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Sample records for stress reliability test

  1. Emotional-volitional components of operator reliability. [sensorimotor function testing under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileryan, Y. A.

    1975-01-01

    Sensorimotor function testing in a tracking task under stressfull working conditions established a psychological characterization for a successful aviation pilot: Motivation significantly increased the reliability and effectiveness of their work. Their acitivities were aimed at suppressing weariness and the feeling of fear caused by the stress factors; they showed patience, endurance, persistence, and a capacity for lengthy volitional efforts.

  2. A Study on the Storage Reliability of LSINS Based on Step-stress Accelerated Life Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the step-stress accelerated life test and the laser strap-down inertial navigation system, this paper studies the accelerated life model and the test method, provides the likelihood function, the likelihood equation and the two-order derivative when the stress level is k, evaluates the effectiveness of the method with the simulation test model established by MATLAB, applies the research findings in the storage reliability study of the XX laser strap-down inertial navigation system, and puts forward an effective evaluation method of the storage life of the inertial navigation system.

  3. Power Cycling Test Method for Reliability Assessment of Power Device Modules in Respect to Temperature Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui-Min; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jørgensen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    Power cycling test is one of the important tasks to investigate the reliability performance of power device modules in respect to temperature stress. From this, it is able to predict the lifetime of a component in power converters. In this paper, representative power cycling test circuits......, measurement circuits of wear-out failure indicators as well as measurement strategies for different power cycling test circuits are discussed in order to provide the current state of knowledge of this topic by organizing and evaluating current literature. In the first section of this paper, the structure...... of a conventional power device module and its related wear-out failure mechanisms with degradation indicators are discussed. Then, representative power cycling test circuits are introduced. Furthermore, on-state collector-emitter voltage (VCE ON) and forward voltage (VF) measurement circuits for wear-out condition...

  4. Proof tests on reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yoshitsugu

    1983-01-01

    In order to obtain public understanding on nuclear power plants, tests should be carried out to prove the reliability and safety of present LWR plants. For example, the aseismicity of nuclear power plants must be verified by using a large scale earthquake simulator. Reliability test began in fiscal 1975, and the proof tests on steam generators and on PWR support and flexure pins against stress corrosion cracking have already been completed, and the results have been internationally highly appreciated. The capacity factor of the nuclear power plant operation in Japan rose to 80% in the summer of 1983, and considering the period of regular inspection, it means the operation of almost full capacity. Japanese LWR technology has now risen to the top place in the world after having overcome the defects. The significance of the reliability test is to secure the functioning till the age limit is reached, to confirm the correct forecast of deteriorating process, to confirm the effectiveness of the remedy to defects and to confirm the accuracy of predicting the behavior of facilities. The reliability of nuclear valves, fuel assemblies, the heat affected zones in welding, reactor cooling pumps and electric instruments has been tested or is being tested. (Kako, I.)

  5. Bayes Analysis and Reliability Implications of Stress-Rupture Testing a Kevlar/Epoxy COPV Using Temperature and Pressure Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, S. Leigh; Kezirian, Michael T.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    2009-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) that have survived a long service time under pressure generally must be recertified before service is extended. Flight certification is dependent on the reliability analysis to quantify the risk of stress rupture failure in existing flight vessels. Full certification of this reliability model would require a statistically significant number of lifetime tests to be performed and is impractical given the cost and limited flight hardware for certification testing purposes. One approach to confirm the reliability model is to perform a stress rupture test on a flight COPV. Currently, testing of such a Kevlar49 (Dupont)/epoxy COPV is nearing completion. The present paper focuses on a Bayesian statistical approach to analyze the possible failure time results of this test and to assess the implications in choosing between possible model parameter values that in the past have had significant uncertainty. The key uncertain parameters in this case are the actual fiber stress ratio at operating pressure, and the Weibull shape parameter for lifetime; the former has been uncertain due to ambiguities in interpreting the original and a duplicate burst test. The latter has been uncertain due to major differences between COPVs in the database and the actual COPVs in service. Any information obtained that clarifies and eliminates uncertainty in these parameters will have a major effect on the predicted reliability of the service COPVs going forward. The key result is that the longer the vessel survives, the more likely the more optimistic stress ratio model is correct. At the time of writing, the resulting effect on predicted future reliability is dramatic, increasing it by about one "nine," that is, reducing the predicted probability of failure by an order of magnitude. However, testing one vessel does not change the uncertainty on the Weibull shape parameter for lifetime since testing several vessels would be necessary.

  6. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  7. Accelerated reliability testing of highly aligned single-walled carbon nanotube networks subjected to DC electrical stressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strus, Mark C; Chiaramonti, Ann N; Kim, Young Lae; Jung, Yung Joon; Keller, Robert R

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the electrical reliability of nanoscale lines of highly aligned, networked, metallic/semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) fabricated through a template-based fluidic assembly process. We find that these SWCNT networks can withstand DC current densities larger than 10 MA cm(-2) for several hours and, in some cases, several days. We develop test methods that show that the degradation rate, failure predictability and total device lifetime can be linked to the initial resistance. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy suggest that fabrication variability plays a critical role in the rate of degradation, and we offer an empirical method of quickly determining the long-term performance of a network. We find that well-fabricated lines subject to constant electrical stress show a linear accumulation of damage reminiscent of electromigration in metallic interconnects, and we explore the underlying physical mechanisms that could cause such behavior.

  8. (stress) testing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, maximal HR was significantly higher in all groups during their sporting activities than during stress testing in the laboratory (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Maximal HR in veteran athletes during specific sporting activities was significantly higher than that attained during a routine sECG. This finding was not sport-specific, ...

  9. Developing MESA : an accelerated reliability test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskoro, G.; Rouvroye, J.L.; Bacher, W.; Brombacher, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the on-going research on an accelerated reliability test strategy called MESA (Multiple Environment Stress Analysis) intended to find in a fast and efficient manner (potential) reliability problems during the design phase of high volume consumer products. This test has shown

  10. Can Physicians Identify Inappropriate Nuclear Stress Tests? An Examination of Inter-rater Reliability for the 2009 Appropriate Use Criteria for Radionuclide Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Siqin; Rabbani, LeRoy E.; Kelly, Christopher R.; Kelly, Maureen R.; Lewis, Matthew; Paz, Yehuda; Peck, Clara L.; Rao, Shaline; Bokhari, Sabahat; Weiner, Shepard D.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background We sought to determine inter-rater reliability of the 2009 Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for radionuclide imaging (RNI) and whether physicians at various levels of training can effectively identify nuclear stress tests with inappropriate indications. Methods and Results Four hundred patients were randomly selected from a consecutive cohort of patients undergoing nuclear stress testing at an academic medical center. Raters with different levels of training (including cardiology attending physicians, cardiology fellows, internal medicine hospitalists, and internal medicine interns) classified individual nuclear stress tests using the 2009 AUC. Consensus classification by two cardiologists was considered the operational gold standard, and sensitivity and specificity of individual raters for identifying inappropriate tests was calculated. Inter-rater reliability of the AUC was assessed using Cohen’s kappa statistics for pairs of different raters. The mean age of patients was 61.5 years; 214 (54%) were female. The cardiologists rated 256 (64%) of 400 NSTs as appropriate, 68 (18%) as uncertain, 55 (14%) as inappropriate; 21 (5%) tests were unable to be classified. Inter-rater reliability for non-cardiologist raters was modest (unweighted Cohen’s kappa, 0.51, 95% confidence interval, 0.45 to 0.55). Sensitivity of individual raters for identifying inappropriate tests ranged from 47% to 82%, while specificity ranged from 85% to 97%. Conclusions Inter-rater reliability for the 2009 AUC for RNI is modest, and there is considerable variation in the ability of raters at different levels of training to identify inappropriate tests. PMID:25563660

  11. An accelerated stress testing program for determining the reliability sensitivity of silicon solar cells to encapsulation and metallization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Davis, C. W.; Royal, E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of accelerated testing methods in a program to determine the reliability attributes of terrestrial silicon solar cells is discussed. Different failure modes are to be expected when cells with and without encapsulation are subjected to accelerated testing and separate test schedules for each are described. Unencapsulated test cells having slight variations in metallization are used to illustrate how accelerated testing can highlight different diffusion related failure mechanisms. The usefulness of accelerated testing when applied to encapsulated cells is illustrated by results showing that moisture related degradation may be many times worse with some forms of encapsulation than with no encapsulation at all.

  12. Reliability analysis of offshore structures using OMA based fatigue stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva Nabuco, Bruna; Aissani, Amina; Glindtvad Tarpø, Marius

    2017-01-01

    focus is on the uncertainty observed on the different stresses used to predict the damage. This uncertainty can be reduced by Modal Based Fatigue Monitoring which is a technique based on continuously measuring of the accelerations in few points of the structure with the use of accelerometers known...... points of the structure, the stress history can be calculated in any arbitrary point of the structure. The accuracy of the estimated actual stress is analyzed by experimental tests on a scale model where the obtained stresses are compared to strain gauges measurements. After evaluating the fatigue...... stresses directly from the operational response of the structure, a reliability analysis is performed in order to estimate the reliability of using Modal Based Fatigue Monitoring for long term fatigue studies....

  13. Reliability Estimation Based Upon Test Plan Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Read, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The report contains a brief summary of aspects of the Maximus reliability point and interval estimation technique as it has been applied to the reliability of a device whose surveillance tests contain...

  14. Test Reliability at the Individual Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yueqin; Nesselroade, John R.; Erbacher, Monica K.; Boker, Steven M.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Klump, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Reliability has a long history as one of the key psychometric properties of a test. However, a given test might not measure people equally reliably. Test scores from some individuals may have considerably greater error than others. This study proposed two approaches using intraindividual variation to estimate test reliability for each person. A simulation study suggested that the parallel tests approach and the structural equation modeling approach recovered the simulated reliability coefficients. Then in an empirical study, where forty-five females were measured daily on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) for 45 consecutive days, separate estimates of reliability were generated for each person. Results showed that reliability estimates of the PANAS varied substantially from person to person. The methods provided in this article apply to tests measuring changeable attributes and require repeated measures across time on each individual. This article also provides a set of parallel forms of PANAS. PMID:28936107

  15. Stress Rupture Life Reliability Measures for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Thesken, John C.; Phoenix, S. Leigh; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie

    2007-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases onboard spacecraft. Kevlar (DuPont), glass, carbon and other more recent fibers have all been used as overwraps. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads for an extended period during a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is therefore important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since the testing of each flight design cannot be completed on a practical time scale. The present paper examines specifically a Weibull statistics based stress rupture model and considers the various uncertainties associated with the model parameters. The paper also examines several reliability estimate measures that would be of use for the purpose of recertification and for qualifying flight worthiness of these vessels. Specifically, deterministic values for a point estimate, mean estimate and 90/95 percent confidence estimates of the reliability are all examined for a typical flight quality vessel under constant stress. The mean and the 90/95 percent confidence estimates are computed using Monte-Carlo simulation techniques by assuming distribution statistics of model parameters based also on simulation and on the available data, especially the sample sizes represented in the data. The data for the stress rupture model are obtained from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) stress rupture testing program, carried out for the past 35 years. Deterministic as well as probabilistic sensitivities are examined.

  16. OPTIMUM DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS FOR ACCELERATED RELIABILITY TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Marian ZAHARIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented a case study that demonstrates how design to experiments (DOE information can be used to design better accelerated reliability tests. In the case study described in this paper, will be done a comparison and optimization between main accelerated reliability test plans (3 Level Best Standard Plan, 3 Level Best Compromise Plan, 3 Level Best Equal Expected Number Failing Plan, 3 Level 4:2:1 Allocation Plan. Before starting an accelerated reliability test, it is advisable to have a plan that helps in accurately estimating reliability at operating conditions while minimizing test time and costs. A test plan should be used to decide on the appropriate stress levels that should be used (for each stress type and the amount of the test units that need to be allocated to the different stress levels (for each combination of the different stress types' levels. For the case study it used ALTA 7 software what provides a complete analysis for data from accelerated reliability tests

  17. What Is Stress Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... would during exercise. You can then have the stress test. The medicine may make you flushed and anxious, but the effects go away as soon as the test is over. The medicine also may give you a headache. While you're exercising or getting medicine to ...

  18. Prediction of safety critical software operational reliability from test reliability using testing environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1999-01-01

    It has been a critical issue to predict the safety critical software reliability in nuclear engineering area. For many years, many researches have focused on the quantification of software reliability and there have been many models developed to quantify software reliability. Most software reliability models estimate the reliability with the failure data collected during the test assuming that the test environments well represent the operation profile. User's interest is however on the operational reliability rather than on the test reliability. The experiences show that the operational reliability is higher than the test reliability. With the assumption that the difference in reliability results from the change of environment, from testing to operation, testing environment factors comprising the aging factor and the coverage factor are developed in this paper and used to predict the ultimate operational reliability with the failure data in testing phase. It is by incorporating test environments applied beyond the operational profile into testing environment factors. The application results show that the proposed method can estimate the operational reliability accurately. (Author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  19. Nonexercise cardiac stress testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, J.L.; Baldwin, T.

    1989-01-01

    Many patients who require evaluation for coronary artery disease are unable to undergo exercise stress testing because of physiologic or psychological limitations. Drs Vacek and Baldwin describe three alternative methods for assessment of cardiac function in these patients, all of which have high levels of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. 23 references

  20. Test-retest reliability of cognitive EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, L. K.; Smith, M. E.; Gevins, A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Task-related EEG is sensitive to changes in cognitive state produced by increased task difficulty and by transient impairment. If task-related EEG has high test-retest reliability, it could be used as part of a clinical test to assess changes in cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the EEG recorded during the performance of a working memory (WM) task and a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). METHODS: EEG was recorded while subjects rested quietly and while they performed the tasks. Within session (test-retest interval of approximately 1 h) and between session (test-retest interval of approximately 7 days) reliability was calculated for four EEG components: frontal midline theta at Fz, posterior theta at Pz, and slow and fast alpha at Pz. RESULTS: Task-related EEG was highly reliable within and between sessions (r0.9 for all components in WM task, and r0.8 for all components in the PVT). Resting EEG also showed high reliability, although the magnitude of the correlation was somewhat smaller than that of the task-related EEG (r0.7 for all 4 components). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that under appropriate conditions, task-related EEG has sufficient retest reliability for use in assessing clinical changes in cognitive status.

  1. Reliability test for reactor internals rejuvenation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Junichi

    1998-01-01

    41 transparencies were presented on the subject of 'Reliability test for reactor internals rejuvenation technology'. The items presented give an introduction on the management of plant life in Japan and introduce the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC). The question of what reliability tests for rejuvenation of reactor internals are is discussed in some detail and an outline of each test is given. Altogether six methods to rejuvenate reactor internals are presented, two of which have already been applied to actual plants. The presentation was supported by many detailed drawings and images

  2. Reliability testing of failed fuel location system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental reliability tests performed in order to prove the reliability parameters for Failed Fuel Location System (FFLS), equipment used to detect in which channel of a particular heat transport loop a fuel failure is located, and to find in which channel what particular bundle pair is failed. To do so, D20 samples from each reactor channel are sequentially monitored to detect a comparatively high level of delayed neutron activity. 15 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Models on reliability of non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simola, K.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1998-01-01

    The reliability of ultrasonic inspections has been studied in e.g. international PISC (Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components) exercises. These exercises have produced a large amount of information on the effect of various factors on the reliability of inspections. The information obtained from reliability experiments are used to model the dependency of flaw detection probability on various factors and to evaluate the performance of inspection equipment, including the sizing accuracy. The information from experiments is utilised in a most effective way when mathematical models are applied. Here, some statistical models for reliability of non-destructive tests are introduced. In order to demonstrate the use of inspection reliability models, they have been applied to the inspection results of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) type flaws in PISC III exercise (PISC 1995). The models are applied to both flaw detection frequency data of all inspection teams and to flaw sizing data of one participating team. (author)

  4. Reliability demonstration test planning using bayesian analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandran, Senthil Kumar; Arul, John A.

    2003-01-01

    In Nuclear Power Plants, the reliability of all the safety systems is very critical from the safety viewpoint and it is very essential that the required reliability requirements be met while satisfying the design constraints. From practical experience, it is found that the reliability of complex systems such as Safety Rod Drive Mechanism is of the order of 10 -4 with an uncertainty factor of 10. To demonstrate the reliability of such systems is prohibitive in terms of cost and time as the number of tests needed is very large. The purpose of this paper is to develop a Bayesian reliability demonstrating testing procedure for exponentially distributed failure times with gamma prior distribution on the failure rate which can be easily and effectively used to demonstrate component/subsystem/system reliability conformance to stated requirements. The important questions addressed in this paper are: With zero failures, how long one should perform the tests and how many components are required to conclude with a given degree of confidence, that the component under test, meets the reliability requirement. The procedure is explained with an example. This procedure can also be extended to demonstrate with more number of failures. The approach presented is applicable for deriving test plans for demonstrating component failure rates of nuclear power plants, as the failure data for similar components are becoming available in existing plants elsewhere. The advantages of this procedure are the criterion upon which the procedure is based is simple and pertinent, the fitting of the prior distribution is an integral part of the procedure and is based on the use of information regarding two percentiles of this distribution and finally, the procedure is straightforward and easy to apply in practice. (author)

  5. Demonstration test for reliability of valves for atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Shiro

    1978-01-01

    The demonstration test on the reliability of valves for atomic power plants being carried out by the Nuclear Engineering Test Center is reported. This test series is conducted as six-year project from FY 1976 to FY 1981 at the Isogo Test Center. The demonstration test consists of (1) environmental test, (2) reaction force test, (3) vibration test, (4) stress measurement test, (5) operational characteristic test, (6) flow resistance coefficient measuring test, (7) leakage test and (8) safety valve and relief valve test. These contents are explained about the special requirements for nuclear use, for example, the enviornmental condition after the design base accident of PWRs and BWRs, the environmental test sequence for isolation valves of containment vessels under the emergency condition, the seismic test condition for valves of nuclear use, the various stress measurements under thermal transient conditions, the leak test after 500 cycles between the normal operating conditions for PWRs and BWRs and the start up conditions and so on. As for the testing facilities, the whole flow diagram is shown, in which the environmental test section, the vibration test section, the steam test section, the hot water test section, the safety valve test section and main components are included. The specifications of each test section and main components are presented. (Nakai, Y.)

  6. Enhance pump reliability through improved inservice testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    EPRI has undertaken a study to assess the effectiveness of existing testing programs to accurately monitor and predict performance changes before either pump performance degrades or an actual failure occurs. Anticipated changes in inservice testing techniques are directed towards enhancing the validity of test data, ensuring its repeatability, and avoiding deterioration of the pump assembly. There is a new-found interest in test programs of all types that has occurred, in part, because of an increase in reported pump degradation and pump failure. Inservice testing of pumps, which has long been a basis for assuring operability, has apparently produced an opposite effect; namely, the appearance of a reduction in reliability

  7. Reliability Testing Using the Vehicle Durability Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-20

    techniques are employed to reduce test and simulation time. Through application of these processes and techniques the reliability characteristics...remote parameter control (RPC) software. The software is specifically designed for the data collection, analysis, and simulation processes outlined in...the selection process for determining the desired runs for simulation . 4.3 Drive File Development. After the data have been reviewed and

  8. Reliability tests for reactor internals replacement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, K.; Uchiyama, J.; Ohtsubo, T.

    2000-01-01

    Structural damage due to aging degradation of LWR reactor internals has been reported in several nuclear plants. NUPEC has started a project to test the reliability of the technology for replacing reactor internals, which was directed at preventive maintenance before damage and repair after damage for the aging degradation. The project has been funded by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan since 1995, and it follows the policy of a report that the MITI has formally issued in April 1996 summarizing the countermeasures to be considered for aging nuclear plants and equipment. This paper gives an outline of the whole test plans and the test results for the BWR reactor internals replacement methods; core shroud, ICM housing, and CRD Housing and stub tube. The test results have shown that the methods were reliable and the structural integrity was appropriate based on the evaluation. (author)

  9. Reliability tests for reactor internals rejuvenation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, Katsumi; Hitoki, Yoichi; Otsubo, Toru; Uchiyama, Junichi

    1998-01-01

    Structural damage due to aging degradation of LWR reactor internals has been reported in several nuclear plants. NUPEC has started a project to test the reliability of the technology for rejuvenating reactor internals which has been funded by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan since 1995. The project follows the policy of a report that the MITI has formally issued in April 1996 summarizing the countermeasures to be considered for aging nuclear plants and equipment. This paper gives an outline of the test plans and results which are directed at preventive maintenance before damage and repair after damage for reactor internals aging degradation. The test results for the replacement methods of ICM housing and BWR core shroud have shown that the methods were reliable and the structural integrity was appropriate based on the evaluation. (author)

  10. Prediction of software operational reliability using testing environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1995-01-01

    A number of software reliability models have been developed to estimate and to predict software reliability. However, there are no established standard models to quantify software reliability. Most models estimate the quality of software in reliability figures such as remaining faults, failure rate, or mean time to next failure at the testing phase, and they consider them ultimate indicators of software reliability. Experience shows that there is a large gap between predicted reliability during development and reliability measured during operation, which means that predicted reliability, or so-called test reliability, is not operational reliability. Customers prefer operational reliability to test reliability. In this study, we propose a method that predicts operational reliability rather than test reliability by introducing the testing environment factor that quantifies the changes in environments

  11. Reliability and validity of the Dutch Recovery Stress Questionnaire for athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Brink, Michel S.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the cross-cultural validity of the Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-sport) by analysing reliability and validity of a Dutch translation. Two studies were performed to assess test-retest reliability with a one week interval,

  12. Reliability of provocative tests of motion sickness susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, D. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlop, W. P.

    1987-01-01

    Test-retest reliability values were derived from motion sickness susceptibility scores obtained from two successive exposures to each of three tests: (1) Coriolis sickness sensitivity test; (2) staircase velocity movement test; and (3) parabolic flight static chair test. The reliability of the three tests ranged from 0.70 to 0.88. Normalizing values from predictors with skewed distributions improved the reliability.

  13. Assessing high reliability via Bayesian approach and accelerated tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erto, Pasquale; Giorgio, Massimiliano

    2002-01-01

    Sometimes the assessment of very high reliability levels is difficult for the following main reasons: - the high reliability level of each item makes it impossible to obtain, in a reasonably short time, a sufficient number of failures; - the high cost of the high reliability items to submit to life tests makes it unfeasible to collect enough data for 'classical' statistical analyses. In the above context, this paper presents a Bayesian solution to the problem of estimation of the parameters of the Weibull-inverse power law model, on the basis of a limited number (say six) of life tests, carried out at different stress levels, all higher than the normal one. The over-stressed (i.e. accelerated) tests allow the use of experimental data obtained in a reasonably short time. The Bayesian approach enables one to reduce the required number of failures adding to the failure information the available a priori engineers' knowledge. This engineers' involvement conforms to the most advanced management policy that aims at involving everyone's commitment in order to obtain total quality. A Monte Carlo study of the non-asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators and a comparison with the properties of maximum likelihood estimators closes the work

  14. Accelerated Stress-Corrosion Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Test procedures for accelerated stress-corrosion testing of high-strength aluminum alloys faster and provide more quantitative information than traditional pass/fail tests. Method uses data from tests on specimen sets exposed to corrosive environment at several levels of applied static tensile stress for selected exposure times then subsequently tensile tested to failure. Method potentially applicable to other degrading phenomena (such as fatigue, corrosion fatigue, fretting, wear, and creep) that promote development and growth of cracklike flaws within material.

  15. Test re-test reliability and construct validity of the star-track test of manual dexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildebro, Niels; Amirian, Ilda; Gögenur, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We wished to determine test re-test reliability and construct validity of the star-track test of manual dexterity. Design. Test re-test reliability was examined in a controlled study. Construct validity was tested in a blinded randomized crossover study. Setting. The study was performed...... at a university hospital in Denmark. Participants. A total of 11 subjects for test re-test and 20 subjects for the construct validity study were included. All subjects were healthy volunteers. Intervention. The test re-test trial had two measurements with 2 days pause in between. The interventions...... in the construct validity study included baseline measurement, intervention 1: fatigue, intervention 2: stress, and intervention 3: fatigue and stress. There was a 2 day pause between each intervention. Main outcome measure. An integrated measure of completion time and number of errors was used. Results. All...

  16. Accelerated stress testing of terrestrial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Hawkins, D. C.; Prince, J. L.; Walker, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The development of an accelerated test schedule for terrestrial solar cells is described. This schedule, based on anticipated failure modes deduced from a consideration of IC failure mechanisms, involves bias-temperature testing, humidity testing (including both 85-85 and pressure cooker stress), and thermal-cycle thermal-shock testing. Results are described for 12 different unencapsulated cell types. Both gradual electrical degradation and sudden catastrophic mechanical change were observed. These effects can be used to discriminate between cell types and technologies relative to their reliability attributes. Consideration is given to identifying laboratory failure modes which might lead to severe degradation in the field through second quadrant operation. Test results indicate that the ability of most cell types to withstand accelerated stress testing depends more on the manufacturer's design, processing, and worksmanship than on the particular metallization system. Preliminary tests comparing accelerated test results on encapsulated and unencapsulated cells are described.

  17. Prediction of software operational reliability using testing environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1995-01-01

    For many years, many researches have focused on the quantification of software reliability and there are many models developed to quantify software reliability. Most software reliability models estimate the reliability with the failure data collected during the test assuming that the test environments well represent the operation profile. The experiences show that the operational reliability is higher than the test reliability User's interest is on the operational reliability rather than on the test reliability, however. With the assumption that the difference in reliability results from the change of environment, testing environment factors comprising the aging factor and the coverage factor are defined in this study to predict the ultimate operational reliability with the failure data. It is by incorporating test environments applied beyond the operational profile into testing environment factors. The application results are close to the actual data

  18. Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Condon, David; Revelle, William

    2017-01-01

    Separating the signal in a test from the irrelevant noise is a challenge for all measurement. Low test reliability limits test validity, attenuates important relationships, and can lead to regression artifacts. Multiple approaches to the assessment and improvement of reliability are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of several different approaches to reliability are considered. Practical advice on how to assess reliability using open source software is provided.

  19. A study of operational and testing reliability in software reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, B.; Xie, M.

    2000-01-01

    Software reliability is an important aspect of any complex equipment today. Software reliability is usually estimated based on reliability models such as nonhomogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) models. Software systems are improving in testing phase, while it normally does not change in operational phase. Depending on whether the reliability is to be predicted for testing phase or operation phase, different measure should be used. In this paper, two different reliability concepts, namely, the operational reliability and the testing reliability, are clarified and studied in detail. These concepts have been mixed up or even misused in some existing literature. Using different reliability concept will lead to different reliability values obtained and it will further lead to different reliability-based decisions made. The difference of the estimated reliabilities is studied and the effect on the optimal release time is investigated

  20. Credibility and Crisis Stress Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lian Ong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Credibility is the bedrock of any crisis stress test. The use of stress tests to manage systemic risk was introduced by the U.S. authorities in 2009 in the form of the Supervisory Capital Assessment Program. Since then, supervisory authorities in other jurisdictions have also conducted similar exercises. In some of those cases, the design and implementation of certain elements of the framework have been criticized for their lack of credibility. This paper proposes a set of guidelines for constructing an effective crisis stress test. It combines financial markets impact studies of previous exercises with relevant case study information gleaned from those experiences to identify the key elements and to formulate their appropriate design. Pertinent concepts, issues and nuances particular to crisis stress testing are also discussed. The findings may be useful for country authorities seeking to include stress tests in their crisis management arsenal, as well as for the design of crisis programs.

  1. CERN Technical training 2008 - Learning for the LHC: Special Workshop demonstrating reliability with accelerated testing

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Larry Edson’s workshop will show examples of quantitative reliability predictions based upon accelerated testing and demonstrates that reliability testing during the prototyping phase will help ascertain product shortcomings. When these weak points are addressed and the redesigned product is re-tested, the reliability of that product will become much higher. These methodologies successfully used in industry might be exceedingly useful also for component development in particle physics where reliability is of utmost importance. This training will provide participants with the skills necessary to demonstrate reliability requirements using accelerated testing methods. The workshop will focus on accelerated test design that employs increased stress levels. This approach has the advantage of reducing test time, sample size and test facility resources. The methodologies taught are applicable to all types of stresses, spanning the electro...

  2. CERN Technical training 2008 - Learning for the LHC: Special Workshop demonstrating reliability with accelerated testing

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Larry Edson’s workshop will show examples of quantitative reliability predictions based upon accelerated testing and demonstrate that reliability testing during the prototyping phase will help ascertain product shortcomings. When these weak points are addressed and the redesigned product is re-tested, the reliability of that product will become much higher. These methodologies successfully used in industry might be exceedingly useful also for component development in particle physics where reliability is of the utmost importance. This training will provide participants with the skills necessary to demonstrate reliability requirements using accelerated testing methods. The workshop will focus on accelerated test design that employs increased stress levels. This approach has the advantage of reducing test time, sample size and test facility resources. The methodologies taught are applicable to all types of stresses, spanning the elec...

  3. CERN Technical training 2008 - Learning for the LHC: Special workshop demonstrating reliability with accelerated testing

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Larry Edson’s workshop will show examples of quantitative reliability predictions based upon accelerated testing and demonstrate that reliability testing during the prototyping phase will help ascertain product shortcomings. When these weak points are addressed and the redesigned product is re-tested, the reliability of that product will become much higher. These methodologies successfully used in industry might be exceedingly useful also for component development in particle physics where reliability is of the utmost importance. This training will provide participants with the skills necessary to demonstrate reliability requirements using accelerated testing methods. The workshop will focus on accelerated test design that employs increased stress levels. This approach has the advantage of reducing test time, sample size and test facility resources. The methodologies taught are applicable to all types of stresses, spanning the elec...

  4. Reliability of non-destructive testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekhoven, M.J.G.

    1988-01-01

    This contribution regards the results of an evaluation of the reliability of radiography (X-rays and gamma-rays), manual-, and mechanized/automated ultrasonic examination by generally accepted codes/rules, with respect to detection, characterization and sizing/localization of defects. The evaluation is based on the results of examinations, by a number of teams, of 30 test plates, 30 and 50 mm thickness, containing V,U, X and K-shaped welds each containing several types of imperfections (211) in total) typical for steel arc fusion welding, such as porosity, inclusions, lack of fusion or penetration and cracks. Besides, some results are presented obtained from research on advanced UT-techniques, viz. the time-of-flight-diffraction and flaw-tip deflection technique. (author)

  5. Reliability of non-destructive testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekhoven, M J.G. [Ministry of Social Affairs, (Netherlands)

    1988-12-31

    This contribution regards the results of an evaluation of the reliability of radiography (X-rays and gamma-rays), manual-, and mechanized/automated ultrasonic examination by generally accepted codes/rules, with respect to detection, characterization and sizing/localization of defects. The evaluation is based on the results of examinations, by a number of teams, of 30 test plates, 30 and 50 mm thickness, containing V,U, X and K-shaped welds each containing several types of imperfections (211) in total) typical for steel arc fusion welding, such as porosity, inclusions, lack of fusion or penetration and cracks. Besides, some results are presented obtained from research on advanced UT-techniques, viz. the time-of-flight-diffraction and flaw-tip deflection technique. (author). 4 refs.

  6. Reliability and preliminary evidence of validity of a Farsi version of the depression anxiety stress scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Ali Asghar

    2010-08-01

    The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were examined, with a sample of 306 undergraduate students (123 men, 183 women) ranging from 18 to 51 years of age (M age = 25.4, SD = 6.1). Participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. The findings confirmed the preliminary reliabilities and preliminary construct validity of the Farsi translation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales.

  7. Reliability of mechanical components subjected to combined alternating and mean stresses with a nonconstant stress ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kececioglu, D.; Lamarre, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    The reliability of reactor mechanical components and structural members, submitted to external loads which induce alternating bending stresses and mean shear stresses at the critical section where failure has a high probability of occurring, is predicted assuming that the ratio of the distributed alternating stress to the mean stress is also distributed and yields a bivariate failure-governing, combined alternating and mean, stress distribution. A computer programmed methodology is developed to calculate the reliability under these conditions given the associated distributional Goodman diagram for a reactor component or structural member. (orig.)

  8. [Nursery Teacher's Stress Scale (NTSS): reliability and validity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akada, Taro

    2010-06-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of the Nursery Teacher's Stress Scale (NTSS), which explores the relation between daily hassles at work and work-related stress. In Analysis 1, 29 items were chosen to construct the NTSS. Six factors were identified: I. Stress relating to child care; II. Stress from human relations at work; III. Stress from staff-parent relations; IV. Stress from lack of time; V. Stress relating to compensation; and VI. Stress from the difference between individual beliefs and school policy. All these factors had high degrees of internal consistency. In Analysis 2, the concurrent validity of the NTSS was examined. The results showed that the NTSS total scores were significantly correlated with the Job Stress Scale-Revised Version (job stressor scale, r = .68), the Pre-school Teacher-efficacy Scale (r = -.21), and the WHO-five Well-Being Index Japanese Version (r = -.40). Work stresses are affected by several daily hassles at work. The NTSS has acceptable reliability and validity, and can be used to improve nursery teacher's mental health.

  9. Reliability analysis applied to structural tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, P.; Payne, A. O.

    1972-01-01

    The application of reliability theory to predict, from structural fatigue test data, the risk of failure of a structure under service conditions because its load-carrying capability is progressively reduced by the extension of a fatigue crack, is considered. The procedure is applicable to both safe-life and fail-safe structures and, for a prescribed safety level, it will enable an inspection procedure to be planned or, if inspection is not feasible, it will evaluate the life to replacement. The theory has been further developed to cope with the case of structures with initial cracks, such as can occur in modern high-strength materials which are susceptible to the formation of small flaws during the production process. The method has been applied to a structure of high-strength steel and the results are compared with those obtained by the current life estimation procedures. This has shown that the conventional methods can be unconservative in certain cases, depending on the characteristics of the structure and the design operating conditions. The suitability of the probabilistic approach to the interpretation of the results from full-scale fatigue testing of aircraft structures is discussed and the assumptions involved are examined.

  10. First reliability test of a surface micromachined microengine using SHiMMeR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, D.M.; Smith, N.F.; Bowman, D.J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The first-ever reliability stress test on surface micromachined microengines developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been completed. We stressed 41 microengines at 36,000 RPM and inspected the functionality at 60 RPM. We have observed an infant mortality region, a region of low failure rate (useful life), and no signs of wearout in the data. The reliability data are presented and interpreted using standard reliability methods. Failure analysis results on the stressed microengines are presented. In our effort to study the reliability of MEMS, we need to observe the failures of large numbers of parts to determine the failure modes. To facilitate testing of large numbers of micromachines. The Sandia High Volume Measurement of Micromachine Reliability (SHiMMeR) system has computer controlled positioning and the capability to inspect moving parts. The development of this parallel testing system is discussed in detail.

  11. Stress Tests and Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Lorenz, P.

    2012-01-01

    After the accident in Fukushima, nuclear safety as topic in anti-nuclear work has gained importance within the Joint Project countries. Therefore, nuclear safety and in particular the activities of the European stress tests were chosen to be the main focus of the Joint Project 2011/2012 as well as the common theme of the national projects. This brochure describes: A) Vulnerability Assessment A critical review of the EU Nuclear Stress Tests in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine is presented in chapter 1. The review details the main weaknesses identified within the stress tests. Important shortcomings not mentioned in the stress tests reports are also discussed. These evaluations do not claim to be exhaustive, but the findings contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of safety and risk of nuclear power plants in Europe. B) Transparency of the stress tests In chapter 2 the experience of the Joint Project NGOs concerning transparency of the stress tests is presented. The information is not meant to be an evaluation of the transparency of the stress tests in general – such an evaluation is not possible within the scope of this brochure. The evaluation aims to show activities concerning stress tests and how they were conceived by the JP NGOs. Some recommendations for improvement are given. C) Safety focus Within the main topic “nuclear safety” of the Joint Project 2011/2012 the NGOs of each JP country selected a special safety relevant topic, which is/was of particular interest in their country: Bulgaria: The short story of Belene NPP – The victory – Key points of the campaign against the nuclear power plant Romania: Risks of the CANDU reactor design Czech Republic: Results of the conference “Power Plant Load Testing: Safety Inspection or Propaganda?“ Slovakia: Safety deficits of the NPP Mochovce These safety relevant issues are discussed in separate sections within the brochure at hand. (author)

  12. Stress Tests and Vulnerability Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, A. [Austrian Institute of Ecology, Vienna (Austria); Lorenz, P. [ed.; Becker, O. [eds.; Weber, U. [Austrian Institute of Ecology, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-07-01

    After the accident in Fukushima, nuclear safety as topic in anti-nuclear work has gained importance within the Joint Project countries. Therefore, nuclear safety and in particular the activities of the European stress tests were chosen to be the main focus of the Joint Project 2011/2012 as well as the common theme of the national projects. This brochure describes: A) Vulnerability Assessment A critical review of the EU Nuclear Stress Tests in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine is presented in chapter 1. The review details the main weaknesses identified within the stress tests. Important shortcomings not mentioned in the stress tests reports are also discussed. These evaluations do not claim to be exhaustive, but the findings contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of safety and risk of nuclear power plants in Europe. B) Transparency of the stress tests In chapter 2 the experience of the Joint Project NGOs concerning transparency of the stress tests is presented. The information is not meant to be an evaluation of the transparency of the stress tests in general – such an evaluation is not possible within the scope of this brochure. The evaluation aims to show activities concerning stress tests and how they were conceived by the JP NGOs. Some recommendations for improvement are given. C) Safety focus Within the main topic “nuclear safety” of the Joint Project 2011/2012 the NGOs of each JP country selected a special safety relevant topic, which is/was of particular interest in their country: Bulgaria: The short story of Belene NPP – The victory – Key points of the campaign against the nuclear power plant Romania: Risks of the CANDU reactor design Czech Republic: Results of the conference “Power Plant Load Testing: Safety Inspection or Propaganda?“ Slovakia: Safety deficits of the NPP Mochovce These safety relevant issues are discussed in separate sections within the brochure at hand. (author)

  13. Influences on and Limitations of Classical Test Theory Reliability Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Margery E.

    It is incorrect to say "the test is reliable" because reliability is a function not only of the test itself, but of many factors. The present paper explains how different factors affect classical reliability estimates such as test-retest, interrater, internal consistency, and equivalent forms coefficients. Furthermore, the limits of classical test…

  14. Modeling Reliability Growth in Accelerated Stress Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    labels = NA) axis(side = 2, tck = -.015, labels = NA) axis(side = 1, lwd = 0, line = -.6) axis(side = 2, lwd = 0, line = -.6, las = 1) mtext...side = 1, "t", line = 2) mtext(side = 2, "R(t)", line = 2.5) legend("bottomleft", c("Bi-Weibull","Tri-Weibull","NMW", "EMWE"),lty=c(1,1,3,2), lwd =c...1, lwd = 0, line = -.6) axis(side = 2, lwd = 0, line = -.6, las = 1) mtext(side = 1, "t", line = 2) mtext(side = 2, "f(t)", line = 3) legend

  15. A reliability based stress-life evaluation of aluminium-graphite particulate composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achutha, M.V.; Sridhara, B.K.; Abdul Budan, D.

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue tests were conducted on sand cast aluminium-graphite composite specimens on Rotating Beam Fatigue Testing Machine with three different stress levels. Aluminium-graphite (LM 25-5% graphite) composite was processed by closed mould sand casting method. Three-stress level fatigue test program was planned for carrying out fatigue experiments. Three different stress levels selected for fatigue experiments were a fraction of ultimate tensile strength. Statistical design of fatigue experiments was carried out to determine the sample size at each stress level. Experimental results are presented in the form of stress-life (S-N) curves and reliability-stress-life (R-S-N) curves, which are helpful for designers. The S-N curve of the aluminium-graphite composite was compared with its matrix alloy LM 25. Comparison revealed that the fatigue behaviour of the aluminium-graphite composite is superior to that of the matrix alloy

  16. Reliability Impact of Stockpile Aging: Stress Voiding; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROBINSON, DAVID G.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research is to statistically characterize the aging of integrated circuit interconnects. This report supersedes the stress void aging characterization presented in SAND99-0975, ''Reliability Degradation Due to Stockpile Aging,'' by the same author. The physics of the stress voiding, before and after wafer processing have been recently characterized by F. G. Yost in SAND99-0601, ''Stress Voiding during Wafer Processing''. The current effort extends this research to account for uncertainties in grain size, storage temperature, void spacing and initial residual stress and their impact on interconnect failure after wafer processing. The sensitivity of the life estimates to these uncertainties is also investigated. Various methods for characterizing the probability of failure of a conductor line were investigated including: Latin hypercube sampling (LHS), quasi-Monte Carlo sampling (qMC), as well as various analytical methods such as the advanced mean value (Ah/IV) method. The comparison was aided by the use of the Cassandra uncertainty analysis library. It was found that the only viable uncertainty analysis methods were those based on either LHS or quasi-Monte Carlo sampling. Analytical methods such as AMV could not be applied due to the nature of the stress voiding problem. The qMC method was chosen since it provided smaller estimation error for a given number of samples. The preliminary results indicate that the reliability of integrated circuits due to stress voiding is very sensitive to the underlying uncertainties associated with grain size and void spacing. In particular, accurate characterization of IC reliability depends heavily on not only the frost and second moments of the uncertainty distribution, but more specifically the unique form of the underlying distribution

  17. ACSC Indicator: testing reliability for hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin L; Ghali, William A; Chen, Guanmin; Khalsa, Tej K; Mangat, Birinder K; Campbell, Norm R C; Dixon, Elijah; Rabi, Doreen; Jette, Nathalie; Dhanoa, Robyn; Quan, Hude

    2017-06-26

    With high-quality community-based primary care, hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) are considered avoidable. The purpose of this study was to test the inter-physician reliability of judgments of avoidable hospitalizations for one ACSC, uncomplicated hypertension, derived from medical chart review. We applied the Canadian Institute for Health Information's case definition to obtain a random sample of patients who had an ACSC hospitalization for uncomplicated hypertension in Calgary, Alberta. Medical chart review was conducted by three experienced internal medicine specialists. Implicit methods were used to judge avoidability of hospitalization using a validated 5-point scale. There was poor agreement among three physicians raters when judging the avoidability of 82 ACSC hospitalizations for uncomplicated hypertension (κ = 0.092). The κ also remained low when assessing agreement between raters 1 and 3 (κ = 0.092), but the κ was lower (less than chance agreement) for raters 1 and 2 (κ = -0.119) and raters 2 and 3 (κ = -0.008). When the 5-point scale was dichotomized, there was fair agreement among three raters (κ = 0.217). The proportion of ACSC hospitalizations for uncomplicated hypertension that were rated as avoidable was 32.9%, 6.1% and 26.8% for raters 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This study found a low proportion of ACSC hospitalization were rated as avoidable, with poor to fair agreement of judgment between physician raters. This suggests that the validity and utility of this health indicator is questionable. It points to a need to abandon the use of ACSC entirely; or alternatively to work on the development of explicit criteria for judging avoidability of hospitalization for ACSC such as hypertension.

  18. Prediction of software operational reliability using testing environment factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung

    1995-02-01

    Software reliability is especially important to customers these days. The need to quantify software reliability of safety-critical systems has been received very special attention and the reliability is rated as one of software's most important attributes. Since the software is an intellectual product of human activity and since it is logically complex, the failures are inevitable. No standard models have been established to prove the correctness and to estimate the reliability of software systems by analysis and/or testing. For many years, many researches have focused on the quantification of software reliability and there are many models developed to quantify software reliability. Most software reliability models estimate the reliability with the failure data collected during the test assuming that the test environments well represent the operation profile. User's interest is on the operational reliability rather than on the test reliability, however. The experiences show that the operational reliability is higher than the test reliability. With the assumption that the difference in reliability results from the change of environment, testing environment factor comprising the aging factor and the coverage factor are defined in this work to predict the ultimate operational reliability with the failure data. It is by incorporating test environments applied beyond the operational profile into testing environment factor Test reliability can also be estimated with this approach without any model change. The application results are close to the actual data. The approach used in this thesis is expected to be applicable to ultra high reliable software systems that are used in nuclear power plants, airplanes, and other safety-critical applications

  19. COMPI Fertility Problem Stress Scales is a brief, valid and reliable tool for assessing stress in patients seeking treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobral, Maria P.; Costa, Maria E.; Schmidt, Lone

    2017-01-01

    comparability of fertility-related stress across genders and countries. STUDY DESIGN SIZE, DURATION Cross-sectional study. First, we tested the structure of the COMPI-FPSS. Then, reliability and validity (convergent and discriminant) were examined for the final model. Finally, measurement invariance both across...... genders and cultures was tested. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Our final sample had 3923 fertility patients (1691 men and 2232 women) recruited in clinical settings from seven different countries: Denmark, China, Croatia, Germany, Greece, Hungary and Sweden. Participants had a mean age of 34......STUDY QUESTION Are the Copenhagen Multi‐Centre Psychosocial Infertility research program Fertility Problem Stress Scales (COMPI-FPSS) a reliable and valid measure across gender and culture? SUMMARY ANSWER The COMPI-FPSS is a valid and reliable measure, presenting excellent or good fit...

  20. Scintigraphic ventriculography and stress testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goris, M.L.; Hung, J.; Debusk, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    Scintigraphic stress ventriculography yields information which is complex and defies description by the difference in ejection fraction between rest and maximum exercise only. The complexity results in part from the ''derived'' nature of the ejection fraction measurement, which is physiologically secondary to stroke volume and end-diastolic volume. Furthermore, the nature of the stress test in which the pulse (stress) is not independent from the response forces an analysis which considers ''when'' as much as ''what'' happens. Automation in data processing, however, has made oversimplification unnecessary and allows a more exhaustive but correct analysis

  1. Testing the stress shadow hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzer, Karen R.; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2005-05-01

    A fundamental question in earthquake physics is whether aftershocks are predominantly triggered by static stress changes (permanent stress changes associated with fault displacement) or dynamic stresses (temporary stress changes associated with earthquake shaking). Both classes of models provide plausible explanations for earthquake triggering of aftershocks, but only the static stress model predicts stress shadows, or regions in which activity is decreased by a nearby earthquake. To test for whether a main shock has produced a stress shadow, we calculate time ratios, defined as the ratio of the time between the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it and the time between the last earthquake to precede the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it. A single value of the time ratio is calculated for each 10 × 10 km bin within 1.5 fault lengths of the main shock epicenter. Large values of the time ratio indicate a long wait for the first earthquake to follow the main shock and thus a potential stress shadow, whereas small values indicate the presence of aftershocks. Simulations indicate that the time ratio test should have sufficient sensitivity to detect stress shadows if they are produced in accordance with the rate and state friction model. We evaluate the 1989 MW 7.0 Loma Prieta, 1992 MW 7.3 Landers, 1994 MW 6.7 Northridge, and 1999 MW 7.1 Hector Mine main shocks. For each main shock, there is a pronounced concentration of small time ratios, indicating the presence of aftershocks, but the number of large time ratios is less than at other times in the catalog. This suggests that stress shadows are not present. By comparing our results to simulations we estimate that we can be at least 98% confident that the Loma Prieta and Landers main shocks did not produce stress shadows and 91% and 84% confident that stress shadows were not generated by the Hector Mine and Northridge main shocks, respectively. We also investigate the long hypothesized existence

  2. Research on the Reliability Testing of Electrical Automation Control Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Yongjie Luo

    2014-01-01

    According to the author’s many years’ work experience, this paper first discusses the concepts of electrical automation control equipment reliability testing, and then analyzes the test method of electrical automation control equipment reliability testing, finally, on this basis, this article discusses how to determine the reliability test method of electrical automation control equipment. Results of this study will provide a useful reference for electrical automation control equipment reliab...

  3. A standard for test reliability in group research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jules L

    2013-03-01

    Many authors adhere to the rule that test reliabilities should be at least .70 or .80 in group research. This article introduces a new standard according to which reliabilities can be evaluated. This standard is based on the costs or time of the experiment and of administering the test. For example, if test administration costs are 7 % of the total experimental costs, the efficient value of the reliability is .93. If the actual reliability of a test is equal to this efficient reliability, the test size maximizes the statistical power of the experiment, given the costs. As a standard in experimental research, it is proposed that the reliability of the dependent variable be close to the efficient reliability. Adhering to this standard will enhance the statistical power and reduce the costs of experiments.

  4. Perceived Stress Scale: Reliability and Validity Study in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Andreou

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To translate the Perceived Stress Scale (versions PSS-4, -10 and -14 and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of general Greek population. Methods: 941 individuals completed anonymously questionnaires comprising of PSS, the Depression Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS-21 version, and a list of stress-related symptoms. Psychometric properties of PSS were investigated by confirmatory factor analysis (construct validity, Cronbach’s alpha (reliability, and by investigating relations with the DASS-21 scores and the number of symptoms, across individuals’ characteristics. The two-factor structure of PSS-10 and PSS-14 was confirmed in our analysis. We found satisfactory Cronbach’s alpha values (0.82 for the full scale for PSS-14 and PSS-10 and marginal satisfactory values for PSS-4 (0.69. PSS score exhibited high correlation coefficients with DASS-21 subscales scores, meaning stress (r = 0.64, depression (r = 0.61, and anxiety (r = 0.54. Women reported significantly more stress compared to men and divorced or widows compared to married or singled only. A strong significant (p < 0.001 positive correlation between the stress score and the number of self-reported symptoms was also noted. Conclusions: The Greek versions of the PSS-14 and PSS-10 exhibited satisfactory psychometric properties and their use for research and health care practice is warranted.

  5. Perceived Stress Scale: reliability and validity study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Eleni; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Lionis, Christos; Varvogli, Liza; Gnardellis, Charalambos; Chrousos, George P; Darviri, Christina

    2011-08-01

    To translate the Perceived Stress Scale (versions PSS-4, -10 and -14) and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of general Greek population. 941 individuals completed anonymously questionnaires comprising of PSS, the Depression Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS-21 version), and a list of stress-related symptoms. Psychometric properties of PSS were investigated by confirmatory factor analysis (construct validity), Cronbach's alpha (reliability), and by investigating relations with the DASS-21 scores and the number of symptoms, across individuals' characteristics. The two-factor structure of PSS-10 and PSS-14 was confirmed in our analysis. We found satisfactory Cronbach's alpha values (0.82 for the full scale) for PSS-14 and PSS-10 and marginal satisfactory values for PSS-4 (0.69). PSS score exhibited high correlation coefficients with DASS-21 subscales scores, meaning stress (r = 0.64), depression (r = 0.61), and anxiety (r = 0.54). Women reported significantly more stress compared to men and divorced or widows compared to married or singled only. A strong significant (p < 0.001) positive correlation between the stress score and the number of self-reported symptoms was also noted. The Greek versions of the PSS-14 and PSS-10 exhibited satisfactory psychometric properties and their use for research and health care practice is warranted.

  6. Stress testing in financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2000 the Basle Committee on the Global Financial System defined stress testing as 'a generic term describing various techniques used by financial firms to gauge their potential vulnerability to exceptional but plausible events'. Exceptional events refer to one-off or recurring events with far-reaching consequences for the concerned financial institution and the financial sector s stability overall. Such unexpected (exceptional events include, for instance: bankruptcy in Argentina in 2001, stock markets collapse ('Black Monday' on 19 October 1987, or the fall of the energy giant Enron in 2001. The adoption of the new Basle Accord (better known as Basle II in 2001 envisaged the implementation of stress tests for the identification of events and future changes in economic circumstances that could cause some unfavorable effects on banks' credit exposure, along with the assessment of banks' ability to survive in the new circumstances. Negative experiences from the past, having undermined the stability of financial systems worldwide, made a decisive impact on regulators at all levels to additionally consider the issue of increasing the financial system's resistance to the occurrence of unexpected - exceptional events. To this end, the introduction of stress tests was the turning point in the process of increased banking systems' resistance to shocks. This paper primarily deals with stress testing methodology and bank risk measurement techniques, along with the main results of conducted tests, directly impacting the entire financial system.

  7. Reliability Generalization of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Alan L.; Caruso, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the reliability of scores from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; J. Sounders and others, 1993) in a reliability generalization study based on 17 empirical journal articles. Results show AUDIT scores to be generally reliable for basic assessment. (SLD)

  8. Validity and Reliability of the Arabic Token Test for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamra, Rana A.; Al-Jazi, Aya B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Token Test for Children (2nd edition) (TTFC) is a measure for assessing receptive language. In this study we describe the translation process, validity and reliability of the Arabic Token Test for Children (A-TTFC). Aims: The aim of this study is to translate, validate and establish the reliability of the Arabic Token Test for…

  9. Conceptualizing Essay Tests' Reliability and Validity: From Research to Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjadi, Nour El Imane

    2013-01-01

    The current paper on writing assessment surveys the literature on the reliability and validity of essay tests. The paper aims to examine the two concepts in relationship with essay testing as well as to provide a snapshot of the current understandings of the reliability and validity of essay tests as drawn in recent research studies. Bearing in…

  10. Construction of Valid and Reliable Test for Assessment of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadebe, P. U.

    2015-01-01

    The study was carried out to construct a valid and reliable test in Economics for secondary school students. Two research questions were drawn to guide the establishment of validity and reliability for the Economics Achievement Test (EAT). It is a multiple choice objective test of five options with 100 items. A sample of 1000 students was randomly…

  11. Test-retest reliability of the Work Ability Index questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zwart, B. C. H.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Van Duivenbooden, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the test-retest reliability of the Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. Reliability was tested using a test-retest design with a 4 week interval between measurements. Valid data were collected among 97 elderly construction workers aged 40 years and older. We

  12. Reliability analysis and optimisation of subsea compression system facing operational covariate stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okaro, Ikenna Anthony; Tao, Longbin

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an enhanced Weibull-Corrosion Covariate model for reliability assessment of a system facing operational stresses. The newly developed model is applied to a Subsea Gas Compression System planned for offshore West Africa to predict its reliability index. System technical failure was modelled by developing a Weibull failure model incorporating a physically tested corrosion profile as stress in order to quantify the survival rate of the system under additional operational covariates including marine pH, temperature and pressure. Using Reliability Block Diagrams and enhanced Fusell-Vesely formulations, the whole system was systematically decomposed to sub-systems to analyse the criticality of each component and optimise them. Human reliability was addressed using an enhanced barrier weighting method. A rapid degradation curve is obtained on a subsea system relative to the base case subjected to a time-dependent corrosion stress factor. It reveals that subsea system components failed faster than their Mean time to failure specifications from Offshore Reliability Database as a result of cumulative marine stresses exertion. The case study demonstrated that the reliability of a subsea system can be systematically optimised by modelling the system under higher technical and organisational stresses, prioritising the critical sub-systems and making befitting provisions for redundancy and tolerances. - Highlights: • Novel Weibull Corrosion-Covariate model for reliability analysis of subsea assets. • Predict the accelerated degradation profile of a subsea gas compression. • An enhanced optimisation method based on Fusell-Vesely decomposition process. • New optimisation approach for smoothening of over- and under-designed components. • Demonstrated a significant improvement in producing more realistic failure rate.

  13. 77 FR 3408 - Annual Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ...-2011-0029] RIN 1557-AD58 Annual Stress Test AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (``OCC... certain companies to conduct annual stress tests pursuant to regulations prescribed by their respective... stress test as prescribed by this proposed rule. In addition to the annual stress test requirement, such...

  14. Stress-strength reliability for general bivariate distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa H. Abdel-Hamid

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An expression for the stress-strength reliability R=P(X1reliability function R are obtained. In the non-parametric case, point and interval estimates of R are developed using Govindarajulu's asymptotic distribution-free method when X1 and X2 are dependent. An example is given when the population distribution is bivariate compound Weibull. Simulation is performed, based on different sample sizes to study the performance of estimates.

  15. Reliability of two social cognition tests: The combined stories test and the social knowledge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaudeau, Élisabeth; Cellard, Caroline; Legendre, Maxime; Villeneuve, Karèle; Achim, Amélie M

    2018-04-01

    Deficits in social cognition are common in psychiatric disorders. Validated social cognition measures with good psychometric properties are necessary to assess and target social cognitive deficits. Two recent social cognition tests, the Combined Stories Test (COST) and the Social Knowledge Test (SKT), respectively assess theory of mind and social knowledge. Previous studies have shown good psychometric properties for these tests, but the test-retest reliability has never been documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability and the inter-rater reliability of the COST and the SKT. The COST and the SKT were administered twice to a group of forty-two healthy adults, with a delay of approximately four weeks between the assessments. Excellent test-retest reliability was observed for the COST, and a good test-retest reliability was observed for the SKT. There was no evidence of practice effect. Furthermore, an excellent inter-rater reliability was observed for both tests. This study shows a good reliability of the COST and the SKT that adds to the good validity previously reported for these two tests. These good psychometrics properties thus support that the COST and the SKT are adequate measures for the assessment of social cognition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Prediction method of long-term reliability in improving residual stresses by means of surface finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Takehiko; Hirano, Shinro; Chigusa, Naoki; Okano, Shigetaka; Saida, Kazuyoshi; Mochizuki, Masahito; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Surface finishing methods, such as Water Jet Peening (WJP), have been applied to welds in some major components of nuclear power plants as a counter measure to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC). In addition, the methods of surface finishing (buffing treatment) is being standardized, and thus the buffing treatment has been also recognized as the well-established method of improving stress. On the other hand, the long-term stability of peening techniques has been confirmed by accelerated test. However, the effectiveness of stress improvement by surface treatment is limited to thin layers and the effect of complicated residual stress distribution in the weld metal beneath the surface is not strictly taken into account for long-term stability. This paper, therefore, describes the accelerated tests, which confirmed that the long-term stability of the layer subjected to buffing treatment was equal to that subjected to WJP. The long-term reliability of very thin stress improved layer was also confirmed through a trial evaluation by thermal elastic-plastic creep analysis, even if the effect of complicated residual stress distribution in the weld metal was excessively taken into account. Considering the above findings, an approach is proposed for constructing the prediction method of the long-term reliability of stress improvement by surface finishing. (author)

  17. Validity and Reliability of a Medicine Ball Explosive Power Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockbrugger, Barry A.; Haennel, Robert G.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the validity and reliability of a medicine ball throw test to evaluate explosive power. Data on competitive sand volleyball players who performed a medicine ball throw and a standard countermovement jump indicated that the medicine ball throw test was a valid and reliable way to assess explosive power for an analogous total-body movement…

  18. Design for reliability: NASA reliability preferred practices for design and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R.

    1994-01-01

    This tutorial summarizes reliability experience from both NASA and industry and reflects engineering practices that support current and future civil space programs. These practices were collected from various NASA field centers and were reviewed by a committee of senior technical representatives from the participating centers (members are listed at the end). The material for this tutorial was taken from the publication issued by the NASA Reliability and Maintainability Steering Committee (NASA Reliability Preferred Practices for Design and Test. NASA TM-4322, 1991). Reliability must be an integral part of the systems engineering process. Although both disciplines must be weighed equally with other technical and programmatic demands, the application of sound reliability principles will be the key to the effectiveness and affordability of America's space program. Our space programs have shown that reliability efforts must focus on the design characteristics that affect the frequency of failure. Herein, we emphasize that these identified design characteristics must be controlled by applying conservative engineering principles.

  19. Critical wall shear stress for the EHEDG test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Friis, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In order to simulate the results of practical cleaning tests on closed processing equipment, based on wall shear stress predicted by computational fluid dynamics, a critical wall shear stress is required for that particular cleaning method. This work presents investigations that provide a critical...... wall shear stress of 3 Pa for the standardised EHEDG cleaning test method. The cleaning tests were performed on a test disc placed in a radial flowcell assay. Turbulent flow conditions were generated and the corresponding wall shear stresses were predicted from CFD simulations. Combining wall shear...... stress predictions from a simulation using the low Re k-epsilon and one using the two-layer model of Norris and Reynolds were found to produce reliable predictions compared to empirical solutions for the ideal flow case. The comparison of wall shear stress curves predicted for the real RFC...

  20. Predictive Accuracy of Exercise Stress Testing the Healthy Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Exercise stress testing provides information on the aerobic capacity, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to graded exercises of a healthy adult. The reliability of exercise tests as a diagnostic procedure is discussed in relation to sensitivity and specificity and predictive accuracy. (JN)

  1. Reliability improvement of wire bonds subjected to fatigue stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, K. V.; Philofsky, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    The failure of wire bonds due to repeated flexure when semiconductor devices are operated in an on-off mode has been investigated. An accelerated fatigue testing apparatus was constructed and the major fatigue variables, aluminum alloy composition, and bonding mechanism, were tested. The data showed Al-1% Mg wires to exhibit superior fatigue characteristics compared to Al-1% Cu or Al-1% Si and ultrasonic bonding to be better than thermocompression bonding for fatigue resistance. Based on these results highly reliable devices were fabricated using Al-1% Mg wire with ultrasonic bonding which withstood 120,000 power cycles with no failures.

  2. A test chip for automatic reliability measurements of interconnect vias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippe, K.; Hasper, A.; Elfrink, G.W.; Niehof, J.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    1992-01-01

    A test circuit for electromigration reliability measurements was designed and tested. The device under test (DUT) is a via-hole chain. The test circuit permits simultaneous measurements of a number of DUTs, and a fatal error of one DUT does not influence the measurement results of the other DUTs.

  3. Reliability Testing of Cable on Environmental Humidity Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situmorang, Johnny; Puradwi, I.W; Sony T, D.T; Handoyo, Demon; Mulyanto, Dwijo; Kusmono, Slamet

    2000-01-01

    Reliability testing of cable on humidified condition has been carried out. As a result, the failure occurred due to reduction of current by increasing the resistance on rising temperature testing. For humidified condition the result which are observed did not significant at the stated condition of testing. The needed time up to the failure criteria increased as a temperature testing increased

  4. IRT-Estimated Reliability for Tests Containing Mixed Item Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lianghua; Schwarz, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    As a global measure of precision, item response theory (IRT) estimated reliability is derived for four coefficients (Cronbach's a, Feldt-Raju, stratified a, and marginal reliability). Models with different underlying assumptions concerning test-part similarity are discussed. A detailed computational example is presented for the targeted…

  5. A Latent Class Approach to Estimating Test-Score Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ark, L. Andries; van der Palm, Daniel W.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a general framework for single-administration reliability methods, such as Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, and method MS. This general framework was used to derive a new approach to estimating test-score reliability by means of the unrestricted latent class model. This new approach is the latent class reliability…

  6. Application of a truncated normal failure distribution in reliability testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, C., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Statistical truncated normal distribution function is applied as a time-to-failure distribution function in equipment reliability estimations. Age-dependent characteristics of the truncated function provide a basis for formulating a system of high-reliability testing that effectively merges statistical, engineering, and cost considerations.

  7. Stress and Reliability Analysis of a Metal-Ceramic Dental Crown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusavice, Kenneth J; Sokolowski, Todd M.; Hojjatie, Barry; Nemeth, Noel N.

    1996-01-01

    Interaction of mechanical and thermal stresses with the flaws and microcracks within the ceramic region of metal-ceramic dental crowns can result in catastrophic or delayed failure of these restorations. The objective of this study was to determine the combined influence of induced functional stresses and pre-existing flaws and microcracks on the time-dependent probability of failure of a metal-ceramic molar crown. A three-dimensional finite element model of a porcelain fused-to-metal (PFM) molar crown was developed using the ANSYS finite element program. The crown consisted of a body porcelain, opaque porcelain, and a metal substrate. The model had a 300 Newton load applied perpendicular to one cusp, a load of 30ON applied at 30 degrees from the perpendicular load case, directed toward the center, and a 600 Newton vertical load. Ceramic specimens were subjected to a biaxial flexure test and the load-to-failure of each specimen was measured. The results of the finite element stress analysis and the flexure tests were incorporated in the NASA developed CARES/LIFE program to determine the Weibull and fatigue parameters and time-dependent fracture reliability of the PFM crown. CARES/LIFE calculates the time-dependent reliability of monolithic ceramic components subjected to thermomechanical and/Or proof test loading. This program is an extension of the CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) computer program.

  8. Automation of testing the metrological reliability of nondestructive control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, Yu.A.; Isakov, V.B.; Karlov, Yu.K.; Kovalevskij, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    Opportunities of microcomputers are used to solve the problem of testing control-measuring systems. Besides the main program the program of data processing when characterizing the nondestructive control systems is written in the microcomputer. The program includes two modules. The first module contains tests-programs, by which accuracy of functional elements of the microcomputer and interface elements with issuing a message to the operator on readiness of the elements for operation and failure of a certain element are determined. The second module includes: calculational programs when determining metrological reliability of measuring channel reliability, a calculational subprogram for random statistical measuring error, time instability and ''dead time''. Automation of testing metrological reliability of the nondestructive control systems increases reliability of determining metrological parameters and reduces time of system testing

  9. Validity, Reliability, and Sensitivity of a Volleyball Intermittent Endurance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A; Medina-Carrillo, Javier; García-López, Juan; Morante, Juan C; Villa, José G; Foster, Carl

    2017-03-01

    To analyze the concurrent and construct validity of a volleyball intermittent endurance test (VIET). The VIET's test-retest reliability and sensitivity to assess seasonal changes was also studied. During the preseason, 71 volleyball players of different competitive levels took part in this study. All performed the VIET and a graded treadmill test with gas-exchange measurement (GXT). Thirty-one of the players performed an additional VIET to analyze the test-retest reliability. To test the VIET's sensitivity, 28 players repeated the VIET and GXT at the end of their season. Significant (P volleyball players.

  10. Re-test reliability of gustatory testing and introduction of the sensitive Taste-Drop-Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjaeldstad, A; Niklassen, A; Fernandes, H

    2018-01-01

    . Testing gustatory function can be important for diagnostics and assessment of treatment effects. However, the gustatory tests applied are required to be both sensitive and reliable.In this study, we investigate the re-test validity of popular Taste Strips gustatory test for gustatory screening....... Furthermore, we introduce a new sensitive Taste-Drop-Test, which was found to be superior for detecting a more accurate measure of tastant sensitivity....

  11. NASA reliability preferred practices for design and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Given here is a manual that was produced to communicate within the aerospace community design practices that have contributed to NASA mission success. The information represents the best technical advice that NASA has to offer on reliability design and test practices. Topics covered include reliability practices, including design criteria, test procedures, and analytical techniques that have been applied to previous space flight programs; and reliability guidelines, including techniques currently applied to space flight projects, where sufficient information exists to certify that the technique will contribute to mission success.

  12. Reliability performance of standby equipment with periodic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, S.H.

    1985-11-01

    In this report, the reliability performance of standby equipment subjected to periodic testing is studied. analytical expressions have been derived for reliability measures, such as the man accumulated operating time to failure, the expected number of tests between two consecutive failures, the mean time to failure following an emergency start-up and the probability of failing to complete an emergency mission of a specified duration. These results are useful for the reliability assessment of standby equipment such as combustion turbine units of the emergency power supply system, and of the Class III power system at a nuclear generating station

  13. Reliability demonstration test planning: A three dimensional consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Om Prakash; Singh, Nanua; Goel, Parveen S.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing customer demand for reliability, fierce market competition on time-to-market and cost, and highly reliable products are making reliability testing more challenging task. This paper presents a systematic approach for identifying critical elements (subsystems and components) of the system and deciding the types of test to be performed to demonstrate reliability. It decomposes the system into three dimensions (i.e. physical, functional and time) and identifies critical elements in the design by allocating system level reliability to each candidate. The decomposition of system level reliability is achieved by using criticality index. The numerical value of criticality index for each candidate is derived based on the information available from failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) document or warranty data from a prior system. It makes use of this information to develop reliability demonstration test plan for the identified (critical) failure mechanisms and physical elements. It also highlights the benefits of using prior information in order to locate critical spots in the design and in subsequent development of test plans. A case example is presented to demonstrate the proposed approach

  14. 77 FR 3166 - Annual Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 325, Subpart C RIN 3064-AD91 Annual Stress Test... Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the ``Dodd-Frank Act'') regarding stress tests (``proposed rule... to conduct annual stress tests in accordance with the proposed rule, report the results of such...

  15. 77 FR 61238 - Annual Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ...-2011-0029] RIN 1557-AD58 Annual Stress Test AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (``OCC... conduct annual stress tests pursuant to regulations prescribed by their respective primary financial... annual stress test as prescribed by this rule. Under the final rule covered institutions are divided into...

  16. 77 FR 16484 - Annual Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...-2011-0029] RIN 1557-AD58 Annual Stress Test AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Treasury... billion to conduct an annual stress test and comply with certain reporting and disclosure requirements. To... conduct annual stress tests pursuant to regulations prescribed by their respective Federal primary...

  17. Operational reliability testing of FBR fuel in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaga, Takeo; Ukai, Shigeharu; Nomura, Shigeo; Shikakura, Sakae

    1991-01-01

    The operational reliability testing of FBR fuel has been conducting in EBR-II as a DOE/PNC collaboration program. This paper reviews the achieved summary of Phase-I test as well as outline of progressing Phase-II test. In Phase-I test, the reliability of FBR fuel pins including 'MONJU' fuel was demonstrated at the event of operational transient. Continued operation of the failed pins was also shown to be feasible without affecting the plant operation. The objectives of the Phase-II test is to extend the data base relating with the operational reliability for long life fuel, and to supply the highly quantitative evaluation. The valuable insight obtained in Phase-II test are considerably expected to be useful toward the achievement of commercial FBR. (author)

  18. Accelerated life testing and reliability of high K multilayer ceramic capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minford, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    The reliability of one lot of high K multilayer ceramic capacitors was evaluated using accelerated life testing. The degradation in insulation resistance was characterized as a function of voltage and temperature. The times to failure at a voltage-temperature stress conformed to a lognormal distribution with a standard deviation approximately 0.5.

  19. Reliability of four experimental mechanical pain tests in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soee AL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ann-Britt L Soee,1 Lise L Thomsen,2 Birte Tornoe,1,3 Liselotte Skov11Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Headache Clinic, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Department of Neuropediatrics, Juliane Marie Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, København Ø, Denmark; 3Department of Physiotherapy, Medical Department O, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Herlev, DenmarkPurpose: In order to study pain in children, it is necessary to determine whether pain measurement tools used in adults are reliable measurements in children. The aim of this study was to explore the intrasession reliability of pressure pain thresholds (PPT in healthy children. Furthermore, the aim was also to study the intersession reliability of the following four tests: (1 Total Tenderness Score; (2 PPT; (3 Visual Analog Scale score at suprapressure pain threshold; and (4 area under the curve (stimulus–response functions for pressure versus pain.Participants and methods: Twenty-five healthy school children, 8–14 years of age, participated. Test 2, PPT, was repeated three times at 2 minute intervals on the same day to estimate PPT intrasession reliability using Cronbach’s alpha. Tests 1–4 were repeated after median 21 (interquartile range 10.5–22 days, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to describe the intersession reliability.Results: The PPT test was precise and reliable (Cronbach’s alpha ≥ 0.92. All tests showed a good to excellent correlation between days (intersessions r = 0.66–0.81. There were no indications of significant systematic differences found in any of the four tests between days.Conclusion: All tests seemed to be reliable measurements in pain evaluation in healthy children aged 8–14 years. Given the small sample size, this conclusion needs to be confirmed in future studies.Keywords: repeatability, intraindividual reliability, pressure pain threshold, pain measurement, algometer

  20. Reliability of movement control tests in the lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bruin Eling D

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement control dysfunction [MCD] reduces active control of movements. Patients with MCD might form an important subgroup among patients with non specific low back pain. The diagnosis is based on the observation of active movements. Although widely used clinically, only a few studies have been performed to determine the test reliability. The aim of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-observer reliability of movement control dysfunction tests of the lumbar spine. Methods We videoed patients performing a standardized test battery consisting of 10 active movement tests for motor control in 27 patients with non specific low back pain and 13 patients with other diagnoses but without back pain. Four physiotherapists independently rated test performances as correct or incorrect per observation, blinded to all other patient information and to each other. The study was conducted in a private physiotherapy outpatient practice in Reinach, Switzerland. Kappa coefficients, percentage agreements and confidence intervals for inter- and intra-rater results were calculated. Results The kappa values for inter-tester reliability ranged between 0.24 – 0.71. Six tests out of ten showed a substantial reliability [k > 0.6]. Intra-tester reliability was between 0.51 – 0.96, all tests but one showed substantial reliability [k > 0.6]. Conclusion Physiotherapists were able to reliably rate most of the tests in this series of motor control tasks as being performed correctly or not, by viewing films of patients with and without back pain performing the task.

  1. Optimal number of tests to achieve and validate product reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Hussam; Chateauneuf, Alaa

    2014-01-01

    The reliability validation of engineering products and systems is mandatory for choosing the best cost-effective design among a series of alternatives. Decisions at early design stages have a large effect on the overall life cycle performance and cost of products. In this paper, an optimization-based formulation is proposed by coupling the costs of product design and validation testing, in order to ensure the product reliability with the minimum number of tests. This formulation addresses the question about the number of tests to be specified through reliability demonstration necessary to validate the product under appropriate confidence level. The proposed formulation takes into account the product cost, the failure cost and the testing cost. The optimization problem can be considered as a decision making system according to the hierarchy of structural reliability measures. The numerical examples show the interest of coupling design and testing parameters. - Highlights: • Coupled formulation for design and testing costs, with lifetime degradation. • Cost-effective testing optimization to achieve reliability target. • Solution procedure for nested aleatoric and epistemic variable spaces

  2. Reliability of four experimental mechanical pain tests in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Ann-Britt Langager; Thomsen, Lise L; Tornoe, Birte

    2013-01-01

    In order to study pain in children, it is necessary to determine whether pain measurement tools used in adults are reliable measurements in children. The aim of this study was to explore the intrasession reliability of pressure pain thresholds (PPT) in healthy children. Furthermore, the aim was a...... was also to study the intersession reliability of the following four tests: (1) Total Tenderness Score; (2) PPT; (3) Visual Analog Scale score at suprapressure pain threshold; and (4) area under the curve (stimulus-response functions for pressure versus pain).......In order to study pain in children, it is necessary to determine whether pain measurement tools used in adults are reliable measurements in children. The aim of this study was to explore the intrasession reliability of pressure pain thresholds (PPT) in healthy children. Furthermore, the aim...

  3. Hemodynamic stress testing using pacing tachycardia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, R.G.; Grossman, W.

    1986-01-01

    A trial pacing was first introduced in 1967 by Sowton and co-workers as a stress test which could be used in the cardiac catheterization laboratory to evaluate patients with schemic heart disease. Sowton noted that artificially increasing the heart rate by pacing the right atrium could usually induce angina in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease. Since Sowton's original description, numerous investigators have described characteristic pacing-induced electrocardiographic changes, derangements of myocardial lactate metabolism, hemodynamic abnormalities, regional wall abnormalities, and defects in thallium scintigraphy. Although agreement on the overall usefulness of atrial pacing has not been uniform, it is clear that the technique can safely and reliably induce ischemia in most patients with coronary artery disease and that information obtained during the pacing-induced ischemic state can often be helpful in the diagnosis and treatment of the patient's underlying disease

  4. Proving Test on the Reliability for Reactor Containment Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takumi, K.; Nonaka, A.

    1988-01-01

    NUPEC (Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center) has started an eight-year project of Proving Test on the Reliability for Reactor Containment Vessel since June 1987. The objective of this project is to confirm the integrity of containment vessels under severe accident conditions. This paper shows the outline of this project. The test Items are (1) Hydrogen mixing and distribution test, (2) Hydrogen burning test, (3) Iodine trapping characteristics test, and (4) Structural behavior test. Based on the test results, computer codes are verified and as the results of analysis and evaluation by the computer codes, containment integrity is to be confirmed

  5. Biaxial Stress Tests of Plain Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.K.; Cho, M.S.; Song, Y.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    Containment concrete specimens(4000, 5000psi) were tested under biaxial stress and presented basic physical properties and biaxial failure envelops for the concrete specimens. Failure behaviors of concrete under biaxial stress were assessed with stress-strain responses and failure modes. Here provided real test data to develop nonlinear finite element concrete models. (author). 15 refs., 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Reliability of a New Lower-Extremity Motor Coordination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosiak-Cyrak Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Motor coordination is a basic motor ability necessary for daily life, which also allows athletes to win a sports rivalry and patients to assess their recovery progress after therapy and rehabilitation. The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of a new lower-extremity rate of movements test and testing apparatus.

  7. Ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid as reliable biomarkers of oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2007-01-01

    , the analytical reproducibility was tested by repeated analysis of plasma aliquots from one individual over four years. The plasma was subjected to acidic deproteinization with an equal volume of 10% meta-phosphoric acid containing 2 mM EDTA and analyzed for ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid by high-performance...... liquid chromatography with coulometric detection. In a parallel experiment, stability of human plasma samples treated as above and stored at -80°C for five years was tested in a cohort of 131 individuals. No degradation or shift in the equilibrium between ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid was observed......Lack of post-sampling stability of ascorbate and dehydroascorbic acid and failure to block their in vivo equilibrium have lowered their value as biomarkers of oxidative stress and limited the ability to further investigate their possible role in disease prevention. In the present paper...

  8. Validity and reliability testing of the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, M A; Campbell, R A; Christian, M

    1994-04-01

    Two studies of low-income pregnant women (N = 179) were done to examine the validity and reliability of the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile (PPP). The PPP, a composite of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Support Behaviors Inventory, and a newly developed measure of stress, is a brief, comprehensive clinical assessment of psychosocial risk during pregnancy. Construct validity of the stress scale was supported by theoretically predicted negative correlations with self-esteem, partner support, and support from others (N = 91). Convergent validity of the stress scale was demonstrated by a correlation of .71 with the Difficult Life Circumstances Scale. Adequate levels of internal consistency were found. Interrelationships between the four subscales were consistent with the underlying conceptualization, and there was beginning evidence of the factorial independence of the subscales.

  9. Reliability performance testing of totally encapsulating chemical protective suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.; Swearengen, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    The need to assure a high degree of reliability for totally encapsulating chemical protective (TECP) suits has been recognized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Hazards Control Department for some time. The following four tests were proposed as necessary to provide complete evaluation of TECP suit performance: 1. Quantitative leak test (ASTM draft), 2. Worst-case chemical exposure test (conceptual), 3. Pressure leak-rate test (complete, ASTM F1057-87), and 4. Chemical leak-rate test (ASTM draft). This paper reports on these tests which should be applied to measuring TECP suit performance in two stages: design qualification tests and field use tests. Test 1, 2, and 3 are used as design qualification tests, and tests 3 and 4 are used as field use tests

  10. Large test rigs verify Clinch River control rod reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, H.D.; Smith, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the Clinch River control test programme was to use multiple full-scale prototypic control rod systems for verifying the system's ability to perform reliably during simulated reactor power control and emergency shutdown operations. Two major facilities, the Shutdown Control Rod and Maintenance (Scram) facility and the Dynamic and Seismic Test (Dast) facility, were constructed. The test programme of each facility is described. (UK)

  11. FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] reactor shutdown system reliability reevaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, B.F.

    1986-07-01

    The reliability analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor shutdown system was reevaluated. Failure information based on five years of plant operating experience was used to verify original reliability numbers or to establish new ones. Also, system modifications made subsequent to performance of the original analysis were incorporated into the reevaluation. Reliability calculations and sensitivity analyses were performed using a commercially available spreadsheet on a personal computer. The spreadsheet was configured so that future failures could be tracked and compared with expected failures. A number of recommendations resulted from the reevaluation including both increased and decreased surveillance intervals. All recommendations were based on meeting or exceeding existing reliability goals. Considerable cost savings will be incurred upon implementation of the recommendations

  12. Reliability of wind turbine blades: An overview of materials testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, John W.; Sørensen, Bent F.; Brøndsted, Povl

    2007-01-01

    an understanding of how damage develops in composite structures, composite materials and adhesives. Designing reliable wind turbine blades also requires the further development of laboratory scale and full scale test methods to evaluate the structural response and durability of new materials under various loading......The structural reliability of wind turbine components can have a profound impact on both the profitability and reputation of a wind turbine manufacturer or supplier of wind turbine components. The issue of reliability is of critical concern when large wind farm co-operatives are considered......, and when wind turbines are located in remote regions where the cost of inspections and repairs can be very high. From a structural viewpoint, wind turbine blades are subjected to very complex loading histories with coupled deformation modes. The long-term reliability of wind turbine blades requires...

  13. Validity and Reliability of Baseline Testing in a Standardized Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Kathryn L; Caze, Todd; Maerlender, Arthur

    2017-08-11

    The Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is a computerized neuropsychological test battery commonly used to determine cognitive recovery from concussion based on comparing post-injury scores to baseline scores. This model is based on the premise that ImPACT baseline test scores are a valid and reliable measure of optimal cognitive function at baseline. Growing evidence suggests that this premise may not be accurate and a large contributor to invalid and unreliable baseline test scores may be the protocol and environment in which baseline tests are administered. This study examined the effects of a standardized environment and administration protocol on the reliability and performance validity of athletes' baseline test scores on ImPACT by comparing scores obtained in two different group-testing settings. Three hundred-sixty one Division 1 cohort-matched collegiate athletes' baseline data were assessed using a variety of indicators of potential performance invalidity; internal reliability was also examined. Thirty-one to thirty-nine percent of the baseline cases had at least one indicator of low performance validity, but there were no significant differences in validity indicators based on environment in which the testing was conducted. Internal consistency reliability scores were in the acceptable to good range, with no significant differences between administration conditions. These results suggest that athletes may be reliably performing at levels lower than their best effort would produce. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Reliability of Single Crystal Silver Nanowire-Based Systems: Stress Assisted Instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandramoorthy, Rajaprakash; Wang, Yanming; Aghaei, Amin; Richter, Gunther; Cai, Wei; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2017-05-23

    Time-dependent mechanical characterization of nanowires is critical to understand their long-term reliability in applications, such as flexible-electronics and touch screens. It is also of great importance to develop a theoretical framework for experimentation and analysis on the mechanics of nanowires under time-dependent loading conditions, such as stress-relaxation and fatigue. Here, we combine in situ scanning electron microscope (SEM)/transmission electron microscope (TEM) tests with atomistic and phase-field simulations to understand the deformation mechanisms of single crystal silver nanowires held under constant strain. We observe that the nanowires initially undergo stress-relaxation, where the stress reduces with time and saturates after some time period. The stress-relaxation process occurs due to the formation of few dislocations and stacking faults. Remarkably, after a few hours the nanowires rupture suddenly. The reason for this abrupt failure of the nanowire was identified as stress-assisted diffusion, using phase-field simulations. Under a large applied strain, diffusion leads to the amplification of nanowire surface perturbation at long wavelengths and the nanowire fails at the stress-concentrated thin cross-sectional regions. An analytical analysis on the competition between the elastic energy and the surface energy predicts a longer time to failure for thicker nanowires than thinner ones, consistent with our experimental observations. The measured time to failure of nanowires under cyclic loading conditions can also be explained in terms of this mechanism.

  15. Development of seismic technology and reliability based on vibration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Youichi

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with some of the vibration tests and investigations on the seismic safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Japan. To ensure the reliability of the seismic safety of nuclear power plants, nuclear power plants in Japan have been designed according to the Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants. This guideline has been developed based on technical date base and findings which were obtained from many vibration tests and investigations. Besides the tests for the guideline, proving tests on seismic reliability of operating nuclear power plants equipment and systems have been carried out. In this paper some vibration tests and their evaluation results are presented. They have crucially contributed to develop the guideline. (J.P.N.)

  16. Development of seismic technology and reliability based on vibration tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Youichi [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This paper deals with some of the vibration tests and investigations on the seismic safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Japan. To ensure the reliability of the seismic safety of nuclear power plants, nuclear power plants in Japan have been designed according to the Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants. This guideline has been developed based on technical date base and findings which were obtained from many vibration tests and investigations. Besides the tests for the guideline, proving tests on seismic reliability of operating nuclear power plants equipment and systems have been carried out. In this paper some vibration tests and their evaluation results are presented. They have crucially contributed to develop the guideline. (J.P.N.)

  17. Reliability test and failure analysis of high power LED packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhaohui; Zhang Qin; Wang Kai; Luo Xiaobing; Liu Sheng

    2011-01-01

    A new type application specific light emitting diode (LED) package (ASLP) with freeform polycarbonate lens for street lighting is developed, whose manufacturing processes are compatible with a typical LED packaging process. The reliability test methods and failure criterions from different vendors are reviewed and compared. It is found that test methods and failure criterions are quite different. The rapid reliability assessment standards are urgently needed for the LED industry. 85 0 C/85 RH with 700 mA is used to test our LED modules with three other vendors for 1000 h, showing no visible degradation in optical performance for our modules, with two other vendors showing significant degradation. Some failure analysis methods such as C-SAM, Nano X-ray CT and optical microscope are used for LED packages. Some failure mechanisms such as delaminations and cracks are detected in the LED packages after the accelerated reliability testing. The finite element simulation method is helpful for the failure analysis and design of the reliability of the LED packaging. One example is used to show one currently used module in industry is vulnerable and may not easily pass the harsh thermal cycle testing. (semiconductor devices)

  18. Ultrasonic inspection reliability for intergranular stress corrosion cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heasler, P G; Taylor, T T; Spanner, J C; Doctor, S R; Deffenbaugh, J D [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)

    1990-07-01

    A pipe inspection round robin entitled Mini-Round Robin'' was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from May 1985 through October 1985. The research was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research under a program entitled Evaluation and Improvement of NDE Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors.'' The Mini-Round Robin (MRR) measured the intergranular stress corrosion (GSC) crack detection and sizing capabilities of inservice inspection (ISI) inspectors that had passed the requirements of IEB 83-02 and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sizing training course. The MRR data base was compared with an earlier Pipe Inspection Round Robin (PIRR) that had measured the performance of inservice inspection prior to 1982. Comparison of the MRR and PIRR data bases indicates no significant change in the inspection capability for detecting IGSCC. Also, when comparing detection of long and short cracks, no difference in detection capability was measured. An improvement in the ability to differentiate between shallow and deeper IGSCC was found when the MRR sizing capability was compared with an earlier sizing round robin conducted by the EPRI. In addition to the pipe inspection round robin, a human factors study was conducted in conjunction with the Mini-Round Robin. The most important result of the human factors study is that the Relative Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves provide a better methodology for describing inspector performance than only probability of detection (POD) or single-point crack/no crack data. 6 refs., 55 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. The Bahasa Melayu version of the Nursing Stress Scale among nurses: a reliability study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnawati, Muhamad Robat; Moe, Htay; Masilamani, Retneswari; Darus, A

    2010-10-01

    The Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) has been shown to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess occupational stressors among nurses. The NSS, which was previously used in the English version, was translated and back-translated into Bahasa Melayu. This study was conducted to assess the reliability of the Bahasa Melayu version of the NSS among nurses for future studies in this country. The reliability of the NSS was assessed after its readministration to 30 nurses with a 2-week interval. The Spearman coefficient was calculated to assess its stability. The internal consistency was measured through 4 measures: Cronbach's α, Spearman-Brown, Guttman split-half, and standardized item α coefficients. The total response rate was 70%. Test-retest reliability showed remarkable stability (Spearman's ρ exceeded .70). All 4 measures of internal consistency among items indicated a satisfactory level (coefficients in the range of .68 to .87). In conclusion, the Bahasa Melayu version of the NSS is a reliable and useful instrument for measuring the possible stressors at the workplace among nurses.

  20. Validity and reliability of the NAB Naming Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Bonnie C; Rush, Beth K; Pedraza, Otto

    2016-05-01

    Confrontation naming is commonly assessed in neuropsychological practice, but few standardized measures of naming exist and those that do are susceptible to the effects of education and culture. The Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) Naming Test is a 31-item measure used to assess confrontation naming. Despite adequate psychometric information provided by the test publisher, there has been limited independent validation of the test. In this study, we investigated the convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency, and alternate forms reliability of the NAB Naming Test in a sample of adults (Form 1: n = 247, Form 2: n = 151) clinically referred for neuropsychological evaluation. Results indicate adequate-to-good internal consistency and alternate forms reliability. We also found strong convergent validity as demonstrated by relationships with other neurocognitive measures. We found preliminary evidence that the NAB Naming Test demonstrates a more pronounced ceiling effect than other commonly used measures of naming. To our knowledge, this represents the largest published independent validation study of the NAB Naming Test in a clinical sample. Our findings suggest that the NAB Naming Test demonstrates adequate validity and reliability and merits consideration in the test arsenal of clinical neuropsychologists.

  1. Reliability and maintainability data acquisition in equipment development tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Gift, E.H.

    1983-10-01

    The need for collection of reliability, maintainability, and availability data adds a new dimension to the data acquisition requirements of equipment development tests. This report describes the reliability and maintainability data that are considered necessary to ensure that sufficient and high quality data exist for a comprehensive, quantitative evaluation of equipment and system availability. These necessary data are presented as a set of data collection forms. Three data acquisition forms are discussed: an inventory and technical data form, which is filed by the design engineer when the design is finished or the equipment is received; an event report form, which is completed by the senior test operator at each shutdown; and a maintainability report, which is a collaborative effort between senior operators and lead engineers and is completed on restart. In addition, elements of a reliability, maintainability evaluation program are described. Emphasis is placed on the role of data, its storage, and use in such a program

  2. Test-retest reliability of the multifocal photopic negative response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alstine, Anthony W; Viswanathan, Suresh

    2017-02-01

    To assess the test-retest reliability of the multifocal photopic negative response (mfPhNR) of normal human subjects. Multifocal electroretinograms were recorded from one eye of 61 healthy adult subjects on two separate days using a Visual Evoked Response Imaging System software version 4.3 (EDI, San Mateo, California). The visual stimulus delivered on a 75-Hz monitor consisted of seven equal-sized hexagons each subtending 12° of visual angle. The m-step exponent was 9, and the m-sequence was slowed to include at least 30 blank frames after each flash. Only the first slice of the first-order kernel was analyzed. The mfPhNR amplitude was measured at a fixed time in the trough from baseline (BT) as well as at the same fixed time in the trough from the preceding b-wave peak (PT). Additionally, we also analyzed BT normalized either to PT (BT/PT) or to the b-wave amplitude (BT/b-wave). The relative reliability of test-retest differences for each test location was estimated by the Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Absolute test-retest reliability was estimated by Bland-Altman analysis. The test-retest amplitude differences for neither of the two measurement techniques were statistically significant as determined by Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test. PT measurements showed greater ICC values than BT amplitude measurements for all test locations. For each measurement technique, the ICC value of the macular response was greater than that of the surrounding locations. The mean test-retest difference was close to zero for both techniques at each of the test locations, and while the coefficient of reliability (COR-1.96 times the standard deviation of the test-retest difference) was comparable for the two techniques at each test location when expressed in nanovolts, the %COR (COR normalized to the mean test and retest amplitudes) was superior for PT than BT measurements. The ICC and COR were comparable for the BT/PT and

  3. Reliability and validity of two isometric squat tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazevich, Anthony J; Gill, Nicholas; Newton, Robert U

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was first to examine the reliability of isometric squat (IS) and isometric forward hack squat (IFHS) tests to determine if repeated measures on the same subjects yielded reliable results. The second purpose was to examine the relation between isometric and dynamic measures of strength to assess validity. Fourteen male subjects performed maximal IS and IFHS tests on 2 occasions and 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) free-weight squat and forward hack squat (FHS) tests on 1 occasion. The 2 tests were found to be highly reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC](IS) = 0.97 and ICC(IFHS) = 1.00). There was a strong relation between average IS and 1-RM squat performance, and between IFHS and 1-RM FHS performance (r(squat) = 0.77, r(FHS) = 0.76; p squat and FHS test performances (r squat and FHS test performance can be attributed to differences in the movement patterns of the tests

  4. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Phase 3 Gearbox 2 Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, H.; Keller, J.; Guo, Y.; McNiff, B.

    2013-04-01

    Gearboxes in wind turbines have not been achieving their expected design life even though they commonly meet or exceed the design criteria specified in current design standards. One of the basic premises of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) is that the low gearbox reliability results from the absence of critical elements in the design process or insufficient design tools. Key goals of the GRC are to improve design approaches and analysis tools and to recommend practices and test methods resulting in improved design standards for wind turbine gearboxes that lower the cost of energy (COE) through improved reliability. The GRC uses a combined gearbox testing, modeling and analysis approach, along with a database of information from gearbox failures collected from overhauls and investigation of gearbox condition monitoring techniques to improve wind turbine operations and maintenance practices. Testing of Gearbox 2 (GB2) using the two-speed turbine controller that has been used in prior testing. This test series will investigate non-torque loads, high-speed shaft misalignment, and reproduction of field conditions in the dynamometer. This test series will also include vibration testing using an eddy-current brake on the gearbox's high speed shaft.

  5. Test-retest reliability of trunk accelerometric gait analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Moe-Nilssen, R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of a trunk accelerometric gait analysis in healthy subjects. Accelerations were measured during walking using a triaxial accelerometer mounted on the lumbar spine of the subjects. Six men and 14 women (mean age 35.2; range 18...... a definite potential in clinical gait analysis....

  6. Test of Creative Imagination: Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogan, Aysun; Ari, Meziyet; Gonen, Mubeccel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate validity and reliability of the test of creative imagination. This study was conducted with the participation of 1000 children, aged between 9-14 and were studying in six primary schools in the city center of Denizli Province, chosen by cluster ratio sampling. In the study, it was revealed that the…

  7. New design algorithm and reliability testing of solar powered near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New design algorithm and reliability testing of solar powered near-space flight vehicle for defense and security. ... To overcome this problem, we propose a pseudo-satellite system where telecommunication devices are carried on a perpetually flying solar aircraft cruising at stratospheric altitude. Our aircraft will combine ...

  8. Construct validity and reliability of automated body reaction test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated Body Reaction Test (ABRT) is a new device for skills and physical assessment instrument to measure ability on react, move quickly and accurately in accordance with stimulus. A total of 474 subjects aged 7-17 years old were randomly selected for the construct validity (n=330) and reliability (n=144). The ABRT ...

  9. MEMS Reliability: Infrastructure, Test Structures, Experiments, and Failure Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TANNER,DANELLE M.; SMITH,NORMAN F.; IRWIN,LLOYD W.; EATON,WILLIAM P.; HELGESEN,KAREN SUE; CLEMENT,J. JOSEPH; MILLER,WILLIAM M.; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; PETERSON,KENNETH A.

    2000-01-01

    The burgeoning new technology of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) shows great promise in the weapons arena. We can now conceive of micro-gyros, micro-surety systems, and micro-navigators that are extremely small and inexpensive. Do we want to use this new technology in critical applications such as nuclear weapons? This question drove us to understand the reliability and failure mechanisms of silicon surface-micromachined MEMS. Development of a testing infrastructure was a crucial step to perform reliability experiments on MEMS devices and will be reported here. In addition, reliability test structures have been designed and characterized. Many experiments were performed to investigate failure modes and specifically those in different environments (humidity, temperature, shock, vibration, and storage). A predictive reliability model for wear of rubbing surfaces in microengines was developed. The root causes of failure for operating and non-operating MEMS are discussed. The major failure mechanism for operating MEMS was wear of the polysilicon rubbing surfaces. Reliability design rules for future MEMS devices are established.

  10. Reliability Evaluation of Concentric Butterfly Valve Using Statistical Hypothesis Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Mu Seong; Choi, Jong Sik; Choi, Byung Oh; Kim, Do Sik

    2015-01-01

    A butterfly valve is a type of flow-control device typically used to regulate a fluid flow. This paper presents an estimation of the shape parameter of the Weibull distribution, characteristic life, and B10 life for a concentric butterfly valve based on a statistical analysis of the reliability test data taken before and after the valve improvement. The difference in the shape and scale parameters between the existing and improved valves is reviewed using a statistical hypothesis test. The test results indicate that the shape parameter of the improved valve is similar to that of the existing valve, and that the scale parameter of the improved valve is found to have increased. These analysis results are particularly useful for a reliability qualification test and the determination of the service life cycles

  11. Reliable and sensitive physical testing of elite trapeze sailors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Jonathan; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2018-01-01

    It was investigated, if a newly developed discipline specific test for elite-level trapeze sailors is reli-able and sensitive. Furthermore, the physical demands of trapeze sailing were examined. In part 1, nine national team athletes were accustomed to a simulated sailing test, which subsequently....... 265 ± 45W, Psailing was 54.5 ± 7.2% VO2max , 75.1 ± 3.1% HRmax and 5.8 ± 2.7 mM, respectively. However, VO2 and HR were substantially higher for periods of the race...... as peak values were 83.5 ± 11.4% and 89.9 ± 1.7% of max, respectively. In conclusion, the present test is reliable and sensitive, thus providing a sailing specific alternative to traditional physical testing of elite trapeze sailors. Additionally, on-water rac-ing requires moderate aerobic energy...

  12. Reliability Evaluation of Concentric Butterfly Valve Using Statistical Hypothesis Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Mu Seong; Choi, Jong Sik; Choi, Byung Oh; Kim, Do Sik [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    A butterfly valve is a type of flow-control device typically used to regulate a fluid flow. This paper presents an estimation of the shape parameter of the Weibull distribution, characteristic life, and B10 life for a concentric butterfly valve based on a statistical analysis of the reliability test data taken before and after the valve improvement. The difference in the shape and scale parameters between the existing and improved valves is reviewed using a statistical hypothesis test. The test results indicate that the shape parameter of the improved valve is similar to that of the existing valve, and that the scale parameter of the improved valve is found to have increased. These analysis results are particularly useful for a reliability qualification test and the determination of the service life cycles.

  13. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Phase 3 Gearbox 3 Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wallen, Robb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This document describes the Phase 3 test plan for the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Gearbox #3. The primary test objective is to measure the planetary load sharing characteristics in the same conditions as the original gearbox design. If the measured load-sharing characteristics are close to the design model, the projected three-times improvement in planetary section predicted fatigue life and the efficacy of preloaded tapered roller bearings in mitigating the planetary bearing fatigue failure mode will have been demonstrated.

  14. Reliability analysis of structures under periodic proof tests in service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.-N.

    1976-01-01

    A reliability analysis of structures subjected to random service loads and periodic proof tests treats gust loads and maneuver loads as random processes. Crack initiation, crack propagation, and strength degradation are treated as the fatigue process. The time to fatigue crack initiation and ultimate strength are random variables. Residual strength decreases during crack propagation, so that failure rate increases with time. When a structure fails under periodic proof testing, a new structure is built and proof-tested. The probability of structural failure in service is derived from treatment of all the random variables, strength degradations, service loads, proof tests, and the renewal of failed structures. Some numerical examples are worked out.

  15. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Phase 3 Gearbox 2 Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan; Wallen, Robb

    2015-06-10

    Many gearboxes in wind turbines have not been achieving their expected design life [1]; they do, however, commonly meet or exceed the design criteria specified in current standards in the gear, bearing, and wind turbine industry as well as third-party certification criteria. The cost of gearbox replacements and rebuilds, as well as the downtime associated with these failures, has elevated the cost of wind energy. In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy established the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC). Its key goal is to understand the root causes of premature gearbox failures and improve their reliability [2]. The GRC is examining a hypothesis that the gap between design-estimated and actual wind turbine gearbox reliability is caused by underestimation of loads, inaccurate design tools, the absence of critical elements in the design process, or insufficient testing. This test report describes the recent tests of GRC gearbox (GB) 2 in the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) dynamometer and documents any modifications to the original test plan [3]. In this manner, it serves as a guide for interpreting the publicly released data sets with brief analyses to illustrate the data. Specific objectives of the test were to assess the effect of dynamic nontorque load (NTL) on the planetary section, generator misalignment on the highspeed shaft (HSS), and field representative conditions on the gearbox in general. Detailed analysis of those test objectives will be presented in subsequent publications.

  16. Reliability assessment for safety critical systems by statistical random testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.E.

    1995-11-01

    In this report we present an overview of reliability assessment for software and focus on some basic aspects of assessing reliability for safety critical systems by statistical random testing. We also discuss possible deviations from some essential assumptions on which the general methodology is based. These deviations appear quite likely in practical applications. We present and discuss possible remedies and adjustments and then undertake applying this methodology to a portion of the SDS1 software. We also indicate shortcomings of the methodology and possible avenues to address to follow to address these problems. (author). 128 refs., 11 tabs., 31 figs

  17. Reliability assessment for safety critical systems by statistical random testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, S E [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Statistical Consulting Centre

    1995-11-01

    In this report we present an overview of reliability assessment for software and focus on some basic aspects of assessing reliability for safety critical systems by statistical random testing. We also discuss possible deviations from some essential assumptions on which the general methodology is based. These deviations appear quite likely in practical applications. We present and discuss possible remedies and adjustments and then undertake applying this methodology to a portion of the SDS1 software. We also indicate shortcomings of the methodology and possible avenues to address to follow to address these problems. (author). 128 refs., 11 tabs., 31 figs.

  18. Molding compound trends in a denser packaging world: Qualification tests and reliability concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L. T.; Lo, R. H. Y.; Chen, A. S.; Belani, J. G.

    1993-12-01

    Molding compound development has traditionally been driven by the memory market, then subsequent applications filter down to other IC technologies such as logic, analog, and ASIC. However, this strategy has changed lately with the introduction of thin packages such as PQFP & TSOP. Rather than targeting a compound for a family of IC such as DRAM or SRAM, compound development efforts are now focused at specific classes of packages. The configurations of these thin packages impose new functional requirements that need to be revisited to provide the optimized combination of properties. The evolution of qualification tests mirrors the advances in epoxy and compounding technologies. From the first standard novolac-based epoxies of the 1970s to the latest 3(sup rd)-generation ultra-low stress materials, longer test times at increasingly harsher environments were achieved. This paper benchmarks the current reliability tests used by the electronic industry, examines those tests that affect and are affected by the molding compounds, discusses the relevance of accelerated testing, and addresses the major reliability issues facing current molding compound development efforts. Six compound-related reliability concerns were selected: moldability, package stresses, package cracking, halogen-induced intermetallic growth at bond pads, moisture-induced corrosion, and interfacial delamination. Causes of each failure type are surveyed and remedies are recommended. Accelerated tests are designed to apply to a limited quantity of devices, bias, or environmental conditions larger than usual ratings, to intensify failure mechanisms that would occur under normal operating conditions. The observed behavior is then extrapolated from the lot to the entire population. Emphasis is on compressing the time necessary to obtain reliability data. This approach has two main drawbacks. With increasingly complex devices, even accelerated tests are expensive. And with new technologies, it becomes

  19. A COMPUTERIZED DIAGNOSTIC COMPLEX FOR RELIABILITY TESTING OF ELECTRIC MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.О. Somka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop a diagnostic complex meeting the criteria and requirements for carrying out accelerated reliability test and realizing the basic modes of electric machines operation and performance of the posed problems necessary in the process of such test. Methodology. To determine and forecast the indices of electric machines reliability in accordance with the statistic data of repair plants we have conditionally divided them into structural parts that are most likely to fail. We have preliminarily assessed the state of each of these parts, which includes revelation of faults and deviations of technical and geometric parameters. We have determined the analyzed electric machine controlled parameters used for assessment of quantitative characteristics of reliability of these parts and electric machines on the whole. Results. As a result of the research, we have substantiated the structure of a computerized complex for electric machines reliability test. It allows us to change thermal and vibration actions without violation of the physics of the processes of aging and wearing of the basic structural parts and elements material. The above mentioned makes it possible to considerably reduce time spent on carrying out electric machines reliability tests and improve trustworthiness of the data obtained as a result of their performance. Originality. A special feature of determination of the controlled parameters consists in removal of vibration components in the idle mode and after disconnection of the analyzed electric machine from the power supply with the aim of singling out the vibration electromagnetic component, fixing the degree of sparking and bend of the shaft by means of phototechnique and local determination of structural parts temperature provided by corresponding location of thermal sensors. Practical value. We have offered a scheme of location of thermal and vibration sensors, which allows improvement of parameters measuring accuracy

  20. Photovoltaic module reliability improvement through application testing and failure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, L. N.; Shumka, A.

    1982-01-01

    During the first four years of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltatic Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Low-Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project purchased about 400 kW of photovoltaic modules for test and experiments. In order to identify, report, and analyze test and operational problems with the Block Procurement modules, a problem/failure reporting and analysis system was implemented by the LSA Project with the main purpose of providing manufacturers with feedback from test and field experience needed for the improvement of product performance and reliability. A description of the more significant types of failures is presented, taking into account interconnects, cracked cells, dielectric breakdown, delamination, and corrosion. Current design practices and reliability evaluations are also discussed. The conducted evaluation indicates that current module designs incorporate damage-resistant and fault-tolerant features which address field failure mechanisms observed to date.

  1. Test-retest reliability for aerodynamic measures of voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Shaheen N; Novaleski, Carolyn K; Yingling, Julie R

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intrasubject reliability of aerodynamic characteristics of the voice within typical/normal speakers across testing sessions using the Phonatory Aerodynamic System (PAS 6600; KayPENTAX, Montvale, NJ). Participants were 60 healthy young adults (30 males and 30 females) between the ages 18 and 31 years with perceptually typical voice. Participants were tested using the PAS 6600 (Phonatory Aerodynamic System) on two separate days with approximately 1 week between each session at approximately the same time of day. Four PAS protocols were conducted (vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, comfortable sustained phonation, and voicing efficiency) and measures of expiratory volume, maximum phonation time, mean expiratory airflow (during vowel production) and target airflow (obtained via syllable repetition), peak air pressure, aerodynamic power, aerodynamic resistance, and aerodynamic efficiency were obtained during each testing session. Associated acoustic measures of vocal intensity and frequency were also collected. All phonations were elicited at comfortable pitch and loudness. All aerodynamic and associated variables evaluated in this study showed useable test-retest reliability (ie, intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] ≥ 0.60). A high degree of mean test-retest reliability was found across all subjects for aerodynamic and associated acoustic measurements of vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, glottal resistance, and vocal intensity (all with ICCs > 0.75). Although strong ICCs were observed for measures of glottal power and mean expiratory airflow in males, weaker overall results for these measures (ICC range: 0.60-0.67) were observed in females subjects and sizable coefficients of variation were observed for measures of power, resistance, and efficiency in both men and women. Differences in degree of reliability from measure to measure were revealed in greater detail using methods such as ICCs and

  2. Stress Testing with Student's t Dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.W.G. Kole (Erik); C.G. Koedijk (Kees); M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this study we propose the use of the Student's t dependence function to model dependence between asset returns when conducting stress tests. To properly include stress testing in a risk management system, it is important to have accurate information about the (joint) probabilities of

  3. Test-Retest Reliability and Predictive Validity of the Implicit Association Test in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, James R.; Olson, Kristina R.

    2018-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is increasingly used in developmental research despite minimal evidence of whether children's IAT scores are reliable across time or predictive of behavior. When test-retest reliability and predictive validity have been assessed, the results have been mixed, and because these studies have differed on many…

  4. Reliability Testing the Die-Attach of CPV Cell Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, N.; Sweet, C.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-02-01

    Results and progress are reported for a course of work to establish an efficient reliability test for the die-attach of CPV cell assemblies. Test vehicle design consists of a ~1 cm2 multijunction cell attached to a substrate via several processes. A thermal cycling sequence is developed in a test-to-failure protocol. Methods of detecting a failed or failing joint are prerequisite for this work; therefore both in-situ and non-destructive methods, including infrared imaging techniques, are being explored as a method to quickly detect non-ideal or failing bonds.

  5. Fatigue reliability of structural members under combined axial mean and alternating stresses for AISI 1018, 1038, 4130 and 4340 steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kececioglu, D.

    1977-01-01

    The failure governing strength distributions of round specimens subjected to a mean axial stress onto which alternating tensile and compressive axial stresses are superimposed, for 10 6 and 2x10 6 cycles of operation, are determined. AISI 1018, 1038, 4130 and 4340 steel 3/8-in. diameter, specimens are tested on an axial, Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton Universal Fatigue Testing Machine. Staircase-testing is used to determine the endurance strength distributions at various ratios of alternating to mean tensile stresses. Testing is accomplished at a sufficient number of ratios to enable the construction of a distributional, statistical Goodman strength diagram for each one of the four steels. A digital computer program of the Reliability Engineering Research Laboratory at The University of Arizona, Program LEAST, is used to determine the equation of the distributional Goodman diagram which best fits the loci of the experimental data at stress ratios between zero and infinity

  6. Reliability of Maximal Strength Testing in Novice Weightlifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, James A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2009-01-01

    The one repetition maximum (1RM) is a criterion measure of muscle strength. However, the reliability of 1RM testing in novice subjects has received little attention. Understanding this information is crucial to accurately interpret changes in muscle strength. To evaluate the test-retest reliability of a squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift (DL) 1RM in novice subjects. Twenty healthy males (31 plus or minus 5 y, 179.1 plus or minus 6.1 cm, 81.4 plus or minus 10.6 kg) with no weight training experience in the previous six months participated in four 1RM testing sessions, with each session separated by 5-7 days. SQ and HR 1RM were conducted using a smith machine; DL 1RM was assessed using free weights. Session 1 was considered a familiarization and was not included in the statistical analyses. Repeated measures analysis of variance with Tukey fs post-hoc tests were used to detect between-session differences in 1RM (p.0.05). Test-retest reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). During Session 2, the SQ and DL 1RM (SQ: 90.2 }4.3, DL: 75.9 }3.3 kg) were less than Session 3 (SQ: 95.3 }4.1, DL: 81.5 plus or minus 3.5 kg) and Session 4 (SQ: 96.6 }4.0, DL: 82.4 }3.9 kg), but there were no differences between Session 3 and Session 4. HR 1RM measured during Session 2 (150.1 }3.7 kg) and Session 3 (152.5 }3.9 kg) were not different from one another, but both were less than Session 4 (157.5 }3.8 kg). The reliability (ICC) of 1RM measures for Sessions 2-4 were 0.88, 0.83, and 0.87, for SQ, HR, and DL, respectively. When considering only Sessions 3 and 4, the reliability was 0.93, 0.91, and 0.86 for SQ, HR, and DL, respectively. One familiarization session and 2 test sessions (for SQ and DL) were required to obtain excellent reliability (ICC greater than or equal to 0.90) in 1RM values with novice subjects. We were unable to attain this level of reliability following 3 HR testing sessions therefore additional sessions may be required to obtain an

  7. Residual Stress Testing of Outer 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.

    2004-01-01

    A Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) outer 3013 container and a laser welded outer 3013 container have been tested for residual stresses according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard G-36-94 [1]. This ASTM standard describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in boiling magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution. Container sections in both the as-fabricated condition as well as the closure welded condition were evaluated. Significantly large residual stresses were observed in the bottom half of the as-fabricated container, a result of the base to can fabrication weld because through wall cracks were observed perpendicular to the weld. This observation indicates that regardless of the closure weld technique, sufficient residual stresses exist in the as-fabricated container to provide the stress necessary for stress corrosion cracking of the container, at the base fabrication weld. Additionally, sufficiently high residual stresses were observed in both the lid and the body of the GTAW as well as the laser closure welded containers. The stresses are oriented perpendicular to the closure weld in both the container lid and the container body. Although the boiling MgCl2 test is not a quantitative test, a comparison of the test results from the closure welds shows that there are noticeably more through wall cracks in the laser closure welded container than in the GTAW closure welded container

  8. The reliability of sickling and solubility tests and peripheral blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reliability of sickling and solubility tests and peripheral blood film method for sickle cell disease screening at district health centers in Uganda. ... Les 200 prélèvements des enfants ages de 6 mois à 5 ans ont été analysés de façon indépendante en utilisant la méthode des analyses d'hématies falciformes, la solubilité et ...

  9. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of Drug Abuse Screening Test

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Hadi Sayed Alitabar; Mojtaba Habibi; Maryam Falahatpisheh; Musa Arvin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: According to the increasing of substance use in the country, more researches about this phenomenon are necessary. This Study Investigates the Validity, Reliability and Confirmatory Factor Structure of the Drug Abuse Screening test (DAST). Materials and Methods: The Sample Consisted of 381 Patients (143 Women and 238 Men) with a Multi-Stage Cluster Sampling of Areas 2, 6 and 12 of Tehran Were Selected from Each Region, 6 Randomly Selected Drug Rehabilitation Center. T...

  10. Final report : testing and evaluation for solar hot water reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Burch, Jay (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO)

    2011-07-01

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems are being installed by the thousands. Tax credits and utility rebate programs are spurring this burgeoning market. However, the reliability of these systems is virtually unknown. Recent work by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that few data exist to quantify the mean time to failure of these systems. However, there is keen interest in developing new techniques to measure SHW reliability, particularly among utilities that use ratepayer money to pay the rebates. This document reports on an effort to develop and test new, simplified techniques to directly measure the state of health of fielded SHW systems. One approach was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and is based on the idea that the performance of the solar storage tank can reliably indicate the operational status of the SHW systems. Another approach, developed by the University of New Mexico (UNM), uses adaptive resonance theory, a type of neural network, to detect and predict failures. This method uses the same sensors that are normally used to control the SHW system. The NREL method uses two additional temperature sensors on the solar tank. The theories, development, application, and testing of both methods are described in the report. Testing was performed on the SHW Reliability Testbed at UNM, a highly instrumented SHW system developed jointly by SNL and UNM. The two methods were tested against a number of simulated failures. The results show that both methods show promise for inclusion in conventional SHW controllers, giving them advanced capability in detecting and predicting component failures.

  11. The Reliability of a Functional Agility Test for Water Polo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucher Guilherme

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Few functional agility tests for water polo take into consideration its specific characteristics. The preliminary objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of an agility test for water polo players. Fifteen players (16.3 ± 1.8 years old with a minimum of two years of competitive experience were evaluated. A Functional Test for Agility Performance (FTAP was designed to represent the context of this sport. Several trials were performed to familiarize the athlete with the movement. Two experienced coaches measured three repetitions of the FTAP. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, 95% limit of agreement (LOA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurements (SEM were used for data analysis. It was considered that certain criteria of reliability measures were met. There was no significant difference between the repetitions, which may be explained by an effect of the evaluator, the ability of the players or fatigue (p > 0.05. The ICC average from evaluators was high (0.88. The SEM varied between 0.13 s and 0.49 s. The CV average considering each individual was near 6-7%. These values depended on the condition of measurement. As the FTAP contains some characteristics that create a degree of unpredictability, the same athlete may reach different performance results, increasing variability. An adjustment in the sample, familiarization and careful selection of subjects help to improve this situation and enhance the reliability of the indicators.

  12. Proving test on the reliability for nuclear valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiyama, Yasuo; Tashiro, Hisao; Uga, Takeo; Maeda, Shunichi.

    1986-01-01

    Since valves are the most common components, they could be the most frequent causes of troubles in nuclear power plants. This proving test, therefore, has an important meaning to examine and verify the reliability of various valves under simulating conditions of abnormal and transient operations of the nuclear power plant. The test was performed mainly for the various types and pressure ratings of valves which were used in the primary and secondary systems in BWR and PWR nuclear power plants and which had major operating or safety related functions in those nuclear power plants. The results of the proving test, confirmed for more than four years, showed relatively favourable performance of the tested valves. It is concluded that performances of valves including operability, seat sealing and structural integrity were proved under the thermal cycling, vibration and pipe reaction load conditions. Operating functions during and after accident such as loss of coolant accident were satisfactory. From these results, it was considered that the purpose of this proving test was satisfactorily fulfilled. Several data accumulated by the test would be useful to get better reliability if it was evaluated with the actually experienced data of valves in the nuclear power plants. (Nogami, K.)

  13. Reliability of a Computerized Neurocognitive Test in Baseline Concussion Testing of High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James; Duerson, Drew

    2015-07-01

    Baseline assessments using computerized neurocognitive tests are frequently used in the management of sport-related concussions. Such testing is often done on an annual basis in a community setting. Reliability is a fundamental test characteristic that should be established for such tests. Our study examined the test-retest reliability of a computerized neurocognitive test in high school athletes over 1 year. Repeated measures design. Two American high schools. High school athletes (N = 117) participating in American football or soccer during the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 academic years. All study participants completed 2 baseline computerized neurocognitive tests taken 1 year apart at their respective schools. The test measures performance on 4 cognitive tasks: identification speed (Attention), detection speed (Processing Speed), one card learning accuracy (Learning), and one back speed (Working Memory). Reliability was assessed by measuring the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the repeated measures of the 4 cognitive tasks. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated as a secondary outcome measure. The measure for identification speed performed best (ICC = 0.672; 95% confidence interval, 0.559-0.760) and the measure for one card learning accuracy performed worst (ICC = 0.401; 95% confidence interval, 0.237-0.542). All tests had marginal or low reliability. In a population of high school athletes, computerized neurocognitive testing performed in a community setting demonstrated low to marginal test-retest reliability on baseline assessments 1 year apart. Further investigation should focus on (1) improving the reliability of individual tasks tested, (2) controlling for external factors that might affect test performance, and (3) identifying the ideal time interval to repeat baseline testing in high school athletes. Computerized neurocognitive tests are used frequently in high school athletes, often within a model of baseline testing

  14. Diagnostic reliability of MMPI-2 computer-based test interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Hina; McCabe, Brian J; Deskovitz, Mark A; Weed, Nathan C; Williams, John E

    2014-09-01

    Reflecting the common use of the MMPI-2 to provide diagnostic considerations, computer-based test interpretations (CBTIs) also typically offer diagnostic suggestions. However, these diagnostic suggestions can sometimes be shown to vary widely across different CBTI programs even for identical MMPI-2 profiles. The present study evaluated the diagnostic reliability of 6 commercially available CBTIs using a 20-item Q-sort task developed for this study. Four raters each sorted diagnostic classifications based on these 6 CBTI reports for 20 MMPI-2 profiles. Two questions were addressed. First, do users of CBTIs understand the diagnostic information contained within the reports similarly? Overall, diagnostic sorts of the CBTIs showed moderate inter-interpreter diagnostic reliability (mean r = .56), with sorts for the 1/2/3 profile showing the highest inter-interpreter diagnostic reliability (mean r = .67). Second, do different CBTIs programs vary with respect to diagnostic suggestions? It was found that diagnostic sorts of the CBTIs had a mean inter-CBTI diagnostic reliability of r = .56, indicating moderate but not strong agreement across CBTIs in terms of diagnostic suggestions. The strongest inter-CBTI diagnostic agreement was found for sorts of the 1/2/3 profile CBTIs (mean r = .71). Limitations and future directions are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Reliability and Validity study of the NIOSH Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ among Firefighters in Tehran city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kazronian

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Considering that Validity and Reliability factors of the questionnaire were be appropriate, it can be recommended that NIOSH Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ can be used as a Valid and Reliable questionnaire for job stress evaluation in Iran.

  16. NDT Reliability - Final Report. Reliability in non-destructive testing (NDT) of the canister components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, Mato; Takahashi, Kazunori; Mueller, Christina; Boehm, Rainer (BAM, Federal Inst. for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany)); Ronneteg, Ulf (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report describes the methodology of the reliability investigation performed on the ultrasonic phased array NDT system, developed by SKB in collaboration with Posiva, for inspection of the canisters for permanent storage of nuclear spent fuel. The canister is composed of a cast iron insert surrounded by a copper shell. The shell is composed of the tube and the lid/base which are welded to the tube after the fuel has been place, in the tube. The manufacturing process of the canister parts and the welding process are described. Possible defects, which might arise in the canister components during the manufacturing or in the weld during the welding, are identified. The number of real defects in manufactured components have been limited. Therefore the reliability of the NDT system has been determined using a number of test objects with artificial defects. The reliability analysis is based on the signal response analysis. The conventional signal response analysis is adopted and further developed before applied on the modern ultrasonic phased-array NDT system. The concept of multi-parameter a, where the response of the NDT system is dependent on more than just one parameter, is introduced. The weakness of use of the peak signal response in the analysis is demonstrated and integration of the amplitudes in the C-scan is proposed as an alternative. The calculation of the volume POD, when the part is inspected with more configurations, is also presented. The reliability analysis is supported by the ultrasonic simulation based on the point source synthesis method

  17. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Phase 3 Gearbox 3 Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wallen, Robb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-24

    Many gearboxes in wind turbines do not achieve their expected design life; they do, however, commonly meet or exceed the design criteria specified in current standards in the gear, bearing, and wind turbine industry as well as third-party certification criteria. The cost of gearbox replacements and rebuilds, as well as the downtime associated with these failures, increases the cost of wind energy. In 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy established the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC). Its goals are to understand the root causes of premature gearbox failures and to improve their reliability. The GRC is examining a hypothesis that the gap between design-estimated and actual wind turbine gearbox reliability is caused by underestimation of loads, inaccurate design tools, the absence of critical elements in the design process, or insufficient testing. This report describes the recently completed tests of GRC Gearbox 3 in the National Wind Technology Center dynamometer and documents any modifications to the original test plan. In this manner, it serves as a guide for interpreting the publicly released data sets with brief analyses to illustrate the data. The primary test objective was to measure the planetary load-sharing characteristics in the same conditions as the original GRC gearbox design. If the measured load-sharing characteristics are close to the design model, the projected improvement in planetary section fatigue life and the efficacy of preloaded TRBs in mitigating the planetary bearing fatigue failure mode will have been demonstrated. Detailed analysis of that test objective will be presented in subsequent publications.

  18. Improved structural integrity through advances in reliable residual stress measurement: the impact of ENGIN-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L.; Santisteban, J. R.

    The determination of accurate reliable residual stresses is critical to many fields of structural integrity. Neutron stress measurement is a non-destructive technique that uniquely provides insights into stress fields deep within engineering components and structures. As such, it has become an increasingly important tool within engineering, leading to improved manufacturing processes to reduce stress and distortion as well as to the definition of more precise lifing procedures. This paper describes the likely impact of the next generation of dedicated engineering stress diffractometers currently being constructed and the utility of the technique using examples of residual stresses both beneficial and detrimental to structural integrity.

  19. Validation of the German version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieck, Arne; Helbig, Susanne; Drake, Christopher L; Backhaus, Jutta

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a German version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test with groups with and without sleep problems. Three studies were analysed. Data set 1 was based on an initial screening for a sleep training program (n = 393), data set 2 was based on a study to test the test-retest reliability of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (n = 284) and data set 3 was based on a study to examine the influence of competitive sport on sleep (n = 37). Data sets 1 and 2 were used to test internal consistency, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity and test-retest reliability of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test. Content validity was tested using data set 3. Cronbach's alpha of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test was good (α = 0.80) and test-retest reliability was satisfactory (r = 0.72). Overall, the one-factor model showed the best fit. Furthermore, significant positive correlations between the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test and impaired sleep quality, depression and stress reactivity were in line with the expectations regarding the convergent validity. Subjects with sleep problems had significantly higher scores in the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test than subjects without sleep problems (P Stress Test had significantly lower sleep quality (P = 0.01), demonstrating that vulnerability for stress-induced sleep disturbances accompanies poorer sleep quality in stressful episodes. The findings show that the German version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test is a reliable and valid questionnaire to assess the vulnerability to stress-induced sleep disturbances. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Stress testing - ettevaatliku investori abimees / Peeter Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Peeter

    2005-01-01

    Autor selgitab stress testingut kui investeerimisportfelli varade väärtuse hindamist ning tutvustab selle võimalusi ja ohtusid. Diagrammid: Portfelli testimis-stsenaariumiks sobivad hästi börsikrahhid. Vt. samas: Stress testing toimib ka mujal

  1. Automatically generated acceptance test: A software reliability experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protzel, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    This study presents results of a software reliability experiment investigating the feasibility of a new error detection method. The method can be used as an acceptance test and is solely based on empirical data about the behavior of internal states of a program. The experimental design uses the existing environment of a multi-version experiment previously conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center, in which the launch interceptor problem is used as a model. This allows the controlled experimental investigation of versions with well-known single and multiple faults, and the availability of an oracle permits the determination of the error detection performance of the test. Fault interaction phenomena are observed that have an amplifying effect on the number of error occurrences. Preliminary results indicate that all faults examined so far are detected by the acceptance test. This shows promise for further investigations, and for the employment of this test method on other applications.

  2. Reliability and Validity of the Inline Skating Skill Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radman, Ivan; Ruzic, Lana; Padovan, Viktoria; Cigrovski, Vjekoslav; Podnar, Hrvoje

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the inline skating skill test. Based on previous skating experience forty-two skaters (26 female and 16 male) were randomized into two groups (competitive level vs. recreational level). They performed the test four times, with a recovery time of 45 minutes between sessions. Prior to testing, the participants rated their skating skill using a scale from 1 to 10. The protocol included performance time measurement through a course, combining different skating techniques. Trivial changes in performance time between the repeated sessions were determined in both competitive females/males and recreational females/males (-1.7% [95% CI: -5.8–2.6%] – 2.2% [95% CI: 0.0–4.5%]). In all four subgroups, the skill test had a low mean within-individual variation (1.6% [95% CI: 1.2–2.4%] – 2.7% [95% CI: 2.1–4.0%]) and high mean inter-session correlation (ICC = 0.97 [95% CI: 0.92–0.99] – 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98–1.00]). The comparison of detected typical errors and smallest worthwhile changes (calculated as standard deviations × 0.2) revealed that the skill test was able to track changes in skaters’ performances. Competitive-level skaters needed shorter time (24.4–26.4%, all p skating skills in amateur competitive and recreational level skaters. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reproducibility of this skill test in different populations including elite inline skaters. Key points Study evaluated the reliability and construct validity of a newly developed inline skating skill test. Evaluated test is a first protocol designed to assess specific inline skating skill. Two groups of amateur skaters with different skating proficiency repeated the skill test in four separate occasions. The results suggest that evaluated test is reliable and valid to evaluate inline skating skill in amateur skaters. PMID:27803616

  3. Investigation of reliability attributes and accelerated stress factors on terrestrial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Prince, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    Three tasks were undertaken to investigate reliability attributes of terrestrial solar cells: (1) a study of the electrical behavior of cells in the second (reverse) quadrant; (2) the accelerated stress testing of three new state-of-the-art cells; and (3) the continued bias-temperature testing of four block 2 type silicon cells at 78 C and 135 C. Electrical characteristics measured in the second quadrant were determined to be a function of the cell's thermal behavior with breakdown depending on the initiation of localized heating. This implied that high breakdown cells may be more fault tolerant when forced to operate in the second quadrant, a result contrary to conventional thinking. The accelerated stress tests used in the first (power) quadrant were bias-temperature, bias-temperature-humidity, temperature-humidity, thermal shock, and thermal cycle. The new type cells measured included an EFG cell, a polycrystalline cell, and a Czochralski cell. Significant differences in the response to the various tests were observed between cell types. A microprocessed controlled, short interval solar cell tester was designed and construction initiated on a prototype.

  4. Reliability prediction of large fuel cell stack based on structure stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. F.; Liu, B.; Wu, C. W.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve the reliability of Proton Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack by designing the clamping force and the thickness difference between the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and the gasket. The stack reliability is directly determined by the component reliability, which is affected by the material property and contact stress. The component contact stress is a random variable because it is usually affected by many uncertain factors in the production and clamping process. We have investigated the influences of parameter variation coefficient on the probability distribution of contact stress using the equivalent stiffness model and the first-order second moment method. The optimal contact stress to make the component stay in the highest level reliability is obtained by the stress-strength interference model. To obtain the optimal contact stress between the contact components, the optimal thickness of the component and the stack clamping force are optimally designed. Finally, a detailed description is given how to design the MEA and gasket dimensions to obtain the highest stack reliability. This work can provide a valuable guidance in the design of stack structure for a high reliability of fuel cell stack.

  5. Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity Scale-Child Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin Sapmaz, Şermin; Ergin, Dilek; Özek Erkuran, Handan; Şen Celasin, Nesrin; Öztürk, Masum; Karaarslan, Duygu; Köroğlu, Ertuğrul; Aydemir, Ömer

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity Scale-Child Form for use among the Turkish population. The study group consisted of 30 patients that had been treated in a child psychiatry unit and diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder and 83 healthy volunteers that were attending middle or high school during the study period. For reliability analyses, the internal consistency coefficient and the test-retest correlation coefficient were measured. For validity analyses, the exploratory factor analysis and correlation analysis with the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index for concurrent validity were measured. The Cronbach's alpha (the internal consistency coefficient) of the scale was 0.909, and the test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.663. One factor that could explain 58.5% of the variance was obtained and was congruent with the original construct of the scale. As for concurrent validity, the scale showed high correlation with the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index. It was concluded that the Turkish version of the DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity Scale-Child Form can be used as a valid and reliable tool.

  6. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be diagnosed reliably using history and physical examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, M.; Bakker, E. W. P.; Moen, M. H.; Barten, C. C.; Teeuwen, R.; Weir, A.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of sporting injuries are clinically diagnosed using history and physical examination as the cornerstone. There are no studies supporting the reliability of making a clinical diagnosis of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Our aim was to assess if MTSS can be diagnosed reliably, using

  7. Reliability of psychophysiological responses across multiple motion sickness stimulation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, C. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    Although there is general agreement that a high degree of variability exists between subjects in their autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness stimulation, very little evidence exists that examines the reproducibility of autonomic responses within subjects during motion sickness stimulation. Our objectives were to examine the reliability of autonomic responses and symptom levels across five testing occasions using the (1) final minute of testing, (2) change in autonomic response and the change in symptom level, and (3) strength of the relationship between the change in symptom level and the change in autonomic responses across the entire motion sickness test. The results indicate that, based on the final minute of testing, the autonomic responses of heart rate, blood volume pulse, and respiration rate are moderately stable across multiple tests. Changes in heart rate, blood volume pulse, respiration rate, and symptoms throughout the test duration are less stable across the tests. Finally, autonomic responses and symptom levels are significantly related across the entire motion sickness test.

  8. The Malay Version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)-10 is a Reliable and Valid Measure for Stress among Nurses in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Sukhvinder Singh; Ismail, Noor Hassim; Rampal, Krishna Gopal

    2015-11-01

    The Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10) is widely used to assess stress perception. The aim of this study was to translate the original PSS-10 into Malay and assess the reliability and validity of the Malay version among nurses. The Malay version of the PSS-10 was distributed among 229 nurses from four government hospitals in Selangor State. Test-retest reliability and concurrent validity was conducted with 25 nurses with the Malay version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) 21. Cronbach's alpha, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson's r correlation coefficient were used to determine the psychometric properties of the Malay PSS-10. Two factor components were yielded through exploratory factor analysis with eigenvalues of 3.37 and 2.10, respectively. Both of the factors accounted for 54.6% of the variance. CFA yielded a two-factor structure with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices [x 2 /df = 2.43; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.92, goodness-of-fit Index (GFI) = 0.94; standardised root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.07 and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.08 (90% CI = 0.07-0.09)]. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total items was 0.63 (0.82 for factor 1 and 0.72 for factor 2). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.62-0.91) for test-retest reliability testing after seven days. The total score and the negative component of the PSS-10 correlated significantly with the stress component of the DASS-21: (r = 0.61, P < 0.001) and (r = 0.56, P < 0.004), respectively. The Malay version of the PSS-10 demonstrated a satisfactory level of validity and reliability to assess stress perception. Therefore, this questionnaire is valid in assessing stress perception among nurses in Malaysia.

  9. Reliability of isometric subtalar pronator and supinator strength testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Marco; Lahner, Matthias; Winhuysen, Martin; Maiwald, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Due to the specific anatomy of the subtalar joint with its oblique axis, isometric pronator and supinator strength is not well documented. The purpose of this study was to determine intra- and between-session reliability of pronator and supinator strength and lower leg muscle activity measurements during maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC). Pronator and supinator peak torques (PT), with and without supplementary visual muscle strength biofeedback (FB), and muscular activities of peroneus longus (PL) and tibialis anterior (TA) were assessed twice 3 days apart by the same examiner in 21 healthy young male adults (mean age: 27.6 years; SD = 3.9). Limits of agreement (LoA) and minimum detectable change (MDC) were evaluated. By applying FB, reliability of both pronator and supinator PT was improved: LoA were reduced from 32% to 26% and from 20% to 18% and MDC from 20% to 15% and from 16% to 12% in supinator and pronator PT, respectively. Learning effects in pronator and supinator PT (p isometric subtalar pronator and supinator strength testing is reliable in healthy subjects. LoA of 18% and 26% have to be exceeded for pronator and supinator PT, respectively, to detect relevant effects in repeated measures.

  10. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of Drug Abuse Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Hadi Sayed Alitabar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: According to the increasing of substance use in the country, more researches about this phenomenon are necessary. This Study Investigates the Validity, Reliability and Confirmatory Factor Structure of the Drug Abuse Screening test (DAST. Materials and Methods: The Sample Consisted of 381 Patients (143 Women and 238 Men with a Multi-Stage Cluster Sampling of Areas 2, 6 and 12 of Tehran Were Selected from Each Region, 6 Randomly Selected Drug Rehabilitation Center. The DAST Was Used as Instrument. Divergent & Convergent Validity of this Scale Was Assessed with Problems Assessment for Substance Using Psychiatric Patients (PASUPP and Relapse Prediction Scale (RPS.Results: The DAST after the First Time Factor Structure of Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis Was Confirmed. The DAST Had a Good Internal Consistency (Cranach’s Alpha, and the Reliability of the Test Within a Week, 0.9, 0.8. Also this Scale Had a Positive Correlation with Problems Assessment for Substance Using Psychiatric Patients and Relapse Prediction Scale (P<0.01.Conclusion: The Overall Results Showed that the Drug Abuse Screening Test in Iranian Society Is Valid. It Can Be Said that Self-Report Scale Tool Is Useful for Research Purposes and Addiction.

  11. Forward lunge as a functional performance test in ACL deficient subjects: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, Tine; Henriksen, Marius; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    The forward lunge movement may be used as a functional performance test of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient and reconstructed subjects. The purposes were 1) to determine the test-retest reliability of a forward lunge in healthy subjects and 2) to determine the required numbers...... of repetitions necessary to yield satisfactory reliability. Nineteen healthy subjects performed four trials of a forward lunge on two different days. The movement time, impulses of the ground reaction forces (IFz, IFy), knee joint kinematics and dynamics during the forward lunge were calculated. The relative...... reliability was determined by calculation of Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC). The IFz, IFy and the positive work of the knee extensors showed excellent reliability (ICC >0.75). All other variables demonstrated acceptable reliability (0.4>ICCreliability increased when more than...

  12. Reliability data collection on IC and VLSI devices tested under accelerated life conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, D.M.; Meniconi, M.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a more general investigation into the reliability and failure causes of semiconductor devices, statistical samples of integrated circuit devices (LM741C) and dynamic random access memory devices (TMS4116) were tested destructively to failure using elevated temperature as the accelerating stress. The devices were operated during the life test and the failure data generated were collected automatically using a multiple question-and-answer program and a process control computer. The failure data were modelled from the lognormal, inverse Gaussian and Weibull distribution using an Arrhenius reaction rate model. The failed devices were later decapsulated for failure cause determination. (orig./DG)

  13. Test rig overview for validation and reliability testing of shutdown system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, M.; McDonald, A.; Dick, P.

    2007-01-01

    The test rig for Validation and Reliability Testing of shutdown system software has been upgraded from the AECL Windows-based test rig previously used for CANDU6 stations. It includes a Virtual Trip Computer, which is a software simulation of the functional specification of the trip computer, and a real-time trip computer simulator in a separate chassis, which is used during the preparation of trip computer test cases before the actual trip computers are available. This allows preparation work for Validation and Reliability Testing to be performed in advance of delivery of actual trip computers to maintain a project schedule. (author)

  14. INTERSESSION RELIABILITY OF UPPER EXTREMITY ISOKINETIC PUSH-PULL TESTING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bryan L; Davis, Sarah E; Huet, Kevin; Davies, George J

    2016-02-01

    Based on the frequency pushing and pulling patterns are used in functional activities, there is a need to establish an objective method of quantifying the muscle performance characteristics associated with these motions, particularly during the later stages of rehabilitation as criteria for discharge. While isokinetic assessment offers an approach to quantifying muscle performance, little is known about closed kinetic chain (CKC) isokinetic testing of the upper extremity (UE). To determine the intersession reliability of isokinetic upper extremity measurement of pushing and pulling peak force and average power at slow (0.24 m/s), medium (0.43 m/s) and fast (0.61 m/s) velocities in healthy young adults. The secondary purpose was to compare pushing and pulling peak force (PF) and average power (AP) between the upper extremity limbs (dominant, non-dominant) across the three velocities. Twenty-four physically active men and women completed a test-retest (>96 hours) protocol in order to establish isokinetic UE CKC reliability of PF and AP during five maximal push and pull repetitions at three velocities. Both limb and speed orders were randomized between subjects. High test-retest relative reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2, 1) were revealed for PF (.91-.97) and AP (.85-.95) across velocities, limbs and directions. PF typical error (% coefficient of variation) ranged from 6.1% to 11.3% while AP ranged from 9.9% to 26.7%. PF decreased significantly (p pushing were significantly greater than pulling at all velocities, however the push-pull differences in PF became less as velocity increased. There were no significant differences identified between the dominant and nondominant limbs. Isokinetically derived UE CKC push-pull PF and AP are reliable measures. The lack of limb differences in healthy normal participants suggests that clinicians can consider bilateral comparisons when interpreting test performance. The increase in pushing PF and

  15. Equipment design for reliability testing of protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situmorang, Johnny; Tjahjono, H.; Santosa, A. Z.; Tjahjani, S.DT.; Ismu, P.H; Haryanto, D.; Mulyanto, D.; Kusmono, S

    1999-01-01

    The equipment for reliability testing of cable of protection system has been designed as a a furnace with the electric heater have a 4 kW power, and need time 10 minute to reach the designed maximum temperature 3000C. The dimension of furnace is 800 mm diameter and 2000 mm length is isolated use rockwool isolator and coated by aluminium. For the designed maximum temperature the surface temperature is 78 0c. Assemble of specimens is arranged horizontally in the furnace. The failure criteria will be defined based on the behaviour of the load circuit in each line of cable specimens

  16. Basic Concepts in Classical Test Theory: Tests Aren't Reliable, the Nature of Alpha, and Reliability Generalization as a Meta-analytic Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, LuAnn Sherbeck

    This paper discusses the fact that reliability is about scores and not tests and how reliability limits effect sizes. The paper also explores the classical reliability coefficients of stability, equivalence, and internal consistency. Stability is concerned with how stable test scores will be over time, while equivalence addresses the relationship…

  17. [Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Perinatal Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu Kyung; Ju, Hyeon Ok; Na, Hunjoo

    2016-02-01

    The Perinatal Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Questionnaire (PPQ) was designed to measure post-traumatic symptoms related to childbirth and symptoms during postnatal period. The purpose of this study was to develop a translated Korean version of the PPQ and to evaluate reliability and validity of the Korean PPQ. Participants were 196 mothers at one to 18 months after giving childbirth and data were collected through e-mails. The PPQ was translated into Korean using translation guideline from World Health Organization. For this study Cronbach's alpha and split-half reliability were used to evaluate the reliability of the PPQ. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), and known-group validity were conducted to examine construct validity. Correlations of the PPQ with Impact of Event Scale (IES), Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used to test a criterion validity of the PPQ. Cronbach's alpha and Spearman-Brown split-half correlation coefficient were 0.91 and 0.77, respectively. EFA identified a 3-factor solution including arousal, avoidance, and intrusion factors and CFA revealed the strongest support for the 3-factor model. The correlations of the PPQ with IES, BDI-II, and BAI were .99, .60, and .72, respectively, pointing to criterion validity of a high level. The Korean version PPQ is a useful tool for screening and assessing mothers' experiencing emotional distress related to child birth and during the postnatal period. The PPQ also reflects Post Traumatic Stress Disorder's diagnostic standards well.

  18. Test-Retest Reliability of Computerized, Everyday Memory Measures and Traditional Memory Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngjohn, James R.; And Others

    Test-retest reliabilities and practice effect magnitudes were considered for nine computer-simulated tasks of everyday cognition and five traditional neuropsychological tests. The nine simulated everyday memory tests were from the Memory Assessment Clinic battery as follows: (1) simple reaction time while driving; (2) divided attention (driving…

  19. Test-re-test reliability and inter-rater reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer in young, healthy males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Chris; Egerton, Tim; Skinner, Brendon

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer (DPI) for measuring sagittal plane pelvic tilt in 18 young, healthy males and females. Method. The inter-rater reliability and test-re-test reliabilities of the DPI for measuring pelvic tilt in standing on both the right and left sides of the pelvis were measured by two raters carrying out two rating sessions of the same subjects, three weeks apart. Results. For measuring pelvic tilt, inter-rater reliability was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.81-0.88), test-re-test reliability within a single rating session was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.88-0.95), and test-re-test reliability between two rating sessions was designated as moderate on the left side (ICC = 0.65) and good on the right side (ICC = 0.85). Conclusion. Inter-rater reliability and test-re-test reliability within a single rating session of the DPI in measuring pelvic tilt were both good, while test-re-test reliability between rating sessions was moderate-to-good. Caution is required regarding the interpretation of the test-re-test reliability within a single rating session, as the raters were not blinded. Further research is required to establish validity.

  20. Test design requirements for overcoring stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickney, R.G.

    1985-12-01

    This document establishes the test design requirements for a series of overcoring stress measurements to be performed in the Exploratory Shaft Facility. The stress measurements will be made to determine the in situ state of stress within the candidate repository horizon and to determine the magnitude and distribution of the stresses induced by the mined openings of the facility. The overcoring technique involves the measurement of strain (or deformation) in a volume of rock as the stress acting on the rock volume is relieved. This document presents an overview of the measurements, including objectives and rationale for the measurements. A description of the measurements is included. The support requirements are identified as are constraints for the design of the measurements. Discussions on Quality Assurance and Safety are also included in the document. 13 refs

  1. Reliability and Validity of the Inline Skating Skill Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Radman, Lana Ruzic, Viktoria Padovan, Vjekoslav Cigrovski, Hrvoje Podnar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the inline skating skill test. Based on previous skating experience forty-two skaters (26 female and 16 male were randomized into two groups (competitive level vs. recreational level. They performed the test four times, with a recovery time of 45 minutes between sessions. Prior to testing, the participants rated their skating skill using a scale from 1 to 10. The protocol included performance time measurement through a course, combining different skating techniques. Trivial changes in performance time between the repeated sessions were determined in both competitive females/males and recreational females/males (-1.7% [95% CI: -5.8–2.6%] – 2.2% [95% CI: 0.0–4.5%]. In all four subgroups, the skill test had a low mean within-individual variation (1.6% [95% CI: 1.2–2.4%] – 2.7% [95% CI: 2.1–4.0%] and high mean inter-session correlation (ICC = 0.97 [95% CI: 0.92–0.99] – 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98–1.00]. The comparison of detected typical errors and smallest worthwhile changes (calculated as standard deviations × 0.2 revealed that the skill test was able to track changes in skaters’ performances. Competitive-level skaters needed shorter time (24.4–26.4%, all p < 0.01 to complete the test in comparison to recreational-level skaters. Moreover, moderate correlation (ρ = 0.80–0.82; all p < 0.01 was observed between the participant’s self-rating and achieved performance times. In conclusion, the proposed test is a reliable and valid method to evaluate inline skating skills in amateur competitive and recreational level skaters. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reproducibility of this skill test in different populations including elite inline skaters.

  2. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  3. Stress corrosion testing of irradiated cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunde, L.; Olshausen, K.D.

    1980-01-01

    Samples from two fuel rods with different cladding have been stress corrosion tested by closed-end argon-iodine pressurization at 320 0 C. The fuel rods with stress relieved and recrystallized Zircaloy-2 had received burnups of 10.000 and 20.000 MWd/ton UO 2 , respectively. It was found that the SCC failure stress was unchanged or slightly higher for the irradiated than for the unirradiated control tubes. The tubes failed consistently in the end with the lowest irradiation dose. The diameter increase of the irradiated cladding during the test was 1.1% for the stress-relieved samples and 0.24% for the recrystallized samples. SEM examination revealed no major differences between irradiated and unirradiated cladding. A ''semi-ductile'' fracture zone in recrystallized material is described in some detail. (author)

  4. Panel manipulation in social stress testing: The Bath Experimental Stress Test for Children (BEST-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Tara J; Turner-Cobb, Julie M

    2016-01-01

    Whilst acute stress paradigms in adults make use of adult panel members, similar paradigms modified for child participants have not manipulated the panel. Most work has utilised an audience of adult confederates, regardless of the age of the population being tested. The aim of this study was to trial a social stress test for children that provided a meaningful environment using age-matched child peers as panel actors. Thirty-three participants (7-11 years) underwent the Bath Experimental Stress Test for Children (BEST-C). Based on the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), it comprises a shortened six-minute public speaking task and four-minute maths challenge. It differs from previous stress tests by using age-matched children on the panel, pre-recorded and presented as a live feed, and includes an expanded manipulation check of subjective experience. Salivary cortisol was assessed at four time points, pre-post stress testing; life events, daily hassles and coping strategies were measured through questionnaires. A simple numerical coding scheme was applied to post-test interview data. The BEST-C generated a typical stress and adaptation response in salivary cortisol (p=.032). Age and gender differences were observed during recovery. Cortisol responses mapped directly onto three distinct subjective response patterns: (i) expected response and recovery; (ii) expected response, no recovery; (iii) no response. The BEST-C, utilising child confederates of participant target age is a meaningful social stress test for children. This is the first social stress test developed specifically for children that manipulates panel characteristics by using child confederates and a pre-recorded sham panel. Greater cortisol responses to the test were also found to match subjective verbal accounts of the experience. It offers a meaningful acute stress paradigm with potential applications to other child and adolescent age groups. Furthermore, it leads the way in the use of panel manipulation

  5. Accelerated stress testing of thin film solar cells: Development of test methods and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    If thin film cells are to be considered a viable option for terrestrial power generation their reliability attributes will need to be explored and confidence in their stability obtained through accelerated testing. Development of a thin film accelerated test program will be more difficult than was the case for crystalline cells because of the monolithic construction nature of the cells. Specially constructed test samples will need to be fabricated, requiring committment to the concept of accelerated testing by the manufacturers. A new test schedule appropriate to thin film cells will need to be developed which will be different from that used in connection with crystalline cells. Preliminary work has been started to seek thin film schedule variations to two of the simplest tests: unbiased temperature and unbiased temperature humidity. Still to be examined are tests which involve the passage of current during temperature and/or humidity stress, either by biasing in the forward (or reverse) directions or by the application of light during stress. Investigation of these current (voltage) accelerated tests will involve development of methods of reliably contacting the thin conductive films during stress.

  6. Reliability assessment of underground pipelines under the combined effect of active corrosion and residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirat, A.; Mohamed-Chateauneuf, A.; Chaoui, K.

    2006-01-01

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. Reliability analysis is recognized as a powerful decision-making tool for risk-based design and maintenance. Both the residual stresses generated during the manufacturing process and in-service corrosion reduce the ability to resist internal and external loading. In this study, the residual stress distribution in large diameter pipes has been characterized experimentally in order to be coupled with the corrosion model. During the pipe lifetime, residual stress relaxation occurs due to the loss of pipe thickness as material layers are consumed by corrosion. The reliability-based assessment of residual stress effects is applied to underground pipelines under a roadway, with and without active corrosion. It has been found that the residual stress greatly increases the failure probability, especially in the early stage of the pipe lifetime

  7. Reliability of Semiautomated Computational Methods for Estimating Tibiofemoral Contact Stress in the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald D. Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that contact stress is a potent predictor of subsequent symptomatic osteoarthritis development in the knee. However, much larger numbers of knees (likely on the order of hundreds, if not thousands need to be reliably analyzed to achieve the statistical power necessary to clarify this relationship. This study assessed the reliability of new semiautomated computational methods for estimating contact stress in knees from large population-based cohorts. Ten knees of subjects from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study were included. Bone surfaces were manually segmented from sequential 1.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging slices by three individuals on two nonconsecutive days. Four individuals then registered the resulting bone surfaces to corresponding bone edges on weight-bearing radiographs, using a semi-automated algorithm. Discrete element analysis methods were used to estimate contact stress distributions for each knee. Segmentation and registration reliabilities (day-to-day and interrater for peak and mean medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact stress were assessed with Shrout-Fleiss intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs. The segmentation and registration steps of the modeling approach were found to have excellent day-to-day (ICC 0.93–0.99 and good inter-rater reliability (0.84–0.97. This approach for estimating compartment-specific tibiofemoral contact stress appears to be sufficiently reliable for use in large population-based cohorts.

  8. Reliability of the Test of Wheeled Mobility (TOWM) and the Short Wheelie Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliess-Douer, Osnat; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Vanlandewijck, Yves C.

    Objective: To assess the reliability of the Test of Wheeled Mobility (TOWM) and the Wheelie test. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Gymnasium. Participants: Manual wheelchair users (N=30, age 23-53y) with a spinal cord injury. Intervention: Participants performed the 30 skills of the TOWM and the 8

  9. Reliability of skin testing as a measure of nutritional state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forse, R.A.; Christou, N.; Meakins, J.L.; MacLean, L.D.; Shizgal, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    The reliability of skin testing to assess the nutritional state was evaluated in 257 patients who received total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The nutritional state was assessed by determining body composition, by multiple-isotope dilution. Immunocompetence was simultaneously evaluated by skin testing with five recall antigens. These measurements were carried out before and at two-week intervals during TPN. A statistically significant relationship existed between the response to skin testing and the nutritional state. A body composition consistent with malnutrition was present in the anergic patients, while body composition was normal in the patients who reacted normally to skin testing. However, a considerable overlap existed as 43% of the reactive patients were malnourished, and 21% of the anergic patients were normally nourished. Thirty-seven (43%) of the 86 anergic patients converted and became reactive during TPN, and their body composition improved significantly. The remaining 49 anergic patients (57%) did not convert, and their body composition did not change despite similar nutritional support. The principal difference between the two groups of anergic patients was the nature of the therapy administered. In the anergic patients who converted, therapy was aggressive and appropriate, and clinical improvement occurred in 23 (62.2%) of the patients, with a mortality of 5.4%. In the 49 patients who remained anergic, therapy was often inappropriate or unsuccessful, with clinical improvement in only three (6.1%) of the patients and a mortality of 42.8%. The data demonstrated a significant relationship between the response to skin testing and the nutritional state. However, because of the wide overlap, skin testing does not accurately assess a person's nutritional state. The persistence of the anergic state is indicative of a lack of response to therapy

  10. Reliability and Validity of the Inline Skating Skill Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radman, Ivan; Ruzic, Lana; Padovan, Viktoria; Cigrovski, Vjekoslav; Podnar, Hrvoje

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the inline skating skill test. Based on previous skating experience forty-two skaters (26 female and 16 male) were randomized into two groups (competitive level vs. recreational level). They performed the test four times, with a recovery time of 45 minutes between sessions. Prior to testing, the participants rated their skating skill using a scale from 1 to 10. The protocol included performance time measurement through a course, combining different skating techniques. Trivial changes in performance time between the repeated sessions were determined in both competitive females/males and recreational females/males (-1.7% [95% CI: -5.8-2.6%] - 2.2% [95% CI: 0.0-4.5%]). In all four subgroups, the skill test had a low mean within-individual variation (1.6% [95% CI: 1.2-2.4%] - 2.7% [95% CI: 2.1-4.0%]) and high mean inter-session correlation (ICC = 0.97 [95% CI: 0.92-0.99] - 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98-1.00]). The comparison of detected typical errors and smallest worthwhile changes (calculated as standard deviations × 0.2) revealed that the skill test was able to track changes in skaters' performances. Competitive-level skaters needed shorter time (24.4-26.4%, all p skating skills in amateur competitive and recreational level skaters. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reproducibility of this skill test in different populations including elite inline skaters.

  11. Reliability Analysis and Test Planning using CAPO-Test for Existing Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of the reliability of existing concrete structures often requires that the compressive strength of the concrete is estimated on the basis of tests performed with concrete samples from the structure considered. In this paper the CAPO-test method is considered. The different sources...... of uncertainty related to this method are described. It is shown how the uncertainty in the transformation from the CAPO-test results to estimates of the concrete strength can be modeled. Further, the statistical uncertainty is modeled using Bayesian statistics. Finally, it is shown how reliability-based optimal...... planning of CAPO-tests can be performed taking into account the expected costs due to the CAPO-tests and possible repair or failure of the structure considered. An illustrative example is presented where the CAPO-test is compared with conventional concrete cylinder compression tests performed on cores...

  12. Reliability and Lifetime Prediction of Remote Phosphor Plates in Solid-State Lighting Applications Using Accelerated Degradation Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.; van Driel, W.D.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2015-01-01

    A methodology, based on accelerated degradation testing, is developed to predict the lifetime of remote phosphor plates used in solid-state lighting (SSL) applications. Both thermal stress and light intensity are used to accelerate degradation reaction in remote phosphor plates. A reliability model,

  13. Testing comparison models of DASS-12 and its reliability among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Zubaidah Jamil; Mukhtar, Firdaus; Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Abdul Latiff, Latiffah; Mohd Sidik, Sherina; Awang, Hamidin; Ibrahim, Normala; Abdul Rahman, Hejar; Ismail, Siti Irma Fadhilah; Ibrahim, Faisal; Tajik, Esra; Othman, Norlijah

    2014-10-01

    The 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) is frequently used in non-clinical research to measure mental health factors among adults. However, previous studies have concluded that the 21 items are not stable for utilization among the adolescent population. Thus, the aims of this study are to examine the structure of the factors and to report on the reliability of the refined version of the DASS that consists of 12 items. A total of 2850 students (aged 13 to 17 years old) from three major ethnic in Malaysia completed the DASS-21. The study was conducted at 10 randomly selected secondary schools in the northern state of Peninsular Malaysia. The study population comprised secondary school students (Forms 1, 2 and 4) from the selected schools. Based on the results of the EFA stage, 12 items were included in a final CFA to test the fit of the model. Using maximum likelihood procedures to estimate the model, the selected fit indices indicated a close model fit (χ(2)=132.94, df=57, p=.000; CFI=.96; RMR=.02; RMSEA=.04). Moreover, significant loadings of all the unstandardized regression weights implied an acceptable convergent validity. Besides the convergent validity of the item, a discriminant validity of the subscales was also evident from the moderate latent factor inter-correlations, which ranged from .62 to .75. The subscale reliability was further estimated using Cronbach's alpha and the adequate reliability of the subscales was obtained (Total=76; Depression=.68; Anxiety=.53; Stress=.52). The new version of the 12-item DASS for adolescents in Malaysia (DASS-12) is reliable and has a stable factor structure, and thus it is a useful instrument for distinguishing between depression, anxiety and stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reliability of Coulomb stress changes inferred from correlated uncertainties of finite-fault source models

    KAUST Repository

    Woessner, J.

    2012-07-14

    Static stress transfer is one physical mechanism to explain triggered seismicity. Coseismic stress-change calculations strongly depend on the parameterization of the causative finite-fault source model. These models are uncertain due to uncertainties in input data, model assumptions, and modeling procedures. However, fault model uncertainties have usually been ignored in stress-triggering studies and have not been propagated to assess the reliability of Coulomb failure stress change (ΔCFS) calculations. We show how these uncertainties can be used to provide confidence intervals for co-seismic ΔCFS-values. We demonstrate this for the MW = 5.9 June 2000 Kleifarvatn earthquake in southwest Iceland and systematically map these uncertainties. A set of 2500 candidate source models from the full posterior fault-parameter distribution was used to compute 2500 ΔCFS maps. We assess the reliability of the ΔCFS-values from the coefficient of variation (CV) and deem ΔCFS-values to be reliable where they are at least twice as large as the standard deviation (CV ≤ 0.5). Unreliable ΔCFS-values are found near the causative fault and between lobes of positive and negative stress change, where a small change in fault strike causes ΔCFS-values to change sign. The most reliable ΔCFS-values are found away from the source fault in the middle of positive and negative ΔCFS-lobes, a likely general pattern. Using the reliability criterion, our results support the static stress-triggering hypothesis. Nevertheless, our analysis also suggests that results from previous stress-triggering studies not considering source model uncertainties may have lead to a biased interpretation of the importance of static stress-triggering.

  15. Face Perception and Test Reliabilities in Congenital Prosopagnosia in Seven Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Esins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital prosopagnosia, the innate impairment in recognizing faces, is a very heterogeneous disorder with different phenotypical manifestations. To investigate the nature of prosopagnosia in more detail, we tested 16 prosopagnosics and 21 controls with an extended test battery addressing various aspects of face recognition. Our results show that prosopagnosics exhibited significant impairments in several face recognition tasks: impaired holistic processing (they were tested amongst others with the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT as well as reduced processing of configural information of faces. This test battery also revealed some new findings. While controls recognized moving faces better than static faces, prosopagnosics did not exhibit this effect. Furthermore, prosopagnosics had significantly impaired gender recognition—which is shown on a groupwise level for the first time in our study. There was no difference between groups in the automatic extraction of face identity information or in object recognition as tested with the Cambridge Car Memory Test. In addition, a methodological analysis of the tests revealed reduced reliability for holistic face processing tests in prosopagnosics. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that prosopagnosics showed a significantly reduced reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha in the CFMT compared to the controls. We suggest that compensatory strategies employed by the prosopagnosics might be the cause for the vast variety of response patterns revealed by the reduced test reliability. This finding raises the question whether classical face tests measure the same perceptual processes in controls and prosopagnosics.

  16. Pad stress tests with increasing load for the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimstad, Liv; Larsen, Elsa Skjønhaug; Schiøtz, Hjalmar A; Kulseng-Hanssen, Sigurd

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to test the ability of pad stress tests with increasing load (supine, jumping on the floor, and jumping on a trampoline) to document stress incontinence in subjectively stress incontinent women. In this prospective study 147 subjectively stress and mixed incontinent women performed consecutively the three pad stress tests with a bladder volume of 300 ml. Nineteen women performed a second trampoline pad stress test to test repeatability of the test. Nine continent women performed a trampoline pad stress test in order to determine if subjectively continent women would leak during the test. Seventy-two women (49%) leaked during the supine, 136 (93%) leaked during the jumping, and 146 (99%) leaked during the trampoline pad stress test. The differences between pad stress tests were significant with P trampoline pad stress tests was high at 0.8. None of the nine continent women leaked during the trampoline pad stress test. The supine pad stress test has low sensitivity and is therefore often falsely negative. The jumping pad stress test is a simple test to perform and is satisfactory for everyday use. Subjectively stress incontinent women who do not leak during the jumping pad stress test may perform a trampoline pad stress test to document stress incontinence. The trampoline pad stress test is also simple to perform and detected leakage in 91% of the women who did not leak during the jumping pad stress test. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Test-retest reliability of a balance testing protocol with external perturbations in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Shawn M; Caplan, Ryan M; Aponte, Daniel I; St-Onge, Nancy

    2017-10-01

    External perturbations are utilized to challenge balance and mimic realistic balance threats in patient populations. The reliability of such protocols has not been established. The purpose was to examine test-retest reliability of balance testing with external perturbations. Healthy adults (n=34; mean age 23 years) underwent balance testing over two visits. Participants completed ten balance conditions in which the following parameters were combined: perturbation or non-perturbation, single or double leg, and eyes open or closed. Three trials were collected for each condition. Data were collected on a force plate and external perturbations were applied by translating the plate. Force plate center of pressure (CoP) data were summarized using 13 different CoP measures. Test-retest reliability was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. CoP measures of total speed and excursion in both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions generally had acceptable ICC values for perturbation conditions (ICC=0.46 to 0.87); however, many other CoP measures (e.g. range, area of ellipse) had unacceptable test-retest reliability (ICCbalance testing protocols that include external perturbations should be made to improve test-retest reliability and diminish learning including more extensive participant training and increasing the number of trials. CoP measures that consider all data points (e.g. total speed) are more reliable than those that only consider a few data points. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Test-retest reliability and predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, James R; Olson, Kristina R

    2018-02-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is increasingly used in developmental research despite minimal evidence of whether children's IAT scores are reliable across time or predictive of behavior. When test-retest reliability and predictive validity have been assessed, the results have been mixed, and because these studies have differed on many factors simultaneously (lag-time between testing administrations, domain, etc.), it is difficult to discern what factors may explain variability in existing test-retest reliability and predictive validity estimates. Across five studies (total N = 519; ages 6- to 11-years-old), we manipulated two factors that have varied in previous developmental research-lag-time and domain. An internal meta-analysis of these studies revealed that, across three different methods of analyzing the data, mean test-retest (rs of .48, .38, and .34) and predictive validity (rs of .46, .20, and .10) effect sizes were significantly greater than zero. While lag-time did not moderate the magnitude of test-retest coefficients, whether we observed domain differences in test-retest reliability and predictive validity estimates was contingent on other factors, such as how we scored the IAT or whether we included estimates from a unique sample (i.e., a sample containing gender typical and gender diverse children). Recommendations are made for developmental researchers that utilize the IAT in their research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. A Test Stand for Ion Sources of Ultimate Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enparantza, R.; Uriarte, L.; Romano, P.; Alonso, J.; Ariz, I.; Egiraun, M.; Bermejo, F. J.; Etxebarria, V.; Lucas, J.; Del Rio, J. M.; Letchford, A.; Faircloth, D.; Stockli, M.

    2009-01-01

    The rationale behind the ITUR project is to perform a comparison between different kinds of H - ion sources using the same beam diagnostics setup. In particular, a direct comparison will be made in terms of the emittance characteristics of Penning Type sources such as those currently in use in the injector for the ISIS (UK) Pulsed Neutron Source and those of volumetric type such as that driving the injector for the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (TN, U.S.A.). The endeavour here pursued is thus to build an Ion Source Test Stand where virtually any type of source can be tested and its features measured and, thus compared to the results of other sources under the same gauge. It would be possible then to establish a common ground for effectively comparing different ion sources. The long term objectives are thus to contribute towards building compact sources of minimum emittance, maximum performance, high reliability-availability, high percentage of desired particle production, stability and high brightness. The project consortium is lead by Tekniker-IK4 research centre and partners are companies Elytt Energy and Jema Group. The technical viability is guaranteed by the collaboration between the project consortium and several scientific institutions, such the CSIC (Spain), the University of the Basque Country (Spain), ISIS (STFC-UK), SNS (ORNL-USA) and CEA in Saclay (France).

  20. Applying reliability centered maintenance analysis principles to inservice testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flude, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Federal regulations require nuclear power plants to use inservice test (IST) programs to ensure the operability of safety-related equipment. IST programs are based on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements. Many of these plants also use Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) to optimize system maintenance. ASME Code requirements are hard to change. The process for requesting authority to use an alternate strategy is long and expensive. The difficulties of obtaining this authority make the use of RCM method on safety-related systems not cost effective. An ASME research task force on Risk Based Inservice Testing is investigating changing the Code. The change will allow plants to apply RCM methods to the problem of maintenance strategy selection for safety-related systems. The research task force is working closely with the Codes and Standards sections to develop a process related to the RCM process. Some day plants will be able to use this process to develop more efficient and safer maintenance strategies

  1. 77 FR 62417 - Annual Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0..., require a covered bank to report stress test results using a simpler format to be specified by the FDIC. G... Federal Register. Section 553(d)(3) of the Administrative Procedure Act (``APA'') provides that...

  2. CPM Test-Retest Reliability: "Standard" vs "Single Test-Stimulus" Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Yelena; Miller-Barmak, Adi; Goldstein, Oren; Sprecher, Elliot; Yarnitsky, David

    2016-03-01

    Assessment of pain inhibitory mechanisms using conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is relevant clinically in prediction of pain and analgesic efficacy. Our objective is to provide necessary estimates of intersession CPM reliability, to enable transformation of the CPM paradigm into a clinical tool. Two cohorts of young healthy subjects (N = 65) participated in two dual-session studies. In Study I, a Bath-Thermode CPM protocol was used, with hot water immersion and contact heat as conditioning- and test-stimuli, respectively, in a classical parallel CPM design introducing test-stimulus first, and then the conditioning- and repeated test-stimuli in parallel. Study II consisted of two CPM protocols: 1) Two-Thermodes, one for each of the stimuli, in the same parallel design as above, and 2) single test-stimulus (STS) protocol with a single administration of a contact heat test-stimulus, partially overlapped in time by a remote shorter contact heat as conditioning stimulus. Test-retest reliability was assessed within 3-7 days. The STS-CPM had superior reliability intraclass correlation (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.59) over Bath-Thermode (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.34) or Two-Thermodes (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.21) protocols. The hand immersion conditioning pain had higher reliability than thermode pain (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.76 vs ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.16). Conditioned test-stimulus pain scores were of good (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.62) or fair (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.43) reliability for the Bath-Thermode and the STS, respectively, but not for the Two-Thermodes protocol (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.20). The newly developed STS-CPM paradigm was more reliable than other CPM protocols tested here, and should be further investigated for its clinical relevance. It appears that large contact size of the conditioning-stimulus and use of single rather than dual test-stimulus pain contribute to augmentation of CPM reliability. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  3. Have you stress tested your assay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Cao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: When a clinical assay is stressed with extraordinarily high volume of specimens over a short period of time, extra caution may be needed to avoid systematic errors and biases. Here we report our experience with a HgbA1c assay used for high volume wellness screening purpose, to illustrate the importance of stress testing during assay validation. Design and Methods: Over 15,000 whole blood specimens were tested for HgbA1c in a period of 2 months. HgbA1c was tested by an immunoturbidimetric method on a high through-put automation line. The HgbA1c population distribution in our study was compared to that from the NHANES database. Daily distributions of HgbA1c values ≥6%, means and medians were plotted. Correlation studies were performed between the high through-put immunoturbidimetric assay and a medium through-put HPLC method. Results: We observed a shift of HgbA1c distribution to the higher values compared to the NHANES. A bias of 15–20% was noted from further stress testing where large number of samples were batched and tested using the immunoturbidimetric assay. A 5–7% higher bias remained after implementing a cuvette washing program after each HgbA1c sample. We hypothesized this bias was caused by build-up of blood cell fragments in the cuvettes when continuous whole blood samples are run through the system. Our experience suggests stress testing needs to be incorporated early in the test validation process for high volume batched screening applications. This seemingly extra validation step may save significant troubleshooting and retesting efforts down the road. Keywords: Hemoglobin A1c, Immunoturbidimetric assay, HPLC, Quality assurance, Systematic bias, High volume, Automation

  4. Design of Accelerated Reliability Test for CNC Motorized Spindle Based on Vibration Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorized spindle is the key functional component of CNC machining centers which is a mechatronics system with long life and high reliability. The reliability test cycle of motorized spindle is too long and infeasible. This paper proposes a new accelerated test for reliability evaluation of motorized spindle. By field reliability test, authors collect and calculate the load data including rotational speed, cutting force and torque. Load spectrum distribution law is analyzed. And authors design a test platform to apply the load spectrum. A new method to define the fuzzy acceleration factor based on the vibration signal is proposed. Then the whole test plan of accelerated reliability test is done.

  5. Test-retest reliability and validity of the Sniffin' TOM odor memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Zehner, Cora; Larsson, Maria; Zucco, Gesualdo M; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Few attempts have been made to develop an olfactory test that captures episodic retention of olfactory information. Assessment of episodic odor memory is of particular interest in aging and in the cognitively impaired as both episodic memory deficits and olfactory loss have been targeted as reliable hallmarks of cognitive decline and impending dementia. Here, 96 healthy participants (18-92 years) and an additional 19 older people with mild cognitive impairment were tested (73-82 years). Participants were presented with 8 common odors with intentional encoding instructions that were followed by a yes-no recognition test. After recognition completion, participants were asked to identify all odors by means of free or cued identification. A retest of the odor memory test (Sniffin' TOM = test of odor memory) took place 17 days later. The results revealed satisfactory test-retest reliability (0.70) of odor recognition memory. Both recognition and identification performance were negatively affected by age and more pronounced among the cognitively impaired. In conclusion, the present work presents a reliable, valid, and simple test of episodic odor recognition memory that may be used in clinical groups where both episodic memory deficits and olfactory loss are prevalent preclinically such as Alzheimer's disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effects of Differential Item Functioning on Examinees' Test Performance and Reliability of Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Zhang, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    Simulations were conducted to examine the effect of differential item functioning (DIF) on measurement consequences such as total scores, item response theory (IRT) ability estimates, and test reliability in terms of the ratio of true-score variance to observed-score variance and the standard error of estimation for the IRT ability parameter. The…

  7. The Test-Retest Reliability of New Generation Power Indices of Wingate All-Out Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Ozkaya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although reliability correlations of traditional power indices of the Wingate test have been well documented, no study has analyzed new generation power indices based on milliseconds obtained from a Peak Bike. The purpose of this study was to investigate the retest reliability of new generation power indices. Thirty-two well-trained male athletes who were specialized in basketball, football, tennis, or track and field volunteered to take part in the study (age: 24.3 ± 2.2 years; body mass: 77 ± 8.3 kg; height: 180.3 ± 6.3 cm. Participants performed two Wingate all-out sessions on two separate days. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC, standard error measurement (SEM, smallest real differences (SRD and coefficient of variation (CV scores were analyzed based on the test and retest data. Reliability results of traditional power indices calculated based on 5-s means such as peak power, average power, power drop, and fatigue index ratio were similar with the previous findings in literature (ICC ≥ 0.94; CV ≤ 2.8%; SEM ≤ 12.28; SRD% ≤ 7.7%. New generation power indices such as peak power, average power, lowest power, power drop, fatigue index, power decline, maximum speed as rpm, and amount of total energy expenditure demonstrated high reliability (ICC ≥ 0.94; CV ≤ 4.3%; SEM ≤ 10.36; SRD% ≤ 8.8%. Time to peak power, time at maximum speed, and power at maximum speed showed a moderate level of reliability (ICC ≥ 0.73; CV ≤ 8.9%; SEM ≤ 63.01; SRD% ≤ 22.4%. The results of this study indicate that reliability correlations and SRD% of new generation power and fatigue-related indices are similar with traditional 5-s means. However, new time-related indices are very sensitive and moderately reliable.

  8. Biological and psychological markers of stress in humans: focus on the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Validated biological and psychological markers of acute stress in humans are an important tool in translational research. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), involving public interview and mental arithmetic performance, is among the most popular methods of inducing acute stress in experimental settings, and reliably increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. However, although much research has focused on HPA axis activity, the TSST also affects the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, the immune system, cardiovascular outputs, gastric function and cognition. We critically assess the utility of different biological and psychological markers, with guidance for future research, and discuss factors which can moderate TSST effects. We outline the effects of the TSST in stress-related disorders, and if these responses can be abrogated by pharmacological and psychological treatments. Modified TSST protocols are discussed, and the TSST is compared to alternative methods of inducing acute stress. Our analysis suggests that multiple readouts are necessary to derive maximum information; this strategy will enhance our understanding of the psychobiology of stress and provide the means to assess novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A fracture mechanics and reliability based method to assess non-destructive testings for pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Hideo; Hisada, Toshiaki

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation has not been made on the effects of carrying out preservice and in-service nondestructive tests for securing the soundness, safety and maintainability of pressure vessels, spending large expenses and labor. Especially the problems concerning the time and interval of in-service inspections lack the reasonable, quantitative evaluation method. In this paper, the problems of pressure vessels are treated by having developed the analysis method based on reliability technology and probability theory. The growth of surface cracks in pressure vessels was estimated, using the results of previous studies. The effects of nondestructive inspection on the defects in pressure vessels were evaluated, and the influences of many factors, such as plate thickness, stress, the accuracy of inspection and so on, on the effects of inspection, and the method of evaluating the inspections at unequal intervals were investigated. The analysis of reliability taking in-service inspection into consideration, the evaluation of in-service inspection and other affecting factors through the typical examples of analysis, and the review concerning the time of inspection are described. The method of analyzing the reliability of pressure vessels, considering the growth of defects and preservice and in-service nondestructive tests, was able to be systematized so as to be practically usable. (Kako, I.)

  10. A Reliability Test of a Complex System Based on Empirical Likelihood

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yan; Fu, Liya; Zhang, Jun; Hui, Yongchang

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the reliability of a complex system described by minimal paths, an empirical likelihood method is proposed to solve the reliability test problem when the subsystem distributions are unknown. Furthermore, we provide a reliability test statistic of the complex system and extract the limit distribution of the test statistic. Therefore, we can obtain the confidence interval for reliability and make statistical inferences. The simulation studies also demonstrate the theorem results.

  11. Summary report - development of laboratory tests and the stress- strain behaviour of Olkiluoto mica gneiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M.; Heikkilae, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Rock Engineering

    1997-05-01

    This work summarizes the project aimed at developing and qualifying a suitable combination of laboratory tests to establish a statistically reliable stress-strain behaviour of the main rock types at Posiva Oy`s detailed investigation sites for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The work includes literature study of stress-strain behaviour of brittle rock, development and qualification of laboratory tests, suggested test procedures and interpretation methods and finally testing of Olkiluoto mica gneiss. The Olkiluoto study includes over 130 loading tests. Besides the commonly used laboratory tests, direct tensile tests, damage controlled tests and acoustic emission measurements were also carried out. (orig.) (54 refs.).

  12. Summary report - development of laboratory tests and the stress- strain behaviour of Olkiluoto mica gneiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Heikkilae, E.

    1997-05-01

    This work summarizes the project aimed at developing and qualifying a suitable combination of laboratory tests to establish a statistically reliable stress-strain behaviour of the main rock types at Posiva Oy's detailed investigation sites for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The work includes literature study of stress-strain behaviour of brittle rock, development and qualification of laboratory tests, suggested test procedures and interpretation methods and finally testing of Olkiluoto mica gneiss. The Olkiluoto study includes over 130 loading tests. Besides the commonly used laboratory tests, direct tensile tests, damage controlled tests and acoustic emission measurements were also carried out. (orig.) (54 refs.)

  13. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Ertan; Kaya, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine validity and reliability of the Albanian version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), which is developed by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995). The sample of this study is consisted of 555 subjects who were living in Kosovo. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated 42 items loaded on…

  14. The Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ahmet; Cetin, Bayram

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). The sample of the study consisted of 590 university students, 121 English teachers and 136 emotionally disturbed individuals who sought treatment in various clinics and counseling centers. Factor loadings of the scale ranged…

  15. Ensuring Structural Integrity through Reliable Residual Stress Measurement: From Crystals to Crankshafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Lyndon

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The determination of accurate, reliable stresses is critical to many fields of engineering and, in particular, the structural integrity and hence, safety, of many systems. Neutron stress measurement is a non-destructive technique that uniquely provides insights into stress fields deep within components and structures. As such, it has become an increasingly important tool within the engineering community leading to improved manufacturing processes to reduce stress and distortion as well as to the definition of more precise structural integrity lifting procedures. This talk describes the current state of the art and identifies the key opportunities for improved structural integrity provided by the 2nd generation dedicated engineering stress diffractometers currently being designed and commissioned world-wide. Examples are provided covering a range of industrially relevant problems from the fields. (author)

  16. Basics of Bayesian reliability estimation from attribute test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.F. Jr.; Waller, R.A.

    1975-10-01

    The basic notions of Bayesian reliability estimation from attribute lifetest data are presented in an introductory and expository manner. Both Bayesian point and interval estimates of the probability of surviving the lifetest, the reliability, are discussed. The necessary formulas are simply stated, and examples are given to illustrate their use. In particular, a binomial model in conjunction with a beta prior model is considered. Particular attention is given to the procedure for selecting an appropriate prior model in practice. Empirical Bayes point and interval estimates of reliability are discussed and examples are given. 7 figures, 2 tables

  17. Test Re-Test Reliability of Four Versions of the 3-Cone Test in Non-Athletic Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason G. Langley, Robert D. Chetlin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, measurement and evaluation in sport science, especially agility testing, has not always included key elements of proper test construction. Often tests are published without reporting reliability and validity analysis for a specific population. The purpose of the present study was to examine the test re-test reliability of four versions of the 3-Cone Test (3CT, and provide guidance on proper test construction for testing agility in athletic populations. Forty male students enrolled in classes in the Department of Physical Education at a mid-Atlantic university participated. On each of test day participants performed 10 trials. In random order, they performed three trials to the right (3CTR, standard test, three to the left (3CTL, and two modified trials (3CTAR and 3CTAL, which included a reactive component in which a visual cue was given to indicate direction. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC indicated a moderate to high reliability for the four tests, 3CTR 0.79 (0.64-0.88, 95%CI, 3CTL 0.73 (0.55-0.85, 3CTAR 0.85(0.74-0.92, and 3CTAL 0.79 (0.64-0.88. Small standard error of the measurement (SEM was found; range 0.09 to 0.10. Pearson correlations between tests were high (0.82-0.92 on day one as well as day two (0.72-0.85. These results indicate each version of the 3-Cone Test is reliable; however, further tests are needed with specific athletic populations. Only the 3CTAR and 3CTAL are tests of agility due to the inclusion of a reactive component. Future studies examining agility testing and training should incorporate technological elements, including automated timing systems and motion capture analysis. Such instrumentation will allow for optimal design of tests that simulate sport-specific game conditions.

  18. Isokinetic Strength and Endurance Tests used Pre- and Post-Spaceflight: Test-Retest Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Loehr, James A.; Amonette, William E.

    2009-01-01

    To assess changes in muscular strength and endurance after microgravity exposure, NASA measures isokinetic strength and endurance across multiple sessions before and after long-duration space flight. Accurate interpretation of pre- and post-flight measures depends upon the reliability of each measure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) isokinetic protocol. Twenty-four healthy subjects (12 M/12 F, 32.0 +/- 5.6 years) volunteered to participate. Isokinetic knee, ankle, and trunk flexion and extension strength as well as endurance of the knee flexors and extensors were measured using a Cybex NORM isokinetic dynamometer. The first weekly session was considered a familiarization session. Data were collected and analyzed for weeks 2-4. Repeated measures analysis of variance (alpha=0.05) was used to identify weekly differences in isokinetic measures. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (3,1). No significant differences were found between weeks in any of the strength measures and the reliability of the strength measures were all considered excellent (ICC greater than 0.9), except for concentric ankle dorsi-flexion (ICC=0.67). Although a significant difference was noted in weekly endurance measures of knee extension (p less than 0.01), the reliability of endurance measure by week were considered excellent for knee flexion (ICC=0.97) and knee extension (ICC=0.96). Except for concentric ankle dorsi-flexion, the isokinetic strength and endurance measures are highly reliable when following the NASA ISS protocol. This protocol should allow accurate interpretation isokinetic data even with a small number of crew members.

  19. Spinal appearance questionnaire: factor analysis, scoring, reliability, and validity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Leah Y; Sanders, James O; Polly, David W; Sucato, Daniel J; Parent, Stefan; Roy-Beaudry, Marjolaine; Hopkins, Jeffrey; McClung, Anna; Bratcher, Kelly R; Diamond, Beverly E

    2011-08-15

    Cross sectional. This study presents the factor analysis of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and its psychometric properties. Although the SAQ has been administered to a large sample of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated surgically, its psychometric properties have not been fully evaluated. This study presents the factor analysis and scoring of the SAQ and evaluates its psychometric properties. The SAQ and the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) were administered to AIS patients who were being observed, braced or scheduled for surgery. Standard demographic data and radiographic measures including Lenke type and curve magnitude were also collected. Of the 1802 patients, 83% were female; with a mean age of 14.8 years and mean initial Cobb angle of 55.8° (range, 0°-123°). From the 32 items of the SAQ, 15 loaded on two factors with consistent and significant correlations across all Lenke types. There is an Appearance (items 1-10) and an Expectations factor (items 12-15). Responses are summed giving a range of 5 to 50 for the Appearance domain and 5 to 20 for the Expectations domain. The Cronbach's α was 0.88 for both domains and Total score with a test-retest reliability of 0.81 for Appearance and 0.91 for Expectations. Correlations with major curve magnitude were higher for the SAQ Appearance and SAQ Total scores compared to correlations between the SRS Appearance and SRS Total scores. The SAQ and SRS-22 Scores were statistically significantly different in patients who were scheduled for surgery compared to those who were observed or braced. The SAQ is a valid measure of self-image in patients with AIS with greater correlation to curve magnitude than SRS Appearance and Total score. It also discriminates between patients who require surgery from those who do not.

  20. The reliability of knee joint position testing using electrogoniometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter Adele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current investigation examined the inter- and intra-tester reliability of knee joint angle measurements using a flexible Penny and Giles Biometric® electrogoniometer. The clinical utility of electrogoniometry was also addressed. Methods The first study examined the inter- and intra-tester reliability of measurements of knee joint angles in supine, sitting and standing in 35 healthy adults. The second study evaluated inter-tester and intra-tester reliability of knee joint angle measurements in standing and after walking 10 metres in 20 healthy adults, using an enhanced measurement protocol with a more detailed electrogoniometer attachment procedure. Both inter-tester reliability studies involved two testers. Results In the first study, inter-tester reliability (ICC[2,10] ranged from 0.58–0.71 in supine, 0.68–0.79 in sitting and 0.57–0.80 in standing. The standard error of measurement between testers was less than 3.55° and the limits of agreement ranged from -12.51° to 12.21°. Reliability coefficients for intra-tester reliability (ICC[3,10] ranged from 0.75–0.76 in supine, 0.86–0.87 in sitting and 0.87–0.88 in standing. The standard error of measurement for repeated measures by the same tester was less than 1.7° and the limits of agreement ranged from -8.13° to 7.90°. The second study showed that using a more detailed electrogoniometer attachment protocol reduced the error of measurement between testers to 0.5°. Conclusion Using a standardised protocol, reliable measures of knee joint angles can be gained in standing, supine and sitting by using a flexible goniometer.

  1. Use of Melt Flow Rate Test in Reliability Study of Thermoplastic Encapsulation Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, J.; Miller, D.; Shah, Q.-U.-A. S. J.; Sakurai, K.; Kempe, M.; Tamizhmani, G.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-10-01

    Use of thermoplastic materials as encapsulants in photovoltaic (PV) modules presents a potential concern in terms of high temperature creep, which should be evaluated before thermoplastics are qualified for use in the field. Historically, the issue of creep has been avoided by using thermosetting polymers as encapsulants, such as crosslinked ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA). Because they lack crosslinked networks, however, thermoplastics may be subject to phase transitions and visco-elastic flow at the temperatures and mechanical stresses encountered by modules in the field, creating the potential for a number of reliability and safety issues. Thermoplastic materials investigated in this study include PV-grade uncured-EVA (without curing agents and therefore not crosslinked); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); and three polyolefins (PO), which have been proposed for use as PV encapsulation. Two approaches were used to evaluate the performance of these materials as encapsulants: module-level testing and a material-level testing.

  2. Reliability of candida skin test in the evaluation of T-cell function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    2017-01-23

    Jan 23, 2017 ... considered generally reliable under the age of 1 year.6 ... We sought to investigate the reliability of manually ... Conclusion: Candida intradermal test is a cost- effective ..... Ballow M. Historical perspectives in the diagnosis.

  3. Applications of majorization and Schur functions in reliability and life testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proschan, F.

    1975-01-01

    This is an expository paper presenting basic definitions and properties of majorization and Schur functions, and displaying a variety of applications of these concepts in reliability prediction and modelling, and in reliability inference and life testing

  4. Enhancing reliability of ultrasonic testing of welds of nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbinskij, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    Results of investigation of factors influencing the reliability of manual ultrasonic testing of welded joints and weld deposited metal power-generating equipment are presented. Recommendations on the enhancing of reliability are given [ru

  5. Validity and test-retest reliability of a novel simple back extensor muscle strength test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Amy T; Weeks, Benjamin Kurt; Horan, Sean A; Little, Andrew; Watson, Steven L; Beck, Belinda Ruth

    2017-01-01

    To develop and determine convergent validity and reliability of a simple and inexpensive clinical test to quantify back extensor muscle strength. Two testing sessions were conducted, 7 days apart. Each session involved three trials of standing maximal isometric back extensor muscle strength using both the novel test and isokinetic dynamometry. Lumbar spine bone mineral density was examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Validation was examined with Pearson correlations ( r ). Test-retest reliability was examined with intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. Pearson correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients are presented with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Linear regression was used to examine the ability of peak back extensor muscle strength to predict indices of lumbar spine bone mineral density and strength. A total of 52 healthy adults (26 men, 26 women) aged 46.4 ± 20.4 years were recruited from the community. A strong positive relationship was observed between peak back extensor strength from hand-held and isokinetic dynamometry ( r  = 0.824, p  strength test, short- and long-term reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.983 (95% confidence interval, 0.971-0.990), p  strength measures with the novel back extensor strength protocol were -6.63 to 7.70 kg, with a mean bias of +0.71 kg. Back extensor strength predicted 11% of variance in lumbar spine bone mineral density ( p  strength ( p  strength is quick, relatively inexpensive, and reliable; demonstrates initial convergent validity in a healthy population; and is associated with bone mass at a clinically important site.

  6. The navicular position test - a reliable measure of the navicular bone position during rest and loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Dåsberg, Brian; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2011-01-01

    .08 degrees, ICC = 0.91. Discussion: The present data support The Navicular Position Test as a reliable test of the navicular bone position during rest and loading measured in a simple test set-up. Conclusion: The Navicular Position Test was shown to have a high intraday-, intra- and inter-tester reliability...

  7. Reliability of the Test of Integrated Language and Literacy Skills (TILLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailend, Marja-Liisa; Plante, Elena; Anderson, Michele A.; Applegate, E. Brooks; Nelson, Nickola W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: As new standardized tests become commercially available, it is critical that clinicians have access to the information about a test's psychometric properties, including aspects of reliability. Aims: The purpose of the three studies reported in this article was to investigate the reliability of a new test, the Test of Integrated…

  8. Feasibility and Reliability of Physical Fitness Tests in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness is relevant for wellbeing and health, but knowledge on the feasibility and reliability of instruments to measure physical fitness for older adults with intellectual disability is lacking. Methods: Feasibility and test-retest reliability of a physical fitness test battery (Box and Block Test, Response Time Test, walking…

  9. 75 FR 50853 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... airplanes. 1. Function and Reliability Testing. Flight tests: In place of 14 CFR 21.35(b)(2), the following...; Function and Reliability Testing AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special... to CAR part 3 became effective January 15, 1951, and deleted the service test requirements in Section...

  10. 75 FR 29962 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... SF50 airplanes. 1. Function and Reliability Testing Flight tests: In place of 14 CFR part 21.35(b)(2... Reliability Testing AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed special..., 1951, and deleted the service test requirements in Section 3.19 for airplanes of 6,000 pounds maximum...

  11. Test-retest Agreement and Reliability of Quantitative Sensory Testing 1 Year After Breast Cancer Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Kehlet, Henrik; Aasvang, Eske Kvanner

    2015-01-01

    .5 SD) than within-patient variation (0.23 to 3.55 SD). There were no significant differences between pain and pain-free patients. The individual test-retest variability was higher on the operated side compared with the nonoperated side. DISCUSSION: The QST protocol reliability allows for group......OBJECTIVES: Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is used to assess sensory dysfunction and nerve damage by examining psychophysical responses to controlled, graded stimuli such as mechanical and thermal detection and pain thresholds. In the breast cancer population, 4 studies have used QST to examine...... persistent pain after breast cancer treatment, suggesting neuropathic pain being a prominent pain mechanism. However, the agreement and reliability of QST has not been described in the postsurgical breast cancer population, hindering exact interpretation of QST studies in this population. The aim...

  12. Testing the reliability of information extracted from ancient zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielman, Ross; Whitehouse, Martin; Nemchin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Studies combining zircon U-Pb chronology, trace element distribution as well as O and Hf isotope systematics are a powerful way to gain understanding of the processes shaping Earth's evolution, especially in detrital populations where constraints from the original host are missing. Such studies of the Hadean detrital zircon population abundant in sedimentary rocks in Western Australia have involved analysis of an unusually large number of individual grains, but also highlighted potential problems with the approach, only apparent when multiple analyses are obtained from individual grains. A common feature of the Hadean as well as many early Archaean zircon populations is their apparent inhomogeneity, which reduces confidence in conclusions based on studies combining chemistry and isotopic characteristics of zircon. In order to test the reliability of information extracted from early Earth zircon, we report results from one of the first in-depth multi-method study of zircon from a relatively simple early Archean magmatic rock, used as an analogue to ancient detrital zircon. The approach involves making multiple SIMS analyses in individual grains in order to be comparable to the most advanced studies of detrital zircon populations. The investigated sample is a relatively undeformed, non-migmatitic ca. 3.8 Ga tonalite collected a few kms south of the Isua Greenstone Belt, southwest Greenland. Extracted zircon grains can be combined into three different groups based on the behavior of their U-Pb systems: (i) grains that show internally consistent and concordant ages and define an average age of 3805±15 Ma, taken to be the age of the rock, (ii) grains that are distributed close to the concordia line, but with significant variability between multiple analyses, suggesting an ancient Pb loss and (iii) grains that have multiple analyses distributed along a discordia pointing towards a zero intercept, indicating geologically recent Pb-loss. This overall behavior has

  13. "Graded Cycling Test with Talk Test" Is a Reliable Test to Monitor Cardiovascular Fitness in Patients with Minor Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Krawcyk, Rikke; Vinther, Anders; Caesar Petersen, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    variability may challenge currently used cardiovascular monitoring. The Graded Cycling Test with Talk Test is a submaximal exercise test independent of heart rate variability, shown reliable for patients with cardiac disease. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with lacunar stroke according to TOAST (Trial of Org...... a minor measurement error: 12.9 W for groups of patients (standard error of measurement, SEM95) and 18.3 W for individual patients (smallest real difference). CONCLUSION: The "Graded Cycling Test with Talk Test" is feasible and reliable for monitoring exercise effects in patients with lacunar stroke...... 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria performed an incremental exercise test on a stationary bicycle with a 15 W (watt) increase in workload every minute. Toward the end of each incremental step, the patients recited a standardized text passage and subsequently were asked: "Are you still able...

  14. Reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi Woo; Kim, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Woo; Jeong, Sang Yeong

    1993-08-01

    This book start what is reliability? such as origin of reliability problems, definition of reliability and reliability and use of reliability. It also deals with probability and calculation of reliability, reliability function and failure rate, probability distribution of reliability, assumption of MTBF, process of probability distribution, down time, maintainability and availability, break down maintenance and preventive maintenance design of reliability, design of reliability for prediction and statistics, reliability test, reliability data and design and management of reliability.

  15. Improving QST Reliability – More Raters, Tests or Occasions? A Multivariate Generalizability Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Søren; O'Neill, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of quantitative sensory testing (QST) is affected by the error attributable to both test occasion and rater (examiner) as well as interactions between them. Most reliability studies only account for one source of error. The present study employed a fully-crossed, multivariate...... threshold, intensity, tolerance and modulation with mechanical, thermal and chemical stimuli. The classical test-retest and inter-rater reliability (0.19... procedures. Reliability was improved more by repeated testing on separate occasions opposed to repeated testing by different raters....

  16. Stress and reliability analyses of multilayered composite cylinder under thermal and mechanical loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua

    The coupling resulting from the mutual influence of material thermal and mechanical parameters is examined in the thermal stress analysis of a multilayered isotropic composite cylinder subjected to sudden axisymmetric external and internal temperature. The method of complex frequency response functions together with the Fourier transform technique is utilized. Because the coupling parameters for some composite materials, such as carbon-carbon, are very small, the effect of coupling is neglected in the orthotropic thermal stress analysis. The stress distributions in multilayered orthotropic cylinders subjected to sudden axisymmetric temperature loading combined with dynamic pressure as well as asymmetric temperature loading are also obtained. The method of Fourier series together with the Laplace transform is utilized in solving the heat conduction equation and thermal stress analysis. For brittle materials, like carbon-carbon composites, the strength variability is represented by two or three parameter Weibull distributions. The 'weakest link' principle which takes into account both the carbon-carbon composite cylinders. The complex frequency response analysis is performed on a multilayered orthotropic cylinder under asymmetrical thermal load. Both deterministic and random thermal stress and reliability analyses can be based on the results of this frequency response analysis. The stress and displacement distributions and reliability of rocket motors under static or dynamic line loads are analyzed by an elasticity approach. Rocket motors are modeled as long hollow multilayered cylinders with an air core, a thick isotropic propellant inner layer and a thin orthotropic kevlar-epoxy case. The case is treated as a single orthotropic layer or a ten layered orthotropic structure. Five material properties and the load are treated as random variable with normal distributions when the reliability of the rocket motor is analyzed by the first-order, second-moment method (FOSM).

  17. Development and reliability testing of a food store observation form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkus, Leah; Powell, Lisa M; Zenk, Shannon N; Han, Euna; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Pugach, Oksana; Barker, Dianne C; Resnick, Elissa A; Quinn, Christopher M; Myllyluoma, Jaana; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    To develop a reliable food store observational data collection instrument to be used for measuring product availability, pricing, and promotion. Observational data collection. A total of 120 food stores (26 supermarkets, 34 grocery stores, 54 gas/convenience stores, and 6 mass merchandise stores) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area. Inter-rater reliability for product availability, pricing, and promotion measures on a food store observational data collection instrument. Cohen's kappa coefficient and proportion of overall agreement for dichotomous variables and intra-class correlation coefficient for continuous variables. Inter-rater reliability, as measured by average kappa coefficient, was 0.84 for food and beverage product availability measures, 0.80 for interior store characteristics, and 0.70 for exterior store characteristics. For continuous measures, average intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.82 for product pricing measures; 0.90 for counts of fresh, frozen, and canned fruit and vegetable options; and 0.85 for counts of advertisements on the store exterior and property. The vast majority of measures demonstrated substantial or almost perfect agreement. Although some items may require revision, results suggest that the instrument may be used to reliably measure the food store environment. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reliability and validity of Persian version of perceived stress scale (PSS-10) in adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroufizadeh, Saman; Zareiyan, Armin; Sigari, Naseh

    2014-05-01

    Asthma is a major public health problem in the world, and recent findings suggest that stress influences asthma and asthma morbidity. The 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) is one of the most frequently used instruments to measure psychological stress. This study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian versions of the PSS-10 in adults with asthma. In this descriptive cross-sectional study as a methodological research, 106 asthmatic patients referring to several clinics in Sanandaj (western Iran) were selected through convenience sampling. The PSS-10 and the 21-item Depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21) were administrated to all patients. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate reliability of PSS-10, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and convergent validity were used to evaluate its validity. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor structure of PSS-10 provided a good fit to data. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for negative factor, positive factor and total score (PSS-10) were 0.86, 0.83, and 0.90, respectively. The PSS-10 was positively correlated with the DASS-21 and its subscales, indicating an acceptable convergent validity. Female asthmatic patients scored higher on PSS-10 in comparison with male asthmatic patients. The Persian version of PSS-10 is a valid and reliable instrument to measure perceived stress in adults with asthma.

  19. Reliability, construct and discriminative validity of clinical testing in subjects with and without chronic neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, René; Ris Hansen, Inge; Falla, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    -retest reliability in people with and without chronic neck pain. Moreover, construct and between-group discriminative validity of the tests were examined. METHODS: Twenty-one participants with chronic neck pain and 21 asymptomatic participants were included. Intra- and inter-reliability were evaluated for the Cranio-Cervical...... Flexion Test (CCFT), Range of Movement (ROM), Joint Position Error (JPE), Gaze Stability (GS), Smooth Pursuit Neck Torsion Test (SPNTT), and neuromuscular control of the Deep Cervical Extensors (DCE). Test-retest reliability was assessed for Postural Control (SWAY) and Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) over......BACKGROUND: The reliability of clinical tests for the cervical spine has not been adequately evaluated. Six cervical clinical tests, which are low cost and easy to perform in clinical settings, were tested for intra- and inter-examiner reliability, and two performance tests were assessed for test...

  20. Reliable cost effective technique for in situ ground stress measurements in deep gold mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stacey, TR

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available on these requirements, an in situ stress measurement technique which will be practically applicable in the deep gold mines, has been developed conceptually. Referring to the figure on the following page, this method involves: • a borehole-based system, using... level mines have not been developed. 2 This is some of the background to the present SIMRAC research project, the title ofwhich is “Reliable cost effective technique for in-situ ground stress measurements in deep gold mines”. A copy of the research...

  1. Experimental Research of Reliability of Plant Stress State Detection by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Fedotov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental laboratory investigations of the laser-induced fluorescence spectra of watercress and lawn grass were conducted. The fluorescence spectra were excited by YAG:Nd laser emitting at 532 nm. It was established that the influence of stress caused by mechanical damage, overwatering, and soil pollution is manifested in changes of the spectra shapes. The mean values and confidence intervals for the ratio of two fluorescence maxima near 685 and 740 nm were estimated. It is presented that the fluorescence ratio could be considered a reliable characteristic of plant stress state.

  2. Test of understanding of vectors: A reliable multiple-choice vector concept test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-06-01

    In this article we discuss the findings of our research on students' understanding of vector concepts in problems without physical context. First, we develop a complete taxonomy of the most frequent errors made by university students when learning vector concepts. This study is based on the results of several test administrations of open-ended problems in which a total of 2067 students participated. Using this taxonomy, we then designed a 20-item multiple-choice test [Test of understanding of vectors (TUV)] and administered it in English to 423 students who were completing the required sequence of introductory physics courses at a large private Mexican university. We evaluated the test's content validity, reliability, and discriminatory power. The results indicate that the TUV is a reliable assessment tool. We also conducted a detailed analysis of the students' understanding of the vector concepts evaluated in the test. The TUV is included in the Supplemental Material as a resource for other researchers studying vector learning, as well as instructors teaching the material.

  3. The timed "up and go" test : Reliability and validity in persons with unilateral lower limb amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoppen, Tanneke; Boonstra, Antje; Groothoff, JW; de Vries, J; Goeken, LNH; Eisma, Willem

    Objective: To determine the interrater and interrater reliability and the validity of the Timed "up and go" test as a measure for physical mobility in elderly patients with an amputation of the lower extremity. Design: To test interrater reliability, the test was performed for two observers at

  4. Validity and reliability of tests determining performance-related components of wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J.M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W.J.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players'

  5. Validity and reliability of tests determining performance-related components of wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J. M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players'

  6. An Integrated Approach to Establish Validity and Reliability of Reading Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Salim

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the processes of developing and establishing reliability and validity of a reading test by administering an integrative approach as conventional reliability and validity measures superficially reveals the difficulty of a reading test. In this respect, analysing vocabulary frequency of the test is regarded as a more eligible way…

  7. Construction and Evaluation of Reliability and Validity of Reasoning Ability Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mehraj A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on the construction and evaluation of reliability and validity of reasoning ability test at secondary school students. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate validity, reliability and to determine the appropriate standards to interpret the results of reasoning ability test. The test includes 45 items to measure six types…

  8. Diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome: interobserver reliability of the blinded scratch-collapse test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Robin D.; Becker, Stéphanie J. E.; Ring, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The reliability of the scratch-collapse test for diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has not been tested by independent investigators. This study measured the reliability of the scratch-collapse test comparing the treating hand surgeon and blinded evaluators. We performed a prospective

  9. Development, reliability, and validity of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Interview for Vietnamese refugees: a diagnostic instrument for Vietnamese refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Tam K; Poritz, Julia M P; Moody, Rachel P; Szeto, Kim

    2012-08-01

    The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Interview for Vietnamese Refugees (PTSD-IVR) was created specifically to assess for the presence of current and lifetime history of premigration, migration, encampment, and postmigration traumas in Vietnamese refugees. The purpose of the present study was to describe the development of and investigate the interrater and test-retest reliability of the PTSD-IVR and its validity in relation to the diagnoses obtained from the Longitudinal, Expert, and All Data (LEAD; Spitzer, 1983) standard. Clinicians conducted the diagnosis process with 127 Vietnamese refugees using the LEAD standard and the PTSD-IVR. Assessment of the reliability and validity of the PTSD-IVR yielded good to excellent AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve; .86, .87) and κ values (.66, .74) indicating the reliability of the PTSD-IVR and the agreement between the LEAD procedure and the PTSD-IVR. The results of the present study suggest that the PTSD-IVR performs successfully as a diagnostic instrument specifically created for Vietnamese refugees in their native language. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  10. Reliability assessment of stress concentration performance state for a perforated composite plate under traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbouri A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering a perforated sandwich plate made from two elastic homogenous and isotropic layers, and having a square hole, reliability assessment of stress concentration limit state for which the stress should not exceed a given threshold is performed in this work. Assuming that the plate dimensions and the applied loading are deterministic, focus is done on the square hole centre position and edge length considered to be random variables. The means and the standard deviations of these variables are assumed to be known, but no information is so far available about their densities of probabilities. To assess reliability of the performance state, reliability analysis known methods are applied to a response surface representation of the stress concentration factor of the perforated plate which is obtained through quadratic polynomial regression of finite element results. A parametric study is performed regarding the influence of the distributions of probabilities chosen to model the hole dimensions uncertainties. It is shown that the probability of failure depends largely on the selected densities of probabilities.

  11. Validity and reliability of the Cohen 10-item Perceived Stress Scale in patients with chronic headache: Persian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Robabe; Sirati Nir, Masoud; Ebadi, Abbas; Tavallai, Abbas; Habibi, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    The Cohen Perceived Stress Scale is being used widely in various countries. The present study evaluated the validity and reliability of the Cohen 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) in assessing tension headache, migraine, and stress-related diseases in Iran. This study is a methodological and cross-sectional descriptive investigation of 100 patients with chronic headache admitted to the pain clinic of Baqiyatallah Educational and Therapeutic Center. Convenience sampling was used for subject selection. PSS psychometric properties were evaluated in two stages. First, the standard scale was translated. Then, the face validity, content, and construct of the translated version were determined. The average age of participants was 38 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 13.2. As for stress levels, 12% were within the normal range, 36% had an intermediate level, and 52% had a high level of stress. The face validity and scale content were remarkable, and the KMO coefficient was 0.82. Bartlett's test yielded 0.327 which was statistically significant (pstress and chronic headache. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Utilization and reliability of nondestructive testing in ordnance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maranhao, M.; Alves, L.E.G.

    1983-01-01

    Information about nondestructive testing used in ordnance are presented. For propellants and breaking load ultrasonic testing and X-ray are used. For skyrocket propellants the X-ray is used to test the continuity of the explosive mass and the burn inhibiting agent. For rupture explosive, the X-ray is used to test the continuity of explosive mass. (E.G.) [pt

  13. TESTING METHODS FOR MECHANICALLY IMPROVED SOILS: RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Petkovšek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of in-situ mechanical improvement for reducing the liquefaction potential of silty sands was investigated by using three different techniques: Vibratory Roller Compaction, Rapid Impact Compaction (RIC and Soil Mixing. Material properties at all test sites were investigated before and after improvement with the laboratory and the in situ tests (CPT, SDMT, DPSH B, static and dynamic load plate test, geohydraulic tests. Correlation between the results obtained by different test methods gave inconclusive answers.

  14. Reliability demonstration methodology for products with Gamma Process by optimal accelerated degradation testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Lu, Xiang; Tan, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yashun

    2015-01-01

    For products with high reliability and long lifetime, accelerated degradation testing (ADT) may be adopted during product development phase to verify whether its reliability satisfies the predetermined level within feasible test duration. The actual degradation from engineering is usually a strictly monotonic process, such as fatigue crack growth, wear, and erosion. However, the method for reliability demonstration by ADT with monotonic degradation process has not been investigated so far. This paper proposes a reliability demonstration methodology by ADT for this kind of product. We first apply Gamma process to describe the monotonic degradation. Next, we present a reliability demonstration method by converting the required reliability level into allowable cumulative degradation in ADT and comparing the actual accumulative degradation with the allowable level. Further, we suggest an analytical optimal ADT design method for more efficient reliability demonstration by minimizing the asymptotic variance of decision variable in reliability demonstration under the constraints of sample size, test duration, test cost, and predetermined decision risks. The method is validated and illustrated with example on reliability demonstration of alloy product, and is applied to demonstrate the wear reliability within long service duration of spherical plain bearing in the end. - Highlights: • We present a reliability demonstration method by ADT for products with monotonic degradation process, which may be applied to verify reliability with long service life for products with monotonic degradation process within feasible test duration. • We suggest an analytical optimal ADT design method for more efficient reliability demonstration, which differs from the existed optimal ADT design for more accurate reliability estimation by different objective function and different constraints. • The methods are applied to demonstrate the wear reliability within long service duration of

  15. Selection of reliable reference genes for gene expression studies in Trichoderma afroharzianum LTR-2 under oxalic acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yuping; Wu, Xiaoqing; Ren, He; Zhou, Fangyuan; Zhou, Hongzi; Zhang, Xinjian; Yang, Hetong

    2017-10-01

    An appropriate reference gene is required to get reliable results from gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). In order to identify stable and reliable reference genes in Trichoderma afroharzianum under oxalic acid (OA) stress, six commonly used housekeeping genes, i.e., elongation factor 1, ubiquitin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, α-tubulin, actin, from the effective biocontrol isolate T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 were tested for their expression during growth in liquid culture amended with OA. Four in silico programs (comparative ΔCt, NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper) were used to evaluate the expression stabilities of six candidate reference genes. The elongation factor 1 gene EF-1 was identified as the most stably expressed reference gene, and was used as the normalizer to quantify the expression level of the oxalate decarboxylase coding gene OXDC in T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 under OA stress. The result showed that the expression of OXDC was significantly up-regulated as expected. This study provides an effective method to quantify expression changes of target genes in T. afroharzianum under OA stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 40 CFR 90.329 - Catalyst thermal stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress test. 90.329... Equipment Provisions § 90.329 Catalyst thermal stress test. (a) Oven characteristics. The oven used for thermally stressing the test catalyst must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 500 ±5 °C and 1000 ±10...

  17. 40 CFR 91.329 - Catalyst thermal stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress test. 91.329....329 Catalyst thermal stress test. (a) Oven characteristics. The oven used for termally stressing the test catalyst must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 500 ±5 °C and 1000 ±10 °C. (b) Evaluation...

  18. Test-retest reliability and task order effects of emotional cognitive tests in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas; Pounder, Zoe; Preston, Sally; Hanson, Andy; Gallagher, Peter; Harmer, Catherine J; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish

    2016-11-01

    Little is known of the retest reliability of emotional cognitive tasks or the impact of using different tasks employing similar emotional stimuli within a battery. We investigated this in healthy subjects. We found improved overall performance in an emotional attentional blink task (EABT) with repeat testing at one hour and one week compared to baseline, but the impact of an emotional stimulus on performance was unchanged. Similarly, performance on a facial expression recognition task (FERT) was better one week after a baseline test, though the relative effect of specific emotions was unaltered. There was no effect of repeat testing on an emotional word categorising, recall and recognition task. We found no difference in performance in the FERT and EABT irrespective of task order. We concluded that it is possible to use emotional cognitive tasks in longitudinal studies and combine tasks using emotional facial stimuli in a single battery.

  19. Stress Reactivity to an Electronic Version of the Trier Social Stress Test: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sage E Hawn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Social stressors that rely on the inclusion of confederates (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST are often used in clinical laboratory research paradigms to elicit a measurable stress response in participants. Although effective, the TSST is labor intensive and may introduce error variance as a function of confederate race, gender, and/or response characteristics. The present study aimed to develop and validate an electronic version of the TSST (e-TSST. The primary aim was to compare the e-TSST to an e-neutral control condition; the exploratory aim was to compare the magnitude of stress response elicited by the e-TSST to that elicited by the traditional TSST. Forty-three healthy adults were randomized to the e-TSST or e-neutral condition. Subjective (participant-rated distress and objective (cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure indices of stress were collected prior to, and multiple times following, the stressor. Using archival data collected from 19 healthy participants exposed to the traditional TSST in a prior study, stress reactivity was compared between the electronic and traditional versions of the TSST. The e-TSST elicited significant increases in all measures of stress reactivity compared to the e-neutral condition, with the exception of heart rate (HR. Results showed that the magnitude of subjective distress, BP, and HR responses elicited by the e-TSST did not differ significantly from that elicited by the traditional TSST. The traditional TSST elicited significantly higher cortisol than the e-TSST. Although these findings provide initial support for the development of electronic versions of the TSST, further refinement of the e-TSST is warranted prior to broad adoption of this technology. A refined, reliable e-TSST could allow for increased utilization of the TSST by enhancing convenience, reducing labor costs, and limiting potential error variance introduced by human confederates.

  20. RELIABILITY OF CERTAIN TESTS FOR EVALUATION OF JUDO TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Obadov

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The sample included 106 judokas. Assessment of the level of mastership of judo techniques was carried out by evaluation of fi ve competent studies. Each subject performed a technique three times and each performance was evaluated by the judges. In order to evaluate measurement of each technique, Cronbach’s coeffi cient of reliability  was calculated. During the procedure the subjects's results were also transformed to factor scores i.e. the results of each performer at the main component of evaluation in the fi ve studies. These factor scores could be used in the subsequent procedure of multivariant statistical analysis.

  1. Online cognition : Factors facilitating reliable online neuropsychological test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, H.E.M.; Vermeulen, I.E.; Murre, J.M.J.; Schagen, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Online neuropsychological test batteries could allow for large-scale cognitive data collection in clinical studies. However, the few online neuropsychological test batteries that are currently available often still require supervision or lack proper psychometric evaluation. In this paper,

  2. Online cognition : factors facilitating reliable online neuropsychological test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Heleen E M; Vermeulen, Ivar E; Murre, Jaap M J; Schagen, Sanne B

    OBJECTIVE: Online neuropsychological test batteries could allow for large-scale cognitive data collection in clinical studies. However, the few online neuropsychological test batteries that are currently available often still require supervision or lack proper psychometric evaluation. In this paper,

  3. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be diagnosed reliably using history and physical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, M; Bakker, E W P; Moen, M H; Barten, C C; Teeuwen, R; Weir, A

    2017-02-08

    The majority of sporting injuries are clinically diagnosed using history and physical examination as the cornerstone. There are no studies supporting the reliability of making a clinical diagnosis of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Our aim was to assess if MTSS can be diagnosed reliably, using history and physical examination. We also investigated if clinicians were able to reliably identify concurrent lower leg injuries. A clinical reliability study was performed at multiple sports medicine sites in The Netherlands. Athletes with non-traumatic lower leg pain were assessed for having MTSS by two clinicians, who were blinded to each others' diagnoses. We calculated the prevalence, percentage of agreement, observed percentage of positive agreement (Ppos), observed percentage of negative agreement (Pneg) and Kappa-statistic with 95%CI. Forty-nine athletes participated in this study, of whom 46 completed both assessments. The prevalence of MTSS was 74%. The percentage of agreement was 96%, with Ppos and Pneg of 97% and 92%, respectively. The inter-rater reliability was almost perfect; k=0.89 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.00), phistory and physical examination, in clinical practice and research settings. We also found that concurrent lower leg injuries are common in athletes with MTSS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Reliable four-point flexion test and model for die-to-wafer direct bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, T., E-mail: toshiyuki.tabata@cea.fr; Sanchez, L.; Fournel, F.; Moriceau, H. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-07

    For many years, wafer-to-wafer (W2W) direct bonding has been very developed particularly in terms of bonding energy measurement and bonding mechanism comprehension. Nowadays, die-to-wafer (D2W) direct bonding has gained significant attention, for instance, in photonics and microelectro-mechanics, which supposes controlled and reliable fabrication processes. So, whatever the stuck materials may be, it is not obvious whether bonded D2W structures have the same bonding strength as bonded W2W ones, because of possible edge effects of dies. For that reason, it has been strongly required to develop a bonding energy measurement technique which is suitable for D2W structures. In this paper, both D2W- and W2W-type standard SiO{sub 2}-to-SiO{sub 2} direct bonding samples are fabricated from the same full-wafer bonding. Modifications of the four-point flexion test (4PT) technique and applications for measuring D2W direct bonding energies are reported. Thus, the comparison between the modified 4PT and the double-cantilever beam techniques is drawn, also considering possible impacts of the conditions of measures such as the water stress corrosion at the debonding interface and the friction error at the loading contact points. Finally, reliability of a modified technique and a new model established for measuring D2W direct bonding energies is demonstrated.

  5. A REVIEW OF SINGLE SPECIES TOXICITY TESTS: ARE THE TESTS RELIABLE PREDICTORS OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM COMMUNITY RESPONSES?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides a comprehensive review to evaluate the reliability of indicator species toxicity test results in predicting aquatic ecosystem impacts, also called the ecological relevance of laboratory single species toxicity tests.

  6. Stress analysis of shear/compression test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, S.; Okada, T.; Ueno, S.

    1997-01-01

    Stress analysis has been made on the glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) subjected to the combined shear and compression stresses by means of finite element method. The two types of experimental set up were analyzed, that is parallel and series method where the specimen were compressed by tilted jigs which enable to apply the combined stresses, to the specimen. Modified Tsai-Hill criterion was employed to judge the failure under the combined stresses that is the shear strength under the compressive stress. The different failure envelopes were obtained between the two set ups. In the parallel system the shear strength once increased with compressive stress then decreased. On the contrary in the series system the shear strength decreased monotonicly with compressive stress. The difference is caused by the different stress distribution due to the different constraint conditions. The basic parameters which control the failure under the combined stresses will be discussed

  7. Reliability of candida skin test in the evaluation of T-cell function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Both standardized and non-standardized candida skin tests are used in clinical practice for functional in-vivo assessment of cellular immunity with variable results and are considered not reliable under the age of 1 year. We sought to investigate the reliability of using manually prepared candida intradermal test ...

  8. Feasibility and reliability of physical fitness tests in older adults with intellectual disability : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    Background Physical fitness is relevant for wellbeing and health, but knowledge on the feasibility and reliability of instruments to measure physical fitness for older adults with intellectual disability is lacking. Methods Feasibility and test-retest reliability of a physical fitness test battery

  9. Statistical Considerations in Choosing a Test Reliability Coefficient. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, David; Wu, Yi-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate alpha's robustness and usefulness, using actual and simulated educational test data. The sampling properties of alpha are compared with the sampling properties of several other reliability coefficients: Guttman's lambda[subscript 2], lambda[subscript 4], and lambda[subscript 6]; test-retest reliability;…

  10. Reliability and validity of the rey visual design learning test in primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Rey Visual Design Learning Test (Rey, 1964, in Spreen & Strauss, 1991) assesses immediate memory span, new learning and recognition for non-verbal material. Three studies are presented that focused on the reliability and validity of the RVDLT in primary school children. Test-retest reliability

  11. Stand development and reliability tests of the thermal monitoring means for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalivaev, V.I.; Nikul'shin, V.S.; Kichigin, A.B.; Dirin, V.F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the reliability tests of thermoelectric thermometers and resistance thermometers during their operation in the nominal mode. Five stands Reliability are developed and operate for realization of tests of all manufactured thermal converters. delivered at NPP. Description of all stands are presented [ru

  12. Test-retest reliability of infant event related potentials evoked by faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, N M; van Ravenswaaij, H; van den Boomen, C; Kemner, C

    2017-04-05

    Reliable measures are required to draw meaningful conclusions regarding developmental changes in longitudinal studies. Little is known, however, about the test-retest reliability of face-sensitive event related potentials (ERPs), a frequently used neural measure in infants. The aim of the current study is to investigate the test-retest reliability of ERPs typically evoked by faces in 9-10 month-old infants. The infants (N=31) were presented with neutral, fearful and happy faces that contained only the lower or higher spatial frequency information. They were tested twice within two weeks. The present results show that the test-retest reliability of the face-sensitive ERP components is moderate (P400 and Nc) to substantial (N290). However, there is low test-retest reliability for the effects of the specific experimental manipulations (i.e. emotion and spatial frequency) on the face-sensitive ERPs. To conclude, in infants the face-sensitive ERP components (i.e. N290, P400 and Nc) show adequate test-retest reliability, but not the effects of emotion and spatial frequency on these ERP components. We propose that further research focuses on investigating elements that might increase the test-retest reliability, as adequate test-retest reliability is necessary to draw meaningful conclusions on individual developmental trajectories of the face-sensitive ERPs in infants. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Research Note The reliability of a field test kit for the detection and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note The reliability of a field test kit for the detection and the persistence of ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The objectives were to test a field kit for practicality and reliability, to assess the spread of the bacteria among ...

  14. Comparison of reading performance tests concerning difficulty of sentences and paragraphs and their reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussee, T.; van Nispen, R.M.A.; Klerkx, E.M.F.J.; Knol, D.L.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    In research and practice, sentences or paragraphs of reading tests may be randomly chosen to assess reading performance. This means that in addition to test reliability, all sentences or paragraphs should be reliable and equally difficult to read. The sentences and paragraphs of five (un-)

  15. Test-Retest Reliability of a Survey to Measure Transport-Related Physical Activity in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah; Schofield, Grant

    2006-01-01

    The present research details test-retest reliability of a newly developed, telephone-administered TPA survey for adults. This instrument examines barriers, perceptions, and current travel behaviors to place of work/study and local convenience shops. Demonstrated test-retest reliability of the Active Friendly Environments-Transport-Related Physical…

  16. NASA preferred reliability-practices for design and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisk, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    NASA HQ established the NASA R&M Steering Committee (R&MSC) comprised of membership from each NASA field center. The primary charter of the R&MSC is to obtain, record, and share the best design practices that NASA has applied to successful space flight programs and current design considerations (guidelines) that should enhance flight reliability on emerging programs. The practices and guidelines are being assembled in a living document for distribution to NASA centers and the aerospace community. The document will be updated annually with additional practices and guidelines as contributions from the centers are reviewed and approved by the R&MSC. Practices and guidelines are not requirements, but rather a means of sharing procedures and techniques that a given center and the R&MSC together feel have strong technical merit and application to the design of space-related equipment.

  17. Testing the reliability of ice-cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zonghao; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Chuanbing; Liu, Kai; Xue, Xianghui; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2015-04-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CME)'s properties are important to not only the physical scene itself but space-weather prediction. Several models (such as cone model, GCS model, and so on) have been raised to get rid of the projection effects within the properties observed by spacecraft. According to SOHO/ LASCO observations, we obtain the 'real' 3D parameters of all the FFHCMEs (front-side full halo Coronal Mass Ejections) within the 24th solar cycle till July 2012, by the ice-cream cone model. Considering that the method to obtain 3D parameters from the CME observations by multi-satellite and multi-angle has higher accuracy, we use the GCS model to obtain the real propagation parameters of these CMEs in 3D space and compare the results with which by ice-cream cone model. Then we could discuss the reliability of the ice-cream cone model.

  18. Progress and Challenges of Ultrasonic Testing for Stress in Remanufacturing Laser Cladding Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ling Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Stress in laser cladding coating is an important factor affecting the safe operation of remanufacturing components. Ultrasonic testing has become a popular approach in the nondestructive evaluation of stress, because it has the advantages of safety, nondestructiveness, and online detection. This paper provides a review of ultrasonic testing for stress in remanufacturing laser cladding coating. It summarizes the recent research outcomes on ultrasonic testing for stress, and analyzes the mechanism of ultrasonic testing for stress. Remanufacturing laser cladding coating shows typical anisotropic behaviors. The ultrasonic testing signal in laser cladding coating is influenced by many complex factors, such as microstructure, defect, temperature, and surface roughness, among others. At present, ultrasonic testing for stress in laser cladding coating can only be done roughly. This paper discusses the active mechanism of micro/macro factors in the reliability of stress measurement, as well as the impact of stress measurement on the quality and safety of remanufacturing components. Based on the discussion, this paper proposes strategies to nondestructively, rapidly, and accurately measure stress in remanufacturing laser cladding coating.

  19. TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY OF THE CLOSED KINETIC CHAIN UPPER EXTREMITY STABILITY TEST (CKCUEST) IN ADOLESCENTS: RELIABILITY OF CKCUEST IN ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Valéria M A; Pitangui, Ana C R; Nascimento, Vinícius Y S; da Silva, Hítalo A; Dos Passos, Muana H P; de Araújo, Rodrigo C

    2017-02-01

    The Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST) has been proposed as an option to assess upper limb function and stability; however, there are few studies that support the use of this test in adolescents. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the intersession reliability and agreement of three CKCUEST scores in adolescents and establish clinimetric values for this test. Test-retest reliability. Twenty-five healthy adolescents of both sexes were evaluated. The subjects performed two CKCUEST with an interval of one week between the tests. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 3,3 ) two-way mixed model with a 95% interval of confidence was utilized to determine intersession reliability. A Bland-Altman graph was plotted to analyze the agreement between assessments. The presence of systematic error was evaluated by a one-sample t test. The difference between the evaluation and reevaluation was observed using a paired-sample t test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Standard error of measurements and minimum detectable changes were calculated. The intersession reliability of the average touches score, normalized score, and power score were 0.68, 0.68 and 0.87, the standard error of measurement were 2.17, 1.35 and 6.49, and the minimal detectable change was 6.01, 3.74 and 17.98, respectively. The presence of systematic error (p test with moderate to excellent reliability when used with adolescents. The CKCUEST is a measurement with moderate to excellent reliability for adolescents. 2b.

  20. Maximal cardiorespiratory fitness testing in individuals with chronic stroke with cognitive impairment: practice test effects and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Charles; Doré, Jean; Blanchet, Sophie; Brooks, Dina; Richards, Carol L; Martel, Guy; Robitaille, Nancy-Michelle; Maltais, Désirée B

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate, for individuals with chronic stroke with cognitive impairment, (1) the effects of a practice test on peak cardiorespiratory fitness test results; (2) cardiorespiratory fitness test-retest reliability; and (3) the relationship between individual practice test effects and cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional. Rehabilitation center. A convenience sample of 21 persons (men [n=12] and women [n=9]; age range, 48-81y; 44.9±36.2mo poststroke) with cognitive impairments who had sufficient lower limb function to perform the test. Not applicable. Peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)peak, ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Test-retest reliability of Vo(2)peak was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient model 2,1 [ICC2,1]=.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], .86-.98). A paired t test showed that there was no significant difference for the group for Vo(2)peak obtained from 2 symptom-limited cardiorespiratory fitness tests performed 1 week apart on a semirecumbent cycle ergometer (test 2-test 1 difference, -.32ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); 95% CI, -.69 to 1.33ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); P=.512). Individual test-retest differences in Vo(2)peak were, however, positively related to general cognitive function as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (ρ=.485; Preliably measured in this group without a practice test. General cognitive function, however, may influence the effect of a practice test in that those with lower general cognitive function appear to respond differently to a practice test than those with higher cognitive function. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reliability Of Kraus-Weber Exercise Test As An Evaluation Tool In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliability Of Kraus-Weber Exercise Test As An Evaluation Tool In Low Back ... strength and flexibility of the back, abdominal, psoas and hamstring muscles. ... Keywords: Kraus-Weber test, low back pain, muscle flexibility, muscle strength.

  2. Reliability and accuracy of Cooper's test in male long distance runners

    OpenAIRE

    J.R. Alvero-Cruz; M.A. Giráldez García; E.A. Carnero

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Endurance capacity can be assessed by field test such as Cooper's test; however, reliability and accuracy are rarely reported in the literature. It was our aims to describe reliability and accuracy of Cooper's test in long distance runners. Method: Fifteen male long distance runners performed twice all-out Cooper's test in a 400 m track. Total distance covered, maximum heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. Bias correction factor (Bc) was used to describe ...

  3. Optimization of deformations and hoop stresses in TSV liners to boost interconnect reliability in electronic appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Mary Atieno; Zhang, Xuliang; He, Song Bai; Abusabah, Ahmed I. A.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, there has been a lot of research with electronic products because more and different functions are integrated into devices and the final product sizes have to be small to meet the market demand. A lot of research has been done on the (TSVs) Through Silicon Vias. In this paper, through silicon via liners are investigated. The liners: silicon dioxide, polystyrene and polypropylene carbonate are exposed to pressure on their inner surfaces and this yielded hoop stresses within their thickness. Deflections too occurred and this is a proof that deformation really took place. In one of our papers, hoop stresses for the same materials were investigated. The values were a little higher but different for each material used. In this paper, we use global cylindrical, partial cylinder model with different theta in Analysis system 14 to model the through silicon via liners. The values are lower meaning the reliability of the liners have been optimized and boosted. However, silicon dioxide liner had the lowest hoop stress around its circumference and lowest deflection value meaning that it's still one of the most reliable materials in the manufacture of through silicon via liners in the industry; but overdependence can be avoided if the other liners are used too.

  4. Female False Positive Exercise Stress ECG Testing - Fact Verses Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Benjamin T; Scalia, William M; Scalia, Gregory M

    2018-03-07

    Exercise stress testing is a well validated cardiovascular investigation. Accuracy for treadmill stress electrocardiograph (ECG) testing has been documented at 60%. False positive stress ECGs (exercise ECG changes with non-obstructive disease on anatomical testing) are common, especially in women, limiting the effectiveness of the test. This study investigates the incidence and predictors of false positive stress ECG findings, referenced against stress echocardiography (SE) as a standard. Stress echocardiography was performed using the Bruce treadmill protocol. False positive stress ECG tests were defined as greater than 1mm of ST depression on ECG during exertion, without pain, with a normal SE. Potential causes for false positive tests were recorded before the test. Three thousand consecutive negative stress echocardiograms (1036 females, 34.5%) were analysed (age 59+/-14 years. False positive (F+) stress ECGs were documented in 565/3000 tests (18.8%). F+ stress ECGs were equally prevalent in females (194/1036, 18.7%) and males (371/1964, 18.9%, p=0.85 for the difference). Potential causes (hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, known coronary disease, arrhythmia, diabetes mellitus, valvular heart disease) were recorded in 36/194 (18.6%) of the female F+ ECG tests and 249/371 (68.2%) of the male F+ ECG tests (preinforce the value of stress imaging, particularly in women. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  5. Prototype bellows sealed nuclear valve development -reliability through testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.F.; Abbas, M.

    1978-01-01

    To assist in appraising bellows sealed valve performance, 10 tests were done on a ''1 in.'' prototype bellows sealed valve design. The tests simulated primary heat transport (PHT) system conditions for a 600 MWe CANDU-PHW. The design approach was to have all valve components outlast the bellows in endurance tests; this was achieved. The valve design meets the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited specification. For comparison, bellows fatigue failure data were fitted to both log-normal and Weibull distributions. A numerical example shows how to select valve stroke amplitude on the basis of valve flow requirement and the minimum acceptable fatigue life. (author)

  6. Reliability of genetic bottleneck tests for detecting recent population declines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peery, M. Zachariah; Kirby, Rebecca; Reid, Brendan N.; Stoelting, Ricka; Doucet-Beer, Elena; Robinson, Stacie; Vasquez-Carrillo, Catalina; Pauli, Jonathan N.; Palsboll, Per J.

    The identification of population bottlenecks is critical in conservation because populations that have experienced significant reductions in abundance are subject to a variety of genetic and demographic processes that can hasten extinction. Genetic bottleneck tests constitute an appealing and

  7. Intertester reliability of the talk test in a cardiac rehabilitation population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annemette Krintel; Maribo, Thomas; Hjortdal, Vibeke Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The validity of the Talk Test (TT) is well documented, but the reliability of the test is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the absolute and relative intertester reliability of the TT in cardiac patients. METHODS: Cardiac patients (n = 64) who had completed an exercise...... randomized to tests. Workload in watts at the first negative stage of the TT was registered as the test result. Patients and physiotherapists were blinded to test results of the first test. Absolute reliability of the TT was assessed with Bland-Altman plot, standard error of measurement, and minimal...... detectable change. Relative reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). RESULTS: Mean difference in peak workload between test and retest was 0.8 W (95% CI: -4.8 to 3.3). Limit of agreement was estimated to be +31/-32 W. Standard error of measurement was 11 W (95% CI: 10...

  8. Is gait variability reliable in older adults and Parkinson's disease? Towards an optimal testing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galna, Brook; Lord, Sue; Rochester, Lynn

    2013-04-01

    Despite the widespread use of gait variability in research and clinical studies, testing protocols designed to optimise its reliability have not been established. This study evaluates the impact of testing protocol and pathology on the reliability of gait variability. To (i) estimate the reliability of gait variability during continuous and intermittent walking protocols in older adults and people with Parkinson's disease (PD), (ii) determine optimal number of steps for acceptable levels of reliability of gait variability and (iii) provide sample size estimates for use in clinical trials. Gait variability was measured twice, one week apart, in 27 older adults and 25 PD participants. Participants walked at their preferred pace during: (i) a continuous 2 min walk and (ii) 3 intermittent walks over a 12 m walkway. Gait variability was calculated as the within-person standard deviation for step velocity, length and width, and step, stance and swing duration. Reliability of gait variability ranged from poor to excellent (intra class correlations .041-.860; relative limits of agreement 34-89%). Gait variability was more reliable during continuous walks. Control and PD participants demonstrated similar reliability. Increasing the number of steps improved reliability, with most improvement seen across the first 30 steps. In this study, we identified testing protocols that improve the reliability of measuring gait variability. We recommend using a continuous walking protocol and to collect no fewer than 30 steps. Early PD does not appear to impact negatively on the reliability of gait variability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Balance Assessment in Sports-Related Concussion: Evaluating Test-Retest Reliability of the Equilibrate System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Mitchell J; Lee, Young M; Zuckerman, Scott L; Apple, Rachel P; Germanos, Theodore; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of a novel computer-based, portable balance assessment tool, the Equilibrate System (ES), used to diagnose sports-related concussion. Twenty-seven students participated in ES testing consisting of three sessions over 4 weeks. The modified Balance Error Scoring System was performed. For each participant, test-retest reliability was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ES test-retest reliability from baseline to week 2 produced an ICC value of 0.495 (95% CI, 0.123-0.745). Week 2 testing produced ICC values of 0.602 (95% CI, 0.279-0.803) and 0.610 (95% CI, 0.299-0.804), respectively. All other single measures test-retest reliability values produced poor ICC values. Same-day ES testing showed fair to good test-retest reliability while interweek measures displayed poor to fair test-retest reliability. Testing conditions should be controlled when using computerized balance assessment methods. ES testing should only be used as a part of a comprehensive assessment.

  10. Assessment of Advanced Life Support competence when combining different test methods--reliability and validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, C; Lippert, F; Hesselfeldt, R

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac Arrest Simulation Test (CASTest) scenarios for the assessments according to guidelines 2005. AIMS: To analyse the reliability and validity of the individual sub-tests provided by ERC and to find a combination of MCQ and CASTest that provides a reliable and valid single effect measure of ALS...... that possessed high reliability, equality of test sets, and ability to discriminate between the two groups of supposedly different ALS competence. CONCLUSIONS: ERC sub-tests of ALS competence possess sufficient reliability and validity. A combined ALS score with equal weighting of one MCQ and one CASTest can...... competence. METHODS: Two groups of participants were included in this randomised, controlled experimental study: a group of newly graduated doctors, who had not taken the ALS course (N=17) and a group of students, who had passed the ALS course 9 months before the study (N=16). Reliability in terms of inter...

  11. Bayesian and Classical Estimation of Stress-Strength Reliability for Inverse Weibull Lifetime Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixuan Bi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the problem of estimating stress-strength reliability for inverse Weibull lifetime models having the same shape parameters but different scale parameters. We obtain the maximum likelihood estimator and its asymptotic distribution. Since the classical estimator doesn’t hold explicit forms, we propose an approximate maximum likelihood estimator. The asymptotic confidence interval and two bootstrap intervals are obtained. Using the Gibbs sampling technique, Bayesian estimator and the corresponding credible interval are obtained. The Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is used to generate random variates. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to compare the proposed methods. Analysis of a real dataset is performed.

  12. Stress analysis of R2 pressure vessel. Structural reliability benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergaard, N.

    1987-05-01

    The Structural Reliability Benchmark Exercise (SRBE) is sponsored by the EEC as part of the Reactor Safety Programme. The objectives of the SRBE are to evaluate and improve 1) inspection procedures, which use non-destructive methods to locate defects in pressure (reactor) vessels, as well as 2) analytical damage accumulation models, which predict the time to failure of vessels containing defects. In order to focus attention, an experimental presure vessel has been inspected, subjected fatigue loadings and subsequently analysed by several teams using methods of their choice. The present report contains the first part of the analytical damage accumulation analysis. The stress distributions in the welds of the experimental pressure vessel were determined. These stress distributions will be used to determine the driving forces of the damage accumulation models, which will be addressed in a future report. (author)

  13. AMSTERDAM-NIJMEGEN EVERYDAY LANGUAGE TEST - CONSTRUCTION, RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BLOMERT, L; KEAN, ML; KOSTER, C; SCHOKKER, J

    1994-01-01

    The Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (ANELT) is designed to measure, first, the level of verbal communicative abilities of aphasic patients and, second, changes in these abilities over time. The level of communicative effectiveness is determined by the adequacy of bringing a message across.

  14. Obtaining reliable Likelihood Ratio tests from simulated likelihood functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    It is standard practice by researchers and the default option in many statistical programs to base test statistics for mixed models on simulations using asymmetric draws (e.g. Halton draws). This paper shows that when the estimated likelihood functions depend on standard deviations of mixed param...

  15. The role of test-retest reliability in measuring individual and group differences in executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paap, Kenneth R; Sawi, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Studies testing for individual or group differences in executive functioning can be compromised by unknown test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliabilities across an interval of about one week were obtained from performance in the antisaccade, flanker, Simon, and color-shape switching tasks. There is a general trade-off between the greater reliability of single mean RT measures, and the greater process purity of measures based on contrasts between mean RTs in two conditions. The individual differences in RT model recently developed by Miller and Ulrich was used to evaluate the trade-off. Test-retest reliability was statistically significant for 11 of the 12 measures, but was of moderate size, at best, for the difference scores. The test-retest reliabilities for the Simon and flanker interference scores were lower than those for switching costs. Standard practice evaluates the reliability of executive-functioning measures using split-half methods based on data obtained in a single day. Our test-retest measures of reliability are lower, especially for difference scores. These reliability measures must also take into account possible day effects that classical test theory assumes do not occur. Measures based on single mean RTs tend to have acceptable levels of reliability and convergent validity, but are "impure" measures of specific executive functions. The individual differences in RT model shows that the impurity problem is worse than typically assumed. However, the "purer" measures based on difference scores have low convergent validity that is partly caused by deficiencies in test-retest reliability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Test-retest and interrater reliability of the functional lower extremity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitz, Karyn; Shultz, Rebecca; Hodgins, Melissa; Matheson, Gordon O

    2014-12-01

    Repeated-measures clinical measurement reliability study. To establish the reliability and face validity of the Functional Lower Extremity Evaluation (FLEE). The FLEE is a 45-minute battery of 8 standardized functional performance tests that measures 3 components of lower extremity function: control, power, and endurance. The reliability and normative values for the FLEE in healthy athletes are unknown. A face validity survey for the FLEE was sent to sports medicine personnel to evaluate the level of importance and frequency of clinical usage of each test included in the FLEE. The FLEE was then administered and rated for 40 uninjured athletes. To assess test-retest reliability, each athlete was tested twice, 1 week apart, by the same rater. To assess interrater reliability, 3 raters scored each athlete during 1 of the testing sessions. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess the test-retest and interrater reliability of each of the FLEE tests. In the face validity survey, the FLEE tests were rated as highly important by 58% to 71% of respondents but frequently used by only 26% to 45% of respondents. Interrater reliability intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.83 to 1.00, and test-retest reliability ranged from 0.71 to 0.95. The FLEE tests are considered clinically important for assessing lower extremity function by sports medicine personnel but are underused. The FLEE also is a reliable assessment tool. Future studies are required to determine if use of the FLEE to make return-to-play decisions may reduce reinjury rates.

  17. Technical report on the Piping Reliability Proving Tests at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) conducts Piping Reliability Proving Tests from 1975 to 1992 based upon the contracts between JAERI and Science and Technology Agency of Japan (STA) under the auspices of the special account law for electric power development promotion. The purpose of these tests are to prove the structural reliability of the primary cooling piping constituting a part of the pressure boundary in the light water reactor power plants. The tests with large experimental facilities had ended already in 1990. Presently piping reliability analysis by the probabilistic fracture mechanics method is being done. Until now annual reports concerning the proving tests were produced and submitted to STA, whereas this report summarizes the test results done during these 16 years. Objectives of the piping reliability proving tests are to prove that the primary piping of the light water reactor (1) be reliable throughout the service period, (2) have no possibility of rupture, (3) bring no detrimental influence on the surrounding instrumentations or equipments near the break location even if it ruptured suddenly. To attain these objectives (i) pipe fatigue tests, (ii) unstable pipe fracture tests, (iii) pipe rupture tests and also the analyses by computer codes were done. After carrying out these tests, it is verified that the piping is reliable throughout the service period. The authors of this report are T. Isozaki, K. Shibata, S. Ueda, R. Kurihara, K. Onizawa and A. Kohsaka. The parts they wrote are shown in contents. (author)

  18. Bayesian Approach for Constant-Stress Accelerated Life Testing for Kumaraswamy Weibull Distribution with Censoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abd-Alla EL-Helbawy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated life tests provide quick information on the life time distributions by testing materials or products at higher than basic conditional levels of stress such as pressure, high temperature, vibration, voltage or load to induce failures. In this paper, the acceleration model assumed is log linear model. Constant stress tests are discussed based on Type I and Type II censoring. The Kumaraswmay Weibull distribution is used. The estimators of the parameters, reliability, hazard rate functions and p-th percentile at normal condition, low stress, and high stress are obtained. In addition, credible intervals for parameters of the models are constructed. Optimum test plan are designed. Some numerical studies are used to solve the complicated integrals such as Laplace and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods.

  19. Bayesian Approach for Constant-Stress Accelerated Life Testing for Kumaraswamy Weibull Distribution with Censoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abd-Alla EL-Helbawy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated life tests provide quick information on the life time distributions by testing materials or products at higher than basic conditional levels of stress such as pressure, high temperature, vibration, voltage or load to induce failures. In this paper, the acceleration model assumed is log linear model. Constant stress tests are discussed based on Type I and Type II censoring. The Kumaraswmay Weibull distribution is used. The estimators of the parameters, reliability, hazard rate functions and p-th percentile at normal condition, low stress, and high stress are obtained. In addition, credible intervals for parameters of the models are constructed. Optimum test plan are designed. Some numerical studies are used to solve the complicated integrals such as Laplace and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods.

  20. Inter-tester reliability of selected clinical tests for long-lasting temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julsvoll, Elisabeth Heggem; Vøllestad, Nina Køpke; Opseth, Gro; Robinson, Hilde Stendal

    2017-09-01

    Clinical tests used to examine patients with temporomandibular disorders vary in methodological quality, and some are not tested for reliability. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate inter-tester reliability of clinical tests and a cluster of tests used to examine patients with long-lasting temporomandibular disorders. Forty patients with pain in the temporomandibular area treated by health-professionals were included. They were between 18-70 years, had 65 symptomatic (33 right/32 left) and 15 asymptomatic joints. Two manual therapists examined all participants with selected tests. Percentage agreement and the kappa coefficient ( k ) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the tests with categorical outcomes. For tests with continuous outcomes, the relative inter-tester reliability was assessed by the intraclass-correlation-coefficient (ICC 3,1 , 95% CI) and the absolute reliability was calculated by the smallest detectable change (SDC). The best reliability among single tests was found for the dental stick test, the joint-sound test ( k  = 0.80-1.0) and range of mouth-opening (ICC 3,1 (95% CI) = 0.97 (0.95-0.98) and SDC = 4 mm). The reliability of cluster of tests was excellent with both four and five positive tests out of seven. The reliability was good to excellent for the clinical tests and the cluster of tests when performed by experienced therapists. The tests are feasible for use in the clinical setting. They require no advanced equipment and are easy to perform.

  1. Reliability of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of knee disorders: Evidence from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décary, Simon; Ouellet, Philippe; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2016-12-01

    Clinicians often rely on physical examination tests to guide them in the diagnostic process of knee disorders. However, reliability of these tests is often overlooked and may influence the consistency of results and overall diagnostic validity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically review evidence on the reliability of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of knee disorders. A structured literature search was conducted in databases up to January 2016. Included studies needed to report reliability measures of at least one physical test for any knee disorder. Methodological quality was evaluated using the QAREL checklist. A qualitative synthesis of the evidence was performed. Thirty-three studies were included with a mean QAREL score of 5.5 ± 0.5. Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Thessaly test for meniscal injuries reached moderate inter-rater reliability (k = 0.54). Based on moderate to excellent quality evidence, the Lachman for anterior cruciate ligament injuries reached moderate to excellent inter-rater reliability (k = 0.42 to 0.81). Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Tibiofemoral Crepitus, Joint Line and Patellofemoral Pain/Tenderness, Bony Enlargement and Joint Pain on Movement tests for knee osteoarthritis reached fair to excellent inter-rater reliability (k = 0.29 to 0.93). Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Lateral Glide, Lateral Tilt, Lateral Pull and Quality of Movement tests for patellofemoral pain reached moderate to good inter-rater reliability (k = 0.49 to 0.73). Many physical tests appear to reach good inter-rater reliability, but this is based on low-quality and conflicting evidence. High-quality research is required to evaluate the reliability of knee physical examination tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimal design of constant-stress accelerated degradation tests using the M-optimality criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Han; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Xiaobing; Wang, Hongyu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the M-optimality criterion for designing constant-stress accelerated degradation tests (ADTs). The newly proposed criterion concentrates on the degradation mechanism equivalence rather than evaluation precision or prediction accuracy which is usually considered in traditional optimization criteria. Subject to the constraints of total sample number, test termination time as well as the stress region, an optimum constant-stress ADT plan is derived by determining the combination of stress levels and the number of samples allocated to each stress level, when the degradation path comes from inverse Gaussian (IG) process model with covariates and random effects. A numerical example is presented to verify the robustness of our proposed optimum plan and compare its efficiency with other test plans. Results show that, with a slightly relaxed requirement of evaluation precision and prediction accuracy, our proposed optimum plan reduces the dispersion of the estimated acceleration factor between the usage stress level and a higher accelerated stress level, which makes an important contribution to reliability demonstration and assessment tests. - Highlights: • We establish the necessary conditions for degradation mechanism equivalence of ADTs. • We propose the M-optimality criterion for designing constant-stress ADT plans. • The M-optimality plan reduces the dispersion of the estimated accelerated factors. • An electrical connector with its stress relaxation data is used for illustration.

  3. High temperature aqueous stress corrosion testing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornstein, A.N.; Indig, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a device for stressing tensile samples contained within a high temperature, high pressure aqueous environment, thereby permitting determination of stress corrosion susceptibility of materials in a simple way. The stressing device couples an external piston to an internal tensile sample via a pull rod, with stresses being applied to the sample by pressurizing the piston. The device contains a fitting/seal arrangement including Teflon and weld seals which allow sealing of the internal system pressure and the external piston pressure. The fitting/seal arrangement allows free movement of the pull rod and the piston

  4. Design of experiments for test of fuel element reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmert, J.; Juettner, C.; Linek, J.

    1989-01-01

    Changes of fuel element design and modifications of the operational conditions have to be tested in experiments and pilot projects for nuclear safety. Experimental design is an useful statistical method minimizing costs and risks for this procedure. The main problem of our work was to investigate the connection between failure rate of fuel elements, sample size, confidence interval, and error probability. Using the statistic model of the binomial distribution appropriate relations were derived and discussed. A stepwise procedure based on a modified sequential analysis according to Wald was developed as a strategy of introduction for modifications of the fuel element design and of the operational conditions. (author)

  5. Reliability of a Test Battery Designed for Quickly and Safely Assessing Diverse Indices of Neuromuscular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Barry A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bentley, Jason, R.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Lawrence, Emily L.; Sinka, Joseph; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight affects nearly every physiological system. Spaceflight-induced alterations in physiological function translate to decrements in functional performance. Purpose: To develop a test battery for quickly and safely assessing diverse indices of neuromuscular performance. I. Quickly: Battery of tests can be completed in approx.30-40 min. II. Safely: a) No eccentric muscle actions or impact forces. b) Tests present little challenge to postural stability. III. Diverse indices: a) Strength: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) b) Central activation: Very good reliability (ICC = 0.87) c) Power: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) d) Endurance: Total work has excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) e) Force steadiness: Poor reliability (ICC = 0.20 - 0.60) National

  6. Ultrasonic test of highly stressed gear shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, T. [Siemens AG, Power Generation, KWU, Muelheim (Germany); Heinrich, W. [Siemens AG, Power Generation, KWU, Berlin (Germany); Achtzehn, J. [Siemens AG, Power Generation, ICVW, Erlangen (Germany); Hensley, H. [Siemens Power Generation (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In the power plant industry, gears are used for increasingly higher turbine capacities. Efficiency enhancements, particularly for the combined gas and steam turbine process, lead to an increase in stresses, even for high-performance gears. Consequently, the requirements for non-destructive material testing are on the increase as well. At Siemens KWU, high-performance gears are used so far only for gas turbines with lower rating (65 MW) to adapt the gas turbine speed (5413 rpm) to the generator speed (3000 rpm/ 50 Hz or 3600 rpm/60 Hz). The gear train consists of a forged and case-hardened wheel shaft and pinion shaft made of material 17 CrNiMo 6, where the wheel shaft can be either a solid or a hollow shaft. Dimensions are typically 2.3 m length and 1 m diameter. As a rule, pinion shafts are solid. The gear design, calling for an additional torsion shaft turning inside the hollow wheel shaft, can absorb more torsional load surges and is more tolerant of deviations during gear train alignment. This design requires two additional forgings (torsion shaft and hub) and an additional bearing 2 refs.

  7. Ultrasonic test of highly stressed gear shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, T [Siemens AG, Power Generation, KWU, Muelheim (Germany); Heinrich, W [Siemens AG, Power Generation, KWU, Berlin (Germany); Achtzehn, J [Siemens AG, Power Generation, ICVW, Erlangen (Germany); Hensley, H [Siemens Power Generation (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    In the power plant industry, gears are used for increasingly higher turbine capacities. Efficiency enhancements, particularly for the combined gas and steam turbine process, lead to an increase in stresses, even for high-performance gears. Consequently, the requirements for non-destructive material testing are on the increase as well. At Siemens KWU, high-performance gears are used so far only for gas turbines with lower rating (65 MW) to adapt the gas turbine speed (5413 rpm) to the generator speed (3000 rpm/ 50 Hz or 3600 rpm/60 Hz). The gear train consists of a forged and case-hardened wheel shaft and pinion shaft made of material 17 CrNiMo 6, where the wheel shaft can be either a solid or a hollow shaft. Dimensions are typically 2.3 m length and 1 m diameter. As a rule, pinion shafts are solid. The gear design, calling for an additional torsion shaft turning inside the hollow wheel shaft, can absorb more torsional load surges and is more tolerant of deviations during gear train alignment. This design requires two additional forgings (torsion shaft and hub) and an additional bearing 2 refs.

  8. The validity and reliability of a dynamic neuromuscular stabilization-heel sliding test for core stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Young Joo; Lee, Jae Jin; Kim, Do Hyun; You, Joshua Sung H

    2017-10-23

    Core stabilization plays an important role in the regulation of postural stability. To overcome shortcomings associated with pain and severe core instability during conventional core stabilization tests, we recently developed the dynamic neuromuscular stabilization-based heel sliding (DNS-HS) test. The purpose of this study was to establish the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of the novel DNS-HS test. Twenty young adults with core instability completed both the bilateral straight leg lowering test (BSLLT) and DNS-HS test for the criterion validity study and repeated the DNS-HS test for the test-retest reliability study. Criterion validity was determined by comparing hip joint angle data that were obtained from BSLLT and DNS-HS measures. The test-retest reliability was determined by comparing hip joint angle data. Criterion validity was (ICC2,3) = 0.700 (preliability was (ICC3,3) = 0.953 (pvalidity data demonstrated a good relationship between the gold standard BSLLT and DNS-HS core stability measures. Test-retest reliability data suggests that DNS-HS core stability was a reliable test for core stability. Clinically, the DNS-HS test is useful to objectively quantify core instability and allow early detection and evaluation.

  9. Test-Retest Reliability and Practice Effects of the Stability Evaluation Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richelle M; Corvo, Matthew A; Lam, Kenneth C; Williams, Travis A; Gilmer, Lesley K; McLeod, Tamara C Valovich

    2017-01-17

    Postural control plays an essential role in concussion evaluation. The Stability Evaluation Test (SET) aims to objectively analyze postural control by measuring sway velocity on the NeuroCom's VSR portable force platform (Natus, San Carlos, CA). To assess the test-retest reliability and practice effects of the SET protocol. Cohort. Research Laboratory. Fifty healthy adults (males=20, females=30, age=25.30±3.60 years, height=166.60±12.80 cm, mass=68.80±13.90 kg). All participants completed four trials of the SET. Each trial consisted of six 20-second balance tests with eyes closed, under the following conditions: double-leg firm (DFi), single-leg firm (SFi), tandem firm (TFi), double-leg foam (DFo), single-leg foam (SFo), and tandem foam (TFo). Each trial was separated by a 5-minute seated rest period. The dependent variable was sway velocity (deg/sec), with lower values indicating better balance. Sway velocity was recorded for each of the six conditions as well as a composite score for each trial. Test-retest reliability was analyzed across four trials with Intraclass Correlation Coefficients. Practice effects analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance, followed by Tukey post-hoc comparisons for any significant main effects (preliability values were good to excellent: DFi (ICC=0.88;95%CI:0.81,0.92), SFi (ICC=0.75;95%CI:0.61,0.85), TFi (ICC=0.84;95%CI:0.75,0.90), DFo (ICC=0.83;95%CI:0.74,0.90), SFo (ICC=0.82;95%CI:0.72,0.89), TFo (ICC=0.81;95%CI:0.69,0.88), and composite score (ICC=0.93;95%CI:0.88,0.95). Significant practice effects (preliability for the assessment of postural control in healthy adults. Due to the practice effects noted, a familiarization session is recommended (i.e., all 6 conditions) prior to recording the data. Future studies should evaluate injured patients to determine meaningful change scores during various injuries.

  10. Digital System Reliability Test for the Evaluation of safety Critical Software of Digital Reactor Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Kook Shin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A new Digital Reactor Protection System (DRPS based on VME bus Single Board Computer has been developed by KOPEC to prevent software Common Mode Failure(CMF inside digital system. The new DRPS has been proved to be an effective digital safety system to prevent CMF by Defense-in-Depth and Diversity (DID&D analysis. However, for practical use in Nuclear Power Plants, the performance test and the reliability test are essential for the digital system qualification. In this study, a single channel of DRPS prototype has been manufactured for the evaluation of DRPS capabilities. The integrated functional tests are performed and the system reliability is analyzed and tested. The results of reliability test show that the application software of DRPS has a very high reliability compared with the analog reactor protection systems.

  11. The new features of the ExaMe evaluation system and reliability of its fixed tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinková, P; Zvára, K; Zvárová, J; Zvára, K

    2006-01-01

    The ExaMe system for the evaluation of targeted knowledge has been in development since 1998. The new features of the ExaMe system are introduced in this paper. Especially, the new three-layer architecture is described. Besides the system itself, the properties of fixed tests in the ExaMe system are studied. In special detail, the reliability of the fixed tests is discussed. The theory background is explained and some limitations of the reliability are pointed out. Three characteristics used for estimation of reliability of educational tests are discussed: Cronbach's alpha, standardized item alpha and split half coefficient. The relation between these characteristics and reliability and between characteristics themselves is investigated. In more detail, the properties of Cronbach's alpha, the characteristics mostly used for the estimation of reliability, are discussed. A confidence interval is introduced for the characteristics. Since 2000, the serviceability of the ExaMe evaluation system as the supporting evaluation tool has been repeatedly shown at the courses of Ph.D. studies in biomedical informatics at Charles University in Prague. The ExaMe system also opens new possibilities for self-evaluation and distance learning, especially when connected with electronic books on the Internet. The estimation of reliability of tests contains some limitations. Keeping them in mind, we can still get some information about the quality of certain educational tests. Therefore, the estimation of reliability of the fixed tests is implemented in the ExaMe system.

  12. Reliability of ultrasound thickness measurement of the abdominal muscles during clinical isometric endurance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ShahAli, Shabnam; Arab, Amir Massoud; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Bahmani, Andia; Karimi, Noureddin; Nabavi, Hoda

    2015-07-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the intra-examiner reliability of ultrasound (US) thickness measurement of abdominal muscles activity when supine lying and during two isometric endurance tests in subjects with and without Low back pain (LBP). A total of 19 women (9 with LBP, 10 without LBP) participated in the study. Within-day reliability of the US thickness measurements at supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests were assessed in all subjects. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the relative reliability of thickness measurement. The standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were used to evaluate the absolute reliability. Results indicated high ICC scores (0.73-0.99) and also small SEM and MDC scores for within-day reliability assessment. The Bland-Altman plots of agreement in US measurement of the abdominal muscles during the two isometric endurance tests demonstrated that 95% of the observations fall between the limits of agreement for test and retest measurements. Together the results indicate high intra-tester reliability for the US measurement of the thickness of abdominal muscles in all the positions tested. According to the study's findings, US imaging can be used as a reliable method for assessment of abdominal muscles activity in supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests employed, in participants with and without LBP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Analytical and Holistic Scoring Patterns on Scorer Reliability in Biology Essay Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuoh, Casmir N.

    2018-01-01

    Literature revealed that the patterns/methods of scoring essay tests had been criticized for not being reliable and this unreliability is more likely to be more in internal examinations than in the external examinations. The purpose of this study is to find out the effects of analytical and holistic scoring patterns on scorer reliability in…

  14. NDE reliability gains from combining eddy-current and ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, D.; Mayo, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate statistical methods for combining the results of two complementary inspection techniques, eddy-current and ultrasonic testing. The reliability of rejection/acceptance decisions based on combined information is compared with that based on each inspection technique individually. The measured reliability increases with the amount of information incorporated in the decision. (author)

  15. Test-Retest Reliability of Dual-Task Outcome Measures in People With Parkinson Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strouwen, C.; Molenaar, E.A.; Keus, S.H.; Munks, L.; Bloem, B.R.; Nieuwboer, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dual-task (DT) training is gaining ground as a physical therapy intervention in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Future studies evaluating the effect of such interventions need reliable outcome measures. To date, the test-retest reliability of DT measures in patients with PD remains

  16. Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emrah Karadere

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The preliminary data obtained from the study of reliability and validity of the scale shows that ‘Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test’ supports reliability and validity in Turkish population. [JCBPR 2013; 2(3.000: 156-161

  17. Reliability and accuracy of Cooper's test in male long distance runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Alvero-Cruz

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: All together, our results may confirm a good accuracy and reliability of Cooper's test in amateur long distance runners. Also, improvements or impairment lower than 52.2 m must not be associated with exercise training or retraining, since they are below the values of intra-subject reliability.

  18. Reliability of Computerized Neurocognitive Tests for Concussion Assessment: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, James L; Dargo, Lucas; Ragan, Brian G; Kang, Minsoo

    2017-09-01

      Although widely used, computerized neurocognitive tests (CNTs) have been criticized because of low reliability and poor sensitivity. A systematic review was published summarizing the reliability of Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores; however, this was limited to a single CNT. Expansion of the previous review to include additional CNTs and a meta-analysis is needed. Therefore, our purpose was to analyze reliability data for CNTs using meta-analysis and examine moderating factors that may influence reliability.   A systematic literature search (key terms: reliability, computerized neurocognitive test, concussion) of electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and SPORTDiscus) was conducted to identify relevant studies.   Studies were included if they met all of the following criteria: used a test-retest design, involved at least 1 CNT, provided sufficient statistical data to allow for effect-size calculation, and were published in English.   Two independent reviewers investigated each article to assess inclusion criteria. Eighteen studies involving 2674 participants were retained. Intraclass correlation coefficients were extracted to calculate effect sizes and determine overall reliability. The Fisher Z transformation adjusted for sampling error associated with averaging correlations. Moderator analyses were conducted to evaluate the effects of the length of the test-retest interval, intraclass correlation coefficient model selection, participant demographics, and study design on reliability. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the Cochran Q statistic.   The proportion of acceptable outcomes was greatest for the Axon Sports CogState Test (75%) and lowest for the ImPACT (25%). Moderator analyses indicated that the type of intraclass correlation coefficient model used significantly influenced effect-size estimates, accounting for 17% of the variation in reliability.   The Axon Sports CogState Test, which

  19. Test-retest reliability of the Danish Adult Reading Test in patients with comorbid psychosis and cannabis-use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Vesterager, Lone; Nordentoft, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Background: The New Adult Reading Test is a common instrument for assessing pre-morbid IQ for patients with, for instance, schizophrenia. However, test-retest reliability has not been established for patients dually diagnosed with psychosis and substance use disorder. Furthermore, test......-retest reliability of the Danish adaptation has never been established in any population. Aims: To determine the test-retest reliability of the Danish Adult Reading Test (DART) (adapted from the National Adult Reading Test, NART) for patients dually diagnosed with psychosis and cannabis-use disorder. Methods......: This was a secondary analysis of the CapOpus randomized trial. As part of the trial, 103 patients were randomized, and completed the DART up to three times. Pearson's r and pairwise t-tests were calculated. Results: DART score was independent of randomization, cannabis-use frequency and psychopathology. Scores...

  20. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of a movement control test in shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, S; Bangera, Rakshith K; Sekaran, Padmanaban

    2017-07-01

    Movement faults are commonly observed in patients with musculoskeletal pain. The Kinetic Medial Rotation Test (KMRT) is a movement control test used to identify movement faults of the scapula and gleno-humeral joints during arm movement. Objective tests such as the KMRT need to be reliable and valid for the results to be applied across different clinical settings and patient populations. The primary objective of the present study was to determine the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of KMRT in subjects with and without shoulder pain. Sixty subjects were included in this study based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two musculoskeletal physiotherapists with different levels of clinical experience performed the tests. The intra-rater reliability was tested in twenty asymptomatic subjects by a single assessor at two week intervals. An equal number of subjects with and without shoulder pain were tested by both the assessors to determine the inter-rater reliability. Both components of the KMRT, the Gleno- Humeral Anterior Translation (GHAT) and the Scapular Forward Tilt (SCFT) were tested. The Kappa values for inter-rater reliability of the GHAT and SCFT were K = 0.68 & K = 0.65 respectively in subjects with shoulder pain. In asymptomatic subjects, the inter-rater reliability of GHAT was K = 0.61 and SCFT was K = 0.85. Intra-rater reliability ranged from K = 0.66 for GHAT to K = 0.87 for SCFT. Our study found substantial agreement in inter-rater reliability of KMRT in subjects with shoulder pain, whereas substantial to near perfect agreement was found in intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of KMRT in subjects without shoulder pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical Functional Capacity Testing in Patients With Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy: Construct Validity and Interrater Reliability of Antigravity Tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, N.H.M.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the construct validity and interrater reliability of 4 simple antigravity tests in a small group of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: University medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with various severity levels

  2. Effect of residual stresses on the reliability of components under fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruestenberg, I.

    1995-01-01

    The assurance of the reliability of mechanical components relative to a variety of failure mechanisms is of decisive technical, industrial, and economic importance. In this dissertation, the reliability, i.e. the probability that the lifetime does not fall below a given value, is examined with respect to the particularly important failure mechanisms of fracture and fatigue. The general problem of uniaxial fatigue is studied on the basis of both continuum damage mechanics and crack mechanics. In particular, the mechanisms of crack initiation, as characterized by the Coffin-Manson-Neuber local strain-life equations for notched components as well as the mechanism of crack growth, as governed by the Paris-Erdogang relation, are taken into account. The nonlinear fatigue damage accumulation process for components subjected to general, cyclic loading histories is modeled by a multilinear damage law which allows, in principle, to characterize the subsequent activation of different fatigue mechanisms. Explicit equations are developed for quintuple-, quadruple-, and triple-linear damage accumulation. Particularly promising appears the triple-linear damage approach which allows, in principle, the identification of a nucleation, an initiation, and a final growth stage up to rupture of fatigue cracks. The beneficial effect of intentionally induced compressive residual stresses on the lifetime of the component is investigated. To this end, an elasto-plastic contact problem, based on Prandtl-Reuss' constitutive equations, is numerically solved, and the residual stress field, as it is typically produced by the mechanical process of cold rolling, is established. Assessments of the effect of adaptation, i.e. the subsequent reduction of the residual stresses due to cyclic in-service loading as well as of the effect of unavoidable surface roughness, introduced by manufacturing processes like forging, are carried out. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  3. Assessing Reliability of Two Versions of Vocabulary Levels Tests in Iranian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aso Bayazidi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the equivalence and reliability of the two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test in an Iranian context. This study was motivated by the fact that the Vocabulary Levels test is increasingly being used in Iran for both research and pedagogical purposes without having been checked for validity and reliability in this context. The equivalence and reliability of the two versions of the test were examined through the parallel-form approach to reliability in Classical True Score theory. Seventy-five intermediate learners of English as a foreign language at the Iran Language Institute took the two versions of the test with one week interval between the two administrations in a counterbalanced fashion. To examine the equivalence of the two versions, the means and variances of the scores obtained for the two tests were compared using paired-sample t-test and one-way ANOVA, respectively. The results of the analyses indicated that the difference between the means of the two versions was significant, and the two versions cannot be considered as parallel forms. To assess the reliability of the two versions, the correlation between the scores obtained from them was estimated using Pearson Product Moment correlation. The results of the analyses showed that the two versions are highly correlated and are reliable tests. It is concluded that the two versions should not be treated as equivalent in longitudinal and gain score studies.

  4. Global optimization of maintenance and surveillance testing based on reliability and probabilistic safety assessment. Research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Serradell, V.; Munoz, A.; Sanchez, A.

    1997-01-01

    Background, objective, scope, detailed working plan and follow-up and final product of the project ''Global optimization of maintenance and surveillance testing based on reliability and probabilistic safety assessment'' are described

  5. Educational testing validity and reliability in pharmacy and medical education literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Matthew J; Jung, Rose; Jacobs, David M; Peeters, Michael J

    2013-12-16

    To evaluate and compare the reliability and validity of educational testing reported in pharmacy education journals to medical education literature. Descriptions of validity evidence sources (content, construct, criterion, and reliability) were extracted from articles that reported educational testing of learners' knowledge, skills, and/or abilities. Using educational testing, the findings of 108 pharmacy education articles were compared to the findings of 198 medical education articles. For pharmacy educational testing, 14 articles (13%) reported more than 1 validity evidence source while 83 articles (77%) reported 1 validity evidence source and 11 articles (10%) did not have evidence. Among validity evidence sources, content validity was reported most frequently. Compared with pharmacy education literature, more medical education articles reported both validity and reliability (59%; particles in pharmacy education compared to medical education, validity, and reliability reporting were limited in the pharmacy education literature.

  6. Test plan for in situ stress measurement system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.

    1981-09-01

    The tests are to be performed to provide information regarding the state of stress of the basalt rock beneath the Hanford Site. This test series is designed to obtain information necessary to determine if hydrofracturing stress measurement is feasible in a fractured basalt medium. During the course of these field tests, it will be attempted to adapt the conventional hydrofracturing test method and analysis techniques to the basalt medium. If the test is shown to be feasible, more holes will be identified for testing. A comprehensive in situ stress determination program will be initiated. 2 figs

  7. Reliability of physical functioning tests in patients with low back pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denteneer, Lenie; Van Daele, Ulrike; Truijen, Steven; De Hertogh, Willem; Meirte, Jill; Stassijns, Gaetane

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of physical functioning tests in patients with low back pain (LBP) and to investigate their reliability. A systematic computerized search was finalized in four different databases on June 24, 2017: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and MEDLINE. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were followed during all stages of this review. Clinical studies that investigate the reliability of physical functioning tests in patients with LBP were eligible. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed with the use of the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist. To come to final conclusions on the reliability of the identified clinical tests, the current review assessed three factors, namely, outcome assessment, methodological quality, and consistency of description. A total of 20 studies were found eligible and 38 clinical tests were identified. Good overall test-retest reliability was concluded for the extensor endurance test (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.93-0.97), the flexor endurance test (ICC=0.90-0.97), the 5-minute walking test (ICC=0.89-0.99), the 50-ft walking test (ICC=0.76-0.96), the shuttle walk test (ICC=0.92-0.99), the sit-to-stand test (ICC=0.91-0.99), and the loaded forward reach test (ICC=0.74-0.98). For inter-rater reliability, only one test, namely, the Biering-Sörensen test (ICC=0.88-0.99), could be concluded to have an overall good inter-rater reliability. None of the identified clinical tests could be concluded to have a good intrarater reliability. Further investigation should focus on a better overall study methodology and the use of identical protocols for the description of clinical tests. The assessment of reliability is only a first step in the recommendation process for the use of clinical tests. In future research, the identified clinical tests in the

  8. Reliability analysis of stainless steel piping using a single stress corrosion cracking damage parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedri, A.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of an investigation that combines standard methods of fracture mechanics, empirical correlations of stress-corrosion cracking, and probabilistic methods to provide an assessment of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) of stainless steel piping. This is done by simulating the cracking of stainless steel piping under IGSCC conditions using the general methodology recommended in the modified computer program Piping Reliability Analysis Including Seismic Events, and by characterizing IGSCC using a single damage parameter. Good correlation between the pipe end-life probability of leak and the damage values were found. These correlations were later used to generalize this probabilistic fracture model. Also, the probability of detection curves and the benefits of in-service inspection in order to reduce the probability of leak for nuclear piping systems subjected to IGSCC were discussed for several pipe sizes. It was found that greater benefits could be gained from inspections for the large pipe as compared to the small pipe sizes. Also, the results indicate that the use of a better inspection procedure can be more effective than a tenfold increase in the number of inspections of inferior quality. -- Highlights: • We simulate the pipe probability of failure under different level of SCC damages. • The residual stresses are adjusted to calibrate the model. • Good correlations between 40-year cumulative leak probabilities and D σ are found. • These correlations were used to generalize this probabilistic fracture model. • We assess the effect of inspection procedures and scenarios on leak probabilities

  9. Reliability of fitness tests using methods and time periods common in sport and occupational management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnstein, Bryan D; Steele, Russell J; Shrier, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Fitness testing is used frequently in many areas of physical activity, but the reliability of these measurements under real-world, practical conditions is unknown. To evaluate the reliability of specific fitness tests using the methods and time periods used in the context of real-world sport and occupational management. Cohort study. Eighteen different Cirque du Soleil shows. Cirque du Soleil physical performers who completed 4 consecutive tests (6-month intervals) and were free of injury or illness at each session (n = 238 of 701 physical performers). Performers completed 6 fitness tests on each assessment date: dynamic balance, Harvard step test, handgrip, vertical jump, pull-ups, and 60-second jump test. We calculated the intraclass coefficient (ICC) and limits of agreement between baseline and each time point and the ICC over all 4 time points combined. Reliability was acceptable (ICC > 0.6) over an 18-month time period for all pairwise comparisons and all time points together for the handgrip, vertical jump, and pull-up assessments. The Harvard step test and 60-second jump test had poor reliability (ICC < 0.6) between baseline and other time points. When we excluded the baseline data and calculated the ICC for 6-month, 12-month, and 18-month time points, both the Harvard step test and 60-second jump test demonstrated acceptable reliability. Dynamic balance was unreliable in all contexts. Limit-of-agreement analysis demonstrated considerable intraindividual variability for some tests and a learning effect by administrators on others. Five of the 6 tests in this battery had acceptable reliability over an 18-month time frame, but the values for certain individuals may vary considerably from time to time for some tests. Specific tests may require a learning period for administrators.

  10. Test–re-test reliability and inter-rater reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer in young, healthy males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Beardsley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer (DPI for measuring sagittal plane pelvic tilt in 18 young, healthy males and females. Method. The inter-rater reliability and test–re-test reliabilities of the DPI for measuring pelvic tilt in standing on both the right and left sides of the pelvis were measured by two raters carrying out two rating sessions of the same subjects, three weeks apart. Results. For measuring pelvic tilt, inter-rater reliability was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.81–0.88, test–re-test reliability within a single rating session was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.88–0.95, and test–re-test reliability between two rating sessions was designated as moderate on the left side (ICC = 0.65 and good on the right side (ICC = 0.85. Conclusion. Inter-rater reliability and test–re-test reliability within a single rating session of the DPI in measuring pelvic tilt were both good, while test–re-test reliability between rating sessions was moderate-to-good. Caution is required regarding the interpretation of the test–re-test reliability within a single rating session, as the raters were not blinded. Further research is required to establish validity.

  11. A RELIABILITY TEST USED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A LOYALTY SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Alexandru LUCA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of a loyalty model involves the construction of a proper research instrument. For the loyalty model of the clients for financial services, the pre-testing of the research questionnaire represents a significant stage. This article presents the methodology used in this stage for testing the reliability of a loyalty scale. Firstly, this implies choosing the appropriate scales for each variable included in the suggested research model. Secondly, the internal consistency for each of these scales is measured as an indicator of their reliability. The reliability analysis described represents an essential stage in building a measurement instrument for a loyalty model.

  12. Standardization, Validity and Reliability Study of Gülhane Aphasia Test-2 (GAT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlknur Maviş

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gülhane Aphasia Test-2 (GAT-2 has been developed to show the presence of a language disorder ‘aphasia’ and to give the clinician implications for the accompanying speech disorders such as apraxia and dysarthria. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to report standardization, validity and reliability study of GAT-2. METHODS: : 10 healthy individuals were tested initially for the pilot study. 134 healthy individual was included to the standardization study and 30 individuals with aphasia and 11 individuals with right brain injury was included to the validation study. The inter group GAT-2 score differentiations and the effects of age, years of education, sex variances were observed. GAT-2 cut-off scores were calculated by the scores of healthy individuals. GAT-2 test-retest reliability and inter-observer reliability was calculated. RESULTS: Healthy individuals’ GAT-2 scores were significantly different from the GAT-2 scores of aphasic patients, but not from right brain injured patients’. Healthy individuals’ GAT-2 scores were not affected from the sex, age variances but from years of education, so cut-off scores were calculated by this variance. GAT-2 scores of aphasic patients were not affected from age, sex and years of education. Test-retest and inter-observer reliability and internal consistency results showed that GAT-2 is a highly reliable aphasia screening test. CONCLUSION: GAT-2 was found to be a standardized, highly reliable and a valid aphasia test for Turkish stroke patients with aphasia

  13. Development of a test rig and its application for validation and reliability testing of safety-critical software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thai, N D; McDonald, A M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a versatile test rig developed by AECL for functional testing of safety-critical software used in the process trip computers of the Wolsong CANDU stations. The description covers the hardware and software aspects of the test rig, the test language and its interpreter, and other major testing software utilities such as the test oracle, sampler and profiler. The paper also discusses the application of the rig in the final stages of testing of the process trip computer software, namely validation and reliability tests. It shows how random test cases are generated, test scripts prepared and automatically run on the test rig. The versatility of the rig is further demonstrated in other types of testing such as sub-system tests, verification of the test oracle, testing of newly-developed test script, self-test and calibration. (author). 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  14. Development of a test rig and its application for validation and reliability testing of safety-critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thai, N.D.; McDonald, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a versatile test rig developed by AECL for functional testing of safety-critical software used in the process trip computers of the Wolsong CANDU stations. The description covers the hardware and software aspects of the test rig, the test language and its interpreter, and other major testing software utilities such as the test oracle, sampler and profiler. The paper also discusses the application of the rig in the final stages of testing of the process trip computer software, namely validation and reliability tests. It shows how random test cases are generated, test scripts prepared and automatically run on the test rig. The versatility of the rig is further demonstrated in other types of testing such as sub-system tests, verification of the test oracle, testing of newly-developed test script, self-test and calibration. (author). 5 tabs., 10 figs

  15. Study on the Correlation between PSR and Korean Stress Test for Continued Operation of Aging NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June Ho; Kim, Tae Ryong

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), Korean nuclear regulatory authority established the stress test guideline based on the EU stress test, and KHNP prepared the execution plan in response to the guideline for the CO of Kori Unit 1 and Wolsong Unit 1. PSR is a comprehensive safety review program for long term operation of NPP, which was developed by IAEA. Korea adopted PSR in 1999 as the regulatory requirement for CO of NPP. The IAEA standard guideline for PSR program was updated in 2003. However, the Korean PSR has not been revised yet to apply the new IAEA guidelines. Additionally, national legal systems and guidelines associated with the adoption of stress tests are urgently required as well. These revisions are imperative in order to ensure the reliability of NPPs, and to promote public acceptance and understanding. This study presents the technical basis and proposals for review actions necessary to address the issues and controversies surrounding the continued operation and decommissioning of aging NPPs in Korea. As discussed earlier in characteristics of Korean Stress Test, it is more comprehensive than the EU Stress Test in terms of its multilateral evaluation which includes equipment durability, plant operation, human factors, and safety margins, hence substantially raising the significance and value of the evaluation process. Thus, the addition of Korean Stress Test to the existing Korean Evaluation of CO is expected to greatly increase the quality of safety assessment of aging NPPs in Korea due to its stricter safety policies, hence providing a more meaningful evaluation process. However, a one-time application of the Korean Stress Test to only Kori Unit 1 and Wolsong Unit 1 would be a waste of the great effort that has been done thus far to improve the Korean Evaluation of CO and develop the Korean Stress Test. By extending the Korean Stress Test to all NPPs in Korea would maintain and ensure the reliability of NPPs as well as public

  16. Test-retest and between-site reliability in a multicenter fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lee; Stern, Hal; Brown, Gregory G; Mathalon, Daniel H; Turner, Jessica; Glover, Gary H; Gollub, Randy L; Lauriello, John; Lim, Kelvin O; Cannon, Tyrone; Greve, Douglas N; Bockholt, Henry Jeremy; Belger, Aysenil; Mueller, Bryon; Doty, Michael J; He, Jianchun; Wells, William; Smyth, Padhraic; Pieper, Steve; Kim, Seyoung; Kubicki, Marek; Vangel, Mark; Potkin, Steven G

    2008-08-01

    In the present report, estimates of test-retest and between-site reliability of fMRI assessments were produced in the context of a multicenter fMRI reliability study (FBIRN Phase 1, www.nbirn.net). Five subjects were scanned on 10 MRI scanners on two occasions. The fMRI task was a simple block design sensorimotor task. The impulse response functions to the stimulation block were derived using an FIR-deconvolution analysis with FMRISTAT. Six functionally-derived ROIs covering the visual, auditory and motor cortices, created from a prior analysis, were used. Two dependent variables were compared: percent signal change and contrast-to-noise-ratio. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients derived from a variance components analysis. Test-retest reliability was high, but initially, between-site reliability was low, indicating a strong contribution from site and site-by-subject variance. However, a number of factors that can markedly improve between-site reliability were uncovered, including increasing the size of the ROIs, adjusting for smoothness differences, and inclusion of additional runs. By employing multiple steps, between-site reliability for 3T scanners was increased by 123%. Dropping one site at a time and assessing reliability can be a useful method of assessing the sensitivity of the results to particular sites. These findings should provide guidance toothers on the best practices for future multicenter studies.

  17. Validity, Reliability and Standardization Study of the Language Assessment Test for Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Toğram

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Aphasia assessment is the first step towards a well- founded language therapy. Language tests need to consider cultural as well as typological linguistic aspects of a given language. This study was designed to determine the standardization, validity and reliability of Language Assessment Test for Aphasia, which consists of eight subtests including spontaneous speech and language, auditory comprehension, repetition, naming, reading, grammar, speech acts, and writing. METHODS: The test was administered to 282 healthy participants and 92 aphasic participants in age, education and gender matched groups. The validity study of the test was investigated with analysis of content, structure and criterion-related validity. For reliability of the test, the analysis of internal consistency, stability and equivalence reliability was conducted. The influence of variables on healhty participants’ sub-test scores, test score and language score was examined. According to significant differences, norms and cut-off scores based on language score were determined. RESULTS: The group with aphasia performed highly lower than healthy participants on subtest, test and language scores. The test scores of healthy group were mostly affected by age and educational level but not affected by gender. According to significant differences, age and educational level for both groups were determined. Considering age and educational levels, the reference values for the cut-off scores were presented. CONCLUSION: The test was found to be a highly reliable and valid aphasia test for Turkish- speaking aphasic patients either in Turkey or other Turkish communities around the world

  18. Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology, and Glass Standard Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ARL-TN-0756 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology , and Glass Standard Evaluation...Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology , and Glass Standard Evaluation by Clayton M Weiss Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education...ORISE), Belcamp, MD Parimal J Patel Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for public release; distribution is

  19. Stress Testing as a Tool of Bank Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonyuk Oksana I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is development of theoretical, methodological and practical recommendations on the use of stress testing by Ukrainian commercial banks. Stress testing is defined as a part of bank risk management on the basis of scientific studies of domestic and foreign scientists. The article marks the essence of the bank stress testing and identifies its role in the structure of banks’ risk management in Ukraine. It considers goals of conducting stress testing in banking institutions. It identifies main aspects and specific features of conducting stress testing of bank risks. It characterises main advantages and shortcomings of use of stress testing in the modern bank risk management. It generalises the world and European approaches to the methods of conducting stress testing in commercial banks in comparison with the Ukrainian methodical recommendations. It shows that results of stress testing have practical value, since they help to preliminary assess influence of potentially negative events upon the state of the loan portfolio of the bank and make relevant managerial decisions.

  20. Thermal stresses in the space shuttle orbiter: Analysis versus test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grooms, H.R.; Gibson, W.F. Jr.; Benson, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    Significant temperature differences occur between the internal structure and the outer skin of the Space Shuttle Orbiter as it returns from space. These temperature differences cause important thermal stresses. A finite element model containing thousands of degrees of freedom is used to predict these stresses. A ground test was performed to verify the prediction method. The analysis and test results compare favorably. (orig.)

  1. 77 FR 60948 - Stress Testing of Regulated Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... regulated by a primary federal financial regulatory agency, to conduct annual stress tests to determine... the regulated entities under the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of... regulated by a primary Federal financial regulatory agency shall conduct annual stress tests * * * (emphasis...

  2. Relationships between adolescents' test anxiety, stress and sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald, J.F.; Meijer, A.M.; Oort, F.J.; Bögels, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to investigate the relationship between adolescents' test anxiety, stress and different aspects of sleep. Method. 175 adolescents (70.8% girls, mean age 15.14 years) participated in the study. Test anxiety, stress and chronic sleep reduction were assessed at baseline using

  3. Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong

    1992-07-01

    This book is about reliability engineering, which describes definition and importance of reliability, development of reliability engineering, failure rate and failure probability density function about types of it, CFR and index distribution, IFR and normal distribution and Weibull distribution, maintainability and movability, reliability test and reliability assumption in index distribution type, normal distribution type and Weibull distribution type, reliability sampling test, reliability of system, design of reliability and functionality failure analysis by FTA.

  4. Long term test-retest reliability of Oswestry Disability Index in male office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, Rafet; Baltaci, Gul; Ergun, Nevin

    2015-01-01

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the most common condition specific outcome measures used in the management of spinal disorders. But there is insufficient study on healthy populations and long term test-retest reliability. This is important because healthy populations are often used for control groups in low back pain interventions, and knowing the reliability of the controls affects the interpretation of the findings of these studies. The purpose of this study is to determine the long term test-retest reliability of ODI in office workers. Participants who have no chronic low back pain history were included in study. Subjects were assessed by the Turkish-ODI 2.0 (e-forms) on 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 15th, 30th days to determine the stability of ODI scores over time. The study began with 58 (12 female, 46 male) participants. 36 (3 female, 33 male) participated for the full 30 days. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Friedman tests were used. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by using nonparametric statistics. All tests were done by using SPSS-11. There was no statistically significant difference among the median scores of each day. (χ= 6.482, p >  0.05). The difference between median score of the days with 1st day was neither statistically nor clinically significant. ODI has long term test re-test reliability in healthy subjects over a 1 month time interval.

  5. Reliability and validity of a talent identification test battery for seated and standing Paralympic throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spathis, Jemima Grace; Connick, Mark James; Beckman, Emma Maree; Newcombe, Peter Anthony; Tweedy, Sean Michael

    2015-01-01

    Paralympic throwing events for athletes with physical impairments comprise seated and standing javelin, shot put, discus and seated club throwing. Identification of talented throwers would enable prediction of future success and promote participation; however, a valid and reliable talent identification battery for Paralympic throwing has not been reported. This study evaluates the reliability and validity of a talent identification battery for Paralympic throws. Participants were non-disabled so that impairment would not confound analyses, and results would provide an indication of normative performance. Twenty-eight non-disabled participants (13 M; 15 F) aged 23.6 years (±5.44) performed five kinematically distinct criterion throws (three seated, two standing) and nine talent identification tests (three anthropometric, six motor); 23 were tested a second time to evaluate test-retest reliability. Talent identification test-retest reliability was evaluated using Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots (Limits of Agreement). Spearman's correlation assessed strength of association between criterion throws and talent identification tests. Reliability was generally acceptable (mean ICC = 0.89), but two seated talent identification tests require more extensive familiarisation. Correlation strength (mean rs = 0.76) indicated that the talent identification tests can be used to validly identify individuals with competitively advantageous attributes for each of the five kinematically distinct throwing activities. Results facilitate further research in this understudied area.

  6. Reliability and precision of stress sonography of the ulnar collateral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, David; Armen, Joseph; Kulas, Anthony S; Youngs, Kevin; Womack, Zachary

    2015-03-01

    Musculoskeletal sonography has emerged as an additional diagnostic tool that can be used to assess medial elbow pain and laxity in overhead throwers. It provides a dynamic, rapid, and noninvasive modality in the evaluation of ligamentous structural integrity. Many studies have demonstrated the utility of dynamic sonography for medial elbow and ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) integrity. However, evaluating the reliabilityand precision of these measurements is critical if sonography is ultimately used as a clinical diagnostic tool. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and precision of stress sonography applied to the medial elbow. We conducted a cross-sectional study during the 2011 baseball off-season. Eighteen National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I pitchers were enrolled, and 36 elbows were studied. Using sonography, the medial elbow was assessed, and measurements of the UCL length and ulnohumeral joint gapping were performed twice under two conditions (unloaded and loaded) and bilaterally. Intraclass correlation coefficients (0.72-0.94) and standard errors of measurements (0.3-0.9 mm) for UCL length and ulnohumeral joint gapping were good to excellent. Mean differences between unloaded and loaded conditions for the dominant arms were 1.3 mm (gapping; P < .001) and 1.4 mm (UCL length; P < .001). Medial elbow stress sonography is a reliable and precise method for detecting changes in ulnohumeral joint gapping and UCL lengthening. Ultimately, this method may provide clinicians valuable information regarding the medial elbow's response to valgus loading and may help guide treatment options. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. Reliability testing of the Danish version of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Heaf, James; Prescott, Lotte

    2005-01-01

    . MATERIAL AND METHODS: Translation into Danish and back-translation into English were performed. Pilot, field and internal consistency reliability tests were performed. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the internal reliability test ranged from 0.77 to 0.93 for the eight generic scales. In a test......OBJECTIVE: The questionnaire Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form version 1.3 (KDQOL-SF) is valuable for assessing the health-related quality of life in patients treated with chronic dialysis. The aim of this study was to translate and test the reliability of the KDQOL-SF for use in Denmark...... involving all patients, two of the disease-specific scales had Cronbach's alpha coefficients of test of the scores...

  8. Data mining-based coefficient of influence factors optimization of test paper reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peiyao; Jiang, Huiping; Wei, Jieyao

    2018-05-01

    Test is a significant part of the teaching process. It demonstrates the final outcome of school teaching through teachers' teaching level and students' scores. The analysis of test paper is a complex operation that has the characteristics of non-linear relation in the length of the paper, time duration and the degree of difficulty. It is therefore difficult to optimize the coefficient of influence factors under different conditions in order to get text papers with clearly higher reliability with general methods [1]. With data mining techniques like Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Genetic Algorithm (GA), we can model the test paper analysis and optimize the coefficient of impact factors for higher reliability. It's easy to find that the combination of SVR and GA can get an effective advance in reliability from the test results. The optimal coefficient of influence factors optimization has a practicability in actual application, and the whole optimizing operation can offer model basis for test paper analysis.

  9. Development of an accelerated reliability test schedule for terrestrial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Prince, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    An accelerated test schedule using a minimum amount of tests and a minimum number of cells has been developed on the basis of stress test results obtained from more than 1500 cells of seven different cell types. The proposed tests, which include bias-temperature, bias-temperature-humidity, power cycle, thermal cycle, and thermal shock tests, use as little as 10 and up to 25 cells, depending on the test type.

  10. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21): further examination of dimensions, scale reliability, and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Augustine; Wong, Jane L; Bagge, Courtney L; Freedenthal, Stacey; Gutierrez, Peter M; Lozano, Gregorio

    2012-12-01

    We conducted two studies to examine the dimensions, internal consistency reliability estimates, and potential correlates of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). Participants in Study 1 included 887 undergraduate students (363 men and 524 women, aged 18 to 35 years; mean [M] age = 19.46, standard deviation [SD] = 2.17) recruited from two public universities to assess the specificity of the individual DASS-21 items and to evaluate estimates of internal consistency reliability. Participants in a follow-up study (Study 2) included 410 students (168 men and 242 women, aged 18 to 47 years; M age = 19.65, SD = 2.88) recruited from the same universities to further assess factorial validity and to evaluate potential correlates of the original DASS-21 total and scale scores. Item bifactor and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a general factor accounted for the greatest proportion of common variance in the DASS-21 item scores (Study 1). In Study 2, the fit statistics showed good fit for the bifactor model. In addition, the DASS-21 total scale score correlated more highly with scores on a measure of mixed depression and anxiety than with scores on the proposed specific scales of depression or anxiety. Coefficient omega estimates for the DASS-21 scale scores were good. Further investigations of the bifactor structure and psychometric properties of the DASS-21, specifically its incremental and discriminant validity, using known clinical groups are needed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Current trends and future development in pharmacologic stress testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jin Ho; Lee, Jae Tae

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacologic stress testing for myocardial perfusion imaging is a widely used noninvasive method for the evaluation of known or suspected coronary artery disease. The use of exercise for cardiac stress has been practiced for over 60 years and clinicians are familiar with its using. However, there are inevitable situations in which exercise stress is inappropriate. A large number of patients with cardiac problems are unable to exercise to their full potential due to comorbidity such as osteoarthritis, vascular disease and pulmonary disease and a standard exercise stress test for myocardial perfusion imaging is suboptimal means for assessment of coronary artery disease. This problem has led to the development of the pharmacologic stress test and to a great increase in its popularity. All of the currently used pharmacologic agents have well-documented diagnostic value. This review deals the physiological actions, clinical protocols, safety, nuclear imaging applications of currently available stress agents and future development of new vasodilating agents

  12. Validity and Reliability Study of the Korean Tinetti Mobility Test for Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinse; Koh, Seong-Beom; Kim, Hee Jin; Oh, Eungseok; Kim, Joong-Seok; Yun, Ji Young; Kwon, Do-Young; Kim, Younsoo; Kim, Ji Seon; Kwon, Kyum-Yil; Park, Jeong-Ho; Youn, Jinyoung; Jang, Wooyoung

    2018-01-01

    Postural instability and gait disturbance are the cardinal symptoms associated with falling among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The Tinetti mobility test (TMT) is a well-established measurement tool used to predict falls among elderly people. However, the TMT has not been established or widely used among PD patients in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the TMT for PD patients. Twenty-four patients diagnosed with PD were enrolled in this study. For the interrater reliability test, thirteen clinicians scored the TMT after watching a video clip. We also used the test-retest method to determine intrarater reliability. For concurrent validation, the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale, Hoehn and Yahr staging, Berg Balance Scale, Timed-Up and Go test, 10-m walk test, and gait analysis by three-dimensional motion capture were also used. We analyzed receiver operating characteristic curve to predict falling. The interrater reliability and intrarater reliability of the Korean Tinetti balance scale were 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. The interrater reliability and intra-rater reliability of the Korean Tinetti gait scale were 0.94 and 0.96, respectively. The Korean TMT scores were significantly correlated with the other clinical scales and three-dimensional motion capture. The cutoff values for predicting falling were 14 points (balance subscale) and 10 points (gait subscale). We found that the Korean version of the TMT showed excellent validity and reliability for gait and balance and had high sensitivity and specificity for predicting falls among patients with PD.

  13. Strength and Pain Threshold Handheld Dynamometry Test Reliability in Patellofemoral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, R A; Vollebregt, T; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; van Middelkoop, M

    2015-12-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), characterized by peri- and retropatellar pain, is a common disorder in young, active people. The etiology is unclear; however, quadriceps strength seems to be a contributing factor, and sensitization might play a role. The study purpose is determining the inter-rater reliability of handheld dynamometry to test both quadriceps strength and pressure pain threshold (PPT), a measure for sensitization, in patients with PFPS. This cross-sectional case-control study comprises 3 quadriceps strength and one PPT measurements performed by 2 independent investigators in 22 PFPS patients and 16 matched controls. Inter-rater reliability was analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. Inter-rater reliability of quadriceps strength testing was fair to good in PFPS patients (ICC=0.72) and controls (ICC=0.63). Bland-Altman plots showed an increased difference between assessors when average quadriceps strength values exceeded 250 N. Inter-rater reliability of PPT was excellent in patients (ICC=0.79) and fair to good in controls (ICC=0.52). Handheld dynamometry seems to be a reliable method to test both quadriceps strength and PPT in PFPS patients. Inter-rater reliability was higher in PFPS patients compared to control subjects. With regard to quadriceps testing, a higher variance between assessors occurs when quadriceps strength increases. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Test-Retest Reliability of the Short-Form Survivor Unmet Needs Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Karen; Bulsara, Max; Monterosso, Leanne

    2018-01-01

    Reliable and valid needs assessment measures are important assessment tools in cancer survivorship care. A new 30-item short-form version of the Survivor Unmet Needs Survey (SF-SUNS) was developed and validated with cancer survivors, including hematology cancer survivors; however, test-retest reliability has not been established. The objective of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability of the SF-SUNS with a cohort of lymphoma survivors ( n = 40). Test-retest reliability of the SF-SUNS was conducted at two time points: baseline (time 1) and 5 days later (time 2). Test-retest data were collected from lymphoma cancer survivors ( n = 40) in a large tertiary cancer center in Western Australia. Intraclass correlation analyses compared data at time 1 (baseline) and time 2 (5 days later). Cronbach's alpha analyses were performed to assess the internal consistency at both time points. The majority (23/30, 77%) of items achieved test-retest reliability scores 0.45-0.74 (fair to good). A high degree of overall internal consistency was demonstrated (time 1 = 0.92, time 2 = 0.95), with scores 0.65-0.94 across subscales for both time points. Mixed test-retest reliability of the SF-SUNS was established. Our results indicate the SF-SUNS is responsive to the changing needs of lymphoma cancer survivors. Routine use of cancer survivorship specific needs-based assessments is required in oncology care today. Nurses are well placed to administer these assessments and provide tailored information and resources. Further assessment of test-retest reliability in hematology and other cancer cohorts is warranted.

  15. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cano-Cappellacci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries.

  16. Exertional headache and coronary ischemia despite normal electrocardiographic stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrer, F Michael; Huerter, Karina

    2006-01-01

    Exertional headaches may under certain conditions reflect coronary ischemia. We report the case of a patient seen in a neurology referral practice whose exertional headaches, even in the face of two normal electrocardiographic stress tests and in the absence of underlying chest pain were the sole symptoms of coronary ischemia as detected by Tc-99m Sestamibi testing SPECT stress testing. Stent placement resulted in complete resolution of headaches. Exertional headache in the absence of chest pain may reflect underlying symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) even when conventional electrocardiographic stress testing does not indicate ischemia.

  17. A New Tool for Nutrition App Quality Evaluation (AQEL): Development, Validation, and Reliability Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFilippo, Kristen Nicole; Huang, Wenhao; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen M

    2017-10-27

    The extensive availability and increasing use of mobile apps for nutrition-based health interventions makes evaluation of the quality of these apps crucial for integration of apps into nutritional counseling. The goal of this research was the development, validation, and reliability testing of the app quality evaluation (AQEL) tool, an instrument for evaluating apps' educational quality and technical functionality. Items for evaluating app quality were adapted from website evaluations, with additional items added to evaluate the specific characteristics of apps, resulting in 79 initial items. Expert panels of nutrition and technology professionals and app users reviewed items for face and content validation. After recommended revisions, nutrition experts completed a second AQEL review to ensure clarity. On the basis of 150 sets of responses using the revised AQEL, principal component analysis was completed, reducing AQEL into 5 factors that underwent reliability testing, including internal consistency, split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, and interrater reliability (IRR). Two additional modifiable constructs for evaluating apps based on the age and needs of the target audience as selected by the evaluator were also tested for construct reliability. IRR testing using intraclass correlations (ICC) with all 7 constructs was conducted, with 15 dietitians evaluating one app. Development and validation resulted in the 51-item AQEL. These were reduced to 25 items in 5 factors after principal component analysis, plus 9 modifiable items in two constructs that were not included in principal component analysis. Internal consistency and split-half reliability of the following constructs derived from principal components analysis was good (Cronbach alpha >.80, Spearman-Brown coefficient >.80): behavior change potential, support of knowledge acquisition, app function, and skill development. App purpose split half-reliability was .65. Test-retest reliability showed no

  18. Design of PH-based accelerated life testing plans under multiple-stress-type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, E.A.; Zhang Hao

    2007-01-01

    Accelerated life testing (ALT) is used to obtain failure time data quickly under high stress levels in order to predict product life performance under design stress conditions. Most of the previous work on designing ALT plans is focused on the application of a single stress. However, as components or products become more reliable due to technological advances, it becomes more difficult to obtain significant amount of failure data within reasonable amount of time using single stress only. Multiple-stress-type ALTs have been employed as a means of overcoming such difficulties. In this paper, we design optimum multiple-stress-type ALT plans based on the proportional hazards model. The optimum combinations of stresses and their levels are determined such that the variance of the reliability estimate of the product over a specified period of time is minimized. The use of the model is illustrated using numerical example, and sensitivity analysis shows that the resultant optimum ALT plan is robust to the deviation in model parameters

  19. Stress Testing of the Philips 60W Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Smith, Mark

    2012-04-24

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, worked with Intertek to develop a procedure for stress testing medium screw-base light sources. This procedure, composed of alternating stress cycles and performance evaluation, was used to qualitatively compare and contrast the durability and reliability of the Philips 60W replacement lamp L Prize entry with market-proven compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) with comparable light output and functionality. The stress cycles applied simultaneous combinations of electrical, thermal, vibration, and humidity stresses of increasing magnitude. Performance evaluations measured relative illuminance, x chromaticity and y chromaticity shifts after each stress cycle. The Philips L Prize entry lamps appear to be appreciably more durable than the incumbent energy-efficient technology, as represented by the evaluated CFLs, and with respect to the applied stresses. Through the course of testing, all 15 CFL samples permanently ceased to function as a result of the applied stresses, while only 1 Philips L Prize entry lamp exhibited a failure, the nature of which was minor, non-destructive, and a consequence of a known (and resolved) subcontractor issue. Given that current CFL technology appears to be moderately mature and no Philips L Prize entry failures could be produced within the stress envelope causing 100 percent failure of the benchmark CFLs, it seems that, in this particular implementation, light-emitting diode (LED) technology would be much more durable in the field than current CFL technology. However, the Philips L Prize entry lamps used for testing were carefully designed and built for the competition, while the benchmark CFLs were mass produced for retail sale—a distinction that should be taken into consideration. Further reliability testing on final production samples would be necessary to judge the extent to which the results of this analysis apply to production versions

  20. Interrater and Intrarater Reliability of the Balance Computerized Adaptive Test in Patients With Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsin-Yu; Lu, Wen-Shian; Yu, Wan-Hui; Hsueh, I-Ping; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2018-04-11

    To examine the interrater and intrarater reliability of the Balance Computerized Adaptive Test (Balance CAT) in patients with chronic stroke having a wide range of balance functions. Repeated assessments design (1wk apart). Seven teaching hospitals. A pooled sample (N=102) including 2 independent groups of outpatients (n=50 for the interrater reliability study; n=52 for the intrarater reliability study) with chronic stroke. Not applicable. Balance CAT. For the interrater reliability study, the values of intraclass correlation coefficient, minimal detectable change (MDC), and percentage of MDC (MDC%) for the Balance CAT were .84, 1.90, and 31.0%, respectively. For the intrarater reliability study, the values of intraclass correlation coefficient, MDC, and MDC% ranged from .89 to .91, from 1.14 to 1.26, and from 17.1% to 18.6%, respectively. The Balance CAT showed sufficient intrarater reliability in patients with chronic stroke having balance functions ranging from sitting with support to independent walking. Although the Balance CAT may have good interrater reliability, we found substantial random measurement error between different raters. Accordingly, if the Balance CAT is used as an outcome measure in clinical or research settings, same raters are suggested over different time points to ensure reliable assessments. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development, construct validity and test-retest reliability of a field-based wheelchair mobility performance test for wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M. H.; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Berger, Monique A. M.; van der Slikke, Rienk M. A.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Veeger, Dirkjan (H. E. J)

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and describe a wheelchair mobility performance test in wheelchair basketball and to assess its construct validity and reliability. To mimic mobility performance of wheelchair basketball matches in a standardised manner, a test was designed based on observation of

  2. Improvement in reliability and accuracy of heater tube eddy current testing by integration with an appropriate destructive test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanelli, F.; Gabiccini, S.; Tarli, R.; Motta, P.

    1988-01-01

    A specially developed destructive test is described showing how the reliability and accuracy of a non-destructive technique can be improved if it is suitably accompanied by an appropriate destructive test. The experiment was carried out on samples of AISI 304L tubes from the low-pressure (LP) preheaters of a BWR 900 MW nuclear plant. (author)

  3. Test-retest reliability of the 20-sec Wingate test to assess anaerobic power in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, A.J.; Scholtes, V.A.B.; Brehm, M.A.; Becher, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of the 20-sec Wingate anaerobic test in children with cerebral palsy. DESIGN: Participants were 22 ambulant children with cerebral palsy, with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I (limitations in advanced

  4. Test-Retest Reliability of the 20-sec Wingate Test to Assess Anaerobic Power in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Scholtes, Vanessa A. B.; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Becher, Jules G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of the 20-sec Wingate anaerobic test in children with cerebral palsy. Design: Participants were 22 ambulant children with cerebral palsy, with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I (limitations in advanced

  5. Establishment of the reliability and validity of the Stress Index for Children or Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome (SICATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Kuo-Yu; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Chang, Hsueh-Ling; Wang, Yi-Wen; See, Lai-Chu

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the stress index for 10-18-years-old children or adolescents with Tourette syndrome. Tourette syndrome is a chronic tic disorder, which occurs in childhood. Children with Tourette syndrome exhibit sudden and unexpected voices or movements that may have influence on their daily activities and cause interaction barriers for children with Tourette syndrome. Therefore, a self-report stress index is necessary for children with Tourette syndrome to quickly measure the stress they have. Eight experts rated appropriateness, comprehensiveness and relevance of the questionnaire to establish content validity. A total of 116 paediatric patients filled out the stress index for 10-18-years-old children or adolescents with Tourette syndrome to evaluate its construct validity using exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency. Data from 90 pairs of paediatric patients and their caregivers were used to evaluate the inter-rater reliability. The criterion validity index ranged from 80-98%. One item was deleted because of a small item-to-total correlation. Therefore, 26 items made up the final stress index for 10-18-years-old children or adolescents with Tourette syndrome. In exploratory factor analysis, four factors (unfairly treated, psychological, symptom control and future concern) were achieved and accounted for 52.3% of the total variance. Cronbach's alphas of the stress index for 10-18-years-old children or adolescents with Tourette syndrome were 0.89. The inter-rater reliability of stress Index for 10-18-years-old children or adolescents with Tourette syndrome (Pearson correlation coefficient between patients and their caregivers) was 0.56. The stress Index for 10-18-years-old children or adolescents with Tourette syndrome is a self-administered tool to assess the stress of children or adolescents with Tourette syndrome. Validity (content and construct) and reliability (internal consistency and inter

  6. Orthopaedic nurses' knowledge and interrater reliability of neurovascular assessments with 2-point discrimination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Jennifer; Raley Noble, Deana; Kim, Son Chae

    2013-01-01

    : This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of education on knowledge and interrater reliability of neurovascular assessments with 2-point discrimination (2-PD) test among pediatric orthopaedic nurses. : A pre- and posttest study was done among 60 nurses attending 2-hour educational sessions. Neurovascular assessments with 2-PD test were performed on 64 casted pediatric patients by the nurses and 5 nurse experts before and after the educational sessions. : The mean neurovascular assessment knowledge score was improved at posteducation compared with the preeducation (p < .001). The 2-PD test interrater reliability also improved from Cohen's kappa value of 0.24-0.48 at posteducation. : The 2-hour educational session may be effective in improving nurses' knowledge and the interrater reliability of neurovascular assessment with 2-PD test.

  7. Study of Optimal Perimetric Testing in Children (OPTIC: Feasibility, Reliability and Repeatability of Perimetry in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipesh E Patel

    Full Text Available To investigate feasibility, reliability and repeatability of perimetry in children.A prospective, observational study recruiting 154 children aged 5-15 years, without an ophthalmic condition that affects the visual field (controls, identified consecutively between May 2012 and November 2013 from hospital eye clinics. Perimetry was undertaken in a single sitting, with standardised protocols, in a randomised order using the Humphrey static (SITA 24-2 FAST, Goldmann and Octopus kinetic perimeters. Data collected included test duration, subjective experience and test quality (incorporating examiner ratings on comprehension of instructions, fatigue, response to visual and auditory stimuli, concentration and co-operation to assess feasibility and reliability. Testing was repeated within 6 months to assess repeatability.Overall feasibility was very high (Goldmann=96.1%, Octopus=89% and Humphrey=100% completed the tests. Examiner rated reliability was 'good' in 125 (81.2% children for Goldmann, 100 (64.9% for Octopus and 98 (63.6% for Humphrey perimetry. Goldmann perimetry was the most reliable method in children under 9 years of age. Reliability improved with increasing age (multinomial logistic regression (Goldmann, Octopus and Humphrey, p<0.001. No significant differences were found for any of the three test strategies when examining initial and follow-up data outputs (Bland-Altman plots, n=43, suggesting good test repeatability, although the sample size may preclude detection of a small learning effect.Feasibility and reliability of formal perimetry in children improves with age. By the age of 9 years, all the strategies used here were highly feasible and reliable. Clinical assessment of the visual field is achievable in children as young as 5 years, and should be considered where visual field loss is suspected. Since Goldmann perimetry is the most effective strategy in children aged 5-8 years and this perimeter is no longer available, further

  8. Operationalization and reliability testing of ICF categories relevant for physiotherapists' interventions in the acute hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Grill, E; Gloor-Juzi, T; Huber, E O; Stucki, G

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To operationalize items based on categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) relevant to patient problems that are addressed by physiotherapeutic interventions in the acute hospital, and to test the reliability of these items when applied by physiotherapists. Methods: A selection of 124 ICF categories was operationalized in a formal decision-making and consensus process. The reliability of the newly operationalized item list ...

  9. Reliability and Validity of the New Tanaka B Intelligence Scale Scores: A Group Intelligence Test

    OpenAIRE

    Uno, Yota; Mizukami, Hitomi; Ando, Masahiko; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Yoko; Ozaki, Norio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. METHODS: The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years) residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurre...

  10. Evaluating the reliability of an injury prevention screening tool: Test-retest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelman, Michael A; Kincaid, Madeline; Denny, Sarah; Wervey Arnold, Melissa; FitzGerald, Michael; Carle, Adam C; Mara, Constance A

    2016-10-01

    A standardized injury prevention (IP) screening tool can identify family risks and allow pediatricians to address behaviors. To assess behavior changes on later screens, the tool must be reliable for an individual and ideally between household members. Little research has examined the reliability of safety screening tool questions. This study utilized test-retest reliability of parent responses on an existing IP questionnaire and also compared responses between household parents. Investigators recruited parents of children 0 to 1 year of age during admission to a tertiary care children's hospital. When both parents were present, one was chosen as the "primary" respondent. Primary respondents completed the 30-question IP screening tool after consent, and they were re-screened approximately 4 hours later to test individual reliability. The "second" parent, when present, only completed the tool once. All participants received a 10-dollar gift card. Cohen's Kappa was used to estimate test-retest reliability and inter-rater agreement. Standard test-retest criteria consider Kappa values: 0.0 to 0.40 poor to fair, 0.41 to 0.60 moderate, 0.61 to 0.80 substantial, and 0.81 to 1.00 as almost perfect reliability. One hundred five families participated, with five lost to follow-up. Thirty-two (30.5%) parent dyads completed the tool. Primary respondents were generally mothers (88%) and Caucasian (72%). Test-retest of the primary respondents showed their responses to be almost perfect; average 0.82 (SD = 0.13, range 0.49-1.00). Seventeen questions had almost perfect test-retest reliability and 11 had substantial reliability. However, inter-rater agreement between household members for 12 objective questions showed little agreement between responses; inter-rater agreement averaged 0.35 (SD = 0.34, range -0.19-1.00). One question had almost perfect inter-rater agreement and two had substantial inter-rater agreement. The IP screening tool used by a single individual had excellent

  11. Test-retest reliability of Eurofit Physical Fitness items for children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Hartman, Esther; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of physical fitness items from the European Test of Physical Fitness (Eurofit) for children with visual impairments. A sample of 21 children, ages 6-12 years, that were recruited from a special school for children with visual

  12. Test-Retest Reliability of the Salutogenic Wellness Promotion Scale (SWPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. M.; Moore, J. B.; Hayden, B. M.; Becker, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the temporal stability (i.e. test-retest reliability) of the Salutogenic Wellness Promotion Scale (SWPS) using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Current intraclass results were also compared to previously published interclass correlations to support the use of the intraclass method for test-retest…

  13. Feasibility and Reliability of Two Different Walking Tests in People With Severe Intellectual and Sensory Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, Aly; Evenhuis, I.E.; Van Wijck, R.; van der Schans, Cees

    2011-01-01

    Background  The purpose of this study is to describe feasibility and test–retest reliability of the six-minute walking distance test (6MWD) and an adapted shuttle run test (aSRT) in persons with severe intellectual and sensory (multiple) disabilities. Materials and Methods  Forty-seven persons with

  14. Test-retest, inter-assessor and intra-assessor reliability of the modified Touwen examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Lieke H. J.; Maathuis, Karel G. B.; Kouw, Eva; Hamming, Marjolein; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Interest in the Touwen examination (1979) for the assessment of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) is growing. However, information on psychometric properties of this assessment is scarce. Therefore the present study aimed at assessing the test's test-retest, inter- and intra-assessor reliability.

  15. Reliability and feasibility of the six minute walk test in subjects with myotonic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Marie; Tollbäck, Anna

    2007-12-01

    The objective was to describe test-retest reliability and feasibility of the six minute walk test in adult subjects with myotonic dystrophy type 1. Twelve subjects (28-68 years, mean 44) performed three six minute walk tests on two occasions, one week apart. Relative reliability was high (ICC(2.1)=0.99) and absolute reliability values were low (standard error of measurement 12 m, repeatability 33 m). Feasibility was investigated in a sample of 64 subjects (19-70 years, mean 43). Fifty-two subjects were able to perform two tests on the same day. Subjects with severe proximal weakness had difficulties performing repeated tests. A practice trial followed by a second test on the same day can be recommended for most subjects, and the best test should be used for evaluations. In conclusion, even though the study sample was small, the present study indicates that the six minute walk test is reliable and feasible in subjects with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

  16. Test-retest reliability of the isernhagen work systems functional capacity evaluation in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, MF; Brouwer, S; Meinema, A; Dijkstra, PU; Geertzen, JHB; Groothoff, JW

    2004-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate test-retest reliability of the Isernhagen Work System Functional Capacity Evaluation (IWS FCE) in healthy subjects. The IWS FCE consists of 28 tests that reflect work-related activities such as lifting, carrying, bending, etc. A convenience sample of 26 healthy

  17. Reliability of an x-ray system for calibrating and testing personal radiation dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimarães, M.C.; Silva, C.R.E.; Silva, T.A. da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rosado, P.H.G.; Cunha, P.G. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Metrology laboratories are expected to maintain standardized radiation beams and traceable standard dosimeters to provide reliable calibrations or testing of detectors. Results of the characterization of an x-ray system for performing calibration and testing of radiation dosimeters used for individual monitoring are shown in this work. (author)

  18. Reliability of an x-ray system for calibrating and testing personal radiation dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, M. C.; Silva, C. R. E.; Rosado, P. H. G.; Cunha, P. G.; Da Silva, T. A.

    2018-03-01

    Metrology laboratories are expected to maintain standardized radiation beams and traceable standard dosimeters to provide reliable calibrations or testing of detectors. Results of the characterization of an x-ray system for performing calibration and testing of radiation dosimeters used for individual monitoring are shown in this work.

  19. Reliability of an x-ray system for calibrating and testing personal radiation dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimarães, M.C.; Silva, C.R.E.; Silva, T.A. da; Rosado, P.H.G.; Cunha, P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Metrology laboratories are expected to maintain standardized radiation beams and traceable standard dosimeters to provide reliable calibrations or testing of detectors. Results of the characterization of an x-ray system for performing calibration and testing of radiation dosimeters used for individual monitoring are shown in this work. (author)

  20. reliability reliability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Corresponding author, Tel: +234-703. RELIABILITY .... V , , given by the code of practice. However, checks must .... an optimization procedure over the failure domain F corresponding .... of Concrete Members based on Utility Theory,. Technical ...

  1. Screening of current post-traumatic stress disorder in patients with substance use disorder using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21): a reliable and convenient measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Tim; de Haan, Hein A; van der Meer, Margreet; Najavits, Lisa M; De Jong, Cor A J

    2015-01-01

    Several instruments have been developed and validated as screens for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in substance use disorder (SUD) patients. Unfortunately, many of these instruments have one or several disadvantages (e.g. low specificity, low sensitivity or high costs). No research has been conducted on instruments that screen simultaneously for other psychiatric disorders, which would be a potentially time-saving and cost-effective approach. In the current study we tested the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) as a screen for PTSD. The DASS was assessed in an inpatient facility during intake with 58 patients and again 4 weeks after admission. Another 138 patients were assessed 4 weeks after admission only. The results were compared to the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) that was also administered after 4 weeks of abstinence. ROC curve analyses showed an area under the curve of 0.84 for the DASS at intake and 0.78 for the DASS after 4 weeks' abstinence. The DASS is therefore a reliable and convenient measure to use as a screen for PTSD in SUD patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Questionnaire for measuring organisational attributes in dental-care practices: psychometric properties and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Katja; Hasse, Philipp; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Campbell, Stephen M

    2016-04-01

    The consideration of organisational aspects, such as shared goals and clear communication, within the health care team is important to ensure good quality care. In primary health care, the instrument Survey of Organizational Attributes for Primary Care (SOAPC) is available to measure organisational attributes of care. However, there is no instrument available for dental care. The aim of the present study was to investigate psychometric properties and test-retest reliability of the version of SOAPC adapted for dental care, namely the Survey of Organizational Attributes in Dental Care (SOADC). The SOADC consists of 21 items in the following four subscales: communication; decision making; stress/chaos; and history of change. Convergent construct validity was measured using the job satisfaction scale. A total of 287 dental-care practices were asked to participate in the validation study. Psychometric properties and test-retest reliability were observed. A total of 43 dental-care practices responded to the survey. At baseline, 178 dental-care staff completed the questionnaire, and 4 weeks later 138 did so. Internal consistency, measured by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.718 or higher in the subscales. The test-retest reliability for each subscale and the overall SOADC score demonstrated good correlations over the 4-week test-retest interval, except for 'history of change'. A strong correlation with the aggregated job-satisfaction scale showed high convergent construct validity of SOADC. The consideration of organisational aspects from the perspective of dental-care teams is important for providing good quality of care. The SOADC is a reliable instrument with good psychometric properties and is suitable for the evaluation of organisational attributes in dental-care practices. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  3. Accounting for Proof Test Data in a Reliability Based Design Optimization Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventor, Gerharad; Scotti, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of proof (or acceptance) test data during the reliability based design optimization of structural components. It is assumed that every component will be proof tested and that the component will only enter into service if it passes the proof test. The goal is to reduce the component weight, while maintaining high reliability, by exploiting the proof test results during the design process. The proposed procedure results in the simultaneous design of the structural component and the proof test itself and provides the designer with direct control over the probability of failing the proof test. The procedure is illustrated using two analytical example problems and the results indicate that significant weight savings are possible when exploiting the proof test results during the design process.

  4. Comparison of the reliability of parental reporting and the direct test of the Thai Speech and Language Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathanee, Benjamas; Angsupakorn, Nipa; Pumnum, Tawitree; Seepuaham, Cholada; Jaiyong, Pechcharat

    2012-11-01

    To find reliability of parental or caregiver's report and testing of the Thai Speech and Language Test for Children Aged 0-4 Years Old. Five investigators assessed speech and language abilities from video both contexts: parental or caregivers' report and test forms of Thai Speech and Language Test for Children Aged 0-4 Years Old. Twenty-five normal and 30 children with delayed development or risk for delayed speech and language skills were assessed at age intervals of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, 30, 36 and 48 months. Reliability of parental or caregivers' testing and reporting was at a moderate level (0.41-0.60). Inter-rater reliability among investigators was excellent (0.86-1.00). The parental or caregivers' report form of the Thai Speech and Language test for Children aged 0-4 years old was an indicator for success at a moderate level. Trained professionals could use both forms of this test as reliable tools at an excellent level.

  5. Development of an Agility Test for Badminton Players and Assessment of Its Validity and Test-Retest Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Luiz de França Bahia; de Freitas, Paulo Barbosa

    2016-04-01

    Badminton requires open and fast actions toward the shuttlecock, but there is no specific agility test for badminton players with specific movements. To develop an agility test that simultaneously assesses perception and motor capacity and examine the test's concurrent and construct validity and its test-retest reliability. The Badcamp agility test consists of running as fast as possible to 6 targets placed on the corners and middle points of a rectangular area (5.6 × 4.2 m) from the start position located in the center of it, following visual stimuli presented in a luminous panel. The authors recruited 43 badminton players (17-32 y old) to evaluate concurrent (with shuttle-run agility test--SRAT) and construct validity and test-retest reliability. Results revealed that Badcamp presents concurrent and construct validity, as its performance is strongly related to SRAT (ρ = 0.83, P < .001), with performance of experts being better than nonexpert players (P < .01). In addition, Badcamp is reliable, as no difference (P = .07) and a high intraclass correlation (ICC = .93) were found in the performance of the players on 2 different occasions. The findings indicate that Badcamp is an effective, valid, and reliable tool to measure agility, allowing coaches and athletic trainers to evaluate players' athletic condition and training effectiveness and possibly detect talented individuals in this sport.

  6. Use of Raman Spectroscopy and Delta Volume Growth from Void Collapse to Assess Overwrap Stress Gradients Compromising the Reliability of Large Kevlar/Epoxy COPVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezirian, Michael T.; Phoenix, S. Leigh; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2009-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are frequently used for storing pressurized gases aboard spacecraft and aircraft when weight saving is desirable compared to all-metal versions. Failure mechanisms in fibrous COPVs and variability in lifetime can be very different from their metallic counterparts; in the former, catastrophic stress-rupture can occur with virtually no warning, whereas in latter, a leak before burst design philosophy can be implemented. Qualification and certification typically requires only one burst test on a production sample (possibly after several pressure cycles) and the vessel need only meet a design burst strength (the maximum operating pressure divided by a knockdown factor). Typically there is no requirement to assess variability in burst strength or lifetime, much less determine production and materials processing parameters important to control of such variability. Characterizing such variability and its source is crucial to models for calculating required reliability over a given lifetime (e.g. R = 0.9999 for 15 years). In this paper we present a case study of how lack of control of certain process parameters in COPV manufacturing can result in variations among vessels and between production runs that can greatly increase uncertainty and reduce reliability. The vessels considered are 40-inch ( NASA Glenn Research center, Cleveland, OH, 44135 29,500 in3 ) spherical COPVs with a 0.74 in. thick Kevlar49/epoxy overwrap and with a titanium liner of which 34 were originally produced. Two burst tests were eventually performed that unexpectedly differed by almost 5%, and were 10% lower than anticipated from burst tests on 26-inch sister vessels similar in every detail. A major observation from measurements made during proof testing (autofrettage) of the 40-inch vessels was that permanent volume growth from liner yielding varied by a factor of more than two (150 in3 to 360 in3 ), which suggests large differences in the residual

  7. Reliability of Arm Curl and Chair Stand tests for assessing muscular endurance in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boneth M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the test-retest reliability and level of agreement between measures of the 30 second (30-s Arm Curl and 30-s Chair Stand test in a sample of older adults from Bucaramanga. Materials and methods: a study of evaluation of diagnostic technology was done. Both tests were administered by the same evaluator to 111 adults older than 59 year-old (70,4 ± 7,3, on two occasions, with an interval of time between measures of 4 to 8 days. In the analysis, test-retest reliability was determined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient ICC= 2,1 with their confidence interval 95% (CI 95% respective. The agreement level was established by the Bland and Altman method. Results: the test-retest reproducibility of the 30-s Arm Curl test was very good ICC= 0,88 and to the Chair Stand test was good ICC= 0,78. The agreement was very good for both tests of muscle endurance. The CI 95% were between -3,8 and 3,2 stands to 30-s Chair Stand test and between -3,1 and 2,8 curls to 30-s Arm Curl test. Conclusion: the 30-s Arm Curl and 30-s Chair Stand test have good reliability and agreement to assess muscle endurance in older adults functionally independent.

  8. The minimum sit-to-stand height test: reliability, responsiveness and relationship to leg muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Karl; Sherrington, Catherine; Wallbank, Geraldine; Pamphlett, Patricia; Olivetti, Lynette

    2012-07-01

    To determine the reliability of the minimum sit-to-stand height test, its responsiveness and its relationship to leg muscle strength among rehabilitation unit inpatients and outpatients. Reliability study using two measurers and two test occasions. Secondary analysis of data from two clinical trials. Inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation services in three public hospitals. Eighteen hospital patients and five others participated in the reliability study. Seventy-two rehabilitation unit inpatients and 80 outpatients participated in the clinical trials. The minimum sit-to-stand height test was assessed using a standard procedure. For the reliability study, a second tester repeated the minimum sit-to-stand height test on the same day. In the inpatient clinical trial the measures were repeated two weeks later. In the outpatient trial the measures were repeated five weeks later. Knee extensor muscle strength was assessed in the clinical trials using a hand-held dynamometer. The reliability for the minimum sit-to-stand height test was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.96). The standard error of measurement was 34 mm. Responsiveness was moderate in the inpatient trial (effect size: 0.53) but small in the outpatient trial (effect size: 0.16). A small proportion (8-17%) of variability in minimum sit-to-stand height test was explained by knee extensor muscle strength. The minimum sit-to-stand height test has excellent reliability and moderate responsiveness in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. Responsiveness in an outpatient rehabilitation setting requires further investigation. Performance is influenced by factors other than knee extensor muscle strength.

  9. Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emrah Karadere

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test:A Study of Validity and Reliability Objective: The aim of our study is to research reliability and validity and to evaluate the usability of Turkish version of Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test (RIAT in Turkish healty population. Method: 51 healty volunteers who work in Ankara Dıskapi Yildirim Beyazit Research and Training Hospital participated in this study. Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test (RIAT was translated into Turkish by three clinical good knowledge of English. Participants were given a sociodemographic data form, and RIAT were performed by clinicians. To test the reliability of the Turkish version of RIAT, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated and the halving method was used for the test. Results: The internal consistency of the Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test (RIAT items, Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency coefficient measurements of 0.73 was found to be statistically significant. Spearman-Brown coefficient that determines the reliability of the whole test r=0.74 was found. Kurtosis values of all the items was below 1.5 and the percentages in the second evaluation were mainly lower. At the same time, both change in belief between self produced RIAT options and given RIAT options (p=0.02, z=-2296 as well as changes in beliefs between related and unrelated items for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD difference (p=0.03, z=-2.199 were significant. Conclusion: The preliminary data obtained from the study of reliability and validity of the scale shows that ‘Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test’ supports reliability and validity in Turkish population.

  10. Evaluating abdominal core muscle fatigue: Assessment of the validity and reliability of the prone bridging test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blaiser, C; De Ridder, R; Willems, T; Danneels, L; Vanden Bossche, L; Palmans, T; Roosen, P

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this study were to research the amplitude and median frequency characteristics of selected abdominal, back, and hip muscles of healthy subjects during a prone bridging endurance test, based on surface electromyography (sEMG), (a) to determine if the prone bridging test is a valid field test to measure abdominal muscle fatigue, and (b) to evaluate if the current method of administrating the prone bridging test is reliable. Thirty healthy subjects participated in this experiment. The sEMG activity of seven abdominal, back, and hip muscles was bilaterally measured. Normalized median frequencies were computed from the EMG power spectra. The prone bridging tests were repeated on separate days to evaluate inter and intratester reliability. Significant differences in normalized median frequency slope (NMF slope ) values between several abdominal, back, and hip muscles could be demonstrated. Moderate-to-high correlation coefficients were shown between NMF slope values and endurance time. Multiple backward linear regression revealed that the test endurance time could only be significantly predicted by the NMF slope of the rectus abdominis. Statistical analysis showed excellent reliability (ICC=0.87-0.89). The findings of this study support the validity and reliability of the prone bridging test for evaluating abdominal muscle fatigue. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Defects in electroplated Cu and their impact on stress migration reliability studied using monoenergetic positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, Akira; Suzuki, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomoji; Ohdaira, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Ryoichi

    2007-01-01

    Positron annihilation was used to probe vacancy-type defects in electroplated Cu fabricated using different electrolytes. Isochronal annealing experiments revealed that the agglomeration of vacancy-type defects in grains was observed below 200degC and that their concentration started to decrease above 300degC. The observed annealing stages of the defects agree with those for pure Cu irradiated with light particles such as electrons. The size and concentration of vacancies decreased with decreasing concentrations of residual impurities in Cu films. A decrease in the impurity concentration, however, increased the failure rate of Cu interconnects in a stress-induced voiding test. Thus, void formation related to stress-induced failure can be reduced through the introduction of vacancy clusters into grains. (author)

  12. Sex and stress: Men and women show different cortisol responses to psychological stress induced by the Trier social stress test and the Iowa singing social stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E; Okerstrom, Katrina L; Bowles Edwards, Angela; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-01-02

    Acute psychological stress affects each of us in our daily lives and is increasingly a topic of discussion for its role in mental illness, aging, cognition, and overall health. A better understanding of how such stress affects the body and mind could contribute to the development of more effective clinical interventions and prevention practices. Over the past 3 decades, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) has been widely used to induce acute stress in a laboratory setting based on the principles of social evaluative threat, namely, a judged speech-making task. A comparable alternative task may expand options for examining acute stress in a controlled laboratory setting. This study uses a within-subjects design to examine healthy adult participants' (n = 20 men, n = 20 women) subjective stress and salivary cortisol responses to the standard TSST (involving public speaking and math) and the newly created Iowa Singing Social Stress Test (I-SSST). The I-SSST is similar to the TSST but with a new twist: public singing. Results indicated that men and women reported similarly high levels of subjective stress in response to both tasks. However, men and women demonstrated different cortisol responses; men showed a robust response to both tasks, and women displayed a lesser response. These findings are in line with previous literature and further underscore the importance of examining possible sex differences throughout various phases of research, including design, analysis, and interpretation of results. Furthermore, this nascent examination of the I-SSST suggests a possible alternative for inducing stress in the laboratory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Reliability of cognitive tests of ELSA-Brasil, the brazilian longitudinal study of adult health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Juliana Alves; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Galery, Ana Roscoe Papini; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive function evaluation entails the use of neuropsychological tests, applied exclusively or in sequence. The results of these tests may be influenced by factors related to the environment, the interviewer or the interviewee. OBJECTIVES We examined the test-retest reliability of some tests of the Brazilian version from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease. METHODS The ELSA-Brasil is a multicentre study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from public institutions across six Brazilian States. The same tests were applied, in different order of appearance, by the same trained and certified interviewer, with an approximate 20-day interval, to 160 adults (51% men, mean age 52 years). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the reliability of the measures; and a dispersion graph was used to examine the patterns of agreement between them. RESULTS We observed higher retest scores in all tests as well as a shorter test completion time for the Trail Making Test B. ICC values for each test were as following: Word List Learning Test (0.56), Word Recall (0.50), Word Recognition (0.35), Phonemic Verbal Fluency Test (VFT, 0.61), Semantic VFT (0.53) and Trail B (0.91). The Bland-Altman plot showed better correlation of executive function (VFT and Trail B) than of memory tests. CONCLUSIONS Better performance in retest may reflect a learning effect, and suggest that retest should be repeated using alternate forms or after longer periods. In this sample of adults with high schooling level, reliability was only moderate for memory tests whereas the measurement of executive function proved more reliable. PMID:29213860

  14. Reliability of Cognitive Tests of ELSA-Brasil, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alves Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cognitive function evaluation entails the use of neuropsychological tests, applied exclusively or in sequence. The results of these tests may be influenced by factors related to the environment, the interviewer or the interviewee. Objectives: We examined the test-retest reliability of some tests of the Brazilian version from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease. Methods: The ELSA-Brasil is a multicentre study of civil servants (35-74 years of age from public institutions across six Brazilian States. The same tests were applied, in different order of appearance, by the same trained and certified interviewer, with an approximate 20-day interval, to 160 adults (51% men, mean age 52 years. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC was used to assess the reliability of the measures; and a dispersion graph was used to examine the patterns of agreement between them. Results: We observed higher retest scores in all tests as well as a shorter test completion time for the Trail Making Test B. ICC values for each test were as following: Word List Learning Test (0.56, Word Recall (0.50, Word Recognition (0.35, Phonemic Verbal Fluency Test (VFT, 0.61, Semantic VFT (0.53 and Trail B (0.91. The Bland-Altman plot showed better correlation of executive function (VFT and Trail B than of memory tests. Conclusions: Better performance in retest may reflect a learning effect, and suggest that retest should be repeated using alternate forms or after longer periods. In this sample of adults with high schooling level, reliability was only moderate for memory tests whereas the measurement of executive function proved more reliable.

  15. Vertical jumping tests in volleyball: reliability, validity, and playing-position specifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Hadzic, Vedran; Uljevic, Ognjen; Dervisevic, Edvin

    2012-06-01

    Vertical jumping is known to be important in volleyball, and jumping performance tests are frequently studied for their reliability and validity. However, most studies concerning jumping in volleyball have dealt with standard rather than sport-specific jumping procedures and tests. The aims of this study, therefore, were (a) to determine the reliability and factorial validity of 2 volleyball-specific jumping tests, the block jump (BJ) test and the attack jump (AJ) test, relative to 2 frequently used and systematically validated jumping tests, the countermovement jump test and the squat jump test and (b) to establish volleyball position-specific differences in the jumping tests and simple anthropometric indices (body height [BH], body weight, and body mass index [BMI]). The BJ was performed from a defensive volleyball position, with the hands positioned in front of the chest. During an AJ, the players used a 2- to 3-step approach and performed a drop jump with an arm swing followed by a quick vertical jump. A total of 95 high-level volleyball players (all men) participated in this study. The reliability of the jumping tests ranged from 0.97 to 0.99 for Cronbach's alpha coefficients, from 0.93 to 0.97 for interitem correlation coefficients and from 2.1 to 2.8 for coefficients of variation. The highest reliability was found for the specific jumping tests. The factor analysis extracted one significant component, and all of the tests were highly intercorrelated. The analysis of variance with post hoc analysis showed significant differences between 5 playing positions in some of the jumping tests. In general, receivers had a greater jumping capacity, followed by libero players. The differences in jumping capacities should be emphasized vis-a-vis differences in the anthropometric measures of players, where middle hitters had higher BH and body weight, followed by opposite hitters and receivers, with no differences in the BMI between positions.

  16. Reliability and normative values of the foot line test: a technique to assess foot posture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushøj, C; Larsen, Klaus; Nielsen, MB

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Test-retest reliability. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and report normative values of a novel test, the foot line test (FLT), to describe foot morphology. BACKGROUND: Numerous foot examinations are performed each day, but most existing examination techniques have considerable...... limitations regarding reliability and validity. METHODS: One hundred thirty subjects with mean foot size 44 (41-50 European size) participated. Two examiners, blinded to each other's measurements, measured the right foot of the subjects twice and the left foot once. The position of the most medial aspect...... of the navicular in the mediolateral direction was projected vertically onto a piece of paper placed under the subject's foot, and compared to the position of the forefoot and hindfoot to obtain the FLT value. RESULTS: FLT values ranged from -8 to 14 mm, with a mean (+/-SD) of 3.7 +/- 3.4 mm. The intratester...

  17. Reliability test: X-ray ring exit chambers crotch radiation absorbers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, D.R.; Morgan, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report details the efforts by engineers at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate the reliability of water-cooled radiation absorbers used in the NSLS X-ray ring. These absorbers are part of the 16 dipole vacuum chambers which comprise the arc sections of the ring. They are located at the intersections (crotch) of the beamline exit ports with the electron beam chamber, and are commonly referred to as crotches. The purpose of these efforts was to demonstrate the reliability of the crotches under operating conditions that the crotches will be subjected to over the entire expected life of the ring. The efforts described include engineering calculations, finite element analysis, conceptual design for a reliability test, test implementation and descriptions, results and conclusions related to these analyses and tests

  18. Intra-tester Reliability and Construct Validity of a Hip Abductor Eccentric Strength Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, Richard A; Ebaugh, D David; Milner, Clare E

    2017-11-15

    Side-lying hip abductor strength tests are commonly used to evaluate muscle strength. In a 'break' test the tester applies sufficient force to lower the limb to the table while the patient resists. The peak force is postulated to occur while the leg is lowering, thus representing the participant's eccentric muscle strength. However, it is unclear whether peak force occurs before or after the leg begins to lower. To determine intra-rater reliability and construct validity of a hip abductor eccentric strength test. Intra-rater reliability and construct validity study. Twenty healthy adults (26 ±6 years; 1.66 ±0.06 m; 62.2 ±8.0 kg) made two visits to the laboratory at least one week apart. During the hip abductor eccentric strength test, a hand-held dynamometer recorded peak force and time to peak force and limb position was recorded via a motion capture system. Intra-rater reliability was determined using intra-class correlation (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable difference (MDD). Construct validity was assessed by determining if peak force occurred after the start of the lowering phase using a one-sample t-test. The hip abductor eccentric strength test had substantial intra-rater reliability (ICC( 3,3 ) = 0.88; 95% confidence interval: 0.65-0.95), SEM of 0.9%BWh, and a MDD of 2.5%BWh. Construct validity was established as peak force occurred 2.1s (±0.6s; range 0.7s to 3.7s) after the start of the lowering phase of the test (p ≤ 0.001). The hip abductor eccentric strength test is a valid and reliable measure of eccentric muscle strength. This test may be used clinically to assess changes in eccentric muscle strength over time.

  19. Intersession reliability of self-selected and narrow stance balance testing in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bryan L; Piersol, Kelsey

    2017-10-01

    Despite the common practice of using force platforms to assess balance of older adults, few investigations have examined the reliability of postural screening tests in this population. We sought to determine the test-retest reliability of self-selected and narrow stance balance testing with eyes open and eyes closed in healthy older adults. Thirty older adults (>65 years) completed 45 s trials of eyes open and eyes closed stability tests using self-selected and narrow stances on two separate days (1.9 ± .7 days). Average medial-lateral center of pressure velocity was computed. The ICC results ranged from .74 to .86, and no significant systematic changes (P eyes open and closed balance testing using self-selected and narrow stances in older adults was established which should provide a foundation for the development of fall risk screening tests.

  20. Optimal Constant-Stress Accelerated Degradation Test Plans Using Nonlinear Generalized Wiener Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated degradation test (ADT has been widely used to assess highly reliable products’ lifetime. To conduct an ADT, an appropriate degradation model and test plan should be determined in advance. Although many historical studies have proposed quite a few models, there is still room for improvement. Hence we propose a Nonlinear Generalized Wiener Process (NGWP model with consideration of the effects of stress level, product-to-product variability, and measurement errors for a higher estimation accuracy and a wider range of use. Then under the constraints of sample size, test duration, and test cost, the plans of constant-stress ADT (CSADT with multiple stress levels based on the NGWP are designed by minimizing the asymptotic variance of the reliability estimation of the products under normal operation conditions. An optimization algorithm is developed to determine the optimal stress levels, the number of units allocated to each level, inspection frequency, and measurement times simultaneously. In addition, a comparison based on degradation data of LEDs is made to show better goodness-of-fit of the NGWP than that of other models. Finally, optimal two-level and three-level CSADT plans under various constraints and a detailed sensitivity analysis are demonstrated through examples in this paper.

  1. Stress Tests for Chest Pain: When You Need an Imaging Test -- and When You Don't

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Adult , Geriatric Stress Tests for Chest Pain Stress Tests for Chest Pain When you need an ... pain isn’t from heart disease. A cardiac stress test makes the heart work hard so your ...

  2. Reliability of the "Ten Test" for assessment of discriminative sensation in hand trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael J; Regan, William R; Seal, Alex; Bristol, Sean G

    2016-10-01

    "Ten Test" (TT) is a bedside measure of discriminative sensation, whereby the magnitude of abnormal sensation to moving light touch is normalized to an area of normal sensation on an 11-point Likert scale (0-10). The purposes of this study were to determine reliability parameters of the TT in a cohort of patients presenting to a hand trauma clinic with subjectively altered sensation post-injury and to compare the reliability of TT to that of the Weinstein Enhanced Sensory Test (WEST). Study participants (n = 29, mean age = 37 ± 12) comprised patients presenting to an outpatient hand trauma clinic with recent hand trauma and self reported abnormal sensation. Participants underwent TT and WEST by two separate raters on the same day. Interrater reliability, response stability and responsiveness of each test were determined by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC: 2, 1), standard error of measurement (SEM) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and minimal detectable difference score, with 95% CI (MDD95), respectively. The TT displayed excellent interrater reliability (ICC = 0.95, 95% CI 0.89-0.97) compared to good reliability for WEST (ICC = 0.78, 95% CI 0.58-0.89). The range of true scores expected with 95% confidence based on the SEM (i.e. response stability), was ±1.1 for TT and ±1.1 for WEST. MDD95 scores reflecting test responsiveness were 1.5 and 1.6 for TT and WEST, respectively. The TT displayed excellent reliability parameters in this patient population. Reliability parameters were stronger for TT compared to WEST. These results provide support for the use of TT as a component of the sensory exam in hand trauma. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Test-Retest Reliability of Measures Commonly Used to Measure Striatal Dysfunction across Multiple Testing Sessions: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Clare E; Langbehn, Douglas; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Papoutsi, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common amongst many neurodegenerative movement disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) across multiple domains. There are many tasks available to assess different aspects of this dysfunction, however, it is imperative that these show high test-retest reliability if they are to be used to track disease progression or response to treatment in patient populations. Moreover, in order to ensure effects of practice across testing sessions are not misconstrued as clinical improvement in clinical trials, tasks which are particularly vulnerable to practice effects need to be highlighted. In this study we evaluated test-retest reliability in mean performance across three testing sessions of four tasks that are commonly used to measure cognitive dysfunction associated with striatal impairment: a combined Simon Stop-Signal Task; a modified emotion recognition task; a circle tracing task; and the trail making task. Practice effects were seen between sessions 1 and 2 across all tasks for the majority of dependent variables, particularly reaction time variables; some, but not all, diminished in the third session. Good test-retest reliability across all sessions was seen for the emotion recognition, circle tracing, and trail making test. The Simon interference effect and stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) from the combined-Simon-Stop-Signal task showed moderate test-retest reliability, however, the combined SSRT interference effect showed poor test-retest reliability. Our results emphasize the need to use control groups when tracking clinical progression or use pre-baseline training on tasks susceptible to practice effects.

  4. The Functional Test for Agility Performance is a Reliable Quick Decision-Making Test for Skilled Water Polo Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucher Guilherme

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of the Functional Test for Agility Performance has only been evaluated in water polo players in a small group of novice athletes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the Functional Test for Agility Performance in skilled water polo players. Forty-two athletes (17.81 ± 3.24 years old with a minimum of 5 years of competitive experience (7.05 ± 2.84 years and playing at the national or international level were evaluated. The Functional Test for Agility Performance is characterized as a specific open decision-making test where a tested player moves as quickly as possible in accordance to a pass made by another player. The time spent in the test was measured by two experienced coaches. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, 95% limit of agreement (LOA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurements (SEM were used for data analysis. Athletes completed the Functional Test for Agility Performance in 4.15 0.47 s. The ICC value was 0.87 (95% IC = 0.80-0.92. The SEM varied between 0.24 and 0.38 s. The LOA was 1.20 s and the CV average considering each individual trial was 6%. The Functional Test for Agility Performance was shown to be a reliable quick decision-making test for skilled water polo players.

  5. We need more replication research - A case for test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppink, Jimmie; Pérez-Fuster, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    Following debates in psychology on the importance of replication research, we have also started to see pleas for a more prominent role for replication research in medical education. To enable replication research, it is of paramount importance to carefully study the reliability of the instruments we use. Cronbach's alpha has been the most widely used estimator of reliability in the field of medical education, notably as some kind of quality label of test or questionnaire scores based on multiple items or of the reliability of assessment across exam stations. However, as this narrative review outlines, Cronbach's alpha or alternative reliability statistics may complement but not replace psychometric methods such as factor analysis. Moreover, multiple-item measurements should be preferred above single-item measurements, and when using single-item measurements, coefficients as Cronbach's alpha should not be interpreted as indicators of the reliability of a single item when that item is administered after fundamentally different activities, such as learning tasks that differ in content. Finally, if we want to follow up on recent pleas for more replication research, we have to start studying the test-retest reliability of the instruments we use.

  6. Reliability of the Handgrip Strength Test in Elderly Subjects With Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Jorge H; Valdes, Kristin; Buraschi, Riccardo; Martinelli, Marco; Bissolotti, Luciano; Negrini, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The handgrip strength test is widely used by clinicians; however, little has been investigated about its reliability when used in subjects with Parkinson disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of the handgrip strength test for subjects with PD. The PD group consisted of 15 patients, and the control group consisted of 15 healthy subjects. Each patient performed 3 pain-free maximal isometric contractions on each hand on 2 occasions, 1 week apart. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated. The 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to determine the differences between sides and groups. Test-retest reliability of measurements of grip strength was excellent for dominant (ICC = 0.97; P = .001) and non-dominant (ICC = 0.98; P = .001) hand of participant with PD and (ICC = 0.99; P = .001) and (ICC = 0.99; P = .001) respectively, of healthy group. The Jamar hand dynamometer had fair to excellent test-retest reliability to test grip strength in participants with PD.

  7. Test-retest reliability of the Progressive Isoinertial Lifting Evaluation (PILE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygren, Hildegunn; Dragesund, Tove; Joensen, Jón; Ask, Tove; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf

    2005-05-01

    A repeated measures single group design. To investigate test-retest reliability of Progressive Isoinertial Lifting Evaluation on patients with long lasting musculoskeletal problems related to the lumbar spine. Test-retest reliability has been satisfactory in healthy men. Test-retest reliability for clinical populations has not been reported. A total of 31 patients (17 women and 14 men) with long lasting low back pain participated in the study. The patients were tested twice at an interval of 2 days and at the same time of the day. The heaviest load that the patient could lift 4 times was used as outcome measure. The error of measurement indicates that the true result in 95% of cases will be within +/-4.5 kg from the measured value, while the difference between 2 measurements in 95% of cases will be less than 6.4 kg. Intra-class correlation (1,1) was 0.91. Relative test-retest reliability was high assessed by intra-class correlation, but absolute measurement variability reported as the smallest detectable difference has relevance for the interpretation of clinical test results and should also be considered.

  8. Test - retest reliability of two instruments for measuring public attitudes towards persons with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leufstadius Christel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has identified stigmatization as a major threat to successful treatment of individuals with mental illness. As a consequence several anti-stigma campaigns have been carried out. The results have been discouraging and the field suffers from lack of evidence about interventions that work. There are few reports on psychometric data for instruments used to assess stigma, which thus complicates research efforts. The aim of the present study was to investigate test-retest reliability of the Swedish versions of the questionnaires: FABI and "Changing Minds" and to examine the internal consistency of the two instruments. Method Two instruments, fear and behavioural intentions (FABI and "Changing Minds", used in earlier studies on public attitudes towards persons with mental illness were translated into Swedish and completed by 51 nursing students on two occasions, with an interval of three weeks. Test-retest reliability was calculated by using weighted kappa coefficient and internal consistency using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results Both instruments attain at best moderate test-retest reliability. For the Changing Minds questionnaire almost one fifth (17.9% of the items present poor test-retest reliability and the alpha coefficient for the subscales ranges between 0.19 - 0.46. All of the items in the FABI reach a fair or a moderate agreement between the test and retest, and the questionnaire displays a high internal consistency, alpha 0.80. Conclusions There is a need for development of psychometrically tested instruments within this field of research.

  9. An Operators View of Reliability Testing and Decay Heat Rejection Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, J.D.C.

    1975-01-01

    The object of this paper is to review the in-situ testing of DHR systems, and to convey policy rather than to indicate a definitive test programme. The test policy is aimed primarily at commissioning the plant and secondly at providing such support for reliability predictions as is practical. Provisions for removal of decay heat from the core and from the reactor tank are described in papers by Broadley and Davies

  10. California's Drought - Stress test for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The current California drought is in its third dry years, with this year being the third driest years in a 106-year record. This drought occurs at a time when urban, agricultural, and environmental water demands have never been greater. This drought has revealed the importance of more quantitative evaluation and methods for water assessment and management. All areas of water and environmental management are likely to become increasingly stressed, and have essentially drought-like conditions, in the future, as California's urban, agricultural, and environmental demands continue to expand and as the climate changes. In the historical past, droughts have pre-viewed stresses developing in the future and helped focus policy-makers, the public, and stakeholders on preparing for these developing future conditions. Multi-decade water management strategies are often galvinized by drought. Irrigation was galvanized by California droughts in the 1800s, reservoir systems by the 1928-32 drought, urban water conservation by the 1976-77 drought, and water markets by the 1988-92 drought. With each drought, demands for tighter accounting, rights, and management have increased. This talk reviews the prospects and challenges for increased development and use of water data and systems analysis in the service of human and environmental water demands in California's highly decentralized water management system, and the prospects if these challenges are not more successfully addressed.

  11. A Comparison of the Approaches of Generalizability Theory and Item Response Theory in Estimating the Reliability of Test Scores for Testlet-Composed Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guemin; Park, In-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Previous assessments of the reliability of test scores for testlet-composed tests have indicated that item-based estimation methods overestimate reliability. This study was designed to address issues related to the extent to which item-based estimation methods overestimate the reliability of test scores composed of testlets and to compare several…

  12. Test-retest reliability of an fMRI paradigm for studies of cardiovascular reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Lei K; Jennings, J Richard; Gianaros, Peter J

    2012-07-01

    We examined the reliability of measures of fMRI, subjective, and cardiovascular reactions to standardized versions of a Stroop color-word task and a multisource interference task. A sample of 14 men and 12 women (30-49 years old) completed the tasks on two occasions, separated by a median of 88 days. The reliability of fMRI BOLD signal changes in brain areas engaged by the tasks was moderate, and aggregating fMRI BOLD signal changes across the tasks improved test-retest reliability metrics. These metrics included voxel-wise intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and overlap ratio statistics. Task-aggregated ratings of subjective arousal, valence, and control, as well as cardiovascular reactions evoked by the tasks showed ICCs of 0.57 to 0.87 (ps reliability. These findings support using these tasks as a battery for fMRI studies of cardiovascular reactivity. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Optimized Environmental Test Sequences to Ensure the Sustainability and Reliability of Marine Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ho Yang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in the types of marine weapons used in response to diverse hostile threats. However, because marine weapons are only tested under a single set of environmental conditions, failures due to different environmental stresses have been difficult to detect. Hence, this study proposes an environmental test sequence for multi-environment testing. The environmental test sequences for electrical units described in the international standard IEC 60068-1, and for military supply described in the United States national standard MIL-STD-810G were investigated to propose guidelines for the appropriate test sequences. This study demonstrated the need for tests in multiple environments by investigating marine weapon accidents, and evaluated which environmental stresses and test items have the largest impacts on marine weapons using a two-phase quality function deployment (QFD analysis of operational scenarios, environmental stresses, and environmental test items. Integer programming was used to determine the most influential test items and the shortest environmental test time, allowing us to propose optimal test procedures. Based on our analysis, we developed optimal environmental test sequences that could be selected by a test designer.

  14. Reliability metrics extraction for power electronics converter stressed by thermal cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Due to the continuous demands for highly reliable and cost-effective power conversion, the quantified reliability performances of the power electronics converter are becoming emerging needs. The existing reliability modelling approaches for the power electronics converter mainly focuses on the pr...... performance of power electronics system. The final predicted results showed good accuracy with much more reliability information compared to the existing approaches, and the quantified reliability correlation to the mission profiles of converter is mathematically established....

  15. Note: An online testing method for lifetime projection of high power light-emitting diode under accelerated reliability test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Chen, Quan; Luo, Xiaobing

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, due to the fast development of high power light-emitting diode (LED), its lifetime prediction and assessment have become a crucial issue. Although the in situ measurement has been widely used for reliability testing in laser diode community, it has not been applied commonly in LED community. In this paper, an online testing method for LED life projection under accelerated reliability test was proposed and the prototype was built. The optical parametric data were collected. The systematic error and the measuring uncertainty were calculated to be within 0.2% and within 2%, respectively. With this online testing method, experimental data can be acquired continuously and sufficient amount of data can be gathered. Thus, the projection fitting accuracy can be improved (r(2) = 0.954) and testing duration can be shortened.

  16. Five times sit-to-stand test in subjects with total knee replacement: Reliability and relationship with functional mobility tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Vivo-Fernández, Iván; López-Cañizares, Juan; García-Vidal, José A; Benítez-Martínez, Josep Carles; Del Baño-Aledo, María Elena

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to determine the inter-observer and test/retest reliability of the "Five-repetition sit-to-stand" (5STS) test in patients with total knee replacement (TKR). To explore correlation between 5STS and two mobility tests. A reliability study was conducted among 24 (mean age 72.13, S.D. 10.67; 50% were women) outpatients with TKR. They were recruited from a traumatology unit of a public hospital via convenience sampling. A physiotherapist and trauma physician assessed each patient at the same time. The same physiotherapist realized a 5STS second measurement 45-60min after the first one. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots. Pearson coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between 5STS, time up to go test (TUG) and four meters gait speed (4MGS). ICC for inter-observer and test-retest reliability of the 5STS were 0.998 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.995-0.999) and 0.982 (95% CI, 0.959-0.992). Bland-Altman plot inter-observer showed limits between -0.82 and 1.06 with a mean of 0.11 and no heteroscedasticity within the data. Bland-Altman plot for test-retest showed the limits between 1.76 and 4.16, a mean of 1.20 and heteroscedasticity within the data. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed significant correlation between 5STS and TUG (r=0.7, ptest-retest reliability when it is used in people with TKR, and also significant correlation with other functional mobility tests. These findings support the use of 5STS as outcome measure in TKR population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Test your memory-Turkish version (TYM-TR): reliability and validity study of a cognitive screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maviş, Ilknur; Özbabalik Adapinar, Belgin Demet; Yenilmez, Çinar; Aydin, Ayşe; Olgun, Engin; Bal, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    The test your memory (TYM) is reported to be a sensitive cognitive function assessment scale for people with dementia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reliability and validity of an adapted Turkish version of the TYM (TYM-TR) among Turkish dementia patients. The TYM-TR was given to 59 patients with dementia aged 60+ and 336 normal controls aged 23-75+. The diagnostic utility of the TYM-TR was compared with that of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) to validate it. The internal consistency of the TYM-TR was a = 0.85. The test-retest reliability was 0.97 (P reliability and validity to distinguish dementia in the Turkish population.

  18. Reliability of externally fixed dynamometry hamstring strength testing in elite youth football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollin, Martin; Purdam, Craig; Drew, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    To investigate inter and intra-tester reliability of an externally fixed dynamometry unilateral hamstring strength test, in the elite sports setting. Reliability study. Sixteen, injury-free, elite male youth football players (age=16.81±0.54 years, height=180.22±5.29cm, weight 73.88±6.54kg, BMI=22.57±1.42) gave written informed consent. Unilateral maximum isometric peak hamstring force was evaluated by externally fixed dynamometry for inter-tester, intra-day and intra-tester, inter-week reliability. The test position was standardised to correlate with the terminal swing phase of the gait running cycle. Inter and intra-tester values demonstrated good to high levels of reliability. The intra-class coefficient (ICC) for inter-tester, intra-day reliability was 0.87 (95% CI=0.75-0.93) with standard error of measure percentage (SEM%) 4.7 and minimal detectable change percentage (MDC%) 12.9. Intra-tester, inter-week reliability results were ICC 0.86 (95% CI, 0.74-0.93), SEM% 5.0 and MDC% 14.0. This study demonstrates good to high inter and intra-tester reliability of isometric externally fixed dynamometry unilateral hamstring strength testing in the regular elite sport setting involving elite male youth football players. The intra-class coefficient in association with the low standard error of measure and minimal detectable change percentages suggest that this procedure is appropriate for clinical and academic use as well as monitoring hamstring strength in the elite sport setting. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stress Testing of Transactional Database Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Meira , Jorge Augusto; Cunha De Almeida , Eduardo; Sunyé , Gerson; Le Traon , Yves; Valduriez , Patrick

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Transactional database management systems (DBMS) have been successful at supporting traditional transaction processing workloads. However, web-based applications that tend to generate huge numbers of concurrent business operations are pushing DBMS performance over their limits, thus threatening overall system availability. Then, a crucial question is how to test DBMS performance under heavy workload conditions. Answering this question requires a testing methodology to ...

  20. Impact on participation and autonomy: test of validity and reliability for older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ottenvall Hammar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In research and healthcare it is important to measure older persons’ self-determination in order to improve their possibilities to decide for themselves in daily life. The questionnaire Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA assesses self-determination, but is not constructed for older persons. The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the IPA-S questionnaire for persons aged 70 years and older. The study was performed in two steps; first a validity test of the Swedish version of the questionnaire, IPA-S, followed by a reliability test-retest of an adjusted version. The validity was tested with focus groups and individual interviews on persons aged 77-88 years, and the reliability on persons aged 70-99 years. The validity test result showed that IPA-S is valid for older persons but it was too extensive and the phrasing of the items needed adjustments. The reliability test-retest on the adjusted questionnaire, IPA-Older persons (IPA-O, showed that 15 of 22 items had high agreement. IPA-O can be used to measure older persons’ self-determination in their care and rehabilitation.

  1. Reliability and smallest real difference of the ankle lunge test post ankle fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simondson, David; Brock, Kim; Cotton, Susan

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the reliability and the smallest real difference of the Ankle Lunge test in an ankle fracture patient population. In the post immobilisation stage of ankle fracture, ankle dorsiflexion is an important measure of progress and outcome. The Ankle Lunge test measures weight bearing dorsiflexion, resulting in negative scores (knee to wall distance) and positive scores (toe to wall distance), for which the latter has proven reliability in normal subjects only. A consecutive sample of ankle fracture patients with permission to commence weight bearing, were recruited to the study. Three measurements of the Ankle Lunge Test were performed each by two raters, one senior and one junior physiotherapist. These occurred prior to therapy sessions in the second week after plaster removal. A standardised testing station was utilised and allowed for both knee to wall distance and toe to wall distance measurement. Data was collected from 10 individuals with ankle fracture, with an average age of 36 years (SD 14.8). Seventy seven percent of observations were negative. Intra and inter-rater reliability yielded intra class correlations at or above 0.97, p Ankle Lunge test is a practical and reliable tool for measuring weightbearing dorsiflexion post ankle fracture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Mental Disability Military Assessment Tool : A Reliable Tool for Determining Disability in Veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens, Andrea S.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Popping, Roel; Stewart, Roy E.; van de Ven, Lex; Brouwer, Sandra; Tuinstra, Jolanda

    Purpose An assessment tool was developed to assess disability in veterans who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to a military mission. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability, intra-rater and inter-rater variation of the Mental Disability Military (MDM)

  3. The Mental Disability Military Assessment Tool : A reliable tool for determining disability in veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens, A.S.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Popping, R.; Stewart, S.E.; van de Ven, L.; Brouwer, S.; Tuinstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose An assessment tool was developed to assess disability in veterans who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to a military mission. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability, intra-rater and inter-rater variation of the Mental Disability Military (MDM)

  4. Reliability of Health-Related Physical Fitness Tests among Colombian Children and Adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence indicates that youth physical fitness levels are an important marker of lifestyle and cardio-metabolic health profiles and predict future risk of chronic diseases. The reliability physical fitness tests have not been explored in Latino-American youth population. This study's aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in the Colombian health promotion "Fuprecol study". Participants were 229 Colombian youth (boys n = 124 and girls n = 105 aged 9 to 17.9 years old. Five components of health-related physical fitness were measured: 1 morphological component: height, weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, and body fat (% via impedance; 2 musculoskeletal component: handgrip and standing long jump test; 3 motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run; 4 flexibility component (hamstring and lumbar extensibility, sit-and-reach test; 5 cardiorespiratory component: 20-meter shuttle-run test (SRT to estimate maximal oxygen consumption. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week, except for the SRT which was performed only once. Intra-observer technical errors of measurement (TEMs and inter-rater (reliability were assessed in the morphological component. Reliability for the Musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness components was examined using Bland-Altman tests. For the morphological component, TEMs were small and reliability was greater than 95% of all cases. For the musculoskeletal, motor, flexibility and cardiorespiratory components, we found adequate reliability patterns in terms of systematic errors (bias and random error (95% limits of agreement. When the fitness assessments were performed twice, the systematic error was nearly 0 for all tests, except for the sit and reach (mean difference: -1.03% [95% CI = -4.35% to -2.28%]. The results from this study indicate that the

  5. Test-retest reliability of jump execution variables using mechanography: a comparison of jump protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, John S; Johnson, LuAnn; Tomkinson, Grant; Stein, Jesse; Roemmich, James N

    2018-05-01

    Mechanography during the vertical jump may enhance screening and determining mechanistic causes underlying physical performance changes. Utility of jump mechanography for evaluation is limited by scant test-retest reliability data on force-time variables. This study examined the test-retest reliability of eight jump execution variables assessed from mechanography. Thirty-two women (mean±SD: age 20.8 ± 1.3 yr) and 16 men (age 22.1 ± 1.9 yr) attended a familiarization session and two testing sessions, all one week apart. Participants performed two variations of the squat jump with squat depth self-selected and controlled using a goniometer to 80º knee flexion. Test-retest reliability was quantified as the systematic error (using effect size between jumps), random error (using coefficients of variation), and test-retest correlations (using intra-class correlation coefficients). Overall, jump execution variables demonstrated acceptable reliability, evidenced by small systematic errors (mean±95%CI: 0.2 ± 0.07), moderate random errors (mean±95%CI: 17.8 ± 3.7%), and very strong test-retest correlations (range: 0.73-0.97). Differences in random errors between controlled and self-selected protocols were negligible (mean±95%CI: 1.3 ± 2.3%). Jump execution variables demonstrated acceptable reliability, with no meaningful differences between the controlled and self-selected jump protocols. To simplify testing, a self-selected jump protocol can be used to assess force-time variables with negligible impact on measurement error.

  6. Reliability and criterion-related validity testing (construct) of the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool (ESAT©).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kylie; Bulsara, Max K; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Monterosso, Leanne

    2018-05-01

    To establish criterion-related construct validity and test-retest reliability for the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool© (ESAT©). Endotracheal tube suction performed in children can significantly affect clinical stability. Previously identified clinical indicators for endotracheal tube suction were used as criteria when designing the ESAT©. Content validity was reported previously. The final stages of psychometric testing are presented. Observational testing was used to measure construct validity and determine whether the ESAT© could guide "inexperienced" paediatric intensive care nurses' decision-making regarding endotracheal tube suction. Test-retest reliability of the ESAT© was performed at two time points. The researchers and paediatric intensive care nurse "experts" developed 10 hypothetical clinical scenarios with predetermined endotracheal tube suction outcomes. "Experienced" (n = 12) and "inexperienced" (n = 14) paediatric intensive care nurses were presented with the scenarios and the ESAT© guiding decision-making about whether to perform endotracheal tube suction for each scenario. Outcomes were compared with those predetermined by the "experts" (n = 9). Test-retest reliability of the ESAT© was measured at two consecutive time points (4 weeks apart) with "experienced" and "inexperienced" paediatric intensive care nurses using the same scenarios and tool to guide decision-making. No differences were observed between endotracheal tube suction decisions made by "experts" (n = 9), "inexperienced" (n = 14) and "experienced" (n = 12) nurses confirming the tool's construct validity. No differences were observed between groups for endotracheal tube suction decisions at T1 and T2. Criterion-related construct validity and test-retest reliability of the ESAT© were demonstrated. Further testing is recommended to confirm reliability in the clinical setting with the "inexperienced" nurse to guide decision-making related to endotracheal tube

  7. [Stress-corrosion test of TIG welded CP-Ti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Wang, Y; Zhou, Z; Meng, X; Liang, Q; Zhang, X; Zhao, Y

    2000-12-01

    In this study TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welded CP-Ti were subjected to stress-corrosion test under 261 MPa in artificial saliva of 37 degrees C for 3 months. No significant difference was noted on mechanical test (P > 0.05). No color-changed and no micro-crack on the sample's surface yet. These results indicate that TIG welded CP-Ti offers excellent resistance to stress corrosion.

  8. Perform qualify reliability-power tests by shooting common mistakes: practical problems and standard answers per Telcordia/Bellcore requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zheng

    2002-08-01

    Facing the new demands of the optical fiber communications market, almost all the performance and reliability of optical network system are dependent on the qualification of the fiber optics components. So, how to comply with the system requirements, the Telcordia / Bellcore reliability and high-power testing has become the key issue for the fiber optics components manufacturers. The qualification of Telcordia / Bellcore reliability or high-power testing is a crucial issue for the manufacturers. It is relating to who is the outstanding one in the intense competition market. These testing also need maintenances and optimizations. Now, work on the reliability and high-power testing have become the new demands in the market. The way is needed to get the 'Triple-Win' goal expected by the component-makers, the reliability-testers and the system-users. To those who are meeting practical problems for the testing, there are following seven topics that deal with how to shoot the common mistakes to perform qualify reliability and high-power testing: ¸ Qualification maintenance requirements for the reliability testing ¸ Lots control for preparing the reliability testing ¸ Sampling select per the reliability testing ¸ Interim measurements during the reliability testing ¸ Basic referencing factors relating to the high-power testing ¸ Necessity of re-qualification testing for the changing of producing ¸ Understanding the similarity for product family by the definitions

  9. Test-retest reliability of myofascial trigger point detection in hip and thigh areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, E; Finestone, A S; Moran, U; Damri, E; Kalichman, L

    2017-10-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrP's) are a primary source of pain in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Nevertheless, they are frequently underdiagnosed. Reliable MTrP palpation is the necessary for their diagnosis and treatment. The few studies that have looked for intra-tester reliability of MTrPs detection in upper body, provide preliminary evidence that MTrP palpation is reliable. Reliability tests for MTrP palpation on the lower limb have not yet been performed. To evaluate inter- and intra-tester reliability of MTrP recognition in hip and thigh muscles. Reliability study. 21 patients (15 males and 6 females, mean age 21.1 years) referred to the physical therapy clinic, 10 with knee or hip pain and 11 with pain in an upper limb, low back, shin or ankle. Two experienced physical therapists performed the examinations, blinded to the subjects' identity, medical condition and results of the previous MTrP evaluation. Each subject was evaluated four times, twice by each examiner in a random order. Dichotomous findings included a palpable taut band, tenderness, referred pain, and relevance of referred pain to patient's complaint. Based on these, diagnosis of latent MTrP's or active MTrP's was established. The evaluation was performed on both legs and included a total of 16 locations in the following muscles: rectus femoris (proximal), vastus medialis (middle and distal), vastus lateralis (middle and distal) and gluteus medius (anterior, posterior and distal). Inter- and intra-tester reliability (Cohen's kappa (κ)) values for single sites ranged from -0.25 to 0.77. Median intra-tester reliability was 0.45 and 0.46 for latent and active MTrP's, and median inter-tester reliability was 0.51 and 0.64 for latent and active MTrPs, respectively. The examination of the distal vastus medialis was most reliable for latent and active MTrP's (intra-tester k = 0.27-0.77, inter-tester k = 0.77 and intra-tester k = 0.53-0.72, inter-tester k = 0.72, correspondingly

  10. Publishing nutrition research: validity, reliability, and diagnostic test assessment in nutrition-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Philip M; Harris, Jeffrey; Sheean, Patricia M; Boushey, Carol J; Bruemmer, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    This is the sixth in a series of monographs on research design and analysis. The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss several concepts related to the measurement of nutrition-related characteristics and outcomes, including validity, reliability, and diagnostic tests. The article reviews the methodologic issues related to capturing the various aspects of a given nutrition measure's reliability, including test-retest, inter-item, and interobserver or inter-rater reliability. Similarly, it covers content validity, indicators of absolute vs relative validity, and internal vs external validity. With respect to diagnostic assessment, the article summarizes the concepts of sensitivity and specificity. The hope is that dietetics practitioners will be able to both use high-quality measures of nutrition concepts in their research and recognize these measures in research completed by others. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reliability of a science admission test (HAM-Nat) at Hamburg medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissbach, Johanna; Klusmann, Dietrich; Hampe, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The University Hospital in Hamburg (UKE) started to develop a test of knowledge in natural sciences for admission to medical school in 2005 (Hamburger Auswahlverfahren für Medizinische Studiengänge, Naturwissenschaftsteil, HAM-Nat). This study is a step towards establishing the HAM-Nat. We are investigating parallel forms reliability, the effect of a crash course in chemistry on test results, and correlations of HAM-Nat test results with a test of scientific reasoning (similar to a subtest of the "Test for Medical Studies", TMS). 316 first-year students participated in the study in 2007. They completed different versions of the HAM-Nat test which consisted of items that had already been used (HN2006) and new items (HN2007). Four weeks later half of the participants were tested on the HN2007 version of the HAM-Nat again, while the other half completed the test of scientific reasoning. Within this four week interval students were offered a five day chemistry course. Parallel forms reliability for four different test versions ranged from r(tt)=.53 to r(tt)=.67. The retest reliabilities of the HN2007 halves were r(tt)=.54 and r(tt )=.61. Correlations of the two HAM-Nat versions with the test of scientific reasoning were r=.34 und r=.21. The crash course in chemistry had no effect on HAM-Nat scores. The results suggest that further versions of the test of natural sciences will not easily conform to the standards of internal consistency, parallel-forms reliability and retest reliability. Much care has to be taken in order to assemble items which could be used interchangeably for the construction of new test versions. The test of scientific reasoning and the HAM-Nat are tapping different constructs. Participation in a chemistry course did not improve students' achievement, probably because the content of the course was not coordinated with the test and many students lacked of motivation to do well in the second test.

  12. [Attempt for development of rapid word reading test for children--evaluation of reliability and validity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ryusaku; Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Shuhei

    2008-09-01

    We developed a rapid word reading test for examining the phonological processing ability of Japanese children. We prepared two versions of the test, version A and B. Each test has word and non-word tasks. Twenty-two healthy boys of third grade in primary schools participated in this validation study. For criterion related validity, we performed the serial Hiragana reading test, the sentence reading test, Raven's coloured progressive matrices (RCPM), the Token test for children, the Kana word dictation test, the standardized comprehension test of abstract words (SCTAW), and Trail Circle test. The reading times of the newly developed test correlated moderately or highly with those of the serial Hiragana reading test and the sentence reading test. However, the scores of the other tests (RCPM, Token test for children, Kana word dictation test, SCTAW, Trail Circle test) did not correlated with the reading time of the rapid word reading test. Test-retest reliabilities in the word tasks were more than moderate: 0.52 and 0.76 in versions A and B, while those in the non-word tasks were high: 0.91 and 0.88 in versions A and B. The correlation coefficient between versions A and B was 0.7 for the word tasks and 0.92 for the non-word tasks. This study showed that the rapid word reading test has substantial validity and reliability for testing the phonological processing ability of Japanese children. In addition, the non-word tasks were more suitable for selectively examining the speed of the grapheme to phoneme conversion process.

  13. Reliability and validity of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 in Hispanic Americans with English or Spanish language preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Sharon H; Fox, Rina S; Mills, Sarah D; Roesch, Scott C; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Klonoff, Elizabeth A; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 among 436 community-dwelling Hispanic Americans with English or Spanish language preference. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis examined the factorial invariance of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 across language groups. Results supported a two-factor model (negative, positive) with equivalent response patterns and item intercepts but different factor covariances across languages. Internal consistency reliability of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 total and subscale scores was good in both language groups. Convergent validity was supported by expected relationships of Perceived Stress Scale-10 scores to measures of anxiety and depression. These results support the use of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 among Hispanic Americans.

  14. Reliability assessment for metallized film pulse capacitors with accelerated degradation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianyin; Liu Fang; Xi Wenjun; He Shaobo; Wei Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    The high energy density self-healing metallized film pulse capacitor has been applied to all kinds of laser facilities for their power conditioning systems, whose reliability is straightforward affected by the reliability level of capacitors. Reliability analysis of highly reliable devices, such as metallized film capacitors, is a challenge due to cost and time restriction. Accelerated degradation test provides a way to predict its life cost and time effectively. A model and analyses for accelerated degradation data of metallized film capacitors are described. Also described is a method for estimating the distribution of failure time. The estimation values of the unknown parameters in this model are 9.066 9 x 10 -8 and 0.022 1. Both the failure probability density function (PDF) and the cumulative distribution function (CDF) can be presented by this degradation failure model. Based on these estimation values and the PDF/CDF, the reliability model of the metallized film capacitors is obtained. According to the reliability model, the probability of the capacitors surviving to 20 000 shot is 0.972 4. (authors)

  15. Testing the reliability of the Fall Risk Screening Tool in an elderly ambulatory population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Susan J; McKay, Michael; Hyrkas, Kristiina

    2013-11-01

    To identify and test the reliability of a fall risk screening tool in an ambulatory outpatient clinic. The Fall Risk Screening Tool (Albert Lea Medical Center, MN, USA) was scripted for an interview format. Two interviewers separately screened a convenience sample of 111 patients (age ≥ 65 years) in an ambulatory outpatient clinic in a northeastern US city. The interviewers' scoring of fall risk categories was similar. There was good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.834-0.889) and inter-rater reliability [intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) = 0.824-0.881] for total, Risk Factor and Client's Health Status subscales. The Physical Environment scores indicated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.742) and adequate reliability (ICC = 0.688). Two Physical Environment items (furniture and medical equipment condition) had low reliabilities [Kappa (K) = 0.323, P = 0.08; K = -0.078, P = 0.648), respectively. The scripted Fall Risk Screening Tool demonstrated good reliability in this sample. Rewording two Physical Environment items will be considered. A reliable instrument such as the scripted Fall Risk Screening Tool provides a standardised assessment for identifying high fall risk patients. This tool is especially useful because it assesses personal, behavioural and environmental factors specific to community-dwelling patients; the interview format also facilitates patient-provider interaction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Reliable Decentralized Control of Fuzzy Discrete-Event Systems and a Test Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuchun; Dziong, Zbigniew

    2013-02-01

    A framework for decentralized control of fuzzy discrete-event systems (FDESs) has been recently presented to guarantee the achievement of a given specification under the joint control of all local fuzzy supervisors. As a continuation, this paper addresses the reliable decentralized control of FDESs in face of possible failures of some local fuzzy supervisors. Roughly speaking, for an FDES equipped with n local fuzzy supervisors, a decentralized supervisor is called k-reliable (1 ≤ k ≤ n) provided that the control performance will not be degraded even when n - k local fuzzy supervisors fail. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of k-reliable decentralized supervisors of FDESs is proposed by introducing the notions of M̃uc-controllability and k-reliable coobservability of fuzzy language. In particular, a polynomial-time algorithm to test the k-reliable coobservability is developed by a constructive methodology, which indicates that the existence of k-reliable decentralized supervisors of FDESs can be checked with a polynomial complexity.

  17. Time, stress, and temperature-dependent deformation in nanostructured copper: Stress relaxation tests and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xu-Sheng; Wang, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Guo-Yong; Zhai, Hui-Ru; Dai, L.H.; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, stress relaxation tests, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted on coarse-grained (cg), nanograined (ng), and nanotwinned (nt) copper at temperatures of 22 °C (RT), 30 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C, and 75 °C. The comprehensive investigations provide sufficient information for the building-up of a formula to describe the time, stress, and temperature-dependent deformation and clarify the relationship among the strain rate sensitivity parameter, stress exponent, and activation volume. The typically experimental curves of logarithmic plastic strain rate versus stress exhibited a three staged relaxation process from a linear high stress relaxation region to a subsequent nonlinear stress relaxation region and finally to a linear low stress relaxation region, which only showed-up at the test temperatures higher than 22 °C, 22 °C, and 30 °C, respectively, in the tested cg-, ng-, and nt-Cu specimens. The values of stress exponent, stress-independent activation energy, and activation volume were determined from the experimental data in the two linear regions. The determined activation parameters, HRTEM images, and MD simulations consistently suggest that dislocation-mediated plastic deformation is predominant in all tested cg-, ng-, and nt-Cu specimens in the initial linear high stress relaxation region at the five relaxation temperatures, whereas in the linear low stress relaxation region, the grain boundary (GB) diffusion-associated deformation is dominant in the ng- and cg-Cu specimens, while twin boundary (TB) migration, i.e., twinning and detwinning with parallel partial dislocations, governs the time, stress, and temperature-dependent deformation in the nt-Cu specimens.

  18. Clinical Functional Capacity Testing in Patients With Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy: Construct Validity and Interrater Reliability of Antigravity Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijken, Noortje H; van Engelen, Baziel G; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Geurts, Alexander C

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the construct validity and interrater reliability of 4 simple antigravity tests in a small group of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). Case-control study. University medical center. Patients with various severity levels of FSHD (n=9) and healthy control subjects (n=10) were included (N=19). Not applicable. A 4-point ordinal scale was designed to grade performance on the following 4 antigravity tests: sit to stance, stance to sit, step up, and step down. In addition, the 6-minute walk test, 10-m walking test, Berg Balance Scale, and timed Up and Go test were administered as conventional tests. Construct validity was determined by linear regression analysis using the Clinical Severity Score (CSS) as the dependent variable. Interrater agreement was tested using a κ analysis. Patients with FSHD performed worse on all 4 antigravity tests compared with the controls. Stronger correlations were found within than between test categories (antigravity vs conventional). The antigravity tests revealed the highest explained variance with regard to the CSS (R(2)=.86, P=.014). Interrater agreement was generally good. The results of this exploratory study support the construct validity and interrater reliability of the proposed antigravity tests for the assessment of functional capacity in patients with FSHD taking into account the use of compensatory strategies. Future research should further validate these results in a larger sample of patients with FSHD. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Machine Learning Approach for Software Reliability Growth Modeling with Infinite Testing Effort Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subburaj Ramasamy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability is one of the quantifiable software quality attributes. Software Reliability Growth Models (SRGMs are used to assess the reliability achieved at different times of testing. Traditional time-based SRGMs may not be accurate enough in all situations where test effort varies with time. To overcome this lacuna, test effort was used instead of time in SRGMs. In the past, finite test effort functions were proposed, which may not be realistic as, at infinite testing time, test effort will be infinite. Hence in this paper, we propose an infinite test effort function in conjunction with a classical Nonhomogeneous Poisson Process (NHPP model. We use Artificial Neural Network (ANN for training the proposed model with software failure data. Here it is possible to get a large set of weights for the same model to describe the past failure data equally well. We use machine learning approach to select the appropriate set of weights for the model which will describe both the past and the future data well. We compare the performance of the proposed model with existing model using practical software failure data sets. The proposed log-power TEF based SRGM describes all types of failure data equally well and also improves the accuracy of parameter estimation more than existing TEF and can be used for software release time determination as well.

  20. Temporal Stability of Strength-Based Assessments: Test-Retest Reliability of Student and Teacher Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Natalie; Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on evaluating the temporal stability of self-reported and teacher-reported perceptions of students' social and emotional skills and assets. We used a test-retest reliability procedure over repeated administrations of the child, adolescent, and teacher versions of the "Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales".…

  1. Dynamic control of the lumbopelvic complex; lack of reliability of established test procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Bliddal, Henning

    2007-01-01

    used in order to account for learning effects. Intraclass correlation coefficients were low for the sitting (0.54) and supported standing positions (0.36). In the standing position, a significant difference between test and retest was observed (P = 0.003) and further reliability analysis was therefore...

  2. Methodology for performing RF reliability experiments on a generic test structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasse, G.T.; de Vries, Rein J.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses a new technique developed for generating well defined RF large voltage swing signals for on wafer experiments. This technique can be employed for performing a broad range of different RF reliability experiments on one generic test structure. The frequency dependence of a

  3. Test-Retest Reliability of Self-Reported Sexual Health Measures among US Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Petra; Berglas, Nancy F.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although Hispanic adolescents in the USA are often the focus of sexual health interventions, their response to survey measures has rarely been assessed within evaluation studies. This study documents the test-retest reliability of a wide range of self-reported sexual health values, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours among Hispanic…

  4. Influence of test reliability on the screening performance of frequency-doubling perimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeg, GP; Jansonius, NM

    PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of test reliability on the screening performance of frequency,doubling perimetry (FDT). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: FDT sensitivity and specificity were calculated three times using three different strategies for handling unreliable (that is, > 0

  5. Factor Structure and Reliability of Test Items for Saudi Teacher Licence Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadaawi, Abdullah Saleh

    2017-01-01

    The Saudi National Assessment Centre administers the Computer Science Teacher Test for teacher certification. The aim of this study is to explore gender differences in candidates' scores, and investigate dimensionality, reliability, and differential item functioning using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory. The confirmatory…

  6. Test-retest reliability of joint position and kinesthetic sense in the elbow of healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, B.; Lund, Hans Aage; Hansen, K.

    2008-01-01

    Proprioception is an important effect measure in neuromuscular function training in physiotherapy. Reliability studies of methods for measuring proprioception are few on joint position sense (JPS) and threshold to detection of a passive movement (TDPM) on the elbow. The aim was to study test-rete...

  7. Test-Retest Reliability of the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Helen Link; Erkanli, Alaattin; Keeler, Gordon; Potts, Edward; Walter, Barbara Keith; Angold, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the test-retest reliability of a new interviewer-based psychiatric diagnostic measure (the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment) for use with parents of preschoolers 2 to 5 years old. Method: A total of 1,073 parents of children attending a large pediatric clinic completed the Child Behavior Checklist 1 1/2-5. For 18 months,…

  8. The navicular position test - a reliable measure of the navicular bone position during rest and loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Dåsberg, Brian; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2011-01-01

    Lower limb injuries are a large problem in athletes. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the relationship between alignment of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) of the foot and development of such injuries. A reliable and valid test to quantify foot type is needed to be able to investiga...

  9. Reliability and sensitivity to change of the timed standing balance test in children with down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vencita Priyanka Aranha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the reliability and sensitivity to change of the timed standing balance test in children with Down syndrome (DS. Methods: It was a nonblinded, comparison study with a convenience sample of subjects consisting of children with DS (n = 9 aged 8–17 years. The main outcome measure was standing balance which was assessed using timed standing balance test, the time required to maintain in four conditions, eyes open static, eyes closed static, eyes open dynamic, and eyes closed dynamic. Results: Relative reliability was excellent for all four conditions with an Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC ranging from 0.91 to 0.93. The variation between repeated measurements for each condition was minimal with standard error of measurement (SEM of 0.21–0.59 s, suggestive of excellent absolute reliability. The sensitivity to change as measured by smallest real change (SRC was 1.27 s for eyes open static, 1.63 s for eyes closed static, 0.58 s for eyes open dynamic, and 0.61 s for eyes closed static. Conclusions: Timed standing balance test is an easy to administer test and sensitive to change with strong absolute and relative reliabilities, an important first step in establishing its utility as a clinical balance measure in children with DS.

  10. The Reliability of Results from National Tests, Public Examinations, and Vocational Qualifications in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingping; Opposs, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    National tests, public examinations, and vocational qualifications in England are used for a variety of purposes, including the certification of individual learners in different subject areas and the accountability of individual professionals and institutions. However, there has been ongoing debate about the reliability and validity of their…

  11. Test-retest reliability of the Military Pre-training Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M; Stokes, K; Bilzon, J; Standage, M; Brown, P; Thompson, D

    2010-09-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a significant cause of morbidity during military training. A brief, inexpensive and user-friendly tool that demonstrates reliability and validity is warranted to effectively monitor the relationship between multiple predictor variables and injury incidence in military populations. To examine the test-retest reliability of the Military Pre-training Questionnaire (MPQ), designed specifically to assess risk factors for injury among military trainees across five domains (physical activity, injury history, diet, alcohol and smoking). Analyses were based on a convenience sample of 58 male British Army trainees. Kappa (kappa), weighted kappa (kappa(w)) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to evaluate the 2-week test-retest reliability of the MPQ. For index measures constituting the assessment of a given construct, internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha (alpha) coefficients. Reliability of individual items ranged from poor to almost perfect (kappa range = 0.45-0.86; kappa(w) range = 0.11-0.91; ICC range = 0.34-0.86) with most items demonstrating moderate reliability. Overall scores related to physical activity, diet, alcohol and smoking constructs were reliable between both administrations (ICC = 0.63-0.85). Support for the internal consistency of the incorporated alcohol (alpha = 0.78) and cigarette (alpha = 0.75) scales was also provided. The MPQ is a reliable self-report instrument for assessing multiple injury-related risk factors during initial military training. Further assessment of the psychometric properties of the MPQ (e.g. different types of validity) with military populations/samples will support its interpretation and use in future surveillance and epidemiological studies.

  12. Test-retest reliability of the 40 Hz EEG auditory steady-state response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina L McFadden

    Full Text Available Auditory evoked steady-state responses are increasingly being used as a marker of brain function and dysfunction in various neuropsychiatric disorders, but research investigating the test-retest reliability of this response is lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess the consistency of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR across sessions. Furthermore, the current study aimed to investigate how the reliability of the ASSR is impacted by stimulus parameters and analysis method employed. The consistency of this response across two sessions spaced approximately 1 week apart was measured in nineteen healthy adults using electroencephalography (EEG. The ASSR was entrained by both 40 Hz amplitude-modulated white noise and click train stimuli. Correlations between sessions were assessed with two separate analytical techniques: a channel-level analysis across the whole-head array and b signal-space projection from auditory dipoles. Overall, the ASSR was significantly correlated between sessions 1 and 2 (p<0.05, multiple comparison corrected, suggesting adequate test-retest reliability of this response. The current study also suggests that measures of inter-trial phase coherence may be more reliable between sessions than measures of evoked power. Results were similar between the two analysis methods, but reliability varied depending on the presented stimulus, with click train stimuli producing more consistent responses than white noise stimuli.

  13. Pitfalls and important issues in testing reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients in orthopaedic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Jaebong; Chung, Chin Youb; Ahn, Soyeon; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Kim, Tae Won; Lee, Hui Jong; Park, Moon Seok

    2012-06-01

    Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) provide a statistical means of testing the reliability. However, their interpretation is not well documented in the orthopedic field. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of ICCs in the orthopedic literature and to demonstrate pitfalls regarding their use. First, orthopedic articles that used ICCs were retrieved from the Pubmed database, and journal demography, ICC models and concurrent statistics used were evaluated. Second, reliability test was performed on three common physical examinations in cerebral palsy, namely, the Thomas test, the Staheli test, and popliteal angle measurement. Thirty patients were assessed by three orthopedic surgeons to explore the statistical methods testing reliability. Third, the factors affecting the ICC values were examined by simulating the data sets based on the physical examination data where the ranges, slopes, and interobserver variability were modified. Of the 92 orthopedic articles identified, 58 articles (63%) did not clarify the ICC model used, and only 5 articles (5%) described all models, types, and measures. In reliability testing, although the popliteal angle showed a larger mean absolute difference than the Thomas test and the Staheli test, the ICC of popliteal angle was higher, which was believed to be contrary to the context of measurement. In addition, the ICC values were affected by the model, type, and measures used. In simulated data sets, the ICC showed higher values when the range of data sets were larger, the slopes of the data sets were parallel, and the interobserver variability was smaller. Care should be taken when interpreting the absolute ICC values, i.e., a higher ICC does not necessarily mean less variability because the ICC values can also be affected by various factors. The authors recommend that researchers clarify ICC models used and ICC values are interpreted in the context of measurement.

  14. Reliability of nondestructive testing of metal strength properties for power equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaj, N.V.; Lebedev, A.A.; Sharko, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasonic control which is a constituent part of a complex control system which includes specimen-free (by hardness) tests, random breaking tests and acoustic measurements is stUdied for its reliability with respect to strength properties of power-equipment metal. Quantitative and alternative criteria are developed to estimate quality of elements for power-equipment according to results of metal strength properties. Acoustic control results are presented for ultimate strength in 12Kh1MF-steel

  15. Reliability and parameterization of Romberg Test in people who have suffered a stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Cruzado, David; Gonzalez Sanchez, Manuel; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the reliability and describe the parameterization with inertial sensors, of Romberg test in people who have had a stroke. METHODS: Romberg's Test was performed during 20 seconds in four different setting, depending from supporting leg and position of the eyes (opened eyes / dominant leg; closed eyes / dominant leg; opened eyes / non-dominant leg; closed eyes / non-dominant leg) in people who have suffered a stroke over a year ago. Two inertial sensors (sampli...

  16. Development of a Saudi Food Frequency Questionnaire and testing its reliability and validity

    OpenAIRE

    Gosadi, Ibrahim M.; Alatar, Abdullah A.; Otayf, Mojahed M.; AlJahani, Dhaherah M.; Ghabbani, Hisham M.; AlRajban, Waleed A.; Alrsheed, Abdullah M.; Al-Nasser, Khalid A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To create a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed to capture the dietary habits of Saudis and test its validity and reliability. Methods: This investigation is a longitudinal, test-retest study conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between December 2015 and March 2016. A list of 140 food items was included in the questionnaire where a closed-ended and open-ended approach was used. Regarding past year food frequency consumption and 24 hours...

  17. Triaxial Wetting Test on Rockfill Materials under Stress Combination Conditions of Spherical Stress p and Deviatoric Stress q

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yi Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A GCTS medium-sized triaxial apparatus is used to conduct a single-line method wetting test on three kinds of rockfill materials of different mother rocks such as mixture of sandstone and slate, and dolomite and granite, and the test stress conditions is the combination of spherical stress p and deviatoric stress q. The test results show that (1 for wetting shear strain, the effects of spherical stress p and deviatoric stress q are equivalent, and wetting shear strain and deviatoric stress q show the power function relationship preferably. (2 For wetting volumetric strain, the effect of deviatoric stress q can be neglected because it is extremely insignificant, and spherical stress p is the main influencing factor and shows the power function relationship preferably. (3 The wetting strains decrease significantly with the increase in initial water content and sample density generally, but the excessively high dry density will increase the wetting deformation. Also, the wetting strains will decrease with the increase in the saturated uniaxial compressive strength and average softening coefficient of the mother rock. Based on the test results, a wetting strain model is proposed for rockfill materials. The verification results indicate that the model satisfactorily reflects the development law of wetting deformation.

  18. The prone bridge test: Performance, validity, and reliability among older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Richard W; Steffl, Michal; Glenney, Susan S; Green, Michelle; Cashwell, Leah; Prajerova, Kveta; Bunn, Jennifer

    2018-04-01

    The prone bridge maneuver, or plank, has been viewed as a potential alternative to curl-ups for assessing trunk muscle performance. The purpose of this study was to assess prone bridge test performance, validity, and reliability among younger and older adults. Sixty younger (20-35 years old) and 60 older (60-79 years old) participants completed this study. Groups were evenly divided by sex. Participants completed surveys regarding physical activity and abdominal exercise participation. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were measured. On two occasions, 5-9 days apart, participants held a prone bridge until volitional exhaustion or until repeated technique failure. Validity was examined using data from the first session: convergent validity by calculating correlations between survey responses, anthropometrics, and prone bridge time, known groups validity by using an ANOVA comparing bridge times of younger and older adults and of men and women. Test-retest reliability was examined by using a paired t-test to compare prone bridge times for Session1 and Session 2. Furthermore, an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to characterize relative reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC 95% ) was used to describe absolute reliability. The mean prone bridge time was 145.3 ± 71.5 s, and was positively correlated with physical activity participation (p ≤ 0.001) and negatively correlated with BMI and waist circumference (p ≤ 0.003). Younger participants had significantly longer plank times than older participants (p = 0.003). The ICC between testing sessions was 0.915. The prone bridge test is a valid and reliable measure for evaluating abdominal performance in both younger and older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Test-Retest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of the D2 Test of Attention in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Posen; Lu, Wen-Shian; Liu, Chin-Hsuan; Lin, Hung-Yu; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2017-12-08

    The d2 Test of Attention (D2) is a commonly used measure of selective attention for patients with schizophrenia. However, its test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) are unknown in patients with schizophrenia, limiting its utility in both clinical and research settings. The aim of the present study was to examine the test-retest reliability and MDC of the D2 in patients with schizophrenia. A rater administered the D2 on 108 patients with schizophrenia twice at a 1-month interval. Test-retest reliability was determined through the calculation of the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). We also carried out Bland-Altman analysis, which included a scatter plot of the differences between test and retest against their mean. Systematic biases were evaluated by use of a paired t-test. The ICCs for the D2 ranged from 0.78 to 0.94. The MDCs (MDC%) of the seven subscores were 102.3 (29.7), 19.4 (85.0), 7.2 (94.6), 21.0 (69.0), 104.0 (33.1), 105.0 (35.8), and 7.8 (47.8), which represented limited-to-acceptable random measurement error. Trends in the Bland-Altman plots of the omissions (E1), commissions (E2), and errors (E) were noted, presenting that the data had heteroscedasticity. According to the results, the D2 had good test-retest reliability, especially in the scores of TN, TN-E, and CP. For the further research, finding a way to improve the administration procedure to reduce random measurement error would be important for the E1, E2, E, and FR subscores. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Seismic proving tests on the reliability for large components and equipment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Tokue; Tanaka, Nagatoshi

    1988-01-01

    Since Japan has destructive earthquakes frequently, the structural reliability for large components and equipment of nuclear power plants are rigorously required. They are designed using sophisticated seismic analyses and have not yet encountered a destructive earthquake. When nuclear power plants are planned, it is very important that the general public understand the structural reliability during and after an earthquake. Seismic Proving Tests have been planned by Ministry of International Trade and Industry (Miti) to comply with public requirement in Japan. A large-scale high-performance vibration table was constructed at Tasted Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NU PEC), in order to prove the structural reliability by vibrating the test model (of full scale or close to the actual size) in the condition of a destructive earthquake. As for the test models, the following four items were selected out of large components and equipment important to the safety: Reactor Containment Vessel; Primary Coolant Loop or Primary Loop Recirculation System; Reactor Pressure Vessel; and Reactor Core Internals. Here is described a brief of the vibration table, the test method and the results of the tests on PWR Reactor Containment Vessel and BWR Primary Loop Recirculation System (author)

  1. Meeting Human Reliability Requirements through Human Factors Design, Testing, and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    In the design of novel systems, it is important for the human factors engineer to work in parallel with the human reliability analyst to arrive at the safest achievable design that meets design team safety goals and certification or regulatory requirements. This paper introduces the System Development Safety Triptych, a checklist of considerations for the interplay of human factors and human reliability through design, testing, and modeling in product development. This paper also explores three phases of safe system development, corresponding to the conception, design, and implementation of a system.

  2. Reliability of Autonomic Responses and Malaise Across Multiple Motion Sickness Stimulation Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Cynthia S.; Toscano, William B.; Cowings, Patricia S.

    1993-01-01

    There is general agreement that a high degree of variability exists between subjects in their autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness stimulation. Additionally, a paucity of data exists that examines the variability within an individual across repeated motion sickness tests. Investigators have also examined the relationship of autonomic responses to motion sickness development. These investigations have used analyses at discrete points in time to describe this relationship. This approach fails to address the time course of autonomic responses and malaise development throughout the motion sickness test. Our objectives were to examine the reliability of autonomic responses and malaise using the final minute of the motion sickness test across five testing occasions, to examine the reliability of the change in autonomic responses and the change in malaise across five testing occasions, and to examine the relationship between changes in autonomic responses and changes in malaise level across the entire motion sickness test. Our results indicate that, based on the final minute of testing, the autonomic responses of heart rate, blood volume pulse, and respiration rate are moderately stable across multiple tests. Changes in heart rate, blood volume pulse, respiration rate, and malaise throughout the test duration were less stable across the tests. We attribute this instability to variations in individual susceptibility and the error associated with estimating a measure of autonomic gain.

  3. Characterization Of Flow Stress Of Different AA6082 Alloys By Means Of Hot Torsion Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donati, Lorenzo; El Mehtedi, Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    FEM simulations are become the most powerful tools in order to optimize the different aspects of the extrusion process and an accurate flow stress definition of the alloy is a prerequisite for a reliable effectiveness of the simulation. In the paper the determination of flow stress by means of hot torsion test is initially presented and discussed: the several approximations that are usually introduced in flow stress computation are described and computed for an AA6082 alloy in order to evidence the final effect on curves shapes. The procedure for regressing the parameters of the sinhyperbolic flow stress definition is described in detailed and applied to the described results. Then four different alloys, extracted by different casting batches but all namely belonging to the 6082 class, were hot torsion tested in comparable levels of temperature and strain rate up to specimen failure. The results are analyzed and discussed in order to understand if a mean flow stress behavior can be identified for the whole material class at the different tested conditions or if specific testing conditions (chemical composition of the alloy, specimen shape, etc) influence the materials properties to a higher degree.

  4. Cornea stress test--evaluation of corneal endothelial function in vivo by contact lens induced stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Jagjit

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and valid assessment of corneal endothelial function is a critical input for diagnosing, prognosticating and monitoring progression of disorders affecting corneal endothelium. In 123 eyes, corneal endothelial function was assessed employing data from the corneal hydration recovery dynamics. Serial pachometric readings were recorded on Haag-Striet pachometer with Mishima-Hedbys modification before and after two hours of thick soft contact lens wear. Percentage Recovery Per Hour (PRPH was derived from raw data as an index of endothelial function. Assessed PRPH in pseudophakic corneal oedema and Fuchs′ endothelial dystrophy eyes (35.9 +/- 9.8% was significantly lower than normal controls (61.9 +/- 10.5%. On employing receiver operation characteristics curve analysis the tested results demonstrated high sensitivity (87% and specificity (92% for detection of low endothelial function at PRPH cut off of 47.5%. Using this PRPH cut off, 80% of Fuchs′ endothelial dystrophy and 93.3% of pseudophakic corneal oedema eyes could be demonstrated to have low endothelial function. A total of 66.7% of diabetic eyes also demonstrated PRPH of lower than 47.5%. Clear corneal grafts demonstrated PRPH values of 24.6% to 73.0%. Of 6 corneal grafts that demonstrated initial PRPH of lower than 47.5%, 4 failed within 4 to 6 months. Our data demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity of this corneal stress test. PRPH index was useful in quantifying endothelial function in clinical disorders including diabetes mellitus. The index PRPH was demonstrated to be useful in monitoring and prognosticating outcome of corneal grafts.

  5. Test-retest reliability and practice effects of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ada H Y; Humphreys, Michael; Byrne, Gerard J; Pachana, Nancy A

    2012-09-01

    Although serial administration of cognitive tests is increasingly common, there is a paucity of research on test-retest reliabilities and practice effects, both of which are important for evaluating changes in functioning. Reliability is generally conceptualized as involving short-lasting changes in performance. However, when repeated testing occurs over a period of years, there will be some longer lasting effects. The implications of these longer lasting effects and practice effects on reliability were examined in the context of repeated administrations of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III in 339 community-dwelling women aged 40-79 years over 2 to 7 years. The results showed that Logical Memory and Verbal Paired Associates subtests were consistently the most reliable subtests across the age cohorts. The magnitude of practice effects varied as a function of subtests and age. The largest practice effects were found in the youngest age cohort, especially on the Faces, Logical Memory, and Verbal Paired Associates subtests. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Dipyridamole cerebral flow stress test evaluating ischemic cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu, Y.; Chen, S.; Sun, X.; Liu, S.; Li, W.; Fan, W.; Wang, X.

    2000-01-01

    To detect the clinical value of dipyridamole cerebral blood flow stress test in cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). Nineteen patients (9 male, 10 female, mean age=65) who were diagnosed as CVD were included. One suffered from infarct, two suffered from thrombosis, one feel dizziness. All 4 performed rest and stress test. The other 15 were VBI, 9 of them performed stress test. Rest and stress test were done two-day method using Elscint Apex SP-6 SPECT equipped with low energy all purpose collimator. Rest perfusion imaging was started 30 min after injecting 1.11 GBq 99m Tc-ECD. Dipyridamole stress test was done within one week. 0.56 mg/Kg dipyridamole was injected intravenously during 4 min the same dose of ECD was injected 2 min later. The acquisition started 30 min later with the same parameter. Heart rate, ECG and the patient's complaint were monitored 2 min before and after dipyridamole. After correction for attenuation, transverse, coronal and sagittal slices were reconstructed. Eighteen ROIs were drawn symmetrically on cingulate, frontal, temporal-parietal, temporal, occipital, vision cortex, basal ganglia, superior frontal and parietal on the 3 rd , 6 th , 9 th transverse slices, selecting the contralateral as the reference region. The counts per pixel in each ROI were divided by the counts of the mirror region to obtain the relative uptake ratio. We think it abnormality when the ratio is above 1,1 or below 0.9. The sensitivity for rest and stress rCBF test was compared. rCBF was decreased at 10 of 19 patients (sensitivity 52.6%). 14 had low rCBF after dipyridamole (sensitivity 72.3%), Among the patients who studied stress test, 6 had normal rCBF at rest and low rCBF after stress. The abnormal area was enlarged after dipyridamole for 1 patients, 2 improved and 2 unchanged. 8 of 15 VBI had normal rCBF at rest (sensitivity 53.3%). 9 of 15 VBI performed stress test. rCBF was normal at rest for 5 patients, rCBF was decreased after stress, it was improved for one

  7. A Bayesian reliability evaluation method with integrated accelerated degradation testing and field information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lizhi; Pan, Rong; Li, Xiaoyang; Jiang, Tongmin

    2013-01-01

    Accelerated degradation testing (ADT) is a common approach in reliability prediction, especially for products with high reliability. However, oftentimes the laboratory condition of ADT is different from the field condition; thus, to predict field failure, one need to calibrate the prediction made by using ADT data. In this paper a Bayesian evaluation method is proposed to integrate the ADT data from laboratory with the failure data from field. Calibration factors are introduced to calibrate the difference between the lab and the field conditions so as to predict a product's actual field reliability more accurately. The information fusion and statistical inference procedure are carried out through a Bayesian approach and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. The proposed method is demonstrated by two examples and the sensitivity analysis to prior distribution assumption

  8. Evidence of Reliability and Validity for a Children’s Auditory Continuous Performance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Lasee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Continuous Performance Tests (CPTs are commonly utilized clinical measures of attention and response inhibition. While there have been many studies of CPTs that utilize a visual format, there is considerably less research employing auditory CPTs. The current study provides initial reliability and validity evidence for the Auditory Vigilance Screening Measure (AVSM, a newly developed CPT. Participants included 105 five- to nine-year-old children selected from two rural Midwestern school districts. Reliability data for the AVSM was collected through retesting of 42 participants. Validity was evaluated through correlation of AVSM scales with subscales from the ADHD Rating Scale–IV. Test–retest reliability coefficients ranged from .62 to .74 for AVSM subscales. A significant (r = .31 correlation was obtained between the AVSM Impulsivity Scale and teacher ratings of inattention. Limitations and implications for future study are discussed.

  9. Evidences of validity and reliability of the Luria-Nebraska Test for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Franco de Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aimed to verify evidences of validity and reliability of Luria-Nebraska Test for Children (TLN-C, in Portuguese. Three hundred eighty-seven students aged 6–13 years old, with learning difficulties, comprised the study. They were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III and TLN-C; and effect of age differences, as well as accuracy rating by internal consistency were investigated. Age effects were found for all subtests and in the general score, except for receptive speech subtest, even when total IQ effect was controlled. Reliability analysis had satisfactory results (0.79. The TLN-C showed evidences of validity and reliability. Receptive speech subtest requires revision.

  10. Exploring the reliability and validity of the social-moral awareness test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, Alexandra; Dodd, Karen; Pote, Helen; Marlow, Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the validity of the social-moral awareness test (SMAT) a measure designed for assessing socio-moral rule knowledge and reasoning in people with learning disabilities. Comparisons between Theory of Mind and socio-moral reasoning allowed the exploration of construct validity of the tool. Factor structure, reliability and discriminant validity were also assessed. Seventy-one participants with mild-moderate learning disabilities completed the two scales of the SMAT and two False Belief Tasks for Theory of Mind. Reliability of the SMAT was very good, and the scales were shown to be uni-dimensional in factor structure. There was a significant positive relationship between Theory of Mind and both SMAT scales. There is early evidence of the construct validity and reliability of the SMAT. Further assessment of the validity of the SMAT will be required. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Reliability Verification of DBE Environment Simulation Test Facility by using Statistics Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Kyung Nam; Kim, Jong Soeg; Jeong, Sun Chul; Kyung Heum

    2011-01-01

    In the nuclear power plant, all the safety-related equipment including cables under the harsh environment should perform the equipment qualification (EQ) according to the IEEE std 323. There are three types of qualification methods including type testing, operating experience and analysis. In order to environmentally qualify the safety-related equipment using type testing method, not analysis or operation experience method, the representative sample of equipment, including interfaces, should be subjected to a series of tests. Among these tests, Design Basis Events (DBE) environment simulating test is the most important test. DBE simulation test is performed in DBE simulation test chamber according to the postulated DBE conditions including specified high-energy line break (HELB), loss of coolant accident (LOCA), main steam line break (MSLB) and etc, after thermal and radiation aging. Because most DBE conditions have 100% humidity condition, in order to trace temperature and pressure of DBE condition, high temperature steam should be used. During DBE simulation test, if high temperature steam under high pressure inject to the DBE test chamber, the temperature and pressure in test chamber rapidly increase over the target temperature. Therefore, the temperature and pressure in test chamber continue fluctuating during the DBE simulation test to meet target temperature and pressure. We should ensure fairness and accuracy of test result by confirming the performance of DBE environment simulation test facility. In this paper, in order to verify reliability of DBE environment simulation test facility, statistics method is used

  12. Pilot Testing of the NURSE Stress Management Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Colleen; Barrere, Cynthia; Robertson, Sue; Zahourek, Rothlyn; Diaz, Desiree; Lachapelle, Leeanne

    2016-12-01

    Student nurses experience significant stress during their education, which may contribute to illness and alterations in health, poor academic performance, and program attrition. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and potential efficacy of an innovative stress management program in two baccalaureate nursing programs in Connecticut, named NURSE (Nurture nurse, Use resources, foster Resilience, Stress and Environment management), that assists nursing students to develop stress management plans. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods design was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention with 40 junior nursing students. Results from this study provide evidence that the NURSE intervention is highly feasible, and support further testing to examine the effect of the intervention in improving stress management in nursing students. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Identification of conductive hearing loss using air conduction tests alone: reliability and validity of an automatic test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convery, Elizabeth; Keidser, Gitte; Seeto, Mark; Freeston, Katrina; Zhou, Dan; Dillon, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a combination of automatically administered pure-tone audiometry and a tone-in-noise detection task, both delivered via an air conduction (AC) pathway, could reliably and validly predict the presence of a conductive component to the hearing loss. The authors hypothesized that performance on the battery of tests would vary according to hearing loss type. A secondary objective was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a novel automatic audiometry algorithm to assess its suitability for inclusion in the test battery. Participants underwent a series of hearing assessments that were conducted in a randomized order: manual pure-tone air conduction audiometry and bone conduction audiometry; automatic pure-tone air conduction audiometry; and an automatic tone-in-noise detection task. The automatic tests were each administered twice. The ability of the automatic test battery to: (a) predict the presence of an air-bone gap (ABG); and (b) accurately measure AC hearing thresholds was assessed against the results of manual audiometry. Test-retest conditions were compared to determine the reliability of each component of the automatic test battery. Data were collected on 120 ears from normal-hearing and conductive, sensorineural, and mixed hearing-loss subgroups. Performance differences between different types of hearing loss were observed. Ears with a conductive component (conductive and mixed ears) tended to have normal signal to noise ratios (SNR) despite impaired thresholds in quiet, while ears without a conductive component (normal and sensorineural ears) demonstrated, on average, an increasing relationship between their thresholds in quiet and their achieved SNR. Using the relationship between these two measures among ears with no conductive component as a benchmark, the likelihood that an ear has a conductive component can be estimated based on the deviation from this benchmark. The sensitivity and

  14. Oxidative stress ecology and the d-ROMs test: facts, misfacts and an appraisal of a decade’s work

    OpenAIRE

    Costantini, David

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, behavioural ecologists have taken to studying oxidative stress in free-ranging organisms because it has been proposed as an important mediator of life-history trade-offs. A plethora of methodological approaches to quantify biomarkers associated with oxidative stress exist, each one with its own strengths and weaknesses. The d-ROMs test has emerged as one of the favoured assays in ecological studies because of its reliability, sensitivity to specific perturbations of the organ...

  15. Accuracy and reliability of Tzanck test compared to histopathology for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histopathology is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC but is time consuming and needs expertise to make a correct diagnosis. On the other hand, Tzanck test is a simple, easy, inexpensive and rapid test which uses exfoliative cytology to make a diagnosis. Objective: To compare the results of Tzanck test with histopathology in the diagnosis of BCC and to evaluate the diagnostic reliability and accuracy of Tzanck test in BCC. Materials and Method: Twenty-six patients with clinical suspicion of BCC were recruited. Samples for Tzanck test and histopathology were taken and diagnoses made independently. Results of Tzanck test were compared with histopathology. Results: Twenty-three cases were histopathologically proved to be BCC. Tzanck test correlated in 12 cases of BCC and could exclude all three non-BCC lesions. In 11 cases it failed to diagnose BCC. The sensitivity and specificity of Tzanck test were 52.2% and 100%, respectively, and positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 21.4%. Conclusion: Tzanck test can be recommended for initial, rapid evaluation of a clinically diagnosed case of BCC. Under experienced hands, it reliably confirms BCC. The limitation is low negative predictive value. Since it does not give information about subtypes of BCC which is of great value in therapeutic planning, histopathological confirmation is mandatory.

  16. Reliability demonstration test for load-sharing systems with exponential and Weibull components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyu Xu

    Full Text Available Conducting a Reliability Demonstration Test (RDT is a crucial step in production. Products are tested under certain schemes to demonstrate whether their reliability indices reach pre-specified thresholds. Test schemes for RDT have been studied in different situations, e.g., lifetime testing, degradation testing and accelerated testing. Systems designed with several structures are also investigated in many RDT plans. Despite the availability of a range of test plans for different systems, RDT planning for load-sharing systems hasn't yet received the attention it deserves. In this paper, we propose a demonstration method for two specific types of load-sharing systems with components subject to two distributions: exponential and Weibull. Based on the assumptions and interpretations made in several previous works on such load-sharing systems, we set the mean time to failure (MTTF of the total system as the demonstration target. We represent the MTTF as a summation of mean time between successive component failures. Next, we introduce generalized test statistics for both the underlying distributions. Finally, RDT plans for the two types of systems are established on the basis of these test statistics.

  17. Reliability and validity of videotaped functional performance tests in ACL-injured subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Porat, Anette; Holmström, Eva; Roos, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In clinical practice, visual observation is often used to determine functional impairment and to evaluate treatment following a knee injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of observational assessments of knee movement pattern quality......, crossover hop on one leg and one-leg hop. The videos were observed by four physiotherapists, and the knee movement pattern quality, a feature of the loading strategy of the lower extremity, was scored on an 11-point rating scale. To assess the criterion validity, the observational rating was correlated...... obtained between the observers' assessment and knee flexion angle, r = 0.37-0.61. The crossover hop test or one-leg hop test was ranked as the most useful test in 172 of 192 occasions (90%) when assessing knee function. CONCLUSION: The moderate to good inter-observer reliability and the moderate criterion...

  18. A reliability as an independent variable (RAIV) methodology for optimizing test planning for liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Richard; Herrmann, Jeffrey W.

    2011-12-01

    The hot fire test strategy for liquid rocket engines has always been a concern of space industry and agency alike because no recognized standard exists. Previous hot fire test plans focused on the verification of performance requirements but did not explicitly include reliability as a dimensioning variable. The stakeholders are, however, concerned about a hot fire test strategy that balances reliability, schedule, and affordability. A multiple criteria test planning model is presented that provides a framework to optimize the hot fire test strategy with respect to stakeholder concerns. The Staged Combustion Rocket Engine Demonstrator, a program of the European Space Agency, is used as example to provide the quantitative answer to the claim that a reduced thrust scale demonstrator is cost beneficial for a subsequent flight engine development. Scalability aspects of major subsystems are considered in the prior information definition inside the Bayesian framework. The model is also applied to assess the impact of an increase of the demonstrated reliability level on schedule and affordability.

  19. Test-retest reliability of the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES + T) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Margareta; Blomberg, Karin; Holmefur, Marie

    2015-07-01

    The Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES + T) scale evaluates the student nurses' perception of the learning environment and supervision within the clinical placement. It has never been tested in a replication study. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the CLES + T scale. The CLES + T scale was administered twice to a group of 42 student nurses, with a one-week interval. Test-retest reliability was determined by calculations of Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) and weighted Kappa coefficients. Standard Error of Measurements (SEM) and Smallest Detectable Difference (SDD) determined the precision of individual scores. Bland-Altman plots were created for analyses of systematic differences between the test occasions. The results of the study showed that the stability over time was good to excellent (ICC 0.88-0.96) in the sub-dimensions "Supervisory relationship", "Pedagogical atmosphere on the ward" and "Role of the nurse teacher". Measurements of "Premises of nursing on the ward" and "Leadership style of the manager" had lower but still acceptable stability (ICC 0.70-0.75). No systematic differences occurred between the test occasions. This study supports the usefulness of the CLES + T scale as a reliable measure of the student nurses' perception of the learning environment within the clinical placement at a hospital. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An improved stress corrosion test medium for aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Coston, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A laboratory test method that is only mildly corrosive to aluminum and discriminating for use in classifying the stress corrosion cracking resistance of aluminum alloys is presented along with the method used in evaluating the media selected for testing. The proposed medium is easier to prepare and less expensive than substitute ocean water.

  1. [Reliability and validity of the Chinese version on Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Yang, G P; Li, Z; Li, X N; Li, Y; Hu, J; Zhang, F Y; Zhang, X J

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version on Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) among medical students in China and to provide correct way of application on the recommended scales. Methods: An E-questionnaire was developed and sent to medical students in five different colleges. Students were all active volunteers to accept the testings. Cronbach's α and split-half reliability were calculated to evaluate the reliability of AUDIT while content, contract, discriminant and convergent validity were performed to measure the validity of the scales. Results: The overall Cronbach's α of AUDIT was 0.782 and the split-half reliability was 0.711. Data showed that the domain Cronbach's α and split-half reliability were 0.796 and 0.794 for hazardous alcohol use, 0.561 and 0.623 for dependence symptoms, and 0.647 and 0.640 for harmful alcohol use. Results also showed that the content validity index on the levels of items I-CVI) were from 0.83 to 1.00, the content validity index of scale level (S-CVI/UA) was 0.90, content validity index of average scale level (S-CVI/Ave) was 0.99 and the content validity ratios (CVR) were from 0.80 to 1.00. The simplified version of AUDIT supported a presupposed three-factor structure which could explain 61.175% of the total variance revealed through exploratory factor analysis. AUDIT semed to have good convergent and discriminant validity, with the success rate of calibration experiment as 100%. Conclusion: AUDIT showed good reliability and validity among medical students in China thus worth for promotion on its use.

  2. Market risk stress testing for internationally active financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Petar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a comprehensive framework for market risk stress testing in internationally active financial institutions. We begin by defining the scope and type of the stress test and explaining how to select risk factors and the stress time horizon. We then address challenges related to data gathering, followed by in-depth discussion of techniques for developing realistic shock scenarios. Next the process of shock application to a particular portfolio is described, followed by determination of portfolio profit and loss. We conclude by briefly discussing the issue of assigning probability to stress scenarios. We illustrate the framework by considering the development of a ‘worst case’ scenario using global financial market data from Thomson Reuters Datastream.

  3. Development, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the resistance training skills battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Harries, Simon K; Barnett, Lisa M; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the development and assess test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Resistance Training Skills Battery (RTSB) for adolescents. The RTSB provides an assessment of resistance training skill competency and includes 6 exercises (i.e., body weight squat, push-up, lunge, suspended row, standing overhead press, and front support with chest touches). Scoring for each skill is based on the number of performance criteria successfully demonstrated. An overall resistance training skill quotient (RTSQ) is created by adding participants' scores for the 6 skills. Participants (44 boys and 19 girls, mean age = 14.5 ± 1.2 years) completed the RTSB on 2 occasions separated by 7 days. Participants also completed the following fitness tests, which were used to create a muscular fitness score (MFS): handgrip strength, timed push-up, and standing long jump tests. Intraclass correlation (ICC), paired samples t-tests, and typical error were used to assess test-retest reliability. To assess construct validity, gender and RTSQ were entered into a regression model predicting MFS. The rank order repeatability of the RTSQ was high (ICC = 0.88). The model explained 39% of the variance in MFS (p ≤ 0.001) and RTSQ (r = 0.40, p ≤ 0.001) was a significant predictor. This study has demonstrated the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the RTSB in a sample of adolescents. The RTSB can reliably rank participants in regards to their resistance training competency and has the necessary sensitivity to detect small changes in resistance training skill proficiency.

  4. Safety of a rapid diagnostic protocol with accelerated stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soremekun, Olan A; Hamedani, Azita; Shofer, Frances S; O'Conor, Katie J; Svenson, James; Hollander, Judd E

    2014-02-01

    Most patients at low to intermediate risk for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) receive a 12- to 24-hour "rule out." Recently, trials have found that a coronary computed tomographic angiography-based strategy is more efficient. If stress testing were performed within the same time frame as coronary computed tomographic angiography, the 2 strategies would be more similar. We tested the hypothesis that stress testing can safely be performed within several hours of presentation. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients presenting to a university hospital from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2011, with potential ACS. Patients placed in a clinical pathway that performed stress testing after 2 negative troponin values 2 hours apart were included. We excluded patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction or with an elevated initial troponin. The main outcome was safety of immediate stress testing defined as the absence of death or acute myocardial infarction (defined as elevated troponin within 24 hours after the test). A total of 856 patients who presented with potential ACS were enrolled in the clinical pathway and included in this study. Patients had a median age of 55.0 (interquartile range, 48-62) years. Chest pain was the chief concern in 86%, and pain was present on arrival in 73% of the patients. There were no complications observed during the stress test. There were 0 deaths (95% confidence interval, 0%-0.46%) and 4 acute myocardial infarctions within 24 hours (0.5%; 95% confidence interval, 0.14%-1.27%). The peak troponins were small (0.06, 0.07, 0.07, and 0.19 ng/mL). Patients who present to the ED with potential ACS can safely undergo a rapid diagnostic protocol with stress testing. © 2013.

  5. Under sodium reliability tests on core components and in-core instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppert, E.; Stehle, H.; Vinzens, K.

    1977-01-01

    A sodium test facility for fast breeder core components (AKB), built by INTERATOM at Bensberg, has been operating since 1971 to test fuel dummies and blanket elements as well as absorber elements under simulated normal and extreme reactor conditions. Individual full-scale fuel or blanket elements and arrays of seven elements, modelling a section of the SNR-300 reactor core, have been tested under a wide range of sodium mass flow and isothermal test conditions up to 925K as well as under cyclic changed temperature transients. Besides endurance testing of the core components a special sodium and high-temperature instrumentation is provided to investigate thermohydraulic and vibrational behaviour of the test objects. During all test periods the main subassembly characteristics could be reproduced and the reliability of the instrumentation could be proven. (orig.) [de

  6. Bayesian analysis of heat pipe life test data for reliability demonstration testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, R.J.; Martz, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    The demonstration testing duration requirements to establish a quantitative measure of assurance of expected lifetime for heat pipes was determined. The heat pipes are candidate devices for transporting heat generated in a nuclear reactor core to thermoelectric converters for use as a space-based electric power plant. A Bayesian analysis technique is employed, utilizing a limited Delphi survey, and a geometric mean accelerated test criterion involving heat pipe power (P) and temperature (T). Resulting calculations indicate considerable test savings can be achieved by employing the method, but development testing to determine heat pipe failure mechanisms should not be circumvented

  7. RELIABILITY OF THE ONE REPETITION-MAXIMUM POWER CLEAN TEST IN ADOLESCENT ATHLETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; McFarland, James E.; Herman, Robert; Naclerio, Fernando; Ratamess, Nicholas A.; Kang, Jie; Myer, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Although the power clean test is routinely used to assess strength and power performance in adult athletes, the reliability of this measure in younger populations has not been examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the one repetition maximum (1 RM) power clean in adolescent athletes. Thirty-six male athletes (age 15.9 ± 1.1 yrs, body mass 79.1 ± 20.3 kg, height 175.1 ±7.4 cm) who had more than 1 year of training experience with weightlifting exercises performed a 1 RM power clean on two nonconsecutive days in the afternoon following standardized procedures. All test procedures were supervised by a senior level weightlifting coach and consisted of a systematic progression in test load until the maximum resistance that could be lifted for one repetition using proper exercise technique was determined. Data were analyzed using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC [2,k]), Pearson correlation coefficient (r), repeated measures ANOVA, Bland-Altman plot, and typical error analyses. Analysis of the data revealed that the test measures were highly reliable demonstrating a test-retest ICC of 0.98 (95% CI = 0.96–0.99). Testing also demonstrated a strong relationship between 1 RM measures on trial 1 and trial 2 (r=0.98, pinjuries occurred during the study period and the testing protocol was well-tolerated by all subjects. These findings indicate that 1 RM power clean testing has a high degree of reproducibility in trained male adolescent athletes when standardized testing procedures are followed and qualified instruction is present. PMID:22233786

  8. Leveraging accelerated testing of LED drivers to model the reliability of two-stage and multi-channel drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Lynn; Perkins, Curtis; Smith, Aaron; Clark, Terry; Mills, Karmann

    2017-05-30

    The next wave of LED lighting technology is likely to be tunable white lighting (TWL) devices which can adjust the colour of the emitted light between warm white (~ 2700 K) and cool white (~ 6500 K). This type of lighting system uses LED assemblies of two or more colours each controlled by separate driver channels that independently adjust the current levels to achieve the desired lighting colour. Drivers used in TWL devices are inherently more complex than those found in simple SSL devices, due to the number of electrical components in the driver required to achieve this level of control. The reliability of such lighting systems can only be studied using accelerated stress tests (AST) that accelerate the aging process to time frames that can be accommodated in laboratory testing. This paper describes AST methods and findings developed from AST data that provide insights into the lifetime of the main components of one-channel and multi-channel LED devices. The use of AST protocols to confirm product reliability is necessary to ensure that the technology can meet the performance and lifetime requirements of the intended application.

  9. Test-retest reliability of the Middlesex Assessment of Mental State (MEAMS): a preliminary investigation in people with probable dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, T; Brooker, D J; Papadopolous, A

    1993-05-01

    Relative and absolute test-retest reliability of the MEAMS was examined in 12 subjects with probable dementia and 12 matched controls. Relative reliability was good. Measures of absolute reliability showed scores changing by up to 3 points over an interval of a week. A version effect was found to be in evidence.

  10. Test-Retest Reliability of Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James H; Farmer, Ruth E; Rees, Elin M; Johnson, Hans J; Frost, Chris; Scahill, Rachael I; Hobbs, Nicola Z

    2014-03-21

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has shown microstructural abnormalities in patients with Huntington's Disease (HD) and work is underway to characterise how these abnormalities change with disease progression. Using methods that will be applied in longitudinal research, we sought to establish the reliability of DTI in early HD patients and controls. Test-retest reliability, quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), was assessed using region-of-interest (ROI)-based white matter atlas and voxelwise approaches on repeat scan data from 22 participants (10 early HD, 12 controls). T1 data was used to generate further ROIs for analysis in a reduced sample of 18 participants. The results suggest that fractional anisotropy (FA) and other diffusivity metrics are generally highly reliable, with ICCs indicating considerably lower within-subject compared to between-subject variability in both HD patients and controls. Where ICC was low, particularly for the diffusivity measures in the caudate and putamen, this was partly influenced by outliers. The analysis suggests that the specific DTI methods used here are appropriate for cross-sectional research in HD, and give confidence that they can also be applied longitudinally, although this requires further investigation. An important caveat for DTI studies is that test-retest reliability may not be evenly distributed throughout the brain whereby highly anisotropic white matter regions tended to show lower relative within-subject variability than other white or grey matter regions.

  11. Test-retest reliability of the proposed DSM-5 eating disorder diagnostic criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysko, Robyn; Roberto, Christina A.; Barnes, Rachel D.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Attia, Evelyn; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The proposed DSM-5 classification scheme for eating disorders includes both major and minor changes to the existing DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. It is not known what effect these modifications will have on the ability to make reliable diagnoses. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the short-term test-retest reliability of the proposed DSM-5 eating disorder diagnoses: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and feeding and eating conditions not elsewhere classified. Participants completed two independent telephone interviews with research assessors (n=70 Study 1; n=55 Study 2). Fair to substantial agreements (κ= 0.80 and 0.54) were observed across eating disorder diagnoses in Study 1 and Study 2, respectively. Acceptable rates of agreement were identified for the individual eating disorder diagnoses, including DSM-5 anorexia nervosa (κ’s of 0.81 to 0.97), bulimia nervosa (κ=0.84), binge eating disorder (κ’s of 0.75 and 0.61), and feeding and eating disorders not elsewhere classified (κ’s of 0.70 and 0.46). Further, improved short-term test-retest reliability was noted when using the DSM-5, in comparison to DSM-IV, criteria for binge eating disorder. Thus, these studies found that trained interviewers can reliably diagnose eating disorders using the proposed DSM-5 criteria; however, additional data from general practice settings and community samples are needed. PMID:22401974

  12. Test-retest reliability of the driving habits questionnaire in older self-driving adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Chun, Byung-Yoon; Chung, Hyun-Sook

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of the Driving Habits Questionnaire in community-dwelling older self-drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-four participants were recruited by convenience sampling from local rehabilitation centers. This was a cross-sectional study design that used two clinical measures: the Driving Habits Questionnaire and Mini-mental State Examination. To examine the test-retest reliability of the Driving Habits Questionnaire, the clinical tool was measured twice, five days apart. [Results] The Driving Habits Questionnaire showed good reliability for older community-dwelling self-drivers. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the four domains of dependence (0.572), difficulty (0.871), crashes and citations (0.689), and driving space (0.961) of the Driving Habits Questionnaire indicated good or high internal consistency. Driving difficulty correlated significantly with self-reported crashes and citations and driving space. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the Driving Habits Questionnaire is a reliable measure of self-reported interview-based driving behavior in the community-dwelling elderly.

  13. Interrater reliability assessment using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Minto, Christine; Lander, Natalie; Hardy, Louise L

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to examine interrater reliability of the object control subtest from the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 by live observation in a school field setting. Reliability Study--cross sectional. Raters were rated on their ability to agree on (1) the raw total for the six object control skills; (2) each skill performance and (3) the skill components. Agreement for the object control subtest and the individual skills was assessed by an intraclass correlation (ICC) and a kappa statistic assessed for skill component agreement. A total of 37 children (65% girls) aged 4-8 years (M = 6.2, SD = 0.8) were assessed in six skills by two raters; equating to 222 skill tests. Interrater reliability was excellent for the object control subset (ICC = 0.93), and for individual skills, highest for the dribble (ICC = 0.94) followed by strike (ICC = 0.85), overhand throw (ICC = 0.84), underhand roll (ICC = 0.82), kick (ICC = 0.80) and the catch (ICC = 0.71). The strike and the throw had more components with less agreement. Even though the overall subtest score and individual skill agreement was good, some skill components had lower agreement, suggesting these may be more problematic to assess. This may mean some skill components need to be specified differently in order to improve component reliability. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Test-retest reliability of trunk motor variability measured by large-array surface electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Jacques; Nougarou, François; Loranger, Michel; Descarreaux, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the trunk muscle activity distribution in asymptomatic participants during muscle fatigue using large-array surface electromyography (EMG). Trunk muscle activity distribution was evaluated twice, with 3 to 4 days between them, in 27 asymptomatic volunteers using large-array surface EMG. Motor variability, assessed with 2 different variables (the centroid coordinates of the root mean square map and the dispersion variable), was evaluated during a low back muscle fatigue task. Test-retest reliability of muscle activity distribution was obtained using Pearson correlation coefficients. A shift in the distribution of EMG amplitude toward the lateral-caudal region of the lumbar erector spinae induced by muscle fatigue was observed. Moderate to very strong correlations were found between both sessions in the last 3 phases of the fatigue task for both motor variability variables, whereas weak to moderate correlations were found in the first phases of the fatigue task only for the dispersion variable. These findings show that, in asymptomatic participants, patterns of EMG activity are less reliable in initial stages of muscle fatigue, whereas later stages are characterized by highly reliable patterns of EMG activity. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reliability of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) and BESTest sections for adults with hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Letícia C.; Marques, Aline P.; Barros, Paula B.; Michaelsen, Stella M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) was recently created to allow the development of treatments according to the specific balance system affected in each patient. The Brazilian version of the BESTest has not been specifically tested after stroke. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intra- and inter-rater reliability and concurrent and convergent validity of the total score of the BESTest and BESTest sections for adults with hemiparesis after stroke. METHOD: The study included 16 subjects (61.1±7.5 years) with chronic hemiparesis (54.5±43.5 months after stroke). The BESTest was administered by two raters in the same week and one of the raters repeated the test after a one-week interval. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to assess intra- and interrater reliability. Concurrent validity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and convergent validity with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC-Brazil) were assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Both the BESTest total score (ICC=0.98) and the BESTest sections (ICC between 0.85 and 0.96) have excellent intrarater reliability. Interrater reliability for the total score was excellent (ICC=0.93) and, for the sections, it ranged between 0.71 and 0.94. The correlation coefficient between the BESTest and the BBS and ABC-Brazil were 0.78 and 0.59, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the BESTest demonstrated adequate reliability when measured by sections and could identify what balance system was affected in patients after stroke. Concurrent validity was excellent with the BBS total score and good to excellent with the sections. The total scores but not the sections present adequate convergent validity with the ABC-Brazil. However, other psychometric properties should be further investigated. PMID:25003281

  16. Intra-rater reliability of cervical sensory motor function and cervical reconstruction test in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatamvand S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Impairment of cervicocephalic and head joint position sense has an important role in the recurrent and chronic of cervicocephalic pain. The various tools are suggested for evaluating the cervicocephalic joint position sense. Although reconstruction of cervical angle is a clinical criterion for measuring the cervicocephalic proprioception, the reliability of this method has not been completely accepted. The purpose of this study was to evaluate intra-rater reliability of cervical sensory motor function and cervical reconstruction test in healthy subjects. twenty four healthy subjects (25.70±6.08 y through simple non-probability sampling participated in this single-group repeatedmeasures reliability study. Participants were asked to relocate the neck, as accurately as possible, after full active cervical flexion, extension and rotation to the left and right sides. Five trials were performed for each movement. Laser pointer was used in head of patient. The distance between zero spot and joint position which patient had been reconstructed, was measured by centimeter. Intra-class correlation Coefficient (ICCs and Pearson's correlation coefficient test was used to determine intra-rater reliability of variables. The results showed that intra-class correlation Coefficient (ICCs values with 95% confidence interval (CI and the standard error of the measurement (SEM were good to excellent agreement for a single investigator between measurement occasions. Intra-class correlation Coefficient (ICCs values were obtained for flexion movement (ICCs:0.75, good, extension movement (ICCs:0.81, very good, right rotation (ICCs:0.64, good and left rotation (ICCs:0.64, good. The cervicocephalic relocation test to neutral head position by laser pointer is a reliable method to measure cervical sensory motor function. Therefore, it can be used for evaluating cervicocephalic proprioception of patient with cervicocephalic pain.

  17. Validity and Reliability of the Clock Drawing Test in Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoumeh Sadeghipour Roodsari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early diagnosis of cognitive disorders in order to initiate new efficient treatments in time is an important task which cannot be fulfilled without proper cognitive screening tools. The Clock Drawing Test (CDT is a simple inexpensive cognitive screening tool which can be used in primary care settings delivering health services to older people. The aim of this study was to assess validity and reliability of the CDT in Iranian older population. Methods & Materials: In this study the CDT and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE were concurrently performed on 74 literate participants aged 60 and over. Participants were recruited from the clients of Iran Alzheimer’s Association (dementia patients and non-demented clients, including other patients or care givers during a 5 month period. The CDT was performed by two trained raters using Shulman’s six points scoring method. Using SPSS version 20, reliability was assessed measuring kappa statistics as well as ICC. Concurrent validity between CDT and MMSE were statistically analyzed by spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Results: Mean age of the participants was 72 years in a range of 60 to 90 years with equal numbers 0f male and female participants. Kappa statistics for test retest reliability was 0.554 (P<0.001. ICC for inter rater reliability was 0.964 (P<0.001. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient for MMSE and CDT scores was 0.782, statistically significant at P<0.001. Conclusion: CDT is a valid and reliable test in literate older people that can be used as a cognitive screening tool in Iranian older population.

  18. Acoustic stapedial reflexes in healthy neonates: normative data and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kei, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The acoustic stapedial reflex (ASR) test provides useful information about the function of the auditory system. While it is frequently used with adults and children in a clinical setting, its use with young infants is limited. Presently, there are few data for neonates and inadequate research into the test-retest reliability of the ASR test. This study aimed to establish normative data and evaluate the test-retest reliability of the ASR test in healthy neonates. A cross-sectional experimental design was used to establish ASR normative data and assess the test-retest reliability of ASR thresholds obtained from healthy neonates. Sixty-eight full-term neonates with mean chronological age of 2.5 days (SD = 1.8 day), who passed the automated auditory brainstem response, transient evoked otoacoustic emission, and high frequency (1 kHz) tympanometry (HFT) tests. One randomly selected ear from each neonate was tested using TEOAE (transient evoked otoacoustic emission), HFT, and ASR tests using a 1 kHz probe tone. ASR thresholds were elicited by presenting pure tones of 0.5, 2, and 4 kHz and broadband noise (BBN) separately to the test ear in an ipsilateral stimulation mode. The ASR procedure was repeated to acquire retest data within the same testing session. Descriptive statistics, χ2, and analysis of variance with repeated measures tests were used to analyze ASR data. All neonates exhibited ASR when stimulated by tonal stimuli or BBN. The mean ASRTs (acoustic stapedial reflex thresholds) for the 0.5, 2, and 4 kHz tones were 81.6 ± 7.9, 71.3 ± 7.9, and 65.4 ± 8.7 dB HL, respectively. The mean ASRT for the BBN was estimated to be smaller than 57.2 dB HL, given the limitation of the equipment. The 95th percentiles of the ASRT were 95, 85, 80, and 75 dB HL for the 0.5, 2, and 4 kHz and BBN, respectively. The test-retest reliability of the ASR test for all stimuli was high, with no significant difference in mean ASRTs across the test and retest conditions. Test

  19. Reliability characteristics and applicability of a repeated sprint ability test in male young soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagna, Carlo; Francini, Lorenzo; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness and reliability characteristics of a repeated sprint ability test considering 5 line sprints of 30-m interspersed with 30-s of active recovery in non-elite outfield young male soccer players. Twenty-six (age 14.9±1.2 years, height 1.72±0.12 cm......, body mass 62.2±5.1 kg) players were tested 48 hours and 7 days apart for 5x30-m performance over 5 trials (T1-T5). Short- (T1-T2) and long-term reliability (T1-T3-T4-T5) were assessed with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and with typical error for measurement (TEM). Short- and long...... study revealed that the 5x30-m sprint test is a reliable field test in the short and long-term when the sum of sprint times and the best sprint performance are considered as outcome variables. Sprint performance decrements variables showed large variability across trials....

  20. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.