transcription factors in plant responses to stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Ma, Shenghui; Ye, Nenghui; Jiang, Ming; Cao, Jiashu; Zhang, Jianhua

    2017-02-01

    The WRKY gene family is among the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in higher plants. By regulating the plant hormone signal transduction pathway, these TFs play critical roles in some plant processes in response to biotic and abiotic stress. Various bodies of research have demonstrated the important biological functions of WRKY TFs in plant response to different kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses and working mechanisms. However, very little summarization has been done to review their research progress. Not just important TFs function in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses, WRKY also participates in carbohydrate synthesis, senescence, development, and secondary metabolites synthesis. WRKY proteins can bind to W-box (TGACC (A/T)) in the promoter of its target genes and activate or repress the expression of downstream genes to regulate their stress response. Moreover, WRKY proteins can interact with other TFs to regulate plant defensive responses. In the present review, we focus on the structural characteristics of WRKY TFs and the research progress on their functions in plant responses to a variety of stresses. © 2016 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  15. Adaptive Responses to Thermal Stress in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Lenis Sanin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The environment animals have to cope with is a combination of natural factors such as temperature. Extreme changes in these factors can alter homeostasis, which can lead to thermal stress. This stress can be due to either high temperatures or low temperatures. Energy transference for thermoregulation in homoeothermic animals occurs through several mechanisms: conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation. When animals are subjected to thermal stress, physiological mechanisms are activated which may include endocrine, neuroendocrine and behavioral responses. Activation of the neuroendocrine system affects the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters which act collectively as response mechanisms that allow them to adapt to stress. Mechanisms which have developed through evolution to allow animals to adapt to high environmental temperatures and to achieve thermo tolerance include physiological and physical changes in order to reduce food intake and metabolic heat production, to increase surface area of skin to dissipate heat, to increase blood flow to take heat from the body core to the skin and extremities to dissipate the heat, to increase numbers and activity of sweat glands, panting, water intake and color adaptation of integument system to reflect heat. Chronic exposure to thermal stress can cause disease, reduce growth, decrease productive and reproductive performance and, in extreme cases, lead to death. This paper aims to briefly explain the physical and physiological responses of mammals to thermal stress, like a tool for biological environment adaptation, emphasizing knowledge gaps and offering some recommendations to stress control for the animal production system.

  16. The effects of sex and neonatal stress on pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, E V; Rousseau, J P; Gulemetova, R; Kinkead, R; Wilson, R J A

    2015-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does sex or neonatal stress affect the expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide or its receptors? What is the main finding and its importance? Neonatal-maternal separation stress has little long-lasting effect on the expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide or its receptors, but sex differences exist in these genes between males and females at baseline. Sex differences in classic stress hormones have been studied in depth, but pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), recently identified as playing a critical role in the stress axes, has not. Here we studied whether baseline levels of PACAP differ between sexes in various stress-related tissues and whether neonatal-maternal separation stress has a sex-dependent effect on PACAP gene expression in stress pathways. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found sex differences in PACAP and PACAP receptor gene expression in several respiratory and/or stress-related tissues, while neonatal-maternal separation stress did little to affect PACAP signalling in adult animals. We propose that sex differences in PACAP expression are likely to contribute to differences between males and females in responses to stress. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  17. Plant natriuretic peptides are apoplastic and paracrine stress response molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuhua

    2011-04-07

    Higher plants contain biologically active proteins that are recognized by antibodies against human atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). We identified and isolated two Arabidopsis thaliana immunoreactive plant natriuretic peptide (PNP)-encoding genes, AtPNP-A and AtPNP-B, which are distantly related members of the expansin superfamily and have a role in the regulation of homeostasis in abiotic and biotic stresses, and have shown that AtPNP-A modulates the effects of ABA on stomata. Arabidopsis PNP (PNP-A) is mainly expressed in leaf mesophyll cells, and in protoplast assays we demonstrate that it is secreted using AtPNP-A:green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter constructs and flow cytometry. Transient reporter assays provide evidence that AtPNP-A expression is enhanced by heat, osmotica and salt, and that AtPNP-A itself can enhance its own expression, thereby generating a response signature diagnostic for paracrine action and potentially also autocrine effects. Expression of native AtPNP-A is enhanced by osmotica and transiently by salt. Although AtPNP-A expression is induced by salt and osmotica, ABA does not significantly modulate AtPNP-A levels nor does recombinant AtPNP-A affect reporter expression of the ABA-responsive RD29A gene. Together, these results provide experimental evidence that AtPNP-A is stress responsive, secreted into the apoplastic space and can enhance its own expression. Furthermore, our findings support the idea that AtPNP-A, together with ABA, is an important component in complex plant stress responses and that, much like in animals, peptide signaling molecules can create diverse and modular signals essential for growth, development and defense under rapidly changing environmental conditions. © 2011 The Author.

  18. The Transcriptomic Responses of Pinus massoniana to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Du

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Masson pine (Pinus massoniana is a major fast-growing timber species planted in southern China, a region of seasonal drought. Using a drought-tolerance genotype of Masson pine, we conducted large-scale transcriptome sequencing using Illumina technology. This work aimed to evaluate the transcriptomic responses of Masson pine to different levels of drought stress. First, 3397, 1695 and 1550 unigenes with differential expression were identified by comparing plants subjected to light, moderate or severe drought with control plants. Second, several gene ontology (GO categories (oxidation-reduction and metabolism and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways (plant hormone signal transduction and metabolic pathways were enriched, indicating that the expression levels of some genes in these enriched GO terms and pathways were altered under drought stress. Third, several transcription factors (TFs associated with circadian rhythms (HY5 and LHY, signal transduction (ERF, and defense responses (WRKY were identified, and these TFs may play key roles in adapting to drought stress. Drought also caused significant changes in the expression of certain functional genes linked to osmotic adjustment (P5CS, abscisic acid (ABA responses (NCED, PYL, PP2C and SnRK, and reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging (GPX, GST and GSR. These transcriptomic results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of drought stress adaptation in Masson pine.

  19. Epigenetic modulation of gene expression governs the brain���s response to injury

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Roger P.

    2015-01-01

    Mild stress from ischemia, seizure, hypothermia, or infection can produce a transient neuroprotected state in the brain. In the neuroprotected state, the brain responds differently to a severe stress and sustains less injury. At the genomic level, the response of the neuroprotected brain to a severe stress is characterized by widespread differential regulation of genes with diverse functions. This reprogramming of gene expression observed in the neuroprotected brain in response to a stress is...

  20. Tonic immobility differentiates stress responses in PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, Iro; Stins, John; Roelofs, Karin; Jongedijk, Ruud A; Hagenaars, Muriel A

    2016-11-01

    Tonic immobility (TI) is a state of physical immobility associated with extreme stress and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether TI is associated with a distinct actual stress response, i.e., objective immobility measured by a stabilometric platform. This study made a first step in exploring this as well as differences in body sway responses between PTSD patients and healthy controls. We hypothesized that PTSD would be related to increased body sway under stress, whereas TI would be related to decreased body sway under stress. Eye closure was selected as a PTSD-relevant stress induction procedure. Body sway and heart rate (HR) were measured in 12 PTSD patients and 12 healthy controls in four conditions: (1) maintaining a stable stance with eyes open, (2) with eyes closed, (3) during a mental arithmetic task with eyes open, and (4) with eyes closed. As predicted, PTSD patients showed increased body sway from eyes open to eyes closed compared to controls and this effect was eliminated by executing the arithmetic task. Most importantly, retrospective self-reported TI was associated with lower body sway increases in PTSD and higher body sway decreases in controls from eyes-open to eyes-closed conditions. These preliminary findings suggest that eye closure has a different effect on PTSD patients than controls and that high self-reported TI might indicate a distinct stress response pattern, i.e., a proneness for immobility. It may be relevant to take such individual differences in stress-response into account in PTSD treatment.

  1. The War Fighter's Stress Response: Telemetric and Noninvasive Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Donnell, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    ... and biological responses to stress. Specifically, stress-hardy individuals retain mental focus and clarity of memory under stress, commit fewer errors during stress, experience less burnout, demonstrate better navigational skills...

  2. Global Transcriptional Responses to Osmotic, Oxidative, and Imipenem Stress Conditions in Pseudomonas putida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojanovic, Klara; D'Arrigo, Isotta; Long, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    functional roles in the cellular response to stress conditions. The data show a larger fraction of differentially expressed sRNAs than of mRNAs with >5-fold expression changes. The work provides detailed insights into the mechanisms through which P. putida responds to different stress conditions...... intergenic and antisense transcripts, were detected, increasing the number of identified sRNA transcripts in the strain by a factor of 10. Unique responses to each type of stress are documented, including both the extent and dynamics of the gene expression changes. The work adds rich detail to previous......Bacteria cope with and adapt to stress by modulating gene expression in response to specific environmental cues. In this study, the transcriptional response of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to osmotic, oxidative, and imipenem stress conditions at two time points was investigated via identification...

  3. Serotonin regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in select brain regions during acute psychological stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-guo Jiang; Shi-li Jin; Gong-ying Li; Qing-qing Li; Zhi-ruo Li; Hong-xia Ma; Chuan-jun Zhuo; Rong-huan Jiang; Min-jie Ye

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that serotonin (5-HT) might interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during the stress response. However, the relationship between 5-HT and BDNF expression under purely psychological stress is unclear. In this study, one hour before psychological stress exposure, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT or antagonist MDL73005, or the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin were administered to rats exposed to psychological stress. Immunohistochemistry andin situ hybridization revealed that after psychological stress, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were higher in the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT2A receptor agonist groups compared with the solvent control no-stress or psychological stress group in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, central amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dentate gyrus, shell of the nucleus accumbens and the midbrain periaqueductal gray. There was no signiifcant difference between the two agonist groups. In contrast, after stress exposure, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were lower in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist groups than in the solvent control non-stress group, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area. Our ifndings suggest that 5-HT regulates BDNF expression in a rat model of acute psychological stress.

  4. Hypothalamic and pituitary clusterin modulates neurohormonal responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mi-Seon; Chang, Hyukki; Namkoong, Churl; Kang, Gil Myoung; Kim, Hyun-Kyong; Gil, So Young; Yu, Ji Hee; Park, Kyeong Han; Kim, Min-Seon

    2013-01-01

    Clusterin is a sulfated glycoprotein abundantly expressed in the pituitary gland and hypothalamus of mammals. However, its physiological role in neuroendocrine function is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of clusterin on plasma pituitary hormone levels in normal rats. Single ICV injection of clusterin provoked neurohormonal changes seen under acute stress condition: increased plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone, GH and prolactin levels and decreased LH and FSH levels. Consistently, hypothalamic and pituitary clusterin expression levels were upregulated following a restraint stress, suggesting an involvement of endogenous clusterin in stress-induced neurohormonal changes. In the pituitary intermediate lobe, clusterin was coexpressed with proopiomelanocortin (POMC), a precursor of ACTH. Treatment of clusterin in POMC expressing AtT-20 pituitary cells increased basal and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-stimulated POMC promoter activities and intracellular cAMP levels. Furthermore, clusterin treatment triggered ACTH secretion from AtT-20 cells in a CRH-dependent manner, indicating that increased clusterin under stressful conditions may augment CRH-stimulated ACTH production and release. In summary, hypothalamic and pituitary clusterin may function as a modulator of neurohormonal responses under stressful conditions. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Characterizing gene responses to drought stress in fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh.) Nutt.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. Adair; David L. Andrews; John Cairney; Edward A. Funkhouser; Ronald J. Newton; Earl F. Aldon

    1992-01-01

    New techniques in molecular biology can be used to characterize genes whose expression is induced by drought stress. These techniques can be used to understand responses of range plants to environmental stresses at the biochemical and molecular level. For example, they can be used to characterize genes that respond to drought stress conditions in the native shrub

  6. Stress response in medically important Mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj; Paul, Saikat; Shivaprakash, M Rudramurthy; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Ghosh, Anup K

    2016-10-01

    Mucorales are saprobes, ubiquitously distributed and able to infect a heterogeneous population of human hosts. The fungi require robust stress responses to survive in human host. We tested the growth of Mucorales in the presence of different abiotic stress. Eight pathogenic species of Mucorales, including Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Apophysomyces elegans, Licthemia corymbifera, Cunninghamella bertholletiae, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Mucor racemosus, were exposed to different stress inducers: osmotic (sodium chloride and d-sorbitol), oxidative (hydrogen peroxide and menadione), pH, cell wall and metal ions (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mg). Wide variation in stress responses was noted: R. arrhizus showed maximum resistance to both osmotic and oxidative stresses, whereas R. pusillus and M. indicus were relatively sensitive. Rhizopus arrhizus and R. microsporus showed maximum resistance to alkaline pH, whereas C. bertholletiae, L. corymbifera, M. racemosus and A. elegans were resistant to acidic pH. Maximum tolerance was noted in R. microsporus to Cu, R. microsporus and R. arrhizus to Fe and C. bertholletiae to Zn. In contrast, L. corymbifera, A. elegans and M. indicus were sensitive to Cu, Zn and Fe respectively. In conclusion, R. arrhizus showed high stress tolerance in comparison to other species of Mucorales, and this could be the possible reason for high pathogenic potential of this fungi. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of salt stress responsive genes in Rhazya stricta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid H Hajrah

    Full Text Available Rhazya stricta is an evergreen shrub that is widely distributed across Western and South Asia, and like many other members of the Apocynaceae produces monoterpene indole alkaloids that have anti-cancer properties. This species is adapted to very harsh desert conditions making it an excellent system for studying tolerance to high temperatures and salinity. RNA-Seq analysis was performed on R. stricta exposed to severe salt stress (500 mM NaCl across four time intervals (0, 2, 12 and 24 h to examine mechanisms of salt tolerance. A large number of transcripts including genes encoding tetrapyrroles and pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins were regulated only after 12 h of stress of seedlings grown in controlled greenhouse conditions. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in R. stricta may involve the upregulation of genes encoding chaperone protein Dnaj6, UDP-glucosyl transferase 85a2, protein transparent testa 12 and respiratory burst oxidase homolog protein b. Many of the highly-expressed genes act on protecting protein folding during salt stress and the production of flavonoids, key secondary metabolites in stress tolerance. Other regulated genes encode enzymes in the porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolic pathway with important roles during plant growth, photosynthesis, hormone signaling and abiotic responses. Heme biosynthesis in R. stricta leaves might add to the level of salt stress tolerance by maintaining appropriate levels of photosynthesis and normal plant growth as well as by the participation in reactive oxygen species (ROS production under stress. We speculate that the high expression levels of PPR genes may be dependent on expression levels of their targeted editing genes. Although the results of PPR gene family indicated regulation of a large number of transcripts under salt stress, PPR actions were independent of the salt stress because their RNA editing patterns were unchanged.

  8. Response to stress in Drosophila is mediated by gender, age and stress paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckameyer, Wendi S; Nieto-Romero, Andres R

    2015-01-01

    All living organisms must maintain equilibrium in response to internal and external challenges within their environment. Changes in neural plasticity (alterations in neuronal populations, dendritic remodeling, and synaptic turnover) are critical components of the homeostatic response to stress, which has been strongly implicated in the onset of affective disorders. However, stress is differentially perceived depending on the type of stress and its context, as well as genetic background, age and sex; therefore, an individual's maintenance of neuronal homeostasis must differ depending upon these variables. We established Drosophila as a model to analyze homeostatic responses to stress. Sexually immature and mature females and males from an isogenic wild-type strain raised under controlled environmental conditions were exposed to four reproducible and high-throughput translatable stressors to facilitate the analysis of a large number of animals for direct comparisons. These animals were assessed in an open-field arena, in a light-dark box, and in a forced swim test, as well as for sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol. These studies establish that immature and mature females and males represent behaviorally distinct populations under control conditions as well as after exposure to different stressors. Therefore, the neural substrates mediating the stress response must be differentially expressed depending upon the hormonal status of the brain. In addition, an adaptive response to a given stressor in one paradigm was not predictive for outcomes in other paradigms.

  9. Sympathoneural and Adrenomedullary Responses to Mental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Goldstein, David S.

    2017-01-01

    This concept-based review provides historical perspectives and updates about sympathetic noradrenergic and sympathetic adrenergic responses to mental stress. The topic of this review has incited perennial debate, because of disagreements over definitions, controversial inferences, and limited availability of relevant measurement tools. The discussion begins appropriately with Cannon's "homeostasis" and his pioneering work in the area. This is followed by mental stress as a scientific idea and the relatively new notions of allostasis and allostatic load. Experimental models of mental stress in rodents and humans are discussed, with particular attention to ethical constraints in humans. Sections follow on sympathoneural to mental stress, reactivity of catecholamine systems, clinical pathophysiologic states, and the cardiovascular reactivity hypothesis. Future advancement of the field will require integrative approaches and coordinated efforts between physiologists and psychologists on this interdisciplinary topic. PMID:25589266

  10. Anion channels: master switches of stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, M Rob G; Hedrich, Rainer; Geiger, Dietmar

    2012-04-01

    During stress, plant cells activate anion channels and trigger the release of anions across the plasma membrane. Recently, two new gene families have been identified that encode major groups of anion channels. The SLAC/SLAH channels are characterized by slow voltage-dependent activation (S-type), whereas ALMT genes encode rapid-activating channels (R-type). Both S- and R-type channels are stimulated in guard cells by the stress hormone ABA, which leads to stomatal closure. Besides their role in ABA-dependent stomatal movement, anion channels are also activated by biotic stress factors such as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Given that anion channels occur throughout the plant kingdom, they are likely to serve a general function as master switches of stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mothers' pupillary responses to infant facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yrttiaho, Santeri; Niehaus, Dana; Thomas, Eileen; Leppänen, Jukka M

    2017-02-06

    Human parental care relies heavily on the ability to monitor and respond to a child's affective states. The current study examined pupil diameter as a potential physiological index of mothers' affective response to infant facial expressions. Pupillary time-series were measured from 86 mothers of young infants in response to an array of photographic infant faces falling into four emotive categories based on valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (mild vs. strong). Pupil dilation was highly sensitive to the valence of facial expressions, being larger for negative vs. positive facial expressions. A separate control experiment with luminance-matched non-face stimuli indicated that the valence effect was specific to facial expressions and cannot be explained by luminance confounds. Pupil response was not sensitive to the arousal level of facial expressions. The results show the feasibility of using pupil diameter as a marker of mothers' affective responses to ecologically valid infant stimuli and point to a particularly prompt maternal response to infant distress cues.

  12. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions following early life stress is associated with impaired social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kircanski, Katharina; Colich, Natalie L; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-10-01

    Early life stress is associated with poorer social functioning. Attentional biases in response to threat-related cues, linked to both early experience and psychopathology, may explain this association. To date, however, no study has examined attentional biases to fearful facial expressions as a function of early life stress or examined these biases as a potential mediator of the relation between early life stress and social problems. In a sample of 154 children (ages 9-13 years) we examined the associations among interpersonal early life stressors (i.e., birth through age 6 years), attentional biases to emotional facial expressions using a dot-probe task, and social functioning on the Child Behavior Checklist. High levels of early life stress were associated with both greater levels of social problems and an attentional bias away from fearful facial expressions, even after accounting for stressors occurring in later childhood. No biases were found for happy or sad facial expressions as a function of early life stress. Finally, attentional biases to fearful faces mediated the association between early life stress and social problems. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions, evidenced by a bias away from these stimuli, may be a developmental response to early adversity and link the experience of early life stress to poorer social functioning. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. Plant Nucleolar Stress Response, a New Face in the NAC-Dependent Cellular Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbayashi, Iwai; Sugiyama, Munetaka

    2017-01-01

    The nucleolus is the most prominent nuclear domain, where the core processes of ribosome biogenesis occur vigorously. All these processes are finely orchestrated by many nucleolar factors to build precisely ribosome particles. In animal cells, perturbations of ribosome biogenesis, mostly accompanied by structural disorders of the nucleolus, cause a kind of cellular stress to induce cell cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, which is called nucleolar stress response. The best-characterized pathway of this stress response involves p53 and MDM2 as key players. p53 is a crucial transcription factor that functions in response to not only nucleolar stress but also other cellular stresses such as DNA damage stress. These cellular stresses release p53 from the inhibition by MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting p53, in various ways, which leads to p53-dependent activation of a set of genes. In plants, genetic impairments of ribosome biogenesis factors or ribosome components have been shown to cause characteristic phenotypes, including a narrow and pointed leaf shape, implying a common signaling pathway connecting ribosomal perturbations and certain aspects of growth and development. Unlike animals, however, plants have neither p53 nor MDM2 family proteins. Then the question arises whether plant cells have a nucleolar stress response pathway. In recent years, it has been reported that several members of the plant-specific transcription factor family NAC play critical roles in the pathways responsive to various cellular stresses. In this mini review, we outline the plant cellular stress response pathways involving NAC transcription factors with reference to the p53-MDM2-dependent pathways of animal cells, and discuss the possible involvement of a plant-unique, NAC-mediated pathway in the nucleolar stress response in plants.

  14. Plant Nucleolar Stress Response, a New Face in the NAC-Dependent Cellular Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwai Ohbayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleolus is the most prominent nuclear domain, where the core processes of ribosome biogenesis occur vigorously. All these processes are finely orchestrated by many nucleolar factors to build precisely ribosome particles. In animal cells, perturbations of ribosome biogenesis, mostly accompanied by structural disorders of the nucleolus, cause a kind of cellular stress to induce cell cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, which is called nucleolar stress response. The best-characterized pathway of this stress response involves p53 and MDM2 as key players. p53 is a crucial transcription factor that functions in response to not only nucleolar stress but also other cellular stresses such as DNA damage stress. These cellular stresses release p53 from the inhibition by MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting p53, in various ways, which leads to p53-dependent activation of a set of genes. In plants, genetic impairments of ribosome biogenesis factors or ribosome components have been shown to cause characteristic phenotypes, including a narrow and pointed leaf shape, implying a common signaling pathway connecting ribosomal perturbations and certain aspects of growth and development. Unlike animals, however, plants have neither p53 nor MDM2 family proteins. Then the question arises whether plant cells have a nucleolar stress response pathway. In recent years, it has been reported that several members of the plant-specific transcription factor family NAC play critical roles in the pathways responsive to various cellular stresses. In this mini review, we outline the plant cellular stress response pathways involving NAC transcription factors with reference to the p53-MDM2-dependent pathways of animal cells, and discuss the possible involvement of a plant-unique, NAC-mediated pathway in the nucleolar stress response in plants.

  15. The transcriptional regulatory network in the drought response and its crosstalk in abiotic stress responses including drought, cold, and heat

    OpenAIRE

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops around the world. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the drought response is important for improvement of drought tolerance using molecular techniques. In plants, abscisic acid (ABA) is accumulated under osmotic stress conditions caused by drought, and has a key role in stress responses and tolerance. Comprehensive molecular analyses have shown that ABA regulates the expression of many genes under osmotic stress cond...

  16. Transcriptional profiling in response to terminal drought stress reveals differential responses along the wheat genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Francesco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water stress during grain filling has a marked effect on grain yield, leading to a reduced endosperm cell number and thus sink capacity to accumulate dry matter. The bread wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS, a Chinese Spring terminal deletion line (CS_5AL-10 and the durum wheat cultivar Creso were subjected to transcriptional profiling after exposure to mild and severe drought stress at the grain filling stage to find evidences of differential stress responses associated to different wheat genome regions. Results The transcriptome analysis of Creso, CS and its deletion line revealed 8,552 non redundant probe sets with different expression levels, mainly due to the comparisons between the two species. The drought treatments modified the expression of 3,056 probe sets. Besides a set of genes showing a similar drought response in Creso and CS, cluster analysis revealed several drought response features that can be associated to the different genomic structure of Creso, CS and CS_5AL-10. Some drought-related genes were expressed at lower level (or not expressed in Creso (which lacks the D genome or in the CS_5AL-10 deletion line compared to CS. The chromosome location of a set of these genes was confirmed by PCR-based mapping on the D genome (or the 5AL-10 region. Many clusters were characterized by different level of expression in Creso, CS and CS_AL-10, suggesting that the different genome organization of the three genotypes may affect plant adaptation to stress. Clusters with similar expression trend were grouped and functional classified to mine the biological mean of their activation or repression. Genes involved in ABA, proline, glycine-betaine and sorbitol pathways were found up-regulated by drought stress. Furthermore, the enhanced expression of a set of transposons and retrotransposons was detected in CS_5AL-10. Conclusion Bread and durum wheat genotypes were characterized by a different physiological reaction to water

  17. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response in disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These proteins are essential for cell survival, and intuitively the ER must activate stress responses to evade immediate cell dysfunction as the cell processes lag behind. This review will discuss mainly the ER and its role in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of epidemiologically-relevant diseases, as well as updates on ...

  18. Organization of cis-acting regulatory elements in osmotic- and cold-stress-responsive promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2005-02-01

    cis-Acting regulatory elements are important molecular switches involved in the transcriptional regulation of a dynamic network of gene activities controlling various biological processes, including abiotic stress responses, hormone responses and developmental processes. In particular, understanding regulatory gene networks in stress response cascades depends on successful functional analyses of cis-acting elements. The ever-improving accuracy of transcriptome expression profiling has led to the identification of various combinations of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of stress-inducible genes involved in stress and hormone responses. Here we discuss major cis-acting elements, such as the ABA-responsive element (ABRE) and the dehydration-responsive element/C-repeat (DRE/CRT), that are a vital part of ABA-dependent and ABA-independent gene expression in osmotic and cold stress responses.

  19. Abiotic stress and antioxidant enzymes expression in sunflower leaf discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yannarelli, G.G.; Azpilicueta, C.E.; Gallego, S.M.; Benavides, M.P.; Tomaro, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occur in plants under abiotic stress conditions. Although ROS act as mediators of oxidative damage, a signalling role for O 2 - and H 2 O 2 has been proposed. In the present work, the effect of cadmium (300 and 500 μM CdCl 2 ) or UVB radiation (30 KJ/m 2 ) on expression of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (sod3) and catalase (cat1 and cat3) was evaluated in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaf discs. Samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 h of Cd treatments or white light recuperation after UVB treatment. RNA extractions and semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis were performed. Treatment of 300 μM Cd induced 6.4, 2.9 and 6 fold the expression of sod3, cat1 and cat3 over the controls, respectively, after 8 h of treatment, but 500 μM Cd showed lesser induction levels. Immediately after UVB irradiation, the mRNA of the three enzymes decreased. After 8 h of white light recovery, cat1 and cat3 were induced (1.9 and 3.5 fold, respectively) and the maximum sod3 expression was observed at 12 h (7 fold), respect to control. In conclusion, the balance between superoxide dismutase and peroxidases activities in cells is crucial for determining the steady-state level of O 2 - and H 2 O 2 . In our assay conditions, sod3, cat1 and cat3 were induced in response to abiotic stress at a late phase (8-12 h). The main induction of cat3 suggests that core-catalases of peroxisomes might play a key regulatory role in controlling H 2 O 2 level. (author)

  20. Deciphering hepatocellular responses to metabolic and oncogenic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrina L. Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Each cell type responds uniquely to stress and fractionally contributes to global and tissue-specific stress responses. Hepatocytes, liver macrophages (MΦ, and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC play functionally important and interdependent roles in adaptive processes such as obesity and tumor growth. Although these cell types demonstrate significant phenotypic and functional heterogeneity, their distinctions enabling disease-specific responses remain understudied. We developed a strategy for the simultaneous isolation and quantification of these liver cell types based on antigenic cell surface marker expression. To demonstrate the utility and applicability of this technique, we quantified liver cell-specific responses to high-fat diet (HFD or diethylnitrosamine (DEN, a liver-specific carcinogen, and found that while there was only a marginal increase in hepatocyte number, MΦ and SEC populations were quantitatively increased. Global gene expression profiling of hepatocytes, MΦ and SEC identified characteristic gene signatures that define each cell type in their distinct physiological or pathological states. Integration of hepatic gene signatures with available human obesity and liver cancer microarray data provides further insight into the cell-specific responses to metabolic or oncogenic stress. Our data reveal unique gene expression patterns that serve as molecular “fingerprints” for the cell-centric responses to pathologic stimuli in the distinct microenvironment of the liver. The technical advance highlighted in this study provides an essential resource for assessing hepatic cell-specific contributions to metabolic and oncogenic stress, information that could unveil previously unappreciated molecular mechanisms for the cellular crosstalk that underlies the continuum from metabolic disruption to obesity and ultimately hepatic cancer.

  1. Work stress and innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo, P; Di Gioacchino, M; Reale, M; Muraro, R; Di Giampaolo, L

    2011-01-01

    Several reports highlight the relationship between blood NK cytotoxic activity and life style. Easy life style, including physical activity, healthy dietary habits as well as good mental health are characterized by an efficient immune response. Life style is related to the type of occupational activity since work has a central part in life either as source of income or contributing to represent the social identity. Not only occupational stress, but also job loss or insecurity are thus considered serious stressful situations, inducing emotional disorders which may affect both neuroendocrine and immune systems; reduced reactivity to mitogens and/or decreased blood NK cytotoxic activity was reported in unemployed workers or in those with a high perception of job insecurity and/or job stress. Although genetic factors have a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders, occupational stress (as in night shifts) was reported associated to an increased incidence of autoimmune disorders. Monitoring blood NK response may thus be included in the health programs as an indirect index of stressful job and/or poor lifestyle.

  2. Role of miRNAs and siRNAs in biotic and abiotic stress responses of plants

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Zhu, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    in growth and development and maintenance of genome integrity, small RNAs are also important components in plant stress responses. One way in which plants respond to environmental stress is by modifying their gene expression through the activity of small

  3. The significance of translation regulation in the stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The stress response in bacteria involves the multistage control of gene expression but is not entirely understood. To identify the translational response of bacteria in stress conditions and assess its contribution to the regulation of gene expression, the translational states of all mRNAs were compared under optimal growth condition and during nutrient (isoleucine) starvation. Results A genome-scale study of the translational response to nutritional limitation was performed in the model bacterium Lactococcus lactis. Two measures were used to assess the translational status of each individual mRNA: the fraction engaged in translation (ribosome occupancy) and ribosome density (number of ribosomes per 100 nucleotides). Under isoleucine starvation, half of the mRNAs considered were translationally down-regulated mainly due to decreased ribosome density. This pattern concerned genes involved in growth-related functions such as translation, transcription, and the metabolism of fatty acids, phospholipids and bases, contributing to the slowdown of growth. Only 4% of the mRNAs were translationally up-regulated, mostly related to prophagic expression in response to stress. The remaining genes exhibited antagonistic regulations of the two markers of translation. Ribosome occupancy increased significantly for all the genes involved in the biosynthesis of isoleucine, although their ribosome density had decreased. The results revealed complex translational regulation of this pathway, essential to cope with isoleucine starvation. To elucidate the regulation of global gene expression more generally, translational regulation was compared to transcriptional regulation under isoleucine starvation and to other post-transcriptional regulations related to mRNA degradation and mRNA dilution by growth. Translational regulation appeared to accentuate the effects of transcriptional changes for down-regulated growth-related functions under isoleucine starvation although m

  4. Differential gene expression during thermal stress and bleaching in the Caribbean coral Montastraea faveolata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, M K; Voolstra, C R; Sunagawa, S; Schwarz, J A; Stillman, J H; Coffroth, M A; Szmant, A M; Medina, M

    2008-09-01

    The declining health of coral reefs worldwide is likely to intensify in response to continued anthropogenic disturbance from coastal development, pollution, and climate change. In response to these stresses, reef-building corals may exhibit bleaching, which marks the breakdown in symbiosis between coral and zooxanthellae. Mass coral bleaching due to elevated water temperature can devastate coral reefs on a large geographical scale. In order to understand the molecular and cellular basis of bleaching in corals, we have measured gene expression changes associated with thermal stress and bleaching using a complementary DNA microarray containing 1310 genes of the Caribbean coral Montastraea faveolata. In a first experiment, we identified differentially expressed genes by comparing experimentally bleached M. faveolata fragments to control non-heat-stressed fragments. In a second experiment, we identified differentially expressed genes during a time course experiment with four time points across 9 days. Results suggest that thermal stress and bleaching in M. faveolata affect the following processes: oxidative stress, Ca(2+) homeostasis, cytoskeletal organization, cell death, calcification, metabolism, protein synthesis, heat shock protein activity, and transposon activity. These results represent the first medium-scale transcriptomic study focused on revealing the cellular foundation of thermal stress-induced coral bleaching. We postulate that oxidative stress in thermal-stressed corals causes a disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis, which in turn leads to cytoskeletal and cell adhesion changes, decreased calcification, and the initiation of cell death via apoptosis and necrosis.

  5. Chromatin changes in response to drought, salinity, heat, and cold stresses in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Myong eKim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin regulation is essential to regulate genes and genome activities. In plants, the alteration of histone modification and DNA methylation are coordinated with changes in the expression of stress-responsive genes to adapt to environmental changes. Several chromatin regulators have been shown to be involved in the regulation of stress-responsive gene networks under abiotic stress conditions. Specific histone modification sites and the histone modifiers that regulate key stress-responsive genes have been identified by genetic and biochemical approaches, revealing the importance of chromatin regulation in plant stress responses. Recent studies have also suggested that histone modification plays an important role in plant stress memory. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the regulation and alteration of histone modification (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, and SUMOylation in response to the abiotic stresses, drought, high-salinity, heat, and cold in plants.

  6. Physiological Responses to Thermal Stress and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyota, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Akira; Yamagata, Junko; Suzuki, Takashi; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Kawabata, Takashi

    The simple and noninvasive measuring methods of bioinstrumentation in humans is required for optimization of air conditioning and management of thermal environments, taking into consideration the individual specificity of the human body as well as the stress conditions affecting each. Changes in human blood circulation were induced with environmental factors such as heat, cold, exercise, mental stress, and so on. In this study, the physiological responses of human body to heat stress and exercise were investigated in the initial phase of the developmental research. We measured the body core and skin temperatures, skin blood flow, and pulse wave as the indices of the adaptation of the cardiovascular system. A laser Doppler skin blood flowmetry using an optical-sensor with a small portable data logger was employed for the measurement. These results reveal the heat-stress and exercise-induced circulatory responses, which are under the control of the sympathetic nerve system. Furthermore, it was suggested that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system could be evaluated from the signals of the pulse wave included in the signals derived from skin blood flow by means of heart rate variability assessments and detecting peak heights of velocity-plethysmogram.

  7. Everyday stress response targets in the science of behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M; Sliwinski, Martin J; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Scott, Stacey B; Conroy, David E; Lanza, Stephanie T; Marcusson-Clavertz, David; Kim, Jinhyuk; Stawski, Robert S; Stoney, Catherine M; Buxton, Orfeu M; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Green, Paige M; Almeida, David M

    2018-02-01

    Stress is an established risk factor for negative health outcomes, and responses to everyday stress can interfere with health behaviors such as exercise and sleep. In accordance with the Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program, we apply an experimental medicine approach to identifying stress response targets, developing stress response assays, intervening upon these targets, and testing intervention effectiveness. We evaluate an ecologically valid, within-person approach to measuring the deleterious effects of everyday stress on physical activity and sleep patterns, examining multiple stress response components (i.e., stress reactivity, stress recovery, and stress pile-up) as indexed by two key response indicators (negative affect and perseverative cognition). Our everyday stress response assay thus measures multiple malleable stress response targets that putatively shape daily health behaviors (physical activity and sleep). We hypothesize that larger reactivity, incomplete recovery, and more frequent stress responses (pile-up) will negatively impact health behavior enactment in daily life. We will identify stress-related reactivity, recovery, and response in the indicators using coordinated analyses across multiple naturalistic studies. These results are the basis for developing a new stress assay and replicating the initial findings in a new sample. This approach will advance our understanding of how specific aspects of everyday stress responses influence health behaviors, and can be used to develop and test an innovative ambulatory intervention for stress reduction in daily life to enhance health behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative transcriptome analysis of differentially expressed genes in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) during dehydration stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Charu; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Prasad, Manoj

    2010-03-19

    Dehydration stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses that adversely influence crop growth and productivity. With the aim to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying dehydration stress tolerance in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.), a drought tolerant crop, we examined its transcriptome changes at two time points (early and late) of dehydration stress. Two suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) forward libraries were constructed from 21-day old seedlings of tolerant cv. Prasad at 0.5 and 6h PEG-induced dehydration stress. A total of 327 unique ESTs were identified from both libraries and were classified into 11 different categories according to their putative functions. The plant response against dehydration stress was complex, representing major transcripts involved in metabolism, stress, signaling, transcription regulation, translation and proteolysis. By Reverse Northern (RN) technique we identified the differential expression pattern of 327 transcripts, 86 (about 26%) of which showed > or = 1.7-fold induction. Further the obtained results were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to have a comparative expression profiling of randomly chosen 9 up-regulated transcripts (> or =2.5 fold induction) between cv. Prasad (tolerant) and cv. Lepakshi (sensitive) upon dehydration stress. These transcripts showed a differential expression pattern in both cultivars at different time points of stress treatment as analyzed by qRT-PCR. The possible relationship of the identified transcripts with dehydration tolerance mechanism is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Yeast signaling pathways in the oxidative stress response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikner, Aminah [Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Shiozaki, Kazuhiro [Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: kshiozaki@ucdavis.edu

    2005-01-06

    Oxidative stress that generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major causes of DNA damage and mutations. The 'DNA damage checkpoint' that arrests cell cycle and repairs damaged DNA has been a focus of recent studies, and the genetically amenable model systems provided by yeasts have been playing a leading role in the eukaryotic checkpoint research. However, means to eliminate ROS are likely to be as important as the DNA repair mechanisms in order to suppress mutations in the chromosomal DNA, and yeasts also serve as excellent models to understand how eukaryotes combat oxidative stress. In this article, we present an overview of the signaling pathways that sense oxidative stress and induce expression of various anti-oxidant genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Three conserved signaling modules have been identified in the oxidative stress response of these diverse yeast species: the stress-responsive MAP kinase cascade, the multistep phosphorelay and the AP-1-like transcription factor. The structure and function of these signaling modules are discussed.

  10. Yeast signaling pathways in the oxidative stress response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikner, Aminah; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress that generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major causes of DNA damage and mutations. The 'DNA damage checkpoint' that arrests cell cycle and repairs damaged DNA has been a focus of recent studies, and the genetically amenable model systems provided by yeasts have been playing a leading role in the eukaryotic checkpoint research. However, means to eliminate ROS are likely to be as important as the DNA repair mechanisms in order to suppress mutations in the chromosomal DNA, and yeasts also serve as excellent models to understand how eukaryotes combat oxidative stress. In this article, we present an overview of the signaling pathways that sense oxidative stress and induce expression of various anti-oxidant genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Three conserved signaling modules have been identified in the oxidative stress response of these diverse yeast species: the stress-responsive MAP kinase cascade, the multistep phosphorelay and the AP-1-like transcription factor. The structure and function of these signaling modules are discussed

  11. Genomic counter-stress changes induced by the relaxation response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery A Dusek

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Mind-body practices that elicit the relaxation response (RR have been used worldwide for millennia to prevent and treat disease. The RR is characterized by decreased oxygen consumption, increased exhaled nitric oxide, and reduced psychological distress. It is believed to be the counterpart of the stress response that exhibits a distinct pattern of physiology and transcriptional profile. We hypothesized that RR elicitation results in characteristic gene expression changes that can be used to measure physiological responses elicited by the RR in an unbiased fashion.We assessed whole blood transcriptional profiles in 19 healthy, long-term practitioners of daily RR practice (group M, 19 healthy controls (group N(1, and 20 N(1 individuals who completed 8 weeks of RR training (group N(2. 2209 genes were differentially expressed in group M relative to group N(1 (p<0.05 and 1561 genes in group N(2 compared to group N(1 (p<0.05. Importantly, 433 (p<10(-10 of 2209 and 1561 differentially expressed genes were shared among long-term (M and short-term practitioners (N(2. Gene ontology and gene set enrichment analyses revealed significant alterations in cellular metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, generation of reactive oxygen species and response to oxidative stress in long-term and short-term practitioners of daily RR practice that may counteract cellular damage related to chronic psychological stress. A significant number of genes and pathways were confirmed in an independent validation set containing 5 N(1 controls, 5 N(2 short-term and 6 M long-term practitioners.This study provides the first compelling evidence that the RR elicits specific gene expression changes in short-term and long-term practitioners. Our results suggest consistent and constitutive changes in gene expression resulting from RR may relate to long term physiological effects. Our study may stimulate new investigations into applying transcriptional profiling for accurately measuring

  12. Comparative effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius based on gene expression assays related to the endocrine system, the stress response and ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planelló, Rosario; Herrero, Oscar; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2011-09-01

    In this work, the effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), two of the most extensively used phthalates, were studied in Chironomus riparius under acute short-term treatments, to compare their relative toxicities and identify genes sensitive to exposure. The ecotoxicity of these phthalates was assessed by analysis of the alterations in gene expression profiles of selected inducible and constitutive genes related to the endocrine system, the cellular stress response and the ribosomal machinery. Fourth instar larvae, a model system in aquatic toxicology, were experimentally exposed to five increasing concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100mg/L) of DEHP and BBP for 24h. Gene expression was analysed by the changes in levels of transcripts, using RT-PCR techniques with specific gene probes. The exposures to DEHP or BBP were able to rapidly induce the hsp70 gene in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the cognate form hsc70 was not altered by either of these chemicals. Transcription of ribosomal RNA as a measure of cell viability, quantified by the levels of ITS2, was not affected by DEHP, but was slightly, yet significantly, downregulated by BBP at the highest concentrations tested. Finally, as these phthalates are classified as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), their potential effect on the ecdysone endocrine system was studied by analysing the two genes, EcR and usp, of the heterodimeric ecdysone receptor complex. It was found that BBP provoked the overexpression of the EcR gene, with significant increases from exposures of 0.1mg/L and above, while DEHP significantly decreased the activity of this gene at the highest concentration. These data are relevant as they show for the first time the ability of phthalates to interfere with endocrine marker genes in invertebrates, demonstrating their potential capacity to alter the ecdysone signalling pathway. Overall, the study clearly shows a differential gene-toxin interaction

  13. Expression of HSPs: an adaptive mechanism during long-term heat stress in goats ( Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Satyaveer Singh; Gupta, Mahesh; Dangi, Saroj K.; Chouhan, Vikrant Singh; Maurya, V. P.; Kumar, Puneet; Singh, Gyanendra; Sarkar, Mihir

    2015-08-01

    Menacing global rise in surface temperature compelled more focus of research over understanding heat stress response mechanism of animals and mitigation of heat stress. Twenty-four goats divided into four groups ( n = 6) such as NHS (non-heat-stressed), HS (heat-stressed), HS + VC (heat-stressed administered with vitamin C), and HS + VE + Se (heat-stressed administered with vitamin E and selenium). Except NHS group, other groups were exposed to repeated heat stress (42 °C) for 6 h on 16 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected at the end of heat exposure on days 1, 6, 11, and 16. When groups compared between days, expression of all heat shock proteins (HSPs) showed a similar pattern as first peak on day 1, reached to basal level on the sixth day, and followed by second peak on day 16. The relative messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of HSP 60, HSP70, and HSP90 was observed highest ( P < 0.05) in HS group, followed by antioxidant-administered group on days 1 and 16, which signifies that antioxidants have dampening effect on HSP expression. HSP105/110 expression was highest ( P < 0.05) on day 16. We conclude that HSP expression pattern is at least two-peak phenomenon, i.e., primary window of HSP protection on the first day followed by second window of protection on day 16. HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 play an important role during the initial phase of heat stress acclimation whereas HSP105/110 joins this cascade at later phase. Antioxidants may possibly attenuate the HSP expression by reducing the oxidative stress.

  14. Expression of miRNAs confers enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress in Finger millet (Eleusine coracona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageshbabu R.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond to the environmental cues in various ways, recent knowledge of RNA interference in conferring stress tolerance had become a new hope of developing tolerant varieties. Here we attempt to unfold the molecular mechanism of stress tolerance through miRNA profiling and expression analysis in Finger millet (Eleusine coracona under salt and drought stress conditions. The expression analysis of 12 stress specific conserved miRNAs was studied using semi-quantitative real time PCR and Northern blot assay. Our studies revealed that, although most of the miRNAs responded to the stresses, the expression of particular miRNA differed with the nature of stress and the tissue. The expression analysis was correlated with the existing data of their target genes. Abiotic stress up-regulated miRNAs are expected to target negative regulators of stress responses or positive regulators of processes that are inhibited by stresses. On the other hand, stress down-regulated miRNAs may repress the expression of positive regulators and/or stress up-regulated genes. Thus the current study of miRNAs and their targets under abiotic stress conditions displays miRNAs may be good candidates to attribute the stress tolerance in plants by transgenic technology.

  15. Transgenerational stress memory is not a general response in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pecinka

    Full Text Available Adverse conditions can trigger DNA damage as well as DNA repair responses in plants. A variety of stress factors are known to stimulate homologous recombination, the most accurate repair pathway, by increasing the concentration of necessary enzymatic components and the frequency of events. This effect has been reported to last into subsequent generations not exposed to the stress. To establish a basis for a genetic analysis of this transgenerational stress memory, a broad range of treatments was tested for quantitative effects on homologous recombination in the progeny. Several Arabidopsis lines, transgenic for well-established recombination traps, were exposed to 10 different physical and chemical stress treatments, and scored for the number of somatic homologous recombination (SHR events in the treated generation as well as in the two subsequent generations that were not treated. These numbers were related to the expression level of genes involved in homologous recombination and repair. SHR was enhanced after the majority of treatments, confirming previous data and adding new effective stress types, especially interference with chromatin. Compounds that directly modify DNA stimulated SHR to values exceeding previously described induction rates, concomitant with an induction of genes involved in SHR. In spite of the significant stimulation in the stressed generations, the two subsequent non-treated generations only showed a low and stochastic increase in SHR that did not correlate with the degree of stimulation in the parental plants. Transcripts coding for SHR enzymes generally returned to pre-treatment levels in the progeny. Thus, transgenerational effects on SHR frequency are not a general response to abiotic stress in Arabidopsis and may require special conditions.

  16. Identifying salt stress-responsive transcripts from Roselle ( Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Identifying the potentially novel transcripts responsible for salt stress tolerance in roselle will increase knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress responses. In this study, differential display reverse ...

  17. Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and physiological responses to water and nutrient stress in oil palm. ... changes in growth, physiology and nutrient concentration in response to two watering regimes (well-watered and water-stress conditions) and ... from 32 Countries:.

  18. Population-expression models of immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, Sean P; Antia, Rustom; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    The immune response to a pathogen has two basic features. The first is the expansion of a few pathogen-specific cells to form a population large enough to control the pathogen. The second is the process of differentiation of cells from an initial naive phenotype to an effector phenotype which controls the pathogen, and subsequently to a memory phenotype that is maintained and responsible for long-term protection. The expansion and the differentiation have been considered largely independently. Changes in cell populations are typically described using ecologically based ordinary differential equation models. In contrast, differentiation of single cells is studied within systems biology and is frequently modeled by considering changes in gene and protein expression in individual cells. Recent advances in experimental systems biology make available for the first time data to allow the coupling of population and high dimensional expression data of immune cells during infections. Here we describe and develop population-expression models which integrate these two processes into systems biology on the multicellular level. When translated into mathematical equations, these models result in non-conservative, non-local advection-diffusion equations. We describe situations where the population-expression approach can make correct inference from data while previous modeling approaches based on common simplifying assumptions would fail. We also explore how model reduction techniques can be used to build population-expression models, minimizing the complexity of the model while keeping the essential features of the system. While we consider problems in immunology in this paper, we expect population-expression models to be more broadly applicable. (paper)

  19. Transcriptome response mediated by cold stress in Lotus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ignacio Calzadilla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Lotus genus are important as agricultural forage sources under marginal environmental conditions given their high nutritional value and tolerance of various abiotic stresses. However, their dry matter production is drastically reduced in cooler seasons, while their response to such conditions is not well studied. This paper analyzes cold acclimation of the genus by studying Lotus japonicus over a stress period of 24 h. High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to identify and classify 1077 differentially expressed genes, of which 713 were up-regulated and 364 were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes were principally related to lipid, cell wall, phenylpropanoid, sugar, and proline regulation, while down-regulated genes affected the photosynthetic process and chloroplast development. Together, a total of 41 cold-inducible transcription factors were identified, including members of the AP2/ERF, NAC, MYB, and WRKY families; two of them were described as putative novel transcription factors. Finally, DREB1/CBFs were described with respect to their cold stress expression profiles. This is the first transcriptome profiling of the model legume L. japonicus under cold stress. Data obtained may be useful in identifying candidate genes for breeding modified species of forage legumes that more readily acclimate to low temperatures

  20. Expression of a finger millet transcription factor, EcNAC1, in tobacco confers abiotic stress-tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkategowda Ramegowda

    Full Text Available NAC (NAM, ATAF1-2, and CUC2 proteins constitute one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factors and have been shown to be involved in diverse plant processes including plant growth, development, and stress-tolerance. In this study, a stress-responsive NAC gene, EcNAC1, was isolated from the subtracted stress cDNA library generated from a drought adapted crop, finger millet, and characterized for its role in stress-tolerance. The expression analysis showed that EcNAC1 was highly induced during water-deficit and salt stress. EcNAC1 shares high amino acid similarity with rice genes that have been phylogenetically classified into stress-related NAC genes. Our results demonstrated that tobacco transgenic plants expressing EcNAC1 exhibit tolerance to various abiotic stresses like simulated osmotic stress, by polyethylene glycol (PEG and mannitol, and salinity stress. The transgenic plants also showed enhanced tolerance to methyl-viologen (MV induced oxidative stress. Reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and ROS-induced damage were noticed in pot grown transgenic lines under water-deficit and natural high light conditions. Root growth under stress and recovery growth after stress alleviation was more in transgenic plants. Many stress-responsive genes were found to be up-regulated in transgenic lines expressing EcNAC1. Our results suggest that EcNAC1 overexpression confers tolerance against abiotic stress in susceptible species, tobacco.

  1. Inflammation and ER Stress Downregulate BDH2 Expression and Dysregulate Intracellular Iron in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu M. Zughaier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages play a very important role in host defense and in iron homeostasis by engulfing senescent red blood cells and recycling iron. Hepcidin is the master iron regulating hormone that limits dietary iron absorption from the gut and limits iron egress from macrophages. Upon infection macrophages retain iron to limit its bioavailability which limits bacterial growth. Recently, a short chain butyrate dehydrogenase type 2 (BDH2 protein was reported to contain an iron responsive element and to mediate cellular iron trafficking by catalyzing the synthesis of the mammalian siderophore that binds labile iron; therefore, BDH2 plays a crucial role in intracellular iron homeostasis. However, BDH2 expression and regulation in macrophages have not yet been described. Here we show that LPS-induced inflammation combined with ER stress led to massive BDH2 downregulation, increased the expression of ER stress markers, upregulated hepcidin expression, downregulated ferroportin expression, caused iron retention in macrophages, and dysregulated cytokine release from macrophages. We also show that ER stress combined with inflammation synergistically upregulated the expression of the iron carrier protein NGAL and the stress-inducible heme degrading enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 leading to iron liberation. This is the first report to show that inflammation and ER stress downregulate the expression of BDH2 in human THP-1 macrophages.

  2. Multiple Two-Component Systems of Streptococcus mutans Regulate Agmatine Deiminase Gene Expression and Stress Tolerance▿

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yaling; Burne, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Induction of the agmatine deiminase system (AgDS) of Streptococcus mutans requires agmatine and is optimal at low pH. We show here that the VicRK, ComDE, and CiaRH two-component systems influence AgDS gene expression in response to acidic and thermal stresses.

  3. Stress response and virulence in Vibrio anguillarum

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria use quorum sensing, a cell to cell signaling mechanism mediated by small molecules that are produced by specific signal molecule synthases, to regulate gene expression in response to population density. In Vibrio anguillarum, the quorum-sensing phosphorelay channels information from three hybrid sensor kinases VanN, VanQ, CqsS that sense signal molecules produced by the synthases VanM, VanS and CqsA, onto the phosphotransferase VanU, to regulate activity of the response regulator Van...

  4. Plant Nucleolar Stress Response, a New Face in the NAC-Dependent Cellular Stress Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Iwai Ohbayashi; Munetaka Sugiyama

    2018-01-01

    The nucleolus is the most prominent nuclear domain, where the core processes of ribosome biogenesis occur vigorously. All these processes are finely orchestrated by many nucleolar factors to build precisely ribosome particles. In animal cells, perturbations of ribosome biogenesis, mostly accompanied by structural disorders of the nucleolus, cause a kind of cellular stress to induce cell cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, which is called nucleolar stress response. The best-characterized p...

  5. Low lifetime stress exposure is associated with reduced stimulus–response memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Elizabeth V.; Shields, Grant S.; Daw, Nathaniel D.; Slavich, George M.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to stress throughout life can cumulatively influence later health, even among young adults. The negative effects of high cumulative stress exposure are well-known, and a shift from episodic to stimulus–response memory has been proposed to underlie forms of psychopathology that are related to high lifetime stress. At the other extreme, effects of very low stress exposure are mixed, with some studies reporting that low stress leads to better outcomes, while others demonstrate that low stress is associated with diminished resilience and negative outcomes. However, the influence of very low lifetime stress exposure on episodic and stimulus–response memory is unknown. Here we use a lifetime stress assessment system (STRAIN) to assess cumulative lifetime stress exposure and measure memory performance in young adults reporting very low and moderate levels of lifetime stress exposure. Relative to moderate levels of stress, very low levels of lifetime stress were associated with reduced use and retention (24 h later) of stimulus–response (SR) associations, and a higher likelihood of using context memory. Further, computational modeling revealed that participants with low levels of stress exhibited worse expression of memory for SR associations than those with moderate stress. These results demonstrate that very low levels of stress exposure can have negative effects on cognition. PMID:28298555

  6. Oxidative Stress Responses in the Human Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Dantas, Alessandra; Day, Alison; Ikeh, Mélanie; Kos, Iaroslava; Achan, Beatrice; Quinn, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans, causing approximately 400,000 life-threatening systemic infections world-wide each year in severely immunocompromised patients. An important fungicidal mechanism employed by innate immune cells involves the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, there is much interest in the strategies employed by C. albicans to evade the oxidative killing by macrophages and neutrophils. Our understanding of how C. albicans senses and responds to ROS has significantly increased in recent years. Key findings include the observations that hydrogen peroxide triggers the filamentation of this polymorphic fungus and that a superoxide dismutase enzyme with a novel mode of action is expressed at the cell surface of C. albicans. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that combinations of the chemical stresses generated by phagocytes can actively prevent C. albicans oxidative stress responses through a mechanism termed the stress pathway interference. In this review, we present an up-date of our current understanding of the role and regulation of oxidative stress responses in this important human fungal pathogen. PMID:25723552

  7. Osmotic stress response in the wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galafassi, Silvia; Toscano, Marco; Vigentini, Ileana; Piškur, Jure; Compagno, Concetta

    2013-12-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is mainly associated with lambic beer fermentation and wine production and may contribute in a positive or negative manner to the flavor development. This yeast is able to produce phenolic compounds, such as 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-ethylphenol which could spoil the wine, depending on their concentration. In this work we have investigated how this yeast responds when exposed to conditions causing osmotic stress, as high sorbitol or salt concentrations. We observed that osmotic stress determined the production and accumulation of intracellular glycerol, and the expression of NADH-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) activity was elevated. The involvement of the HOG MAPK pathway in response to this stress condition was also investigated. We show that in D. bruxellensis Hog1 protein is activated by phosphorylation under hyperosmotic conditions, highlighting the conserved role of HOG MAP kinase signaling pathway in the osmotic stress response. Gene Accession numbers in GenBank: DbHOG1: JX65361, DbSTL1: JX965362. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CRISPR Perturbation of Gene Expression Alters Bacterial Fitness under Stress and Reveals Underlying Epistatic Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoupal, Peter B; Erickson, Keesha E; Escalas-Bordoy, Antoni; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2017-01-20

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance has engendered an impending global health crisis that necessitates a greater understanding of how resistance emerges. The impact of nongenetic factors and how they influence the evolution of resistance is a largely unexplored area of research. Here we present a novel application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology for investigating how gene expression governs the adaptive pathways available to bacteria during the evolution of resistance. We examine the impact of gene expression changes on bacterial adaptation by constructing a library of deactivated CRISPR-Cas9 synthetic devices to tune the expression of a set of stress-response genes in Escherichia coli. We show that artificially inducing perturbations in gene expression imparts significant synthetic control over fitness and growth during stress exposure. We present evidence that these impacts are reversible; strains with synthetically perturbed gene expression regained wild-type growth phenotypes upon stress removal, while maintaining divergent growth characteristics under stress. Furthermore, we demonstrate a prevailing trend toward negative epistatic interactions when multiple gene perturbations are combined simultaneously, thereby posing an intrinsic constraint on gene expression underlying adaptive trajectories. Together, these results emphasize how CRISPR-Cas9 can be employed to engineer gene expression changes that shape bacterial adaptation, and present a novel approach to synthetically control the evolution of antimicrobial resistance.

  9. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsma, Alexis L.; Senchuk, Megan M.; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response, and the DAF-16-mediated stress response. We find that the decline in stress resistance with age is at least partially due to a decreased ability to activate protective mechanisms in response to stress. In contrast, we find that any baseline increase in stress caused by the advancing age is too mild to detectably upregulate any of the stress response pathways. Further exploration of how worms respond to stress with increasing age revealed that the ability to mount a hormetic response to heat stress is also lost with increasing age. Overall, this work demonstrates that resistance to all types of stress declines with age. Based on our data, we speculate that the decrease in stress resistance with advancing age results from a genetically-programmed inactivation of stress response pathways, not accumulation of damage. PMID:27053445

  10. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dues, Dylan J; Andrews, Emily K; Schaar, Claire E; Bergsma, Alexis L; Senchuk, Megan M; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response, and the DAF-16-mediated stress response. We find that the decline in stress resistance with age is at least partially due to a decreased ability to activate protective mechanisms in response to stress. In contrast, we find that any baseline increase in stress caused by the advancing age is too mild to detectably upregulate any of the stress response pathways. Further exploration of how worms respond to stress with increasing age revealed that the ability to mount a hormetic response to heat stress is also lost with increasing age. Overall, this work demonstrates that resistance to all types of stress declines with age. Based on our data, we speculate that the decrease in stress resistance with advancing age results from a genetically-programmed inactivation of stress response pathways, not accumulation of damage.

  11. Transcriptome analysis uncovers Arabidopsis F-BOX STRESS INDUCED 1 as a regulator of jasmonic acid and abscisic acid stress gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Lauren E; Keller, Kristen; Chan, Karen X; Gessel, Megan M; Thines, Bryan C

    2017-07-17

    The ubiquitin 26S proteasome system (UPS) selectively degrades cellular proteins, which results in physiological changes to eukaryotic cells. F-box proteins are substrate adaptors within the UPS and are responsible for the diversity of potential protein targets. Plant genomes are enriched in F-box genes, but the vast majority of these have unknown roles. This work investigated the Arabidopsis F-box gene F-BOX STRESS INDUCED 1 (FBS1) for its effects on gene expression in order elucidate its previously unknown biological function. Using publically available Affymetrix ATH1 microarray data, we show that FBS1 is significantly co-expressed in abiotic stresses with other well-characterized stress response genes, including important stress-related transcriptional regulators. This gene suite is most highly expressed in roots under cold and salt stresses. Transcriptome analysis of fbs1-1 knock-out plants grown at a chilling temperature shows that hundreds of genes require FBS1 for appropriate expression, and that these genes are enriched in those having roles in both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Based on both this genome-wide expression data set and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis, it is apparent that FBS1 is required for elevated expression of many jasmonic acid (JA) genes that have established roles in combatting environmental stresses, and that it also controls a subset of JA biosynthesis genes. FBS1 also significantly impacts abscisic acid (ABA) regulated genes, but this interaction is more complex, as FBS1 has both positive and negative effects on ABA-inducible and ABA-repressible gene modules. One noteworthy effect of FBS1 on ABA-related stress processes, however, is the restraint it imposes on the expression of multiple class I LIPID TRANSFER PROTEIN (LTP) gene family members that have demonstrated protective effects in water deficit-related stresses. FBS1 impacts plant stress responses by regulating hundreds of genes that respond to the plant

  12. Opposite Effects of Stress on Pain Modulation Depend on the Magnitude of Individual Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Nirit; Defrin, Ruth

    2018-04-01

    The effect of acute stress on pain threshold and intolerance threshold are reported as producing either hypoalgesia or hyperalgesia. Yet, the contribution of individual stress reactivity in this respect has not been established. The aim was to test 2 pain modulation paradigms under acute stress manipulation, to our knowledge, for the first time, to study whether stress differentially affects pain modulation, and whether the effect is related to individual stress response. Participants were 31 healthy subjects. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and pain adaptation were measured before and after inducing an acute stress response using the Montreal Imaging Stress Task. Subjects' stress response was evaluated according to salivary cortisol, autonomic function, and perceived stress and anxiety. The Montreal Imaging Stress Task induced a validated stress response. On a group level, stress induced reduction in CPM magnitude and increase in pain adaptation compared with baseline. These responses correlated with stress reactivity. When the group was subdivided according to stress reactivity, only high stress responders exhibited reduced CPM whereas only low stress responders exhibited increased pain adaptation. The results suggest that acute stress may induce opposite effects on pain modulation, depending on individual stress reactivity magnitude, with an advantage to low stress responders. This study evaluated the effect of acute stress on pain modulation. Pain modulation under stress is affected by individual stress responsiveness; decreased CPM occurs in high stress responders whereas increased pain adaptation occurs in low stress responders. Identification of high stress responders may promote better pain management. Copyright © 2017 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of salt-stress induced differentially expressed genes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of salt-stress induced differentially expressed genes in barley leaves using the annealingcontrol- primer-based GeneFishing technique. S Lee, K Lee, K Kim, GJ Choi, SH Yoon, HC Ji, S Seo, YC Lim, N Ahsan ...

  14. Evolution and Stress Responses of Gossypium hirsutum SWEET Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ren, Zhongying; Wang, Zhenyu; Sun, Kuan; Pei, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yangai; He, Kunlun; Zhang, Fei; Song, Chengxiang; Zhou, Xiaojian; Zhang, Wensheng; Ma, Xiongfeng; Yang, Daigang

    2018-03-08

    The SWEET (sugars will eventually be exported transporters) proteins are sugar efflux transporters containing the MtN3_saliva domain, which affects plant development as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. These proteins have not been functionally characterized in the tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum , which is a widely cultivated cotton species. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the cotton SWEET gene family. A total of 55 putative G. hirsutum SWEET genes were identified. The GhSWEET genes were classified into four clades based on a phylogenetic analysis and on the examination of gene structural features. Moreover, chromosomal localization and an analysis of homologous genes in Gossypium arboreum , Gossypium raimondii , and G. hirsutum suggested that a whole-genome duplication, several tandem duplications, and a polyploidy event contributed to the expansion of the cotton SWEET gene family, especially in Clade III and IV. Analyses of cis -acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions, expression profiles, and artificial selection revealed that the GhSWEET genes were likely involved in cotton developmental processes and responses to diverse stresses. These findings may clarify the evolution of G. hirsutum SWEET gene family and may provide a foundation for future functional studies of SWEET proteins regarding cotton development and responses to abiotic stresses.

  15. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of Cytokinin Oxidase/Dehydrogenase (CKX) Genes Reveal Likely Roles in Pod Development and Stress Responses in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Jin-Qi; Zhang, Li-Yuan; Yang, Bo; Tang, Xin-Yu; Huang, Ling; Zhou, Xin-Tong; Lu, Kun; Li, Jia-Na

    2018-03-16

    Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenases (CKXs) play a critical role in the irreversible degradation of cytokinins, thereby regulating plant growth and development. Brassica napus is one of the most widely cultivated oilseed crops worldwide. With the completion of whole-genome sequencing of B. napus , genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the BnCKX gene family has become technically feasible. In this study, we identified 23 BnCKX genes and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, conserved motifs, protein subcellular localizations, and other properties. We also analyzed the expression of the 23 BnCKX genes in the B. napus cultivar Zhong Shuang 11 ('ZS11') by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), revealing their diverse expression patterns. We selected four BnCKX genes based on the results of RNA-sequencing and qRT-PCR and compared their expression in cultivated varieties with extremely long versus short siliques. The expression levels of BnCKX5-1 , 5-2 , 6-1 , and 7-1 significantly differed between the two lines and changed during pod development, suggesting they might play roles in determining silique length and in pod development. Finally, we investigated the effects of treatment with the synthetic cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on the expression of the four selected BnCKX genes. Our results suggest that regulating BnCKX expression is a promising way to enhance the harvest index and stress resistance in plants.

  16. EFFECTS OF DIAZEPAM ON THE BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE TO STRESS IN NULLIPAROUS AND PRIMIPAROUS RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. R. Garcia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive experience (RE, i.e. the conjunct of gestation, parturition and lactation, is associated with alterations in secretions of hormones, reducing, for example, steroids and prolactin, possibly for the rest of a female’s life. Responses to stress are related to a behavioral expression of anxiety in the elevated plus-maze, once stress has an anxiogenic effect in this experimental model; both responses, to stress and anxiety, can be permanently modified in function of the ER. Besides, reduction in seprimiparous females’ sensibility to stress has been demonstrated. In this way, the results obtained until the present moment suggests that stress models the behavioral responses to stress and consequently to reproductive experience and that the hormonal scenery related to the estral cycle phase participates in this modulation. In this way too, the reproductive experience is able to reduce the sensibility to stress; however this fact is also influenced by the estral cycle phase.

  17. Microarray Analysis of Transcriptional Responses to Abscisic Acid and Salt Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA plays a crucial role in plant responses to abiotic stress. To investigate differences in plant responses to salt and ABA stimulus, differences in gene expression in Arabidopsis in response to salt and ABA were compared using an Agilent oligo microarray. A total of 144 and 139 genes were significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, under NaCl stress, while 406 and 381 genes were significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, under ABA stress conditions. In addition, 31 genes were upregulated by both NaCl and ABA stresses, and 23 genes were downregulated by these stressors, suggesting that these genes may play similar roles in plant responses to salt and ABA stress. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed four subgroups of genes, including genes in the GO categories “Molecular transducer activity”, “Growth”, “Biological adhesion” and “Pigmentation”, which were expressed in response to ABA stress but not NaCl stress. In addition, genes that play specific roles during salt or ABA stress were identified. Our results may help elucidate differences in the response of plants to salt and ABA stress.

  18. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and leptin are associated with stress-induced interleukin-6 cytokine expression ex vivo in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Stewart, Jennifer K; Shibata, Yoshimi; Slusher, Aaron L; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is associated with enhanced inflammation and mental stress, but limited information has addressed the potential additive effect of psychological stress on obesity-associated inflammation. This study examined whether obese subjects would elicit a greater host immune response (IL-6 mRNA and cytokine) to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in response to mental stress. Blood samples for LPS-stimulated IL-6 mRNA and cytokine were collected prior to and following mental stress. Results showed that obese subjects elicited a greater LPS-induced IL-6 along with its mRNA expression following mental stress compared to normal-weight subjects. Stress-induced IL-6 cytokine response to LPS was correlated with the baseline levels of plasma LPS binding protein (LBP) and leptin. These findings are consistent with the idea that endogenous inflammatory agents (e.g., LBP and leptin), often elevated with obesity, enhance inflammatory responses to psychological stress. © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Treadmill exercise does not change gene expression of adrenal catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in chronically stressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJUBICA GAVRILOVIC

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chronic isolation of adult animals represents a form of psychological stress that produces sympatho-adrenomedullar activation. Exercise training acts as an important modulator of sympatho-adrenomedullary system. This study aimed to investigate physical exercise-related changes in gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes (tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine-ß-hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding (CREB in the adrenal medulla, concentrations of catecholamines and corticosterone (CORT in the plasma and the weight of adrenal glands of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats exposed daily to 20 min treadmill running for 12 weeks. Also, we examined how additional acute immobilization stress changes the mentioned parameters. Treadmill running did not result in modulation of gene expression of catecholamine synthesizing enzymes and it decreased the level of CREB mRNA in the adrenal medulla of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats. The potentially negative physiological adaptations after treadmill running were recorded as increased concentrations of catecholamines and decreased morning CORT concentration in the plasma, as well as the adrenal gland hypertrophy of chronically psychosocially stressed rats. The additional acute immobilization stress increases gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in the adrenal medulla, as well as catecholamines and CORT levels in the plasma. Treadmill exercise does not change the activity of sympatho-adrenomedullary system of chronically psychosocially stressed rats.

  20. Acute hypoxia stress induced abundant differential expression genes and alternative splicing events in heart of tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun Hong; Li, Hong Lian; Li, Bi Jun; Gu, Xiao Hui; Lin, Hao Ran

    2018-01-10

    Hypoxia is one of the critical environmental stressors for fish in aquatic environments. Although accumulating evidences indicate that gene expression is regulated by hypoxia stress in fish, how genes undergoing differential gene expression and/or alternative splicing (AS) in response to hypoxia stress in heart are not well understood. Using RNA-seq, we surveyed and detected 289 differential expressed genes (DEG) and 103 genes that undergo differential usage of exons and splice junctions events (DUES) in heart of a hypoxia tolerant fish, Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus following 12h hypoxic treatment. The spatio-temporal expression analysis validated the significant association of differential exon usages in two randomly selected DUES genes (fam162a and ndrg2) in 5 tissues (heart, liver, brain, gill and spleen) sampled at three time points (6h, 12h, and 24h) under acute hypoxia treatment. Functional analysis significantly associated the differential expressed genes with the categories related to energy conservation, protein synthesis and immune response. Different enrichment categories were found between the DEG and DUES dataset. The Isomerase activity, Oxidoreductase activity, Glycolysis and Oxidative stress process were significantly enriched for the DEG gene dataset, but the Structural constituent of ribosome and Structural molecule activity, Ribosomal protein and RNA binding protein were significantly enriched only for the DUES genes. Our comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals abundant stress responsive genes and their differential regulation function in the heart tissues of Nile tilapia under acute hypoxia stress. Our findings will facilitate future investigation on transcriptome complexity and AS regulation during hypoxia stress in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Not changes in membrane fluidity but proteotoxic stress triggers heat shock protein expression in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütgers, Mark; Muranaka, Ligia Segatto; Schulz-Raffelt, Miriam; Thoms, Sylvia; Schurig, Juliane; Willmund, Felix; Schroda, Michael

    2017-12-01

    A conserved reaction of all organisms exposed to heat stress is an increased expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs). Several studies have proposed that HSP expression in heat-stressed plant cells is triggered by an increased fluidity of the plasma membrane. Among the main lines of evidence in support of this model are as follows: (a) the degree of membrane lipid saturation was higher in cells grown at elevated temperatures and correlated with a lower amplitude of HSP expression upon a temperature upshift, (b) membrane fluidizers induce HSP expression at physiological temperatures, and (c) membrane rigidifier dimethylsulfoxide dampens heat-induced HSP expression. Here, we tested whether this holds also for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We show that heat-induced HSP expression in cells grown at elevated temperatures was reduced because they already contained elevated levels of cytosolic HSP70A/90A that apparently act as negative regulators of heat shock factor 1. We find that membrane rigidifier dimethylsulfoxide impaired translation under heat stress conditions and that membrane fluidizer benzyl alcohol not only induced HSP expression but also caused protein aggregation. These findings support the classical model for the cytosolic unfolded protein response, according to which HSP expression is induced by the accumulation of unfolded proteins. Hence, the membrane fluidity model should be reconsidered. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Transcriptomic Response of Chinese Yew (Taxus chinensis to Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghua Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxus chinensis is a rare and endangered shrub, highly sensitive to temperature changes and widely known for its potential in cancer treatment. How gene expression of T. chinensis responds to low temperature is still unknown. To investigate cold response of the genus Taxus, we obtained the transcriptome profiles of T. chinensis grown under normal and low temperature (cold stress, 0°C conditions using Illumina Miseq sequencing. A transcriptome including 83,963 transcripts and 62,654 genes were assembled from 4.16 Gb of reads data. Comparative transcriptomic analysis identified 2,025 differently expressed (DE isoforms at p < 0.05, of which 1,437 were up-regulated by cold stress and 588 were down-regulated. Annotation of DE isoforms indicated that transcription factors (TFs in the MAPK signaling pathway and TF families of NAC, WRKY, bZIP, MYB, and ERF were transcriptionally activated. This might have been caused by the accumulation of secondary messengers, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS and Ca2+. While accumulation of ROS will have caused damages to cells, our results indicated that to adapt to low temperatures T. chinensis employed a series of mechanisms to minimize these damages. The mechanisms included: (i cold-enhanced expression of ROS deoxidant systems, such as peroxidase and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, to remove ROS. This was further confirmed by analyses showing increased activity of POD, SOD, and CAT under cold stress. (ii Activation of starch and sucrose metabolism, thiamine metabolism, and purine metabolism by cold-stress to produce metabolites which either protect cell organelles or lower the ROS content in cells. These processes are regulated by ROS signaling, as the “feedback” toward ROS accumulation.

  3. Tomato NAC transcription factor SlSRN1 positively regulates defense response against biotic stress but negatively regulates abiotic stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses are major unfavorable factors that affect crop productivity worldwide. NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development as well as in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In a virus-induced gene silencing-based screening to identify genes that are involved in defense response against Botrytis cinerea, we identified a tomato NAC gene SlSRN1 (Solanum lycopersicum Stress-related NAC1. SlSRN1 is a plasma membrane-localized protein with transactivation activity in yeast. Expression of SlSRN1 was significantly induced by infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000, leading to 6-8 folds higher than that in the mock-inoculated plants. Expression of SlSRN1 was also induced by salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and by drought stress. Silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased severity of diseases caused by B. cinerea and Pst DC3000. However, silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses. Furthermore, silencing of SlSRN1 accelerated accumulation of reactive oxygen species but attenuated expression of defense genes after infection by B. cinerea. Our results demonstrate that SlSRN1 is a positive regulator of defense response against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 but is a negative regulator for oxidative and drought stress response in tomato.

  4. Effects of heat stress on gene expression in eggplant ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to identify differentially expressed genes involved in heat shock response, cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) were used to study gene expression of eggplant seedlings subjected to 0, 6 and 12 h at 43°C. A total of 53 of over ...

  5. Calcium affecting protein expression in longan under simulated acid rain stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tengfei; Li, Yongyu; Ma, Cuilan; Qiu, Dongliang

    2015-08-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longana Lour. cv. Wulongling) of uniform one-aged seedlings grown in pots were selected to study specific proteins expressed in leaves under simulated acid rain (SiAR) stress and exogenous Ca(2+) regulation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results showed that there was a protein band specifically expressed under SiAR of pH 2.5 stress for 15 days with its molecular weight of about 23 kD. A 17 kD protein band specifically expressed after SiAR stress 5 days. Compared with pH 2.5, the pH 3.5 of SiAR made a less influence to protein expression. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) results showed that six new specific proteins including C4 (20.2 kD pI 6.0), F (24 kD pI 6.35), B3 (22.3 kD pI 6.35), B4 (23.5 kD pI 6.5), C5 (21.8 kD pI 5.6), and C6 (20.2 kD pI 5.6) specifically expressed. C4 always expressed during SiAR stress. F expressed under the stress of pH 2.5 for 15 days and expressed in all pH SiAR stress for 20 days. The expression of proteins including B3, C5, and C6 was related to pH value and stress intensity of SiAR. The expression of B4 resulted from synergistic effects of SiAR and Ca. The expression of G1 (Mr 19.3 kD, pI 4.5), G2 (Mr 17.8 kD, pI 4.65), G3 (Mr 16.6 kD, pI 4.6), and G4 (Mr 14.7 kD, pI 4.4) enhanced under the treatment of 5 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 2 mM chlorpromazine (CPZ). These proteins showed antagonistic effects and might be relative to the Ca-calmodulin (Ca-CaM) system of longan in response to SiAR stress.

  6. Quorum sensing regulates the osmotic stress response in Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Julia C; Rutherford, Steven T; Cong, Jian-Ping; Quinodoz, Sofia; Healy, James; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria use a chemical communication process called quorum sensing to monitor cell density and to alter behavior in response to fluctuations in population numbers. Previous studies with Vibrio harveyi have shown that LuxR, the master quorum-sensing regulator, activates and represses >600 genes. These include six genes that encode homologs of the Escherichia coli Bet and ProU systems for synthesis and transport, respectively, of glycine betaine, an osmoprotectant used during osmotic stress. Here we show that LuxR activates expression of the glycine betaine operon betIBA-proXWV, which enhances growth recovery under osmotic stress conditions. BetI, an autorepressor of the V. harveyi betIBA-proXWV operon, activates the expression of genes encoding regulatory small RNAs that control quorum-sensing transitions. Connecting quorum-sensing and glycine betaine pathways presumably enables V. harveyi to tune its execution of collective behaviors to its tolerance to stress. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Structure, function and networks of transcription factors involved in abiotic stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemose, Søren; O'Shea, Charlotte; Jensen, Michael Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are master regulators of abiotic stress responses in plants. This review focuses on TFs from seven major TF families, known to play functional roles in response to abiotic stresses, including drought, high salinity, high osmolarity, temperature extremes...... and the phytohormone ABA. Although ectopic expression of several TFs has improved abiotic stress tolerance in plants, fine-tuning of TF expression and protein levels remains a challenge to avoid crop yield loss. To further our understanding of TFs in abiotic stress responses, emerging gene regulatory networks based...... on TFs and their direct targets genes are presented. These revealed components shared between ABA-dependent and independent signaling as well as abiotic and biotic stress signaling. Protein structure analysis suggested that TFs hubs of large interactomes have extended regions with protein intrinsic...

  8. Differential responses of the coral host and their algal symbiont to thermal stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Leggat

    Full Text Available The success of any symbiosis under stress conditions is dependent upon the responses of both partners to that stress. The coral symbiosis is particularly susceptible to small increases of temperature above the long term summer maxima, which leads to the phenomenon known as coral bleaching, where the intracellular dinoflagellate symbionts are expelled. Here we for the first time used quantitative PCR to simultaneously examine the gene expression response of orthologs of the coral Acropora aspera and their dinoflagellate symbiont Symbiodinium. During an experimental bleaching event significant up-regulation of genes involved in stress response (HSP90 and HSP70 and carbon metabolism (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase from the coral host were observed. In contrast in the symbiont, HSP90 expression decreased, while HSP70 levels were increased on only one day, and only the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase expression levels were found to increase. In addition the changes seen in expression patterns of the coral host were much larger, up to 10.5 fold, compared to the symbiont response, which in all cases was less than 2-fold. This targeted study of the expression of key metabolic and stress genes demonstrates that the response of the coral and their symbiont vary significantly, also a response in the host transcriptome was observed prior to what has previously been thought to be the temperatures at which thermal stress events occur.

  9. Halobenzoquinone-Induced Alteration of Gene Expression Associated with Oxidative Stress Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Moe, Birget; Liu, Yanming; Li, Xing-Fang

    2018-06-05

    Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) are emerging disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that effectively induce reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage in vitro. However, the impacts of HBQs on oxidative-stress-related gene expression have not been investigated. In this study, we examined alterations in the expression of 44 genes related to oxidative-stress-induced signaling pathways in human uroepithelial cells (SV-HUC-1) upon exposure to six HBQs. The results show the structure-dependent effects of HBQs on the studied gene expression. After 2 h of exposure, the expression levels of 9 to 28 genes were altered, while after 8 h of exposure, the expression levels of 29 to 31 genes were altered. Four genes ( HMOX1, NQO1, PTGS2, and TXNRD1) were significantly upregulated by all six HBQs at both exposure time points. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that the Nrf2 pathway was significantly responsive to HBQ exposure. Other canonical pathways responsive to HBQ exposure included GSH redox reductions, superoxide radical degradation, and xenobiotic metabolism signaling. This study has demonstrated that HBQs significantly alter the gene expression of oxidative-stress-related signaling pathways and contributes to the understanding of HBQ-DBP-associated toxicity.

  10. Corazonin neurons function in sexually dimorphic circuitry that shape behavioral responses to stress in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available All organisms are confronted with dynamic environmental changes that challenge homeostasis, which is the operational definition of stress. Stress produces adaptive behavioral and physiological responses, which, in the Metazoa, are mediated through the actions of various hormones. Based on its associated phenotypes and its expression profiles, a candidate stress hormone in Drosophila is the corazonin neuropeptide. We evaluated the potential roles of corazonin in mediating stress-related changes in target behaviors and physiologies through genetic alteration of corazonin neuronal excitability. Ablation of corazonin neurons confers resistance to metabolic, osmotic, and oxidative stress, as measured by survival. Silencing and activation of corazonin neurons lead to differential lifespan under stress, and these effects showed a strong dependence on sex. Additionally, altered corazonin neuron physiology leads to fundamental differences in locomotor activity, and these effects were also sex-dependent. The dynamics of altered locomotor behavior accompanying stress was likewise altered in flies with altered corazonin neuronal function. We report that corazonin transcript expression is altered under starvation and osmotic stress, and that triglyceride and dopamine levels are equally impacted in corazonin neuronal alterations and these phenotypes similarly show significant sexual dimorphisms. Notably, these sexual dimorphisms map to corazonin neurons. These results underscore the importance of central peptidergic processing within the context of stress and place corazonin signaling as a critical feature of neuroendocrine events that shape stress responses and may underlie the inherent sexual dimorphic differences in stress responses.

  11. The effect of somatic awareness exercise on the chronic physical manifestations of the stress response

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Phil. (Biokinetics) Stress is an integral part of daily living and supports the ability to adapt. However, chronic activation without the ability to express the physical response results in overloading the physiological and psychological systems. Since urban South Africans are sedentary and experience high levels of stress, they are developing stress related chronic conditions and hypokinetic diseases (obesity, hypertension, depression). This study is aimed at decreasing the chronic phys...

  12. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-09-01

    An individual's susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure, for example, cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined the relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardized laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease.

  13. Social information changes stress hormone receptor expression in the songbird brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Jamie M; Perreau, Gillian; Bishop, Valerie R; Krause, Jesse S; Smith, Rachael; Hahn, Thomas P; Meddle, Simone L

    2018-01-01

    Social information is used by many vertebrate taxa to inform decision-making, including resource-mediated movements, yet the mechanisms whereby social information is integrated physiologically to affect such decisions remain unknown. Social information is known to influence the physiological response to food reduction in captive songbirds. Red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) that were food reduced for several days showed significant elevations in circulating corticosterone (a "stress" hormone often responsive to food limitation) only if their neighbors were similarly food restricted. Physiological responses to glucocorticoid hormones are enacted through two receptors that may be expressed differentially in target tissues. Therefore, we investigated the influence of social information on the expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA in captive red crossbill brains. Although the role of MR and GR in the response to social information may be highly complex, we specifically predicted social information from food-restricted individuals would reduce MR and GR expression in two brain regions known to regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity - given that reduced receptor expression may lessen the efficacy of negative feedback and release inhibitory tone on the HPA. Our results support these predictions - offering one potential mechanism whereby social cues could increase or sustain HPA-activity during stress. The data further suggest different mechanisms by which metabolic stress versus social information influence HPA activity and behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. LKB1 promotes metabolic flexibility in response to energy stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Seth J; Svensson, Robert U; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Lefebvre, Austin E; Murphy, Anne N; Shaw, Reuben J; Metallo, Christian M

    2017-09-01

    The Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1) tumor suppressor acts as a metabolic energy sensor to regulate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and is commonly mutated in various cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tumor cells deficient in LKB1 may be uniquely sensitized to metabolic stresses, which may offer a therapeutic window in oncology. To address this question we have explored how functional LKB1 impacts the metabolism of NSCLC cells using 13 C metabolic flux analysis. Isogenic NSCLC cells expressing functional LKB1 exhibited higher flux through oxidative mitochondrial pathways compared to those deficient in LKB1. Re-expression of LKB1 also increased the capacity of cells to oxidize major mitochondrial substrates, including pyruvate, fatty acids, and glutamine. Furthermore, LKB1 expression promoted an adaptive response to energy stress induced by anchorage-independent growth. Finally, this diminished adaptability sensitized LKB1-deficient cells to combinatorial inhibition of mitochondrial complex I and glutaminase. Together, our data implicate LKB1 as a major regulator of adaptive metabolic reprogramming and suggest synergistic pharmacological strategies for mitigating LKB1-deficient NSCLC tumor growth. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Dues, Dylan J.; Andrews, Emily K.; Schaar, Claire E.; Bergsma, Alexis L.; Senchuk, Megan M.; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxi...

  16. Expression of NCED gene in colored cotton genotypes subjected to water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre M. S. de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Considering that the NCED gene acts on the biosynthetic cascade of ABA, a hormone involved in the functioning of stomata and consequently in the regulation of transpiration, the aim of this research was to analyze the expression of this gene in colored cotton genotypes subjected to water stress at the beginning of plant growth. Four colored cotton genotypes were used, subjected to two managements, with and without water stress, beginning the treatments when the blade of the first true leaves reached an area that allowed the evaluation of gas exchange. For the studies of the expression of the NCED gene, via RT-qPCR, leaves were collected on three distinct dates: at 4 and 6 days of water stress, and after the plants regained their turgor. The differential expression of NCED was found in all genotypes, with higher levels of expression related to six days of water stress. When the stomatal conductance was around 25%, there was overexpression in the genotype CNPA 2009.13, followed by CNPA 2009.6, BRS SAFIRA and CNPA 2009.11, confirming the data obtained in the semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The NCED gene is involved in the response to water stress in the vegetative phase of colored cotton.

  17. Effect of thermal stress on HSP90 expression of Bali cattle in Barru district, South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritonang, S. B.; Yuniati, R.; Abinawanto, Imron, M.; Bowolaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    Heat shock protein 90-kDa is induced stress protein that expressed in response to stress and play crucial roles in environmental stress tolerance and adaptation. This study aimed to determine effect of environmental heat stress on the HSP90 expression of Bali cattle. Heat stress was measured by temperature humidity index in the morning and evening across 5-days on August 2016. The blood samples of Bali cattle were taken from venous jungularis. HSP90 was derived from RNA isolation of whole blood then was followed reverse transcription two steps. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed to analyze the transcript variants of HSP90, followed by comparative ΔΔCt to determine HSP90 expression. The results of temperature and humidity index (THI) measurement indicated THI on afternoon was higher than in the morning. The difference in environmental conditions in the morning and afternoon effected changes on rectal temperature but neither did on Hsp90 expression.

  18. The Role of the Transcriptional Response to DNA Replication Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Anna E; de Bruin, Robertus A M

    2017-03-02

    During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage.

  19. The Role of the Transcriptional Response to DNA Replication Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Anna E.; de Bruin, Robertus A.M.

    2017-01-01

    During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage. PMID:28257104

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE44 (Rv2770c) is involved in response to multiple stresses and promotes the macrophage expression of IL-12 p40 and IL-6 via the p38, ERK, and NF-κB signaling axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaoxiao; Zhang, Chenhui; Zhou, Mingliang; Li, Qiming; Li, Hui; Duan, Wei; Li, Xue; Feng, Yonghong; Xie, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a formidable threat to global public health. The successful intracellular persistence of M. tuberculosis significantly contributes to the intractability of tuberculosis. Proline-glutamic acid (PE) and proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) are mycobacterial exclusive protein families that widely reported to be involved in the bacterial virulence, physiology and interaction with host. Rv2770c (PPE44), a predicted virulence factor, was up-regulated upon the infected guinea pig lungs. To investigate the role of Rv2770c, we heterologously expressed the PPE44 in the nonpathogenic fast-growing M. smegmatis strain. Subcellular location analysis demonstrated that Rv2770c is a cell wall associated protein, suggestive of a potential candidate involved in host-pathogen interaction. The Rv2770c can enhance M. smegmatis survival within macrophages and under stresses such as H 2 O 2 , SDS, diamide exposure, and low pH condition. M. smegmatis expressing Rv2770c is more virulent as testified by the increased death of macrophages and the increased expression of interlukin-6 (IL-6) and interlukin-12p40 (IL-12p40). Moreover, Rv2770c altered the secretion of IL-6 and IL-12p40 of macrophages via NF-κB, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK axis. Taken together, this study implicated that Rv2770c was a virulent factor actively engaged in the interaction with host macrophage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Susto and nervios: expressions for stress and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Susan C; Baer, Roberta D; Garcia de Alba Garcia, Javier; Salcedo Rocha, Ana L

    2008-09-01

    Folk illnesses that are cultural constructions of psychological distress offer a vehicle for the cross-cultural study of stress and stress-related morbidity. This study explores the relationship between the Latin American folk illnesses susto and nervios and mental health. We hypothesize that these folk illnesses are distinct and that there is a stronger association between current levels of stress and depressive symptoms with past experience of nervios than with susto, because the cultural constructions of these folk illnesses reflect chronic and acute concepts of distress, respectively. Interviews were conducted in Guadalajara, Mexico, where participants responded to questions about their socio-demographic characteristics, stress, depressive symptoms, and whether they had experienced susto or nervios. Susto and nervios are very prevalent and occur across sociodemographic subgroups, with the exception that nervios occurred more often in women (p nervios had a much stronger association (p nervios were expressions of psychological distress; most of those with depression reported susto and/or nervios. This study validates the link between these folk illnesses and stress and depression and may, ultimately, facilitate cross-cultural research on stress.

  2. Subchronic nandrolone administration reduces cardiac oxidative markers during restraint stress by modulating protein expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Barbara; Carriero, Vitina; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Penna, Claudia; Berchialla, Paola; De Francia, Silvia; Bracco, Enrico; Racca, Silvia

    2017-10-01

    Nandrolone decanoate (ND), an anabolic-androgenic steroid prohibited in collegiate and professional sports, is associated with detrimental cardiovascular effects through redox-dependent mechanisms. We previously observed that high-dose short-term ND administration (15 mg/kg for 2 weeks) did not induce left heart ventricular hypertrophy and, paradoxically, improved postischemic response, whereas chronic ND treatment (5 mg/kg twice a week for 10 weeks) significantly reduced the cardioprotective effect of postconditioning, with an increase in infarct size and a decrease in cardiac performance. We wanted to determine whether short-term ND administration could affect the oxidative redox status in animals exposed to acute restraint stress. Our hypothesis was that, depending on treatment schedule, ND may have a double-edged sword effect. Measurement of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal, two oxidative stress markers, in rat plasma and left heart ventricular tissue, revealed that the levels of both markers were increased in animals exposed to restraint stress, whereas no increase in marker levels was noted in animals pretreated with ND, indicating a possible protective action of ND against stress-induced oxidative damage. Furthermore, isolation and identification of proteins extracted from the left heart ventricular tissue samples of rats pretreated or not with ND and exposed to acute stress showed a prevalent expression of enzymes involved in amino acid synthesis and energy metabolism. Among other proteins, peroxiredoxin 6 and alpha B-crystallin, both involved in the oxidative stress response, were predominantly expressed in the left heart ventricular tissues of the ND-pretreated rats. In conclusion, ND seems to reduce oxidative stress by inducing the expression of antioxidant proteins in the hearts of restraint-stressed animals, thus contributing to amelioration of postischemic heart performance.

  3. Global Transcriptional Responses to Osmotic, Oxidative, and Imipenem Stress Conditions in Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanovič, Klara; D'Arrigo, Isotta; Long, Katherine S

    2017-04-01

    Bacteria cope with and adapt to stress by modulating gene expression in response to specific environmental cues. In this study, the transcriptional response of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to osmotic, oxidative, and imipenem stress conditions at two time points was investigated via identification of differentially expressed mRNAs and small RNAs (sRNAs). A total of 440 sRNA transcripts were detected, of which 10% correspond to previously annotated sRNAs, 40% to novel intergenic transcripts, and 50% to novel transcripts antisense to annotated genes. Each stress elicits a unique response as far as the extent and dynamics of the transcriptional changes. Nearly 200 protein-encoding genes exhibited significant changes in all stress types, implicating their participation in a general stress response. Almost half of the sRNA transcripts were differentially expressed under at least one condition, suggesting possible functional roles in the cellular response to stress conditions. The data show a larger fraction of differentially expressed sRNAs than of mRNAs with >5-fold expression changes. The work provides detailed insights into the mechanisms through which P. putida responds to different stress conditions and increases understanding of bacterial adaptation in natural and industrial settings. IMPORTANCE This study maps the complete transcriptional response of P. putida KT2440 to osmotic, oxidative, and imipenem stress conditions at short and long exposure times. Over 400 sRNA transcripts, consisting of both intergenic and antisense transcripts, were detected, increasing the number of identified sRNA transcripts in the strain by a factor of 10. Unique responses to each type of stress are documented, including both the extent and dynamics of the gene expression changes. The work adds rich detail to previous knowledge of stress response mechanisms due to the depth of the RNA sequencing data. Almost half of the sRNAs exhibit significant expression changes under at least one

  4. Function of the auxin-responsive gene TaSAUR75 under salt and drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Guo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Small auxin-upregulated RNAs (SAURs are genes regulated by auxin and environmental factors. In this study, we identified a SAUR gene in wheat, TaSAUR75. Under salt stress, TaSAUR75 is downregulated in wheat roots. Subcellular localization revealed that TaSAUR75 was localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Overexpression of TaSAUR75 increased drought and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Transgenic lines showed higher root length and survival rate and higher expression of some stress-responsive genes than control plants under salt and drought stress. Less H2O2 accumulated in transgenic lines than in control plants under drought stress. Our findings reveal a positive regulatory role of the auxin-responsive gene TaSAUR75 in plant responses to drought and salt stress and provide a candidate gene for improvement of abiotic stress tolerance in crop breeding.

  5. 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Microbial Stress Response, Schedule and Speaker/Poster Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, Timothy J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-07-20

    The Gordon Research Conference on Microbial Stress Response was held at Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts, July 15-20, 2012. The Conference was well-attended with 180 participants. The 2012 Microbial Stress Responses Gordon Research Conference will provide a forum for the open reporting of recent discoveries on the diverse mechanisms employed by microbes to respond to stress. Approaches range from analysis at the molecular level (how are signals perceived and transmitted to change gene expression or function) to cellular and microbial community responses. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program.

  6. Role of histone deacetylases HDA6 and HDA19 in ABA and abiotic stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li-Ting; Wu, Keqiang

    2010-01-01

    Our recent study revealed the involvement of the Arabidopsis histone deacetylase HDA6 in modulating ABA and salt stress responses. In this report, we further investigated the role of HDA19 in ABA and salt stress responses. The Arabidopsis HDA19 T-DNA insertion mutant, hda19-1, displayed a phenotype that was hypersensitive to ABA and salt stress. Compared with wild-type plants, the expression of ABA responsive genes, ABI1, ABI2, KAT1, KAT2 and RD29B, was decreased in hda19-1 plants when treate...

  7. Brain Region-Specific Expression of Genes Mapped within Quantitative Trait Loci for Behavioral Responsiveness to Acute Stress in Fisher 344 and Wistar Kyoto Male Rats (Open Access Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-12

    responsiveness to acute stress in Fisher 344 and Wistar Kyoto male rats. PLoS ONE 13(3): e0194293. https://doi. org /10.1371/journal.pone.0194293 Editor...mapping analysis of complex traits in outbred rats. Nature genetics. 2013; 45(7): https://doi. org /10.1038/ng.2644 PMC3821058. PMID: 23708188 15...assisted breeding of congenic mouse strains. Nature Genetics. 1997; 17:280. https://doi. org /10.1038/ng1197-280 PMID: 9354790 21. The SC. SNP and haplotype

  8. How age, sex and genotype shape the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Ashley; Monteiro, Susana; Roque, Susana; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Sousa, Nuno

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to chronic stress is a leading pre-disposing factor for several neuropsychiatric disorders as it often leads to maladaptive responses. The response to stressful events is heterogeneous, underpinning a wide spectrum of distinct changes amongst stress-exposed individuals'. Several factors can underlie a different perception to stressors and the setting of distinct coping strategies that will lead to individual differences on the susceptibility/resistance to stress. Beyond the factors related to the stressor itself, such as intensity, duration or predictability, there are factors intrinsic to the individuals that are relevant to shape the stress response, such as age, sex and genetics. In this review, we examine the contribution of such intrinsic factors to the modulation of the stress response based on experimental rodent models of response to stress and discuss to what extent that knowledge can be potentially translated to humans.

  9. Changes in gene expression and catalase activity in Oryza sativa L. under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vighi, I L; Benitez, L C; do Amaral, M N; Auler, P A; Moraes, G P; Rodrigues, G S; da Maia, L C; Pinto, L S; Braga, E J B

    2016-11-03

    Different rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes were subjected to high salinity and low temperature (150 mM NaCl and 13°C, respectively) for 0, 6, 24, 48, or 72 h. We evaluated the simultaneous expression of the genes OsCATA, OsCATB, and OsCATC, correlated gene expression with enzyme activity, and verified the regulation of these genes through identification of cis-elements in the promoter region. The hydrogen peroxide content increased in a tolerant genotype and decreased in a sensitive genotype under both stress conditions. Lipid peroxidation increased in the tolerant genotype when exposed to cold, and in the sensitive genotype when exposed to high salinity. Catalase activity significantly increased in both genotypes when subjected to 13°C. In the tolerant genotype, OsCATA and OsCATB were the most responsive to high salinity and cold, while in the sensitive genotype, OsCATA and OsCATC responded positively to saline stress, as did OsCATA and OsCATB to low temperature. Cis-element analysis identified different regulatory sequences in the catalase promoter region of each genotype. The sensitive genotype maintained a better balance between hydrogen oxyacid levels, catalase activity, and lipid peroxidation under low temperature than the resistant genotype. OsCATA and OsCATB were the most responsive in the salt-tolerant genotype to cold, OsCATA and OsCATC were the most responsive to saline stress, and OsCATA and OsCATB were the most responsive to chilling stress in the sensitive genotype. There were positive correlations between catalase activity and OsCATB expression in the tolerant genotype under saline stress and in the sensitive genotype under cold stress.

  10. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Edward J.; Bachmann, Kenneth A.; Bailer, A. John; Bolger, P. Michael; Borak, Jonathan; Cai, Lu; Cedergreen, Nina; Cherian, M. George; Chiueh, Chuang C.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Cook, Ralph R.; Diamond, David M.; Doolittle, David J.; Dorato, Michael A.; Duke, Stephen O.; Feinendegen, Ludwig; Gardner, Donald E.; Hart, Ronald W.; Hastings, Kenneth L.; Hayes, A. Wallace; Hoffmann, George R.; Ives, John A.; Jaworowski, Zbigniew; Johnson, Thomas E.; Jonas, Wayne B.; Kaminski, Norbert E.; Keller, John G.; Klaunig, James E.; Knudsen, Thomas B.; Kozumbo, Walter J.; Lettieri, Teresa; Liu, Shu-Zheng; Maisseu, Andre; Maynard, Kenneth I.; Masoro, Edward J.; McClellan, Roger O.; Mehendale, Harihara M.; Mothersill, Carmel; Newlin, David B.; Nigg, Herbert N.; Oehme, Frederick W.; Phalen, Robert F.; Philbert, Martin A.; Rattan, Suresh I.S.; Riviere, Jim E.; Rodricks, Joseph; Sapolsky, Robert M.; Scott, Bobby R.; Seymour, Colin; Sinclair, David A.; Smith-Sonneborn, Joan; Snow, Elizabeth T.; Spear, Linda; Stevenson, Donald E.; Thomas, Yolene; Tubiana, Maurice; Williams, Gary M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines

  11. Psychophysiological responses to stress after stress management training in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, S.J.M. de; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Sweep, F.C.; Donders, A.R.T.; Eijsbouts, A.; Koulil, S. van; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress management interventions may prove useful in preventing the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study assessed the effects of a stress management intervention on the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Seventy-four

  12. Hypoxic-induced stress protein expression in rat cardiac myocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, G.; Geoghegan, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Mammalian stress proteins can be induced in cells and tissues exposed to a variety of conditions including hyperthermia and diminished O 2 supply. The authors have previously shown that the expression of three stress proteins (71, 85, and 95 kDa) was induced in cardiac tissue from mice exposed to hypoxic conditions. The expression of mRNAs coding for the 85 and 95 kDa proteins increase with time of exposure to hypoxia, while the mRNA coding for the 71 kDa protein is transiently induced. The authors extended these studies to investigate the expression of stress proteins in isolated rat cardiac myocytes. Freshly prepared myocytes were exposed to control, hypoxic, anoxic, or heat-shock environments for up to 16 h. The proteins were then labeled for 6 hours with [ 35 S]methionine. Analysis of the solubilized proteins by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography showed that there was a 6-fold increase in synthesis of the 85 kDa protein upon exposure to hypoxia but not heat-shock conditions. The 71 kDa protein was present at high levels in both control and treated myocyte protein preparations, and presumably had been induced during the isolation procedure. Total RNA isolated from intact rat heart and isolated myocytes was compared by cell-free translation analysis and showed induction of RNAs coding for several stress proteins in the myocyte preparation. The induced proteins at 85 and 95 kDa have molecular weights similar to reported cell stress and/or glucose-regulated proteins

  13. Dose response relationship in anti-stress gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E

    2007-03-02

    To maintain a stable intracellular environment, cells utilize complex and specialized defense systems against a variety of external perturbations, such as electrophilic stress, heat shock, and hypoxia, etc. Irrespective of the type of stress, many adaptive mechanisms contributing to cellular homeostasis appear to operate through gene regulatory networks that are organized into negative feedback loops. In general, the degree of deviation of the controlled variables, such as electrophiles, misfolded proteins, and O2, is first detected by specialized sensor molecules, then the signal is transduced to specific transcription factors. Transcription factors can regulate the expression of a suite of anti-stress genes, many of which encode enzymes functioning to counteract the perturbed variables. The objective of this study was to explore, using control theory and computational approaches, the theoretical basis that underlies the steady-state dose response relationship between cellular stressors and intracellular biochemical species (controlled variables, transcription factors, and gene products) in these gene regulatory networks. Our work indicated that the shape of dose response curves (linear, superlinear, or sublinear) depends on changes in the specific values of local response coefficients (gains) distributed in the feedback loop. Multimerization of anti-stress enzymes and transcription factors into homodimers, homotrimers, or even higher-order multimers, play a significant role in maintaining robust homeostasis. Moreover, our simulation noted that dose response curves for the controlled variables can transition sequentially through four distinct phases as stressor level increases: initial superlinear with lesser control, superlinear more highly controlled, linear uncontrolled, and sublinear catastrophic. Each phase relies on specific gain-changing events that come into play as stressor level increases. The low-dose region is intrinsically nonlinear, and depending on

  14. Dose response relationship in anti-stress gene regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To maintain a stable intracellular environment, cells utilize complex and specialized defense systems against a variety of external perturbations, such as electrophilic stress, heat shock, and hypoxia, etc. Irrespective of the type of stress, many adaptive mechanisms contributing to cellular homeostasis appear to operate through gene regulatory networks that are organized into negative feedback loops. In general, the degree of deviation of the controlled variables, such as electrophiles, misfolded proteins, and O2, is first detected by specialized sensor molecules, then the signal is transduced to specific transcription factors. Transcription factors can regulate the expression of a suite of anti-stress genes, many of which encode enzymes functioning to counteract the perturbed variables. The objective of this study was to explore, using control theory and computational approaches, the theoretical basis that underlies the steady-state dose response relationship between cellular stressors and intracellular biochemical species (controlled variables, transcription factors, and gene products in these gene regulatory networks. Our work indicated that the shape of dose response curves (linear, superlinear, or sublinear depends on changes in the specific values of local response coefficients (gains distributed in the feedback loop. Multimerization of anti-stress enzymes and transcription factors into homodimers, homotrimers, or even higher-order multimers, play a significant role in maintaining robust homeostasis. Moreover, our simulation noted that dose response curves for the controlled variables can transition sequentially through four distinct phases as stressor level increases: initial superlinear with lesser control, superlinear more highly controlled, linear uncontrolled, and sublinear catastrophic. Each phase relies on specific gain-changing events that come into play as stressor level increases. The low-dose region is intrinsically nonlinear

  15. Genome-wide analysis identifies chickpea (Cicer arietinum) heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) responsive to heat stress at the pod development stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaranathan, Parameswaran; Jagannadham, Prasanth Tej Kumar; Satheesh, Viswanathan; Kohli, Deshika; Basavarajappa, Santosh Halasabala; Chellapilla, Bharadwaj; Kumar, Jitendra; Jain, Pradeep Kumar; Srinivasan, R

    2018-05-01

    The heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) play a prominent role in thermotolerance and eliciting the heat stress response in plants. Identification and expression analysis of Hsfs gene family members in chickpea would provide valuable information on heat stress responsive Hsfs. A genome-wide analysis of Hsfs gene family resulted in the identification of 22 Hsf genes in chickpea in both desi and kabuli genome. Phylogenetic analysis distinctly separated 12 A, 9 B, and 1 C class Hsfs, respectively. An analysis of cis-regulatory elements in the upstream region of the genes identified many stress responsive elements such as heat stress elements (HSE), abscisic acid responsive element (ABRE) etc. In silico expression analysis showed nine and three Hsfs were also expressed in drought and salinity stresses, respectively. Q-PCR expression analysis of Hsfs under heat stress at pod development and at 15 days old seedling stage showed that CarHsfA2, A6, and B2 were significantly upregulated in both the stages of crop growth and other four Hsfs (CarHsfA2, A6a, A6c, B2a) showed early transcriptional upregulation for heat stress at seedling stage of chickpea. These subclasses of Hsfs identified in this study can be further evaluated as candidate genes in the characterization of heat stress response in chickpea.

  16. Differential response of hippocampal subregions to stress and learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darby F Hawley

    Full Text Available The hippocampus has two functionally distinct subregions-the dorsal portion, primarily associated with spatial navigation, and the ventral portion, primarily associated with anxiety. In a prior study of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS in rodents, we found that it selectively enhanced cellular plasticity in the dorsal hippocampal subregion while negatively impacting it in the ventral. In the present study, we determined whether this adaptive plasticity in the dorsal subregion would confer CUS rats an advantage in a spatial task-the radial arm water maze (RAWM. RAWM exposure is both stressful and requires spatial navigation, and therefore places demands simultaneously upon both hippocampal subregions. Therefore, we used Western blotting to investigate differential expression of plasticity-associated proteins (brain derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], proBDNF and postsynaptic density-95 [PSD-95] in the dorsal and ventral subregions following RAWM exposure. Lastly, we used unbiased stereology to compare the effects of CUS on proliferation, survival and neuronal differentiation of cells in the dorsal and ventral hippocampal subregions. We found that CUS and exposure to the RAWM both increased corticosterone, indicating that both are stressful; nevertheless, CUS animals had significantly better long-term spatial memory. We also observed a subregion-specific pattern of protein expression following RAWM, with proBDNF increased in the dorsal and decreased in the ventral subregion, while PSD-95 was selectively upregulated in the ventral. Finally, consistent with our previous study, we found that CUS most negatively affected neurogenesis in the ventral (compared to the dorsal subregion. Taken together, our data support a dual role for the hippocampus in stressful experiences, with the more resilient dorsal portion undergoing adaptive plasticity (perhaps to facilitate escape from or neutralization of the stressor, and the ventral portion involved in

  17. Differential contributions to the transcriptome of duplicated genes in response to abiotic stresses in natural and synthetic polyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shaowei; Adams, Keith L

    2011-06-01

    Polyploidy has occurred throughout plant evolution and can result in considerable changes to gene expression when it takes place and over evolutionary time. Little is known about the effects of abiotic stress conditions on duplicate gene expression patterns in polyploid plants. We examined the expression patterns of 60 duplicated genes in leaves, roots and cotyledons of allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum in response to five abiotic stress treatments (heat, cold, drought, high salt and water submersion) using single-strand conformation polymorphism assays, and 20 genes in a synthetic allotetraploid. Over 70% of the genes showed stress-induced changes in the relative expression levels of the duplicates under one or more stress treatments with frequent variability among treatments. Twelve pairs showed opposite changes in expression levels in response to different abiotic stress treatments. Stress-induced expression changes occurred in the synthetic allopolyploid, but there was little correspondence in patterns between the natural and synthetic polyploids. Our results indicate that abiotic stress conditions can have considerable effects on duplicate gene expression in a polyploid, with the effects varying by gene, stress and organ type. Differential expression in response to environmental stresses may be a factor in the preservation of some duplicated genes in polyploids. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Extraversion and cardiovascular responses to recurrent social stress: Effect of stress intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Wei; Xing, Wanying; Hughes, Brian M; Wang, Zhenhong

    2017-10-28

    The present study sought to establish whether the effects of extraversion on cardiovascular responses to recurrent social stress are contingent on stress intensity. A 2×5×1 mixed-factorial experiment was conducted, with social stress intensity as a between-subject variable, study phase as a within-subject variable, extraversion as a continuous independent variable, and cardiovascular parameter (HR, SBP, DBP, or RSA) as a dependent variable. Extraversion (NEO-FFI), subjective stress, and physiological stress were measured in 166 undergraduate students randomly assigned to undergo moderate (n=82) or high-intensity (n=84) social stress (a public speaking task with different levels of social evaluation). All participants underwent continuous physiological monitoring while facing two consecutive stress exposures distributed across five laboratory phases: baseline, stress exposure 1, post-stress 1, stress exposure 2, post-stress 2. Results indicated that under moderate-intensity social stress, participants higher on extraversion exhibited lesser HR reactivity to stress than participants lower on extraversion, while under high-intensity social stress, they exhibited greater HR, SBP, DBP and RSA reactivity. Under both moderate- and high-intensity social stress, participants higher on extraversion exhibited pronounced SBP and DBP response adaptation to repeated stress, and showed either better degree of HR recovery or greater amount of SBP and DBP recovery after stress. These findings suggest that individuals higher on extraversion exhibit physiological flexibility to cope with social challenges and benefit from adaptive cardiovascular responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress: Unsafe Environments and Conditions, and the Default Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos F. Brosschot

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged physiological stress responses form an important risk factor for disease. According to neurobiological and evolution-theoretical insights the stress response is a default response that is always “on” but inhibited by the prefrontal cortex when safety is perceived. Based on these insights the Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress (GUTS states that prolonged stress responses are due to generalized and largely unconsciously perceived unsafety rather than stressors. This novel perspective necessitates a reconstruction of current stress theory, which we address in this paper. We discuss a variety of very common situations without stressors but with prolonged stress responses, that are not, or not likely to be caused by stressors, including loneliness, low social status, adult life after prenatal or early life adversity, lack of a natural environment, and less fit bodily states such as obesity or fatigue. We argue that in these situations the default stress response may be chronically disinhibited due to unconsciously perceived generalized unsafety. Also, in chronic stress situations such as work stress, the prolonged stress response may be mainly caused by perceived unsafety in stressor-free contexts. Thus, GUTS identifies and explains far more stress-related physiological activity that is responsible for disease and mortality than current stress theories.

  20. Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress: Unsafe Environments and Conditions, and the Default Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosschot, Jos F; Verkuil, Bart; Thayer, Julian F

    2018-03-07

    Prolonged physiological stress responses form an important risk factor for disease. According to neurobiological and evolution-theoretical insights the stress response is a default response that is always "on" but inhibited by the prefrontal cortex when safety is perceived. Based on these insights the Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress (GUTS) states that prolonged stress responses are due to generalized and largely unconsciously perceived unsafety rather than stressors. This novel perspective necessitates a reconstruction of current stress theory, which we address in this paper. We discuss a variety of very common situations without stressors but with prolonged stress responses, that are not, or not likely to be caused by stressors, including loneliness, low social status, adult life after prenatal or early life adversity, lack of a natural environment, and less fit bodily states such as obesity or fatigue. We argue that in these situations the default stress response may be chronically disinhibited due to unconsciously perceived generalized unsafety. Also, in chronic stress situations such as work stress, the prolonged stress response may be mainly caused by perceived unsafety in stressor-free contexts. Thus, GUTS identifies and explains far more stress-related physiological activity that is responsible for disease and mortality than current stress theories.

  1. Age-Related Decrease in Stress Responsiveness and Proactive Coping in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hee-Jin; Song, Minah; Kim, Young Ki; Bae, Jae Ryong; Cha, Seung-Yun; Bae, Ji Young; Kim, Yeongmin; You, Minsu; Lee, Younpyo; Shim, Jieun; Maeng, Sungho

    2018-01-01

    Coping is a strategic approach to dealing with stressful situations. Those who use proactive coping strategies tend to accept changes and act before changes are expected. In contrast, those who use reactive coping are less flexible and more likely to act in response to changes. However, little research has assessed how coping style changes with age. This study investigated age-related changes in coping strategies and stress responsiveness and the influence of age on the processing of conditioned fear memory in 2-, 12- and 23-month-old male mice. Coping strategy was measured by comparing the escape latency in an active avoidance test and by comparing responses to a shock prod. The results showed that proactivity in coping response gradually decreased with age. Stress responsiveness, measured by stress-induced concentration of corticosterone, was also highest in 2-month-old mice and decreased with age. Consolidation of fear memory was highest in 12-month-old mice and was negatively correlated with the degree of stress responsiveness and proactivity in coping. Fear extinction did not differ among age groups and was not correlated with stress responsiveness or the proactivity of coping. However, the maintenance of extinct fear memory, which was best in 2-month-old mice and worst in 12-month-old mice, was negatively correlated with stress responsiveness but not with coping style. Age-dependent changes in the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and its regulatory co-chaperones, which are accepted mechanisms for stress hormone stimulation, were measured in the hippocampus. The expression of GR was increased at 12 months compared to other age groups. There were no differences in Hsp70 and BAG1 expression by age. These results can be summarized as follows: (1) stress responsiveness and proactivity in coping decreased with age class; (2) consolidation of fear memory was negatively correlated with both stress responsiveness and proactivity; however, maintenance of

  2. Environmental Stress Responses and Experimental Handling Artifacts of a Model Organism, the Copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Nilsson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Handling animals during experiments potentially affects the differential expression of genes chosen as biomarkers of sub-lethal stress. RNA sequencing was used to examine whole-transcriptome responses caused by laboratory handling of the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa. Salinity shock (S = 35 to S = 5 was used as positive stress control; individuals not exposed to handling or other stressors served as negative stress control. All copepods were grown from eggs to adults without being handled or exposed to any stressors prior the experiment. Survival of nauplii and adults was estimated for up to 10 min of exposure to handling stress and salinity shock. Only adults exhibited decreased survival (44 ± 7% with 10 min of exposure in response to handling stress and were selected for definitive experiments for RNA sequencing. After 10 min of experimental exposures to handling stress or salinity shock, adults were incubated for 15 min or 24 h at normal culture conditions. A small number of significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs were observed 15 min after exposure to handling stress (2 DEGs or salinity shock (7 DEGs. However, 24 h after exposure, handling stress resulted in 276 DEGs and salinity shock resulted in 573 DEGs, of which 174 DEGs were overlapping between the treatments. Among the DEGs observed 24 h after exposure to handling stress or salinity shock, some commonly-used stress biomarkers appeared at low levels. This suggests that a stress-response was induced at the transcriptional level for these genes between 15 min and 24 h following exposure. Since handling stress clearly affects transcriptional patterns, it is important to consider handling when designing experiments, by either including additional controls or avoiding focus on impacted genes. Not considering handling in gene expression studies can lead to inaccurate conclusions. The present study provides a baseline for studying handling stress in future studies using this

  3. Identification of drought, cadmium and root-lesion nematode infection stress-responsive transcription factors in ramie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought, cadmium (Cd stress, and root lesion nematode (RLN infection are three of the most important stresses affecting ramie growth and development; therefore, ramie breeding programs focus on their management more than on any other abiotic or biotic stresses. The fact that only a small number of stress-responsive transcription factors (TFs have been identified so far is a major obstacle in the elucidation of mechanisms regulating the response to these three stresses in ramie. In this study, in order to uncover more stress-responsive TFs, a total of 179 nonredundant genes with full-length open reading frames from the MYB, AP2/ERF, bZIP, HD-ZIP, and COL families were obtained by searching for against the ramie transcriptome. Expression pattern analysis demonstrated that most of these genes showed relatively higher expression in the stem xylem and bast than in other tissues. Among these genes, 96 genes were found to be involved in responses to drought, Cd exposure, or RLN-infection. The expression of 54 of these genes was regulated by at least two stresses. These stress-responsive TFs probably have roles in the regulation of stress tolerance. The discovery of these stress-responsive TFs will be helpful for furthering our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate stress responses in ramie.

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Sensor IRE1α Enhances IL-23 Expression by Human Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saioa Márquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs undergo bioenergetic changes that influence the immune response. We found that stimulation with PAMPs enhanced glycolysis in DCs, whereas oxidative phosphorylation remained unaltered. Glucose starvation and the hexokinase inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG modulated cytokine expression in stimulated DCs. Strikingly, IL23A was markedly induced upon 2-DG treatment, but not during glucose deprivation. Since 2-DG can also rapidly inhibit protein N-glycosylation, we postulated that this compound could induce IL-23 in DCs via activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response. Indeed, stimulation of DCs with PAMPs in the presence of 2-DG robustly activated inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α signaling and to a lesser extent the PERK arm of the unfolded protein response. Additional ER stressors such as tunicamycin and thapsigargin also promoted IL-23 expression by PAMP-stimulated DCs. Pharmacological, biochemical, and genetic analyses using conditional knockout mice revealed that IL-23 induction in ER stressed DCs stimulated with PAMPs was IRE1α/X-box binding protein 1-dependent upon zymosan stimulation. Interestingly, we further evidenced PERK-mediated and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein β-dependent trans-activation of IL23A upon lipopolysaccharide treatment. Our findings uncover that the ER stress response can potently modulate cytokine expression in PAMP-stimulated human DCs.

  5. Overexpression of a cytosolic abiotic stress responsive universal stress protein (SbUSP mitigates salt and osmotic stress in transgenic tobacco plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpika eUdawat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Stress Protein (USP is a ubiquitous protein and plays an indispensable role in plant abiotic stress tolerance. The genome of Salicornia brachiata contains two homologues of intron less SbUSP gene which encodes for salt and osmotic responsive universal stress protein. In vivo localization reveals that SbUSP is a membrane bound cytosolic protein. The role of the gene was functionally validated by developing transgenic tobacco and compared with control (wild type and vector control plants under different abiotic stress condition. Transgenic lines (T1 exhibited higher chlorophyll, relative water, proline, total sugar, reducing sugar, free amino acids, polyphenol contents, osmotic potential, membrane stability and lower electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde content under stress treatments than control (WT and VC plants. Lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2- radicals was also detected in transgenic lines compared to control plants under stress conditions. Present study confers that overexpression of the SbUSP gene enhances plant growth, alleviates ROS buildup, maintains ion homeostasis and improves the physiological status of the plant under salt and osmotic stresses. Principal component analysis (PCA exhibited a statistical distinction of plant response to salinity stress, and a significant response was observed for transgenic lines under stress, which provides stress endurance to the plant. A possible signaling role is proposed that some downstream genes may get activated by abiotic stress responsive cytosolic SbUSP, which leads to the protection of cell from oxidative damages. The study unveils that ectopic expression of the gene mitigates salt or osmotic stress by scavenging ROS and modulating the physiological process of the plant.

  6. Meta-analysis of the effect of overexpression of C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding family genes on temperature stress tolerance and related responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding proteins are transcription factors that play a critical role in plant response to temperature stress. Over-expression of CBF/DREB genes has been demonstrated to enhance temperature stress tolerance. A series of physiological and biochemical modificat...

  7. The relationship between beginning teachers' stress causes, stress responses, teaching behaviour and attrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, Ruth; Lorenz, Michelle; Maulana, Ridwan; van Veen, Klaas

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the relationships between beginning teachers’ perceived stress causes, stress responses, observed teaching behaviour and attrition is investigated employing structural equation modelling (SEM). A total of 143 BTs were surveyed using the Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation

  8. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  9. Temperature and Oxidative Stress as Triggers for Virulence Gene Expression in Pathogenic Leptospira spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Fraser

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zooanthroponosis aetiologically caused by pathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus, Leptospira. Environmental signals such as increases in temperatures or oxidative stress can trigger response regulatory modes of virulence genes during infection. This study sought to determine the effect of temperature and oxidative stress on virulence associated genes in highly passaged Leptospira borgpeterseneii Jules and L. interrogans Portlandvere. Bacteria were grown in EMJH at 30°C, 37°C, or at 30°C before being transferred to 37°C. A total of 14 virulence-associated genes (fliY, invA, lenA, ligB, lipL32, lipL36, lipL41, lipL45, loa22, lsa21, mce, ompL1, sph2, and tlyC were assessed using endpoint PCR. Transcriptional analyses of lenA, lipL32, lipL41, loa22, sph2 were assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR at the temperature conditions. To assess oxidative stress, bacteria were exposed to H2O2 for 30 and 60 min with or without the temperature stress. All genes except ligB (for Portlandvere and ligB and mce (for Jules were detectable in the strains. Quantitatively, temperature stress resulted in significant changes in gene expression within species or between species. Temperature changes were more influential in gene expression for Jules, particularly at 30°C and upshift conditions; at 37°C, expression levels were higher for Portlandvere. However, compared to Jules, where temperature was influential in two of five genes, temperature was an essential element in four of five genes in Portlandvere exposed to oxidative stress. At both low and high oxidative stress levels, the interplay between genetic predisposition (larger genome size and temperature was biased towards Portlandvere particularly at 30°C and upshift conditions. While it is clear that expression of many virulence genes in highly passaged strains of Leptospira are attenuated or lost, genetic predisposition, changes in growth temperature and/or oxidative intensity and

  10. Exploring the Response of Plants Grown under Uranium Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doustaly, Fany; Berthet, Serge; Bourguignon, Jacques [CEA, iRTSV, Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Vegetale, UMR 5168 CEA-CNRS-INRA-Univ. Grenoble Alpes (France); Combes, Florence; Vandenbrouck, Yves [CEA, iRTSV, Laboratoire de Biologie a Grande Echelle, EDyP, CEA-Grenoble (France); Carriere, Marie [CEA, INAC, LAN, UMR E3 CEA-Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Vavasseur, Alain [CEA, IBEB, LBDP, Saint Paul lez Durance, CEA Cadarache (France)

    2014-07-01

    Uranium is a natural element which is mainly redistributed in the environment due to human activity, including accidents and spillages. Plants may be useful in cleaning up after incidents, although little is yet known about the relationship between uranium speciation and plant response. We analyzed the impact of different uranium (U) treatments on three plant species namely sunflower, oilseed rape and wheat. Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry elemental analysis, together with a panel of imaging techniques including scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy, we have recently shown how chemical speciation greatly influences the accumulation and distribution of U in plants. Uranyl (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} free ion) is the predominant mobile form in soil surface at low pH in absence of ligands. With the aim to characterize the early plant response to U exposure, complete Arabidopsis transcriptome microarray experiments were conducted on plants exposed to 50 μM uranyl nitrate for 2, 6 and 30 h and highlighted a set of 111 genes with modified expression at these three time points. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR experiments confirmed and completed CATMA micro-arrays results allowing the characterization of biological processes perturbed by U. Functional categorization of deregulated genes emphasizes oxidative stress, cell wall biosynthesis and hormone biosynthesis and signaling. We showed that U stress is perceived by plant cells like a phosphate starvation stress since several phosphate deprivation marker genes were deregulated by U and also highlighted perturbation of iron homeostasis by U. Hypotheses are presented to explain how U perturbs the iron uptake and signaling response. These results give preliminary insights into the pathways affected by uranyl uptake, which will be of interest for engineering plants to help clean areas contaminated with

  11. Genetic modulation of plasma NPY stress response is suppressed in substance abuse: association with clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Hong, Kwangik Adam; Zhou, Zhifeng; Hauger, Richard L; Goldman, David; Sinha, Rajita

    2012-04-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in stress regulation. Genetic variations predict plasma NPY and neural correlates of emotion and stress. We examined whether the functional NPY haplotype modulates stress-induced NPY and anxiety responses, and if plasma NPY stress responses are associated with substance dependence outcomes. Thirty-seven treatment-engaged, abstinent substance dependent (SD) patients and 28 healthy controls (HCs) characterized on NPY diplotypes (HH: high expression; HLLL: intermediate/low expression) were exposed to stress, alcohol/drug cues and neutral relaxing cues, using individualized guided imagery, in a 3-session laboratory experiment. Plasma NPY, heart rate and anxiety were assessed. Patients were prospectively followed for 90-days post-treatment to assess relapse outcomes. HH individuals showed significantly lower stress-induced NPY with greater heart rate and anxiety ratings, while the HLLL group showed the reverse pattern of NPY, anxiety and heart rate responses. This differential genetic modulation of NPY stress response was suppressed in the SD group, who showed no stress-related increases in NPY and higher heart rate and greater anxiety, regardless of diplotype. Lower NPY predicted subsequent higher number of days and greater amounts of post-treatment drug use. These preliminary findings are the first to document chronic drug abuse influences on NPY diplotype expression where NPY diplotype modulation of stress-related plasma NPY, heart rate and anxiety responses was absent in the substance abuse sample. The finding that lower stress-related NPY is predictive of greater relapse severity provides support for therapeutic development of neuropeptide Y targets in the treatment of substance use disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptome Profiling of Watermelon Root in Response to Short-Term Osmotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongchao; Mo, Yanling; Yang, Xiaozheng; Zhang, Haifei; Wang, Yongqi; Li, Hao; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Osmotic stress adversely affects the growth, fruit quality and yield of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai). Increasing the tolerance of watermelon to osmotic stress caused by factors such as high salt and water deficit is an effective way to improve crop survival in osmotic stress environments. Roots are important organs in water absorption and are involved in the initial response to osmosis stress; however, few studies have examined the underlying mechanism of tolerance to osmotic stress in watermelon roots. For better understanding of this mechanism, the inbred watermelon accession M08, which exhibits relatively high tolerance to water deficits, was treated with 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. The root samples were harvested at 6 h after PEG treatment and untreated samples were used as controls. Transcriptome analyses were carried out by Illumina RNA sequencing. A total of 5246 differentially expressed genes were identified. Gene ontology enrichment and biochemical pathway analyses of these 5246 genes showed that short-term osmotic stress affected osmotic adjustment, signal transduction, hormone responses, cell division, cell cycle and ribosome, and M08 may repress root growth to adapt osmotic stress. The results of this study describe the watermelon root transcriptome under osmotic stress and propose new insight into watermelon root responses to osmotic stress at the transcriptome level. Accordingly, these results allow us to better understand the molecular mechanisms of watermelon in response to drought stress and will facilitate watermelon breeding projects to improve drought tolerance.

  13. Central neuropeptide Y (NPH) expression and function : role in stress, experimental anxiety, and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsell, Annika

    2000-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36 amino acid peptide abundantly expressed throughout the mammalian nervous system, has been implicated in experimental anxiety and stress related responses, feeding, and learning and memory. These functions are mediated via different receptor subtype populations (Y1-Y6), all belonging to the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. The Y1 -subtype has been shown to mediate the anxiolytic effects of NPY, while the Y2 subtype is involved in regulation o...

  14. Proteomic analysis of cold stress responses in tobacco seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stress is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting the productivity and the geographical distribution of many important crops. To gain a better understanding of cold stress responses in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we carried out a comparative proteomic analysis. Five-week-old tobacco seedlings were treated at 4°C ...

  15. gender and school types as factors responsible for job stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    public Universities should be looked into so that all factors responsible for stress might be .... universities in Malaysia, university academic staffs faced more problems .... adjustment with different coping styles. .... in college students: The role of rumination and stress. ... International Journal of Stress Management, 8, 285–29.

  16. Heart rate response to post-learning stress predicts memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larra, Mauro F; Schulz, André; Schilling, Thomas M; Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Best, Daniel; Kozik, Bartlomiej; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Stressful experiences are often well remembered, an effect that has been explained by beta-adrenergic influences on memory consolidation. Here, we studied the impact of stress induced heart rate (HR) responses on memory consolidation in a post-learning stress paradigm. 206 male and female participants saw 52 happy and angry faces immediately before being exposed to the Cold Pressor Test or a non-stressful control procedure. Memory for the faces and their respective expression was tested twice, after 30 min and on the next day. High HR responders (in comparison to low HR responders as well as to the non-stressful control group) showed enhanced recognition memory one day after learning. Our results show that beta-adrenergic activation elicited shortly after learning enhances memory consolidation and that the stress induced HR response is a predictor for this effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sterre S H; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with the cortisol stress response in children. Since alterations in cortisol stress responses have been associated with mental and physical health, this study investigated whether the cortisol circadian rhythm is associated with cortisol stress responses in 6-year-old children. To this end, 149 normally developing children (M age  = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an innovative social evaluative stress test that effectively provoked increases in cortisol. To determine the cortisol stress response, six cortisol saliva samples were collected and two cortisol stress response indices were calculated: total stress cortisol and cortisol stress reactivity. To determine children's cortisol circadian rhythm eight cortisol circadian samples were collected during two days. Total diurnal cortisol and diurnal cortisol decline scores were calculated as indices of the cortisol circadian rhythm. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that higher total diurnal cortisol as well as a smaller diurnal cortisol decline, were both uniquely associated with higher total stress cortisol. No associations were found between the cortisol circadian rhythm indices and cortisol stress reactivity. Possible explanations for the patterns found are links with children's self-regulatory capacities and parenting quality.

  18. Approaches to modeling the development of physiological stress responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Philbrook, Lauren E; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2018-05-01

    Influential biopsychosocial theories have proposed that some developmental periods in the lifespan are potential pivot points or opportunities for recalibration of stress response systems. To date, however, there have been few longitudinal studies of physiological stress responsivity and no studies comparing change in physiological stress responsivity across developmental periods. Our goals were to (a) address conceptual and methodological issues in studying the development of physiological stress responsivity within and between individuals, and (b) provide an exemplar for evaluating development of responsivity to stress in the parasympathetic nervous system, comparing respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) responsivity from middle to late childhood with middle to late adolescence. We propose the use of latent growth modeling of stress responsivity that includes time-varying covariates to account for conceptual and methodological issues in the measurement of physiological stress responsivity. Such models allow researchers to address key aspects of developmental sensitivity including within-individual variability, mean level change over time, and between-individual variability over time. In an empirical example, we found significant between-individual variability over time in RSA responsivity to stress during middle to late childhood but not during middle to late adolescence, suggesting that childhood may be a period of greater developmental sensitivity at the between-individual level. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Transcriptomic responses to heat stress and bleaching in the elkhorn coral Acropora palmata

    KAUST Repository

    DeSalvo, MK

    2010-03-08

    The emergence of genomic tools for reef-building corals and symbiotic anemones comes at a time when alarming losses in coral cover are being observed worldwide. These tools hold great promise in elucidating novel and unforeseen cellular processes underlying the successful mutualism between corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts Symbiodinium spp. Since thermal stress triggers a breakdown in the symbiosis (coral bleaching), measuring the transcriptomic response to thermal stress-induced bleaching offers an extraordinary view of cellular processes that are specific to coral–algal symbioses. In the present study, we utilized a cDNA microarray containing 2059 genes of the threatened Caribbean elkhorn coral Acropora palmata to identify genes that are differentially expressed upon thermal stress. Fragments from replicate colonies were exposed to elevated temperature for 2 d, and samples were frozen for microarray analysis after 24 and 48 h. Totals of 204 and 104 genes were differentially expressed in samples that were collected 1 and 2 d after thermal stress, respectively. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicates a cellular stress response in A. palmata involving (1) growth arrest, (2) chaperone activity, (3) nucleic acid stabilization and repair, and (4) removal of damaged macromolecules. Other differentially expressed processes include sensory perception, metabolite transfer between host and endosymbiont, nitric oxide signaling, and modifications to the actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. The results are compared with those from a previous coral microarray study of thermal stress in Montastraea faveolata, and point to an overall evolutionary conserved bleaching response in scleractinian corals.

  20. Transcriptomic responses to heat stress and bleaching in the elkhorn coral Acropora palmata

    KAUST Repository

    DeSalvo, MK; Sunagawa, S; Voolstra, Christian R.; Medina, M

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of genomic tools for reef-building corals and symbiotic anemones comes at a time when alarming losses in coral cover are being observed worldwide. These tools hold great promise in elucidating novel and unforeseen cellular processes underlying the successful mutualism between corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts Symbiodinium spp. Since thermal stress triggers a breakdown in the symbiosis (coral bleaching), measuring the transcriptomic response to thermal stress-induced bleaching offers an extraordinary view of cellular processes that are specific to coral–algal symbioses. In the present study, we utilized a cDNA microarray containing 2059 genes of the threatened Caribbean elkhorn coral Acropora palmata to identify genes that are differentially expressed upon thermal stress. Fragments from replicate colonies were exposed to elevated temperature for 2 d, and samples were frozen for microarray analysis after 24 and 48 h. Totals of 204 and 104 genes were differentially expressed in samples that were collected 1 and 2 d after thermal stress, respectively. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicates a cellular stress response in A. palmata involving (1) growth arrest, (2) chaperone activity, (3) nucleic acid stabilization and repair, and (4) removal of damaged macromolecules. Other differentially expressed processes include sensory perception, metabolite transfer between host and endosymbiont, nitric oxide signaling, and modifications to the actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. The results are compared with those from a previous coral microarray study of thermal stress in Montastraea faveolata, and point to an overall evolutionary conserved bleaching response in scleractinian corals.

  1. Influence of water stress on Botryosphaeriaceae disease expression in grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan VAN NIEKERK

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several species in Botryosphaeriaceae have been associated with grapevine trunk diseases. To evaluate the effect of water stress on infection of grapevines by Botryosphaeriaceae spp., 1-year-old Shiraz/101-14 Mgt nursery grapevine plants were planted in plastic potting bags and placed outdoors under shade netting. Five weeks after planting, vines were pruned and the pruning wounds inoculated with spore suspensions of Neofusicoccum australe, Neofusicoccum parvum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae or Diplodia seriata. Control treatments consisted of applications of sterile water or a Trichoderma harzianum spore suspension. Stem inoculations were done by inserting a colonised or uncolonised agar plug into a wound made in each stem. Four different irrigation regimes were introduced 12 weeks after planting to simulate varying degrees of water stress. Measurements of stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate and leaf spectrometry were made to monitor physiological stress. Eight months after inoculation, vines were uprooted and the root, shoot and plant mass of each vine determined. Lesions observed in the inoculated pruning wounds and stems were also measured. Vines subjected to the lowest irrigation regime were significantly smaller than optimally irrigated vines. Water stressed vines also had significantly lower photosynthetic rates and levels of stomatal conductance compared with vines receiving optimal irrigation, indicating that these plants experienced significantly higher levels of physiological stress. The mean lesion length was significantly longer in the pruning wounds and stems of plants subjected to the lowest irrigation regime, with lesion length declining linearly with increasing irrigation volume. These results clearly indicate that when a grapevine is exposed to water stress, colonisation and disease expression by Botryosphaeriaceae spp. are much more severe.

  2. Overexpression of a Cytosolic Abiotic Stress Responsive Universal Stress Protein (SbUSP) Mitigates Salt and Osmotic Stress in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawat, Pushpika; Jha, Rajesh K.; Sinha, Dinkar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    The universal stress protein (USP) is a ubiquitous protein and plays an indispensable role in plant abiotic stress tolerance. The genome of Salicornia brachiata contains two homologs of intron less SbUSP gene which encodes for salt and osmotic responsive USP. In vivo localization reveals that SbUSP is a membrane bound cytosolic protein. The role of the gene was functionally validated by developing transgenic tobacco and compared with control [wild-type (WT) and vector control (VC)] plants under different abiotic stress condition. Transgenic lines (T1) exhibited higher chlorophyll, relative water, proline, total sugar, reducing sugar, free amino acids, polyphenol contents, osmotic potential, membrane stability, and lower electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde content) under stress treatments than control (WT and VC) plants. Lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2− radicals was also detected in transgenic lines compared to control plants under stress conditions. Present study confers that overexpression of the SbUSP gene enhances plant growth, alleviates ROS buildup, maintains ion homeostasis and improves the physiological status of the plant under salt and osmotic stresses. Principal component analysis exhibited a statistical distinction of plant response to salinity stress, and a significant response was observed for transgenic lines under stress, which provides stress endurance to the plant. A possible signaling role is proposed that some downstream genes may get activated by abiotic stress responsive cytosolic SbUSP, which leads to the protection of cell from oxidative damages. The study unveils that ectopic expression of the gene mitigates salt or osmotic stress by scavenging ROS and modulating the physiological process of the plant. PMID:27148338

  3. Memory responses of jasmonic acid-associated Arabidopsis genes to a repeated dehydration stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Staswick, Paul E; Avramova, Zoya

    2016-11-01

    Dehydration stress activates numerous genes co-regulated by diverse signaling pathways. Upon repeated exposures, however, a subset of these genes does not respond maintaining instead transcription at their initial pre-stressed levels ('revised-response' genes). Most of these genes are involved in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis, JA-signaling and JA-mediated stress responses. How these JA-associated genes are regulated to provide different responses to similar dehydration stresses is an enigma. Here, we investigate molecular mechanisms that contribute to this transcriptional behavior. The memory-mechanism is stress-specific: one exposure to dehydration stress or to abscisic acid (ABA) is required to prevent transcription in the second. Both ABA-mediated and JA-mediated pathways are critical for the activation of these genes, but the two signaling pathways interact differently during a single or multiple encounters with dehydration stress. Synthesis of JA during the first (S1) but not the second dehydration stress (S2) accounts for the altered transcriptional responses. We propose a model for these memory responses, wherein lack of MYC2 and of JA synthesis in S2 is responsible for the lack of expression of downstream genes. The similar length of the memory displayed by different memory-type genes suggests biological relevance for transcriptional memory as a gene-regulating mechanism during recurring bouts of drought. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Adaptive Responses to Thermal Stress in Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Lenis Sanin; Angélica María Zuluaga Cabrera; Ariel Marcel Tarazona Morales

    2015-01-01

    The environment animals have to cope with is a combination of natural factors such as temperature. Extreme changes in these factors can alter homeostasis, which can lead to thermal stress. This stress can be due to either high temperatures or low temperatures. Energy transference for thermoregulation in homoeothermic animals occurs through several mechanisms: conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation. When animals are subjected to thermal stress, physiological mechanisms are activated...

  5. Psychophysiological responses to stress after stress management training in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine J M de Brouwer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress management interventions may prove useful in preventing the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study assessed the effects of a stress management intervention on the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. METHODS: Seventy-four patients with RA, who were randomly assigned to either a control group or a group that received short-term stress management training, performed a standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST 1 week after the stress management training and at a 9-week follow-up. Psychological and physical functioning, and the acute psychophysiological response to the stress test were assessed. RESULTS: Patients in the intervention group showed significantly lower psychological distress levels of anxiety after the training than did the controls. While there were no between-group differences in stress-induced tension levels, and autonomic (α-amylase or endocrine (cortisol responses to the stress test 1 week after the intervention, levels of stress-induced tension and cortisol were significantly lower in the intervention group at the 9-week follow-up. Overall, the response to the intervention was particularly evident in a subgroup of patients with a psychological risk profile. CONCLUSION: A relatively short stress management intervention can improve psychological functioning and influences the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with RA, particularly those psychologically at risk. These findings might help understand how stress can affect health and the role of individual differences in stress responsiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: TrialRegister.nl NTR1193.

  6. Transcriptome sequencing and whole genome expression profiling of chrysanthemum under dehydration stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Chrysanthemum is one of the most important ornamental crops in the world and drought stress seriously limits its production and distribution. In order to generate a functional genomics resource and obtain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding chrysanthemum responses to dehydration stress, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum plants under dehydration stress using the Illumina sequencing technology. Results Two cDNA libraries constructed from mRNAs of control and dehydration-treated seedlings were sequenced by Illumina technology. A total of more than 100 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 98,180 unique transcripts which were further extensively annotated by comparing their sequencing to different protein databases. Biochemical pathways were predicted from these transcript sequences. Furthermore, we performed gene expression profiling analysis upon dehydration treatment in chrysanthemum and identified 8,558 dehydration-responsive unique transcripts, including 307 transcription factors and 229 protein kinases and many well-known stress responsive genes. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment and biochemical pathway analyses showed that dehydration stress caused changes in hormone response, secondary and amino acid metabolism, and light and photoperiod response. These findings suggest that drought tolerance of chrysanthemum plants may be related to the regulation of hormone biosynthesis and signaling, reduction of oxidative damage, stabilization of cell proteins and structures, and maintenance of energy and carbon supply. Conclusions Our transcriptome sequences can provide a valuable resource for chrysanthemum breeding and research and novel insights into chrysanthemum responses to dehydration stress and offer candidate genes or markers that can be used to guide future studies attempting to breed drought tolerant chrysanthemum cultivars. PMID:24074255

  7. Differential expression pattern of heat shock protein 70 gene in tissues and heat stress phenotypes in goats during peak heat stress period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, P K; Kaushik, R; Ramachandran, N

    2016-07-01

    It has been established that the synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is temperature-dependent. The Hsp70 response is considered as a cellular thermometer in response to heat stress and other stimuli. The variation in Hsp70 gene expression has been positively correlated with thermotolerance in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, rodents and human. Goats have a wide range of ecological adaptability due to their anatomical and physiological characteristics; however, the productivity of the individual declines during thermal stress. The present study was carried out to analyze the expression of heat shock proteins in different tissues and to contrast heat stress phenotypes in response to chronic heat stress. The investigation has been carried out in Jamunapari, Barbari, Jakhrana and Sirohi goats. These breeds differ in size, coat colour and production performance. The heat stress assessment in goats was carried out at a temperature humidity index (THI) ranging from 85.36-89.80 over the period. Phenotyping for heat stress susceptibility was carried out by combining respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR). Based on the distribution of RR and HR over the breeds in the population, individual animals were recognized as heat stress-susceptible (HSS) and heat stress-tolerant (HST). Based on their physiological responses, the selected animals were slaughtered for tissue collection during peak heat stress periods. The tissue samples from different organs such as liver, spleen, heart, testis, brain and lungs were collected and stored at -70 °C for future use. Hsp70 concentrations were analyzed from tissue extract with ELISA. mRNA expression levels were evaluated using the SYBR green method. Kidney, liver and heart had 1.5-2.0-fold higher Hsp70 concentrations as compared to other organs in the tissue extracts. Similarly, the gene expression pattern of Hsp70 in different organs indicated that the liver, spleen, brain and kidney exhibited 5.94, 4.96, 5

  8. Stress associated gene expression in blood cells is related to outcome in radiotherapy treated head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bøhn, Siv K; Blomhoff, Rune; Russnes, Kjell M; Sakhi, Amrit K; Thoresen, Magne; Holden, Marit; Moskaug, JanØ; Myhrstad, Mari C; Olstad, Ole K; Smeland, Sigbjørn

    2012-01-01

    We previously observed that a radiotherapy-induced biochemical response in plasma was associated with favourable outcome in head and neck squamous carcinoma cancer (HNSCC) patients. The aim of the present study was to compare stress associated blood cell gene expression between two sub-groups of HNSCC patients with different biochemical responses to radiotherapy. Out of 87 patients (histologically verified), 10 biochemical ‘responders’ having a high relative increase in plasma oxidative damage and a concomitant decrease in plasma antioxidants during radiotherapy and 10 ‘poor-responders’ were selected for gene-expression analysis and compared using gene set enrichment analysis. There was a significant induction of stress-relevant gene-sets in the responders following radiotherapy compared to the poor-responders. The relevance of the involvement of similar stress associated gene expression for HNSCC cancer and radioresistance was verified using two publicly available data sets of 42 HNSCC cases and 14 controls (GEO GSE6791), and radiation resistant and radiation sensitive HNSCC xenografts (E-GEOD-9716). Radiotherapy induces a systemic stress response, as revealed by induction of stress relevant gene expression in blood cells, which is associated to favourable outcome in a cohort of 87 HNSCC patients. Whether these changes in gene expression reflects a systemic effect or are biomarkers of the tumour micro-environmental status needs further study. Raw data are available at ArrayExpress under accession number E-MEXP-2460

  9. Antioxidant responses and cellular adjustments to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Diez, Cristina; Miguel, Verónica; Mennerich, Daniela; Kietzmann, Thomas; Sánchez-Pérez, Patricia; Cadenas, Susana; Lamas, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Redox biological reactions are now accepted to bear the Janus faceted feature of promoting both physiological signaling responses and pathophysiological cues. Endogenous antioxidant molecules participate in both scenarios. This review focuses on the role of crucial cellular nucleophiles, such as glutathione, and their capacity to interact with oxidants and to establish networks with other critical enzymes such as peroxiredoxins. We discuss the importance of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway as an example of a transcriptional antioxidant response and we summarize transcriptional routes related to redox activation. As examples of pathophysiological cellular and tissular settings where antioxidant responses are major players we highlight endoplasmic reticulum stress and ischemia reperfusion. Topologically confined redox-mediated post-translational modifications of thiols are considered important molecular mechanisms mediating many antioxidant responses, whereas redox-sensitive microRNAs have emerged as key players in the posttranscriptional regulation of redox-mediated gene expression. Understanding such mechanisms may provide the basis for antioxidant-based therapeutic interventions in redox-related diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Influence of chemical peeling on the skin stress response system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Ayako; Kanazawa, Nobuo; Li, Hong-Jin; Yonei, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2012-07-01

    Skin stress response system (SSRS) involves corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and b-endorphin that are locally generated in response to locally provided stressors or proinflammatory cytokines. This system would restrict tissue damage and restore local homoeostasis. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is one of the most widely used peeling agents and applied for cosmetic treatment of photodamaged skin. However, the biological mechanism responsible for TCA peeling has yet to be fully determined. While our investigation focused on the inflammation and wound healing pathways, in the recent study, we have examined involvement of the SSRS as the third pathway. Mostly depending on our findings that TCA peeling activates the SSRS by inducing the POMC expression of keratinocytes in the CRH-independent manner, together with the results reported by other researchers, we can say that the biological effect of POMC seems to be responsible for the TCA-induced epidermal SSRS activation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Transcriptome Responses to Combinations of Stresses in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Barah, Pankaj; Suarez-Rodriguez, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the response of the majority of the genes cannot be predicted from single stress experiments and only a small fraction of the genes have potential antagonistic responses, indicating that plants have evolved to cope with combinations of stresses and therefore may be bred to endure...

  12. Perceived stress at work is associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2013-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) have been suggested to play a protective role during acute psychosocial stress, because they act as antagonists to the effects of the stress hormone cortisol. This study aims to investigate whether prolonged psychosocial stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, is related to the capacity to produce DHEA and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. It also aims to investigate whether prolonged perceived stress affects the balance between production of cortisol and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. Thirty-six healthy subjects (19 men and 17 women, mean age 37 years, SD 5 years), were included. Perceived stress at work during the past week was measured by using the Stress-Energy (SE) Questionnaire. The participants were divided into three groups based on their mean scores; Low stress, Medium stress and High stress. The participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. General Linear Models were used to investigate if the Medium stress group and the High stress group differ regarding stress response compared to the Low stress group. Higher perceived stress at work was associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress. Furthermore, the ratio between the cortisol production and the DHEA-S production during the acute stress test were higher in individuals reporting higher perceived stress at work compared to individuals reporting low perceived stress at work. There was no statistical difference in DHEA response between the groups. This study shows that prolonged stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, seems to negatively affect the capacity to produce DHEA-S during acute stress. Given the protective functions of DHEA-S, attenuated DHEA-S production during acute stress may lead to higher risk for adverse

  13. Genome-wide identification of differentially expressed genes under water deficit stress in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wonkeun; Scheffler, Brian E; Bauer, Philip J; Campbell, B Todd

    2012-06-15

    Cotton is the world's primary fiber crop and is a major agricultural commodity in over 30 countries. Like many other global commodities, sustainable cotton production is challenged by restricted natural resources. In response to the anticipated increase of agricultural water demand, a major research direction involves developing crops that use less water or that use water more efficiently. In this study, our objective was to identify differentially expressed genes in response to water deficit stress in cotton. A global expression analysis using cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism was conducted to compare root and leaf gene expression profiles from a putative drought resistant cotton cultivar grown under water deficit stressed and well watered field conditions. We identified a total of 519 differentially expressed transcript derived fragments. Of these, 147 transcript derived fragment sequences were functionally annotated according to their gene ontology. Nearly 70 percent of transcript derived fragments belonged to four major categories: 1) unclassified, 2) stress/defense, 3) metabolism, and 4) gene regulation. We found heat shock protein-related and reactive oxygen species-related transcript derived fragments to be among the major parts of functional pathways induced by water deficit stress. Also, twelve novel transcripts were identified as both water deficit responsive and cotton specific. A subset of differentially expressed transcript derived fragments was verified using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Differential expression analysis also identified five pairs of duplicated transcript derived fragments in which four pairs responded differentially between each of their two homologues under water deficit stress. In this study, we detected differentially expressed transcript derived fragments from water deficit stressed root and leaf tissues in tetraploid cotton and provided their gene ontology, functional/biological distribution, and

  14. The temporal dynamics of the stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; Meerlo, P; de Boer, S.F.; Strubbe, J.H.; Bohus, B.G J

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarises the available evidence that failure of defense mechanisms in (semi)-natural social groups of animals may lead to serious forms of stress pathology. Hence the study of social stress may provide animal models with a high face validity. However, most of the animal models of human

  15. Identification of wild soybean (Glycine soja) TIFY family genes and their expression profiling analysis under bicarbonate stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Luo, Xiao; Chen, Qin; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2013-02-01

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja L. G07256) exhibits a greater adaptability to soil bicarbonate stress than cultivated soybean, and recent discoveries show that TIFY family genes are involved in the response to several abiotic stresses. A genomic and transcriptomic analysis of all TIFY genes in G. soja, compared with G. max, will provide insight into the function of this gene family in plant bicarbonate stress response. This article identified and characterized 34 TIFY genes in G. soja. Sequence analyses indicated that most GsTIFY proteins had two conserved domains: TIFY and Jas. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that these GsTIFY genes could be classified into two groups. A clustering analysis of all GsTIFY transcript expression profiles from bicarbonate stress treated G. soja showed that there were five different transcript patterns in leaves and six different transcript patterns in roots when the GsTIFY family responds to bicarbonate stress. Moreover, the expression level changes of all TIFY genes in cultivated soybean, treated with bicarbonate stress, were also verified. The expression comparison analysis of TIFYs between wild and cultivated soybeans confirmed that, different from the cultivated soybean, GsTIFY (10a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10f, 11a, and 11b) were dramatically up-regulated at the early stage of stress, while GsTIFY 1c and 2b were significantly up-regulated at the later period of stress. The frequently stress responsive and diverse expression profiles of the GsTIFY gene family suggests that this family may play important roles in plant environmental stress responses and adaptation.

  16. Hypoxic stress up-regulates the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in macrophages via hypoxia-inducible factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Choi, Yong Jun; Joung, Sun Myung; Lee, Byung Ho; Jung, Yi-Sook; Lee, Joo Young

    2010-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are germline-encoded innate immune receptors that recognize invading micro-organisms and induce immune and inflammatory responses. Deregulation of TLRs is known to be closely linked to various immune disorders and inflammatory diseases. Cells at sites of inflammation are exposed to hypoxic stress, which further aggravates inflammatory processes. We have examined if hypoxic stress modulates the TLR activity of macrophages. Hypoxia and CoCl(2) (a hypoxia mimetic) enhanced the expression of TLR4 messenger RNA and protein in macrophages (RAW264.7 cells), whereas the messenger RNA of other TLRs was not increased. To determine the underlying mechanism, we investigated the role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in the regulation of TLR4 expression. Knockdown of HIF-1alpha expression by small interfering RNA inhibited hypoxia-induced and CoCl(2)-induced TLR4 expression in macrophages, while over-expression of HIF-1alpha potentiated TLR4 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that HIF-1alpha binds to the TLR4 promoter region under hypoxic conditions. In addition, deletion or mutation of a putative HIF-1-binding motif in the TLR4 promoter greatly attenuated HIF-1alpha-induced TLR4 promoter reporter expression. Up-regulation of TLR4 expression by hypoxic stress enhanced the response of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide, resulting in increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted, and interferon-inducible protein-10. These results demonstrate that TLR4 expression in macrophages is up-regulated via HIF-1 in response to hypoxic stress, suggesting that hypoxic stress at sites of inflammation enhances susceptibility to subsequent infection and inflammatory signals by up-regulating TLR4.

  17. Global gene expression in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. leaves to waterlogging stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Zhang

    Full Text Available Cotton is sensitive to waterlogging stress, which usually results in stunted growth and yield loss. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the responses to waterlogging in cotton remain elusive. Cotton was grown in a rain-shelter and subjected to 0 (control-, 10-, 15- and 20-d waterlogging at flowering stage. The fourth-leaves on the main-stem from the top were sampled and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen for physiological measurement. Global gene transcription in the leaves of 15-d waterlogged plants was analyzed by RNA-Seq. Seven hundred and ninety four genes were up-regulated and 1018 genes were down-regulated in waterlogged cotton leaves compared with non-waterlogged control. The differentially expressed genes were mainly related to photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis and plant hormone signal transduction. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis indicated that most genes related to flavonoid biosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis as well as circadian rhythm pathways were differently expressed. Waterlogging increased the expression of anaerobic fermentation related genes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, but decreased the leaf chlorophyll concentration and photosynthesis by down-regulating the expression of photosynthesis related genes. Many genes related to plant hormones and transcription factors were differently expressed under waterlogging stress. Most of the ethylene related genes and ethylene-responsive factor-type transcription factors were up-regulated under water-logging stress, suggesting that ethylene may play key roles in the survival of cotton under waterlogging stress.

  18. Impulsivity and Stress Response in Pathological Gamblers During the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniaci, G; Goudriaan, A E; Cannizzaro, C; van Holst, R J

    2018-03-01

    Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on cortisol and on cardiac interbeat intervals in relation to impulsivity, in a sample of male pathological gamblers compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the TSST, duration of the disorder and impulsivity. A total of 35 pathological gamblers and 30 healthy controls, ranging from 19 to 58 years old and all male, participated in this study. Stress response was measured during and after the TSST by salivary cortisol and cardiac interbeat intervals; impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Exposure to the TSST produced a significant increase in salivary cortisol and interbeat intervals in both groups, without differences between groups. We found a negative correlation between baseline cortisol and duration of pathological gambling indicating that the longer the duration of the disorder the lower the baseline cortisol levels. Additionally, we found a main effect of impulsivity across groups on interbeat interval during the TSST, indicating an association between impulsivity and the intensity of the neurovegetative stress response during the TSST. Involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pathological gambling was confirmed together with evidence of a correlation between length of the disorder and diminished baseline cortisol levels. Impulsivity emerged as a personality trait expressed by pathological gamblers; however the neurovegetative response to the TSST, although associated with impulsivity, appeared to be independent of the presence of pathological gambling.

  19. Management of the endoplasmic reticulum stress by activation of the heat shock response in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Tang, Hongting; Liu, Zihe

    2014-01-01

    In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is mediated by Hac1p. The heat shock response (HSR) mediated by Hsf1p, mainly regulates cytosolic processes and protects...... the cell from stresses. Here, we find that a constitutive activation of the HSR could increase ER stress resistance in both wild-type and UPR-deficient cells. Activation of HSR decreased UPR activation in the WT (as shown by the decreased HAC1 mRNA splicing). We analyzed the genome-wide transcriptional...... response in order to propose regulatory mechanisms that govern the interplay between UPR and HSR and followed up for the hypotheses by experiments in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, we found that the regulation of ER stress response via HSR is (1) only partially dependent on over-expression of Kar2p (ER...

  20. Psychological and hormonal stress response patterns during a blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, M D; Veldhuizen, I J T; Merz, E-M; de Kort, W L A M; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-11-01

    Donating blood has been associated with increased stress responses, with scarce evidence indicating that levels of psychological and hormonal stress are higher pre-donation than post-donation. We investigated whether a blood donation induces psychological and/or hormonal stress during the course of a blood donation, and whether responses differed between men and women, first-time and experienced donors and donors with high or low non-acute stress. In 363 donors, psychological (donation-stress and arousal) and hormonal (cortisol) stress were measured by questionnaire and salivary sample at seven key moments during a routine donation. Non-acute stress was assessed by a questionnaire. Repeated measurement analyses were performed, using the last measurement (leaving the donation center) as reference value. Levels of donation-stress, arousal and cortisol were significantly higher during donation than when leaving the donation center. When compared with men, women reported higher levels of donation-stress and cortisol in the first part of the visit. When compared with first-time donors, experienced donors reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and higher levels of arousal but less reactivity throughout the visit. When compared to donors high on non-acute stress, donors low on non-acute stress reported lower levels of donation-stress during the first part of the visit, and showed less cortisol reactivity throughout the visit. Donating blood influences psychological and hormonal stress response patterns. The response patterns differ between women and men, first-time and experienced donors and between donors high and low on non-acute stress. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  1. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kawa, Dorota; Julkowska, Magdalena; Montero Sommerfeld, Hector; Horst, Anneliek ter; Haring, Michel A; Testerink, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced main root length and increased the number of lateral roots of Arabidopsis Col-0 seedlings. In combination with salt, low Pi dampened the inhibiting effect of mild salt stress (75mM) on all measured RSA components. At higher NaCl concentrations, the Pi deprivation response prevailed over the salt stress only for lateral root elongation. The Pi deprivation response of lateral roots appeared to be oppositely affected by abscisic acid (ABA) signaling compared to the salt stress response. Natural variation in the response to the combination treatment of salt and Pi starvation within 330 Arabidopsis accessions could be grouped into four response patterns. When exposed to double stress, in general lateral roots prioritized responses to salt, while the effect on main root traits was additive. Interestingly, these patterns were not identical for all accessions studied and multiple strategies to integrate the signals from Pi deprivation and salinity were identified. By Genome Wide Association Mapping (GWAS) 13 genomic loci were identified as putative factors integrating responses to salt stress and Pi starvation. From our experiments, we conclude that Pi starvation interferes with salt responses mainly at the level of lateral roots and that large natural variation exists in the available genetic repertoire of accessions to handle the combination of stresses.

  2. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kawa, Dorota

    2016-05-20

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced main root length and increased the number of lateral roots of Arabidopsis Col-0 seedlings. In combination with salt, low Pi dampened the inhibiting effect of mild salt stress (75mM) on all measured RSA components. At higher NaCl concentrations, the Pi deprivation response prevailed over the salt stress only for lateral root elongation. The Pi deprivation response of lateral roots appeared to be oppositely affected by abscisic acid (ABA) signaling compared to the salt stress response. Natural variation in the response to the combination treatment of salt and Pi starvation within 330 Arabidopsis accessions could be grouped into four response patterns. When exposed to double stress, in general lateral roots prioritized responses to salt, while the effect on main root traits was additive. Interestingly, these patterns were not identical for all accessions studied and multiple strategies to integrate the signals from Pi deprivation and salinity were identified. By Genome Wide Association Mapping (GWAS) 13 genomic loci were identified as putative factors integrating responses to salt stress and Pi starvation. From our experiments, we conclude that Pi starvation interferes with salt responses mainly at the level of lateral roots and that large natural variation exists in the available genetic repertoire of accessions to handle the combination of stresses.

  3. Perturbation of Auxin Homeostasis and Signaling by PINOID Overexpression Induces Stress Responses in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumud Saini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Under normal and stress conditions plant growth require a complex interplay between phytohormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS. However, details of the nature of this crosstalk remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that PINOID (PID, a serine threonine kinase of the AGC kinase family, perturbs auxin homeostasis, which in turn modulates rosette growth and induces stress responses in Arabidopsis plants. Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic plants with altered PID expression were used to study the effect on auxin levels and stress-related responses. In the leaves of plants with ectopic PID expression an accumulation of auxin, oxidative burst and disruption of hormonal balance was apparent. Furthermore, PID overexpression led to the accumulation of antioxidant metabolites, while pid knockout mutants showed only moderate changes in stress-related metabolites. These physiological changes in the plants overexpressing PID modulated their response toward external drought and osmotic stress treatments when compared to the wild type. Based on the morphological, transcriptome, and metabolite results, we propose that perturbations in the auxin hormone levels caused by PID overexpression, along with other hormones and ROS downstream, cause antioxidant accumulation and modify growth and stress responses in Arabidopsis. Our data provide further proof for a strong correlation between auxin and stress biology.

  4. Response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi, Abass; Bakhshian, Fereshteh; Narimani, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder, clients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and normal individuals. This was a comparative study. The sample consisted of 40 clients with acute stress disorder, 40 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40 normal individuals from Mazandaran province selected through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Stroop Color-Word Test, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. Results showed that individuals with acute stress disorder are less able to inhibit inappropriate responses and have more impaired cognitive appraisals compared to those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, results showed that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal explain 75% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and 38% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. The findings suggest that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal are two variables that influence the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder symptoms. Also, these results have important implications for pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder.

  5. Response Inhibition and Cognitive Appraisal in Clients with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abass Abolghasemi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder, clients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and normal individuals .Method:This was a comparative study. The sample consisted of 40 clients with acute stress disorder, 40 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40 normal individuals from Mazandaran province selected through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Stroop Color-Word Test, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. Results:Results showed that individuals with acute stress disorder are less able to inhibit inappropriate responses and have more impaired cognitive appraisals compared to those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, results showed that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal explain 75% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and 38% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms .Conclusion:The findings suggest that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal are two variables that influence the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder symptoms. Also, these results have important implications for pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder

  6. Transcriptional 'memory' of a stress: transient chromatin and memory (epigenetic) marks at stress-response genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramova, Zoya

    2015-07-01

    Drought, salinity, extreme temperature variations, pathogen and herbivory attacks are recurring environmental stresses experienced by plants throughout their life. To survive repeated stresses, plants provide responses that may be different from their response during the first encounter with the stress. A different response to a similar stress represents the concept of 'stress memory'. A coordinated reaction at the organismal, cellular and gene/genome levels is thought to increase survival chances by improving the plant's tolerance/avoidance abilities. Ultimately, stress memory may provide a mechanism for acclimation and adaptation. At the molecular level, the concept of stress memory indicates that the mechanisms responsible for memory-type transcription during repeated stresses are not based on repetitive activation of the same response pathways activated by the first stress. Some recent advances in the search for transcription 'memory factors' are discussed with an emphasis on super-induced dehydration stress memory response genes in Arabidopsis. © 2015 The Author The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Increased oxidative stress and antioxidant expression in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Adrienne T.; Gray, Joshua P.; Shakarjian, Michael P.; Laskin, Debra L.; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) is a widely used herbicide known to induce skin toxicity. This is thought to be due to oxidative stress resulting from the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) during paraquat redox cycling. The skin contains a diverse array of antioxidant enzymes which protect against oxidative stress including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), metallothionein-2 (MT-2), and glutathione-S-transferases (GST). In the present studies we compared paraquat redox cycling in primary cultures of undifferentiated and differentiated mouse keratinocytes and determined if this was associated with oxidative stress and altered expression of antioxidant enzymes. We found that paraquat readily undergoes redox cycling in both undifferentiated and differentiated keratinocytes, generating superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide as well as increased protein oxidation which was greater in differentiated cells. Paraquat treatment also resulted in increased expression of HO-1, Cu,Zn-SOD, catalase, GSTP1, GSTA3 and GSTA4. However, no major differences in expression of these enzymes were evident between undifferentiated and differentiated cells. In contrast, expression of GSTA1-2 was significantly greater in differentiated relative to undifferentiated cells after paraquat treatment. No changes in expression of MT-2, Mn-SOD, GPx-1, GSTM1 or the microsomal GST's mGST1, mGST2 and mGST3, were observed in response to paraquat. These data demonstrate that paraquat induces oxidative stress in keratinocytes leading to increased expression of antioxidant genes. These intracellular proteins may be important in protecting the skin from paraquat-mediated cytotoxicity

  8. DNA demethylases target promoter transposable elements to positively regulate stress responsive genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuan-Ngoc; Schumann, Ulrike; Smith, Neil A; Tiwari, Sameer; Au, Phil Chi Khang; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Taylor, Jennifer M; Kazan, Kemal; Llewellyn, Danny J; Zhang, Ren; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Wang, Ming-Bo

    2014-09-17

    DNA demethylases regulate DNA methylation levels in eukaryotes. Arabidopsis encodes four DNA demethylases, DEMETER (DME), REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1), DEMETER-LIKE 2 (DML2), and DML3. While DME is involved in maternal specific gene expression during seed development, the biological function of the remaining DNA demethylases remains unclear. We show that ROS1, DML2, and DML3 play a role in fungal disease resistance in Arabidopsis. A triple DNA demethylase mutant, rdd (ros1 dml2 dml3), shows increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. We identify 348 genes differentially expressed in rdd relative to wild type, and a significant proportion of these genes are downregulated in rdd and have functions in stress response, suggesting that DNA demethylases maintain or positively regulate the expression of stress response genes required for F. oxysporum resistance. The rdd-downregulated stress response genes are enriched for short transposable element sequences in their promoters. Many of these transposable elements and their surrounding sequences show localized DNA methylation changes in rdd, and a general reduction in CHH methylation, suggesting that RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM), responsible for CHH methylation, may participate in DNA demethylase-mediated regulation of stress response genes. Many of the rdd-downregulated stress response genes are downregulated in the RdDM mutants nrpd1 and nrpe1, and the RdDM mutants nrpe1 and ago4 show enhanced susceptibility to F. oxysporum infection. Our results suggest that a primary function of DNA demethylases in plants is to regulate the expression of stress response genes by targeting promoter transposable element sequences.

  9. Stretching the Stress Boundary: Linking Air Pollution Health Effects to a Neurohormonal Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaled pollutants produce effects in virtually all organ systems in our body and have been linked to chronic diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s and diabetes. A neurohormonal stress response (referred here as a systemic response produced by activation ...

  10. The dual role of cyclin C connects stress regulated gene expression to mitochondrial dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Strich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following exposure to cytotoxic agents, cellular damage is first recognized by a variety of sensor mechanisms. Thenceforth, the damage signal is transduced to the nucleus to install the correct gene expression program including the induction of genes whose products either detoxify destructive compounds or repair the damage they cause. Next, the stress signal is disseminated throughout the cell to effect the appropriate changes at organelles including the mitochondria. The mitochondria represent an important signaling platform for the stress response. An initial stress response of the mitochondria is extensive fragmentation. If the damage is prodigious, the mitochondria fragment (fission and lose their outer membrane integrity leading to the release of pro-apoptotic factors necessary for programmed cell death (PCD execution. As this complex biological process contains many moving parts, it must be exquisitely coordinated as the ultimate decision is life or death. The conserved C-type cyclin plays an important role in executing this molecular Rubicon by coupling changes in gene expression to mitochondrial fission and PCD. Cyclin C, along with its cyclin dependent kinase partner Cdk8, associates with the RNA polymerase holoenzyme to regulate transcription. In particular, cyclin C-Cdk8 repress many stress responsive genes. To relieve this repression, cyclin C is destroyed in cells exposed to pro-oxidants and other stressors. However, prior to its destruction, cyclin C, but not Cdk8, is released from its nuclear anchor (Med13, translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it interacts with the fission machinery and is both necessary and sufficient to induce extensive mitochondria fragmentation. Furthermore, cytoplasmic cyclin C promotes PCD indicating that it mediates both mitochondrial fission and cell death pathways. This review will summarize the role cyclin C plays in regulating stress-responsive transcription. In addition, we will detail

  11. Patterns of gene expression associated with recovery and injury in heat-stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Jonathan D; Ippolito, Danielle L; Rakesh, Vineet; Baer, Christine E; Dennis, William E; Helwig, Bryan G; Jackson, David A; Leon, Lisa R; Lewis, John A; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-12-03

    The in vivo gene response associated with hyperthermia is poorly understood. Here, we perform a global, multiorgan characterization of the gene response to heat stress using an in vivo conscious rat model. We heated rats until implanted thermal probes indicated a maximal core temperature of 41.8°C (Tc,Max). We then compared transcriptomic profiles of liver, lung, kidney, and heart tissues harvested from groups of experimental animals at Tc,Max, 24 hours, and 48 hours after heat stress to time-matched controls kept at an ambient temperature. Cardiac histopathology at 48 hours supported persistent cardiac injury in three out of six animals. Microarray analysis identified 78 differentially expressed genes common to all four organs at Tc,Max. Self-organizing maps identified gene-specific signatures corresponding to protein-folding disorders in heat-stressed rats with histopathological evidence of cardiac injury at 48 hours. Quantitative proteomics analysis by iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) demonstrated that differential protein expression most closely matched the transcriptomic profile in heat-injured animals at 48 hours. Calculation of protein supersaturation scores supported an increased propensity of proteins to aggregate for proteins that were found to be changing in abundance at 24 hours and in animals with cardiac injury at 48 hours, suggesting a mechanistic association between protein misfolding and the heat-stress response. Pathway analyses at both the transcript and protein levels supported catastrophic deficits in energetics and cellular metabolism and activation of the unfolded protein response in heat-stressed rats with histopathological evidence of persistent heat injury, providing the basis for a systems-level physiological model of heat illness and recovery.

  12. Transcriptomic responses to darkness stress point to common coral bleaching mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalvo, M. K.; Estrada, A.; Sunagawa, S.; Medina, Mónica

    2012-03-01

    Coral bleaching occurs in response to numerous abiotic stressors, the ecologically most relevant of which is hyperthermic stress due to increasing seawater temperatures. Bleaching events can span large geographic areas and are currently a salient threat to coral reefs worldwide. Much effort has been focused on understanding the molecular and cellular events underlying bleaching, and these studies have mainly utilized heat and light stress regimes. In an effort to determine whether different stressors share common bleaching mechanisms, we used complementary DNA (cDNA) microarrays for the corals Acropora palmata and Montastraea faveolata (containing >10,000 features) to measure differential gene expression during darkness stress. Our results reveal a striking transcriptomic response to darkness in A. palmata involving chaperone and antioxidant up-regulation, growth arrest, and metabolic modifications. As these responses were previously measured during thermal stress, our results suggest that different stressors may share common bleaching mechanisms. Furthermore, our results point to hypoxia and endoplasmic reticulum stress as critical cellular events involved in molecular bleaching mechanisms. On the other hand, we identified a meager transcriptomic response to darkness in M. faveolata where gene expression differences between host colonies and sampling locations were greater than differences between control and stressed fragments. This and previous coral microarray studies reveal the immense range of transcriptomic responses that are possible when studying two coral species that differ greatly in their ecophysiology, thus pointing to the importance of comparative approaches in forecasting how corals will respond to future environmental change.

  13. Changes in the transcriptomic profiles of maize roots in response to iron-deficiency stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Nian; Zhao, Fengtao; Song, Xuejiao; Yin, Zhaohua; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Chunqing

    2014-07-01

    Plants are often subjected to iron (Fe)-deficiency stress because of its low solubility. Plants have evolved two distinct strategies to solubilize and transport Fe to acclimate to this abiotic stress condition. Transcriptomic profiling analysis was performed using Illumina digital gene expression to understand the mechanism underlying resistance responses of roots to Fe starvation in maize, an important Strategy II plant. A total of 3,427, 4,069, 4,881, and 2,610 genes had significantly changed expression levels after Fe-deficiency treatments of 1, 2, 4 or 7 days, respectively. Genes involved in 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) synthesis, secretion, and Fe(III)-DMA uptake were significantly induced. Many genes related to plant hormones, protein kinases, and protein phosphatases responded to Fe-deficiency stress, suggesting their regulatory roles in response to the Fe-deficiency stress. Functional annotation clustering analysis, using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, revealed maize root responses to Fe starvation. This resulted in 38 functional annotation clusters: 25 for up-regulated genes, and 13 for down-regulated ones. These included genes encoding enzymes involved in the metabolism of carboxylic acids, isoprenoids and aromatic compounds, transporters, and stress response proteins. Our work provides integrated information for understanding maize response to Fe-deficiency stress.

  14. Biochemical and molecular changes in response to aluminium-stress in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Aquea, Felipe; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Alberdi, Miren; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) stress is an important factor limiting crop yields in acid soils. Despite this, very little is known about the mechanisms of resistance to this stress in woody plants. To understand the mechanisms of Al-toxicity and response in blueberries, we compared the impact of Al-stress in Al-resistant and Al-sensitive genotypes using Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) as a plant model. We investigated the effect of Al-stress on the physiological performance, oxidative metabolism and expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes in two V. corymbosum cultivars maintained hydroponically with AlCl(3) (0 and 100 μM). Microscopic analyses of Al-treated root tips suggested a higher degree of Al-induced morphological injury in Bluegold (sensitive genotype) compared to Brigitta (resistant genotype). Furthermore, the results indicated that Brigitta had a greater ability to control oxidative stress under Al-toxicity, as reflected by enhancement of several antioxidative and physiological properties (radical scavenging activity: RSA, superoxide dismutase: SOD and catalase: CAT; maximum quantum yield: Fv/Fm, effective quantum yield: ФPSII, electron transport rate: ETR and non-photochemical quenching: NPQ). Finally, we analyzed the expression of genes homologous to GST and ALDH, which were identified in a global expression analysis. In the resistant genotype, the expression of these genes in response to Al-stress was greater in leaves than in roots. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Abiotic Stress-Related Expressed Sequence Tags from the Diploid Strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo. Rivarola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry ( spp. is a eudicotyledonous plant that belongs to the Rosaceae family, which includes other agronomically important plants such as raspberry ( L. and several tree-fruit species. Despite the vital role played by cultivated strawberry in agriculture, few stress-related gene expression characterizations of this crop are available. To increase the diversity