WorldWideScience

Sample records for stress reduction techniques

  1. Dose Reduction Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program

  2. Dose Reduction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  3. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Information 6 Things You ... Disease and Dementia (12/20/13) Research Spotlights Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Shown To ...

  4. Relaxation techniques for stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... raise your heart rate. This is called the stress response. Relaxation techniques can help your body relax and lower your blood pressure ... also many other types of breathing techniques you can learn. In many cases, you do not need much ... including those that cause stress. Meditation has been practiced for thousands of years, ...

  5. Dose Reduction Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Waggoner, L O

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the sm...

  6. Artistic Tasks Outperform Nonartistic Tasks for Stress Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kayleigh A.; Shanahan, Matthew J.; Neufeld, Richard W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Art making has been documented as an effective stress reduction technique. In this between-subjects experimental study, possible mechanisms of stress reduction were examined in a sample of 52 university students randomly assigned to one of four conditions generated by factorially crossing Activity Type (artistic or nonartistic) with Coping…

  7. Principal Components as a Data Reduction and Noise Reduction Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of principal components as a pipeline data reduction technique for thematic mapper data was assessed and principal components analysis and its transformation as a noise reduction technique was examined. Two primary factors were considered: (1) how might data reduction and noise reduction using the principal components transformation affect the extraction of accurate spectral classifications; and (2) what are the real savings in terms of computer processing and storage costs of using reduced data over the full 7-band TM complement. An area in central Pennsylvania was chosen for a study area. The image data for the project were collected using the Earth Resources Laboratory's thematic mapper simulator (TMS) instrument.

  8. Personal Approaches to Stress Reduction: A Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Rory

    1984-01-01

    Seven topic areas which may be variously combined to comprise a workshop in personal stress reduction are outlined. They include definitions and types of stress, life style planning, nutrition, exercise, networking/social support system, relaxation and other trophotropic interventions, and communication skills. Suggestions are included for…

  9. Stress reduction in tungsten films using nanostructured compliant layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabacak, Tansel; Picu, Catalin R.; Senkevich, Jay J.; Wang, G.-C.; Lu, T.-M.

    2004-01-01

    The residual stress in thin films is a major limiting factor for obtaining high quality films. We present a strategy for stress reduction in sputter deposited films by using a nanostructured compliant layer obtained by the oblique angle deposition technique, sandwiched between the film and the substrate. The technique is all in situ, does not require any lithography steps, and the nanostructured layer is made from the same material as the deposited thin film. By using this approach we were able to reduce stress values by approximately one order of magnitude in sputter deposited tungsten films. These lower stress thin films also exhibit stronger adhesion to the substrate, which retards delamination buckling. This technique allows the growth of much thicker films and has enhanced structural stability. A model is developed to explain the stress relief mechanism and the stronger adhesion associated with the presence of the nanostructured compliant layer

  10. Speckle reduction techniques in digital holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monaghan, David; Kelly, Damien; Hennelly, Bryan [Department of Computer Science, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Co. Kildare (Ireland); Javidi, Bahram, E-mail: bryanh@cs.nuim.i [University of Connecticut Electrical and Computer Engineering Department 371 Fairfield Road, Unit 2157 Storrs, CT 06269-2157 (United States)

    2010-02-01

    We have studied several speckle reduction techniques, applicable to digital holography. These include the use of optical diffusers, wavelet filtering, simulating temporal incoherence and filtering in the Fourier domain. The Digital Holograms (DHs) used in this study are captured using a Phase Shift Interferometric (PSI) in-line setup and subsequently reconstructed numerically.

  11. Variance Reduction Techniques in Monte Carlo Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, Jack P.C.; Ridder, A.A.N.; Rubinstein, R.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods are simulation algorithms to estimate a numerical quantity in a statistical model of a real system. These algorithms are executed by computer programs. Variance reduction techniques (VRT) are needed, even though computer speed has been increasing dramatically, ever since the

  12. Advanced Techniques of Stress Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simion TATARU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to check the stress analysis technique based on 3D models also making a comparison with the traditional technique which utilizes a model built directly into the stress analysis program. This comparison of the two methods will be made with reference to the rear fuselage of IAR-99 aircraft, structure with a high degree of complexity which allows a meaningful evaluation of both approaches. Three updated databases are envisaged: the database having the idealized model obtained using ANSYS and working directly on documentation, without automatic generation of nodes and elements (with few exceptions, the rear fuselage database (performed at this stage obtained with Pro/ ENGINEER and the one obtained by using ANSYS with the second database. Then, each of the three databases will be used according to arising necessities.The main objective is to develop the parameterized model of the rear fuselage using the computer aided design software Pro/ ENGINEER. A review of research regarding the use of virtual reality with the interactive analysis performed by the finite element method is made to show the state- of- the-art achieved in this field.

  13. Chapter 13. Phonology: Stress and Vowel Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Nesset, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Where do the complex stress patterns in Modern Russian come from? And why is Москва ‘Moscow’ pronounced with an unstressed [a] in the first syllable? In this chapter, you learn about the history of two related phenomena that cause problems for learners of Russian: stress patterns and vowel reduction in unstressed syllables. Click on the links below to learn more!13.2 Akanje

  14. A Single Group Multiple Base Line Design: Clinical Hypnosis as a Technique in the Reduction of Stress Related Symptomatology in Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Trebatoski, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a hypnosis program with graduate students as a stress management strategy This study identified components of the program that were perceived as beneficial in relieving stress. Additionally, this study determined the amount of time necessary for benefits to be realized. The…

  15. Stress Coping Techniques For Female Doctors Encountering Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Muslim and Christian female doctors encounter with sexual harassment. It was also found that sexual harassment cut across all age groups. The findings of these study indicated that stress coping techniques is an effective method in the reduction of stress posed by sexual harassment on female doctors from their patients.

  16. Pathogenesis of Chronic Hyperglycemia: From Reductive Stress to Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Jun Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic overnutrition creates chronic hyperglycemia that can gradually induce insulin resistance and insulin secretion impairment. These disorders, if not intervened, will eventually be followed by appearance of frank diabetes. The mechanisms of this chronic pathogenic process are complex but have been suggested to involve production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress. In this review, I highlight evidence that reductive stress imposed by overflux of NADH through the mitochondrial electron transport chain is the source of oxidative stress, which is based on establishments that more NADH recycling by mitochondrial complex I leads to more electron leakage and thus more ROS production. The elevated levels of both NADH and ROS can inhibit and inactivate glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, respectively, resulting in blockage of the glycolytic pathway and accumulation of glycerol 3-phospate and its prior metabolites along the pathway. This accumulation then initiates all those alternative glucose metabolic pathways such as the polyol pathway and the advanced glycation pathways that otherwise are minor and insignificant under euglycemic conditions. Importantly, all these alternative pathways lead to ROS production, thus aggravating cellular oxidative stress. Therefore, reductive stress followed by oxidative stress comprises a major mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced metabolic syndrome.

  17. Experience with Kicker Beam Coupling Reduction Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Gaxiola, Enrique; Caspers, Friedhelm; Ducimetière, Laurent; Kroyer, Tom

    2005-01-01

    SPS beam impedance is still one of the worries for operation with nominal LHC beam over longer periods, once the final configuration will be installed in 2006. Several CERN SPS kickers suffer from significant beam induced ferrite heating. In specific cases, for instance beam scrubbing, the temperature of certain ferrite yokes went beyond the Curie point. Several retrofit impedance reduction techniques have been investigated theoretically and with practical tests. We report on experience gained during the 2004 SPS operation with resistively coated ceramic inserts in terms of kicker heating, pulse rise time, operating voltage, and vacuum behaviour. For another technique using interleaved metallic stripes we observed significant improvements in bench measurements. Advantages and drawbacks of both methods and potential combinations of them are discussed and simulation as well as measured data are shown. Prospects for further improvements beyond 2006 are briefly outlined.

  18. Efficiency of radon reduction techniques and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Ph.; Monchecourt, D.

    2000-01-01

    Radon is a lung carcinogen recognized by the World Health Organisation and it is present in dwellings. In France, the first actions to measure the exposition of the population were made in 1982, and the first national recommendation was published in 1999. In parallel, information booklets on radon and possible actions to lower its concentration in house were made available to the public. The aim of this study was to test the economic feasibility of different methods to reduce radon level in housing. The first step was to identify the cost and the radon reduction rate of different methods, all based on insulation or ventilation of the buildings. Using the data of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), we selected six measures and combined them to obtain a total of twenty potential solutions. We also used the 'duration' model of the Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation committee (BEIR VI) to determine the probability of dying from a cancer associated to a fixed exposure to radon. Knowing this information, it was possible to make cost-efficiency analysis on our data and thus keep six interesting methods. Combining these results with the value of human life of the human capital approach we could find what was the most interesting method to apply for a known level of radon and a specific duration of exposure in a house. In given house, for each level of initial exposure, a cost benefit approach allowed to determine if one, or several techniques, or none, is worthwhile to apply. In favorable cases (i.e : easily remediable houses), and with a figure for the price of human life of about 0,9 MEuro, actions should be undertaken at levels as low as 80 Bq.m -3 . As we know the radon distribution in France, the second step was to see what would be the effects on this distribution if all inhabitants used the optimal approach against their radon exposure defined by our function. Thus, overall costs and overall risks could be computed. However, in public health issues, the

  19. Microblowing Technique for Drag Reduction, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks to develop technologies for aircraft drag reduction which contribute to improved aerodynamic efficiency in support of national goals for reducing fuel...

  20. Relaxation of stresses during reduction of anode supported SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2016-01-01

    To assess the reliability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks during operation, the stress field in the stack must be known. During operation the stress field will depend on time as creep processes relax stresses. This work reports further details on a newly discovered creep phenomenon......, accelerated creep, taking place during the reduction of a Ni-YSZ anode. This relaxes stresses at a much higher rate (~×104) than creep during operation. Thus, the phenomenon of accelerated creep during reduction has to be considered both in the production of stacks and in the analysis of the stress field...... of reduction should decrease significantly over minutes. In this work these internal stresses are measured in-situ before and after the reduction by use of X-ray diffraction. This is done by determining the elastic micro-strains (correlating to the stresses), which are assessed from the widening of the Bragg...

  1. Discussion on variance reduction technique for shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    As the task of the engineering design activity of the international thermonuclear fusion experimental reactor (ITER), on 316 type stainless steel (SS316) and the compound system of SS316 and water, the shielding experiment using the D-T neutron source of FNS in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been carried out. However, in these analyses, enormous working time and computing time were required for determining the Weight Window parameter. Limitation or complication was felt when the variance reduction by Weight Window method of MCNP code was carried out. For the purpose of avoiding this difficulty, investigation was performed on the effectiveness of the variance reduction by cell importance method. The conditions of calculation in all cases are shown. As the results, the distribution of fractional standard deviation (FSD) related to neutrons and gamma-ray flux in the direction of shield depth is reported. There is the optimal importance change, and when importance was increased at the same rate as that of the attenuation of neutron or gamma-ray flux, the optimal variance reduction can be done. (K.I.)

  2. Volume reduction techniques for solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    This report gives an account of some of the techniques in current use in the UK for the treatment of solid radioactive wastes to reduce their volume prior to storage or disposal. Reference is also made to current research and development projects. It is based on a report presented at a recent International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Committee when this subject was the main theme. An IAEA Technical Series report covering techniques in use in all parts of the world should be published within the next two years. (author)

  3. Post-placement temperature reduction techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    With technology scaled to deep submicron era, temperature and temperature gradient have emerged as important design criteria. We propose two post-placement techniques to reduce peak temperature by intelligently allocating whitespace in the hotspots. Both methods are fully compliant with commercial...

  4. The shape of change in perceived stress, negative affect, and stress sensitivity during mindfulness based stress reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, E.; Dziak, J.J.; Lanza, S.T.; Nyklicek, I.; Wichers, M.

    2017-01-01

    Both daily stress and the tendency to react to stress with heightened levels of negative affect (i.e., stress sensitivity) are important vulnerability factors for adverse mental health outcomes. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may help to reduce perceived daily stress and stress

  5. The Shape of Change in Perceived Stress, Negative Affect, and Stress Sensitivity During Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Dziak, John J.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Nykliek, Ivan; Wichers, Marieke

    Both daily stress and the tendency to react to stress with heightened levels of negative affect (i.e., stress sensitivity) are important vulnerability factors for adverse mental health outcomes. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may help to reduce perceived daily stress and stress

  6. Supersonic impinging jet noise reduction using a hybrid control technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Alex; Kumar, Rajan

    2015-07-01

    Control of the highly resonant flowfield associated with supersonic impinging jet has been experimentally investigated. Measurements were made in the supersonic impinging jet facility at the Florida State University for a Mach 1.5 ideally expanded jet. Measurements included unsteady pressures on a surface plate near the nozzle exit, acoustics in the nearfield and beneath the impingement plane, and velocity field using particle image velocimetry. Both passive control using porous surface and active control with high momentum microjet injection are effective in reducing nearfield noise and flow unsteadiness over a range of geometrical parameters; however, the type of noise reduction achieved by the two techniques is different. The passive control reduces broadband noise whereas microjet injection attenuates high amplitude impinging tones. The hybrid control, a combination of two control methods, reduces both broadband and high amplitude impinging tones and surprisingly its effectiveness is more that the additive effect of the two control techniques. The flow field measurements show that with hybrid control the impinging jet is stabilized and the turbulence quantities such as streamwise turbulence intensity, transverse turbulence intensity and turbulent shear stress are significantly reduced.

  7. Evaluation of a Web-Based Holistic Stress Reduction Pilot Program Among Nurse-Midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Erin M

    2018-06-01

    Work-related stress among midwives results in secondary traumatic stress, posttraumatic stress disorder, and job attrition. The purpose of this pilot project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a holistic, web-based program using holistic modalities for stress reduction and improved coping among certified nurse-midwives. A convenience sample of 10 midwives participated in a web-based holistic stress reduction intervention using yoga, mindfulness-based stress reduction, and meditation for four days each week over 4 weeks. Participants completed pre- and postintervention questionnaires (Perceived Stress Scale [PSS] and the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale [CSES]) for evaluation of effectiveness. The PSS means showed improvement in midwives' stress (16.4-12.3). The CSES means showed improvement in coping (174.8-214.5). Improvement was shown in each subscale of the CSES ("uses problem-focused coping": 19.2%; "stops unpleasant thoughts and emotions": 20.3%; and "gets support from family and friends": 16.6%). Findings suggest the potential for stress reduction and improved coping skills after using holistic techniques in a web-based format within a cohort of nurse-midwives. Further research of web-based, holistic intervention for stress reduction among midwives is warranted.

  8. Effectiveness of stress management training on stress reduction in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Shirazi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are evidences that suggest the impact of stress on pregnancy outcome. Prolong antenatal depression and anxiety may cause lots of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as abortion, still birth, low birth weight and preterm labor. The aim of this pre-posttest randomized control trial study was to determine the role of stress management training in the first trimester on stress reduction in pregnant women referring to General Yas Women Hospital related to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran, from May 2014 to January 2016. Methods: Anxiety status of 75 pregnant women in the first trimester was assessed by standard anxiety questioner using Hamilton anxiety rating score. Scores 18-25, 25-35 and >35 were considered for mild, moderate and severe anxiety, respectively. According to the level of anxiety, women with moderate and severe anxiety as the interventional group were arranged for participation in stress management workshops, applying mindfulness technique including: body scan, setting meditation and passing thought technique in 5 an hour sessions. For this experimental group were made available CD training for practicing lessons during the week. All groups didn’t need to medical treatment according to the psychiatrist interview. In the ending of therapy, clinical groups were assessed by anxiety scale again. Women with mild anxiety as the control group received only regular prenatal care without any psychological interventions. The validity and reliability of questioner were approved by experts in this field. This research was supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services grant and also the study approved by ethics committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Data were analyzed using the statistical software SPSS version 18, and Student’s t-test analyses were performed. Results: The level of anxiety and stress was decreased significantly between women in clinical groups, 27.5 to 14

  9. External caps: An approach to stress reduction in balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlewood, K. H.

    Recent findings of the catastrophic balloon failures investigation in the U.S.A. indicate that very large gross inflations, in balloons using present design philosophy, over-stress currently available materials. External caps are proposed as an economic approach to reducting those stresses to an acceptable level.

  10. Smartphone Applications Utilizing Biofeedback Can Aid Stress Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Alison; Kelly, Mark; Robertson, Ian H.; Robertson, Deirdre A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Stress is one of the leading global causes of disease and premature mortality. Despite this, interventions aimed at reducing stress have low adherence rates. The proliferation of mobile phone devices along with gaming-style applications allows for a unique opportunity to broaden the reach and appeal of stress-reduction interventions in modern society. We assessed the effectiveness of two smartphone applications games combined with biofeedback in reducing stress. Methods: We compared a control game to gaming-style smartphone applications combined with a skin conductance biofeedback device (the Pip). Fifty participants aged between 18 and 35 completed the Trier Social Stress Test. They were then randomly assigned to the intervention (biofeedback game) or control group (a non-biofeedback game) for thirty minutes. Perceived stress, heart rate and mood were measured before and after participants had played the games. Results: A mixed factorial ANOVA showed a significant interaction between time and game type in predicting perceived stress [F(1,48) = 14.19, p biofeedback intervention had significantly reduced stress compared to the control group. There was also a significant interaction between time and game in predicting heart rate [F(1,48) = 6.41, p biofeedback intervention showed significant reductions in heart rate compared to the control group. Discussion: This illustrates the potential for gaming-style smartphone applications combined with biofeedback as stress reduction interventions. PMID:27378963

  11. The use of self-Reiki for stress reduction and relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2015-09-01

    More than one-third of college students reported the desire for stress reduction techniques and education. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 20-week structured self-Reiki program on stress reduction and relaxation in college students. Students were recruited from Stockton University and sessions were conducted in the privacy of their residence. Twenty students completed the entire study consisting of 20 weeks of self-Reiki done twice weekly. Each participant completed a Reiki Baseline Credibility Scale, a Reiki Expectancy Scale, and a Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) after acceptance into the study. The PSS was completed every four weeks once the interventions were initiated. A global assessment questionnaire was completed at the end of the study. Logs summarizing the outcome of each session were submitted at the end of the study. With the exception of three participants, participants believed that Reiki is a credible technique for reducing stress levels. Except for two participants, participants agreed that Reiki would be effective in reducing stress levels. All participants experienced stress within the month prior to completing the initial PSS. There was a significant reduction in stress levels from pre-study to post-study. There was a correlation between self-rating of improvement and final PSS scores. With one exception, stress levels at 20 weeks did not return to pre-study stress levels. This study supports the hypothesis that the calming effect of Reiki may be achieved through the use of self-Reiki.

  12. Reduction in perceived stress as a migraine trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Richard B.; Hall, Charles B.; Tennen, Howard; DeFreitas, Tiffani A.; Borkowski, Thomas M.; Grosberg, Brian M.; Haut, Sheryl R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test whether level of perceived stress and reductions in levels of perceived stress (i.e., “let-down”) are associated with the onset of migraine attacks in persons with migraine. Methods: Patients with migraine from a tertiary headache center were invited to participate in a 3-month electronic diary study. Participants entered data daily regarding migraine attack experience, subjective stress ratings, and other data. Stress was assessed using 2 measures: the Perceived Stress Scale and the Self-Reported Stress Scale. Logit-normal, random-effects models were used to estimate the odds ratio for migraine occurrence as a function of level of stress over several time frames. Results: Of 22 enrolled participants, 17 (median age 43.8 years) completed >30 days of diaries, yielding 2,011 diary entries including 110 eligible migraine attacks (median 5 attacks per person). Level of stress was not generally associated with migraine occurrence. However, decline in stress from one evening diary to the next was associated with increased migraine onset over the subsequent 6, 12, and 18 hours, with odds ratios ranging from 1.5 to 1.9 (all p values < 0.05) for the Perceived Stress Scale. Decline in stress was associated with migraine onset after controlling for level of stress for all time points. Findings were similar using the Self-Reported Stress Scale. Conclusions: Reduction in stress from one day to the next is associated with migraine onset the next day. Decline in stress may be a marker for an impending migraine attack and may create opportunities for preemptive pharmacologic or behavioral interventions. PMID:24670889

  13. VR Mobile Solutions For Chronic Stress Reduction in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kenneth; Boyd, Chelsie; Wiederhold, Mark D; Wiederhold, Brenda K

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress in young adults has become a growing problem within recent decades and many are unable to find cost-effective and accessible treatment for psychological stress in their daily lives. We analyze the market of using a mobile application, Positive Technology, as a solution. Eleven participants, aged between 18 and 24, participated in the exercise. Self-reported stress reduction was measured via an online marketing survey, while physiological measurements were monitored via peripheral devices. Secondary goals assessed the app's ease-of-use, accessibility, and cost. Results indicate that participants enjoyed the availability of the mobile solution and found the app to be fun and easy to learn. Stress levels were reduced in 73% of the participants, with higher effects in females and in participants aged 18-24. We conclude that the mobile platform is an effective means of delivering psychological stress reduction, and could provide an accessible, cost-effective solution.

  14. Model order reduction techniques with applications in finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Zu-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Despite the continued rapid advance in computing speed and memory the increase in the complexity of models used by engineers persists in outpacing them. Even where there is access to the latest hardware, simulations are often extremely computationally intensive and time-consuming when full-blown models are under consideration. The need to reduce the computational cost involved when dealing with high-order/many-degree-of-freedom models can be offset by adroit computation. In this light, model-reduction methods have become a major goal of simulation and modeling research. Model reduction can also ameliorate problems in the correlation of widely used finite-element analyses and test analysis models produced by excessive system complexity. Model Order Reduction Techniques explains and compares such methods focusing mainly on recent work in dynamic condensation techniques: - Compares the effectiveness of static, exact, dynamic, SEREP and iterative-dynamic condensation techniques in producing valid reduced-order mo...

  15. Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction on sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Signe; Würtzen, Hanne; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep disturbance is high among cancer patients, and the sleep problems tend to last for years after the end of treatment. As part of a large randomized controlled clinical trial (the MICA trial, NCT00990977) of the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on psycholo......The prevalence of sleep disturbance is high among cancer patients, and the sleep problems tend to last for years after the end of treatment. As part of a large randomized controlled clinical trial (the MICA trial, NCT00990977) of the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR...

  16. First principle leakage current reduction technique for CMOS devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tsague, HD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive study of leakage reduction techniques applicable to CMOS based devices. In the process, mathematical equations that model the power-performance trade-offs in CMOS logic circuits are presented. From those equations...

  17. Hole Drilling Technique – on site stress measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Schueremans, Luc

    2009-01-01

    2. Hole Drilling Technique for onsite stress measurement has been used to validate the stress level at 2 pillars of the Sint-Jacobschurch (Leuven, B). The technique allows estimating the stress in a stone from measuring deformation when a small hole is made. It is a low intrusive technique. The application of it is limited to local stress measurements and is a complement to stress estimate from calculations of from the use of –for example- flat jacks. In addition to the flat-jack technique...

  18. 5 Things To Know About Relaxation Techniques for Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Techniques for Stress Share: When you’re under stress, your body reacts by releasing hormones that produce the “fight- ... relaxation techniques could counteract the negative effects of stress. ... the body's natural relaxation response, characterized by slower breathing, lower ...

  19. Mindfulness-based stress reduction as a stress management intervention for healthy individuals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj; Rush, Sarah E

    2014-10-01

    Stress is a global public health problem with several negative health consequences, including anxiety, depression, cardiovascular disease, and suicide. Mindfulness-based stress reduction offers an effective way of reducing stress by combining mindfulness meditation and yoga in an 8-week training program. The purpose of this study was to look at studies from January 2009 to January 2014 and examine whether mindfulness-based stress reduction is a potentially viable method for managing stress. A systematic search from Medline, CINAHL, and Alt HealthWatch databases was conducted for all types of quantitative articles involving mindfulness-based stress reduction. A total of 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of the 17 studies, 16 demonstrated positive changes in psychological or physiological outcomes related to anxiety and/or stress. Despite the limitations of not all studies using randomized controlled design, having smaller sample sizes, and having different outcomes, mindfulness-based stress reduction appears to be a promising modality for stress management. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. [Balloon osteoplasty as reduction technique in the treatment of tibial head fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freude, T; Kraus, T M; Sandmann, G H

    2015-10-01

    Tibial plateau fractures requiring surgery are severe injuries of the lower extremities. Depending on the fracture pattern, the age of the patient, the range of activity and the bone quality there is a broad variation in adequate treatment.  This article reports on an innovative treatment concept to address split depression fractures (Schatzker type II) and depression fractures (Schatzker type III) of the tibial head using the balloon osteoplasty technique for fracture reduction. Using the balloon technique achieves a precise and safe fracture reduction. This internal osteoplasty combines a minimal invasive percutaneous approach with a gently rise of the depressed area and the associated protection of the stratum regenerativum below the articular cartilage surface. This article lights up the surgical procedure using the balloon technique in tibia depression fractures. Using the balloon technique a precise and safe fracture reduction can be achieved. This internal osteoplasty combines a minimally invasive percutaneous approach with a gentle raising of the depressed area and the associated protection of the regenerative layer below the articular cartilage surface. Fracture reduction by use of a tamper results in high peak forces over small areas, whereas by using the balloon the forces are distributed over a larger area causing less secondary stress to the cartilage tissue. This less invasive approach might help to achieve a better long-term outcome with decreased secondary osteoarthritis due to the precise and chondroprotective reduction technique.

  1. Stress Concentration and Its Mitigation Techniques in Flat Plate with Singularities - A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhashish Sanyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of analytical, numerical & experimental techniques are available for the reduction of stress concentration factor around discontinuities. Using various techniques the SCF around different discontinuities in a rectangular plate made up of different materials under different loading conditions have been reported in literature. Mitigation of stress concentration around different types of discontinuity is also reported in literature. This paper is to present an analysis and overview of emerging techniques developed for analysis as well as mitigation of stress concentration. The proposed methods in literature are compared.

  2. Evaluation of Stress and a Stress-Reduction Program Among Radiologic Technologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingold, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    To investigate stress levels and causes of stress among radiologic technologists and determine whether an intervention could reduce stress in a selected radiologic technologist population. Demographic characteristics and data on preintervention stress sources and levels were collected through Internet-based questionnaires. A 6-week, self-administered, mindfulness-based stress-reduction program was conducted as a pilot intervention with 42 radiologic technologists from the Veterans Administration Medical Center. Data also were collected postintervention. Identified sources of stress were compared with findings from previous studies. Some radiologic technologists experienced improvement in their perceptions of stress after the intervention. Sources of stress for radiologic technologists were similar to those shown in earlier research, including inconsistent management, poor management communication, conflicting demands, long work hours, excessive workloads, lack of work breaks, and time pressures. The mindfulness-based stress-reduction program is an example of an inexpensive method that could improve personal well-being, reduce work errors, improve relationships in the workplace, and increase job satisfaction. More research is needed to determine the best type of intervention for stress reduction in a larger radiologic technologist population.

  3. Calligraphy and meditation for stress reduction: an experimental comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao H SR

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Henry SR Kao,1 Lin Zhu,2 An An Chao,3 Hao Yi Chen,4 Ivy CY Liu,5 Manlin Zhang6 1Department of Social Work and Social Administration, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China, Beijing, 3International Society of Calligraphy Therapy, Hong Kong; 4Department of Business Administration, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan, 5Department of Psychology, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan; 6Department of Psychology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China Background: Chinese calligraphic handwriting (CCH has demonstrated a new role in health and therapy. Meanwhile, meditation is an traditional and effective method for coping with stress and staying healthy. This study compared the effectiveness of CCH and meditation as distinctive and parallel stress reduction interventions. Methods: Thirty graduate students and academic staff members in Taiwan who suffered from stress were selected by the General Health Questionnaire and randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups, ie, a CCH group, a meditation group, or a control group, for 8 consecutive weeks. Changes in physiological parameters were measured before, during, and after treatment. Results: CCH and meditation showed their strength in the respective indices of stress. There was a significant difference in respiratory rate, heart rate, and electromyographic scores between the groups. Comparing pre- and post-effects, a decrease in heart rate and an increase in skin temperature was seen in subjects who practiced CCH. Increased skin temperature and decreased respiratory rate were also seen in subjects who practiced meditation, along with reduced muscle tension and heart rate. Conclusion: CCH and meditation have good effects in stress reduction. CCH is a particularly promising new approach to reducing stress.Keywords: calligraphic handwriting, meditation, stress reduction, intervention

  4. Slot technique - an alternative method of scatter reduction in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, W.; Widenmann, L.

    1983-01-01

    The most common method of scatter reduction in radiography is the use of an antiscatter grid. Its disadvantage is the absorption of a certain percentage of primary radiation in the lead strips of the grid and the fact that due to the limited thickness of the lead strips their scatter absorption is also limited. A possibility for avoiding this disadvantage is offered by the so-called slot technique, ie, the successive exposure of the subject with a narrow fan beam provided by slots in rather thick lead plates. The results of a comparison between grid and slot technique regarding dose to the patient, scatter reduction, image quality and the effect of automatic exposure control are reported. (author)

  5. Combining Breast Reduction Techniques to Treat Gigantomastia in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody F. Scheefer, MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. In this presentation of 2 consecutive cases of symptomatic juvenile breast hypertrophy in Ghana, we review the patient presentation, workup, and discuss outcomes following a combined technique of inferior pedicle stump with free nipple graft reduction mammoplasty. Surgical goals for treatment of gigantomastia were 2-fold: to resect adequate tissue to obtain symptomatic relief with improved quality of life, while avoiding a flat, boxy-appearing breast shape.

  6. Error reduction techniques for Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, J.H.W.

    1981-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods have been widely applied to problems in nuclear physics, mathematical reliability, communication theory, and other areas. The work in this thesis is developed mainly with neutron transport applications in mind. For nuclear reactor and many other applications, random walk processes have been used to estimate multi-dimensional integrals and obtain information about the solution of integral equations. When the analysis is statistically based such calculations are often costly, and the development of efficient estimation techniques plays a critical role in these applications. All of the error reduction techniques developed in this work are applied to model problems. It is found that the nearly optimal parameters selected by the analytic method for use with GWAN estimator are nearly identical to parameters selected by the multistage method. Modified path length estimation (based on the path length importance measure) leads to excellent error reduction in all model problems examined. Finally, it should be pointed out that techniques used for neutron transport problems may be transferred easily to other application areas which are based on random walk processes. The transport problems studied in this dissertation provide exceptionally severe tests of the error reduction potential of any sampling procedure. It is therefore expected that the methods of this dissertation will prove useful in many other application areas

  7. The calm mouse: an animal model of stress reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfein, Blake T; Stamm, Andrew W; Bacchetti, Peter; Dallman, Mary F; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Milush, Jeffrey M; Touma, Chadi; Palme, Rupert; Di Borgo, Charles Pozzo; Fromentin, Gilles; Lown-Hecht, Rachel; Konsman, Jan Pieter; Acree, Michael; Premenko-Lanier, Mary; Darcel, Nicolas; Hecht, Frederick M; Nixon, Douglas F

    2012-05-09

    Chronic stress is associated with negative health outcomes and is linked with neuroendocrine changes, deleterious effects on innate and adaptive immunity, and central nervous system neuropathology. Although stress management is commonly advocated clinically, there is insufficient mechanistic understanding of how decreasing stress affects disease pathogenesis. Therefore, we have developed a "calm mouse model" with caging enhancements designed to reduce murine stress. Male BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: control (Cntl), standard caging; calm (Calm), large caging to reduce animal density, a cardboard nest box for shelter, paper nesting material to promote innate nesting behavior, and a polycarbonate tube to mimic tunneling; control exercise (Cntl Ex), standard caging with a running wheel, known to reduce stress; and calm exercise (Calm Ex), calm caging with a running wheel. Calm, Cntl Ex and Calm Ex animals exhibited significantly less corticosterone production than Cntl animals. We also observed changes in spleen mass, and in vitro splenocyte studies demonstrated that Calm Ex animals had innate and adaptive immune responses that were more sensitive to acute handling stress than those in Cntl. Calm animals gained greater body mass than Cntl, although they had similar food intake, and we also observed changes in body composition, using magnetic resonance imaging. Together, our results suggest that the Calm mouse model represents a promising approach to studying the biological effects of stress reduction in the context of health and in conjunction with existing disease models.

  8. Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, John P.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; John, Jasmin G.

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental aspect of greenhouse-gas-induced warming is a global-scale increase in absolute humidity. Under continued warming, this response has been shown to pose increasingly severe limitations on human activity in tropical and mid-latitudes during peak months of heat stress. One heat-stress metric with broad occupational health applications is wet-bulb globe temperature. We combine wet-bulb globe temperatures from global climate historical reanalysis and Earth System Model (ESM2M) projections with industrial and military guidelines for an acclimated individual's occupational capacity to safely perform sustained labour under environmental heat stress (labour capacity)--here defined as a global population-weighted metric temporally fixed at the 2010 distribution. We estimate that environmental heat stress has reduced labour capacity to 90% in peak months over the past few decades. ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to 80% in peak months by 2050. Under the highest scenario considered (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to less than 40% by 2200 in peak months, with most tropical and mid-latitudes experiencing extreme climatological heat stress. Uncertainties and caveats associated with these projections include climate sensitivity, climate warming patterns, CO2 emissions, future population distributions, and technological and societal change.

  9. Nipple Reduction With the Chullo-Hat Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Hyung-Bo; Sun, Sang-Hoon

    2015-08-01

    Although various techniques of nipple reduction have been described in the literature, many are difficult to design or have unreliable outcomes. For men, as well as women who do not plan to breastfeed, it is not necessary to apply a complicated technique that protects the lactiferous ducts. The authors introduce a simple technique for nipple reduction that has achieved consistent, reproducible results. The desired nipple length is marked, and a chullo-hat excision pattern is drawn. After infiltration of a local anesthetic solution around the nipple, excision of the excess nipple tissue is performed, comprising 2 triangular flaps. The remaining 2 pillars are approximated with 5-0 Nylon simple interrupted sutures. However, the wound is not completely closed in the central area of the nipple, which promotes the drainage of discharge. Fifty-three women (106 nipples) underwent this surgery between December 2009 and December 2013. The follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 2 years (mean, 10 months). No major complications occurred, and the scars were very inconspicuous. The postoperative appearance of nipples was consistently similar in size and shape. This simple technique was safe and effective in nipples of different sizes. The results were reliable and consistent with expectations. Although this study included only women, the authors believe that outcomes would be successful in men as well. 4 Therapeutic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A review of residual stress analysis using thermoelastic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, A F; Dulieu-Barton, J M; Quinn, S [University of Southampton, School of Engineering Sciences, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Burguete, R L [Airbus UK Ltd., New Filton House, Filton, Bristol, BS99 7AR (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) is a full-field technique for experimental stress analysis that is based on infra-red thermography. The technique has proved to be extremely effective for studying elastic stress fields and is now well established. It is based on the measurement of the temperature change that occurs as a result of a stress change. As residual stress is essentially a mean stress it is accepted that the linear form of the TSA relationship cannot be used to evaluate residual stresses. However, there are situations where this linear relationship is not valid or departures in material properties due to manufacturing procedures have enabled evaluations of residual stresses. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of using a TSA based approach for the evaluation of residual stresses and to provide some examples of where promising results have been obtained.

  11. A review of residual stress analysis using thermoelastic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A F; Dulieu-Barton, J M; Quinn, S; Burguete, R L

    2009-01-01

    Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) is a full-field technique for experimental stress analysis that is based on infra-red thermography. The technique has proved to be extremely effective for studying elastic stress fields and is now well established. It is based on the measurement of the temperature change that occurs as a result of a stress change. As residual stress is essentially a mean stress it is accepted that the linear form of the TSA relationship cannot be used to evaluate residual stresses. However, there are situations where this linear relationship is not valid or departures in material properties due to manufacturing procedures have enabled evaluations of residual stresses. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of using a TSA based approach for the evaluation of residual stresses and to provide some examples of where promising results have been obtained.

  12. Error reduction techniques for measuring long synchrotron mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irick, S.

    1998-07-01

    Many instruments and techniques are used for measuring long mirror surfaces. A Fizeau interferometer may be used to measure mirrors much longer than the interferometer aperture size by using grazing incidence at the mirror surface and analyzing the light reflected from a flat end mirror. Advantages of this technique are data acquisition speed and use of a common instrument. Disadvantages are reduced sampling interval, uncertainty of tangential position, and sagittal/tangential aspect ratio other than unity. Also, deep aspheric surfaces cannot be measured on a Fizeau interferometer without a specially made fringe nulling holographic plate. Other scanning instruments have been developed for measuring height, slope, or curvature profiles of the surface, but lack accuracy for very long scans required for X-ray synchrotron mirrors. The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) was developed specifically for long x-ray mirror measurement, and still outperforms other instruments, especially for aspheres. Thus, this paper focuses on error reduction techniques for the LTP

  13. A Program to Protect Integrity of Body-Mind-Spirit: Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oznur Korukcu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness-based applications allow health care staffs to understand themselves as well as other individuals. Awareness based applications are not only stress reduction techniques but also a way of understanding the life and human existence, and it should not be only used to cope with the diseases. Emotions, thoughts and judgments of people might give direction to their life sometimes. Accessing a life without judgment and negative feelings brings a peaceful and happy life together. Mindfulness based stress reduction exercises may help to enjoy the present time, to cope with the challenges, stress and diseases and accept the negative life experiences rather than to question their reasons. About three decades ago, Kabat-Zin conducted the first investigation of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program which is used commonly all around the world. The 8-weeks program, which contains mindful living exercises (such as eating, walking, cooking, etc., yoga, body scan and meditation practices, requires doing daily life activity and meditation with attention, openness and acceptance. The aim of this review article is to give information about Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction program and to emphasize its importance. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 68-80

  14. Responses to reductive stress in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Diane E; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing appreciation that reductive stress represents a disturbance in the redox state that is harmful to biological systems. On a cellular level, the presence of increased reducing equivalents and the lack of beneficial fluxes of reactive oxygen species can prevent growth factor-mediated signaling, promote mitochondrial dysfunction, increase apoptosis, and decrease cell survival. In this review, we highlight the importance of redox balance in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis and consider the tenuous balance between oxidative and reductive stress. We explain the role of reductive stress in models of protein aggregation-induced cardiomyopathies, such as those caused by mutations in αB-crystallin. In addition, we discuss the role of NADPH oxidases in models of heart failure and ischemia-reperfusion to illustrate how oxidants may mediate the adaptive responses to injury. NADPH oxidase 4, a hydrogen peroxide generator, also has a major role in promoting vascular homeostasis through its regulation of vascular tone, angiogenic responses, and effects on atherogenesis. In contrast, the lack of antioxidant enzymes that reduce hydrogen peroxide, such as glutathione peroxidase 1, promotes vascular remodeling and is deleterious to endothelial function. Thus, we consider the role of oxidants as necessary signals to promote adaptive responses, such as the activation of Nrf2 and eNOS, and the stabilization of Hif1. In addition, we discuss the adaptive metabolic reprogramming in hypoxia that lead to a reductive state, and the subsequent cellular redistribution of reducing equivalents from NADH to other metabolites. Finally, we discuss the paradoxical ability of excess reducing equivalents to stimulate oxidative stress and promote injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Volume reduction philosophy and techniques in use or planned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    Siting and development of nuclear waste disposal facilities is an expensive task. In the private sector, such developments face siting and licensing issues, public intervention, and technology challenges. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces similar challenges in the management of waste generated by the research and production facilities. Volume reduction can be used to lengthen the service life of existing facilities. A wide variety of volume reduction techniques are applied to different waste forms. Compressible waste is compacted into drums, cardboard and metal boxes, and the loaded drums are supercompacted into smaller units. Large metallic items are size-reduced and melted for recycle or sent to shallow land burial. Anaerobic digestion is a process that can reduce cellulosic and animal wastes by 80%. Incinerators of all types have been investigated for application to nuclear wastes and a number of installations operate or are constructing units for low-level and transuranic solid and liquid combustibles. Technology may help solve many of the problems in volume reduction, but the human element also has an important part in solving the puzzle. Aggressive educational campaigns at two sites have proved very successful in reducing waste generation. This overview of volume reduction is intended to transfer the current information from many DOE facilities. 44 references, 85 figures, 5 tables.

  16. Volume reduction philosophy and techniques in use or planned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    Siting and development of nuclear waste disposal facilities is an expensive task. In the private sector, such developments face siting and licensing issues, public intervention, and technology challenges. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces similar challenges in the management of waste generated by the research and production facilities. Volume reduction can be used to lengthen the service life of existing facilities. A wide variety of volume reduction techniques are applied to different waste forms. Compressible waste is compacted into drums, cardboard and metal boxes, and the loaded drums are supercompacted into smaller units. Large metallic items are size-reduced and melted for recycle or sent to shallow land burial. Anaerobic digestion is a process that can reduce cellulosic and animal wastes by 80%. Incinerators of all types have been investigated for application to nuclear wastes and a number of installations operate or are constructing units for low-level and transuranic solid and liquid combustibles. Technology may help solve many of the problems in volume reduction, but the human element also has an important part in solving the puzzle. Aggressive educational campaigns at two sites have proved very successful in reducing waste generation. This overview of volume reduction is intended to transfer the current information from many DOE facilities. 44 references, 85 figures, 5 tables

  17. Technique for Reduction of Environmental Pollution from Construction Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaeva, N. V.; Klimenko, M. Y.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the research on the negative impact construction wastes have on the urban environment and construction ecological safety are described. The research results are based on the statistical data and indicators calculated with the use of environmental pollution assessment in the restoration system of urban buildings technical conditions. The technique for the reduction of environmental pollution from construction wastes is scientifically based on the analytic summary of scientific and practical results for ecological safety ensuring at major overhaul and current repairs (reconstruction) of the buildings and structures. It is also based on the practical application of the probability theory method, system analysis and disperse system theory. It is necessary to execute some stages implementing the developed technique to reduce environmental pollution from construction wastes. The stages include various steps starting from information collection to the system formation with optimum performance characteristics which are more resource saving and energy efficient for the accumulation of construction wastes from urban construction units. The following tasks are solved under certain studies: basic data collection about construction wastes accumulation; definition and comparison of technological combinations at each system functional stage intended for the reduction of construction wastes discharge into the environment; assessment criteria calculation of resource saving and energy efficiency; optimum working parameters of each implementation stage are created. The urban construction technique implementation shows that the resource saving criteria are from 55.22% to 88.84%; potential of construction wastes recycling is 450 million tons of construction damaged elements (parts).

  18. Fringe biasing: A variance reduction technique for optically thick meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley-Stevenson, R. P. [AWE PLC, Aldermaston Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Fringe biasing is a stratified sampling scheme applicable to Monte Carlo thermal radiation transport codes. The thermal emission source in optically thick cells is partitioned into separate contributions from the cell interiors (where the likelihood of the particles escaping the cells is virtually zero) and the 'fringe' regions close to the cell boundaries. Thermal emission in the cell interiors can now be modelled with fewer particles, the remaining particles being concentrated in the fringes so that they are more likely to contribute to the energy exchange between cells. Unlike other techniques for improving the efficiency in optically thick regions (such as random walk and discrete diffusion treatments), fringe biasing has the benefit of simplicity, as the associated changes are restricted to the sourcing routines with the particle tracking routines being unaffected. This paper presents an analysis of the potential for variance reduction achieved from employing the fringe biasing technique. The aim of this analysis is to guide the implementation of this technique in Monte Carlo thermal radiation codes, specifically in order to aid the choice of the fringe width and the proportion of particles allocated to the fringe (which are interrelated) in multi-dimensional simulations, and to confirm that the significant levels of variance reduction achieved in simulations can be understood by studying the behaviour for simple test cases. The variance reduction properties are studied for a single cell in a slab geometry purely absorbing medium, investigating the accuracy of the scalar flux and current tallies on one of the interfaces with the surrounding medium. (authors)

  19. Fringe biasing: A variance reduction technique for optically thick meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley-Stevenson, R. P.

    2013-01-01

    Fringe biasing is a stratified sampling scheme applicable to Monte Carlo thermal radiation transport codes. The thermal emission source in optically thick cells is partitioned into separate contributions from the cell interiors (where the likelihood of the particles escaping the cells is virtually zero) and the 'fringe' regions close to the cell boundaries. Thermal emission in the cell interiors can now be modelled with fewer particles, the remaining particles being concentrated in the fringes so that they are more likely to contribute to the energy exchange between cells. Unlike other techniques for improving the efficiency in optically thick regions (such as random walk and discrete diffusion treatments), fringe biasing has the benefit of simplicity, as the associated changes are restricted to the sourcing routines with the particle tracking routines being unaffected. This paper presents an analysis of the potential for variance reduction achieved from employing the fringe biasing technique. The aim of this analysis is to guide the implementation of this technique in Monte Carlo thermal radiation codes, specifically in order to aid the choice of the fringe width and the proportion of particles allocated to the fringe (which are interrelated) in multi-dimensional simulations, and to confirm that the significant levels of variance reduction achieved in simulations can be understood by studying the behaviour for simple test cases. The variance reduction properties are studied for a single cell in a slab geometry purely absorbing medium, investigating the accuracy of the scalar flux and current tallies on one of the interfaces with the surrounding medium. (authors)

  20. Volume reduction of ion exchange resin by a pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, M.; Funabashi, K.; Uchida, S.; Kikuchi, M.

    1985-01-01

    Volume reduction techniques, such as incineration and acid digestion, of spent ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants are being developed with a view toward reducing radioactive waste volume and also making the final waste form more stable. The authors chose pyrolysis as a technique that can be done at low operating temperatures and low gas flow rates in a reactor vessel. Fundamental experiments were performed to clarify the resin pyrolysis characteristics, and the optimum pyrolysis temperature was determined. Consequently, a pilot plant with a treatment capacity of approx. 50 kg/batch was constructed based on the results. Using the pilot plant, the authors are now performing pyrolysis of the resins and solidification of their residues. This report will give the results of fundamental experiments and pilot plant tests

  1. Cogging Torque Reduction Techniques for Spoke-type IPMSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrim, F. S.; Sulaiman, E.; Kumar, R.; Jusoh, L. I.

    2017-08-01

    A spoke-type interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) is extending its tentacles in industrial arena due to good flux-weakening capability and high power density. In many of the application, high strength of permanent magnet causes the undesirable effects of high cogging torque that can aggravate performance of the motor. High cogging torque is significantly produced by IPMSM due to the similar length and the effectiveness of the magnetic air-gap. The address of this study is to analyze and compare the cogging torque effect and performance of four common techniques for cogging torque reduction such as skewing, notching, pole pairing and rotor pole pairing. With the aid of 3-D finite element analysis (FEA) by JMAG software, a 6S-4P Spoke-type IPMSM with various rotor-PM configurations has been designed. As a result, the cogging torque effect reduced up to 69.5% for skewing technique, followed by 31.96%, 29.6%, and 17.53% by pole pairing, axial pole pairing and notching techniques respectively.

  2. Endogenous reward mechanisms and their importance in stress reduction, exercise and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B

    2010-06-30

    Stress can facilitate disease processes and causes strain on the health care budgets. It is responsible or involved in many human ailments of our time, such as cardiovascular illnesses, particularly related to the psychosocial stressors of daily life, including work. Besides pharmacological or clinical medical treatment options, behavioral stress reduction is much-needed. These latter approaches rely on an endogenous healing potential via life-style modification. Hence, research has suggested different ways and approaches to self-treat stress or buffer against stressors and their impacts. These self-care-centred approaches are sometimes referred to as mind-body medicine or multi-factorial stress management strategies. They consist of various cognitive behavioral techniques, as well as relaxation exercises and nutritional counselling. However, a critical and consistent element of modern effective stress reduction strategies are exercise practices. With regard to underlying neurobiological mechanisms of stress relief, reward and motivation circuitries that are imbedded in the limbic regions of the brain are responsible for the autoregulatory and endogenous processing of stress. Exercise techniques clearly have an impact upon these systems. Thereby, physical activities have a potential to increase mood, i.e., decrease psychological distress by pleasure induction. For doing so, neurobiological signalling molecules such as endogenous morphine and coupled nitric oxide pathways get activated and finely tuned. Evolutionarily, the various activities and autoregulatory pathways are linked together, which can also be demonstrated by the fact that dopamine is endogenously converted into morphine which itself leads to enhanced nitric oxide release by activation of constitutive nitric oxide synthase enzymes. These molecules and mechanisms are clearly stress-reducing.

  3. The Application of Normal Stress Reduction Function in Tilt Tests for Different Block Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Gratchev, Ivan; Hein, Maw; Balasubramaniam, Arumugam

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of the shapes of rock cores, which control the sliding or toppling behaviours in tilt tests for the estimation of rock joint roughness coefficients (JRC). When the JRC values are estimated by performing tilt tests, the values are directly proportional to the basic friction of the rock material and the applied normal stress on the sliding planes. Normal stress obviously varies with the shape of the sliding block, and the basic friction angle is also affected by the sample shapes in tilt tests. In this study, the shapes of core blocks are classified into three representative shapes and those are created using plaster. Using the various shaped artificial cores, a set of tilt tests is carried out to identify the shape influences on the normal stress and the basic friction angle in tilt tests. The test results propose a normal stress reduction function to estimate the normal stress for tilt tests according to the sample shapes based on Barton's empirical equation. The proposed normal stress reduction functions are verified by tilt tests using artificial plaster joints and real rock joint sets. The plaster joint sets are well matched and cast in detailed printed moulds using a 3D printing technique. With the application of the functions, the obtained JRC values from the tilt tests using the plaster samples and the natural rock samples are distributed within a reasonable JRC range when compared with the measured values.

  4. Remembering Irving I. Gottesman: Twin Research Colleague and Friend Extraordinaire/Research Studies: Face-Lift Technique Comparison in Identical Twins; Raising Preterm Twins; Fetal Behavior in Dichorionic Twin Pregnancies; Co-Bedding and Stress Reduction in Twins/Public Interest: Identical Co-Twins' Same Day Delivery; Teaching Twins in Bosnia; Twin Auctioneers; Sister, the Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-12-01

    Dr Irving I. Gottesman, a colleague, friend, and long-time member of the International Society of Twin Studies passed away on June 29, 2016. His contributions to twin research and some personal reflections are presented to honor both the man and the memory. This tribute is followed by short reviews of twin research concerning differences between cosmetic surgical techniques, the rearing of preterm twins, behavioral observations of dichorionic fetal twins, and the outcomes of co-bedding twins with reference to stress reduction. Interesting and informative articles in the media describe identical co-twins who delivered infants on the same day, educational policies regarding twins in Bosnia and the United Kingdom, unusual practices of twin auctioneers, and a theatrical production, Sister, featuring identical twins in the leading roles.

  5. Computerized data reduction techniques for nadir viewing remote sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Gormsen, Barbara B.

    1985-01-01

    Computer resources have been developed for the analysis and reduction of MAPS experimental data from the OSTA-1 payload. The MAPS Research Project is concerned with the measurement of the global distribution of mid-tropospheric carbon monoxide. The measurement technique for the MAPS instrument is based on non-dispersive gas filter radiometer operating in the nadir viewing mode. The MAPS experiment has two passive remote sensing instruments, the prototype instrument which is used to measure tropospheric air pollution from aircraft platforms and the third generation (OSTA) instrument which is used to measure carbon monoxide in the mid and upper troposphere from space platforms. Extensive effort was also expended in support of the MAPS/OSTA-3 shuttle flight. Specific capabilities and resources developed are discussed.

  6. Energy Reduction Multipath Routing Protocol for MANET Using Recoil Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Sahu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANET, power conservation and utilization is an acute problem and has received significant attention from academics and industry in recent years. Nodes in MANET function on battery power, which is a rare and limited energy resource. Hence, its conservation and utilization should be done judiciously for the effective functioning of the network. In this paper, a novel protocol namely Energy Reduction Multipath Routing Protocol for MANET using Recoil Technique (AOMDV-ER is proposed, which conserves the energy along with optimal network lifetime, routing overhead, packet delivery ratio and throughput. It performs better than any other AODV based algorithms, as in AOMDV-ER the nodes transmit packets to their destination smartly by using a varying recoil off time technique based on their geographical location. This concept reduces the number of transmissions, which results in the improvement of network lifetime. In addition, the local level route maintenance reduces the additional routing overhead. Lastly, the prediction based link lifetime of each node is estimated which helps in reducing the packet loss in the network. This protocol has three subparts: an optimal route discovery algorithm amalgamation with the residual energy and distance mechanism; a coordinated recoiled nodes algorithm which eliminates the number of transmissions in order to reduces the data redundancy, traffic redundant, routing overhead, end to end delay and enhance the network lifetime; and a last link reckoning and route maintenance algorithm to improve the packet delivery ratio and link stability in the network. The experimental results show that the AOMDV-ER protocol save at least 16% energy consumption, 12% reduction in routing overhead, significant achievement in network lifetime and packet delivery ratio than Ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector routing protocol (AOMDV, Ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector routing protocol life

  7. Mind magic: a pilot study of preventive mind-body-based stress reduction in behaviorally inhibited and activated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellesma, Francine C; Cornelis, Janine

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to examine a mind-body-based preventive intervention program and to determine relationships between children's behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system, stress, and stress reduction after the program. Children participated in the program (n=30) or in a control condition (n=24). They filled out questionnaires before and after the program and reported their levels of stress before and after each of the five sessions. The program consisted of weekly sessions. Each session incorporated yoga postures, visualization, and social exercises. Breathing techniques were integrated. Stress reductions were only seen in the intervention group and mainly in children with high BIS--irrespective of their behavioral activation system. The results demonstrate that children with high BIS may benefit from a mind-body-based stress reduction program.

  8. Trauma Tapping Technique: Practical First Aid for Stress and Trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show a lifetime ... include re-experiencing the traumatic event, avoidant behavior for the memories of ... Methods. Trauma tapping technique (TTT) is a procedure that uses touch ...

  9. Behavior change techniques in popular alcohol reduction apps: content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, David; Garnett, Claire; Brown, James; West, Robert; Michie, Susan

    2015-05-14

    Mobile phone apps have the potential to reduce excessive alcohol consumption cost-effectively. Although hundreds of alcohol-related apps are available, there is little information about the behavior change techniques (BCTs) they contain, or the extent to which they are based on evidence or theory and how this relates to their popularity and user ratings. Our aim was to assess the proportion of popular alcohol-related apps available in the United Kingdom that focus on alcohol reduction, identify the BCTs they contain, and explore whether BCTs or the mention of theory or evidence is associated with app popularity and user ratings. We searched the iTunes and Google Play stores with the terms "alcohol" and "drink", and the first 800 results were classified into alcohol reduction, entertainment, or blood alcohol content measurement. Of those classified as alcohol reduction, all free apps and the top 10 paid apps were coded for BCTs and for reference to evidence or theory. Measures of popularity and user ratings were extracted. Of the 800 apps identified, 662 were unique. Of these, 13.7% (91/662) were classified as alcohol reduction (95% CI 11.3-16.6), 53.9% (357/662) entertainment (95% CI 50.1-57.7), 18.9% (125/662) blood alcohol content measurement (95% CI 16.1-22.0) and 13.4% (89/662) other (95% CI 11.1-16.3). The 51 free alcohol reduction apps and the top 10 paid apps contained a mean of 3.6 BCTs (SD 3.4), with approximately 12% (7/61) not including any BCTs. The BCTs used most often were "facilitate self-recording" (54%, 33/61), "provide information on consequences of excessive alcohol use and drinking cessation" (43%, 26/61), "provide feedback on performance" (41%, 25/61), "give options for additional and later support" (25%, 15/61) and "offer/direct towards appropriate written materials" (23%, 14/61). These apps also rarely included any of the 22 BCTs frequently used in other health behavior change interventions (mean 2.46, SD 2.06). Evidence was mentioned by 16

  10. A pilot study on mindfulness based stress reduction for smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Timothy B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mindfulness means paying attention in the present moment, non-judgmentally, without commentary or decision-making. We report results of a pilot study designed to test the feasibility of using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR (with minor modifications as a smoking intervention. Methods MBSR instructors provided instructions in mindfulness in eight weekly group sessions. Subjects attempted smoking cessation during week seven without pharmacotherapy. Smoking abstinence was tested six weeks after the smoking quit day with carbon monoxide breath test and 7-day smoking calendars. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate changes in stress and affective distress. Results 18 subjects enrolled in the intervention with an average smoking history of 19.9 cigarettes per day for 26.4 years. At the 6-week post-quit visit, 10 of 18 subjects (56% achieved biologically confirmed 7-day point-prevalent smoking abstinence. Compliance with meditation was positively associated with smoking abstinence and decreases in stress and affective distress. Discussions and conclusion The results of this study suggest that mindfulness training may show promise for smoking cessation and warrants additional study in a larger comparative trial.

  11. COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING: ALTERNATIVE COUNSELING TECHNIQUES TO REDUCTION ACADEMIC PROCRASTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Sofiana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Procrastination is often experienced by almost everyone, including students who often delay to resolve any responsibility in the academic process that would decrease the individual academic achievement. cognitive restructuring is one of the cognitive techniques used in counseling in addition to cognitive behavioral techniques (behavioral and didaktif techniques. This technique has several procedures by focusing on identifying an effort and changing dysfunctional thoughts or negative self-statements into a new belief that is more rational and adaptive, which will affect more rational behavior anyway. Cognitive restructuring techniques assessed to be an alternative counseling techniques in reducing academic procrastination.

  12. Stress corrosion cracking mitigation by ultrasound induced cavitation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, C.; Lee, Y.C. [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Taiwan (China); Yeh, T.K. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    Cavitation is usually considered as a damaging mechanism under erosion corrosion condition. However, if used appropriately, cavitation can be applied as a peening technique for surface stress modification process. The aim of surface stress modification is to alter the stress state of processed surface through direct or indirect thermo-mechanical treatments to reduce cracking problems initiated from surface. Ultrasonic devices are used to generate cavitation bubbles which when collapse will produce high intensity shock waves and high velocity micro-jet streams. The cavitation impact when properly controlled will create plastically deformed compressive layers in nearby surfaces and minimize cracking susceptibility in corrosive environments. This study is to investigate the effectiveness of Ultrasound Induced Cavitation (UIC) technique in surface stress improvement. Ultrasonic cavitation treatment of SS304 stainless steel under pure water is carried out with different controlling parameters. The cavitation impact on SS304 surface is measured in terms of surface roughness, surface strain, hardness, and microstructural characteristics. The in-depth residual stress distribution and crack mitigation effect are also evaluated. Test result indicates ultrasound induced cavitation treatment only has minor effect on surface physical characteristics. The extent of compressive stress produced on top surface exceeds the yield strength and can reach a depth above 150 μm. The maximum surface strain measured is generally below 20%, which is not considered detrimental to accelerate crack initiation. Stress corrosion verification tests show UIC treatment is capable in preventing environmental assisted cracking of stainless steels in severely corrosive conditions. In view of the test results, UIC technique has demonstrated to be a low cost, low contaminating, and effective surface stress improvement technology. (author)

  13. Stress corrosion cracking mitigation by ultrasound induced cavitation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, C.; Lee, Y.C.; Yeh, T.K.

    2014-01-01

    Cavitation is usually considered as a damaging mechanism under erosion corrosion condition. However, if used appropriately, cavitation can be applied as a peening technique for surface stress modification process. The aim of surface stress modification is to alter the stress state of processed surface through direct or indirect thermo-mechanical treatments to reduce cracking problems initiated from surface. Ultrasonic devices are used to generate cavitation bubbles which when collapse will produce high intensity shock waves and high velocity micro-jet streams. The cavitation impact when properly controlled will create plastically deformed compressive layers in nearby surfaces and minimize cracking susceptibility in corrosive environments. This study is to investigate the effectiveness of Ultrasound Induced Cavitation (UIC) technique in surface stress improvement. Ultrasonic cavitation treatment of SS304 stainless steel under pure water is carried out with different controlling parameters. The cavitation impact on SS304 surface is measured in terms of surface roughness, surface strain, hardness, and microstructural characteristics. The in-depth residual stress distribution and crack mitigation effect are also evaluated. Test result indicates ultrasound induced cavitation treatment only has minor effect on surface physical characteristics. The extent of compressive stress produced on top surface exceeds the yield strength and can reach a depth above 150 μm. The maximum surface strain measured is generally below 20%, which is not considered detrimental to accelerate crack initiation. Stress corrosion verification tests show UIC treatment is capable in preventing environmental assisted cracking of stainless steels in severely corrosive conditions. In view of the test results, UIC technique has demonstrated to be a low cost, low contaminating, and effective surface stress improvement technology. (author)

  14. Mixed Models and Reduction Techniques for Large-Rotation, Nonlinear Analysis of Shells of Revolution with Application to Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.; Tanner, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    An effective computational strategy is presented for the large-rotation, nonlinear axisymmetric analysis of shells of revolution. The three key elements of the computational strategy are: (1) use of mixed finite-element models with discontinuous stress resultants at the element interfaces; (2) substantial reduction in the total number of degrees of freedom through the use of a multiple-parameter reduction technique; and (3) reduction in the size of the analysis model through the decomposition of asymmetric loads into symmetric and antisymmetric components coupled with the use of the multiple-parameter reduction technique. The potential of the proposed computational strategy is discussed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the high accuracy of the mixed models developed and to show the potential of using the proposed computational strategy for the analysis of tires.

  15. Investigations of some rock stress measuring techniques and the stress field in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Tor Harald

    1997-12-31

    Rock stresses are important to the safe construction and operation of all man-made structures in rock, whether In mining, civil or petroleum engineering. The crucial issue is their relative magnitude and orientation. This thesis develops equipment and methods for further rock stress assessment and reevaluates existing overcoring rock stress measurements, and relates this information to the present geological setting. Both laboratory work and field work are involved. In the field, rock stresses are measured by the overcoring and the hydraulic fracturing technique. An observation technique for assessing likely high stresses is developed. The field data refer to several hydropower projects and to some offshore hydrocarbon fields. The principal sections are: (1) Tectonic setting in the western Fennoscandia, (2) Triaxial rock stress measurements by overcoring using the NTH cell (a strain gauge cell developed at the Norwegian technical university in Trondheim and based on the CSIR cell of the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), (3) Laboratory testing of the NTH cell, (4) Quality ranking of stresses measured by the NTH cell, (4) Recalculated rock stresses and implications to the regional stress field, (5) Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements. 113 refs., 98 figs., 62 tabs.

  16. Investigations of some rock stress measuring techniques and the stress field in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Tor Harald

    1998-12-31

    Rock stresses are important to the safe construction and operation of all man-made structures in rock, whether In mining, civil or petroleum engineering. The crucial issue is their relative magnitude and orientation. This thesis develops equipment and methods for further rock stress assessment and reevaluates existing overcoring rock stress measurements, and relates this information to the present geological setting. Both laboratory work and field work are involved. In the field, rock stresses are measured by the overcoring and the hydraulic fracturing technique. An observation technique for assessing likely high stresses is developed. The field data refer to several hydropower projects and to some offshore hydrocarbon fields. The principal sections are: (1) Tectonic setting in the western Fennoscandia, (2) Triaxial rock stress measurements by overcoring using the NTH cell (a strain gauge cell developed at the Norwegian technical university in Trondheim and based on the CSIR cell of the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research), (3) Laboratory testing of the NTH cell, (4) Quality ranking of stresses measured by the NTH cell, (4) Recalculated rock stresses and implications to the regional stress field, (5) Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements. 113 refs., 98 figs., 62 tabs.

  17. Recruiting and retaining family caregivers to a randomized controlled trial on mindfulness-based stress reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitebird, Robin R; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Lewis, Beth A; Hanson, Leah R; Crain, A Lauren; Enstad, Chris J; Mehta, Adele

    2011-09-01

    Caregivers for a family member with dementia experience chronic long-term stress that may benefit from new complementary therapies such as mindfulness-based stress reduction. Little is known however, about the challenges of recruiting and retaining family caregivers to research on mind-body based complementary therapies. Our pilot study is the first of its kind to successfully recruit caregivers for a family member with dementia to a randomized controlled pilot study of mindfulness-based stress reduction. The study used an array of recruitment strategies and techniques that were tailored to fit the unique features of our recruitment sources and employed retention strategies that placed high value on establishing early and ongoing communication with potential participants. Innovative recruitment methods including conducting outreach to health plan members and generating press coverage were combined with standard methods of community outreach and paid advertising. We were successful in exceeding our recruitment goal and retained 92% of the study participants at post-intervention (2 months) and 90% at 6 months. Recruitment and retention for family caregiver interventions employing mind-body based complementary therapies can be successful despite many challenges. Barriers include cultural perceptions about the use and benefit of complementary therapies, cultural differences with how the role of family caregiver is perceived, the use of group-based designs requiring significant time commitment by participants, and travel and respite care needs for busy family caregivers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Complete relaxation of residual stresses during reduction of solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2015-01-01

    reduce significantly over minutes. In this work the stresses are measured in-situ before and after the reduction by use of XRD. The phenomenon of accelerated creep has to be considered both in the production of stacks and in the analysis of the stress field in a stack based on anode supported SOFCs.......To asses the reliability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks during operation, the stress field in the stack must be known. During operation the stress field will depend on time as creep processes relax stresses. This work reports further details on a newly discovered creep phenomenon......, accelerated creep, taking place during the reduction of the anode. This relaxes stresses at a much higher rate (~×104) than creep during operation. The phenomenon has previously been studied by simultaneous loading and reduction. With the recorded high creep rates, the stresses at the time of reduction should...

  19. Yield Stress Reduction of DWPF Melter Feed Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M.E.; Smith, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    , then quenched with a water spray. Approximately 90% of the frit was converted to beads by this process. Yield stress reduction was measured by preparing melter feed slurries (using nonradioactive HLW simulants) that contain beads and comparing the yield stress with melter feed containing frit. A second set of tests was performed with beads of various diameters to determine if a decrease in diameter affected the results. Smaller particle size was shown to increase yield stress when frit is utilized. The settling rate of the beads was required to match the settling rate of the frit, therefore a decrease in particle size was anticipated. Settling tests were conducted in water, xanthan gum solutions, and in non-radioactive simulants of the HLW. The tests used time-lapse video-graphy as well as solids sampling to evaluate the settling characteristics of beads compared to frit of the same particle size. A preliminary melt rate evaluation was performed using a dry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) developed by SRNL. Preliminary evaluation of the impact of beading the frit on the frit addition system were completed by conducting flow loop testing. A recirculation loop was built with a total length of about 30 feet. Pump power, flow rate, outlet pressure, and observations of the flow in the horizontal upper section of the loop were noted. The recirculation flow was then gradually reduced and the above items recorded until settling was noted in the recirculation line. Overall, the data shows that the line pressure increased as the solids were increased for the same flow rate. In addition, the line pressure was higher for Frit 320 than the beads at the same solids level and flow. With the observations, a determination of minimum velocity to prevent settling could be done, but a graph of the line pressures versus velocity for the various tests was deemed to more objective. The graph shows that the inflection point in pressure drop is about the same for the beads and Frit 320. This

  20. Air pollution emission reduction techniques in combustion plants; Technique de reduction des emissions de polluants atmospheriques dans les installations de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouscaren, R. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Separating techniques offer a large choice between various procedures for air pollution reduction in combustion plants: mechanical, electrical, filtering, hydraulic, chemical, physical, catalytic, thermal and biological processes. Many environment-friendly equipment use such separating techniques, particularly for dust cleaning and fume desulfurizing and more recently for the abatement of volatile organic pollutants or dioxins and furans. These processes are briefly described

  1. Liposuction-assisted four pedicle-based breast reduction (LAFPBR): A new safer technique of breast reduction for elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Padula, Simone; Hersant, Barbara; Noel, Warren; Meningaud, Jean Paul

    2018-05-01

    As older people increasingly care for their body image and remain active longer, the demand for reduction mammaplasty is increasing in this population. Only a few studies of reduction mammaplasty have specifically focussed on the outcomes in elderly women. We developed a new breast reduction technique: the Liposuction-Assisted Four Pedicle-Based Breast Reduction (LAFPBR) that is especially indicated for elderly patients. The aim of this paper was to describe the LAFPBR technique and to determine whether it could be considered a safer option for elderly patients compared to the superomedial pedicle (SMP) technique. A retrospective study included sixty-two women aged 60 years and over who underwent bilateral breast reduction mammaplasty. Thirty-one patients underwent LAFPBR and 31 patients were operated using the SMP technique. Complications and patient satisfaction in both groups were analysed. Patient satisfaction was measured using a validated questionnaire: the client satisfaction questionnaire 8 (CSQ-8). The LAFPBR technique required less operating time, and avoided significant blood loss. Six minor complications were observed in SMP patients. No LAFPBR women developed a procedure-related complication. Patient satisfaction was high with a mean score of 29.65 in LAFPBR patients and 28.68 in SMP patients. The LAFPBR is an easy procedure that appears safer than SMP and results in a high satisfaction rate in elderly women. Copyright © 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR In Stress and Fatigue in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Alisaleh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS disease can lead to creation of mental and behavioral disorders such as stress and fatigue. Controlling the problems in patients is essential. Hence, this study has considered effectiveness of mindfulnessbased stress reduction in stress and fatigue symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS.this study is in kind of semi-experimental research in form of pretest posttest pattern with control group. Statistical population of the study consists of all patients with multiple sclerosis referred to Iran MS Association by 2016. Sampling method in this study is available sampling and based on having inclusion criteria. among patients who gained point higher than 21.8 in stress inventory and point higher than 5.1 in fatigue inventory, 30 people are selected as sample randomly and are placed in 2 groups with 15 people in each group. The experimental group was placed under mindfulnessbased stress reduction (MBSR training course including 8 sessions with 2hrs per session. k\\however, no intervention was done in control group. All patients in experimental and control groups fulfilled stress and fatigue inventories before and after intervention. obtained data was analyzed using MANCOVA and in SPSS22 software. obtained results show that there is significant difference between the two groups in terms of stress and fatigue after intervention (p<0.001.according to obtained results, it could be found that treatment method of mindfulness-based stress reduction can help reduction of symptoms of stress and fatigue in patients with MS.

  3. Effectiveness of a smartphone-based worry-reduction training for stress reduction: A randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versluis, Anke; Verkuil, Bart; Spinhoven, Philip; F Brosschot, Jos

    2018-04-03

    Perseverative cognition (e.g. worry) and unconscious stress are suggested to be important mediators in the relation between stressors and physiological health. We examined whether a smartphone-based worry-reduction training improved a physiological marker of stress (i.e. increased heart rate variability [HRV]) and unconscious stress. Randomised-controlled trial was conducted with individuals reporting work stress (n = 136). Participants were randomised to the experimental, control or waitlist condition (resp. EC, CC, WL). The EC and CC registered emotions five times daily for four weeks. The EC additionally received a worry-reduction training with mindfulness exercises. Primary outcome was 24-h assessments of HRV measured at pre-, mid- and post-intervention. Secondary outcomes were implicit affect and stress. Effects on heart rate and other psychological outcomes were explored. A total of 118 participants completed the study. No change from pre- to post-intervention was observed for the primary or secondary outcomes. The change over time was not different between conditions. Findings suggest that the training was ineffective for improving HRV or psychological stress. Future studies may focus on alternative smartphone-based stress interventions, as stress levels are high in society. There is need for easy interventions and smartphones offer possibilities for this.

  4. Application of chaotic noise reduction techniques to chaotic data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Deco & Schurmann (1994) have considered recurrent networks that were able to capture the dynamic and metric invariants ... The two techniques we consider are Hammel's method and the local projective method. We compare the ..... where C is the mXm covariance matrix of the vectors zn within the neighbourhood Un,.

  5. Can sickness absence be reduced by stress reduction programs: On the effectiveness of two approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhenen, W. van; Blonk, R.W.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two brief preventive stress reduction programs - a cognitive focused program and a combined intervention of physical exercise and relaxation - on sickness absence in stressed and non-stressed employees working in various jobs in a

  6. A Retrofit Technique for Kicker Beam-Coupling Impedance Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Kroyer, T; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Kurennoy, S

    2004-01-01

    The reduction of the impedance of operational ferrite kicker structures may be desirable in order to avoid rebuilding such a device. Often resistively coated ceramic plates or tubes are installed for this purpose but at the expense of available aperture. Ceramic U-shaped profiles with a resistive coating fitting between the ellipse of the beam and the rectangular kicker aperture have been used to significantly reduce the impedance of the magnet, while having a limited effect on the available physical aperture. Details of this method, constraints, measurements and simulation results as well as practical aspects are presented and discussed.

  7. Securing safe and informative thoracic CT examinations—Progress of radiation dose reduction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Takeshi, E-mail: tkubo@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Seo, Joon Beom [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Yamashiro, Tsuneo [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishinara, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan); Kalender, Willi A. [Institute of Medical Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Henkestr. 91, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Lee, Chang Hyun [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 28 Yeongeon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lynch, David A. [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson St, A330 Denver, Colorado 80206 (United States); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hatabu, Hiroto, E-mail: hhatabu@partners.org [Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Various techniques have led to substantial radiation dose reduction of chest CT. • Automatic modulation of tube current has been shown to reduce radiation dose. • Iterative reconstruction makes significant radiation dose reduction possible. • Processing time is a limitation for full iterative reconstruction, currently. • Validation of diagnostic accuracy is desirable for routine use of low dose protocols. - Abstract: The increase in the radiation exposure from CT examinations prompted the investigation on the various dose-reduction techniques. Significant dose reduction has been achieved and the level of radiation exposure of thoracic CT is expected to reach the level equivalent to several chest X-ray examinations. With more scanners with advanced dose reduction capability deployed, knowledge on the radiation dose reduction methods has become essential to clinical practice as well as academic research. This article reviews the history of dose reduction techniques, ongoing changes brought by newer technologies and areas of further investigation.

  8. Evolution of surgical techniques for a progressive risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Bruno; Santoro, Mario; Izzo, Raffaele; Servillo, Giuseppe; Compagna, Rita; Di Domenico, Lorenza; Di Nardo, Veronica; Giugliano, Giuseppe

    2017-07-18

    Advanced age is a strong predictor of high perioperative mortality in surgical patients and patients aged 75 years and older have an elevated surgical risk, much higher than that of younger patients. Progressive advances in surgical techniques now make it possible to treat high-risk surgical patients with minimally invasive procedures. Endovascular techniques have revolutionized the treatment of several vascular diseases, in particular carotid stenosis, aortic pathologies, and severely incapacitating intermittent claudication or critical limb ischemia. The main advantages of the endovascular approach are the low complication rate, high rate of technical success and a good clinical outcome. Biliary stenting has improved the clinical status of severely ill patients with bile duct stricture before major surgery, and represents a good palliative therapy in the case of malignant biliary obstruction.

  9. Recovery of Work-Related Stress: Complaint Reduction and Work-Resumption are Relatively Independent Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente, W. de; Kamphuis, J.H.; Blonk, R.W.; Emmelkamp, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the

  10. Recovery of work-related stress: Complaint reduction and work-resumption are relatively independent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vente, W.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the

  11. Application of nonliner reduction techniques in chemical process modeling: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhaimin, Z; Aziz, N.; Abd Shukor, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Model reduction techniques have been used widely in engineering fields for electrical, mechanical as well as chemical engineering. The basic idea of reduction technique is to replace the original system by an approximating system with much smaller state-space dimension. A reduced order model is more beneficial to process and industrial field in terms of control purposes. This paper is to provide a review on application of nonlinear reduction techniques in chemical processes. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique reviewed are also highlighted

  12. Stress reduction through music in patients undergoing cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, N.; Becker, H. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Schedlowski, M. [Dept. of Clinical Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Schuermeyer, T.H. [Dept. of Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    We studied the influence of music on stress reaction of patients during cerebral angiography. We randomised 30 patients to a music or a control group. We measured stress hormones, blood pressure, heart rate and psychological parameters. Patients examined without music showed rising levels of cortisol in plasma, indicating high stress levels, while cortisol in patients examined with music remained stable. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower listening to music. Patients with a high level of fear did appear to benefit particularly from the music. (orig.)

  13. Stress reduction through music in patients undergoing cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, N.; Becker, H.; Schedlowski, M.; Schuermeyer, T.H.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the influence of music on stress reaction of patients during cerebral angiography. We randomised 30 patients to a music or a control group. We measured stress hormones, blood pressure, heart rate and psychological parameters. Patients examined without music showed rising levels of cortisol in plasma, indicating high stress levels, while cortisol in patients examined with music remained stable. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower listening to music. Patients with a high level of fear did appear to benefit particularly from the music. (orig.)

  14. A Theory for the Incubation Period Following a Stress Reduction During Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen

    1978-01-01

    incubation period is much shorter than the time needed to establish an equilibrium structure at the new lower stress. The dependence of dislocation line tension upon line length is taken into account; as a result of this, recovery rates are predicted to depend on stress to a power larger than three......A dislocation model is presented for the phenomena following a stress reduction during creep. It is suggested that an incubation period for the production of new mobile dislocations arises because attractive junctions on the verge of breaking just before the stress reduction are no longer so after...... the stress reduction. The breaking stress of the junctions must be lowered by climb movements in the surrounding network before the junctions can break and release new mobile dislocations. On the basis of these concepts, an expression is derived for the length of the incubation period. This theoretical...

  15. Reduction of radioactive waste volumes by using supercompaction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, John Wagner A.; Lima, Sandro Leonardo N. de

    2007-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Program from ELETRONUCLEAR comprises the use of techniques and technologies to reduce the volumes of processed radwaste, which aims to improve the storage capacity and also assure the protection for the environment, as part of ELETRONUCLEAR's business strategy. The Angra site stores radwaste in temporary storage facilities, named Store number 1 and Store number 2, which are routinely managed and surveyed periodically by the ELETRONUCLEAR's Radiological Protection Division and submitted to frequent CNEN inspections. Medium level and low level radwastes are stored on those storage facilities. In January 2005, ELETRONUCLEAR decided to realize the Supercompaction of drums with compacted radwaste, mostly from Angra 1 and a little from Angra 2. By that time, the Store 1 was near to achieve its nominal capacity; this situation demanded a prompt response, and the chosen option was to proceed the supercompaction by using a mobile supercompactor unit. In April, 2006, two thousand and twenty seven drums of 200 liters were supercompacted at the plant site, and as a result, the initial storage area became sufficient to store drums for about five more years of operation. The supercompaction process is achieved by using a hydraulic press with extra high force. The pellets (crashed drums) were placed inside a special metallic box with 2500 liters of capacity (the overpack). This operation produced 128 full boxes, varying from 12 to 19 pellets inside each box, and the boxes were stored inside the Store 1. (author)

  16. Black women, work, stress, and perceived discrimination: the focused support group model as an intervention for stress reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, V M

    1995-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the use of two components (small and large groups) of a community-based intervention, the Focused Support Group (FSG) model, to alleviate employment-related stressors in Black women. Participants were assigned to small groups based on occupational status. Groups met for five weekly 3-hr sessions in didactic or small- and large-group formats. Two evaluations following the didactic session and the small and large group sessions elicited information on satisfaction with each of the formats, self-reported change in stress, awareness of interpersonal and sociopolitical issues affecting Black women in the labor force, assessing support networks, and usefulness of specific discussion topics to stress reduction. Results indicated the usefulness of the small- and large-group formats in reduction of self-reported stress and increases in personal and professional sources of support. Discussions on race and sex discrimination in the workplace were effective in overall stress reduction. The study highlights labor force participation as a potential source of stress for Black women, and supports the development of culture- and gender-appropriate community interventions as viable and cost-effective methods for stress reduction.

  17. Flowability of composites is no guarantee for contraction stress reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadenaro, M.; Marchesi, G.; Antoniolli, F.; Davidson, C.; Dorigo, E.D.; Breschi, L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to measure the contraction stress development of three flowable resin-composite materials (Grandio Flow, VOCO GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany; Tetric Flow, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein; Filtek Supreme XT Flowable Restorative, 3 M ESPE, ST. Paul, MN, USA)

  18. Title: Effect of abiotic stress on reduction of microbial contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TERI

    2016-03-30

    Mar 30, 2016 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of osmotic stress on in vitro propagation of. Musa sp. ... In vitro propagation of banana preferably use sword sucker as explant source where microbial contamination poses a great problem in ... micropropagation. Endo-bacterial contamination is one of the major problems ...

  19. Animal-Assisted Stress Reduction Programs in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Julie M.; Mueller, Megan Kiely

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of increasingly popular animal-assisted stress relief programs at higher education institutions across the United States. Although research on animal-assisted programs is increasing, there is still a lack of information documenting implementation of these programs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to…

  20. For whom does mindfulness-based stress reduction work? : An examination of moderating effects of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyklicek, I.; Irrmischer, M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine potentially moderating effects of personality characteristics regarding changes in anxious and depressed mood associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), controlling forsociodemographicactors.Meditation-naïvearticipants from the general

  1. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report

  2. Comparisons of receive array interference reduction techniques under erroneous generalized transmit beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    information for the desired user spatially uncorrelated transmit channels on the effectiveness of transmit beamforming for different interference reduction techniques is investigated. The case of over-loaded receive array with closely-spaced elements

  3. Reduction method for residual stress of welded joint using random vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tadashi; Hiroi, Tetsumaro

    2005-01-01

    Welded joints are used for construction of many structures. Residual stress is induced near the bead caused by locally given heat. Tensile residual stress on the surface may reduce fatigue strength. In this paper, a new method for reduction of residual stress using vibration during welding is proposed. As vibrational load, random vibration, white noise and filtered white noise are used. Two thin plates are butt-welded. Residual stress is measured with a paralleled beam X-ray diffractometer with scintillation counter after removing quenched scale chemically. It is concluded that tensile residual stress near the bead is reduced by using random vibration during welding

  4. The Analysis of Dimensionality Reduction Techniques in Cryptographic Object Code Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason L. Wright; Milos Manic

    2010-05-01

    This paper compares the application of three different dimension reduction techniques to the problem of locating cryptography in compiled object code. A simple classi?er is used to compare dimension reduction via sorted covariance, principal component analysis, and correlation-based feature subset selection. The analysis concentrates on the classi?cation accuracy as the number of dimensions is increased.

  5. Aquatic-Aerobic Exercise as a Means of Stress Reduction during Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Kara Mallory; Smith, Sheila A.

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this research were to explore the current literature regarding associations between psychological stress and adverse fetal outcome, associations between aerobic exercise and psychological stress reduction, and associations between aerobic exercise and fetal outcome. The published studies that were located provide evidence of the following: 1) Stress reactivity increases physiologically during pregnancy, 2) pregnant women may experience additional stressors that are usually not ex...

  6. Chronic light reduction reduces overall resilience to additional shading stress in the seagrass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaakub, S.M.; Chen, E.; Bouma, T.; Erftemeijer, P.L.A.; Todd, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Seagrasses have substantial capacity to survive long periods of light reduction, but how acclimation to chronic low light environments may influence their ability to cope with additional stress is poorly understood. This study examines the effect of temporal light reduction by adding two levels of

  7. Potential drop technique for monitoring stress corrosion cracking growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Celia F.C.; Schvartzman, Monica M.A.M.; Moreira, Pedro A.L.D.P.L.P.

    2002-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking is one of most severe damage mechanisms influencing the lifetime of components in the operation of nuclear power plants. To assess the initiation stages and kinetics of crack growth as the main parameters coming to residual lifetime determination, the testing facility should allow active loading of specimens in the environment which is close to the real operation conditions of assessed component. Under cooperation of CDTN/CNEN and International Atomic Energy Agency a testing system has been developed by Nuclear Research Institute, Czech Republic, that will be used for the environmentally assisted cracking testing at CDTN/CNEN. The facility allows high temperature autoclave corrosion mechanical testing in well-defined LWR water chemistry using constant load, slow strain rate and rising displacement techniques. The facility consists of autoclave and refreshing water loop enabling testing at temperatures up to 330 deg C. Active loading system allows the maximum load on a specimen as high as 60 kN. The potential drop measurement is used to determine the instant crack length and its growth rate. The paper presents the facility and describes the potential drop technique, that is one of the most used techniques to monitor crack growth in specimens under corrosive environments. (author)

  8. Spontaneous high piezoelectricity in poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanoribbons produced by iterative thermal size reduction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanik, Mehmet; Aktas, Ozan; Sen, Huseyin Sener; Durgun, Engin; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-09-23

    We produced kilometer-long, endlessly parallel, spontaneously piezoelectric and thermally stable poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) micro- and nanoribbons using iterative size reduction technique based on thermal fiber drawing. Because of high stress and temperature used in thermal drawing process, we obtained spontaneously polar γ phase PVDF micro- and nanoribbons without electrical poling process. On the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, we observed that PVDF micro- and nanoribbons are thermally stable and conserve the polar γ phase even after being exposed to heat treatment above the melting point of PVDF. Phase transition mechanism is investigated and explained using ab initio calculations. We measured an average effective piezoelectric constant as -58.5 pm/V from a single PVDF nanoribbon using a piezo evaluation system along with an atomic force microscope. PVDF nanoribbons are promising structures for constructing devices such as highly efficient energy generators, large area pressure sensors, artificial muscle and skin, due to the unique geometry and extended lengths, high polar phase content, high thermal stability and high piezoelectric coefficient. We demonstrated two proof of principle devices for energy harvesting and sensing applications with a 60 V open circuit peak voltage and 10 μA peak short-circuit current output.

  9. Reduction of initial stress stiffening by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippine, M. A.; Sigmund, Ole; Rebeiz, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Topology optimization is a rigorous method of obtaining non-intuitive designs. We use it to obtain a capacitive RF switch that stiffens little in response to an increase of the in-plane biaxial stresses that typically develop during MEMS fabrication. The actuation voltage is closely related...... level. We include a volume constraint and a compliance constraint. Topology optimized designs are compared to an intuitively-designed RF switch. The switches contain similar features. The compliance constraint is varied such that the topology optimized switch performance approaches the intuitively......-designed one. Finally, the importance of the compliance constraint and of the robust formulation are discussed....

  10. The effect of emotional freedom technique on stress and anxiety in nursing students: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Susan Librizzi

    2016-05-01

    Stress and anxiety have been identified as significant issues experienced by student nurses during their education. Some studies have suggested that the stress experienced by nursing students is greater than that experienced by medical students, other non-nursing healthcare students, degreed nurses, and the female population in general. A recently introduced energy type therapy, emotional freedom technique (EFT), has shown some success in reducing symptoms of anxiety, stress, and fear in a variety of settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of EFT in decreasing anxiety and stress as a potential intervention to assist students in stress management. The study used a mixed method design of both qualitative and quantitative measures. Quantitatively, in a one group pretest-posttest design, participants received group instruction in the technique and were encouraged to repeat it daily. Self-reported anxiety was measured at baseline, and then weekly for four weeks using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The qualitative survey was completed by participants at the end of the study in order to capture a more subjective experience. The pilot study was conducted in a two-year college in the southeastern region of the United States. All enrolled nursing students in an associate degree nursing program were invited to participate. Participation was voluntary, resulting in an original convenience sample of thirty-nine nursing students (N=39). Data collection instruments included a demographic questionnaire, pretest State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). A qualitative questionnaire was also administered at the end of the four weeks. STAI and PSS were administered weekly. Data analysis using RMANOVA was performed at the second, third and the fourth week. Decreases in anxiety as measured on both the STAI and PSS were statistically significant (p=.05). For PSS, STAI state and trait

  11. Stress Reduction Through Listening to Indian Classical Music During Gastroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Raj Kotwal

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music on elevated state of anxiety as many patients become stressed and anxious during diagnostic procedures. The study was conducted on 104 consecutive patients undergoing GI endoscopy for various reasons. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups regardless of sex, age and underlying disease. One group of 54 patients were made to listen to a recorded Indian classical instrumental music before and during the procedure, while the other group of 50 patients did not. Blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate were recorded at the beginning of consultation and end of procedure. Perception of procedure using a three point attitude scale was assessed. Our results indicate that the background Indian classical music is efficacious in reducing psychological distress during a gastroscopic examination. We suggest that music could be applied to other medical situations as well, which tend to generate undue psychological stress and anxiety. Music, as a familiar personal and culture medium, can be used to ease anxiety, to act as distractor, to increase discomfort and pain threshold.

  12. Residual stress reduction in the penetration nozzle weld joint by overlay welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wenchun; Luo, Yun; Wang, B.Y.; Tu, S.T.; Gong, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Residual stress reduction in penetration weld nozzle by overlay welding was studied. • The overlay weld can decrease the residual stress in the weld root. • Long overlay welding is proposed in the actual welding. • Overlay weld to decrease residual stress is more suitable for thin nozzle. - Abstract: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the penetration nozzle weld joint endangers the structural reliability of pressure vessels in nuclear and chemical industries. How to decrease the residual stress is very critical to ensure the structure integrity. In this paper, a new method, which uses overlay welding on the inner surface of nozzle, is proposed to decrease the residual stresses in the penetration joint. Finite element simulation is used to study the change of weld residual stresses before and after overlay welding. It reveals that this method can mainly decrease the residual stress in the weld root. Before overlay welding, large tensile residual stresses are generated in the weld root. After overlay weld, the tensile hoop stress in weld root has been decreased about 45%, and the radial stress has been decreased to compressive stress, which is helpful to decrease the susceptibility to SCC. With the increase of overlay welding length, the residual stress in weld root has been greatly decreased, and thus the long overlay welding is proposed in the actual welding. It also finds that this method is more suitable for thin nozzle rather than thick nozzle

  13. Dose reduction in pediatric abdominal CT: use of iterative reconstruction techniques across different CT platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Singh, Sarabjeet; Otrakji, Alexi; Padole, Atul; Lim, Ruth; Nimkin, Katherine; Westra, Sjirk; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Gee, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Dose reduction in children undergoing CT scanning is an important priority for the radiology community and public at large. Drawbacks of radiation reduction are increased image noise and artifacts, which can affect image interpretation. Iterative reconstruction techniques have been developed to reduce noise and artifacts from reduced-dose CT examinations, although reconstruction algorithm, magnitude of dose reduction and effects on image quality vary. We review the reconstruction principles, radiation dose potential and effects on image quality of several iterative reconstruction techniques commonly used in clinical settings, including 3-D adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR-3D), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), iDose, sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). We also discuss clinical applications of iterative reconstruction techniques in pediatric abdominal CT. (orig.)

  14. Dose reduction in pediatric abdominal CT: use of iterative reconstruction techniques across different CT platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Singh, Sarabjeet; Otrakji, Alexi; Padole, Atul; Lim, Ruth; Nimkin, Katherine; Westra, Sjirk; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Gee, Michael S. [MGH Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Dose reduction in children undergoing CT scanning is an important priority for the radiology community and public at large. Drawbacks of radiation reduction are increased image noise and artifacts, which can affect image interpretation. Iterative reconstruction techniques have been developed to reduce noise and artifacts from reduced-dose CT examinations, although reconstruction algorithm, magnitude of dose reduction and effects on image quality vary. We review the reconstruction principles, radiation dose potential and effects on image quality of several iterative reconstruction techniques commonly used in clinical settings, including 3-D adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR-3D), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), iDose, sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). We also discuss clinical applications of iterative reconstruction techniques in pediatric abdominal CT. (orig.)

  15. Elimination of maintenance outage and cost reduction by development of outage-free maintenance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakabe, Hideo; Maruyama, Yoshinaga

    1996-01-01

    The development program of KEPCO on outage-free maintenance techniques for distribution line work since 1984 is overviewed. It has succeeded in eliminating maintenance outages since 1989. The original aim was to improve customer satisfaction. However, in all, four benefits were realised through the development. These are cost reduction, securing of worker safety, improvement of customer service, and advancement of distribution techniques and morale in KEPCO. The introduction of robotic techniques for maintenance work and manipulator techniques for repair work is planned for further modernization. These new techniques are helping in both work safety and work efficiency improvement. Cost reduction and advancement of distribution line work techniques is also considered. (R.P.)

  16. Reduction method for residual stress of welded joint using harmonic vibrational load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tadashi; Hiroi, Tetsumaro; Hirai, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    Welding is widely used for construction of many structures. Since welding is a process using locally given heat, residual stress is generated near the bead. Tensile residual stress degrades fatigue strength. Some reduction methods of residual stress have been presented and, for example, heat treatment and shot peening are practically used. However, those methods need special tools and are time consuming. In this paper, a new method for reduction of residual stress using harmonic vibrational load during welding is proposed. The proposed method is examined experimentally for some conditions. Two thin plates are supported on the supporting device and butt-welded using an automatic CO 2 gas shielded arc welding machine. Residual stress in the direction of the bead is measured by using a paralleled beam X-ray diffractometer with scintillation counter after removing quenched scale chemically. First, the welding of rolled steel for general structure for some excitation frequencies is examined. Specimens are welded along the groove on both sides. For all frequencies, tensile residual stress near the bead is significantly reduced. Second, welding of the specimen made of high tensile strength steel is examined. In this case, tensile residual stress near the bead is also reduced. Finally, the proposed method is examined by an analytical method. An analytical model which consists of mass and preloaded springs with elasto-plastic characteristic is used. Reduction of residual stress is demonstrated using this model

  17. Research and development of treatment techniques for LLW from decommissioning: Decontamination and volume reduction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, T.; Kameo, Y.; Nakashio, N.

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of reducing the amount and/or volume of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) arising from decommissioning of nuclear reactor, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing four decontamination techniques. They are: (a) Gas-carrying abrasive method, (b) In-situ remote electropolishing method for pipe system before dismantling, (c) Bead reaction - thermal shock method, and (d) Laser induced chemical method for components after dismantling. JAERI in developing techniques are also carrying out melting tests of metal and non-metal. Melting was confirmed to be effective in reducing the volume, homogenizing, and furthermore stabilizing non-metallic wastes. (author)

  18. Recovery of Work-Related Stress: Complaint Reduction and Work-Resumption are Relatively Independent Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vente, Wieke; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; Blonk, Roland W B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2015-09-01

    The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the association between predictors and work-resumption. Seventy-one patients on sickness-leave because of work-related stress complaints were followed over a period of 13 months. Predictors comprised personal (demographics, coping, cognitions), work-related (job-characteristics, social support), and illness-related (complaint duration, absence duration) variables. Dependent variables were distress complaints, burnout complaints, and work-resumption. Complaints reduced considerably over time to borderline clinical levels and work-resumption increased to 68% at 13 months. Predictors of stronger reduction of distress complaints were male gender, less working hours, less decision authority, more co-worker support, and shorter absence duration. Predictors of stronger reduction of burnout complaints were male gender, lower age, high education, less avoidant coping, less decision authority, more job security, and more co-worker support. Predictors of work-resumption were lower age and stronger reduction of burnout complaints. No indication for a mediating role of burnout complaints between the predictor age and work-resumption was found. Complaint reduction and work-resumption are relatively independent processes. Symptom reduction is influenced by individual and work-related characteristics, which holds promise for a multidisciplinary treatment approach for work-related stress.

  19. Technique for systematic bone reduction for fixed implant-supported prosthesis in the edentulous maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidra, Avinash S

    2015-06-01

    Bone reduction for maxillary fixed implant-supported prosthodontic treatment is often necessary to either gain prosthetic space or to conceal the prosthesis-tissue junction in patients with excessive gingival display (gummy smile). Inadequate bone reduction is often a cause of prosthetic failure due to material fractures, poor esthetics, or inability to perform oral hygiene procedures due to unfavorable ridge lap prosthetic contours. Various instruments and techniques are available for bone reduction. It would be helpful to have an accurate and efficient method for bone reduction at the time of surgery and subsequently create a smooth bony platform. This article presents a straightforward technique for systematic bone reduction by transferring the patient's maximum smile line, recorded clinically, to a clear radiographic smile guide for treatment planning using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The patient's smile line and the amount of required bone reduction are transferred clinically by marking bone with a sterile stationery graphite wood pencil at the time of surgery. This technique can help clinicians to accurately achieve the desired bone reduction during surgery, and provide confidence that the diagnostic and treatment planning goals have been achieved. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamic model reduction: An overview of available techniques with application to power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Savo D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the model reduction techniques used for the reduction of large-scale linear and nonlinear dynamic models, described by the differential and algebraic equations that are commonly used in control theory. The groups of methods discussed in this paper for reduction of the linear dynamic model are based on singular perturbation analysis, modal analysis, singular value decomposition, moment matching and methods based on a combination of singular value decomposition and moment matching. Among the nonlinear dynamic model reduction methods, proper orthogonal decomposition, the trajectory piecewise linear method, balancing-based methods, reduction by optimising system matrices and projection from a linearised model, are described. Part of the paper is devoted to the techniques commonly used for reduction (equivalencing of large-scale power systems, which are based on coherency, synchrony, singular perturbation analysis, modal analysis and identification. Two (most interesting of the described techniques are applied to the reduction of the commonly used New England 10-generator, 39-bus test power system.

  1. Evaluated Plan Stress Of Weld In Pressure Tube Using X Ray Diffraction Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Trong Phuc; Nguyen Duc Thanh; Luu Anh Tuyen

    2011-01-01

    X ray diffraction is a fundamental technique measuring stress, this technique has determined crystal strain in materials, from that determined stress in materials. This paper presents study of evaluating plane stress of weld in pressure tube, using modern XRD apparatus: X Pert Pro. (author)

  2. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness in Korean nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeoungsuk; Lindquist, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Nursing students often experience depression, anxiety, stress and decreased mindfulness which may decrease their patient care effectiveness. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) effectively reduced depression, anxiety and stress, and increased mindfulness in previous research with other populations, but there is sparse evidence regarding its effectiveness for nursing students in Korea. To examine the effects of MBSR on depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness in Korean nursing students. A randomized controlled trial. Fifty (50) nursing students at KN University College of Nursing in South Korea were randomly assigned to two groups. Data from 44 students, MBSR (n=21) and a wait list (WL) control (n=23) were analyzed. The MBSR group practiced mindfulness meditation for 2 h every week for 8 weeks. The WL group did not receive MBSR intervention. Standardized self-administered questionnaires of depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness were administered at the baseline prior to the MBSR program and at completion (at 8 weeks). Compared with WL participants, MBSR participants reported significantly greater decreases in depression, anxiety and stress, and greater increase in mindfulness. A program of MBSR was effective when it was used with nursing students in reducing measures of depression, anxiety and stress, and increasing their mindful awareness. MBSR shows promise for use with nursing students to address their experience of mild depression, anxiety and stress, and to increase mindfulness in academic and clinical work, warranting further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. System Response Analysis and Model Order Reduction, Using Conventional Method, Bond Graph Technique and Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Moin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This research paper basically explores and compares the different modeling and analysis techniques and than it also explores the model order reduction approach and significance. The traditional modeling and simulation techniques for dynamic systems are generally adequate for single-domain systems only, but the Bond Graph technique provides new strategies for reliable solutions of multi-domain system. They are also used for analyzing linear and non linear dynamic production system, artificial intelligence, image processing, robotics and industrial automation. This paper describes a unique technique of generating the Genetic design from the tree structured transfer function obtained from Bond Graph. This research work combines bond graphs for model representation with Genetic programming for exploring different ideas on design space tree structured transfer function result from replacing typical bond graph element with their impedance equivalent specifying impedance lows for Bond Graph multiport. This tree structured form thus obtained from Bond Graph is applied for generating the Genetic Tree. Application studies will identify key issues and importance for advancing this approach towards becoming on effective and efficient design tool for synthesizing design for Electrical system. In the first phase, the system is modeled using Bond Graph technique. Its system response and transfer function with conventional and Bond Graph method is analyzed and then a approach towards model order reduction is observed. The suggested algorithm and other known modern model order reduction techniques are applied to a 11th order high pass filter [1], with different approach. The model order reduction technique developed in this paper has least reduction errors and secondly the final model retains structural information. The system response and the stability analysis of the system transfer function taken by conventional and by Bond Graph method is compared and

  4. Experimental investigation on emission reduction in neem oil biodiesel using selective catalytic reduction and catalytic converter techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Karthickeyan

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, non-edible seed oil namely raw neem oil was converted into biodiesel using transesterification process. In the experimentation, two biodiesel blends were prepared namely B25 (25% neem oil methyl ester with 75% of diesel) and B50 (50% neem oil methyl ester with 50% diesel). Urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technique with catalytic converter (CC) was fixed in the exhaust tail pipe of the engine for the reduction of engine exhaust emissions. Initially, the engine was operated with diesel as a working fluid and followed by refilling of biodiesel blends B25 and B50 to obtain the baseline readings without SCR and CC. Then, the same procedure was repeated with SCR and CC technique for emission reduction measurement in diesel, B25 and B50 sample. The experimental results revealed that the B25 blend showed higher break thermal efficiency (BTE) and exhaust gas temperature (EGT) with lower break-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) than B50 blend at all loads. On comparing with biodiesel blends, diesel experiences increased BTE of 31.9% with reduced BSFC of 0.29 kg/kWh at full load. A notable emission reduction was noticed for all test fuels in SCR and CC setup. At full load, B25 showed lower carbon monoxide (CO) of 0.09% volume, hydrocarbon (HC) of 24 ppm, and smoke of 14 HSU and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) of 735 ppm than diesel and B50 in SCR and CC setup. On the whole, the engine with SCR and CC setup showed better performance and emission characteristics than standard engine operation.

  5. Mindfulness-based stress reduction: an intervention to enhance the effectiveness of nurses' coping with work-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah A

    2014-06-01

    This critical literature review explored the current state of the science regarding mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) as a potential intervention to improve the ability of nurses to effectively cope with stress. Literature sources include searches from EBSCOhost, Gale PowerSearch, ProQuest, PubMed Medline, Google Scholar, Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, and reference lists from relevant articles. Empirical evidence regarding utilizing MBSR with nurses and other healthcare professionals suggests several positive benefits including decreased stress, burnout, and anxiety; and increased empathy, focus, and mood. Nurse use of MBSR may be a key intervention to help improve nurses' ability to cope with stress and ultimately improve the quality of patient care provided. © 2014 NANDA International, Inc.

  6. Stress reduction of Cu-doped diamond-like carbon films from ab initio calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure and properties of Cu-doped diamond-like carbon films (DLC were investigated using ab initio calculations. The effect of Cu concentrations (1.56∼7.81 at.% on atomic bond structure was mainly analyzed to clarify the residual stress reduction mechanism. Results showed that with introducing Cu into DLC films, the residual compressive stress decreased firstly and then increased for each case with the obvious deterioration of mechanical properties, which was in agreement with the experimental results. Structural analysis revealed that the weak Cu-C bond and the relaxation of both the distorted bond angles and bond lengths accounted for the significant reduction of residual compressive stress, while at the higher Cu concentration the increase of residual stress attributed to the existence of distorted Cu-C structures and the increased fraction of distorted C-C bond lengths.

  7. Long-term occupational stress is associated with regional reductions in brain tissue volumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Blix

    Full Text Available There are increasing reports of cognitive and psychological declines related to occupational stress in subjects without psychiatric premorbidity or major life trauma. The underlying neurobiology is unknown, and many question the notion that the described disabilities represent a medical condition. Using PET we recently found that persons suffering from chronic occupational stress had limbic reductions in the 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Here we examine whether chronic work-related stress is also associated with changes in brain structure. We performed MRI-based voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in stressed subjects and unstressed controls focusing on gray (GM and white matter (WM volumes, and the volumes of hippocampus, caudate, and putamen - structures known to be susceptible to neurotoxic changes. Stressed subjects exhibited significant reductions in the GM volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, their caudate and putamen volumes were reduced, and the volumes correlated inversely to the degree of perceived stress. Our results add to previous data on chronic psychosocial stress, and indicate a morphological involvement of the frontostriatal circuits. The present findings of morphological changes in these regions confirm our previous conclusion that symptoms from occupational stress merit careful investigations and targeted treatment.

  8. Long-Term Occupational Stress Is Associated with Regional Reductions in Brain Tissue Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blix, Eva; Perski, Aleksander; Berglund, Hans; Savic, Ivanka

    2013-01-01

    There are increasing reports of cognitive and psychological declines related to occupational stress in subjects without psychiatric premorbidity or major life trauma. The underlying neurobiology is unknown, and many question the notion that the described disabilities represent a medical condition. Using PET we recently found that persons suffering from chronic occupational stress had limbic reductions in the 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Here we examine whether chronic work-related stress is also associated with changes in brain structure. We performed MRI-based voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in stressed subjects and unstressed controls focusing on gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes, and the volumes of hippocampus, caudate, and putamen – structures known to be susceptible to neurotoxic changes. Stressed subjects exhibited significant reductions in the GM volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, their caudate and putamen volumes were reduced, and the volumes correlated inversely to the degree of perceived stress. Our results add to previous data on chronic psychosocial stress, and indicate a morphological involvement of the frontostriatal circuits. The present findings of morphological changes in these regions confirm our previous conclusion that symptoms from occupational stress merit careful investigations and targeted treatment. PMID:23776438

  9. Gender differences and job stress management techniques of library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at ascertaining gender and work related stress among library ... library staff indicated non-conducive work environment as the cause of job stress. ... flexible work hours and developing healthy life styles as management tips.

  10. Endogenous reward mechanisms and their importance in stress reduction, exercise and the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B.

    2010-01-01

    Stress can facilitate disease processes and causes strain on the health care budgets. It is responsible or involved in many human ailments of our time, such as cardiovascular illnesses, particularly related to the psychosocial stressors of daily life, including work. Besides pharmacological or clinical medical treatment options, behavioral stress reduction is much-needed. These latter approaches rely on an endogenous healing potential via life-style modification. Hence, research has suggested...

  11. Effectiveness of stress-management training in the first trimester of pregnancy on improvement of stress reduction in General Moheb Yas Women Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Shirazi

    2016-10-01

    Method: This randomized clinical trial study was performed on 75 pregnant women in their first trimester of pregnancy. These women were referred to the hospital for regular prenatal care. They were assessed by standard anxiety questioner, using Hamilton anxiety scale. The validity and reliability of questioner were approved by experts in this field. Based on Hamilton Scale, the pregnant women were divided to three groups. Pregnant women with low, moderate and sever level anxiety, had18-25, 25-35, and more than 35 scales respectively. According to the level of their anxiety, women in moderate and sever anxiety, as clinical groups, were arranged for stress management workshop based on mindfulness technique in 60 minutes in 5 session per week. For this experimental group were made available compact disk (CD training for practicing lessons during the week. Mindfulness technique was including: Body scan, setting meditation and passing thought technique. Low anxiety level group, as control group, had regular pregnancy care. The groups didn’t need to medical treatment according to the psychiatrist interview. In the ending of therapy, clinical and control groups were assessed by anxiety scale again. Data were analyzed using the statistical software SPSS version 18, T- test analysis was performed. The IRCT code was IRCT2013081814174N2. Results: In this study, it was demonstrated, the level of anxiety and stress was decreased significantly between women in clinical groups, 27.5 to 14.1 for moderated level stress (p=0.001 and 40.1 to16.6 for high level of stress (p=0.001 respectively.. Conclusion: Based on our findings, psychological intervention has beneficial effect on stress reduction during pregnancy. It have direct influence on maternal health status.

  12. A pilot randomized trial teaching mindfulness-based stress reduction to traumatized youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Sandra H; Couderc, Jean-Philippe; Swanson, Dena; Gallegos, Autumn; Hilliard, Cammie; Blumkin, Aaron; Cunningham, Kendall; Heinert, Sara

    2015-08-01

    This article presents a pilot project implementing a mindfulness-based stress reduction program among traumatized youth in foster and kinship care over 10 weeks. Forty-two youth participated in this randomized controlled trial that used a mixed-methods (quantitative, qualitative, and physiologic) evaluation. Youth self-report measuring mental health problems, mindfulness, and stress were lower than anticipated, and the relatively short time-frame to teach these skills to traumatized youth may not have been sufficient to capture significant changes in stress as measured by electrocardiograms. Main themes from qualitative data included expressed competence in managing ongoing stress, enhanced self-awareness, and new strategies to manage stress. We share our experiences and recommendations for future research and practice, including focusing efforts on younger youth, and using community-based participatory research principles to promote engagement and co-learning. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: Protocol Registration System ID NCT01708291. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The need for novel model order reduction techniques in the electronics industry (Chapter 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilders, W.H.A.; Benner, P.; Hinze, M.; Maten, ter E.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the present and future needs of the electronics industry with regard to model order reduction. The industry has always been one of the main motivating fields for the development of MOR techniques, and continues to play this role. We discuss the search for provably passive

  14. Relativistic formulations with Blankenbecler-Sugar reduction technique for the three-particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, S.; Afnan, I.R.

    1980-05-01

    A critical comparison for two-types of three-dimensional covariant equations for the three-particle system obtained by the Blankenbecler-Sugar reduction technique with the Whitghtman-Garding momenta and the usual Jacobi variables is presented. The relations between the relativistic and non-relativistic equations in the low energy limit are discussed

  15. Identification of dose-reduction techniques for BWR and PWR repetitive high-dose jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of concern about the apparent increase in collective radiation dose to workers at nuclear power plants, this project will provide information to industry in preplanning for radiation protection during maintenance operations. This study identifies Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) repetitive jobs, and respective collective dose trends and dose reduction techniques. 3 references, 2 tables

  16. New model reduction technique for a class of parabolic partial differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vajta, Miklos

    1991-01-01

    A model reduction (or lumping) technique for a class of parabolic-type partial differential equations is given, and its application is discussed. The frequency response of the temperature distribution in any multilayer solid is developed and given by a matrix expression. The distributed transfer

  17. Comparisons of receive array interference reduction techniques under erroneous generalized transmit beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    This paper studies generalized single-stream transmit beamforming employing receive array co-channel interference reduction algorithms under slow and flat fading multiuser wireless systems. The impact of imperfect prediction of channel state information for the desired user spatially uncorrelated transmit channels on the effectiveness of transmit beamforming for different interference reduction techniques is investigated. The case of over-loaded receive array with closely-spaced elements is considered, wherein it can be configured to specified interfering sources. Both dominant interference reduction and adaptive interference reduction techniques for statistically ordered and unordered interferers powers, respectively, are thoroughly studied. The effect of outdated statistical ordering of the interferers powers on the efficiency of dominant interference reduction is studied and then compared against the adaptive interference reduction. For the system models described above, new analytical formulations for the statistics of combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio are presented, from which results for conventional maximum ratio transmission and single-antenna best transmit selection can be directly deduced as limiting cases. These results are then utilized to obtain quantitative measures for various performance metrics. They are also used to compare the achieved performance of various configuration models under consideration. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  18. An Optimization Mechanism Intended for Static Power Reduction Using Dual-thTechnique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo P. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption reduction is a challenge nowadays. Techniques for dynamic and static power minimization have been proposed, but most of them are very time consuming. This work proposes an algorithm for reducing static power, which can be perfectly inserted in the conventional design flow for integrated systems considering an open source environment (open access infrastructure. The proposed approach, based on a Dual-Threshold technique, replaces part of the cells of the circuit by cells with a higher threshold voltage without resulting in timing violations in the circuit. The decision to replace a cell is based on timing estimates of the circuit modeling with the cell replacement, before it is actually replaced. The fact that only some cells are replaced every iteration results in a reduction of the runtime of the algorithm. Additionally, results showed a reduction in static power up to 39.28%, when applying the proposed approach in the ISCAS85 benchmark circuits.

  19. Neuro emotional technique effects on brain physiology in cancer patients with traumatic stress symptoms: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Daniel A; Tobia, Anna; Stoner, Marie; Wintering, Nancy; Matthews, Michael; He, Xiao-Song; Doucet, Gaelle; Chervoneva, Inna; Tracy, Joseph I; Newberg, Andrew B

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the neurophysiological and clinical effects that may result from the neuro emotional technique (NET) in patients with traumatic stress symptoms associated with a cancer-related event. We hypothesized that self-regulatory processing of traumatic memories would be observable as physiological changes in key brain areas after undergoing the NET intervention and that these changes would be associated with improvement of traumatic stress symptoms. We enrolled 23 participants with a prior cancer diagnosis who expressed a distressing cancer-related memory that was associated with traumatic stress symptoms of at least 6 months in duration. Participants were randomized to either the NET intervention or a waitlist control condition. To evaluate the primary outcome of neurophysiological effects, all participants received functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of both a neutral stimulus and a description of the specific traumatic event. Pre/post-comparisons were performed between the traumatic and neutral condition, within and between groups. Psychological measures included the Impact of Event Scale (IES), State Trait Anxiety Index (STAI), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)-18, and Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI). The initial fMRI scans in both groups showed significant increases in the bilateral parahippocampus and brainstem. After NET, reactivity in the parahippocampus, brainstem, anterior cingulate, and insula was significantly decreased during the traumatic stimulus. Likewise, participants receiving the NET intervention had significant reductions (p stress as measured by the IES and PTCI. This study is an initial step towards understanding mechanistic features of the NET intervention. Specifically, brain regions involved with traumatic memories and distress such as the brainstem, insula, anterior cingulate gyrus, and parahippocampus had significantly reduced activity after the NET

  20. For Whom Does Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Work? : Moderating Effects of Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyklíček, Ivan; Irrmischer, Mona

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine potentially moderating effects of personality characteristics regarding changes in anxious and depressed mood associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), controlling for socio-demographic factors. Meditation-naïve participants from the

  1. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for residents: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, H.; Ravesteijn, H.J. van; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Burnout is highly prevalent in residents. No randomized controlled trials have been conducted measuring the effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) on burnout in residents. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of MBSR in reducing burnout in residents. Design: A

  2. Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction for Academic Evaluation Anxiety: A Naturalistic Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Ingrid; Thorsheim, Torbjørn; Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per Einar

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) for academic evaluation anxiety and self-confidence in 70 help-seeking bachelor's and master's students was examined. A repeated measures analysis of covariance on the 46 students who completed pretreatment and posttreatment measures (median age = 24 years, 83% women) showed that evaluation anxiety and…

  3. Experimental technique of stress analyses by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Guangai; Chen, Bo; Huang, Chaoqiang

    2009-09-01

    The structures and main components of neutron diffraction stress analyses spectrometer, SALSA, as well as functions and parameters of each components are presented. The technical characteristic and structure parameters of SALSA are described. Based on these aspects, the choice of gauge volume, method of positioning sample, determination of diffraction plane and measurement of zero stress do are discussed. Combined with the practical experiments, the basic experimental measurement and the related settings are introduced, including the adjustments of components, pattern scattering, data recording and checking etc. The above can be an instruction for stress analyses experiments by neutron diffraction and neutron stress spectrometer construction. (authors)

  4. ON THE PAPR REDUCTION IN OFDM SYSTEMS: A NOVEL ZCT PRECODING BASED SLM TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARUN JEOTI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR reduction is still an important challenge in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM systems. In this paper, we propose a novel Zadoff-Chu matrix Transform (ZCT precoding based Selected Mapping (SLM technique for PAPR reduction in OFDM systems. This technique is based on precoding the constellation symbols with ZCT precoder after the multiplication of phase rotation factor and before the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT in the SLM based OFDM (SLM-OFDM Systems. Computer simulation results show that, the proposed technique can reduce PAPR up to 5.2 dB for N=64 (System subcarriers and V=16 (Dissimilar phase sequences, at clip rate of 10-3. Additionally, ZCT based SLM-OFDM (ZCT-SLM-OFDM systems also take advantage of frequency variations of the communication channel and can also offer substantial performance gain in fading multipath channels.

  5. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on perceived stress and psychological health in patients with tension headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Abdollah; Zargar, Fatemeh

    2015-11-01

    Programs for improving health status of patients with illness related to pain, such as headache, are often still in their infancy. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a new psychotherapy that appears to be effective in treating chronic pain and stress. This study evaluated efficacy of MBSR in treatment of perceived stress and mental health of client who has tension headache. This study is a randomized clinical trial. Sixty patients with tension type headache according to the International Headache Classification Subcommittee were randomly assigned to the Treatment As Usual (TAU) group or experimental group (MBSR). The MBSR group received eight weekly classmates with 12-min sessions. The sessions were based on MBSR protocol. The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) were administered in the pre- and posttreatment period and at 3 months follow-up for both the groups. The mean of total score of the BSI (global severity index; GSI) in MBSR group was 1.63 ± 0.56 before the intervention that was significantly reduced to 0.73 ± 0.46 and 0.93 ± 0.34 after the intervention and at the follow-up sessions, respectively (P stress in comparison with the control group at posttest evaluation. The mean of perceived stress before the intervention was 16.96 ± 2.53 and was changed to 12.7 ± 2.69 and 13.5 ± 2.33 after the intervention and at the follow-up sessions, respectively (P stress in the TAU group at pretest was 15.9 ± 2.86 and that was changed to 16.13 ± 2.44 and 15.76 ± 2.22 at posttest and follow-up, respectively (P stress and improve general mental health in patients with tension headache.

  6. Study of stress-reduction effects on creep behaviour of AISI-316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegria, R.V.

    1984-01-01

    Creep tests were performed in 316 austenitic stainless steel at 1006 0 K in both solution treated and in 15% pre-deformed samples. The dislocation substructure in the steady state stage was analysed for the applied stresses 109,30 MPa and 208,23 MPa. The influence of the prestraining conditions was verified. The strutural modifications occurring after a stress reduction were analysed in stress reduction tests. The results are discussed in terms of current ideas and its shown that the increase in creep resistance, introduced by a 15% pre-strain, is due to the presence of a subgrain structure and carbides which act as obstacles to dislocation motion. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Awareness of Stress-reduction Interventions: The Impact on Employees' Well-being and Organizational Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Boyd, Carolyn; Gillespie, Nicole; Provis, Christopher; Winefield, Anthony H

    2016-08-01

    Employing the social-exchange theoretical framework, we examined the effect of employees' awareness of stress-reduction interventions on their levels of psychological strain, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, perceptions of senior management trustworthiness and procedural justice. We present longitudinal panel data from 869 employees who completed questionnaires at two time points at 13 Australian universities. Our results show that employees who reported an awareness of stress-reduction interventions undertaken at their university scored lower on psychological strain and higher on job satisfaction and commitment than those who were unaware of the interventions. The results suggest that simply the awareness of stress interventions can be linked to positive employee outcomes. The study further revealed that senior management trustworthiness and procedural justice mediate the relationship between awareness and employee outcomes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Participation in mindfulness-based stress reduction is not associated with reductions in emotional eating or uncontrolled eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, David J; Milton, Meredith L; Malte, Carol A; McDermott, Kelly A; Martinez, Michelle; Simpson, Tracy L

    2012-06-01

    The adverse health effects and increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States make interventions for obesity a priority in health research. Diet-focused interventions generally do not result in lasting reductions in weight. Behavioral interventions that increase awareness of eating cues and satiety have been postulated to result in healthier eating habits. We hypothesized that participation in a program called mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) would positively influence the eating behaviors and nutritional intake of participants through changes in emotional eating (EE), uncontrolled eating (UE), and type and quantity of food consumed. Forty-eight veterans at a large urban Veterans Administration medical center were assessed before MBSR, after MBSR, and 4 months later. For all participants (N = 48), MBSR participation was not associated with significant changes in EE or UE. In addition, there were no significant differences in the intake of energy, fat, sugar, fruit, or vegetables at either follow-up time point as compared with baseline. Enhanced mindfulness skills and reduced depressive symptoms were seen over time with medium to large effect sizes. Changes in mindfulness skills were significantly and negatively correlated with changes in EE and UE over time. Overall, there was no evidence that participation in MBSR was associated with beneficial changes in eating through reductions in disinhibited eating or significant changes in dietary intake. Randomized studies are needed to further define the relationship between mindfulness program participation and eating behaviors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Techniques for PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Janjić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR in Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM signals is studied. Besides describing three techniques for PAPR reduction, SeLective Mapping (SLM, Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS and Interleaving, a detailed analysis of the performances of these techniques for various values of relevant parameters (number of phase sequences, number of interleavers, number of phase factors, number of subblocks depending on applied technique, is carried out. Simulation of these techniques is run in Matlab software. Results are presented in the form of Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF curves for PAPR of 30000 randomly generated OFDM symbols. Simulations are performed for OFDM signals with 32 and 256 subcarriers, oversampled by a factor of 4. A detailed comparison of these techniques is made based on Matlab simulation results.

  10. PEAK-TO-AVERAGE POWER RATIO REDUCTION USING CODING AND HYBRID TECHNIQUES FOR OFDM SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahubali K. Shiragapur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the research work investigated is based on an error correction coding techniques are used to reduce the undesirable Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR quantity. The Golay Code (24, 12, Reed-Muller code (16, 11, Hamming code (7, 4 and Hybrid technique (Combination of Signal Scrambling and Signal Distortion proposed by us are used as proposed coding techniques, the simulation results shows that performance of Hybrid technique, reduces PAPR significantly as compared to Conventional and Modified Selective mapping techniques. The simulation results are validated through statistical properties, for proposed technique’s autocorrelation value is maximum shows reduction in PAPR. The symbol preference is the key idea to reduce PAPR based on Hamming distance. The simulation results are discussed in detail, in this article.

  11. Effect of process parameters and injector position on the efficiency of NOx reduction by selective non catalytic reduction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, A.; Mehmood, M.A.; Irfan, N.; Javed, M.T.; Waheed, K.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been performed to study the effect of atomizer pressure dilution of the reducing reagent and the injector position on the efficiency or the NOx reduction by a selective non-catalytic reduction technique using urea as a reducing agent. Experiments were performed with a flow reactor in which flue gas was generated by the combustion of methane in air at stoichiometric amount of oxygen and the desired levels of initial NOx (400-450 ppm) were achieved by doping the flame with ammonia. The work was directed to investigate the effect of atomizer pressure, dilution of urea reagent and the injector position. The atomizer pressure was varied from 1 to 3bar and 20-25% increase in efficiency was observed by decreasing the pressure. Effect of dilution of urea solution was investigated by varying the strength of the solution from the 8 to 32% and 40-45% increase in the efficiency was observed. Effects of injector position was investigated by injecting the urea solution both in co current and counter current direction of the flue gases and 20-25% increase in the efficiency was observed in counter current direction. (author)

  12. Stress-reduction interventions in an Australian university: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H

    2015-02-01

    We examined the effects of awareness of stress-reduction interventions on employee well-being and work attitudes using a mixed methods design. Cross-sectional data are presented from 247 employees who completed questionnaires in 2004 at one Australian university. Analyses indicated that employees, who reported that interventions had been undertaken, scored higher on job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, perceived procedural justice and trust in senior management than those who were not aware of the measures, although they did not differ in psychological strain. Details of the stress-reduction interventions implemented by the Occupational Health and Safety department at the university are also reported. Thematic analyses of the perceived causes of both decreases and increases in stress for employees showed that staff reported workload and staffing pressures as key sources of increases in stress. On the other hand, new supervisors and/or management were identified as sources of decreased stress. Areas for consideration in future efforts to develop and refine stress interventions are also discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Parent Perspectives of Applying Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Strategies to Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M; Chan, Neilson; Neece, Cameron L

    2017-06-01

    Parents of children with (versus without) intellectual and developmental disabilities report greater stress; such stress may be exacerbated by dissatisfaction with school services, poor parent-school partnerships, and the need for parent advocacy. Increasingly, mindfulness interventions have been used to reduce parent stress. However, it is unclear whether parents apply mindfulness strategies during the special education process to reduce school-related stress. To investigate whether mindfulness may reduce school-related stress, interviews were conducted with 26 parents of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities who completed a mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention. Participants were asked about their stress during meetings with the school, use of mindfulness strategies in communicating with the school, and the impact of such strategies. The majority of parent participants reported: special education meetings were stressful; they used mindfulness strategies during IEP meetings; and such strategies affected parents' perceptions of improvements in personal well-being, advocacy, family-school relationships, and access to services for their children. Implications for future research, policy, and practice are discussed.

  14. Designing, Prototyping and Evaluating Digital Mindfulness Applications: A Case Study of Mindful Breathing for Stress Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Hedman, Anders; Feng, Shuo; Li, Haibo; Osika, Walter

    2017-06-14

    During the past decade, there has been a rapid increase of interactive apps designed for health and well-being. Yet, little research has been published on developing frameworks for design and evaluation of digital mindfulness facilitating technologies. Moreover, many existing digital mindfulness applications are purely software based. There is room for further exploration and assessment of designs that make more use of physical qualities of artifacts. The study aimed to develop and test a new physical digital mindfulness prototype designed for stress reduction. In this case study, we designed, developed, and evaluated HU, a physical digital mindfulness prototype designed for stress reduction. In the first phase, we used vapor and light to support mindful breathing and invited 25 participants through snowball sampling to test HU. In the second phase, we added sonification. We deployed a package of probes such as photos, diaries, and cards to collect data from users who explored HU in their homes. Thereafter, we evaluated our installation using both self-assessed stress levels and heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) measures in a pilot study, in order to measure stress resilience effects. After the experiment, we performed a semistructured interview to reflect on HU and investigate the design of digital mindfulness apps for stress reduction. The results of the first phase showed that 22 of 25 participants (88%) claimed vapor and light could be effective ways of promoting mindful breathing. Vapor could potentially support mindful breathing better than light (especially for mindfulness beginners). In addition, a majority of the participants mentioned sound as an alternative medium. In the second phase, we found that participants thought that HU could work well for stress reduction. We compared the effect of silent HU (using light and vapor without sound) and sonified HU on 5 participants. Subjective stress levels were statistically improved with both

  15. Evaluation of Clipping Based Iterative PAPR Reduction Techniques for FBMC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Kollár

    2014-01-01

    to conventional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM technique. The low ACLR of the transmitted FBMC signal makes it especially favorable in cognitive radio applications, where strict requirements are posed on out-of-band radiation. Large dynamic range resulting in high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR is characteristic of all sorts of multicarrier signals. The advantageous spectral properties of the high-PAPR FBMC signal are significantly degraded if nonlinearities are present in the transceiver chain. Spectral regrowth may appear, causing harmful interference in the neighboring frequency bands. This paper presents novel clipping based PAPR reduction techniques, evaluated and compared by simulations and measurements, with an emphasis on spectral aspects. The paper gives an overall comparison of PAPR reduction techniques, focusing on the reduction of the dynamic range of FBMC signals without increasing out-of-band radiation. An overview is presented on transmitter oriented techniques employing baseband clipping, which can maintain the system performance with a desired bit error rate (BER.

  16. Reduction of tensile residual stresses during the drawing process of tungsten wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Ripoll, Manel; Weygand, Sabine M.; Riedel, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Tungsten wires are commonly used in the lighting industry as filaments for lamps. During the drawing process, the inhomogeneous deformation imparted by the drawing die causes tensile residual stresses at the wire surface in circumferential direction. These stresses have a detrimental effect for the wire because they are responsible for driving longitudinal cracks, known as splits. This work proposes two methods for reducing the residual stresses during wire drawing, namely applying an advanced die geometry and performing an inexpensive post-drawing treatment based on targeted bending operations. These two methods are analyzed with finite element simulations using material parameters obtained by mechanical tests on tungsten wires at different temperatures as input data. The computed results predict a substantial reduction of the circumferential residual stresses, thus reducing the risk of splitting.

  17. Reduction of thermal models of buildings: improvement of techniques using meteorological influence models; Reduction de modeles thermiques de batiments: amelioration des techniques par modelisation des sollicitations meteorologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautin, S.

    1997-04-01

    This work concerns the modeling of thermal phenomena inside buildings for the evaluation of energy exploitation costs of thermal installations and for the modeling of thermal and aeraulic transient phenomena. This thesis comprises 7 chapters dealing with: (1) the thermal phenomena inside buildings and the CLIM2000 calculation code, (2) the ETNA and GENEC experimental cells and their modeling, (3) the techniques of model reduction tested (Marshall`s truncature, Michailesco aggregation method and Moore truncature) with their algorithms and their encoding in the MATRED software, (4) the application of model reduction methods to the GENEC and ETNA cells and to a medium size dual-zone building, (5) the modeling of meteorological influences classically applied to buildings (external temperature and solar flux), (6) the analytical expression of these modeled meteorological influences. The last chapter presents the results of these improved methods on the GENEC and ETNA cells and on a lower inertia building. These new methods are compared to classical methods. (J.S.) 69 refs.

  18. Testing of indoor radon reduction techniques in eastern Pennsylvania: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschel, D.B.; Scott, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    EPA has installed radon reduction measures in 38 houses in the Reading Prong region of eastern Pennsylvania. All were basement houses with hollow block or poured concrete foundation walls. The reduction approaches tested in most houses involved active soil ventilation, including: suction on the footing drain tile system; suction underneath the concrete slabs, using pipes inserted through the slabs from inside the house; and ventilation of the void network inside hollow block foundation walls. Heat recovery ventilators (HRVs) were tested in three houses. The current results confirm that, for the houses tested here, drain tile suction appears consistently able to provide high radon reductions when a complete loop of drain tile exists, often reducing high-radon houses to 4 pCi/l (148 B1/m 3 ) and less. Sub-slab suction (with pipes through the slab) can also provide high reductions if a sufficient number of suction pipes are located properly. Placement of one or more sub-slab suction pipes near each perimeter wall appears in this testing to aid in treating the major soil gas entry routes, although fewer pipes can sometimes give high reductions if conditions are favorable. For effective radon reduction using any active soil ventilation technique, it is important that major wall and slab openings be closed, and that a fan be employed that is capable of developing adequate static pressure

  19. Characteristics of internet use as a means of perceived stress reduction in health care students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinić Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that people use media for instrumental needs, entertainment/leisure or for social gratification. The aim of this study is to identify specific characteristics of Internet use in health care students who use the Internet as a means of perceived stress reduction. The sample included 231 students (m=34%; f=66%, aged (M=22.44; SD=2.09, who were subsequently categorised into two groups according to whether they consciously use the Internet to alleviate the consequences of stressful experiences. The individuals reporting the Internet as a means of perceived stress reduction spend considerably more time online than other Internet users. They also use contents related to entertainment, culture and sex more frequently, as well as social applications and networks. In comparison to others, these participants meet new people and potential partners more often via the Internet, spend more time on their friends' profiles, while using different entertainment applications, most commonly games. The Internet may play a significant role in reducing negative reactions to stressful events; therefore, we may regard cyberspace as a fertile ground for educational, preventive and counselling services. The main limitation to the current study is the sample (only health care students. Future studies should include assessment of perceived stress levels and their relation to study variables.

  20. Accuracy Enhanced Stability and Structure Preserving Model Reduction Technique for Dynamical Systems with Second Order Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahavori, Maryamsadat; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    A method for model reduction of dynamical systems with the second order structure is proposed in this paper. The proposed technique preserves the second order structure of the system, and also preserves the stability of the original systems. The method uses the controllability and observability...... gramians within the time interval to build the appropriate Petrov-Galerkin projection for dynamical systems within the time interval of interest. The bound on approximation error is also derived. The numerical results are compared with the counterparts from other techniques. The results confirm...

  1. A Suboptimal PTS Algorithm Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Technique for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Lung Hung

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A suboptimal partial transmit sequence (PTS based on particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is presented for the low computation complexity and the reduction of the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system. In general, PTS technique can improve the PAPR statistics of an OFDM system. However, it will come with an exhaustive search over all combinations of allowed phase weighting factors and the search complexity increasing exponentially with the number of subblocks. In this paper, we work around potentially computational intractability; the proposed PSO scheme exploits heuristics to search the optimal combination of phase factors with low complexity. Simulation results show that the new technique can effectively reduce the computation complexity and PAPR reduction.

  2. A Suboptimal PTS Algorithm Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Technique for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shu-Hong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A suboptimal partial transmit sequence (PTS based on particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is presented for the low computation complexity and the reduction of the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system. In general, PTS technique can improve the PAPR statistics of an OFDM system. However, it will come with an exhaustive search over all combinations of allowed phase weighting factors and the search complexity increasing exponentially with the number of subblocks. In this paper, we work around potentially computational intractability; the proposed PSO scheme exploits heuristics to search the optimal combination of phase factors with low complexity. Simulation results show that the new technique can effectively reduce the computation complexity and PAPR reduction.

  3. Computational reduction techniques for numerical vibro-acoustic analysis of hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creixell Mediante, Ester

    . In this thesis, several challenges encountered in the process of modelling and optimizing hearing aids are addressed. Firstly, a strategy for modelling the contacts between plastic parts for harmonic analysis is developed. Irregularities in the contact surfaces, inherent to the manufacturing process of the parts....... Secondly, the applicability of Model Order Reduction (MOR) techniques to lower the computational complexity of hearing aid vibro-acoustic models is studied. For fine frequency response calculation and optimization, which require solving the numerical model repeatedly, a computational challenge...... is encountered due to the large number of Degrees of Freedom (DOFs) needed to represent the complexity of the hearing aid system accurately. In this context, several MOR techniques are discussed, and an adaptive reduction method for vibro-acoustic optimization problems is developed as a main contribution. Lastly...

  4. Use experiences of MCNP in nuclear energy study. 2. Review of variance reduction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Toshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; eds.

    1998-03-01

    `MCNP Use Experience` Working Group was established in 1996 under the Special Committee on Nuclear Code Evaluation. This year`s main activity of the working group has been focused on the review of variance reduction techniques of Monte Carlo calculations. This working group dealt with the variance reduction techniques of (1) neutron and gamma ray transport calculation of fusion reactor system, (2) concept design of nuclear transmutation system using accelerator, (3) JMTR core calculation, (4) calculation of prompt neutron decay constant, (5) neutron and gamma ray transport calculation for exposure evaluation, (6) neutron and gamma ray transport calculation of shielding system, etc. Furthermore, this working group started an activity to compile `Guideline of Monte Carlo Calculation` which will be a standard in the future. The appendices of this report include this `Guideline`, the use experience of MCNP 4B and examples of Monte Carlo calculations of high energy charged particles. The 11 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  5. Use experiences of MCNP in nuclear energy study. 2. Review of variance reduction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Toshihiro

    1998-03-01

    ''MCNP Use Experience'' Working Group was established in 1996 under the Special Committee on Nuclear Code Evaluation. This year''s main activity of the working group has been focused on the review of variance reduction techniques of Monte Carlo calculations. This working group dealt with the variance reduction techniques of (1) neutron and gamma ray transport calculation of fusion reactor system, (2) concept design of nuclear transmutation system using accelerator, (3) JMTR core calculation, (4) calculation of prompt neutron decay constant, (5) neutron and gamma ray transport calculation for exposure evaluation, (6) neutron and gamma ray transport calculation of shielding system, etc. Furthermore, this working group started an activity to compile ''Guideline of Monte Carlo Calculation'' which will be a standard in the future. The appendices of this report include this ''Guideline'', the use experience of MCNP 4B and examples of Monte Carlo calculations of high energy charged particles. The 11 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. A Size Reduction Technique for Mobile Phone PIFA Antennas Using Lumped Inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2005-01-01

    A size reduction technique for the planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) is presented. An 18 nH lumped inductor is used in addition to a small 0.3 cm3 PIFA. The PIFA is located on dielectric foam, 5 mm above a 40 mm × 100 mm ground plane. It is possible to reduce the center frequency (|S11|min) by 33 ...

  7. A HYBRID TECHNIQUE FOR PAPR REDUCTION OF OFDM USING DHT PRECODING WITH PIECEWISE LINEAR COMPANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thammana Ajay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is a fascinating approach for wireless communication applications which require huge amount of data rates. However, OFDM signal suffers from its large Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR, which results in significant distortion while passing through a nonlinear device, such as a transmitter high power amplifier (HPA. Due to this high PAPR, the complexity of HPA as well as DAC also increases. For the reduction of PAPR in OFDM many techniques are available. Among them companding is an attractive low complexity technique for the OFDM signal’s PAPR reduction. Recently, a piecewise linear companding technique is recommended aiming at minimizing companding distortion. In this paper, a collective piecewise linear companding approach with Discrete Hartley Transform (DHT method is expected to reduce peak-to-average of OFDM to a great extent. Simulation results shows that this new proposed method obtains significant PAPR reduction while maintaining improved performance in the Bit Error Rate (BER and Power Spectral Density (PSD compared to piecewise linear companding method.

  8. A new role for reduction in pressure drop in cyclones using computational fluid dynamics techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Noriler

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a new mechanical device to improve the gas flow in cyclones by pressure drop reduction is presented and discussed. This behavior occurs due to the effects of introducing swirling breakdown phenomenon at the inlet of the vortex finder tube. The device consists of a tube with two gas inlets in an appositive spiral flux that produces a sudden reduction in the tangential velocity peak responsible for practically 80 % of the pressure drop in cyclones. In turn, peak reduction causes a decrease in pressure drop by a breakdown of the swirling, and because of this the solid particles tend to move faster toward the wall , increasing collection efficiency. As a result of this phenomenon the overall performance of cyclones is improved. Numerical simulations with 3-D, transient, asymmetric and anisotropic turbulence closure by differential Reynolds stress for Lapple and Stairmand standard geometries of 0.3 m in diameter, show a reduction in pressure drop of 20 % and a shift of the tangential velocity peak toward the wall. All numerical experiments were carried out with a commercial CFD code showing numerical stability and good convergence rates with high-order interpolation schemes, SIMPLEC pressure-velocity coupling and other numerical features.

  9. Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; relaxation and stress; relaxation and stress reduction; relaxation and stress relief; relaxation exercises for stress; relaxation for stress; mind; mind relaxation; mind relaxation techniques; mindful meditation; mindful meditation techniques; mindfulness; mindful meditation; mindful meditation techniques; relax your mind; relieve stress; best ways to relieve stress; help relieve stress; how can I relieve stress; how can we relieve stress; how can you relieve stress; how do I relieve stress; how do you relieve stress; how relieve stress; cope with stress; cope with stress; coping strategies for stress; coping with stress; how to cope with stress; ways of coping with stress; ways to cope with stress; trouble sleeping; having trouble sleeping; i have trouble sleeping; sleep trouble; sleeping trouble; trouble getting to sleep; trouble sleeping; trouble sleeping at night; sleep better; better sleep; help me sleep better; how can I get better sleep; how to sleep better; sleep better

  10. Application of nonisothermal kinetic techniques on the reduction of three commercial iron ore agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedolla, E.; Leon, C.A.; Aguilar, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of reduction of iron ore agglomerates by both isothermal and nonisothermal TG studies was investigated, and the work was complemented with the structural characterization of the total and partially reacted samples. Three different commercial hematite pellets were studied. The mechanisms of reduction were obtained under isothermal conditions, resulting in a fitting to chemical reaction models. Nonisothermal reduction was carried out using a TGA system (CAHN TG-171) from 600 to 1,000 degree centigree maintaining a lineal heating rate of 4,7 and 10 degree centigree/min, and the reducing atmospheres used were H 2 (100%) and H 2 -CO(95:5). The kinetic parameters were evaluated by Coats and Redfern, Dixit and Ray and Prakash and Ray techniques. It was found that the lower the heating rate, the higher the reduction degree and the higher activation energy. The activation energy for reduction with the mixture H 2 -CO was always higher than that obtained with pure H 2 . (Author)

  11. Residual stress determination of rail tread using a laser ultrasonic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing; Feng, Qibo

    2015-01-01

    A non-destructive method for measuring the residual stress on rail tread that uses a laser-generated ultrasonic technique is proposed. The residual stress distribution of different parts on both the new rail and used rail were examined. The surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are excited by a scanning line laser and detected by a laser ultrasonic detection system. A digital correlation method was used for calculating the changes in velocity of SAWs, which reflects the stress distribution. A wavelet de-noising technique and a least square fit were used for signal processing to improve the measurement accuracy. The effects of ultrasonic propagation distance and surface roughness on the determination of residual stress were analyzed and simulated. Results from the study demonstrate that the stress distribution results are accordant with the practical situation, and the laser-generated SAWs technique is a promising tool for the determination of residual stress in the railway inspection and other industrial testing fields. (paper)

  12. A Pilot Study of the Psychological Impact of the Mindfulness-Based Stress-Reduction Program On People Who Stutter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Veer, S.; Brouwers, A.; Evers, W.; Tomic, W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In general, people who stutter feel hampered in their communication with others and suffer from stress and anxiety when they have to speak. The Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program has proved to be successful in reducing stress, fear and anxiety in many studies involving a

  13. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for treating chronic headache: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anheyer, Dennis; Leach, Matthew J; Klose, Petra; Dobos, Gustav; Cramer, Holger

    2018-01-01

    Background Mindfulness-based stress reduction/cognitive therapy are frequently used for pain-related conditions, but their effects on headache remain uncertain. This review aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of mindfulness-based stress reduction/cognitive therapy in reducing the symptoms of chronic headache. Data sources and study selection MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, CENTRAL, and PsychINFO were searched to 16 June 2017. Randomized controlled trials comparing mindfulness-based stress reduction/cognitive therapy with usual care or active comparators for migraine and/or tension-type headache, which assessed headache frequency, duration or intensity as a primary outcome, were eligible for inclusion. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Tool. Results Five randomized controlled trials (two on tension-type headache; one on migraine; two with mixed samples) with a total of 185 participants were included. Compared to usual care, mindfulness-based stress reduction/cognitive therapy did not improve headache frequency (three randomized controlled trials; standardized mean difference = 0.00; 95% confidence interval = -0.33,0.32) or headache duration (three randomized controlled trials; standardized mean difference = -0.08; 95% confidence interval = -1.03,0.87). Similarly, no significant difference between groups was found for pain intensity (five randomized controlled trials; standardized mean difference = -0.78; 95% confidence interval = -1.72,0.16). Conclusions Due to the low number, small scale and often high or unclear risk of bias of included randomized controlled trials, the results are imprecise; this may be consistent with either an important or negligible effect. Therefore, more rigorous trials with larger sample sizes are needed.

  14. Variance-reduction technique for Coulomb-nuclear thermalization of energetic fusion products in hot plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVeaux, J.C.; Miley, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    A variance-reduction technique involving use of exponential transform and angular-biasing methods has been developed. Its purpose is to minimize the variance and computer time involved in estimating the mean fusion product (fp) energy deposited in a hot, multi-region plasma under the influence of small-energy transfer Coulomb collisions and large-energy transfer nuclear elastic scattering (NES) events. This technique is applicable to high-temperature D- 3 He, Cat. D and D-T plasmas which have highly energetic fps capable of undergoing NES. A first application of this technique is made to a D- 3 He Field Reversed Mirror (FRM) where the Larmor radius of the 14.7 MeV protons are typically comparable to the plasma radius (plasma radius approx. 2 fp gyroradii) and the optimistic fp confinement (approx. 45% of 14.7 MeV protons) previously predicted is vulnerable to large orbit perturbations induced by NES. In the FRM problem, this variance reduction technique is used to estimate the fractional difference in the average fp energy deposited in the closed-field region, E/sub cf/, with and without NES collisions

  15. Abstract: Trauma Tapping Technique: Practical First Aid for Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trauma tapping technique (TTT) is a procedure that uses touch through tapping to relieve anxiety symptoms. TTT is a nonverbal process that can be delivered at minimal cost with the potential for easy dissemination. This technique can be applied in urban or rural communities and in medical or mental health environments.

  16. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on perceived stress and psychological health in patients with tension headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Omidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Programs for improving health status of patients with illness related to pain, such as headache, are often still in their infancy. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR is a new psychotherapy that appears to be effective in treating chronic pain and stress. This study evaluated efficacy of MBSR in treatment of perceived stress and mental health of client who has tension headache. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial. Sixty patients with tension type headache according to the International Headache Classification Subcommittee were randomly assigned to the Treatment As Usual (TAU group or experimental group (MBSR. The MBSR group received eight weekly classmates with 12-min sessions. The sessions were based on MBSR protocol. The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS were administered in the pre- and posttreatment period and at 3 months follow-up for both the groups. Results: The mean of total score of the BSI (global severity index; GSI in MBSR group was 1.63 ± 0.56 before the intervention that was significantly reduced to 0.73 ± 0.46 and 0.93 ± 0.34 after the intervention and at the follow-up sessions, respectively (P < 0.001. In addition, the MBSR group showed lower scores in perceived stress in comparison with the control group at posttest evaluation. The mean of perceived stress before the intervention was 16.96 ± 2.53 and was changed to 12.7 ± 2.69 and 13.5 ± 2.33 after the intervention and at the follow-up sessions, respectively (P < 0.001. On the other hand, the mean of GSI in the TAU group was 1.77 ± 0.50 at pretest that was significantly reduced to 1.59 ± 0.52 and 1.78 ± 0.47 at posttest and follow-up, respectively (P < 0.001. Also, the mean of perceived stress in the TAU group at pretest was 15.9 ± 2.86 and that was changed to 16.13 ± 2.44 and 15.76 ± 2.22 at posttest and follow-up, respectively (P < 0.001. Conclusion: MBSR could reduce stress and improve

  17. Anelasticity of olivine single crystals investigated by stress-reduction tests and high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, D.; Hansen, L. N.; Kempton, I.; Wilkinson, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Geodynamic phenomena, including glacial isostatic adjustment and postseismic deformation, can involve transient deformation in response to changes in differential stress acting on mantle rocks. As such, rheological models of transient deformation are incorporated in predictions of associated processes, including sea-level rise and stress redistribution after earthquakes. However, experimental constraints on rheological models for transient deformation of mantle materials are sparse. In particular, experiments involving stress reductions have been lacking. Moreover, a material's response to a reduction in stress can provide clues to the microphysical processes controlling deformation. To constrain models of transient deformation of mantle rocks we performed stress-reduction tests on single crystals of olivine at 1250-1300°C. Mechanical and piezoelectric actuators controlled constant initial stress during creep. At various strain intervals stress was reduced near-instantaneously using the piezoelectric actuator, inducing both elastic and anelastic (time-dependent) lengthening of the samples. A range of magnitudes of stress reduction were applied, typically unloading 10-90% of the initial stress. High-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD), based on cross-correlation of diffraction patterns, was used to map dislocation density and elastic strain distributions in the recovered samples. Magnitudes of anelastic back-strain increase with increasing magnitudes of stress reduction and show a marked increase when stress reductions exceed 50% of the initial stress, consistent with previous observations in metals and alloys. This observation is inconsistent with the Burgers rheological model commonly used to describe transient behaviour and suggests that the style of rheological behaviour depends on the magnitude of stress change. HR-EBSD maps reveal that the crystal lattices are smoothly curved and generally lack subgrain boundaries and elastic strain

  18. Reductive stress in young healthy individuals at risk of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badía, Mari-Carmen; Giraldo, Esther; Dasí, Francisco; Alonso, Dolores; Lainez, Jose M; Lloret, Ana; Viña, Jose

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) but this has not been studied in young healthy persons at risk of the disease. Carrying an Apo ε4 allele is the major genetic risk factor for AD. We have observed that lymphocytes from young, healthy persons carrying at least one Apo ε4 allele suffer from reductive rather than oxidative stress, i.e., lower oxidized glutathione and P-p38 levels and higher expression of enzymes involved in antioxidant defense, such as glutamylcysteinyl ligase and glutathione peroxidase. In contrast, in the full-blown disease, the situation is reversed and oxidative stress occurs, probably because of the exhaustion of the antioxidant mechanisms just mentioned. These results provide insights into the early events of the progression of the disease that may allow us to find biomarkers of AD at its very early stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An evaluation of back stress determination techniques in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.B.; Rohde, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The desire to develop unified creep-plasticity (UCP) models come from the necessity to design advanced nuclear reactor components for service under conditions which include combined creep and low cycle fatigue. These models should also be physically based since they would be used to extrapolate from laboratory data to predict long service lives. An approach to UCP modelling centers on the hypothesis that the inelastic strain rate is determined by a balance between the competing processes of work hardening and recovery. One class of UCP models is characterized by a power law relationship between strain rate and stress. A state variable common to these models characterizes the isotropic hardening and is allowed to evolve with history according to simultaneous work hardening and recovery. In order to treat behaviours unique to unloading or reverse loading conditions, several models also include a kinematic hardening variable which is also allowed to evolve according to a balance of work hardening and recovery. Such a treatment of inelastic deformation can mathematically treat a wide variety of behaviors. The measured response of 316SS and A800 indicates that the kinematic variable must, in steady state, be taken as a constant fraction (about 0.8) of the applied stress. This experimental result makes it impossible for the simple power law type expression to properly predict the commonly observed power law breakdown behavior in most metals and alloys. It is proposed that an expression for total inelastic strain rate involving the sum of two separate strain rate contributions is more appropriate. Acknowledging that separate expressions and separate mechanisms dominate low stress (engineering service) conditions and high stress (laboratory test) conditions requires that more emphasis be placed on long time, low stress laboratory testing. (orig.)

  20. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in Women with Overweight or Obesity: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja-Khan, Nazia; Agito, Katrina; Shah, Julie; Stetter, Christy M; Gustafson, Theresa S; Socolow, Holly; Kunselman, Allen R; Reibel, Diane K; Legro, Richard S

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and cardiometabolic effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in women with overweight or obesity. Eighty-six women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 were randomized to 8 weeks of MBSR or health education and followed for 16 weeks. The primary outcome was the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Secondary outcomes included the Perceived Stress Scale-10, fasting glucose, and blood pressure. Compared to health education, the MBSR group demonstrated significantly improved mindfulness at 8 weeks (mean change from baseline, 4.5 vs. -1.0; P = 0.03) and significantly decreased perceived stress at 16 weeks (-3.6 vs. -1.3, P = 0.01). In the MBSR group, there were significant reductions in fasting glucose at 8 weeks (-8.9 mg/dL, P = 0.02) and at 16 weeks (-9.3 mg/dL, P = 0.02) compared to baseline. Fasting glucose did not significantly improve in the health education group. There were no significant changes in blood pressure, weight, or insulin resistance in the MBSR group. In women with overweight or obesity, MBSR significantly reduces stress and may have beneficial effects on glucose. Future studies demonstrating long-term cardiometabolic benefits of MBSR will be key for establishing MBSR as an effective tool in the management of obesity. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  1. [Reducing stress levels and anxiety in primary-care physicians through training and practice of a mindfulness meditation technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Justo, Clemente

    2010-11-01

    To check the effectiveness of a mindfulness development meditation technique on stress and anxiety in a group of primary-care physicians. Quasi-experimental with pretest/posttest/follow-up measurements in a control group and an experimental group. SITE: University of Almeria. 38 primary-care physicians enrolled in a Teaching Aptitude Course (CAP). An experimental group and a control group were formed with 19 participants in each. The experimental group took a psycho-educational meditation program for training and practice in mindfulness. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Strain Questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Questionnaire were used to measure stress and anxiety levels. A comparative statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric U test, finding a significant reduction in all the primary-care physician stress and anxiety variables in the experimental group compared to the control group in pretest-posttest and follow-up tests. The results of this study support the effectiveness of mindfulness development meditation techniques in decreasing stress and anxiety in primary-care physicians. Nevertheless, the study shows various limitations that would have to be corrected in successive studies to bring more validity to the results. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiographic evaluation of coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs part I: New stress-radiographic positioning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phiwipha Kamonrat; Duangdaun Kaenkangploo

    2002-01-01

    Two new stress-radiographic positioning techniques, namely 60 deg and 90 deg stress techniques, were introduced for quantifying hip joint laxity in dogs. The comparative characteristics and efficiency of these new techniques with angled hindlimbs were evaluated relative to the standard hip-extended radiographic technique. Forty, healthy, mongrel dogs with normal hip joint conformation were anesthetized and placed in dorsal recumbency before 3 radiograhps of the standard, 60 deg , and 90 deg stress techniques were taken. For the 60 deg stress technique, hindlimbs were extended in parallel to each other at 60 deg angled to the table top and stifles were slightly rotated inward, femoral heads were manually pushed in a craniodorsal direction during exposure. For the 90 deg stress technique, femurs were positioned perpendicular to the table top, stifles were 90 deg flexed and adducted and femoral heads were manually pushed in a craniodorsal direction during exposure. The subluxation index (SI) and dorsolateral subluxation score (DLS score) were calculated from 3 radiographic views for both hip joints to quantitate the relative degree of joint laxity. Results of the study indicated that the 60 deg (SI = 0.20+-0.045, DLS score = 62.5+-7.96 percent) and 90 deg (SI = 0.23+-0.044, DLS score = 61.2+-9.47 percent) stress-radiographs yielded significantly (p0.001) higher degree of hip joint laxity than the standard technique (SI)

  3. Size Reduction Techniques for Large Scale Permanent Magnet Generators in Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazdozian, Helena; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2015-03-01

    Increased wind penetration is necessary to reduce U.S. dependence on fossil fuels, combat climate change and increase national energy security. The U.S Department of Energy has recommended large scale and offshore wind turbines to achieve 20% wind electricity generation by 2030. Currently, geared doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) are typically employed in the drivetrain for conversion of mechanical to electrical energy. Yet, gearboxes account for the greatest downtime of wind turbines, decreasing reliability and contributing to loss of profit. Direct drive permanent magnet generators (PMGs) offer a reliable alternative to DFIGs by eliminating the gearbox. However, PMGs scale up in size and weight much more rapidly than DFIGs as rated power is increased, presenting significant challenges for large scale wind turbine application. Thus, size reduction techniques are needed for viability of PMGs in large scale wind turbines. Two size reduction techniques are presented. It is demonstrated that 25% size reduction of a 10MW PMG is possible with a high remanence theoretical permanent magnet. Additionally, the use of a Halbach cylinder in an outer rotor PMG is investigated to focus magnetic flux over the rotor surface in order to increase torque. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1069283 and a Barbara and James Palmer Endowment at Iowa State University.

  4. Incentives for subcontractors to adopt CO2 emission reporting and reduction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtens, Bert; Kleinsmann, Renske

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the incentives for subcontractors (couriers) of a transport and logistics company to report about their CO 2 emissions and to implement CO 2 reducing technologies. Furthermore, we try to find out whether these incentives differ between British and Dutch couriers. We find that several incentives play a significant role. Subcontractors in the Netherlands predominantly are extrinsically motivated to engage in CO 2 reporting and reduction techniques. This is because they are mainly driven by regulatory compliance, energy costs and implementation costs. In contrast, British subcontractors are much more intrinsically motivated to comply. They are predominantly driven by energy costs, environmental awareness, relationship building and reputation building. The contractor will have to account for these differences in making its policies work. - Research highlights: → We investigate incentives for couriers to report CO 2 emissions and to implement CO 2 reduction techniques. → We compare couriers in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. → Several incentives are significant for the adoption of CO 2 reporting and reduction measures. → There are significant differences in the sensitivity for incentives in the Netherlands and the UK.

  5. Subbrow Approach as a Minimally Invasive Reduction Technique in the Management of Frontal Sinus Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewon Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFrontal sinus fractures, particularly anterior sinus fractures, are relatively common facial fractures. Many agree on the general principles of frontal fracture management; however, the optimal methods of reduction are still controversial. In this article, we suggest a simple reduction method using a subbrow incision as a treatment for isolated anterior sinus fractures.MethodsBetween March 2011 and March 2014, 13 patients with isolated frontal sinus fractures were treated by open reduction and internal fixation through a subbrow incision. The subbrow incision line was designed to be precisely at the lower margin of the brow in order to obtain an inconspicuous scar. A periosteal incision was made at 3 mm above the superior orbital rim. The fracture site of the frontal bone was reduced, and bone fixation was performed using an absorbable plate and screws.ResultsContour deformities were completely restored in all patients, and all patients were satisfied with the results. Scars were barely visible in the long-term follow-up. No complications related to the procedure, such as infection, uncontrolled sinus bleeding, hematoma, paresthesia, mucocele, or posterior wall and brain injury were observed.ConclusionsThe subbrow approach allowed for an accurate reduction and internal fixation of the fractures in the anterior table of the frontal sinus by providing a direct visualization of the fracture. Considering the surgical success of the reduction and the rigid fixation, patient satisfaction, and aesthetic problems, this transcutaneous approach through a subbrow incision is concluded to be superior to the other reduction techniques used in the case of an anterior table frontal sinus fracture.

  6. The effect of stress management training on stress and depression in women with depression disorders: Using cognitive-behavioral techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasian, Farahzad; Najimi, Arash; Meftagh, Sayyed Davood; Ghasemi, Gholamreza; Afshar, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of stress management training through cognitive-behavioral techniques on stress, social adaptability and depression in women with depression disorders. Materials and Methods: In this study, 40 patients diagnosed with depression who had referred to psychiatry and consultation clinics of Isfahan were randomly selected and assigned to intervention and control groups (20 patients in each group). The intervention group received eight 90...

  7. Planar and SPECT Monte Carlo acceleration using a variance reduction technique in I131imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosravi, H. R.; Sarkar, S.; Takavar, A.; Saghari, M.; Shahriari, M.

    2007-01-01

    Various variance reduction techniques such as forced detection (FD) have been implemented in Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of nuclear medicine in an effort to decrease the simulation time while keeping accuracy. However most of these techniques still result in very long MC simulation times for being implemented into routine use. Materials and Methods: Convolution-based forced detection (CFD) method as a variance reduction technique was implemented into the well known SlMlND MC photon simulation software. A variety of simulations including point and extended sources in uniform and non-uniform attenuation media, were performed to compare differences between FD and CFD versions of SlMlND modeling for I 131 radionuclide and camera configurations. Experimental measurement of system response function was compared to FD and CFD simulation data. Results: Different simulations using the CFD method agree very well with experimental measurements as well as FD version. CFD simulations of system response function and larger sources in uniform and non-uniform attenuated phantoms also agree well with FD version of SIMIND. Conclusion: CFD has been modeled into the SlMlND MC program and validated. With the current implementation of CFD, simulation times were approximately 10-15 times shorter with similar accuracy and image quality compared with FD MC

  8. Development of volume reduction treatment techniques for low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabatame, Yasuzi

    1984-01-01

    The solid wastes packed in drums are preserved in the stores of nuclear establishments in Japan, and the quantity of preservation has already reached about 60 % of the capacity. It has become an important subject to reduce the quantity of generation of radioactive wastes and how to reduce the volume of generated wastes. As the result of the research aiming at the development of the solidified bodies which are excellent in the effect of volume reduction and physical properties, it was confirmed that the plastic solidified bodies using thermosetting resin were superior to conventional cement or asphalt solidification. The plastic solidifying system can treat various radioactive wastes. After radioactive wastes are dried and powdered, they are solidified with plastics, therefore, the effect of volume reduction is excellent. The specific gravity, strength and the resistance to water, fire and radiation were confirmed to be satisfacotory. The plastic solidifying system comprises three subsystems, that is, drying system, powder storing and supplying system and plastic solidifying system. Also the granulation technique after drying and powdering, acid decomposition technique, the microwave melting and solidifying technique for incineration ash, plasma melting process and electrolytic polishing decontamination are described. (Kako, I.)

  9. Dose-reduction techniques for high-dose worker groups in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the main findings of a study of the extent of radiation dose received by special work groups in the nuclear power industry. Work groups which chronically get large doses were investigated, using information provided by the industry. The tasks that give high doses to these work groups were examined and techniques described that were found to be particularly successful in reducing dose. Quantitative information on the extent of radiation doses to various work groups shows that significant numbers of workers in several critical groups receive doses greater than 1 and even 2 rem per year, particularly contract personnel and workers at BWR-type plants. The number of radiation workers whose lifetime dose is greater than their age is much less. Although the techniques presented would go some way in reducing dose, it is likely that a sizeable reduction to the high-dose work groups may require development of new dose-reduction techniques as well as major changes in procedures. 10 refs., 26 tabs

  10. Lower-Order Compensation Chain Threshold-Reduction Technique for Multi-Stage Voltage Multipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Dell’ Anna

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel threshold-compensation technique for multi-stage voltage multipliers employed in low power applications such as passive and autonomous wireless sensing nodes (WSNs powered by energy harvesters. The proposed threshold-reduction technique enables a topological design methodology which, through an optimum control of the trade-off among transistor conductivity and leakage losses, is aimed at maximizing the voltage conversion efficiency (VCE for a given ac input signal and physical chip area occupation. The conducted simulations positively assert the validity of the proposed design methodology, emphasizing the exploitable design space yielded by the transistor connection scheme in the voltage multiplier chain. An experimental validation and comparison of threshold-compensation techniques was performed, adopting 2N5247 N-channel junction field effect transistors (JFETs for the realization of the voltage multiplier prototypes. The attained measurements clearly support the effectiveness of the proposed threshold-reduction approach, which can significantly reduce the chip area occupation for a given target output performance and ac input signal.

  11. Lower-Order Compensation Chain Threshold-Reduction Technique for Multi-Stage Voltage Multipliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell' Anna, Francesco; Dong, Tao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Azadmehr, Mehdi; Casu, Mario; Berg, Yngvar

    2018-04-17

    This paper presents a novel threshold-compensation technique for multi-stage voltage multipliers employed in low power applications such as passive and autonomous wireless sensing nodes (WSNs) powered by energy harvesters. The proposed threshold-reduction technique enables a topological design methodology which, through an optimum control of the trade-off among transistor conductivity and leakage losses, is aimed at maximizing the voltage conversion efficiency (VCE) for a given ac input signal and physical chip area occupation. The conducted simulations positively assert the validity of the proposed design methodology, emphasizing the exploitable design space yielded by the transistor connection scheme in the voltage multiplier chain. An experimental validation and comparison of threshold-compensation techniques was performed, adopting 2N5247 N-channel junction field effect transistors (JFETs) for the realization of the voltage multiplier prototypes. The attained measurements clearly support the effectiveness of the proposed threshold-reduction approach, which can significantly reduce the chip area occupation for a given target output performance and ac input signal.

  12. HIGHLY-ACCURATE MODEL ORDER REDUCTION TECHNIQUE ON A DISCRETE DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Ribeiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this work, we present a highly-accurate technique of model order reduction applied to staged processes. The proposed method reduces the dimension of the original system based on null values of moment-weighted sums of heat and mass balance residuals on real stages. To compute these sums of weighted residuals, a discrete form of Gauss-Lobatto quadrature was developed, allowing a high degree of accuracy in these calculations. The locations where the residuals are cancelled vary with time and operating conditions, characterizing a desirable adaptive nature of this technique. Balances related to upstream and downstream devices (such as condenser, reboiler, and feed tray of a distillation column are considered as boundary conditions of the corresponding difference-differential equations system. The chosen number of moments is the dimension of the reduced model being much lower than the dimension of the complete model and does not depend on the size of the original model. Scaling of the discrete independent variable related with the stages was crucial for the computational implementation of the proposed method, avoiding accumulation of round-off errors present even in low-degree polynomial approximations in the original discrete variable. Dynamical simulations of distillation columns were carried out to check the performance of the proposed model order reduction technique. The obtained results show the superiority of the proposed procedure in comparison with the orthogonal collocation method.

  13. Shrinkage / stress reduction and mechanical properties improvement in restorative composites formulated with thio-urethane oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Atais; Yih, Jonathan A; Platta, Jacqueline; Knight, Joseph; Pfeifer, Carmem S

    2018-02-01

    Thio-urethane oligomers (TUs) have been shown to favorably modify methacrylate networks to reduce stress and significantly increase fracture toughness. Since those are very desirable features in dental applications, the objective of this work was to characterize restorative composites formulated with the addition of TUs. TUs were synthesized by combining thiols - pentaerythritol tetra-3-mercaptopropionate (PETMP) or trimethylol-tris-3-mercaptopropionate (TMP) - with isocyanates - 1,6-Hexanediol-diissocyante (HDDI) (aliphatic) or 1,3-bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene (BDI) (aromatic) or dicyclohexylmethane 4,4'-Diisocyanate (HMDI) (cyclic), at 1:2 isocyanate:thiol, leaving pendant thiols. 20wt% TU were added to BisGMA-TEGDMA (70-30%). To this organic matrix, 70wt% silanated inorganic fillers were added. Near-IR was used to follow methacrylate conversion and rate of polymerization (Rp max ). Mechanical properties were evaluated in three-point bending (ISO 4049) for flexural strength/modulus (FS/FM) and toughness (T), and notched specimens (ASTM Standard E399-90) for fracture toughness (K IC ). Polymerization stress (PS) was measured on the Bioman. Volumetric shrinkage (VS) was measured with the bonded disk technique. Glass transition temperature (Tg) and heterogeneity of network were obtained with dynamic mechanical analysis. The addition of TUs led to an increase in mechanical properties (except for Tg and FS). Fracture toughness ranged from 1.6-1.94MPam 1/2 for TU-modified groups, an increase of 33-61% in relation to the control (1.21 ± 0.1MPam 1/2 ). Toughness showed a two-fold increase in relation to the control: from 0.91MPa to values ranging from 1.70-1.95MPa. Flexural modulus was statistically higher for the TU-modified groups. The Tg, as expected, decreased for all TU groups due to the greater flexibility imparted to the network (which also explains the increase in toughness and fracture toughness). Narrower tan-delta peaks suggest more homogeneous

  14. Shortening treatment time in robotic radiosurgery using a novel node reduction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Steven van de; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The fraction duration of robotic radiosurgery treatments can be reduced by generating more time-efficient treatment plans with a reduced number of node positions, beams, and monitor units (MUs). Node positions are preprogramed locations where the robot can position the focal spot of the x-ray beam. As the time needed for the robot to travel between node positions takes up a large part of the treatment time, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a node reduction technique in order to reduce the treatment time per fraction for robotic radiosurgery. Methods: Node reduction was integrated into the inverse planning algorithm, developed in-house for the robotic radiosurgery modality. It involved repeated inverse optimization, each iteration excluding low-contribution node positions from the planning and resampling new candidate beams from the remaining node positions. Node reduction was performed until the exclusion of a single node position caused a constraint violation, after which the shortest treatment plan was selected retrospectively. Treatment plans were generated with and without node reduction for two lung cases of different complexity, one oropharyngeal case and one prostate case. Plan quality was assessed using the number of node positions, beams and MUs, and the estimated treatment time per fraction. All treatment plans had to fulfill all clinical dose constraints. Extra constraints were added to maintain the low-dose conformality and restrict skin doses during node reduction. Results: Node reduction resulted in 12 residual node positions, on average (reduction by 77%), at the cost of an increase in the number of beams and total MUs of 28% and 9%, respectively. Overall fraction durations (excluding patient setup) were shortened by 25% (range of 18%-40%), on average. Dose distributions changed only little and dose in low-dose regions was effectively restricted by the additional constraints. Conclusions: The fraction duration of robotic

  15. Shortening treatment time in robotic radiosurgery using a novel node reduction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water, Steven van de; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The fraction duration of robotic radiosurgery treatments can be reduced by generating more time-efficient treatment plans with a reduced number of node positions, beams, and monitor units (MUs). Node positions are preprogramed locations where the robot can position the focal spot of the x-ray beam. As the time needed for the robot to travel between node positions takes up a large part of the treatment time, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a node reduction technique in order to reduce the treatment time per fraction for robotic radiosurgery. Methods: Node reduction was integrated into the inverse planning algorithm, developed in-house for the robotic radiosurgery modality. It involved repeated inverse optimization, each iteration excluding low-contribution node positions from the planning and resampling new candidate beams from the remaining node positions. Node reduction was performed until the exclusion of a single node position caused a constraint violation, after which the shortest treatment plan was selected retrospectively. Treatment plans were generated with and without node reduction for two lung cases of different complexity, one oropharyngeal case and one prostate case. Plan quality was assessed using the number of node positions, beams and MUs, and the estimated treatment time per fraction. All treatment plans had to fulfill all clinical dose constraints. Extra constraints were added to maintain the low-dose conformality and restrict skin doses during node reduction. Results: Node reduction resulted in 12 residual node positions, on average (reduction by 77%), at the cost of an increase in the number of beams and total MUs of 28% and 9%, respectively. Overall fraction durations (excluding patient setup) were shortened by 25% (range of 18%-40%), on average. Dose distributions changed only little and dose in low-dose regions was effectively restricted by the additional constraints. Conclusions: The fraction duration of robotic

  16. Speckle techniques for determining stresses in moving objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphree, E. A.; Wilson, T. F.; Ranson, W. F.; Swinson, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    Laser speckle interferometry is a relatively new experimental technique which shows promise of alleviating many difficult problems in experimental mechanics. The method utilizes simple high-resolution photographs of the surface which is illuminated by coherent light. The result is a real-time or permanently stored whole-field record of interference fringes which yields a map of displacements in the object. In this thesis, the time-average theory using the Fourier transform is developed to present the application of this technique to measurement of in-plane displacement induced by the vibration of an object.

  17. Quantitative comparison of commercial and non-commercial metal artifact reduction techniques in computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Wagenaar

    Full Text Available Typical streak artifacts known as metal artifacts occur in the presence of strongly attenuating materials in computed tomography (CT. Recently, vendors have started offering metal artifact reduction (MAR techniques. In addition, a MAR technique called the metal deletion technique (MDT is freely available and able to reduce metal artifacts using reconstructed images. Although a comparison of the MDT to other MAR techniques exists, a comparison of commercially available MAR techniques is lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the difference in effectiveness of the currently available MAR techniques of different scanners and the MDT technique.Three vendors were asked to use their preferential CT scanner for applying their MAR techniques. The scans were performed on a Philips Brilliance ICT 256 (S1, a GE Discovery CT 750 HD (S2 and a Siemens Somatom Definition AS Open (S3. The scans were made using an anthropomorphic head and neck phantom (Kyoto Kagaku, Japan. Three amalgam dental implants were constructed and inserted between the phantom's teeth. The average absolute error (AAE was calculated for all reconstructions in the proximity of the amalgam implants.The commercial techniques reduced the AAE by 22.0±1.6%, 16.2±2.6% and 3.3±0.7% for S1 to S3 respectively. After applying the MDT to uncorrected scans of each scanner the AAE was reduced by 26.1±2.3%, 27.9±1.0% and 28.8±0.5% respectively. The difference in efficiency between the commercial techniques and the MDT was statistically significant for S2 (p=0.004 and S3 (p<0.001, but not for S1 (p=0.63.The effectiveness of MAR differs between vendors. S1 performed slightly better than S2 and both performed better than S3. Furthermore, for our phantom and outcome measure the MDT was more effective than the commercial MAR technique on all scanners.

  18. Reconstruction of the residual stresses in a hyperelastic body using ultrasound techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Joshi, Sunnie; Walton, Jay R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on a novel approach for characterizing the residual stress field in soft tissue using ultrasound interrogation. A nonlinear inverse spectral technique is developed that makes fundamental use of the finite strain nonlinear response

  19. Iterative methods used in overlap astrometric reduction techniques do not always converge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, M.; Ducourant, C.; Colin, J.; Le Campion, J. F.

    1993-04-01

    In this paper we prove that the classical Gauss-Seidel type iterative methods used for the solution of the reduced normal equations occurring in overlapping reduction methods of astrometry do not always converge. We exhibit examples of divergence. We then analyze an alternative algorithm proposed by Wang (1985). We prove the consistency of this algorithm and verify that it can be convergent while the Gauss-Seidel method is divergent. We conjecture the convergence of Wang method for the solution of astrometric problems using overlap techniques.

  20. Noise reduction techniques used on the high power klystron modulators at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    The modulators used in the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory have been redesigned with an emphasis on electrical noise reduction. Since the modulators are 100 MW modulators with <700 ns rise time, electrical noise can be coupled very easily to other electronic equipment in the area. This paper will detail the efforts made to reduce noise coupled to surrounding equipment. Shielding and sound grounding techniques accomplished the goal of drastically reducing the noise induced in surrounding equipment. The approach used in grounding and shielding will be discussed, and data will be presented comparing earlier designs to the improved design

  1. Application of a CADIS-like variance reduction technique to electron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.; Haghighat, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the use of approximate deterministic importance functions to calculate the lower-weight bounds of the MCNP5 weight-window variance reduction technique when applied to electron transport simulations. This approach follows the CADIS (Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling) methodology developed for neutral particles shielding calculations. The importance functions are calculated using the one-dimensional CEPXS/ONELD code package. Considering a simple 1-D problem, this paper shows that our methodology can produce speedups up to ∼82 using an approximate electron importance function distributions computed in ∼8 seconds. (author)

  2. Mechanical properties of the collagen network in human articular cartilage as measured by osmotic stress technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basser, P.J.; Schneiderman, R.; Bank, R.A.; Wachtel, E.; Maroudas, A.

    1998-01-01

    We have used an isotropic osmotic stress technique to assess the swelling pressures of human articular cartilage over a wide range of hydrations in order to determine from these measurements, for the first time, the tensile stress in the collagen network, P(c), as a function of hydration. Osmotic

  3. Nondestructive evaluation of green wood using stress wave and transverse vibration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaya B. Halabe; Gangadhar M. Bidigalu; Hota V.S. GangaRao; Robert J. Ross

    1997-01-01

    Longitudinal stress wave and transverse vibration nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques have proven to be accurate means of evaluating the quality of wood based products. Researchers have found strong relationships between stress wave and transverse vibration parameters (e.g., wave velocity and modulus of elasticity predicted using NDT measurements) with the actual...

  4. Tailoring diffraction technique Rietveld method on residual stress measurements of cold-can oiled 304 stainless steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikin; Killen, P.; Anis, M.

    2003-01-01

    Tailoring of diffraction technique-Rietveld method on residual stress measurements of cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates assuming the material is isotopic, the residual stress measurements using X-ray powder diffraction is just performed for a plane lying in a large angle. For anisotropic materials, the real measurements will not be represented by the methods. By Utilizing of all diffraction peaks in the observation region, tailoring diffraction technique-Rietveld analysis is able to cover the limitations. The residual stress measurement using X-ray powder diffraction tailored by Rietveld method, in a series of cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates deforming; 0, 34, 84, 152, 158, 175, and 196 % reduction in thickness, have been reported. The diffraction data were analyzed by using Rietveld structure refinement method. Also, for all cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates cuplikans, the diffraction peaks are broader than the uncanailed one, indicating that the strains in these cuplikans are inhomogeneous. From an analysis of the refined peak shape parameters, the average root-mean square strain, which describes the distribution of the inhomogeneous strain field, was calculated. Finally, the average residual stresses in cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates were shown to be a combination effect of hydrostatic stresses of martensite particles and austenite matrix. The average residual stresses were evaluated from the experimentally determined average lattice strains in each phase. It was found the tensile residual stress in a cuplikan was maximum, reaching 442 MPa, for a cuplikan reducing 34% in thickness and minimum for a 196% cuplikan

  5. An Experimental Study of Turbulent Skin Friction Reduction in Supersonic Flow Using a Microblowing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Danny P.

    1999-01-01

    A new turbulent skin friction reduction technology, called the microblowing technique has been tested in supersonic flow (Mach number of 1.9) on specially designed porous plates with microholes. The skin friction was measured directly by a force balance and the boundary layer development was measured by a total pressure rake at the tailing edge of a test plate. The free stream Reynolds number was 1.0(10 exp 6) per meter. The turbulent skin friction coefficient ratios (C(sub f)/C(sub f0)) of seven porous plates are given in this report. Test results showed that the microblowing technique could reduce the turbulent skin friction in supersonic flow (up to 90 percent below a solid flat plate value, which was even greater than in subsonic flow).

  6. Application of variance reduction techniques of Monte-Carlo method to deep penetration shielding problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, K.K.; Subbaiah, K.V.

    1996-01-01

    General purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP is being widely employed for solving deep penetration problems by applying variance reduction techniques. These techniques depend on the nature and type of the problem being solved. Application of geometry splitting and implicit capture method are examined to study the deep penetration problems of neutron, gamma and coupled neutron-gamma in thick shielding materials. The typical problems chosen are: i) point isotropic monoenergetic gamma ray source of 1 MeV energy in nearly infinite water medium, ii) 252 Cf spontaneous source at the centre of 140 cm thick water and concrete and iii) 14 MeV fast neutrons incident on the axis of 100 cm thick concrete disk. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  7. Pharmacological reduction of ER stress protects against TDP-43 neuronal toxicity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Alexandra; Patten, Shunmoogum A; Aggad, Dina; Julien, Carl; Maios, Claudia; Kabashi, Edor; Drapeau, Pierre; Parker, J Alex

    2013-07-01

    C. elegans and D. rerio expressing mutant TAR DNA Binding Protein 43 (TDP-43) are powerful in vivo animal models for the genetics and pharmacology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Using these small-animal models of ALS, we previously identified methylene blue (MB) as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 toxicity. Consequently here we investigated how MB might exert its neuroprotective properties and found that it acts through reduction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. We tested other compounds known to be active in the ER unfolded protein response in worms and zebrafish expressing mutant human TDP-43 (mTDP-43). We identified three compounds: salubrinal, guanabenz and a new structurally related compound phenazine, which also reduced paralysis, neurodegeneration and oxidative stress in our mTDP-43 models. Using C. elegans genetics, we showed that all four compounds act as potent suppressors of mTDP-43 toxicity through reduction of the ER stress response. Interestingly, these compounds operate through different branches of the ER unfolded protein pathway to achieve a common neuroprotective action. Our results indicate that protein-folding homeostasis in the ER is an important target for therapeutic development in ALS and other TDP-43-related neurodegenerative diseases. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Importance of silvopastoral systems on caloric stress reduction in tropical livestock productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Navas Panadero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in Colombia have been developed taking concepts and technologies from the green revolution, where gramineous monocrop is privileged over arboreal cover in grazing lands. This model has not taken into account the climatic conditions of the different tropical ecosystems, in which variables as temperature, relative humidity and evaporation can limit the animal´s productive and reproductive efficiency, besides being a risk factor for illness occurrence in the herd. Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus breeds show termoneutral ranges where its genetic potential can be express. However, out of this comfort area animals can enter in caloric stress which in consequence reduces its performance and sometimes can end up causing death. Silvopastoral systems comprise several functions; it contributes to lessen caloric stress since temperature under the tree canopy can reach between 2 and 9°C lower in comparison to open pastures. Differences in temperature reduction have been found among silvopastoral systems and species, being the tree group arrangements and the species with high density canopy, those with superior effect. Interactions among components should be analyzed in order to design systems that incorporate enough arboreal cover to achieve caloric stress reductions, but without affecting forage production in pastures. Silvopastoral systems contribute to improve animal welfare.

  9. Metal Artifacts Reduction of Pedicle Screws on Spine Computed Tomography Images Using Variable Thresholding Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewlek, T.; Koolpiruck, D.; Thongvigitmanee, S.; Mongkolsuk, M.; Chiewvit, P.; Thammakittiphan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Metal artifacts are one of significant problems in computed tomography (CT). The streak lines and air gaps arise from metal implants of orthopedic patients, such as prosthesis, dental bucket, and pedicle screws that cause incorrect diagnosis and local treatment planning. A common technique to suppressed artifacts is by adjusting windows, but those artifacts still remain on the images. To improve the detail of spine CT images, the variable thresholding technique is proposed in this paper. Three medical cases of spine CT images categorized by the severity of artifacts (screws head, one full screw, and two full screws) were investigated. Metal regions were segmented by k-mean clustering, then transformed into a sinogram domain. The metal sinogram was identified by the variable thresholding method, and then replaced the new estimated values by linear interpolation. The modified sinogram was reconstructed by the filtered back- projection algorithm, and added the metal region back to the modified reconstructed image in order to reproduce the final image. The image quality of the proposed technique, the automatic thresholding (Kalender) technique, and window adjustment technique was compared in term of noise and signal to noise ratio (SNR). The propose method can reduce metal artifacts between pedicle screws. After processing by our proposed technique, noise in the modified images is reduced (screws head 121.15 to73.83, one full screw 160.88 to 94.04, and two full screws 199.73 to 110.05 from the initial image) and SNR is increased (screws head 0.87 to 1.88, one full screw 1.54 to 2.82, and two full screws 0.32 to 0.41 from the initial image). The variable thresholding technique can identify the suitable boundary for restoring the missing data. The efficiency of the metal artifacts reduction is indicated on the case of partial and full pedicle screws. Our technique can improve the detail of spine CT images better than automatic thresholding (Kalender) technique, and

  10. FEM Techniques for High Stress Detection in Accelerated Fatigue Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, M.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the theory and a numerical validation study in support to a novel method for a priori identification of fatigue critical regions, with the aim to accelerate durability design in large FEM problems. The investigation is placed in the context of modern full-body structural durability analysis, where a computationally intensive dynamic solution could be required to identify areas with potential for fatigue damage initiation. The early detection of fatigue critical areas can drive a simplification of the problem size, leading to sensible improvement in solution time and model handling while allowing processing of the critical areas in higher detail. The proposed technique is applied to a real life industrial case in a comparative assessment with established practices. Synthetic damage prediction quantification and visualization techniques allow for a quick and efficient comparison between methods, outlining potential application benefits and boundaries.

  11. Reduction in energy consumption and operating cost in a dried corn warehouse using logistics techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrakot Y. Tippayawong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn is one of the major economic crops in Thailand. Corn postharvest operation involves various practices that consume a large amount of energy. Different energy conservation measures have been implemented but logistics consideration is not normally employed. In this work, attempt has been made to demonstrate that logistics techniques can offer a significant reduction in energy and cost. The main objective of this work is to identify and demonstrate possible approaches to improving energy efficiency and reducing operating cost for a dried corn warehouse operator. Three main problems are identified: (i relatively high fuel consumption for internal transfer process, (ii low quality of dried corn, and (iii excess expenditure on outbound transportation. Solutions are proposed and implemented using logistics operations. Improvement is achieved using plant layout and shortest path techniques, resulting in a reduction of almost 50% in energy consumption for the internal transfer process. Installation of an air distributor in the grain storage unit results in a decrease in loss due to poor-quality dried corn from 17% to 10%. Excess expenditure on dried corn distribution is reduced by 6% with application of a global positioning system.

  12. Reduction of friction stress of ethylene glycol by attached hydrogen ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Deng, Mingming; Luo, Jianbin

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, it is shown that the friction stress of ethylene glycol can decrease by an order of magnitude to achieve superlubricity if there are hydrogen ions attached on the friction surfaces. An ultra-low friction coefficient (μ = 0.004) of ethylene glycol between Si3N4 and SiO2 can be obtained with the effect of hydrogen ions. Experimental result indicates that the hydrogen ions adsorbed on the friction surfaces forming a hydration layer and the ethylene glycol in the contact region forming an elastohydrodynamic film are the two indispensable factors for the reduction of friction stress. The mechanism of superlubricity is attributed to the extremely low shear strength of formation of elastohydrodynamic film on the hydration layer. This finding may introduce a new approach to reduce friction coefficient of liquid by attaching hydrogen ions on friction surfaces. PMID:25428584

  13. For Whom Does Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Work? Moderating Effects of Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyklíček, Ivan; Irrmischer, Mona

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine potentially moderating effects of personality characteristics regarding changes in anxious and depressed mood associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), controlling for socio-demographic factors. Meditation-naïve participants from the general population self-presenting with psychological stress complaints ( n  = 167 participants, 70% women, mean age 45.8 ± 9.3 years) were assessed in a longitudinal investigation of change in mood before and after the intervention and at a 3-month follow-up. Participants initially scoring high on neuroticism showed stronger decreases in both anxious and depressed mood (both p  moderating effects, when controlled for baseline mood. Only neuroticism showed to be associated with delayed benefit. Results are discussed in the context of findings from similar research using more traditional cognitive-behavioral interventions.

  14. Application of indirect stress measurement techniques (non strain gauge based technology) to quantify stress environments in mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stacey, TR

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Reliable values of in situ stress are essential for the valid modelling of mine layouts. Available non-strain gauge methods are reviewed as potential practical techniques for South African mines. From this review it is concluded that the most...

  15. Mindfulness-based stress reduction teachers, practice characteristics, cancer incidence, and health: a nationwide ecological description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sara Wagner; Benson, Kelsey; Middleton, Lauren; Meyers, Christine; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-14

    Studies have demonstrated the potential of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program to improve the condition of individuals with health outcomes such as hypertension, diabetes, and chronic pain; improve psychological well-being; reduce stress levels; and increase survival among cancer patients. To date, only one study has focused on the effect of long-term meditation on stress, showing a positive protective relationship. However, the relationship between meditation and cancer incidence remains unexplored. The objective of this study was to describe the state-level relationship between MBSR instructors and their practices and county-level health outcomes, including cancer incidence, in the United States. This ecologic study was performed using geospatial mapping and descriptive epidemiology of statewide MBSR characteristics and overall health, mental health state rankings, and age-adjusted cancer incidence rates. Weak to moderate state-level correlations between meditation characteristics and colorectal and cervical cancer incidence were detected, with states with more meditation (e.g., more MBSR teachers per population) correlated with a decreased cancer incidence. A negative correlation was detected between lung & bronchus cancer and years teaching MBSR only. Moderate positive correlations were detected between Hodgkin's Lymphoma and female breast cancer in relation to all meditation characteristics. Statistically significant correlations with moderate coefficients were detected for overall health ranks and all meditation characteristics, most strongly for total number of years teaching MBSR and total number of years of general meditation practice. Our analyses might suggest that a relationship exists between the total number of MBSR teachers per state and the total number of years of general meditation practice per state, and colorectal and cervical cancer incidence. Positive correlations were observed with overall health rankings. Despite this study

  16. Who participates in a randomized trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) after breast cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, Hanne; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne; Kaae Andersen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Danish population-based registries and clinical databases to determine differences in demographics, breast cancer and co-morbidity among 1208 women eligible for a randomized controlled trial (www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00990977) of mindfulness-based stress reduction MBSR. RESULTS: Participants......BACKGROUND: Discussion regarding the necessity to identify patients with both the need and motivation for psychosocial intervention is ongoing. Evidence for an effect of mindfulness-based interventions among cancer patients is based on few studies with no systematic enrollment. METHODS: We used...

  17. Stress-tension reduction in the treatment of sexually tortured women--an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, H; Pagaduan-Lopez, J

    1987-01-01

    Three women who had been tortured and sexually abused during imprisonment as political prisoners during the dictatorship in the Philippines were treated with a nonverbal, manual stress-tension reduction therapy (STRT). All women had difficulty in sexual and social relationships and a series of unspecific complaints such as headache, dizziness, irritability, aggressiveness toward their own children, etc. The therapy is described. A series of four sessions was given each woman, followed by group training. A remarkable improvement was noted, and it is suggested that STRT may be use in other sexological disorders.

  18. Utility Of Stress-Texture Characteristics Of Structural Materials By X-Ray Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonarski J.T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of residual stress analysis in selected metal-metal joints manufactured by conventional welding and explosive merging. The X-ray diffraction technique applied for advanced stress-texture measurements and data processing revealed directions and values of the principal stresses and their configuration on the surface of the examined structural elements. The obtained stress topography of the joint intersections indicates a possible path of potential cracking formed during the exploitation process and thus it becomes a very useful tool in the diagnostics of structural elements.

  19. Development of technique to apply induction heating stress improvement to recirculation inlet nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Kunihiko; Nihei, Kenichi; Ootaka, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) have been found in the primary loop recirculation (PLR) systems of boiling water reactors (BWR). Residual stress in welding heat-affected zone is one of the factors of SCC, and the residual stress improvement is one of the most effective methods to prevent SCC. Induction heating stress improvement (IHSI) is one of the techniques to improve reduce residual stress. However, it is difficult to apply IHSI to the place such as the recirculation inlet nozzle where the flow stagnates. In this present study, the technique to apply IHSI to the recirculation inlet nozzle was developed using water jet which blowed into the crevice between the nozzle safe end and the thermal sleeve. (author)

  20. Air flow measurement techniques applied to noise reduction of a centrifugal blower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laage, John W.; Armstrong, Ashli J.; Eilers, Daniel J.; Olsen, Michael G.; Mann, J. Adin

    2005-09-01

    The air flow in a centrifugal blower was studied using a variety of flow and sound measurement techniques. The flow measurement techniques employed included Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), pitot tubes, and a five hole spherical probe. PIV was used to measure instantaneous and ensemble-averaged velocity fields over large area of the outlet duct as a function of fan position, allowing for the visualization of the flow as it leave the fan blades and progressed downstream. The results from the flow measurements were reviewed along side the results of the sound measurements with the goal of identifying sources of noise and inefficiencies in flow performance. The radiated sound power was divided into broadband and tone noise and measures of the flow. The changes in the tone and broadband sound were compared to changes in flow quantities such as the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress. Results for each method will be presented to demonstrate the strengths of each flow measurement technique as well as their limitations. Finally, the role that each played in identifying noise sources is described.

  1. Studies on laws of stress-magnetization based on magnetic memory testing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shangkun; Ren, Xianzhi

    2018-03-01

    Metal magnetic memory (MMM) testing technique is a novel testing method which can early test stress concentration status of ferromagnetic components. Under the different maximum tensile stress, the relationship between the leakage magnetic field of at certain point of cold rolled steel specimen and the tensile stress was measured during the process of loading and unloading by repeated. It shows that when the maximum tensile stress is less than 610 MPa, the relationship between the magnetic induction intensity and the stress is linear; When the maximum tensile stress increase from 610 MPa to 653 MPa of yield point, the relationship between the magnetic induction intensity and the tensile becomes bending line. The location of the extreme point of the bending line will move rapidly from the position of smaller stress to the larger stress position, and the variation of magnetic induction intensity increases rapidly. When the maximum tensile stress is greater than the 653 MPa of yield point, the variation of the magnetic induction intensity remains large, and the position of the extreme point moves very little. In theoretical aspects, tensile stress is to be divided into ordered stress and disordered stress. In the stage of elastic stress, a microscopic model of the order stress magnetization is established, and the conclusions are in good agreement with the experimental data. In the plastic deformation stage, a microscopic model of disordered stress magnetization is established, and the conclusions are in good agreement with the experimental data, too. The research results can provide reference for the accurate quantitative detection and evaluation of metal magnetic memory testing technology.

  2. Different finite element techniques to predict welding residual stresses in aluminum alloy plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moein, Hadi; Sattari-Far, Iradj

    2014-01-01

    This study is a 3D thermomechanical finite element (FE) analysis of a single-pass and butt-welded work-hardened aluminum (Al) 5456 plates. It aims to validate the use of FE welding simulations to predict residual stress states in assessing the integrity of welded components. The predicted final residual stresses in the plate from the FE simulations are verified through comparison with experimental measurements. Three techniques are used to simulate the welding process. In the first two approaches, welding deposition is applied by using element birth and interaction techniques. In the third approach, the entire weld zone is simultaneously deposited. Results show a value at approximately the yield strength for longitudinal residual stresses of the welded center of the butt-welded Al alloy plates with a thickness of 2 mm. Considering the application of a comprehensive heat source, along with heat loss modeling and the temperature dependent properties of the material, the approach without deposition predicts a reasonable distribution of residual stresses. However, the element birth and interaction techniques, compared with the no-deposit technique, provide more accurate results in calculating residual stresses. Furthermore, the element interaction technique, compared with the element birth technique, exhibits higher efficiency and flexibility in modeling the deposition of welded metals as well as less modeling cost.

  3. A Background Noise Reduction Technique Using Adaptive Noise Cancellation for Microphone Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalt, Taylor B.; Fuller, Christopher R.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Brooks, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Background noise in wind tunnel environments poses a challenge to acoustic measurements due to possible low or negative Signal to Noise Ratios (SNRs) present in the testing environment. This paper overviews the application of time domain Adaptive Noise Cancellation (ANC) to microphone array signals with an intended application of background noise reduction in wind tunnels. An experiment was conducted to simulate background noise from a wind tunnel circuit measured by an out-of-flow microphone array in the tunnel test section. A reference microphone was used to acquire a background noise signal which interfered with the desired primary noise source signal at the array. The technique s efficacy was investigated using frequency spectra from the array microphones, array beamforming of the point source region, and subsequent deconvolution using the Deconvolution Approach for the Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS) algorithm. Comparisons were made with the conventional techniques for improving SNR of spectral and Cross-Spectral Matrix subtraction. The method was seen to recover the primary signal level in SNRs as low as -29 dB and outperform the conventional methods. A second processing approach using the center array microphone as the noise reference was investigated for more general applicability of the ANC technique. It outperformed the conventional methods at the -29 dB SNR but yielded less accurate results when coherence over the array dropped. This approach could possibly improve conventional testing methodology but must be investigated further under more realistic testing conditions.

  4. Mind magic: a pilot study of preventive mind-body-based stress reduction in behaviorally inhibited and activated children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellesma, F.C.; Cornelis, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of study: The aim of this pilot study was to examine a mind-body-based preventive intervention program and to determine relationships between children's behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system, stress, and stress reduction after the program. Design of study:

  5. Novel approaches to determining residual stresses by ultramicroindentation techniques: Application to sandblasted austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frutos, E.; Multigner, M.; Gonzalez-Carrasco, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses the determination of residual stresses in sandblasted austenitic steel by ultramicroindentation techniques using a sharp indenter, of which the sensitivity to residual stress effects is said to be inferior to that of spherical ones. The introduction of an angular correction in the model of Wang et al. which relates variations in the maximum load to the presence of residual stresses is proposed. Similarly, the contribution to the hardness of grain size refinement and work hardening, developed as a consequence of the severe plastic deformation during blasting, is determined in order to avoid overestimation of the residual stresses. Measurements were performed on polished cross sections along a length of several microns, thus obtaining a profile of the residual stresses. Results show good agreement with those obtained by synchrotron radiation on the same specimens, which validates the method and demonstrates that microindentation using sharp indenters may be sensitive to the residual stress effect.

  6. Novel approaches to determining residual stresses by ultramicroindentation techniques: Application to sandblasted austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frutos, E. [Centro de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain)] [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM-CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Multigner, M. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM-CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Centro de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Gonzalez-Carrasco, J.L., E-mail: jlg@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM-CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Centro de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    This research addresses the determination of residual stresses in sandblasted austenitic steel by ultramicroindentation techniques using a sharp indenter, of which the sensitivity to residual stress effects is said to be inferior to that of spherical ones. The introduction of an angular correction in the model of Wang et al. which relates variations in the maximum load to the presence of residual stresses is proposed. Similarly, the contribution to the hardness of grain size refinement and work hardening, developed as a consequence of the severe plastic deformation during blasting, is determined in order to avoid overestimation of the residual stresses. Measurements were performed on polished cross sections along a length of several microns, thus obtaining a profile of the residual stresses. Results show good agreement with those obtained by synchrotron radiation on the same specimens, which validates the method and demonstrates that microindentation using sharp indenters may be sensitive to the residual stress effect.

  7. Techniques for Achieving Zero Stress in Thin Films of Iridium, Chromium, and Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, David M.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Weimer, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    We examine techniques for achieving zero intrinsic stress in thin films of iridium, chromium, and nickel deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The intrinsic stress is further correlated to the microstructural features and physical properties such as surface roughness and optical density at a scale appropriate to soft X-ray wavelengths. The examination of the stress in these materials is motivated by efforts to advance the optical performance of light-weight X-ray space telescopes into the regime of sub-arcsecond resolution through various deposition techniques that rely on control of the film stress to values within 10-100 MPa. A characteristic feature of the intrinsic stress behavior in chromium and nickel is their sensitivity to the magnitude and sign of the intrinsic stress with argon gas pressure and deposition rate, including the existence of a critical argon process pressure that results in zero film stress which scales linearly with the atomic mass of the sputtered species. While the effect of stress reversal with argon pressure has been previously reported by Hoffman and others for nickel and chromium, we report this effect for iridium. In addition to stress reversal, we identify zero stress in the optical functioning iridium layer shortly after island coalescence for low process pressures at a film thickness of approximately 35nm. The measurement of the low values of stress during deposition was achieved with the aid of a sensitive in-situ instrument capable of a minimum detectable level of stress, assuming a 35nm thick film, in the range of 0.40-6.0 MPa for oriented crystalline silicon substrate thicknesses of 70-280 microns, respectively.

  8. [An improved reduction technique for depression fractures of lateral tibial plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchuan; Lou, Hua; Liu, Kai; Jiang, Junwei

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the improved reduction technique for depression fractures of the lateral tibial plateau and its effectiveness. Between January 2008 and December 2010; 48 patients (48 knees) with depression fractures of the lateral tibial plateau (Schatzker II or III fractures) were treated. There were 32 males and 16 females with an average age of 45.8 years (range, 16-79 years). All fractures were fresh closed fractures, which were caused by traffic accident in 27 cases, by falling from height in 5 cases, by crushing in 8 cases, and by sustained falls in 8 cases. According to Schatzker classification, 29 cases were classified as type II and 19 cases as type III. The lateral cortex was cut off to expose the depression and compacted cancellous bone was elevated to reset the articular surface. After reduction, autologous iliac bone graft and locking plate internal fixation were used. Healing of incision by first intention was achieved in all patients, and no complication occurred. All patients were followed up 1.7 years on average (range, 1-3 years). At last follow-up, the knee extension was (-0.5 +/- 0.3) degrees, and the knee flexion was (136.9 +/- 8.8) degrees. X-ray films showed that the fracture healing time was 52 weeks and no breakage of internal fixation occurred. According to Rasmussen clinical score, the results were excellent in 35 cases, good in 10 cases, and fair in 3 cases. According to Rasmussen radiographical score, the results were excellent in 41 cases, good in 7 cases; there were 41 excellent scores and 7 good scores of articular reduction; all gained good recovery of coronal and sagittal alignment and condylar width. The articular surface collapse was (1.0 +/- 0.7) mm at immediate postoperatively and (1.2 +/- 0.7) mm at last follow-up, showing no significant difference (t = -1.42, P = 0.20), but significant differences were found when compared with that at preoperation [(12.2 +/- 8.0) mm, P fracture reduction and can avoid loss of reduction. The

  9. Pre-treatment Social Anxiety Severity Moderates the Impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or Aerobic Exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. PMID:25684277

  10. Residual stress characterization of welds using x-ray diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineault, J.A.; Brauss, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Neglect of residual stresses created during processes lead to stress corrosion cracking, distortion, fatigue cracking, premature failures in components, and instances of over design. Automated residual stress mapping and truly portable equipment have now made the characterization of residual stresses using x-ray diffraction (XRI) practical. The nondestructive nature of the x-ray diffraction technique has made the tile residual stress characterization of welds a useful tool for process optimization and failure analysis, particularly since components can be measured before and after welding and post welding processes. This paper illustrates the importance of residual stress characterization in welds and presents examples where x-ray diffraction techniques were applied in the characterization of various kinds of welds. arc welds, TIG welds, resistance welds, laser welds and electron beam welds. Numerous techniques are available to help manage potentially harmfull residual stresses created during the welding process thus, the effects of a few example post weld processes such as grinding, heat treating and shot peening are also addressed

  11. Measurement techniques for in situ stresses around underground constructions in a deep clay formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X.L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Disposal in deep underground geological formations is internationally recognized as the most viable option for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. In Belgium, the Boom clay formation is extensively studied in this context, in particular at the 225 m deep HADES Underground Research Facility in Mol. A cost-effective design of deep underground structures requires an accurate assessment of the in situ stresses; a good estimation of these stresses is also essential when interpreting in situ experiments regarding the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the host formation. Different measurement techniques are available to provide data on the stress evolution and other mechanical properties of the geological formation. The measurement can be direct (measurement of total pressure, or it can be an indirect technique, deriving the stress from related quantities such as strain (changes in structural members. Most total stress measurements are performed through permanently installed sensors; also once-only measurements are performed through specific methods (e.g. pressuremeter. Direct measurement of the stress state is challenging due to the complex mechanical behaviour of the clay, and the fact that the sensor installation inevitably disturbs the original stress field. This paper describes ways to deal with these problems and presents the results obtained using different techniques at HADES.

  12. Oxidative stress and homocyteine metabolism following coronary artery grafting by on pump and off pump CABG techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvizi, R.; Noubar, R.; Salmasi, H.S.

    2007-01-01

    To compare the effect of on-pump and off-pump CABG on the induction of the oxidative stress and the metabolism of homocysteine, which is involved in the synthesis of glutathione. This retrospective study was performed in Shahid Madani Heart Hospital in Tabriz, Iran in 2004 using a questionnaire. Plasma homocysteine, folate total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malonedialdehyde (MDA) were determined on blood samples obtained from 40 patients undergoing CABG, preoperatively and at 0,12,48,120 hours and 6 months after surgery. The patients were divided into two matched groups, one off-pump and the other on-pump CABG. A marked reduction of homocysteine, folate and significant elevation of MDA were noticed at 0, 12, 48 hours after operation in the both groups (P<0.05). A negative and marked correlation between homocysteine and TAC but a positive and significant between homocysteinc and MDA were observed (P<0.05 in the both groups). In CABG operation because of oxidative stress and consumption of GSH immediate reduction in the plasma levels of homocyticine occurs in the both techniques. However using off pump CABG induction of oxidative stress and changes in plasma levels of homocysteine are not as high as on- pump CABG. (author)

  13. Influence of prosthesis design and implantation technique on implant stresses after cementless revision THR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Georg N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Femoral offset influences the forces at the hip and the implant stresses after revision THR. For extended bone defects, these forces may cause considerable bending moments within the implant, possibly leading to implant failure. This study investigates the influences of femoral anteversion and offset on stresses in the Wagner SL revision stem implant under varying extents of bone defect conditions. Methods Wagner SL revision stems with standard (34 mm and increased offset (44 mm were virtually implanted in a model femur with bone defects of variable extent (Paprosky I to IIIb. Variations in surgical technique were simulated by implanting the stems each at 4° or 14° of anteversion. Muscle and joint contact forces were applied to the reconstruction and implant stresses were determined using finite element analyses. Results Whilst increasing the implant's offset by 10 mm led to increased implant stresses (16.7% in peak tensile stresses, altering anteversion played a lesser role (5%. Generally, larger stresses were observed with reduced bone support: implant stresses increased by as much as 59% for a type IIIb defect. With increased offset, the maximum tensile stress was 225 MPa. Conclusion Although increased stresses were observed within the stem with larger offset and increased anteversion, these findings indicate that restoration of offset, key to restoring joint function, is unlikely to result in excessive implant stresses under routine activities if appropriate fixation can be achieved.

  14. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on employees’ mental health: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerkens, Yvonne; Kuijer, Wietske; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Engels, Josephine

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this exploratory study was to obtain greater insight into the effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on the mental health of employees. Methods Using PsycINFO, PubMed, and CINAHL, we performed a systematic review in October 2015 of studies investigating the effects of MBSR and MBCT on various aspects of employees’ mental health. Studies with a pre-post design (i.e. without a control group) were excluded. Results 24 articles were identified, describing 23 studies: 22 on the effects of MBSR and 1 on the effects of MBSR in combination with some aspects of MBCT. Since no study focused exclusively on MBCT, its effects are not described in this systematic review. Of the 23 studies, 2 were of high methodological quality, 15 were of medium quality and 6 were of low quality. A meta-analysis was not performed due to the emergent and relatively uncharted nature of the topic of investigation, the exploratory character of this study, and the diversity of outcomes in the studies reviewed. Based on our analysis, the strongest outcomes were reduced levels of emotional exhaustion (a dimension of burnout), stress, psychological distress, depression, anxiety, and occupational stress. Improvements were found in terms of mindfulness, personal accomplishment (a dimension of burnout), (occupational) self-compassion, quality of sleep, and relaxation. Conclusion The results of this systematic review suggest that MBSR may help to improve psychological functioning in employees. PMID:29364935

  15. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for veterans exposed to military sexual trauma: rationale and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Autumn M; Cross, Wendi; Pigeon, Wilfred R

    2015-06-01

    Military sexual trauma (MST) represents a significant public health concern among military personnel and Veterans and is associated with considerable morbidity and suicide risk. It is estimated that 22% of Veteran women and 1% of Veteran men experienced sexual assault or repeated, threatening sexual harassment during their military service. Exposure to traumatic stress has detrimental effects on emotion regulation, which refers to a set of strategies used to modulate different components of emotion at different points on the trajectory of an emotional response. Mindfulness-based interventions offer approaches to health that focus on mind and body practices that can help regulate the experience and expression of difficult emotions. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an evidence-based therapy shown to be effective for depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. This article discusses the rationale for providing MBSR to Veterans who have been exposed to MST. The article also discusses ways to facilitate implementation of this practice in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs health care system. We address potential barriers to care and ways to facilitate implementation at the patient, provider, organization/local, and policy levels. MBSR is likely to be an important component of a comprehensive approach to care for Veterans exposed to MST. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. Skin reduction technique for correction of lateral deviation of the erect straight penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeer, Osama

    2014-07-01

    Lateral deviation of the erect straight penis (LDESP) refers to a penis that despite being straight in the erect state, points laterally, yet can be directed forward manually without the use of force. While LDESP should not impose a negative impact on sexual function, it may have a negative cosmetic impact. This work describes skin reduction technique (SRT) for correction of LDESP. Counseling was offered to males with LDESP after excluding other abnormalities. Surgery was performed in case of failed counseling. In the erect state, the degree and direction of LDESP were noted. Skin on the base of the penis on the contralateral side of LDESP was excised from the base of the penis and the edges approximated to correct LDESP. Further excision was repeated if needed. The incision was closed in two layers. Long-term efficacy of SRT was the main outcome measure. Out of 183 males with LDESP, 66.7% were not sexually active. Counseling relieved 91.8% of cases. Fifteen patients insisted on surgery, mostly from among the sexually active where the complaint was mutual from the patient and partner. SRT resulted in full correction of the angle of erection in 12 cases out of 15. Two had minimal recurrence, and one had major recurrence indicating re-SRT. LDESP is more common a complaint among those who have not experienced coital relationship, and is mostly relieved by counseling. However, sexually active males with this complaint are more difficult to relieve by counseling. A minority of patients may opt for surgical correction. SRT achieves a forward erection in such patients, is minimally invasive, and relatively safe, provided the angle of erection can be corrected manually without force. Shaeer O. Skin reduction technique for correction of lateral deviation of the erect straight penis. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Optimisation of 12 MeV electron beam simulation using variance reduction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayamani, J; Aziz, M Z Abdul; Termizi, N A S Mohd; Kamarulzaman, F N Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for electron beam radiotherapy consumes a long computation time. An algorithm called variance reduction technique (VRT) in MC was implemented to speed up this duration. This work focused on optimisation of VRT parameter which refers to electron range rejection and particle history. EGSnrc MC source code was used to simulate (BEAMnrc code) and validate (DOSXYZnrc code) the Siemens Primus linear accelerator model with the non-VRT parameter. The validated MC model simulation was repeated by applying VRT parameter (electron range rejection) that controlled by global electron cut-off energy 1,2 and 5 MeV using 20 × 10 7 particle history. 5 MeV range rejection generated the fastest MC simulation with 50% reduction in computation time compared to non-VRT simulation. Thus, 5 MeV electron range rejection utilized in particle history analysis ranged from 7.5 × 10 7 to 20 × 10 7 . In this study, 5 MeV electron cut-off with 10 × 10 7 particle history, the simulation was four times faster than non-VRT calculation with 1% deviation. Proper understanding and use of VRT can significantly reduce MC electron beam calculation duration at the same time preserving its accuracy. (paper)

  18. A wafer mapping technique for residual stress in surface micromachined films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiavone, G; Murray, J; Smith, S; Walton, A J; Desmulliez, M P Y; Mount, A R

    2016-01-01

    The design of MEMS devices employing movable structures is crucially dependant on the mechanical behaviour of the deposited materials. It is therefore important to be able to fully characterize the micromachined films and predict with confidence the mechanical properties of patterned structures. This paper presents a characterization technique that enables the residual stress in MEMS films to be mapped at the wafer level by using microstructures released by surface micromachining. These dedicated MEMS test structures and the associated measurement techniques are used to extract localized information on the strain and Young’s modulus of the film under investigation. The residual stress is then determined by numerically coupling this data with a finite element analysis of the structure. This paper illustrates the measurement routine and demonstrates it with a case study using electrochemically deposited alloys of nickel and iron, particularly prone to develop high levels of residual stress. The results show that the technique enables wafer mapping of film non-uniformities and identifies wafer-to-wafer differences. A comparison between the results obtained from the mapping technique and conventional wafer bow measurements highlights the benefits of using a procedure tailored to films that are non-uniform, patterned and surface-micromachined, as opposed to simple standard stress extraction methods. The presented technique reveals detailed information that is generally unexplored when using conventional stress extraction methods such as wafer bow measurements. (paper)

  19. A reliable ground bounce noise reduction technique for nanoscale CMOS circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Pattanaik, Manisha

    2015-11-01

    Power gating is the most effective method to reduce the standby leakage power by adding header/footer high-VTH sleep transistors between actual and virtual power/ground rails. When a power gating circuit transitions from sleep mode to active mode, a large instantaneous charge current flows through the sleep transistors. Ground bounce noise (GBN) is the high voltage fluctuation on real ground rail during sleep mode to active mode transitions of power gating circuits. GBN disturbs the logic states of internal nodes of circuits. A novel and reliable power gating structure is proposed in this article to reduce the problem of GBN. The proposed structure contains low-VTH transistors in place of high-VTH footer. The proposed power gating structure not only reduces the GBN but also improves other performance metrics. A large mitigation of leakage power in both modes eliminates the need of high-VTH transistors. A comprehensive and comparative evaluation of proposed technique is presented in this article for a chain of 5-CMOS inverters. The simulation results are compared to other well-known GBN reduction circuit techniques at 22 nm predictive technology model (PTM) bulk CMOS model using HSPICE tool. Robustness against process, voltage and temperature (PVT) variations is estimated through Monte-Carlo simulations.

  20. Validation of variance reduction techniques in Mediso (SPIRIT DH-V) SPECT system by Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Marrero, J. P.; Diaz Garcia, A.; Gomez Facenda, A.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation of nuclear medical imaging systems is a widely used method for reproducing their operation in a real clinical environment, There are several Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) systems in Cuba. For this reason it is clearly necessary to introduce a reliable and fast simulation platform in order to obtain consistent image data. This data will reproduce the original measurements conditions. In order to fulfill these requirements Monte Carlo platform GAMOS (Geant4 Medicine Oriented Architecture for Applications) have been used. Due to the very size and complex configuration of parallel hole collimators in real clinical SPECT systems, Monte Carlo simulation usually consumes excessively high time and computing resources. main goal of the present work is to optimize the efficiency of calculation by means of new GAMOS functionality. There were developed and validated two GAMOS variance reduction techniques to speed up calculations. These procedures focus and limit transport of gamma quanta inside the collimator. The obtained results were asses experimentally in Mediso (SPIRIT DH-V) SPECT system. Main quality control parameters, such as sensitivity and spatial resolution were determined. Differences of 4.6% sensitivity and 8.7% spatial resolution were reported against manufacturer values. Simulation time was decreased up to 650 times. Using these techniques it was possible to perform several studies in almost 8 hours each. (Author)

  1. Trimming a hazard logic tree with a new model-order-reduction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Keith; Field, Edward; Milner, Kevin R

    2017-01-01

    The size of the logic tree within the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast Version 3, Time-Dependent (UCERF3-TD) model can challenge risk analyses of large portfolios. An insurer or catastrophe risk modeler concerned with losses to a California portfolio might have to evaluate a portfolio 57,600 times to estimate risk in light of the hazard possibility space. Which branches of the logic tree matter most, and which can one ignore? We employed two model-order-reduction techniques to simplify the model. We sought a subset of parameters that must vary, and the specific fixed values for the remaining parameters, to produce approximately the same loss distribution as the original model. The techniques are (1) a tornado-diagram approach we employed previously for UCERF2, and (2) an apparently novel probabilistic sensitivity approach that seems better suited to functions of nominal random variables. The new approach produces a reduced-order model with only 60 of the original 57,600 leaves. One can use the results to reduce computational effort in loss analyses by orders of magnitude.

  2. SPIRITUAL EMOTIONAL FREEDOM TECHNIQUE DECREASING STRESS ON PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmaniarti Z,

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical cancer is known as one of deadly disease. The global incidence of cervical cancer is the second largest in the entire world, including in Indonesia. RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung, cervical cancer ranked fi rst (62.27% compared with other fi ve types of obstetry and gynecology malignancies (suspected malignant ovarian tumors 16.12%, ovarian cancer 11.76%, vulva cancer 8.65% and endometrial cancer 1.19% (Destiana, 2012. Chemotherapy as one of cancer treatment causes various side effects include hair loss, nails blackened, nausea and vomiting, that could makes patient stressful. SEFT ( Spiritual Emotional Freedom Technique is useful to overcome negative emotions through a combination technique that uses psychological energy, spiritual strength, and praying. SEFT is an effective intervention in manage stress, there are some techniques that practiced simply such as praying, NLP (Neuro Linguistic Programming, hypnotherapy, visualisation, meditation, relaxation, imagery and desensitisasi (Zainuddin, 2008. The purpose of this study was to explain reducing stress on patiens with cervical cancer through Spiritual Emotional Freedom Technique (SEFT at RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung. Improvements on patient’s stress will lead to a better result on cervical cancer therapy. Methods: This study was used quasy experiment pre-post test randomize control group design. Patient with cervical cancer at stadium I to III that taking chemotherapy was selected by using purposive sampling and divided into two groups. Each group contains 34 patients. Intervention group was given SEFT in three round. Each round took 30 minutes. Before and after intervention patients was given Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. Result: The result of this research showed that patient’s stress getting lower signifi cantly after intervention. Discussion: SEFT could reduced stress on patients with cervical cancer that

  3. The Effect of Composite Thickness on the Stress Distribution Pattern of Restored Premolar Teeth with Cusp Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahandeh, Narges; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Ziaee, Nargess; Mahdian, Mina; Tootiaee, Bahman; Ghasemi, Amir

    2017-07-01

    Different thicknesses of restorative material can alter the stress distribution pattern in remaining tooth structure. The assumption is that a thicker composite restoration will induce a higher fracture resistance. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effect of composite thickness on stress distribution in a restored premolar with cusp reduction. A 3D solid model of a maxillary second premolar was prepared and meshed. MOD cavities were designed with different cusp reduction thicknesses (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.5 mm). Cavities were restored with Valux Plus composite. They were loaded with 200 N force on the occlusal surface in the direction of the long axis. Von Mises stresses were evaluated with Abaqus software. Stress increased from occlusal to gingival and was maximum in the cervical region. The stressed area in the palatal cusp was more than that of the buccal cusp. Increasing the thickness of composite altered the shear stress to compressive stress in the occlusal area of the teeth. The model with 2.5 mm cusp reduction exhibited the most even stress distribution. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  4. Objective techniques for psychological assessment, phase 2. [techniques for measuring human performance during space flight stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortz, E. C.; Saur, A. J.; Nowlis, D. P.; Kendall, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of an initial experiment in a research program designed to develop objective techniques for psychological assessment of individuals and groups participating in long-duration space flights. Specifically examined is the rationale for utilizing measures of attention as an objective assessment technique. Subjects participating in the experiment performed various tasks (eg, playing matrix games which appeared on a display screen along with auditory stimuli). The psychophysiological reactions of the subjects were measured and are given. Previous research of various performance and psychophysiological methods of measuring attention is also discussed. The experiment design (independent and dependent variables) and apparatus (computers and display devices) are described and shown. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  5. Test plan for suitability assessment of five overcoring stress measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, E.C.; Rundle, T.A.; McCabe, W.M.; Kim, K.

    1982-08-01

    Tests are to be conducted at the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF) to assess the suitability of five overcoring techniques for in situ stress determination in a jointed basalt. The overcoring methods to be investigated use the following instrumentation to measure strain relief by overcoring a pilot borehole: USBM borehole deformation gage, CSIRO hollow inclusion stress cell, cast epoxy inclusion, the Lulea triaxial strain cell and the ''doorstopper'' biaxial strain cell. The tests are to provide data regarding the state of stress below the NSTF. This information is to be used in the evaluation of each method of overcoring. During the course of field testing, an attempt is to be made to adapt conventional overcoring techniques and analytical methods to the basalt medium. If overcoring stress determination in basalt is shown suitable, then additional studies will be identified to further adapt a technique for use at depth. In addition to the five overcoring techniques to be tested at the NSTF, stress measurements by Hydrofracturing are to be conducted to provide data for direct comparison with overcoring results. 16 refs., 18 figs

  6. Slow strain rate stress corrosion cracking under multiaxial deformation conditions: technique and application to admiralty brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, W.K.; Heldt, L.A.; Koss, D.

    1984-01-01

    A set of straightforward experimental techniques are described for the examination of slow strain rate stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of sheet deforming under nearly all multiaxial deformation conditions which result in sheet thinning. Based on local fracture strain as a failure criterion, the results contrast stress corrosion susceptibility in uniaxial tension with those in both plane strain and balanced biaxial tension. These results indicate that the loss of ductility of the brass increases as the stress state changes from uniaxial toward balanced biaxial tension

  7. A comparative study of different techniques in the stress analysis of a nuclear component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickenson, P.W.; Floyd, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    The inner surface stresses around the corner between the cylindrical wall and end plate of a flat ended pressure vessel have been determined using finite element, boundary element and photoelastic techniques. The results demonstrate severe deficiencies under certain conditions in the performance of the quadrilateral axisymmetric finite element which is commonly used in this type of analysis. The boundary element method is shown to provide an alternative analysis route giving more accurate results. The hybrid formulation finite element is also found to give reasonable results for the analysis of stresses in regions of rapidly varying stress. (orig.)

  8. Measurement of in-situ stress in salt and rock using NQR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempp, E.; Hirschfeld, T.; Klainer, S.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of how stress and strain affect the quantities which can be measured in an NQR experiment shows that, for stresses of the magnitude to be expected at depths up to about 10,000 feet, quadrupole coupling constants will fall in the range of 1 to 10 kHz for both the sodium and chloride ions in NaCl. The most promising system involves pulsed nuclear double resonance detection; and alterative is to observe the quadrupolar splitting of the NMR signal. Choices to be made in the measurement and mapping techniques are discussed. The well-known perturbation of the homogenous stress field in the neighborhood of a borehole is shown to be advantageous from the point of view of obtaining directional information on the stress. Construction and operation of a borehole stress sensor are considered. The NQR technique seems feasible for measuring the magnitude and direction of underground stress with a resolution of about 25 psi, or 2.5% at 1000 psi. Downhole instrumentation suitable for in-situ determinations of stress appears within the state of the art. Additional tasks required on the project are identified

  9. Novel techniques in stress echocardiography: a focus on the advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvakidou, Anastasia; Gurunathan, Sothinathan; Senior, Roxy

    2016-01-01

    Stress echocardiography (SE) is an established tool not only for the assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD), but also for the evaluation of valvular disease and cardiomyopathy. New techniques, namely contrast echocardiography for function and perfusion including assessment of coronary flow reserve, strain imaging, 3-dimensional echocardiography, Doppler-derived coronary flow reserve and multimodality echocardiography, have been incorporated into stress protocols for improving assessment of cardiac disease. In this review, the advantages and disadvantages of these novel SE techniques are examined in terms of feasibility, accuracy, reproducibility and applications.

  10. Reliable cost effective technique for in situ ground stress measurements in deep gold mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stacey, TR

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available on these requirements, an in situ stress measurement technique which will be practically applicable in the deep gold mines, has been developed conceptually. Referring to the figure on the following page, this method involves: • a borehole-based system, using... level mines have not been developed. 2 This is some of the background to the present SIMRAC research project, the title ofwhich is “Reliable cost effective technique for in-situ ground stress measurements in deep gold mines”. A copy of the research...

  11. he effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction in depression and blood sugar reduction diabetic patients with BIS type of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mohammadi Shirmahaleh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction in depression reduction and blood sugar control in diabetic patients with Behavioral Inhibition type of personality. It was a quasi-experimental study with pretest/posttest design employing one experimental and one control group. The participants were 225 patients in Tehran. First, 30 patients with diabetes Type 2 were selected on the basis of interview and then randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups (n=15 in each group. Then, Wilson’s personality questionnaire and beck’s depression inventory were used to collect data. After conducting the pretest and measuring blood sugar level, the experimental group received an intervention in eight sessions of 120 minutes while the control group received no intervention. Finally, the posttest was administered to both groups. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the results of the pretest and posttest, indicating that mindfulness-based training had a positive effect on the reduction of stress as well as reduction of blood sugar among patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the mindfulness-based educational method can be used in clinics and healthcare centers to reduce stress and blood sugar levels among patients suffering from diabetes Type 2.

  12. Effects of Lifestyle Modification on Telomerase Gene Expression in Hypertensive Patients: A Pilot Trial of Stress Reduction and Health Education Programs in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Duraimani

    Full Text Available African Americans suffer from disproportionately high rates of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Psychosocial stress, lifestyle and telomere dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated effects of stress reduction and lifestyle modification on blood pressure, telomerase gene expression and lifestyle factors in African Americans.Forty-eight African American men and women with stage I hypertension who participated in a larger randomized controlled trial volunteered for this substudy. These subjects participated in either stress reduction with the Transcendental Meditation technique and a basic health education course (SR or an extensive health education program (EHE for 16 weeks. Primary outcomes were telomerase gene expression (hTERT and hTR and clinic blood pressure. Secondary outcomes included lifestyle-related factors. Data were analyzed for within-group and between-group changes.Both groups showed increases in the two measures of telomerase gene expression, hTR mRNA levels (SR: p< 0.001; EHE: p< 0.001 and hTERT mRNA levels (SR: p = 0.055; EHE: p< 0.002. However, no statistically significant between-group changes were observed. Both groups showed reductions in systolic BP. Adjusted changes were SR = -5.7 mm Hg, p< 0.01; EHE = -9.0 mm Hg, p < 0.001 with no statistically significant difference between group difference. There was a significant reduction in diastolic BP in the EHE group (-5.3 mm Hg, p< 0.001 but not in SR (-1.2 mm Hg, p = 0.42; the between-group difference was significant (p = 0.04. The EHE group showed a greater number of changes in lifestyle behaviors.In this pilot trial, both stress reduction (Transcendental Meditation technique plus health education and extensive health education groups demonstrated increased telomerase gene expression and reduced BP. The association between increased telomerase gene expression and reduced BP observed in this high

  13. Memantine prevents cardiomyocytes nuclear size reduction in the left ventricle of rats exposed to cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Meneghini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Memantine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist used to treat Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have suggested that receptor blockers act as neuroprotective agents; however, no study has specifically investigated the impact that these drugs have on the heart. We sought to evaluate the effects of memantine on nuclear size reduction in cardiac cells exposed to cold stress. METHOD: We used male EPM-Wistar rats (n=40 divided into 4 groups: 1 Matched control (CON; 2 Memantine-treated rats (MEM; 3 Rats undergoing induced hypothermia (IH and 4 Rats undergoing induced hypothermia that were also treated with memantine (IHM. Animals in the MEM and IHM groups were treated by oral gavage administration of 20 mg/kg/day memantine over an eight-day period. Animals in the IH and IHM groups were submitted to 4 hours of hypothermia in a controlled environment with a temperature of - 8ºC on the last day of the study. RESULTS: The MEM group had the largest cardiomyocyte nuclear size (151 ± 3.5 μm³ vs. CON: 142 ± 2.3 μm³; p<0.05, while the IH group had the smallest mean value of nuclear size. The nuclear size of the IHM group was preserved (125 ± 2.9 μm³ compared to the IH group (108 ± 1.7 μm³; p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Memantine prevented the nuclear size reduction of cardiomyocytes in rats exposed to cold stress.

  14. Use of structured personality survey techniques to indicate operator response to stressful situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Under given circumstances, a person will tend to operate in one of four dominant orientations: (1) to perform tasks; (2) to achieve consensus; (3) to achieve understanding, or (4) to maintain structure. Historically, personality survey techniques, such as the Myers-Briggs type indicator, have been used to determine these tendencies. While these techniques can accurately reflect a person's orientation under normal social situations, under different sets of conditions, the same person may exhibit other tendencies, displaying a similar or entirely different orientation. While most do not exhibit extreme tendencies or changes of orientation, the shift in personality from normal to stressful conditions can be rather dramatic, depending on the individual. Structured personality survey techniques have been used to indicate operator response to stressful situations. These techniques have been extended to indicate the balance between orientations that the control room team has through the various levels of cognizance

  15. Mindfulness based stress reduction for medical students: optimising student satisfaction and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aherne, Declan; Farrant, Katie; Hickey, Louise; Hickey, Emma; McGrath, Lisa; McGrath, Deirdre

    2016-08-18

    Medical practitioners and students are at increased risk of a number of personal and psychological problems. Stress and anxiety due to work-load and study requirements are common and self-care methods are important in maintaining well-being. The current study examines perceptions of and satisfaction ratings with a mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) programme for 1(st) year (compulsory) and 2(nd) year (optional) Graduate Entry Medical School students. A mixed method pre and post study of Year 1 (n = 140) and Year 2 (n = 88) medical students completing a 7 week MBSR course compared student satisfaction ratings. Thematic analysis of feedback from the students on their perception of the course was also carried out. Year 1 students (compulsory course) were less satisfied with content and learning outcomes than Year 2 students (optional course) (p levels of satisfaction and positive feedback when delivered on an optional basis. Catering for the individual needs of the participant and promoting a safe environment are core elements of a successful self-care programme.

  16. Reductive Stress in Inflammation-Associated Diseases and the Pro-Oxidant Effect of Antioxidant Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pérez-Torres

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Reductive stress (RS is the counterpart oxidative stress (OS, and can occur in response to conditions that shift the redox balance of important biological redox couples, such as the NAD+/NADH, NADP+/NADPH, and GSH/GSSG, to a more reducing state. Overexpression of antioxidant enzymatic systems leads to excess reducing equivalents that can deplete reactive oxidative species, driving the cells to RS. A feedback regulation is established in which chronic RS induces OS, which in turn, stimulates again RS. Excess reducing equivalents may regulate cellular signaling pathways, modify transcriptional activity, induce alterations in the formation of disulfide bonds in proteins, reduce mitochondrial function, decrease cellular metabolism, and thus, contribute to the development of some diseases in which NF-κB, a redox-sensitive transcription factor, participates. Here, we described the diseases in which an inflammatory condition is associated to RS, and where delayed folding, disordered transport, failed oxidation, and aggregation are found. Some of these diseases are aggregation protein cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, muscular dystrophy, pulmonary hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, and metabolic syndrome, among others. Moreover, chronic consumption of antioxidant supplements, such as vitamins and/or flavonoids, may have pro-oxidant effects that may alter the redox cellular equilibrium and contribute to RS, even diminishing life expectancy.

  17. Biomarkers of Resilience in Stress Reduction for Caregivers of Alzheimer's Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lap; Bloom, Patricia A; Vega, Joan G; Yemul, Shrishailam; Zhao, Wei; Ward, Libby; Savage, Evan; Rooney, Robert; Patel, Divyen H; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2016-06-01

    Caregiving for a dementia patient is associated with increased risk of psychological and physical health problems. We investigated whether a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) training course for caregivers that closely models the MBSR curriculum originally established by the Center of Mindfulness at the University of Massachusetts may improve the psychological resilience of non-professional caregivers of Alzheimer's disease patients. Twenty adult non-professional caregivers of dementia patients participated in an 8-week MBSR training course. Caregiver stress, depression, burden, grief, and gene expression profiles of blood mononuclear cells were assessed at baseline and following MBSR. MBSR training significantly improved the psychological resilience of some of the caregivers. We identified predictive biomarkers whose expression is associated with the likelihood of caregivers to benefit from MBSR, and biomarkers whose expression is associated with MBSR psychological benefits. Our biomarker studies provide insight into the mechanisms of health benefits of MBSR and a basis for developing a personalized medicine approach for applying MBSR for promoting psychological and cognitive resilience in caregivers of dementia patients.

  18. A virtual crack-closure technique for calculating stress intensity factors for cracked three dimensional bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Tan, P. W.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A three-dimensional virtual crack-closure technique is presented which calculates the strain energy release rates and the stress intensity factors using only nodal forces and displacements from a standard finite element analysis. The technique is an extension of the Rybicki-Kanninen (1977) method, and it assumes that any continuous function can be approximated by a finite number of straight line segments. Results obtained by the method for surface cracked plates with and without notches agree favorably with previous results.

  19. Architectural and compiler techniques for energy reduction in high-performance microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Nikolaos

    1999-11-01

    The microprocessor industry has started viewing power, along with area and performance, as a decisive design factor in today's microprocessors. The increasing cost of packaging and cooling systems poses stringent requirements on the maximum allowable power dissipation. Most of the research in recent years has focused on the circuit, gate, and register-transfer (RT) levels of the design. In this research, we focus on the software running on a microprocessor and we view the program as a power consumer. Our work concentrates on the role of the compiler in the construction of "power-efficient" code, and especially its interaction with the hardware so that unnecessary processor activity is saved. We propose techniques that use extra hardware features and compiler-driven code transformations that specifically target activity reduction in certain parts of the CPU which are known to be large power and energy consumers. Design for low power/energy at this level of abstraction entails larger energy gains than in the lower stages of the design hierarchy in which the design team has already made the most important design commitments. The role of the compiler in generating code which exploits the processor organization is also fundamental in energy minimization. Hence, we propose a hardware/software co-design paradigm, and we show what code transformations are necessary by the compiler so that "wasted" power in a modern microprocessor can be trimmed. More specifically, we propose a technique that uses an additional mini cache located between the instruction cache (I-Cache) and the CPU core; the mini cache buffers instructions that are nested within loops and are continuously fetched from the I-Cache. This mechanism can create very substantial energy savings, since the I-Cache unit is one of the main power consumers in most of today's high-performance microprocessors. Results are reported for the SPEC95 benchmarks in the R-4400 processor which implements the MIPS2 instruction

  20. Technical Note: On the efficiency of variance reduction techniques for Monte Carlo estimates of imaging noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Diksha; Sempau, Josep; Badano, Aldo

    2018-02-01

    Monte Carlo simulations require large number of histories to obtain reliable estimates of the quantity of interest and its associated statistical uncertainty. Numerous variance reduction techniques (VRTs) have been employed to increase computational efficiency by reducing the statistical uncertainty. We investigate the effect of two VRTs for optical transport methods on accuracy and computing time for the estimation of variance (noise) in x-ray imaging detectors. We describe two VRTs. In the first, we preferentially alter the direction of the optical photons to increase detection probability. In the second, we follow only a fraction of the total optical photons generated. In both techniques, the statistical weight of photons is altered to maintain the signal mean. We use fastdetect2, an open-source, freely available optical transport routine from the hybridmantis package. We simulate VRTs for a variety of detector models and energy sources. The imaging data from the VRT simulations are then compared to the analog case (no VRT) using pulse height spectra, Swank factor, and the variance of the Swank estimate. We analyze the effect of VRTs on the statistical uncertainty associated with Swank factors. VRTs increased the relative efficiency by as much as a factor of 9. We demonstrate that we can achieve the same variance of the Swank factor with less computing time. With this approach, the simulations can be stopped when the variance of the variance estimates reaches the desired level of uncertainty. We implemented analytic estimates of the variance of Swank factor and demonstrated the effect of VRTs on image quality calculations. Our findings indicate that the Swank factor is dominated by the x-ray interaction profile as compared to the additional uncertainty introduced in the optical transport by the use of VRTs. For simulation experiments that aim at reducing the uncertainty in the Swank factor estimate, any of the proposed VRT can be used for increasing the relative

  1. Gravity Reduction View: A Radiographic Technique for the Evaluation and Management of Weber B Fibula Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Ehrlichman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: While various radiographic parameters and application of manual/gravity stress have been proposed to elucidate instability for Weber B fibula fractures, the prognostic capability of these modalities remains unclear. Determination of anatomic positioning of the mortise is paramount. We propose a novel view, the Gravity Reduction View (GRV, which helps elucidate non-anatomic positioning and reducibility of the mortise.Methods: The patient is positioned lateral decubitus with the injured leg elevated on a holder with the fibula directed superiorly. The x-ray cassette is placed posterior to the heel, with the beam angled at 15˚ of internal rotation to obtain a mortise view. Our proposed treatment algorithm is based upon the measurement of the medial clear space (MCS on the GRV versus the static mortise view (and in comparison to the superior clear space (SCS and is based on reducibility of the MCS. A retrospective review of patients evaluated utilizing the GRV was performed.Results: 26 patients with Weber B fibula fractures were managed according to this treatment algorithm. Mean age was 50.57 years old (range: range:18-81, SD=19. 17 patients underwent operative treatment and 9 patients were initially treated nonoperatively. 2 patients demonstrated late displacement and were treated surgically. Using this algorithm, at a mean follow-up of 26 weeks, all patients had a final MCS that was less than the SCS (final mean MCS 2.86 mm vs. mean SCS of 3.32 indicating effectiveness of the treatment algorithm.Conclusion: The GRV is a novel radiographic view in which deltoid competency, reducibility and initial positioning of the mortise are assessed by comparing a static mortise view with the appearance of the mortise on the GRV. We have developed a treatment algorithm based on the GRV and have found it to be useful in guiding treatment and successful at achieving anatomic mortise alignment.

  2. Effects of Adiponectin Including Reduction of Androstenedione Secretion and Ovarian Oxidative Stress Parameters In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio V Comim

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is the most abundantly produced human adipokine with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and insulin-sensitizing properties. Evidence from in vitro studies has indicated that adiponectin has a potential role in reproduction because it reduces the production of androstenedione in bovine theca cells in vitro. However, this effect on androgen production has not yet been observed in vivo. The current study evaluated the effect of adiponectin on androstenedione secretion and oxidative stress parameters in a rodent model. Seven-week-old female Balb/c mice (n = 33, previously treated with equine gonadotropin chorionic, were assigned to one of four different treatments: Group 1, control (phosphate-buffered saline; Group 2, adiponectin 0.1 μg/mL; Group 3, adiponectin 1.0 μg/mL; Group 4, adiponectin 5.0 μg/mL. After 24 h, all animals were euthanized and androstenedione levels were measured in the serum while oxidative stress markers were quantified in whole ovary tissue. Female mice treated with adiponectin exhibited a significant reduction (about 60% in serum androstenedione levels in comparison to controls. Androstenedione levels decreased from 0.78 ± 0.4 ng/mL (mean ± SD in controls to 0.28 ± 0.06 ng/mL after adiponectin (5 μg/mL treatment (P = 0.01. This change in androgen secretion after 24 hours of treatment was associated with a significant reduction in the expression of CYP11A1 and STAR (but not CYP17A1. In addition, ovarian AOPP product levels, a direct product of protein oxidation, decreased significantly in adiponectin-treated mice (5 μg/mL; AOPP (mean ± SD decreased to 4.3 ± 2.1 μmol/L in comparison with that of the controls (11.5 ± 1.7 μmol/L; P = 0.0003. Our results demonstrated for the first time that acute treatment with adiponectin reduced the levels of a direct oxidative stress marker in the ovary as well as decreased androstenedione serum levels in vivo after 24 h.

  3. Using normalisation process theory to understand barriers and facilitators to implementing mindfulness-based stress reduction for people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Robert; Simpson, Sharon; Wood, Karen; Mercer, Stewart W; Mair, Frances S

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To study barriers and facilitators to implementation of mindfulness-based stress reduction for people with multiple sclerosis. Methods Qualitative interviews were used to explore barriers and facilitators to implementation of mindfulness-based stress reduction, including 33 people with multiple sclerosis, 6 multiple sclerosis clinicians and 2 course instructors. Normalisation process theory provided the underpinning conceptual framework. Data were analysed deductively using normalisation process theory constructs (coherence, cognitive participation, collective action and reflexive monitoring). Results Key barriers included mismatched stakeholder expectations, lack of knowledge about mindfulness-based stress reduction, high levels of comorbidity and disability and skepticism about embedding mindfulness-based stress reduction in routine multiple sclerosis care. Facilitators to implementation included introducing a pre-course orientation session; adaptations to mindfulness-based stress reduction to accommodate comorbidity and disability and participants suggested smaller, shorter classes, shortened practices, exclusion of mindful-walking and more time with peers. Post-mindfulness-based stress reduction booster sessions may be required, and objective and subjective reports of benefit would increase clinician confidence in mindfulness-based stress reduction. Discussion Multiple sclerosis patients and clinicians know little about mindfulness-based stress reduction. Mismatched expectations are a barrier to participation, as is rigid application of mindfulness-based stress reduction in the context of disability. Course adaptations in response to patient needs would facilitate uptake and utilisation. Rendering access to mindfulness-based stress reduction rapid and flexible could facilitate implementation. Embedded outcome assessment is desirable.

  4. MCNP Variance Reduction technique application for the Development Of the Citrusdal Irradiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makgae, R.

    2008-01-01

    A private company, Citrus Research International (CIR) is intending to construct an insect irradiation facility for the irradiation of insect for pest management in south western region of South Africa. The facility will employ a Co-60 cylindrical source in the chamber. An adequate thickness for the concrete shielding walls and the ability of the labyrinth leading to the irradiation chamber, to attenuate radiation to dose rates that are acceptably low, were determined. Two methods of MCNP variance reduction techniques were applied to accommodate the two pathways of deep penetration to evaluate the radiological impact outside the 150 cm concrete walls and steaming of gamma photons through the labyrinth. The point-kernel based MicroShield software was used in the deep penetration calculations for the walls around the source room to test its accuracy and the results obtained are in good agreement with about 15-20% difference. The dose rate mapping due to radiation Streaming along the labyrinth to the facility entrance is also to be validated with the Attila code, which is a deterministic code that solves the Discrete Ordinates approximation. This file provides a template for writing papers for the conference. (authors)

  5. MCNP Variance Reduction technique application for the Development Of the Citrusdal Irradiation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makgae, R. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), P.O. Box 9396, Centurion (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    A private company, Citrus Research International (CIR) is intending to construct an insect irradiation facility for the irradiation of insect for pest management in south western region of South Africa. The facility will employ a Co-60 cylindrical source in the chamber. An adequate thickness for the concrete shielding walls and the ability of the labyrinth leading to the irradiation chamber, to attenuate radiation to dose rates that are acceptably low, were determined. Two methods of MCNP variance reduction techniques were applied to accommodate the two pathways of deep penetration to evaluate the radiological impact outside the 150 cm concrete walls and steaming of gamma photons through the labyrinth. The point-kernel based MicroShield software was used in the deep penetration calculations for the walls around the source room to test its accuracy and the results obtained are in good agreement with about 15-20% difference. The dose rate mapping due to radiation Streaming along the labyrinth to the facility entrance is also to be validated with the Attila code, which is a deterministic code that solves the Discrete Ordinates approximation. This file provides a template for writing papers for the conference. (authors)

  6. Compression and Combining Based on Channel Shortening and Rank Reduction Technique for Cooperative Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2013-12-18

    This paper investigates and compares the performance of wireless sensor networks where sensors operate on the principles of cooperative communications. We consider a scenario where the source transmits signals to the destination with the help of L sensors. As the destination has the capacity of processing only U out of these L signals, the strongest U signals are selected while the remaining (L?U) signals are suppressed. A preprocessing block similar to channel-shortening is proposed in this contribution. However, this preprocessing block employs a rank-reduction technique instead of channel-shortening. By employing this preprocessing, we are able to decrease the computational complexity of the system without affecting the bit error rate (BER) performance. From our simulations, it can be shown that these schemes outperform the channel-shortening schemes in terms of computational complexity. In addition, the proposed schemes have a superior BER performance as compared to channel-shortening schemes when sensors employ fixed gain amplification. However, for sensors which employ variable gain amplification, a tradeoff exists in terms of BER performance between the channel-shortening and these schemes. These schemes outperform channel-shortening scheme for lower signal-to-noise ratio.

  7. Evaluation of efficacy of metal artefact reduction technique using contrast media in Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusob, Diana; Zukhi, Jihan; Aziz Tajuddin, Abd; Zainon, Rafidah

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of metal artefact reduction using contrasts media in Computed Tomography (CT) imaging. A water-based abdomen phantom of diameter 32 cm (adult body size) was fabricated using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) material. Three different contrast agents (iodine, barium and gadolinium) were filled in small PMMA tubes and placed inside a water-based PMMA adult abdomen phantom. The orthopedic metal screw was placed in each small PMMA tube separately. These two types of orthopedic metal screw (stainless steel and titanium alloy) were scanned separately. The orthopedic metal crews were scanned with single-energy CT at 120 kV and dual-energy CT at fast kV-switching between 80 kV and 140 kV. The scan modes were set automatically using the current modulation care4Dose setting and the scans were set at different pitch and slice thickness. The use of the contrast media technique on orthopedic metal screws were optimised by using pitch = 0.60 mm, and slice thickness = 5.0 mm. The use contrast media can reduce the metal streaking artefacts on CT image, enhance the CT images surrounding the implants, and it has potential use in improving diagnostic performance in patients with severe metallic artefacts. These results are valuable for imaging protocol optimisation in clinical applications.

  8. Radon reduction techniques for suspended timber floors and pressure field extension assessment of hardcore specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, T.J.; Stephen, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper comprises two case studies. The first describes a series of mitigation measures carried out in a small primary school fitted with a suspended timber floor. Radon levels had been successfully reduced but the floor subsequently collapsed due to an outbreak of dry-rot. The floor was replaced with a ground-bearing concrete slab fitted with a typical example of one of 200 or so sump-and-fan systems fitted by Cornwall County Council (CCC). Following consultation with the Building Research Establishment (BRE) a network of small bore pipes was fitted below the floor during construction to record variations in radon levels and pressures. The second case study describes the floor replacement at a second, similar school but with a permeable layer of material under the concrete slab and more pressure measurement points. The pressure measurements and their subsequent analysis are described and the performance of the two installations compared. Using BRE and CCC expertise, this technique is now being applied to a number of other replacement floors in order to assess pressure field extension in a variety of hardcore and blinding materials. It is hoped that by careful selection of hardcore and blinding specifications the increased pressure field extension obtained could result in a new-build properties requiring fewer underfloor suction points and/or a reduction in fan power consumption with a greater degree of confidence of success than at present. The selection and design of suction systems to date has been on a very pragmatic basis. (author)

  9. Technique for electronic measurement of semi-reduction layer using bipolar transistor of junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Luiz A.P.; Barros, Fabio R.; Santos, Marcus A.P.; Monte, David S.; Santos, Jose A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the World Health Organization (WHO) and also of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) suggest equipment for X-rays diagnosis are checked for conformance to their parameters, such as Layer Semi-Reduction (CSR). The importance of verification of diagnostic radiology in parameters is because of have records that forces patients undergoing radiation doses in some clinics, up to 300% the reference values suggested by international agencies which doses are considered unnecessary, and even harmful, either because of physical or variable greatness of being out of control nominal specification, or the fact of having to repeat the radiographs. In this context, the purpose of this study was an innovative methodology that is the use of bipolar transistor junction (TBJ) to measure the aluminum CSR in diagnostic X-ray equipment beams. Although the TBJ be a device invented in the last century, only in recent years have explored their potential as X-ray sensor applied to diagnosis. The study indicates that the tested device can operating the detection of X-rays is properly polarized with electrical signals that can detect interference of the interaction of X-ray photons with the PN junction formed by the base and emitter terminals. The result of the developed technique was compared to CSR measurements obtained with detection systems standards and it was found that the BJT provides values for aluminum CSR relative errors less than 5%

  10. Variance reduction techniques for 14 MeV neutron streaming problem in rectangular annular bent duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueki, Kotaro [Ship Research Inst., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Monte Carlo method is the powerful technique for solving wide range of radiation transport problems. Its features are that it can solve the Boltzmann`s transport equation almost without approximation, and that the complexity of the systems to be treated rarely becomes a problem. However, the Monte Carlo calculation is always accompanied by statistical errors called variance. In shielding calculation, standard deviation or fractional standard deviation (FSD) is used frequently. The expression of the FSD is shown. Radiation shielding problems are roughly divided into transmission through deep layer and streaming problem. In the streaming problem, the large difference in the weight depending on the history of particles makes the FSD of Monte Carlo calculation worse. The streaming experiment in the 14 MeV neutron rectangular annular bent duct, which is the typical streaming bench mark experiment carried out of the OKTAVIAN of Osaka University, was analyzed by MCNP 4B, and the reduction of variance or FSD was attempted. The experimental system is shown. The analysis model by MCNP 4B, the input data and the results of analysis are reported, and the comparison with the experimental results was examined. (K.I.)

  11. Application of variance reduction technique to nuclear transmutation system driven by accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In Japan, it is the basic policy to dispose the high level radioactive waste arising from spent nuclear fuel in stable deep strata after glass solidification. If the useful elements in the waste can be separated and utilized, resources are effectively used, and it can be expected to guarantee high economical efficiency and safety in the disposal in strata. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute proposed the hybrid type transmutation system, in which high intensity proton accelerator and subcritical fast core are combined, or the nuclear reactor which is optimized for the exclusive use for transmutation. The tungsten target, minor actinide nitride fuel transmutation system and the melted minor actinide chloride salt target fuel transmutation system are outlined. The conceptual figures of both systems are shown. As the method of analysis, Version 2.70 of Lahet Code System which was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory in USA was adopted. In case of carrying out the analysis of accelerator-driven subcritical core in the energy range below 20 MeV, variance reduction technique must be applied. (K.I.)

  12. Analysis and interpretation of dynamic FDG PET oncological studies using data reduction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Andres

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic positron emission tomography studies produce a large amount of image data, from which clinically useful parametric information can be extracted using tracer kinetic methods. Data reduction methods can facilitate the initial interpretation and visual analysis of these large image sequences and at the same time can preserve important information and allow for basic feature characterization. Methods We have applied principal component analysis to provide high-contrast parametric image sets of lower dimensions than the original data set separating structures based on their kinetic characteristics. Our method has the potential to constitute an alternative quantification method, independent of any kinetic model, and is particularly useful when the retrieval of the arterial input function is complicated. In independent component analysis images, structures that have different kinetic characteristics are assigned opposite values, and are readily discriminated. Furthermore, novel similarity mapping techniques are proposed, which can summarize in a single image the temporal properties of the entire image sequence according to a reference region. Results Using our new cubed sum coefficient similarity measure, we have shown that structures with similar time activity curves can be identified, thus facilitating the detection of lesions that are not easily discriminated using the conventional method employing standardized uptake values.

  13. Analytical and numerical techniques for predicting the interfacial stresses of wavy carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdchi, K.; Salehi, M.; Shokrieh, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    By introducing a new simplified 3D representative volume element for wavy carbon nanotubes, an analytical model is developed to study the stress transfer in single-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites. Based on the pull-out modeling technique, the effects of waviness, aspect ratio,

  14. Development of stress corrosion techniques for structural integrity evaluation and life extension of PWR facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Pedro A.L.D.L. Pinheiro; Vilela, Jeferson J.; Lorenzo, Roberto F. Di; Lopes, Jadir A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The stress corrosion is a mechanism of degradation present in the nuclear plants. To extend the life of the plants components, this corrosion type it should be known. An evaluation for the implantation of methodologies of stress corrosion study in CDTN/CNEN, shows that the technique of slow deformation can be used in the evaluation of integrity structural nuclear power stations. This technique consists of straining a sample slowly, usually, in strain rate between 10 -4 and 10- 8 s -1 and in conditions that simulate the reactivity of the metal in environment (pressure, temperature, chemical composition of the water and etc) similar to the found at the nuclear power power stations. This simulation allows evaluating susceptibility the stress corrosion of components mechanical and structure that operate in central nuclear. (author)

  15. Female stress urinary incontinence: standard techniques revisited and critical evaluation of innovative techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Riese, Cornelia; de Riese, Werner T. W.

    2003-06-01

    Objectives: The treatment of female urinary incontinence (UI) is a growing health care concern in our aging society. Publications of recent innovations and modifications are creating expectations. This brief review provides some insight and structure regarding indications and expected outcomes for the different approaches. Materials: Data extraction is part of a Medline data base search, which was performed for "female stress incontinence" from 1960 until 2000. Additional literature search was performed to cover 2001 and 2002. Outcome data were extracted. Results: (1) INJECTION OF BULKING AGENTS (collagen, synthetic agents): The indication for mucosal coaptation was more clearly defined and in the majority of articles limited to ISD. (2) OPEN COLPOSUSPENSION (Burch, MMK): Best long-term results of all operative procedures, to date considered the gold standard. (3) LAPAROSCOPIC COLPOSUSPENSION (different modifications): Long-term success rates appear dependent on operator skills. There are few long-term data. (4) NEEDLE SUSPENSION: (Stamey, Pareyra and modifications): Initial results were equal to Burch with less morbidity, but long-term success rates are worse. (5) SLING PROCEDURES (autologous, synthetic, allogenic graft materials, different modes of support and anchoring, free tapes): The suburethral sling has traditionally been considered a procedure for those in whom suspension had failed and for those with severe ISD. The most current trend shows its use as a primary procedure for SUI. Long-term data beyond 5 years are insufficient. (6) EXTERNAL OCCLUSIVE DEVICES (vaginal sponges and pessaries, urethral insert): Both vaginal and urethral insert devices can be effective in selected patients. (7) IMPLANTABLE ARTEFICIAL URETHRAL SPHINCTERS: Modifications and improvements of the devices resulted in improved clinical results regarding durability and efficacy. CONCLUSION: (1) The Burch colposuspension is still considered the gold standard in the treatment of female

  16. Application of a 2-D approximation technique for solving stress analyses problem in FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Khawaja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of computational techniques and methods like finite element method, complex engineering problems are no longer difficult to solve. These methods have helped engineers and designers to simulate and solve engineering problems in much more details than possible with experimental techniques. However, applying these techniques is not a simple task and require lots of acumen, understanding, and experience in obtaining a solution that is as close to an exact solution as possible with minimum computer resources. In this work using the finite element (FE method, stress analyzes of the low-pressure turbine of a small turbofan engine is carried out by employing two different techniques. Initially, a complete solid model of the turbine is prepared which is then finite element modelled with the eight-node brick element. Stresses are calculated using this model. Subsequently, the same turbine is modelled with four-node shell element for calculation of stresses. Material properties, applied loads (inertial, aerodynamic, and thermal, and constraints were same for both the cases. Authors have developed a “2-D approximation technique” to approximate a 3-D problem into a 2-D problem to study the saving invaluable computational time and resources. In this statistics technique, the 3-D domain of variable thickness is divided into many small areas of constant thickness. It is ensured that the value of the thickness for each sub-area is the correct representative thickness of that sub area, and it is within three sigma limit. The results revealed that technique developed is accurate, less time consuming and computational effort saving; the stresses obtained by 2-D technique are within five percent of 3-D results. The solution is obtained in CPU time which is six times less than the 3-D model. Similarly, the number of nodes and elements are more than ten times less than that of the 3-D model. ANSYS ® was used in this work.

  17. Effect of stress on NiO reduction in solid oxide fuel cells: A new application of energy-resolved neutron imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makowska, Malgorzata; Strobl, Markus; Lauridsen, Erik Mejdal

    2015-01-01

    Recently, two new phenomena linking stress field and reduction rates in anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been demonstrated, so-called accelerated creep during reduction and reduction rate enhancement and nucleation due to stress (Frandsen et al., 2014). These complex phenomena...

  18. Measurement of stress-strain behaviour of human hair fibres using optical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kwon, H J

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have presented stress-strain relationship of human hair, but most of them have been based on an engineering stress-strain curve, which is not a true representation of stress-strain behaviour. In this study, a more accurate 'true' stress-strain curve of human hair was determined by applying optical techniques to the images of the hair deformed under tension. This was achieved by applying digital image cross-correlation (DIC) to 10× magnified images of hair fibres taken under increasing tension to estimate the strain increments. True strain was calculated by summation of the strain increments according to the theoretical definition of 'true' strain. The variation in diameter with the increase in longitudinal elongation was also measured from the 40× magnified images to estimate the Poisson's ratio and true stress. By combining the true strain and the true stress, a true stress-strain curve could be determined, which demonstrated much higher stress values than the conventional engineering stress-strain curve at the same degree of deformation. Four regions were identified in the true stress-strain relationship and empirical constitutive equations were proposed for each region. Theoretical analysis on the necking condition using the constitutive equations provided the insight into the failure mechanism of human hair. This analysis indicated that local thinning caused by necking does not occur in the hair fibres, but, rather, relatively uniform deformation takes place until final failure (fracture) eventually occurs. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Ant colony method to control variance reduction techniques in the Monte Carlo simulation of clinical electron linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Pareja, S. [Servicio de Radiofisica Hospitalaria, Hospital Regional Universitario ' Carlos Haya' , Avda. Carlos Haya, s/n, E-29010 Malaga (Spain)], E-mail: garciapareja@gmail.com; Vilches, M. [Servicio de Fisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Hospital Regional Universitario ' Virgen de las Nieves' , Avda. de las Fuerzas Armadas, 2, E-18014 Granada (Spain); Lallena, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2007-09-21

    The ant colony method is used to control the application of variance reduction techniques to the simulation of clinical electron linear accelerators of use in cancer therapy. In particular, splitting and Russian roulette, two standard variance reduction methods, are considered. The approach can be applied to any accelerator in a straightforward way and permits, in addition, to investigate the 'hot' regions of the accelerator, an information which is basic to develop a source model for this therapy tool.

  20. Ant colony method to control variance reduction techniques in the Monte Carlo simulation of clinical electron linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Pareja, S.; Vilches, M.; Lallena, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The ant colony method is used to control the application of variance reduction techniques to the simulation of clinical electron linear accelerators of use in cancer therapy. In particular, splitting and Russian roulette, two standard variance reduction methods, are considered. The approach can be applied to any accelerator in a straightforward way and permits, in addition, to investigate the 'hot' regions of the accelerator, an information which is basic to develop a source model for this therapy tool

  1. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity moderates the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction and aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or aerobic exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise (AE) are effective in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity can be used to inform treatment recommendations. Both MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly levels of social anxiety symptoms. MBSR appears to be most effective for patients with lower pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. AE appears to be most effective for patients with higher pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Comparison of dimensionality reduction techniques for the fault diagnosis of mono block centrifugal pump using vibration signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Sakthivel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bearing fault, Impeller fault, seal fault and cavitation are the main causes of breakdown in a mono block centrifugal pump and hence, the detection and diagnosis of these mechanical faults in a mono block centrifugal pump is very crucial for its reliable operation. Based on a continuous acquisition of signals with a data acquisition system, it is possible to classify the faults. This is achieved by the extraction of features from the measured data and employing data mining approaches to explore the structural information hidden in the signals acquired. In the present study, statistical features derived from the vibration data are used as the features. In order to increase the robustness of the classifier and to reduce the data processing load, dimensionality reduction is necessary. In this paper dimensionality reduction is performed using traditional dimensionality reduction techniques and nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques. The effectiveness of each dimensionality reduction technique is also verified using visual analysis. The reduced feature set is then classified using a decision tree. The results obtained are compared with those generated by classifiers such as Naïve Bayes, Bayes Net and kNN. The effort is to bring out the better dimensionality reduction technique–classifier combination.

  3. Combining walking and relaxation for stress reduction-A randomized cross-over trial in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzer, Franziska; Nagele, Eva; Lerch, Nikolaus; Vajda, Christian; Fazekas, Christian

    2018-04-01

    Both physical activity and relaxation have stress-relieving potential. This study investigates their combined impact on the relaxation response while considering participants' initial stress level. In a randomized cross-over trial, 81 healthy adults completed 4 types of short-term interventions for stress reduction, each lasting for 1 hr: (1) physical activity (walking) combined with resting, (2) walking combined with balneotherapy, (3) combined resting and balneotherapy, and (4) resting only. Saliva cortisol, blood pressure, state of mood, and relaxation were measured preintervention and postintervention. Stress levels were determined by validated questionnaires. All interventions were associated with relaxation responses in the variables saliva cortisol, blood pressure, state of mood, and subjective relaxation. No significant differences were found regarding the reduction of salivary cortisol (F = 1.30; p = .281). The systolic blood pressure was reduced best when walking was combined with balneotherapy or resting (F = 7.34; p stress levels (n = 25) felt more alert after interventions including balneotherapy, whereas they reported an increase of tiredness when walking was combined with resting (F = 3.20; p = .044). Results suggest that combining physical activity and relaxation (resting or balneotherapy) is an advantageous short-term strategy for stress reduction as systolic blood pressure is reduced best while similar levels of relaxation can be obtained. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Accelerated Testing Methodology in Constant Stress-Rate Testing for Advanced Structural Ceramics: A Preloading Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Huebert, Dean; Bartlett, Allen; Choi, Han-Ho

    2001-01-01

    Preloading technique was used as a means of an accelerated testing methodology in constant stress-rate (dynamic fatigue) testing for two different brittle materials. The theory developed previously for fatigue strength as a function of preload was further verified through extensive constant stress-rate testing for glass-ceramic and CRT glass in room temperature distilled water. The preloading technique was also used in this study to identify the prevailing failure mechanisms at elevated temperatures, particularly at lower test rates in which a series of mechanisms would be associated simultaneously with material failure, resulting in significant strength increase or decrease. Two different advanced ceramics including SiC whisker-reinforced composite silicon nitride and 96 wt% alumina were used at elevated temperatures. It was found that the preloading technique can be used as an additional tool to pinpoint the dominant failure mechanism that is associated with such a phenomenon of considerable strength increase or decrease.

  5. Differential Impact of Stress Reduction Programs upon Ambulatory Blood Pressure among African American Adolescents: Influences of Endothelin-1 Gene and Chronic Stress Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew J. Gregoski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-activated gene × environment interactions may contribute to individual variability in blood pressure reductions from behavioral interventions. We investigated effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1 LYS198ASN SNP and discriminatory stress exposure upon impact of 12-week behavioral interventions upon ambulatory BP (ABP among 162 prehypertensive African American adolescents. Following genotyping, completion of questionnaire battery, and 24-hour ABP monitoring, participants were randomized to health education control (HEC, life skills training (LST, or breathing awareness meditation (BAM. Postintervention ABP was obtained. Significant three-way interactions on ABP changes indicated that among ET-1 SNP carriers, the only group to show reductions was BAM from low chronic stress environments. Among ET-1 SNP noncarriers, under low chronic stress exposure, all approaches worked, especially BAM. Among high stress exposure noncarriers, only BAM resulted in reductions. If these preliminary findings are replicated via ancillary analyses of archival databases and then via efficacy trials, selection of behavioral prescriptions for prehypertensives will be edging closer to being guided by individual's underlying genetic and environmental factors incorporating the healthcare model of personalized preventive medicine.

  6. Comparative analysis of nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques for breast MRI segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhbardeh, Alireza; Jacobs, Michael A. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States) and Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Visualization of anatomical structures using radiological imaging methods is an important tool in medicine to differentiate normal from pathological tissue and can generate large amounts of data for a radiologist to read. Integrating these large data sets is difficult and time-consuming. A new approach uses both supervised and unsupervised advanced machine learning techniques to visualize and segment radiological data. This study describes the application of a novel hybrid scheme, based on combining wavelet transform and nonlinear dimensionality reduction (NLDR) methods, to breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using three well-established NLDR techniques, namely, ISOMAP, local linear embedding (LLE), and diffusion maps (DfM), to perform a comparative performance analysis. Methods: Twenty-five breast lesion subjects were scanned using a 3T scanner. MRI sequences used were T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging. The hybrid scheme consisted of two steps: preprocessing and postprocessing of the data. The preprocessing step was applied for B{sub 1} inhomogeneity correction, image registration, and wavelet-based image compression to match and denoise the data. In the postprocessing step, MRI parameters were considered data dimensions and the NLDR-based hybrid approach was applied to integrate the MRI parameters into a single image, termed the embedded image. This was achieved by mapping all pixel intensities from the higher dimension to a lower dimensional (embedded) space. For validation, the authors compared the hybrid NLDR with linear methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) using synthetic data. For the clinical application, the authors used breast MRI data, comparison was performed using the postcontrast DCE MRI image and evaluating the congruence of the segmented lesions. Results: The NLDR-based hybrid approach was able to define and segment

  7. Innovative Technique for Noise Reduction in Spacecraft Doppler Tracking for Planetary Interior Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notaro, V.; Armstrong, J. W.; Asmar, S.; Di Ruscio, A.; Iess, L.; Mariani, M., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Precise measurements of spacecraft range rate, enabled by two-way microwave links, are used in radio science experiments for planetary geodesy including the determination of planetary gravitational fields for the purpose of modeling the interior structure. The final accuracies in the estimated gravity harmonic coefficients depend almost linearly on the Doppler noise in the link. We ran simulations to evaluate the accuracy improvement attainable in the estimation of the gravity harmonic coefficients of Venus (with a representative orbiter) and Mercury (with the BepiColombo spacecraft), using our proposed innovative noise-cancellation technique. We showed how the use of an additional, smaller and stiffer, receiving-only antenna could reduce the leading noise sources in a Ka-band two-way link such as tropospheric and antenna mechanical noises. This is achieved through a suitable linear combination (LC) of Doppler observables collected at the two antennas at different times. In our simulations, we considered a two-way link either from NASA's DSS 25 antenna in California or from ESA's DSA-3 antenna in Malargüe (Argentina). Moreover, we selected the 12-m Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) in Chile as the three-way antenna and developed its tropospheric noise model using available atmospheric data and mechanical stability specifications. For an 8-hour Venus orbiter tracking pass in Chajnantor's winter/night conditions, the accuracy of the simulated LC Doppler observable at 10-s integration time is 6 mm/s, to be compared to 23 mm/s for the two-way link. For BepiColombo, we obtained 16.5 mm/s and 35 mm/s, respectively for the LC and two-way links. The benefits are even larger at longer time scales. Numerical simulations indicate that such noise reduction would provide significant improvements in the determination of Venus's and Mercury's gravity field coefficients. If implemented, this noise-reducing technique will be valuable for planetary geodesy missions, where the

  8. Comparative analysis of nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques for breast MRI segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhbardeh, Alireza; Jacobs, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Visualization of anatomical structures using radiological imaging methods is an important tool in medicine to differentiate normal from pathological tissue and can generate large amounts of data for a radiologist to read. Integrating these large data sets is difficult and time-consuming. A new approach uses both supervised and unsupervised advanced machine learning techniques to visualize and segment radiological data. This study describes the application of a novel hybrid scheme, based on combining wavelet transform and nonlinear dimensionality reduction (NLDR) methods, to breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using three well-established NLDR techniques, namely, ISOMAP, local linear embedding (LLE), and diffusion maps (DfM), to perform a comparative performance analysis. Methods: Twenty-five breast lesion subjects were scanned using a 3T scanner. MRI sequences used were T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging. The hybrid scheme consisted of two steps: preprocessing and postprocessing of the data. The preprocessing step was applied for B 1 inhomogeneity correction, image registration, and wavelet-based image compression to match and denoise the data. In the postprocessing step, MRI parameters were considered data dimensions and the NLDR-based hybrid approach was applied to integrate the MRI parameters into a single image, termed the embedded image. This was achieved by mapping all pixel intensities from the higher dimension to a lower dimensional (embedded) space. For validation, the authors compared the hybrid NLDR with linear methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) using synthetic data. For the clinical application, the authors used breast MRI data, comparison was performed using the postcontrast DCE MRI image and evaluating the congruence of the segmented lesions. Results: The NLDR-based hybrid approach was able to define and segment both

  9. Second-Order Harmonic Reduction Technique for Photovoltaic Power Conditioning Systems Using a Proportional-Resonant Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Gwang Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a second-order harmonic reduction technique using a proportional-resonant (PR controller for a photovoltaic (PV power conditioning system (PCS. In a grid-connected single-phase system, inverters create a second-order harmonic at twice the fundamental frequency. A ripple component unsettles the operating points of the PV array and deteriorates the operation of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT technique. The second-order harmonic component in PV PCS is analyzed using an equivalent circuit of the DC/DC converter and the DC/AC inverter. A new feed-forward compensation technique using a PR controller for ripple reduction is proposed. The proposed algorithm is advantageous in that additional devices are not required and complex calculations are unnecessary. Therefore, this method is cost-effective and simple to implement. The proposed feed-forward compensation technique is verified by simulation and experimental results.

  10. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  11. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Chirag; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer–related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2–65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  12. Reduction in radiation dose with reconstruction technique in the brain perfusion CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. J.; Lee, H. K.; Song, H.; Ju, M. S.; Dong, K. R.; Chung, W. K.; Cho, M. S.; Cho, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    The principal objective of this study was to verify the utility of the reconstruction imaging technique in the brain perfusion computed tomography (PCT) scan by assessing reductions in the radiation dose and analyzing the generated images. The setting used for image acquisition had a detector coverage of 40 mm, a helical thickness of 0.625 mm, a helical shuttle mode scan type and a rotation time of 0.5 s as the image parameters used for the brain PCT scan. Additionally, a phantom experiment and an animal experiment were carried out. In the phantom and animal experiments, noise was measured in the scanning with the tube voltage fixed at 80 kVp (kilovolt peak) and the level of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) was changed from 0% to 100% at 10% intervals. The standard deviation of the CT coefficient was measured three times to calculate the mean value. In the phantom and animal experiments, the absorbed dose was measured 10 times under the same conditions as the ones for noise measurement before the mean value was calculated. In the animal experiment, pencil-type and CT-dedicated ionization chambers were inserted into the central portion of pig heads for measurement. In the phantom study, as the level of the ASIR changed from 0% to 100% under identical scanning conditions, the noise value and dose were proportionally reduced. In our animal experiment, the noise value was lowest when the ASIR level was 50%, unlike in the phantom study. The dose was reduced as in the phantom study.

  13. Using optical remote sensing techniques to track the development of ozone-induced stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meroni, Michele, E-mail: michele.meroni@unimib.i [Remote Sensing of Environmental Dynamics Laboratory, DISAT, University of Milan-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 1, 20126 Milan (Italy); Panigada, Cinzia; Rossini, Micol [Remote Sensing of Environmental Dynamics Laboratory, DISAT, University of Milan-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 1, 20126 Milan (Italy); Picchi, Valentina [CNR, Plant Virology Institute, Milan Unit, Milan (Italy); Department of Tree Science, Entomology and Plant Pathology ' G. Scaramuzzi' , University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Cogliati, Sergio; Colombo, Roberto [Remote Sensing of Environmental Dynamics Laboratory, DISAT, University of Milan-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 1, 20126 Milan (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    In this paper, a literature review about optical remote sensing (RS) of O{sub 3} stress is presented. Studies on O{sub 3}-induced effects on vegetation reflectance have been conducted since late '70s based on the analysis of optical RS data. Literature review reveals that traditional RS techniques were able to detect changes in leaf and canopy reflectance related to O{sub 3}-induced stress when visible symptoms already occurred. Only recently, advanced RS techniques using hyperspectral sensors, demonstrated the feasibility of detecting the stress in its early phase by monitoring excess energy dissipation pathways such as chlorophyll fluorescence and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Steady-state fluorescence (Fs), measured by exploiting the Fraunhofer line depth principle and NPQ related xanthophyll-cycle, estimated through the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) responded to O{sub 3} fumigation before visible symptoms occurred. This opens up new possibilities for the early detection of vegetation O{sub 3} stress by means of hyperspectral RS. - Possibilities for the early detection of vegetation O{sub 3} stress by means of optical remote sensing are discussed.

  14. A study for high accuracy measurement of residual stress by deep hole drilling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Houichi; Okano, Shigetaka; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2012-08-01

    The deep hole drilling technique (DHD) received much attention in recent years as a method for measuring through-thickness residual stresses. However, some accuracy problems occur when residual stress evaluation is performed by the DHD technique. One of the reasons is that the traditional DHD evaluation formula applies to the plane stress condition. The second is that the effects of the plastic deformation produced in the drilling process and the deformation produced in the trepanning process are ignored. In this study, a modified evaluation formula, which is applied to the plane strain condition, is proposed. In addition, a new procedure is proposed which can consider the effects of the deformation produced in the DHD process by investigating the effects in detail by finite element (FE) analysis. Then, the evaluation results obtained by the new procedure are compared with that obtained by traditional DHD procedure by FE analysis. As a result, the new procedure evaluates the residual stress fields better than the traditional DHD procedure when the measuring object is thick enough that the stress condition can be assumed as the plane strain condition as in the model used in this study.

  15. Using optical remote sensing techniques to track the development of ozone-induced stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meroni, Michele; Panigada, Cinzia; Rossini, Micol; Picchi, Valentina; Cogliati, Sergio; Colombo, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a literature review about optical remote sensing (RS) of O 3 stress is presented. Studies on O 3 -induced effects on vegetation reflectance have been conducted since late '70s based on the analysis of optical RS data. Literature review reveals that traditional RS techniques were able to detect changes in leaf and canopy reflectance related to O 3 -induced stress when visible symptoms already occurred. Only recently, advanced RS techniques using hyperspectral sensors, demonstrated the feasibility of detecting the stress in its early phase by monitoring excess energy dissipation pathways such as chlorophyll fluorescence and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Steady-state fluorescence (Fs), measured by exploiting the Fraunhofer line depth principle and NPQ related xanthophyll-cycle, estimated through the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) responded to O 3 fumigation before visible symptoms occurred. This opens up new possibilities for the early detection of vegetation O 3 stress by means of hyperspectral RS. - Possibilities for the early detection of vegetation O 3 stress by means of optical remote sensing are discussed.

  16. Challenges to Enrollment and Participation in Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Among Veterans: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michelle E; Kearney, David J; Simpson, Tracy; Felleman, Benjamin I; Bernardi, Nicole; Sayre, George

    2015-07-01

    Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is associated with reduced depressive symptoms, quality of life improvements, behavioral activation, and increased acceptance among veterans. This study was conducted to increase the reach and impact of a veterans' MBSR program by identifying barriers to enrollment and participation to inform modifications in program delivery. Verify or challenge suspected barriers, and identify previously unrecognized barriers, to enrollment and participation in MBSR among veterans. A retrospective qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews. VA Puget Sound Health Care System (Seattle, WA). 68 interviewed, and 48 coded and analyzed before reaching saturation. Content analysis of semistructured interviews. Of the participants who enrolled, most (78%) completed the program and described MBSR positively. Veterans identified insufficient or inaccurate information, scheduling issues, and an aversion to groups as barriers to enrollment. Participants who discontinued the program cited logistics (e.g., scheduling and medical issues), negative reactions to instructors or group members, difficulty understanding the MBSR practice purposes, and struggling to find time for the practices as barriers to completion. Other challenges (cohort dynamics, teacher impact on group structure and focus, instructor lack of military service, and physical and psychological challenges) did not impede participation; we interpreted these as growth-facilitating challenges. Common conditions among veterans (chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression) were not described as barriers to enrollment or completion. Women-only MBSR groups and tele-health MBSR groups could improve accessibility to MBSR for veterans by addressing barriers such as commute anxiety, time restrictions, and an aversion to mixed gender groups among women. Educating MBSR teachers about veteran culture and health challenges faced by veterans, adding psychoeducation materials that

  17. Effect of fin attachment on thermal stress reduction of exhaust manifold of an off road diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali; Akbar; Partoaa; Morteza; Abdolzadeh; Masoud; Rezaeizadeh

    2017-01-01

    The effect of fin attachment on the thermal stress reduction of exhaust manifold of an off road diesel engine(Komatsu HD325-6) was investigated.For doing this,coupled thermo-fluid-solid analysis of exhaust manifold of the off road diesel engine was carried out.The thermal analysis,including thermal flow,thermal stress,and the thermal deformation of the manifold was investigated.The flow inside the manifold was simulated and then its properties including velocity,pressure,and temperature were obtained.The flow properties were transferred to the solid model and then the thermal stresses and the thermal deformations of the manifold under different operating conditions were calculated.Finally,based on the predicted thermal stresses and thermal deformations of the manifold body shell,two fin types as well as body shell thickness increase were applied in the critical induced thermal stress area of the manifold to reduce the thermal stress and thermal deformation.The results of the above modifications show that the combined modifications,i.e.the thickness increase and the fin attachment,decrease the thermal stresses by up to 28% and the contribution of the fin attachment in this reduction is much higher compared to the shell thickness increase.

  18. Dose reduction in chest CT: Comparison of the adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D, adaptive iterative dose reduction, and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yoshitake, E-mail: yamada@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Jinzaki, Masahiro, E-mail: jinzaki@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Hosokawa, Takahiro, E-mail: hosokawa@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Tanami, Yutaka, E-mail: tanami@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Sugiura, Hiroaki, E-mail: hsugiura@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Abe, Takayuki, E-mail: tabe@z5.keio.jp [Center for Clinical Research, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Kuribayashi, Sachio, E-mail: skuribay@a5.keio.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR) and AIDR 3D in improving the image quality in low-dose chest CT (LDCT). Materials and methods: Fifty patients underwent standard-dose chest CT (SDCT) and LDCT simultaneously, performed under automatic exposure control with noise index of 19 and 38 (for a 2-mm slice thickness), respectively. The SDCT images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (SDCT-FBP images), and the LDCT images with FBP, AIDR and AIDR 3D (LDCT-FBP, LDCT-AIDR and LDCT-AIDR 3D images, respectively). On all the 200 lung and 200 mediastinal image series, objective image noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured in several regions, and two blinded radiologists independently assessed the subjective image quality. Wilcoxon's signed rank sum test with Bonferroni's correction was used for the statistical analyses. Results: The mean dose reduction in LDCT was 64.2% as compared with the dose in SDCT. LDCT-AIDR 3D images showed significantly reduced objective noise and significantly increased SNR in all regions as compared to the SDCT-FBP, LDCT-FBP and LDCT-AIDR images (all, P ≤ 0.003). In all assessments of the image quality, LDCT-AIDR 3D images were superior to LDCT-AIDR and LDCT-FBP images. The overall diagnostic acceptability of both the lung and mediastinal LDCT-AIDR 3D images was comparable to that of the lung and mediastinal SDCT-FBP images. Conclusions: AIDR 3D is superior to AIDR. Intra-individual comparisons between SDCT and LDCT suggest that AIDR 3D allows a 64.2% reduction of the radiation dose as compared to SDCT, by substantially reducing the objective image noise and increasing the SNR, while maintaining the overall diagnostic acceptability.

  19. Stress relaxation technique of high magnetic field superconducting magnet for the nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimoto, Masayuki; Tateishi, Hiroshi; Agatsuma, Ko; Arai, Kazuaki; Umeda, Masaichi

    1999-01-01

    Here were attempted not only to prove effectiveness of a stress self-supporting type wire material for magnet constituting technique, but also to develop a fiber reinforcing type superconducting wire material used by materials with excellent strain resistance to expand usable range of the stress self-supporting type with material. In 1997 fiscal year, superconductive features of the wire material produced by using composite processing method were evaluated, actual applicability for superconducting wire material was inspected, and investigation on manufacturing parameter of NbN thin films on trial production at present apparatus was conducted. (G.K.)

  20. Treatment of unilateral giant fibroadenoma by breast reduction skin incision: the inverted "T" technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achebe, J U; Njeze, G E; Okwesili, O R

    2014-01-01

    Giant fibroadenoma (GFA) has been defined as fibroadenoma greater than 5 cm in it's the widest diameter and/or weighing more than 500 g. A benign lesion, its size also raises the possibility of malignancy requiring differentiation from a malignant breast disease. When unilateral GFA presents with a severe breast asymmetry, due to its size, it is not correctable by simple enucleation alone. Postoperative asymmetry from volume and ptosis disparity results, which needs to be addressed at the primary surgery. The inverted "T" technique, which is effective in volume reduction and ptosis correction in breast hypertrophy, can be applied in the treatment of unilateral GFA. This is a retrospective review of all GFA treated by inverted "T" method. A retrospective review was carried out on all patients with GFA treated by inverted "T" skin pattern method over a period of 20 years (January 1988 to December 2007). The procedures were carried out at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and the National Orthopedic Hospital, Enugu. Information, which included patients' demographics, pre-operative assessment, operative findings and outcome of surgery were obtained from the case files of the patients. The degree of ptosis was recorded for each patient. Diagnosis of GFA was made after clinical evaluation and pre-operative tissue biopsy. Immediate results of treatment were based on the patients' satisfaction, visual assessment of symmetry of size of breasts, correction of ptosis and position of nipple areola complex (NAC). A total of 27 patients underwent inverted "T" technique for excision of GFA in their breasts. Their average age was 17.5 years (range 12-25 years) delay in presentation ranged from 2 months to 15 months. In 16 patients (59.2%), the left breast was involved in GFA whilst the tumor occurred on the right breast in 11 (40.7%). The tumor weighed on the average 1500 g (range 655-2200 g). Average diameter of the tumor was 15 cm (range 12-20 cm). All quadrants of the

  1. A qualitative study on mindfulness-based stress reduction for breast cancer patients: how women experience participating with fellow patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Melanie P. J.; Jansen, Ellen T. M.; Willemse, Heidi H. M. A.; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; Prins, Judith B.; Speckens, Anne E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Peer support groups for cancer patients show mixed findings regarding effectiveness on psychological wellbeing. When embedded in a psychosocial intervention, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), peer support might be of more benefit to participants. This study is a qualitative

  2. Prolonged non-metabolic heart rate variability reduction as a physiological marker of psychological stress in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, B.; Brosschot, J.F.; Tollenaar, M.S.; Lane, R.D.; Thayer, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prolonged cardiac activity that exceeds metabolic needs can be detrimental for somatic health. Psychological stress could result in such "additional cardiac activity." PURPOSE In this study, we examined whether prolonged additional reductions in heart rate variability (AddHRVr) can be

  3. Preconditioning with Azadirachta indica ameliorates cardiorenal dysfunction through reduction in oxidative stress and extracellular signal regulated protein kinase signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temidayo Olutayo Omóbòwálé

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Together, A. indica and vitamin C prevented IRI-induced cardiorenal dysfunction via reduction in oxidative stress, improvement in antioxidant defence system and increase in the ERK1/2 expressions. Therefore, A. indica can be a useful chemopreventive agent in the prevention and treatment of conditions associated with intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

  4. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for GPs: results of a controlled mixed methods pilot study in Dutch primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, H.; Waumans, R.C.; Smeijers, D.; Lucassen, P.L.; Donders, A.R.T.; Horst, H.E. van der; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Burnout is highly prevalent in GPs and can have a negative influence on their wellbeing, performance, and patient care. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may be an effective intervention to decrease burnout symptoms and increase wellbeing. AIM: To gain insight into the

  5. Modified African Ngoma Healing Ceremony for Stress Reduction: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinesett, Ava LaVonne; Whaley, Riitta Rutanen; Woods-Giscombe, Cheryl; Dennis, Paul; Johnson, Medina; Li, Yin; Mounzeo, Pline; Baegne, Mabiba; Wilson, Kenneth H

    2017-10-01

    Indigenous people's ceremonies using rhythm and dance have been used for countless generations throughout the world for healing, conflict resolution, social bonding, and spiritual experience. A previous study reported that a ceremony based on the Central African ngoma tradition was favorably received by a group of Americans. The present trial compared the effects of the modified ngoma ceremony (Ngoma) with those of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in a randomized pilot study. Twenty-one women were randomized to either Ngoma or MBSR. Both groups had sessions on a weekly basis for 8 weeks and completed questionnaires at baseline, week 8, and 1 month after the intervention. Participants completed questionnaires, which included self-report of depressive and anxiety symptoms, health status (e.g., quality of life and functioning), social bonding, and perception of the credibility of the two interventions. Both groups showed improvements in depression, anxiety, emotional well being, and social functioning as measured by respective scales. Social bonding also increased in both groups during the study and may be a mechanism for both interventions. Participants found both interventions credible. In this pilot study, Ngoma showed significant and durable beneficial effects comparable to MBSR. The effects of Ngoma and other indigenous rhythm-dance ceremonies on distress and health status in western culture should be investigated in larger clinical studies.

  6. Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress during the early postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Naoko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Kodama, Hideya

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress in women in the early postpartum period. On postpartum day 4, 55 healthy subjects received a brief explanation about HRV biofeedback using a portable device. Among them, 25 mothers who agreed to implement HRV biofeedback at home were grouped as the biofeedback group, and other 30 mothers were grouped as the control group. At 1 month postpartum, there was a significant decrease in total Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score (P biofeedback group; this change was brought about mainly by decreases in items related to anxiety or difficulty sleeping. There was also a significant increase in standard deviation of the normal heartbeat interval (P biofeedback group after adjusting for potential covariates. In conclusion, postpartum women who implemented HRV biofeedback after delivery were relatively free from anxiety and complained less of difficulties sleeping at 1 month postpartum. Although the positive effects of HRV biofeedback may be partly attributable to intervention effects, due to its clinical outcome, HRV biofeedback appears to be recommendable for many postpartum women as a feasible health-promoting measure after childbirth.

  7. An exploratory study of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction for emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levoy, Emily; Lazaridou, Asimina; Brewer, Judson; Fulwiler, Carl

    2017-02-01

    Emotional eating is an important predictor of weight loss and weight regain after weight loss. This two part study's primary aim was to explore changes in emotional eating in a general population of individuals taking the Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program, with a secondary aim to explore whether changes in mindfulness predicted changes in emotional eating. Self-reported survey data exploring these questions were collected before and after the intervention for two sequential studies (Study 1 and Study 2). While there were no control groups for either study, in both studies emotional eating scores following the MBSR were significantly lower than scores prior to taking the MBSR (p mindfulness were correlated with changes in emotional eating (r = 0.317, p = 0.004). These results suggest that MBSR may be an effective intervention for emotional eating, and that further research is warranted to examine effects on weight loss and maintenance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of the effects of Korean mindfulness-based stress reduction, walking, and patient education in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee Young; Lee, Haejung; Park, Jina

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Korean mindfulness-based stress reduction (K-MBSR), walking, and patient education regarding diabetes mellitus (DM) on stress response, glycemic control, and vascular inflammation in patients with diabetes mellitus. A cluster randomized trial including 56 adults with diabetes mellitus (K-MBSR group = 21, walking group = 18, patient education group = 17) was conducted between 13 July and 14 September 2012. The questionnaire included the Diabetes Distress Scale and Perceived Stress Response Inventory. Fasting blood samples were used to measure levels of cortisol, blood glucose, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). There were no statistically significant differences between the effects of K-MBSR, walking, and patient education on stress, glycemic control, or vascular inflammation. However, in the K-MBSR and walking groups, significant reductions in the levels of serum cortisol and PAI-1 were observed. A significant reduction in psychological responses to stress was observed in the walking and patient education groups. Longitudinal studies could provide better insight into the impact of K-MBSR, walking, and patient education on health outcomes in adults with diabetes mellitus. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Evolution of thermal stress and failure probability during reduction and re-oxidation of solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Jiang, Wenchun; Luo, Yun; Zhang, Yucai; Tu, Shan-Tung

    2017-12-01

    The reduction and re-oxidation of anode have significant effects on the integrity of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealed by the glass-ceramic (GC). The mechanical failure is mainly controlled by the stress distribution. Therefore, a three dimensional model of SOFC is established to investigate the stress evolution during the reduction and re-oxidation by finite element method (FEM) in this paper, and the failure probability is calculated using the Weibull method. The results demonstrate that the reduction of anode can decrease the thermal stresses and reduce the failure probability due to the volumetric contraction and porosity increasing. The re-oxidation can result in a remarkable increase of the thermal stresses, and the failure probabilities of anode, cathode, electrolyte and GC all increase to 1, which is mainly due to the large linear strain rather than the porosity decreasing. The cathode and electrolyte fail as soon as the linear strains are about 0.03% and 0.07%. Therefore, the re-oxidation should be controlled to ensure the integrity, and a lower re-oxidation temperature can decrease the stress and failure probability.

  10. PEAK-TO-AVERAGE POWER RATIO REDUCTION USING CODING AND HYBRID TECHNIQUES FOR OFDM SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Bahubali K. Shiragapur; Uday Wali

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the research work investigated is based on an error correction coding techniques are used to reduce the undesirable Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) quantity. The Golay Code (24, 12), Reed-Muller code (16, 11), Hamming code (7, 4) and Hybrid technique (Combination of Signal Scrambling and Signal Distortion) proposed by us are used as proposed coding techniques, the simulation results shows that performance of Hybrid technique, reduces PAPR significantly as compared to Conve...

  11. Phase Transition Mapping by Means of Neutron Imaging in SOFC Anode Supports During Reduction Under Applied Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makowska, Malgorzata; Strobl, M.; Lauridsen, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical and electrochemical performance of layers composed of Ni-YSZ cermet in solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells (SOC) depends on their microstructure and initial internal stresses. After sintering, the manufacturing conditions, i.e. temperature, atmosphere and loads, can influence...... the microstructure and in particular the internal stresses in the Ni-YSZ layer and thereby the cell performance. Spatially resolved observation of the phase transition during reduction can provide information on how parameters like temperature and external load influence the reaction progress. This information...... is crucial for optimization of the SOC performance. In this work the measurements with energy resolved neutron imaging of the phase transition during the NiOYSZ reduction performed at different temperatures with and without applied load, are presented. The results indicate a link between reduction rate...

  12. A pilot randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction for caregivers of family members with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirk Warren; Coogle, Constance L; Wegelin, Jacob

    2016-11-01

    The majority of care for those with Alzheimer's disease and other age-related dementias is provided in the home by family members. To date, there is no consistently effective intervention for reducing the significant stress burden of many family caregivers. The present pilot randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of an adapted, eight-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program, relative to a near structurally equivalent, standard social support (SS) control condition for reducing caregiver stress and enhancing the care giver-recipient relationship. Thirty-eight family caregivers were randomized to MBSR or SS, with measures of diurnal salivary cortisol, and perceived stress, mental health, experiential avoidance, caregiver burden, and relationship quality collected pre- and post-intervention and at three-month follow-up. MBSR participants reported significantly lower levels of perceived stress and mood disturbance at post-intervention relative to SS participants. At three-month follow-up, participants in both treatment conditions reported improvements on several psychosocial outcomes. At follow-up, there were no condition differences on these outcomes, nor did MBSR and SS participants differ in diurnal cortisol response change over the course of the study. Both MBSR and SS showed stress reduction effects, and MBSR showed no sustained neuroendocrine and psychosocial advantages over SS. The lack of treatment condition differences could be attributable to active ingredients in both interventions, and to population-specific and design factors.

  13. Residual Stress State in Single-Edge Notched Tension Specimen Caused by the Local Compression Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yifan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D finite element analyses (FEA are performed to simulate the local compression (LC technique on the clamped single-edge notched tension (SE(T specimens. The analysis includes three types of indenters, which are single pair of cylinder indenters (SPCI, double pairs of cylinder indenters (DPCI and single pair of ring indenters (SPRI. The distribution of the residual stress in the crack opening direction in the uncracked ligament of the specimen is evaluated. The outcome of this study can facilitate the use of LC technique on SE(T specimens.

  14. Reconstruction of the residual stresses in a hyperelastic body using ultrasound techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Joshi, Sunnie

    2013-09-01

    This paper focuses on a novel approach for characterizing the residual stress field in soft tissue using ultrasound interrogation. A nonlinear inverse spectral technique is developed that makes fundamental use of the finite strain nonlinear response of the material to a quasi-static loading. The soft tissue is modeled as a nonlinear, prestressed and residually stressed, isotropic, slightly compressible elastic body with a rectangular geometry. A boundary value problem is formulated for the residually stressed and prestressed soft tissue, the boundary of which is subjected to a quasi-static pressure, and then an idealized model for the ultrasound interrogation is constructed by superimposing small amplitude time harmonic infinitesimal vibrations on static finite deformation via an asymptotic construction. The model is studied, through a semi-inverse approach, for a specific class of deformations that leads to a system of second order differential equations with homogeneous boundary conditions of Sturm-Liouville type. By making use of the classical theory of inverse Sturm-Liouville problems, and root finding and optimization techniques, several inverse spectral algorithms are developed to approximate the residual stress distribution in the body, given the first few eigenfrequencies of several induced static pressures. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stress recovery techniques for natural element method in 2-D solid mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jin Rae [Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Hongik University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    This paper is concerned with the stress recovery for the natural element method in which the problem domain is discretized with Delaunay triangles and the structural behavior is approximated with Laplace interpolation functions. Basically, the global and local patch recovery techniques based on the L2-projection method are adopted. For the local patch recovery, the local element patches are defined by the supports of each Laplace interpolation function. For the comparison purpose, the local stress recovery is also performed using Lagrange-type basis functions that are used for 3- and 6-node triangular elements. The stresses that are recovered by the present global and local recovery techniques are compared each other and compared with the available analytic solution, in terms of their spatial distributions and the convergence rates. As well, the dependence of the recovered stress field on the type of test basis functions that are used forbnov-Galerkin (BG) and Petrov-Galerkin (PG) natural element methods is also investigated.

  16. Biomarkers’ Responses to Reductive Dechlorination Rates and Oxygen Stress in Bioaugmentation Culture KB-1TM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen L. W. Heavner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Using mRNA transcript levels for key functional enzymes as proxies for the organohalide respiration (OHR rate, is a promising approach for monitoring bioremediation populations in situ at chlorinated solvent-contaminated field sites. However, to date, no correlations have been empirically derived for chlorinated solvent respiring, Dehalococcoides mccartyi (DMC containing, bioaugmentation cultures. In the current study, genome-wide transcriptome and proteome data were first used to confirm the most highly expressed OHR-related enzymes in the bioaugmentation culture, KB-1TM, including several reductive dehalogenases (RDases and a Ni-Fe hydrogenase, Hup. Different KB-1™ DMC strains could be resolved at the RNA and protein level through differences in the sequence of a common RDase (DET1545-like homologs and differences in expression of their vinyl chloride-respiring RDases. The dominant strain expresses VcrA, whereas the minor strain utilizes BvcA. We then used quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR as a targeted approach for quantifying transcript copies in the KB-1TM consortium operated under a range of TCE respiration rates in continuously-fed, pseudo-steady-state reactors. These candidate biomarkers from KB-1TM demonstrated a variety of trends in terms of transcript abundance as a function of respiration rate over the range: 7.7 × 10−12 to 5.9 × 10−10 microelectron equivalents per cell per hour (μeeq/cell∙h. Power law trends were observed between the respiration rate and transcript abundance for the main DMC RDase (VcrA and the hydrogenase HupL (R2 = 0.83 and 0.88, respectively, but not transcripts for 16S rRNA or three other RDases examined: TceA, BvcA or the RDase DET1545 homologs in KB1TM. Overall, HupL transcripts appear to be the most robust activity biomarker across multiple DMC strains and in mixed communities including DMC co-cultures such as KB1TM. The addition of oxygen induced cell stress that caused respiration

  17. Biomarkers' Responses to Reductive Dechlorination Rates and Oxygen Stress in Bioaugmentation Culture KB-1TM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavner, Gretchen L W; Mansfeldt, Cresten B; Debs, Garrett E; Hellerstedt, Sage T; Rowe, Annette R; Richardson, Ruth E

    2018-02-08

    Using mRNA transcript levels for key functional enzymes as proxies for the organohalide respiration (OHR) rate, is a promising approach for monitoring bioremediation populations in situ at chlorinated solvent-contaminated field sites. However, to date, no correlations have been empirically derived for chlorinated solvent respiring, Dehalococcoides mccartyi (DMC) containing, bioaugmentation cultures. In the current study, genome-wide transcriptome and proteome data were first used to confirm the most highly expressed OHR-related enzymes in the bioaugmentation culture, KB-1 TM , including several reductive dehalogenases (RDases) and a Ni-Fe hydrogenase, Hup. Different KB-1™ DMC strains could be resolved at the RNA and protein level through differences in the sequence of a common RDase (DET1545-like homologs) and differences in expression of their vinyl chloride-respiring RDases. The dominant strain expresses VcrA, whereas the minor strain utilizes BvcA. We then used quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) as a targeted approach for quantifying transcript copies in the KB-1 TM consortium operated under a range of TCE respiration rates in continuously-fed, pseudo-steady-state reactors. These candidate biomarkers from KB-1 TM demonstrated a variety of trends in terms of transcript abundance as a function of respiration rate over the range: 7.7 × 10 -12 to 5.9 × 10 -10 microelectron equivalents per cell per hour (μeeq/cell∙h). Power law trends were observed between the respiration rate and transcript abundance for the main DMC RDase (VcrA) and the hydrogenase HupL (R² = 0.83 and 0.88, respectively), but not transcripts for 16S rRNA or three other RDases examined: TceA, BvcA or the RDase DET1545 homologs in KB1 TM . Overall, HupL transcripts appear to be the most robust activity biomarker across multiple DMC strains and in mixed communities including DMC co-cultures such as KB1 TM . The addition of oxygen induced cell stress that caused respiration rates

  18. Simplified calculation of thermal stresses - on the reduction of effort in the stress analysis of reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karow, K.

    1984-01-01

    The fatigue behaviour of reactor components is predominantly determined from the in-service thermal stresses. The calculation of such stresses for a number of temperature transients in the adjacent fluid may be expensive, particularly with complicated structures. Under certain conditions this expense can be reduced considerably with the aid of a rule, which permits interpolation of thermal stresses from known reference values instead of calculation. This paper presents the derivation and method of application of this interpolation rule. The derivation procedure is based on well-known proportionalities between thermal stress range Δsigma in the structure and temperature change ΔT and rate of change T of the fluid in the extreme cases of an ideal thermal shock and quasi-steady-state conditions, respectively. For the real transients in between the relationship Δsigma proportional (ΔT)sup(x) Tsup(1-x)αsup(y) is proposed, where x is the shock-degree and lies between 0 and 1, and, additionally, y designates the influence of the heat transfer coefficient α. This formula yields the interpolation rule. The rule permits interpolation of stress ranges for additional thermal transients from at least 3 reference stresses via x and y. The procedure is applicable to any metallic structure, reduces fatigue analysis effort considerably and yields excellent results. The paper is split up into 2 parts. In the following the derivation of the rule is presented. The second part describes its application and will be published shortly. (orig.)

  19. Photosynthesis and yield reductions from wheat stem sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae): interactions with wheat solidness, water stress, and phosphorus deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Kevin J; Weaver, David K; Peterson, Robert K D

    2010-04-01

    The impact of herbivory on plants is variable and influenced by several factors. The current study examined causes of variation in the impact of larval stem mining by the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), on spring wheat, Triticum aestivum L. We performed greenhouse experiments over 2 yr to (1) study whether biotic (hollow versus solid stemmed host wheat) and abiotic (water, phosphorus stress) factors interact with C. cinctus stem mining to influence degree of mined stem physiological (photosynthesis) and yield (grain weight) reductions; and (2) determine whether whole plant yield compensatory responses occur to offset stem-mining reductions. Flag leaf photosynthetic reduction was not detected 16-20 d after infestation, but were detected at 40-42 d and doubled from water or phosphorus stresses. Main stem grain weight decreased from 10 to 25% from stem mining, largely due to reductions in grain size, with greater reductions under low phosphorus and/or water levels. Phosphorus-deficient plants without water stress were most susceptible to C. cinctus, more than doubling the grain weight reduction due to larval feeding relative to other water and phosphorus treatments. Two solid stemmed varieties with stem mining had less grain weight loss than a hollow stemmed variety, so greater internal mechanical resistance may reduce larval stem mining and plant yield reductions. Our results emphasize the importance of sufficient water and macronutrients for plants grown in regions impacted by C. cinctus. Also, solid stemmed varieties not only reduce wheat lodging from C. cinctus, they may reduce harvested grain losses from infested stems.

  20. A dose of nature: Tree cover, stress reduction, and gender differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Jiang; Chun-Yen Chang; William C. Sullivan

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well established that exposure to nearby nature can help reduce stress in individuals, the shape of the dose-response curve is entirely unclear. To establish this dose-response curve, we recruited 160 individuals for a laboratory experiment. Participants engaged in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to induce psychological stress, and were then randomly...

  1. Stress Management Apps With Regard to Emotion-Focused Coping and Behavior Change Techniques: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, Corinna Anna; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Bleser, Gabriele

    2017-02-23

    Chronic stress has been shown to be associated with disease. This link is not only direct but also indirect through harmful health behavior such as smoking or changing eating habits. The recent mHealth trend offers a new and promising approach to support the adoption and maintenance of appropriate stress management techniques. However, only few studies have dealt with the inclusion of evidence-based content within stress management apps for mobile phones. The aim of this study was to evaluate stress management apps on the basis of a new taxonomy of effective emotion-focused stress management techniques and an established taxonomy of behavior change techniques. Two trained and independent raters evaluated 62 free apps found in Google Play with regard to 26 behavior change and 15 emotion-focused stress management techniques in October 2015. The apps included an average of 4.3 behavior change techniques (SD 4.2) and 2.8 emotion-focused stress management techniques (SD 2.6). The behavior change technique score and stress management technique score were highly correlated (r=.82, P=.01). The broad variation of different stress management strategies found in this sample of apps goes in line with those found in conventional stress management interventions and self-help literature. Moreover, this study provided a first step toward more detailed and standardized taxonomies, which can be used to investigate evidence-based content in stress management interventions and enable greater comparability between different intervention types. ©Corinna Anna Christmann, Alexandra Hoffmann, Gabriele Bleser. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 23.02.2017.

  2. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Hannah E; Vallejo, Zayda; Rasmussen, Jessica; Crowe, Katherine; Rosenfield, Elizabeth; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-03-01

    In this pilot study we sought to develop and test a modified form of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR-tics) for the treatment of Tourette Syndrome (TS) and Chronic Tic Disorder (CTD). Our specific aims were: 1) To determine the feasibility and acceptability of an 8-week trial of MBSR-tics in individuals 16 and older with TS or CTD and 2) To determine the efficacy of an 8-week trial of MBSR-tics in individuals 16 and older with TS or CTD. Eighteen individuals age 16-67 completed an uncontrolled open trial of MBSR-tics. The intervention consisted of 8 weekly 2-hour classes and one 4hour retreat in the fifth or sixth week of the program. Symptomatic assessments were performed at baseline, post-treatment, and one-month follow-up. MBSR-tics proved to be a feasible and acceptable intervention. It resulted in significant improvement in tic severity and tic-related impairment. 58.8% of subjects were deemed treatment responders. Therapeutic gains were maintained at 1-month follow-up. Improvements in tic severity were correlated with increases in self-reported levels of mindfulness. This small open pilot study provides preliminary support for the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of MBSR-tics for individuals 16 or older with TS or CTD. A larger randomized controlled trial with blind assessment is necessary to confirm these initial, promising findings. Trial Registration Partners Clinical Trials Registry Number 2011P000606 (clinicaltrials.partners.org). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Yield Stress Reduction of Radioactive Waste Slurries by Addition of Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MICHAEL, STONE

    2005-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the design/construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and melter feed processes. The use of a surface active agent, or surfactant, to increase the solids loading that can be fed to the melters would increase melt rate by reducing the heat load on the melter required to evaporate the water in the feed. The waste slurries are non-Newtonian fluids with rheological properties that were modeled using the Bingham Plastic mod el (this model is typically used by SRNL when studying the DWPF process1).The results illustrate that altering the surface chemistry of the particulates in the waste slurries can lead to a reduction in the yield stress. Dolapix CE64 is an effective surfactant over a wide range of pH values and was effective for all simulants tested. The effectiveness of the additive increased in DWPF simulants as the concentration of the additive was increased. No maxi main effectiveness was observed. Particle size measurements indicate that the additive acted as a flocculant in the DWPF samples and as a dispersant in the RPP samples

  4. High-grade spondylolisthesis: gradual reduction using Magerl's external fixator followed by circumferential fusion technique and long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampalis, Christos; Grevitt, Michael; Shafafy, Masood; Webb, John

    2012-05-01

    To report the results of a cohort of patients treated with this technique high lighting radiological and functional outcomes, discussing also benefits arising from a gradual reduction procedure compared with other techniques. We evaluated nine patients who have undergone high-grade listhesis reduction and circumferential fusion at our institution from 1988 to 2006. Average length of follow-up was 11 years (5-19). Functional outcomes and radiological measurements were recorded and reported. Slip magnitude was reduced by an average of 2.9 grades (Meyerding classification). Slip angle improved by an average of 66% (p = 0.0001), lumbosacral angle by 47% (p = 0.0002), sacral rotation by 51% (p = 0.0068) and sacral inclination by 47% (p = 0.0055). At the latest follow-up 88.9% had achieved solid fusion. Post-operative 10-point Visual Analogue Score (VAS) for back pain had improved by 70% (p Average postoperative Oswestry Disability Index for all patients was 8% (range 0-16%) and that for Low Back Outcome Scores was 56.6 (range 44-70). All components of Short Form 36 Health Survey were greater than 80%. Overall patients' expectations were met in 100%. This is an effective and safe technique which addresses the lumbosacral kyphosis and cosmetic deformity without the neurological complications which accompany other reduction and fusion techniques for high-grade spondylolisthesis.

  5. A Technique for Mitigating Thermal Stress and Extending Life Cycle of Power Electronic Converters Used for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canras Batunlu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, various models have been developed to assess and improve the reliability of power electronic conversion systems (PECs with a focus on those used for wind turbines. However, only few studies have dealt with mitigating the PECs thermo-mechanical effects on their reliability taking into account variations in wind characteristics. This work critically investigates this issue and attempts to offer a mitigating technique by, first, developing realistic full scale (FS and partial scale (PS induction generator models combined with two level back-to-back PECs. Subsequently, deriving a driving algorithm, which reduces PEC’s operating temperature by controlling its switching patterns. The developed switching procedure ensures minimum temperature fluctuations by adapting the variable DC link and system’s frequency of operation. It was found for both FS and PS topologies, that the generator side converters have higher mean junction temperatures where the grid side ones have more fluctuations on their thermal profile. The FS and PS cycling temperatures were reduced by 12 °C and 5 °C, respectively. Moreover, this led to a significant improvement in stress; approximately 27 MPa stress reduction for the FS induction generator PEC.

  6. A comparative study of dimensionality reduction techniques to enhance trace clustering performances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, M.S.; Yang, H.; Siadat, S.H.; Pechenizkiy, M.

    2013-01-01

    Process mining techniques have been used to analyze event logs from information systems in order to derive useful patterns. However, in the big data era, real-life event logs are huge, unstructured, and complex so that traditional process mining techniques have difficulties in the analysis of big

  7. Modification of the radiological technique of Parma for reduction of irradiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfel, G.; Ionesco-Farco, F.

    1982-04-01

    A modified radiological technique to demonstrate the temporo-mandibular joint is presented. An ordinary X-ray tube put on the skin is directed 10/sup 0/ dorso-ventrally and 10/sup 0/ caudo-cranially to the temporo-mandibular joint. The irradiation skin dose applied is ten times smaller than by using the conventional contact technique.

  8. Positive Effects of a Stress Reduction Program Based on Mindfulness Meditation in Brazilian Nursing Professionals: Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Teresa Maria; Kozasa, Elisa Harumi; Carmagnani, Isabel Sampaio; Tanaka, Luiza Hiromi; Lacerda, Shirley Silva; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation has been shown to effectively mitigate the negative effects of stress among nursing professionals, but in countries like Brazil, these practices are relatively unexplored. To evaluate the effects of a Stress Reduction Program (SRP) including mindfulness and loving kindness meditation among nursing professionals working in a Brazilian hospital setting. Pilot study with a mixed model using quantitative and qualitative methods was used to evaluate a group of participants. The quantitative data were analyzed at three different time points: pre-intervention, post-intervention, and follow-up. The qualitative data were analyzed at post-intervention. Hospital São Paulo (Brazil). Sample 13 nursing professionals, including nurses, technicians, and nursing assistants working in a hospital. Participants underwent mindfulness and loving kindness meditation during a period of six weeks. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment, and Work Stress Scale (WSS). Qualitative data were collected via a group interview following six weeks participation in the SRP. The quantitative analyses revealed a significant reduction (P stress, burnout, depression, and anxiety (trait). These variables showed no significant differences between post-intervention and follow-up scores. The WHOQOL-BREF revealed significant increase (P nursing activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of current techniques for reduction of indoor radon concentration in existing and new houses in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, O.; Arvela, H.

    2012-03-01

    Radon control technologies aim at the reduction of indoor radon concentrations in existing buildings and in new construction through remedial and preventive measures. In recent years, rising ecological awareness and rising energy costs have stimulated the development of low energy and passive houses to save energy. This report contains the analysis and assessment of current techniques and technologies used to achieve the reduction of indoor radon concentrations in existing and new houses with regard to the reduction efficiency and potential impact on energy consumption (qualitative analysis). A questionnaire was prepared and sent to all RADPAR partners in 14 different countries in order to gather national information about the current remediation and prevention techniques. Responses with variable amounts of information were obtained. Based on the questionnaire responses, the status of radon remediation and prevention in each country was assessed, in addition to the reduction efficiency and potential impact on energy consumption of the current remediation and prevention techniques. The number of dwellings with an elevated indoor radon concentration typically ranges from tens of thousands to a million. The percentage of these houses already remediated varies from zero to 15%. Preventive measures in new construction have been taken from a small number of houses to over half a million houses. The research data on the current situation, the number of houses with preventive measures and the efficiency of these measures is currently still quite inadequate. Assessment of the techniques and also the surveys aiming at exploring the impact of remedial and preventive measures is greatly needed in order to promote the work at the national level. The most efficient remediation method is the active sub-slab depressurization (SSD) and the radon well, for which the reduction in the radon concentration is typically 70 - 95%. Other methods, such as sealing entry routes and improving

  10. Reduction of Under-Determined Linear Systems by Sparce Block Matrix Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Damkilde, Lars

    1996-01-01

    numerical stability of the aforementioned reduction. Moreover the coefficient matrix for the equilibrium equations is typically very sparse. The objective is to deal efficiently with the full pivoting reduction of sparse rectangular matrices using a dynamic storage scheme based on the block matrix concept.......Under-determined linear equation systems occur in different engineering applications. In structural engineering they typically appear when applying the force method. As an example one could mention limit load analysis based on The Lower Bound Theorem. In this application there is a set of under......-determined equilibrium equation restrictions in an LP-problem. A significant reduction of computer time spent on solving the LP-problem is achieved if the equilib rium equations are reduced before going into the optimization procedure. Experience has shown that for some structures one must apply full pivoting to ensure...

  11. Passive Techniques for Fan Noise Reduction in New Turbofan Engines: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Gorj-Bandpy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the various environmental concerns, the aircraft noise item has been constantly growing in importance over the past years. Measures for its reduction at the source as well its mitigation around airports must take into account aspects of medicine and technical design as well as legal and land use planning aspects. Fan noise is one of the principal noise sources in turbofan aero-engines. In this paper a review of the main technologies employed for the reduction of fan noise turbofan engines is presented.

  12. Effects of Muscle-Specific Oxidative Stress on Cytochrome c Release and Oxidation-Reduction Potential Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yiling; Mitacek, Rachel M; Abraham, Anupam; Mafi, Gretchen G; VanOverbeke, Deborah L; DeSilva, Udaya; Ramanathan, Ranjith

    2017-09-06

    Mitochondria play a significant role in beef color. However, the role of oxidative stress in cytochrome c release and mitochondrial degradation is not clear. The objective was to determine the effects of display time on cytochrome c content and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of beef longissimus lumborum (LL) and psoas major (PM) muscles. PM discolored by day 3 compared with LL. On day 0, mitochondrial content and mitochondrial oxygen consumption were greater in PM than LL. However, mitochondrial content and oxygen consumption were lower (P stress can affect cytochrome c release and ORP changes.

  13. The effects of a group based stress treatment program (the Kalmia concept) targeting stress reduction and return to work. A randomized, wait-list controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Friebel, Lene; Ladegaard, Yun Katrine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a group based multidisciplinary stress treatment program on reductions in symptom levels and the return to work (RTW) rate. Methods General practitioners referred 199 patients with persistent work related stress symptoms...... to the project. The inclusion criteria included being employed and being on sick leave. Using a randomized wait- list control design, the participants were randomized into three groups: the intervention group (IG, 70 participants) was treated using the Stress Therapy Concept of Kalmia, which consists...... to the WLCG . Further, the prevalence of depression declined significantly in the IG and the TAUCG compared to the WLCG. Regarding the RTW rate, 66% of the participants in the IG had returned to full time work after three months. This rate was significantly greater than the percentage in the TAUCG (36...

  14. Stresses generated by two zygomatic implant placement techniques associated with conventional inclined anterior implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H.T. Almeida

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To make a comparative evaluation, by means of the finite element method, of the stress generated on supporting tissues and prosthetic system components, using zygomatic implants with the exteriorized and extramaxillary techniques, and different placement positions, associated either with inclined anterior implants, or those without inclination. Materials and methods: Eight (8 tridimensional models were created to represent the clinical situations being researched, using the dataset of scanned images of an edentulous model. The implants and prosthetic components were photographed on millimeter paper and inserted into Rhinoceros 3D modeling computer software. From the measurements made on the image, the virtual models were made. The application force was distributed on the occlusal surface of the working side of the left maxillary first molar, first and second premolars, and incisal regions of the central incisor, simulating the occlusal load during mastication, in a total of 150 N. Results: The extramaxillary technique presented considerable variation in increased tension on the prosthesis screws and bone tissue. In the exteriorized technique, the highest tension values occurred in the region of the ridge, and the lowest, on the zygomatic process; the absence of cantilever reduced the stress on bone tissue in almost all regions. Conclusion: The exteriorized technique was shown to be more favorable to the distribution of stresses on the micro-unit screws and bone tissue, with the model with zygomatic implant placed in the region of the first molar and inclined anterior implant presenting the best results. Keywords: Zygomatic implants, Atrophic maxilla, Finite element analysis, Cantilever, Inclined implant

  15. Continuous monitoring of back-wall stress corrosion cracking propagation by means of potential drop techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yasumoto; Atsumi, Takeo; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the applicability of the potential drop techniques to the continuous monitoring of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) propagation, SCC tests were performed in a sodium thiosulfate solution at room temperature using plate specimens with weldments. The SCC propagation was monitored using the techniques of direct current potential drop (DCPD), alternating current potential drop (ACPD) and modified induced current potential drop (MICPD) on the reverse side that on which the SCC existed and effectiveness of each technique for the continuous monitoring from the reverse side of SCC was compared from the viewpoints of sensitivity to the crack propagation and measurement stability. The MICPD and DCPD techniques permit continuous monitoring of the back-wall SCC propagation, which initiates from a fatigue pre-crack at a depth of about 4 mm, from which it propagates through more than 80% of the specimen thickness. The MICPD technique can decrease the effect of the current flowing in the direction of the crack length by focusing the induced current into the local area of measurement using induction coils, so that the sensitivity of the continuous monitoring of the back wall SCC propagation is higher than that of the DCPD and ACPD techniques. (author)

  16. [Study on reductive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse concomitant with anti-incontinence sling for treatment of occult stress urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Lu, Yongxian; Shen, Wenjie; Liu, Jingxia; Ge, Jing; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Ying; Niu, Ke; Zhang, Yinghui; Wang, Wenying; Qiu, Chengli

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcome of anti-incontinence sling in the treatment of occult stress urinary incontinence (OSUI) during reductive surgery for advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP). From Jun. 2003 to Dec. 2012, 78 patients with OSUI underwent reductive surgery for advanced POP such as high uterosacral ligament suspension, sacrospinous ligament suspension and sacral colpopexy in the First Affiliated Hospital, General Hospital of People's Liberation Army. Among them, 41 patients received reductive surgery alone was enrolled in non-concomitant anti-incontinence group and the other 37 patients who underwent same surgery with tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) or tension-free vaginal tape-obturator technique (TVT-O) was in anti-incontinence group. The patient's demography, objective and subjective outcomes, as well as complications and injures were compared between the two groups. The pelvic organ prolapse quantitation (POP-Q) was used to evaluate the objective outcomes of POP. Urinary distress inventory (UDI-6) and incontinence impact questionnaire short form (IIQ-7) were used to evaluate the subjective outcomes of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Compared with the non-concomitant anti-incontinence group, the objective outcomes of reductive surgery exhibited no significant differences (100%, 78/78), and only the operation time of anti-incontinence group slightly increased 16 minutes. The occurrence rate of postoperative SUI was 12% (5/41), 15% (6/41), 17% (7/41) respectively after the operation at 2-month, 6-month and 12-month follow up in the non-concomitant anti-incontinence group; and the occurrence rate of the anti-incontinence group was 3% (1/37), 3% (1/37), 3% (1/37); but none of patients in the two groups require further surgery for stress urinary incontinence. Mean score of UDI-6 and IIQ-7 in all the patients decreased significantly after operation at 2-month, 6-month and 12-month follow up (all P statistic difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). It

  17. Effect of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction on Quality of Life (SF-36) and Spirometry Parameters, in Chemically Pulmonary Injured Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefnasab, Zahra; Ghanei, Mostafa; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Alipour, Ahmad; Babamahmoodi, Farhang; Babamahmoodi, Abdolreza; Salehi, Maryam

    2013-09-01

    Studies have shown that Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) has positive effect on physical and psychological dimensions of chronic illnesses. In this study for the first time we examine the effect of this new technique on quality of life and pulmonary function in chemically pulmonary injured veterans who have chronic pulmonary problem, psychological problems and low quality of life. Forty male pulmonary injured veterans were randomly replaced in two groups with 20 participants (MBSR and control Wait List (WL)). Then MBSR group received 8-weekly sessions intervention. We evaluate quality of life (used SF-36 questionnaire) and Spirometry parameters two times; before and after intervention in two group. We used "mixed factorial analyses of variance" test for analyzing data in each dependent variables. Then if we have significant interactional effect, we used -paired- sample t-test" for comparing before and after intervention data of each group, and "Independent-Sample t-test" for comparing after intervention data of two groups. The MBSR compare to WL group improved SF-36 total score, (F (1, 38) =12.09, P=0.001), "Role limitations due to physical problems"(F(1,38)= 6.92, P=0.01), "Role limitations due to emotional problems"(F(1,38)= 7.75, P=0.008), "Social functioning"(F(1,38)= 9.89, P=0.003), "Mental health"(F(1,38)= 15.93, P=0), "Vitality"(F(1,38)= 40.03, P≤0.001), and "Pain"(F(1,38)= 27.60, P≤0.001). MBSR had no significant effect on "FEV1" (F (1, 38) = 0.03, P=0.85),"FVC" (F (1, 38) = 0.16, P=0.69) and "FEV1/FVC" (F (1, 38) = 2.21, P=0.14). MBSR can improve individual's quality of life but not lung function in chemically pulmonary injured veterans.

  18. Implementation of variance-reduction techniques for Monte Carlo nuclear logging calculations with neutron sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maucec, M

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations for nuclear logging applications are considered to be highly demanding transport problems. In this paper, the implementation of weight-window variance reduction schemes in a 'manual' fashion to improve the efficiency of calculations for a neutron logging tool is presented.

  19. PTR-MS as a technique for investigating stress induced emission of biogenic VOCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchamp, J.; Hansel, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Kleist, E.; Miebach, M.; Weller, U.; Wildt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used in conjunction with two GC-MS systems to investigate stress induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plants. Experiments were performed in the laboratory under well defined conditions and VOC emissions were induced by ozone exposure at variable concentrations and for different durations. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum cv. Bel W3) plants were used as the investigated species. This investigation demonstrated the ability of PTR-MS to provide excellent high time-resolution on-line measurements of the relevant species. The combination of the PTR-MS instrument with the two GC-MS systems (which enabled accurate compound identification) allowed for detailed investigation of the dynamics of the plants' responses to ozone stress. VOCs measured included methanol, C6- alcohols and aldehydes, methyl salicylate and sesquiterpenes. Results indicate that the temporal stress response of plants depend on the amount of stress encountered by the plant. Measurement technique and experimental results will be presented. (author)

  20. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis of humeral shaft fractures: a technique to aid fracture reduction and minimize complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Jin; Sohn, Hoon-Sang; Do, Nam-Hoon

    2012-10-01

    To introduce a modified operative technique for minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) for acute displaced humeral shaft fractures and to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes. : Prospective clinical series study. University hospital. Twenty-one patients with acute displaced humeral shaft fractures were treated by MIPO with a modified fracture reduction technique. A narrow 4.5/5.0-mm locking compression plate was applied to the anterior aspect of the humerus. Fracture reduction and manipulation were performed using a plate and drill bits. The operating time, time to union, humeral alignment, and functional outcome of the shoulder and elbow joints were evaluated using the University of California Los Angeles shoulder score and Mayo elbow performance score. No patient experienced a neurological complication. Bony union was obtained in 20/21 patients at a mean 17.5 weeks postoperatively. Eighteen patients had excellent and 3 patients had good results in the University of California Los Angeles score. The average Mayo elbow performance score was 97.5. Two patients were converted to an open reduction during operation due to a failure of MIPO. There was 1 nonunion and 1 malunion in this series. Although the MIPO technique for humeral shaft fractures is technically demanding, satisfactory clinical outcomes in terms of bony union and shoulder and elbow function can be obtained using the modified fracture reduction method. Potential postoperative complications, such as malreduction and nonunion, must be considered. Appropriate surgical indications, a thorough understanding of the neurovascular anatomy and skillful surgical technique, are needed to reduce potential complications.

  1. PHIT for Duty, a Mobile Application for Stress Reduction, Sleep Improvement, and Alcohol Moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizakevich, Paul N; Eckhoff, Randall; Brown, Janice; Tueller, Stephen J; Weimer, Belinda; Bell, Stacey; Weeks, Adam; Hourani, Laurel L; Spira, James L; King, Laurel A

    2018-03-01

    Post-traumatic stress and other problems often occur after combat, deployment, and other military operations. Because techniques such as mindfulness meditation show efficacy in improving mental health, our team developed a mobile application (app) for individuals in the armed forces with subclinical psychological problems as secondary prevention of more significant disease. Based on the Personal Health Intervention Toolkit (PHIT), a mobile app framework for personalized health intervention studies, PHIT for Duty integrates mindfulness-based relaxation, behavioral education in sleep quality and alcohol use, and psychometric and psychophysiological data capture. We evaluated PHIT for Duty in usability and health assessment studies to establish app quality for use in health research. Participants (N = 31) rated usability on a 1 (very hard) to 5 (very easy) scale and also completed the System Usability Scale (SUS) questionnaire (N = 9). Results were (mean ± SD) overall (4.5 ± 0.6), self-report instruments (4.5 ± 0.7), pulse sensor (3.7 ± 1.2), sleep monitor (4.4 ± 0.7), sleep monitor comfort (3.7 ± 1.1), and wrist actigraphy comfort (2.7 ± 0.9). The average SUS score was 85 ± 12, indicating a rank of 95%. A comparison of PHIT-based assessments to traditional paper forms demonstrated a high overall correlation (r = 0.87). These evaluations of usability, health assessment accuracy, physiological sensing, system acceptability, and overall functionality have shown positive results and affirmation for using the PHIT framework and PHIT for Duty application in mobile health research.

  2. PERFORMANCE EVOLUTION OF PAPR REDUCTION IN OFDM WITH AND WITHOUT LDPC TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Punit Upmanyu*; Prof. Saurabh Gaur

    2016-01-01

    The OFDM is one of the proven multicarrier modulation techniques, which provides high spectral efficiency, low implementation complexity, less vulnerability to echoes and non-linear distortion. Apart from the above advantages presently this technique is used by almost all wireless standards and above. The one major shortcoming in the implementation of this system is the high PAPR (peak-to-average power ratio) of this system. In this paper, Irregular Low-Density-Parity Check encoder is used ef...

  3. Process techniques of charge transfer time reduction for high speed CMOS image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Zhongxiang; Li Quanliang; Han Ye; Qin Qi; Feng Peng; Liu Liyuan; Wu Nanjian

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes pixel process techniques to reduce the charge transfer time in high speed CMOS image sensors. These techniques increase the lateral conductivity of the photo-generated carriers in a pinned photodiode (PPD) and the voltage difference between the PPD and the floating diffusion (FD) node by controlling and optimizing the N doping concentration in the PPD and the threshold voltage of the reset transistor, respectively. The techniques shorten the charge transfer time from the PPD diode to the FD node effectively. The proposed process techniques do not need extra masks and do not cause harm to the fill factor. A sub array of 32 × 64 pixels was designed and implemented in the 0.18 μm CIS process with five implantation conditions splitting the N region in the PPD. The simulation and measured results demonstrate that the charge transfer time can be decreased by using the proposed techniques. Comparing the charge transfer time of the pixel with the different implantation conditions of the N region, the charge transfer time of 0.32 μs is achieved and 31% of image lag was reduced by using the proposed process techniques. (semiconductor devices)

  4. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of size-tunable zinc oxide architectures by multiple size reduction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Ho Park, Xin Zhang, Seon-Yong Hwang, Sang Hyun Jung, Semin Kang, Hyun-Beom Shin, Ho Kwan Kang, Hyung-Ho Park, Ross H Hill and Chul Ki Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple size reduction technique for fabricating 400 nm zinc oxide (ZnO architectures using a silicon master containing only microscale architectures. In this approach, the overall fabrication, from the master to the molds and the final ZnO architectures, features cost-effective UV photolithography, instead of electron beam lithography or deep-UV photolithography. A photosensitive Zn-containing sol–gel precursor was used to imprint architectures by direct UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL. The resulting Zn-containing architectures were then converted to ZnO architectures with reduced feature sizes by thermal annealing at 400 °C for 1 h. The imprinted and annealed ZnO architectures were also used as new masters for the size reduction technique. ZnO pillars of 400 nm diameter were obtained from a silicon master with pillars of 1000 nm diameter by simply repeating the size reduction technique. The photosensitivity and contrast of the Zn-containing precursor were measured as 6.5 J cm−2 and 16.5, respectively. Interesting complex ZnO patterns, with both microscale pillars and nanoscale holes, were demonstrated by the combination of dose-controlled UV exposure and a two-step UV-NIL.

  5. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of size-tunable zinc oxide architectures by multiple size reduction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyeong-Ho; Hwang, Seon-Yong; Jung, Sang Hyun; Kang, Semin; Shin, Hyun-Beom; Kang, Ho Kwan; Ko, Chul Ki; Zhang Xin; Hill, Ross H; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple size reduction technique for fabricating 400 nm zinc oxide (ZnO) architectures using a silicon master containing only microscale architectures. In this approach, the overall fabrication, from the master to the molds and the final ZnO architectures, features cost-effective UV photolithography, instead of electron beam lithography or deep-UV photolithography. A photosensitive Zn-containing sol–gel precursor was used to imprint architectures by direct UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL). The resulting Zn-containing architectures were then converted to ZnO architectures with reduced feature sizes by thermal annealing at 400 °C for 1 h. The imprinted and annealed ZnO architectures were also used as new masters for the size reduction technique. ZnO pillars of 400 nm diameter were obtained from a silicon master with pillars of 1000 nm diameter by simply repeating the size reduction technique. The photosensitivity and contrast of the Zn-containing precursor were measured as 6.5 J cm −2 and 16.5, respectively. Interesting complex ZnO patterns, with both microscale pillars and nanoscale holes, were demonstrated by the combination of dose-controlled UV exposure and a two-step UV-NIL.

  6. Radiant heat loss, an unexploited path for heat stress reduction in shaded cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, A; Horovitz, T

    2012-06-01

    Reducing thermal radiation on shaded animals reduces heat stress independently of other means of stress relief. Radiant heat exchange was estimated as a function of climate, shade structure, and animal density. Body surface portion exposed to radiant sources in shaded environments was determined by geometrical relations to determine angles of view of radiation sources (roof underside, sky, sun-exposed ground, shaded ground) on the animal's surface. The relative representation of environment radiation sources on the body surface was determined. Animal thermal radiation balance was derived from radiant heat gained from radiation sources (including surrounding animals) and that lost from the animal surface. The animal environment was assumed to have different shade dimensions and temperatures. These were summed to the radiant heat balance of the cow. The data formed served to estimate the effect of changes in intensity of radiation sources, roof and shaded surface dimensions, and animal density on radiant heat balance (Rbal) of cattle. Roof height effect was expressed by effect of roof temperature on Rbal. Roof underside temperature (35 to 75°C) effect on Rbal was reduced by roof height. If roof height were 4m, an increase in its underside temperature from 35 to 75°C would increase mean Rbal from -63 to -2 W·m⁻², whereas if roof height were 10 m, Rbal would only increase from -99 to -88 W·m⁻². A hot ground temperature increase from 35 to 65°C reduced mean Rbal heat loss from -45 to 3 W·m⁻². Increasing the surface of the shaded area had only a minor effect on Rbal and on the effect of hot ground on Rbal. Increasing shade roof height reduced the effect of roof temperature on Rbal to minor levels when height was > 8m. Increasing the roof height from 4 to 10 m decreased Rbal from -32 to -94 W·m⁻². Increasing indirect radiation from 100 to 500 W·m⁻² was associated with an increase in Rbal from -135 to +23 W·m⁻². Their combined effects were lower

  7. Application of a distributed optical fiber sensing technique in monitoring the stress of precast piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y; Shi, B; Wei, G Q; Zhang, D; Chen, S E

    2012-01-01

    Due to its ability in providing long distance, distributed sensing, the optical fiber sensing technique based on a Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer (BOTDR) has a unique advantage in monitoring the stability and safety of linear structures. This paper describes the application of a BOTDR-based technique to measure the stress within precast piles. The principle behind the BOTDR and the embedding technique for the sensing optical fiber in precast piles is first introduced, and then the analysis method and deformation and stress calculation based on distributed strain data are given. Finally, a methodology for using a BOTDR-based monitoring workflow for in situ monitoring of precast piles, combined with a practical example, is introduced. The methodology requires implantation of optical fibers prior to pile placement. Field experimental results show that the optical fiber implantation method with slotting, embedding, pasting and jointing is feasible, and have accurately measured the axial force, side friction, end-bearing resistance and bearing feature of the precast pile according to the strain measuring data. (paper)

  8. Application of the Raman technique to measure stress states in individual Si particles in a cast Al-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Stephen J.; O'Neill, Ann; Boileau, James; Donlon, William; Su, Xuming; Majumdar, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    While Raman spectroscopy is often used to measure stresses, the analyses are almost always limited to cases with simple stress states (uniaxial, equibiaxial). Recently we provided an experimental methodology to determine the full state of stress in Si wafers. Here we extend that methodology to interrogate stress states in Si particles embedded in an Al-Si alloy. Such determinations will ultimately be valuable for predicting ductility of cast Al, since a primary source of damage is cracking of eutectic Si particles. We combine electron back-scattered diffraction with the frequency shift, polarization and intensity of the Raman light to determine stress states. Stress states are measured both in the as-received residually stressed state and under in situ uniaxial loading. Comparison with finite element calculations shows good agreement. As an application of the technique, we show the determination of strength of an individual Si particle and compare the stress evolution with various models

  9. Determining the Threshold Value of Basil Yield Reduction and Evaluation of Water Uptake Models under Salinity Stress Condition

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sarai Tabrizi; H. Babazadeh; M. Homaee; F. Kaveh Kaveh; M. Parsinejad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several mathematical models are being used for assessing the plant response to the salinity of the root zone. The salinity of the soil and water resources is a major challenge for agricultural sector in Iran. Several mathematical models have been developed for plant responses to the salinity stress. However, these models are often applicable in particular conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the threshold value of Basil yield reduction, modeling Basil respon...

  10. Effect of silicon and nanosilicon on reduction of damage caused by salt stress in maize (Zea mays seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assieh Behdad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinity reduced the efficiency of agricultural production like maize as one of the most important cereals for food and oil for humans. Silicon is the second most abundant element in the soil and alleviates the biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The aim of this study is evaluate the effect of silicon and nanosilicon on improvement of salt stress in maize (Zea mays. For this propose, the interaction between the effects of different levels of salinity (0 and 100 mM, silicon and nanosilicon (50, 100 and 150 mg /mL was studied in completely randomized block design with factorial experiments and with three replications. The results showed that salinity significantly decreased root and shoot growth, amount of chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments, protein and potassium contents, compared to control. Treating plants with silicon and nanosilicon caused reduction of salinity effects and increase above indices. Salinity stress also caused a significant increase in proline, anthocyanin and soluble carbohydrate contents, lipid peroxidation, and catalase activity and treatment with silicon and nanosilicon alleviates effects of salt stress and reduced the amount of above indices. 150 mg/mL of nanosilicon showed the maximum effect on diminishing negative effects of salt stress on all examined parameters. So, the use of this element is proposed as alleviator of salt stress on maize.

  11. The effect of yoga in stress reduction for dental students performing their first periodontal surgery: A randomized controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankarapillai, Rajesh; Nair, Manju Anathakrishnan; George, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Context: The dental students experience a lot of stress, which increase when they perform their first surgical procedure. Yoga as an anxiolytic tool in anxiety reduction has been practiced over centuries in India. Aim: To assess the efficacy of yoga in reducing the state trait anxiety of dental students before their first periodontal surgery performance. Settings and Design: A randomized controlled study using a two-way split plot design (pre-post-test) was conducted in the department of periodontics, Pacific Dental College, Udaipur, India. Materials and Methods: One hundred clinical dental students who were ready to perform their first periodontal surgery were selected. Students were randomly assigned to two groups and were given a 60-min session on stress reduction. Group A, yogic intervention group, were instructed to do yoga and their performances were monitored for a period of one week and Group B, control group, were given a lecture on stress reduction without any yoga instructions. The investigator who was unaware of the groups had taken the state trait anxiety score of the students three times a) before assigning them to each group, b) prior to the surgical procedure and c) immediately after the performance of surgery. Statistical Analysis Used: Analyses of variance (ANOVA) by SPSS V.16. Results: The statistical results showed a significant reduction in the VAS and state trait anxiety of Group A compared to Group B (ANOVA; P<0.001). Conclusions: This study concludes that Yogic breathing has a significant effect on the reduction of state trait anxiety level of dental students. PMID:22346066

  12. Biofeedback for stress reduction: towards a brigth future for a revitalized field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Broek, E.L.; Westerink, J.H.D.

    2012-01-01

    Stress has recently been baptized as the black death of the 21st century, which illustrates its threat to current health standards. Thisarticle proposes biofeedback systems as a means to reduce stress. Aconcise state-ofthe-art introduction on biofeedback systems is given. The field of mental health

  13. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwan, J.E.; de Vente, W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; de Bruin, E.I.

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing

  14. Biofeedback systems for stress reduction: Towards a Bright Future for a Revitalized Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Conchon, E.; Correia, C.; Fred, A.; Gamboa, H.

    2012-01-01

    Stress has recently been baptized as the black death of the 21st century, which illustrates its threat to current health standards. This article proposes biofeedback systems as a means to reduce stress. A concise state-ofthe-art introduction on biofeedback systems is given. The field of mental

  15. Biofeedback systems for stress reduction : Towards a bright future for a revitalized field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, E.L. van den; Westerink, J.H.D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Stress has recently been baptized as the black death of the 21st century, which illustrates its threat to current health standards. This article proposes biofeedback systems as a means to reduce stress. A concise state-of-the-art introduction on biofeedback systems is given. The field of mental

  16. Salivary cortisol : A possible biomarker in evaluating interventions on stress reduction in young foster children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Andel, H.W.H.; Jansen, L.M.C.; Grietens, Hans; Knorth, Erik J.; Van der Gaag, R.J.

    Young foster children undergo an early separation from their caregiver(s) and often experience severe stress before placement. However, a considerable part of the children do not show apparent signs of distress, making it difficult for the foster carer to be aware of the amount of stress in their

  17. A Mixed-Methods Pilot Study of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for HIV-Associated Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mary Catherine; Wongmek, Arada; Kaku, Michelle; Nmashie, Alexandra; Robinson-Papp, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Treatment guidelines for chronic pain recommend nonpharmacologic modalities as part of a comprehensive management plan. Chronic pain is common among people living with HIV/AIDS, but there is little data to guide the choice of nonpharmacologic therapies in this complex population. We performed a mixed-methods feasibility study of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) versus health education control with 32 inner city, HIV-infected participants. Outcome measures included: the Brief Pain Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale, HIV Symptoms Index, autonomic function testing, and audiotaped focus groups. Post-intervention, participants reported modest improvements in pain measures and perceived stress, but no effect of group assignment was observed. At 3-month follow-up, 79% of MBSR participants were still practicing, and pain intensity was improved, whereas in the control group pain intensity had worsened. Qualitative analysis revealed a strong sense of community in both groups, but only MBSR was perceived as useful for relaxation and pain relief.

  18. The effects of mind-body training on stress reduction, positive affect, and plasma catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye Yoon; Byun, Min Soo; Kwon, Soo Jin; Jang, Go-Eun; Lee, Ul Soon; An, Seung Chan; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-07-26

    This study was designed to assess the association between stress, positive affect and catecholamine levels in meditation and control groups. The meditation group consisted of 67 subjects who regularly engaged in mind-body training of "Brain-Wave Vibration" and the control group consisted of 57 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) levels were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were administered. The meditation group showed higher scores on positive affect (p=.019) and lower scores on stress (pmind-body training is associated with lower stress, higher positive affect and higher plasma DA levels when comparing the meditation group with the control group. Thus, mind-body training may influence stress, positive affect and the sympathetic nervous system including DA activity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Technique Based on Image Pyramid and Bayes Rule for Noise Reduction in Unsupervised Change Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-qiang; HUO hong; FANG Tao; ZHU Ju-lian; GE Wei-li

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a technique based on image pyramid and Bayes rule for reducing noise effects in unsupervised change detection is proposed. By using Gaussian pyramid to process two multitemporal images respectively, two image pyramids are constructed. The difference pyramid images are obtained by point-by-point subtraction between the same level images of the two image pyramids. By resizing all difference pyramid images to the size of the original multitemporal image and then making product operator among them, a map being similar to the difference image is obtained. The difference image is generated by point-by-point subtraction between the two multitemporal images directly. At last, the Bayes rule is used to distinguish the changed pixels. Both synthetic and real data sets are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique. Experimental results show that the map from the proposed technique is more robust to noise than the difference image.

  20. Expedited patient-specific assessment of contact stress exposure in the ankle joint following definitive articular fracture reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Andrew M; Anderson, Donald D

    2015-09-18

    Acute injury severity, altered joint kinematics, and joint incongruity are three important mechanical factors linked to post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Finite element analysis (FEA) was previously used to assess the influence of increased contact stress due to joint incongruity on PTOA development. While promising agreement with PTOA development was seen, the inherent complexities of contact FEA limited the numbers of subjects that could be analyzed. Discrete element analysis (DEA) is a simplified methodology for contact stress computation, which idealizes contact surfaces as a bed of independent linear springs. In this study, DEA was explored as an expedited alternative to FEA contact stress exposure computation. DEA was compared to FEA using results from a previously completed validation study of two cadaveric human ankles, as well as a previous study of post-operative contact stress exposure in 11 patients with tibial plafond fracture. DEA-computed maximum contact stresses were within 19% of those experimentally measured, with 90% of the contact area having computed contact stress values within 1MPa of those measured. In the 11 fractured ankles, maximum contact stress and contact area differences between DEA and FEA were 0.85 ± 0.64 MPa and 22.5 ± 11.5mm(2). As a predictive measure for PTOA development, both DEA and FEA had 100% concordance with presence of OA (KL grade ≥ 2) and >95% concordance with KL grade at 2 years. These results support DEA as a reasonable alternative to FEA for computing contact stress exposures following surgical reduction of a tibial plafond fracture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Approach to mitigate intergranular stress corrosion cracking and dose rate reduction rate by water chemistry control in Tokai-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamune, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) had been working on material replacement and measures to mitigate stress in order to maintain the integrity of the structural material of Tokai-Daini nuclear power plant (Tokai-2, BWR, 1,100 MWe; commercial operation started on November 28, 1978). In addition, as Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) environmental mitigation measures, we have been reducing the sulfate ion concentration in the reactor water by improving the regeneration method of the ion exchange resin at condensate purification system. Furthermore, in conducting the SCC environmental mitigation measures by applying hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and HWC during start-up (HDS), we have been reducing the oxidizing agent concentration in the reactor water. On the other hand, as a plant that has not installed condensate filters, we have been working on feed water iron concentration reduction measures in Tokai-2 as part of the dose reduction measures. Therefore, we have improved condensate demineralizer's ion exchange resin and the ion exchange resin cleaning method using the ARCS (Advanced Resin Cleaning System) in order to improve the iron removal performance of condensate demineralizer. This document reports the improvement effect of the SCC environmental mitigation measures and the dose reduction measures by water chemistry management at Tokai-2. In addition, the dose reduction effect of the recently applied zinc injection, and the Electrochemical Corrosion Potential (ECP) monitoring plan under the On-Line Noble Chemical Addition (OLNC™) to be implemented later shall be introduced. (author)

  2. The Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Techniques Training on Procrastination, Stress, Anxiety and Depression of High School Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sA hasar

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: training of cognitive-behavioral techniques reduced procrastination, anxiety and stress in experimental group in comparison with control group but it did not have meaningful effect on control group depression

  3. Layout-Driven Post-Placement Techniques for Temperature Reduction and Thermal Gradient Minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Calimera, Andrea; Macii, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    With the continuing scaling of CMOS technology, on-chip temperature and thermal-induced variations have become a major design concern. To effectively limit the high temperature in a chip equipped with a cost-effective cooling system, thermal specific approaches, besides low power techniques, are ...

  4. Chaparral shrub recovery after fuel reduction: a comparison of prescribed fire and mastication techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Potts; E. Marino; S. Stephens

    2010-01-01

    Fuel management techniques are commonly used in shrublands to reduce wildfire risk. However, more information about the ecological effects of these treatments is needed by managers and ecologists. In an effort to address this need, we performed a replicated (4 replicates per treatment) 48-ha experiment in northern California chaparral dominated by Adenostoma...

  5. Development of basic theories and techniques for determining stresses in rotating turbine or compressor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C. H.; Swinson, W. F.; Turner, J. L.; Moslehy, F. A.; Ranson, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    A method for measuring in-plane displacement of a rotating structure by using two laser speckle photographs is described. From the displacement measurements one can calculate strains and stresses due to a centrifugal load. This technique involves making separate speckle photographs of a test model. One photograph is made with the model loaded (model is rotating); the second photograph is made with no load on the model (model is stationary). A sandwich is constructed from the two speckle photographs and data are recovered in a manner similar to that used with conventional speckle photography. The basic theory, experimental procedures of this method, and data analysis of a simple rotating specimen are described. In addition the measurement of in-plane surface displacement components of a deformed solid, and the application of the coupled laser speckle interferometry and boundary-integral solution technique to two dimensional elasticity problems are addressed.

  6. Bio-Energy during Finals: Stress Reduction for a University Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Alice; Hildreth, Laura

    2016-01-01

    To re-examine the effectiveness of a bio-energy intervention on self-reported stress for a convenience sample of university students during dead week, a quasi-experimental, single-group pretest-posttest design was used. Thirty-three students participated, serving as their own controls. After participants had consented, a 15-min Healing Touch intervention followed enrollment. Self-reported stress was significantly reduced after the bio-energy (Healing Touch) intervention. Bio-energy therapy has shown to be beneficial in reducing stress for students during dead week, the week before final examinations. Further research is needed.

  7. Cost analysis of soil-depressurization techniques for indoor radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschel, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    The article discusses a parametric cost analysis to evaluate active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction in houses. The analysis determined the relative importance of 14 ASD design variables and 2 operating variables on the installation and operating costs of residential ASD systems in several types of houses. Knowledge of the most important variables would enable EPA's research and development efforts to be more effectively directed at ways to reduce ASD costs and thus to increase utilization of the technology. Parameters offering the greatest potential for reductions in installation costs included three dealing with houses with poor subslab communication: (1) reducing the number of subslab depressurization pipes; (2) eliminating excavation of large subslab pits beneath the suction pipes to improve suction field extension; and (3) improving the effectiveness of premitigation subslab communication diagnostic testing in achieving simpler, less expensive ASD system designs. In addition, determining acceptable conditions for discharging ASD exhaust at grade level would reduce installation costs. Better design guidance for crawl-space submembrane depressurization (SMD) systems could reduce installation costs, if difficult membrane sealing steps and complete coverage of the crawl-space floor by the membrane can be avoided

  8. A parametric model order reduction technique for poroelastic finite element models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappano, Ettore; Polanz, Markus; Desmet, Wim; Mundo, Domenico

    2017-10-01

    This research presents a parametric model order reduction approach for vibro-acoustic problems in the frequency domain of systems containing poroelastic materials (PEM). The method is applied to the Finite Element (FE) discretization of the weak u-p integral formulation based on the Biot-Allard theory and makes use of reduced basis (RB) methods typically employed for parametric problems. The parametric reduction is obtained rewriting the Biot-Allard FE equations for poroelastic materials using an affine representation of the frequency (therefore allowing for RB methods) and projecting the frequency-dependent PEM system on a global reduced order basis generated with the proper orthogonal decomposition instead of standard modal approaches. This has proven to be better suited to describe the nonlinear frequency dependence and the strong coupling introduced by damping. The methodology presented is tested on two three-dimensional systems: in the first experiment, the surface impedance of a PEM layer sample is calculated and compared with results of the literature; in the second, the reduced order model of a multilayer system coupled to an air cavity is assessed and the results are compared to those of the reference FE model.

  9. TU-F-CAMPUS-J-04: Evaluation of Metal Artifact Reduction Technique for the Radiation Therapy Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K; Kuo, H; Ritter, J; Shen, J; Basavatia, A; Yaparpalvi, R; Kalnicki, S; Tome, W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using a metal artifact reduction technique in depleting metal artifact and its application in improving dose calculation in External Radiation Therapy Planning. Methods: CIRS electron density phantom was scanned with and without steel drill bits placed in some plug holes. Meta artifact reduction software with Metal Deletion Technique (MDT) was used to remove metal artifacts for scanned image with metal. Hounsfield units of electron density plugs from artifact free reference image and MDT processed images were compared. To test the dose calculation improvement after the MDT processed images, clinically approved head and neck plan with manual dental artifact correction was tested. Patient images were exported and processed with MDT and plan was recalculated with new MDT image without manual correction. Dose profiles near the metal artifacts were compared. Results: The MDT used in this study effectively reduced the metal artifact caused by beam hardening and scatter. The windmill around the metal drill was greatly improved with smooth rounded view. Difference of the mean HU in each density plug between reference and MDT images were less than 10 HU in most of the plugs. Dose difference between original plan and MDT images were minimal. Conclusion: Most metal artifact reduction methods were developed for diagnostic improvement purpose. Hence Hounsfield unit accuracy was not rigorously tested before. In our test, MDT effectively eliminated metal artifacts with good HU reproduciblity. However, it can introduce new mild artifacts so the MDT images should be checked with original images

  10. Ideal techniques condition for the realization of an appropriate stress echocardiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sociedad colombiana de cardiologia

    2002-01-01

    A stress echocardiogram with exercise is a non-invasive exam, which uses the ultrasound to evaluate the function and the sanguine flow toward the heart, as answer to the exercise. This study provides images of the heart in movement so much in rest as later to the exercise. This stress can be produced by means of the use of a band numberless or a stationary bicycle or by means of the use of a pharmacological agent as the Dobutamine. The stress echocardiogram has been used clinically in the last 12 to 15 years; its accuracy diagnostic is very similar to the techniques of nuclear medicine as for the sensibility, specificity and predictive value positive and negative. It has become the best test of the echocardiography due to their easy use in-patient of external consultation as having hospitalized, to their versatility and the fact that it provides the information that requires the clinical in an immediate way helping to the handling of the patients

  11. Accuracy of different temperature reading techniques and associated stress response in hospitalized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomart, Samantha B; Allerton, Fergus J W; Gommeren, Kris

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and associated induced stress response of axillary, auricular, and rectal thermometry in hospitalized dogs. Prospective observational study from October 2011 to February 2012. University veterinary teaching hospital. Two hundred fifty hospitalized dogs. All hospitalized dogs were considered eligible unless their condition precluded measurement at one of the designated sites. A veterinary auricular infrared device for auricular temperature (OT) and an electronic predictive thermometer for rectal temperature (RT) and axillary temperature (AT) were used for temperature measurements. All recordings were obtained by the same investigator in a randomized fashion. Heart rate was noted before and immediately after each measurement. Stress behaviors (eg, vocalization, lip licking, shaking, panting, defensive behavior) were also recorded and graded from 0 (lowest) to 4 (highest). Signalment, analgesic therapy, and length of hospitalization were recorded. RT measurements were associated with greatest increase in heart rate (P 0.05). AT and to a lesser extent OT are reliable, less stressful alternatives to estimate RT in dogs. Further studies are needed to evaluate these techniques in hyperthermic dogs, and to evaluate the use of AT and OT as monitoring tools in intensive care patients. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  12. Pre-concentration technique for reduction in "Analytical instrument requirement and analysis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sangita; Singha, Mousumi; Meena, Sher Singh

    2018-04-01

    Availability of analytical instruments for a methodical detection of known and unknown effluents imposes a serious hindrance in qualification and quantification. Several analytical instruments such as Elemental analyzer, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, EDXRF, ion chromatography, Electro-analytical instruments which are not only expensive but also time consuming, required maintenance, damaged essential parts replacement which are of serious concern. Move over for field study and instant detection installation of these instruments are not convenient to each and every place. Therefore, technique such as pre-concentration of metal ions especially for lean stream elaborated and justified. Chelation/sequestration is the key of immobilization technique which is simple, user friendly, most effective, least expensive, time efficient; easy to carry (10g - 20g vial) to experimental field/site has been demonstrated.

  13. A noise reduction technique based on nonlinear kernel function for heart sound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ashok; Saxena, Ishan; Tang, Hong; Banerjee, Poulami

    2017-02-13

    The main difficulty encountered in interpretation of cardiac sound is interference of noise. The contaminated noise obscures the relevant information which are useful for recognition of heart diseases. The unwanted signals are produced mainly by lungs and surrounding environment. In this paper, a novel heart sound de-noising technique has been introduced based on a combined framework of wavelet packet transform (WPT) and singular value decomposition (SVD). The most informative node of wavelet tree is selected on the criteria of mutual information measurement. Next, the coefficient corresponding to the selected node is processed by SVD technique to suppress noisy component from heart sound signal. To justify the efficacy of the proposed technique, several experiments have been conducted with heart sound dataset, including normal and pathological cases at different signal to noise ratios. The significance of the method is validated by statistical analysis of the results. The biological information preserved in de-noised heart sound (HS) signal is evaluated by k-means clustering algorithm and Fit Factor calculation. The overall results show that proposed method is superior than the baseline methods.

  14. Coke drums inspection and evaluation using stress and strain analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, Marcio Issamu [Tricom Tecnologia e Servicos de Manutencao Industrial Ltda., Piquete, SP (Brazil); Samman, Mahmod [Houston Engineering Solutions, Houston, TX (United States); Tinoco, Ediberto Bastos; Marangone, Fabio de Castro; Silva, Hezio Rosa da; Barcelos, Gustavo de Carvalho [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Coke drums deform due to a complex combination of mechanical and thermal cyclic stresses. Bulges have progressive behavior and represent the main maintenance problem related to these drums. Bulge failure typically result in through-wall cracks, leaks, and sometimes fires. Such failures generally do not represent a great risk to personnel. Repairs needed to maintain reliability of these vessels might require extensive interruption to operation which in turn considerably impacts the profitability of the unit. Therefore the condition, progression and severity of these bulges should be closely monitored. Coke drums can be inspected during turnaround with 3D Laser Scanning and Remote Visual Inspection (RVI) tools, resulting in a detailed dimensional and visual evaluation of the internal surface. A typical project has some goals: inspect the equipment to generate maintenance or inspection recommendations, comparison with previous results and baseline data. Until recently, coke drum structural analysis has been traditionally performed analyzing Stress Concentration Factors (SCF) thought Finite Element Analysis methods; however this technique has some serious technical and practical limitations. To avoid these shortcomings, the new strain analysis technique PSI (Plastic Strain Index) was developed. This method which is based on API 579/ ASME FFS standard failure limit represents the state of the art of coke drum bulging severity assessment has an excellent correlation with failure history. (author)

  15. Salt and alkali stresses reduction in wheat by plant growth promoting haloalkaliphilic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Torbaghan, Mehrnoush Eskandari; Lakzian, Amir; Astaraei, Ali Reza; Fotovat, Amir; Besharati, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Haloalkaliphilic bacteria have plant growth promoting characteristics that can be used to deal with different environmental stresses. To study the effect of haloalkaliphilic bacteria to reduce salinity and alkalinity stress in wheat, 48 isolates were isolated and grouped into halophiles, alkaliphiles and haloalkaliphiles based on growth characteristics. The ammonia, 3-indole acetic acid and ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) deaminase production were studied. Wheat yield was evaluated in...

  16. The interpretation of stress reductions in creep-fatigue cycles of 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, R.

    1986-11-01

    A statistical analysis of stress-drop results obtained on a number of different casts of 316 stainless steel in the temperature range 550 0 C to 700 0 C is presented. In all cases the results were obtained from strain controlled fatigue tests. The equations used to describe stress relaxation here are derived from forward creep equations which describe the dependence of creep rate on time, stress and temperature. Although there is no clear correspondence between creep and stress relaxation, creep equations offer an attractive starting point. Not all the models considered exhibited the expected response to changes in temperature. A revised analysis was carried out on the assumption that stress relaxation is thermally activated according to the Arrhenius equation. Two models were found to fit the data equally well and it was not possible to choose which of these relationships is the more appropriate to describe stress relaxation of cyclically conditioned material. On the basis of the evidence both are acceptable and may be used to calculate the creep damage according to the various high temperature design codes. Whichever gives the more conservative assessment should be used until a more mechanistically based judgement can be reached. (author)

  17. Dry-plasma-free chemical etch technique for variability reduction in multi-patterning (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, Subhadeep; Mohanty, Nihar; Farrell, Richard A.; Franke, Elliott; Raley, Angelique; Thibaut, Sophie; Pereira, Cheryl; Pillai, Karthik; Ko, Akiteru; Mosden, Aelan; Biolsi, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Scaling beyond the 7nm technology node demands significant control over the variability down to a few angstroms, in order to achieve reasonable yield. For example, to meet the current scaling targets it is highly desirable to achieve sub 30nm pitch line/space features at back-end of the line (BEOL) or front end of line (FEOL); uniform and precise contact/hole patterning at middle of line (MOL). One of the quintessential requirements for such precise and possibly self-aligned patterning strategies is superior etch selectivity between the target films while other masks/films are exposed. The need to achieve high etch selectivity becomes more evident for unit process development at MOL and BEOL, as a result of low density films choices (compared to FEOL film choices) due to lower temperature budget. Low etch selectivity with conventional plasma and wet chemical etch techniques, causes significant gouging (un-intended etching of etch stop layer, as shown in Fig 1), high line edge roughness (LER)/line width roughness (LWR), non-uniformity, etc. In certain circumstances this may lead to added downstream process stochastics. Furthermore, conventional plasma etches may also have the added disadvantage of plasma VUV damage and corner rounding (Fig. 1). Finally, the above mentioned factors can potentially compromise edge placement error (EPE) and/or yield. Therefore a process flow enabled with extremely high selective etches inherent to film properties and/or etch chemistries is a significant advantage. To improve this etch selectivity for certain etch steps during a process flow, we have to implement alternate highly selective, plasma free techniques in conjunction with conventional plasma etches (Fig 2.). In this article, we will present our plasma free, chemical gas phase etch technique using chemistries that have high selectivity towards a spectrum of films owing to the reaction mechanism ( as shown Fig 1). Gas phase etches also help eliminate plasma damage to the

  18. Laparoscopic cystostomy in pigs: Technique and comparison with traditional open cystostomy for surgical stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystostomy is a common procedure in veterinary surgery. We describe a technique for laparoscopic cystostomy (LC group; n = 7 in Bama miniature pigs and compare the surgical stress induced by this procedure to open cystostomy (OC group; n = 7. A three-portal approach was used for laparoscopic cystostomy. First, we placed 2 simple interrupted sutures between the ventral body wall and urinary bladder. Then, a purse-string suture was placed in the urinary bladder wall, approximately 1 cm cranially to the two sutures. A stab incision was made at the center of the purse-string suture and a 12-F Foley catheter advanced into the urinary bladder; the suture was then pulled tightly and tied. Again, two interrupted sutures were placed 1 cm cranially to the catheter, between the ventral body wall and the bladder, to establish cystopexy. The extracorporeal portion of the catheter was fixed to the skin by a finger-trap suture. Blood samples were collected to measure the white blood cell count and serum concentrations of cortisol, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein; follow-up laparoscopy was performed 1 month after the surgery. Laparoscopic cystotomy was successfully performed in all the pigs; the mean operating time was 43 ± 5 min. The levels of the stress markers reflected a lower stress response for LC than OC. Thus, LC appears to be better than OC both in terms of technique and physiological responses elicited, and may be more suitable than OC in the creation of experimental animal models for investigations on urinary diseases and those requiring diversion of urine flow.

  19. Reduction of aflatoxins in dundi-cut whole red chillies (capsicum indicum)by manual sorting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Asghar, M.A.; Ahmed, A.; Iqbal, J.; Shamsuddin, Z.A.

    2013-01-01

    Dundi-cut whole red chillies (Capsicum indicum) are the most revenue- generating commodity of Pakistan. Accordingly, the competence and magnitude of manual hand-picked sorting of red chillies on the reduction of total aflatoxins (AFs) content were assessed during the present study. AFs contents were determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. On the basis of AFs content, red chilli samples were grouped as Group A with 1 to 20 mu g/kg, Group B with 20 to 30?g/kg, Group C with 30-100?g/kg and Group D quality samples with 100 to 150g/kg. Physically identified defects including midget/dwarfed, damaged, broken, dusty and dirty were looked for and such pods were removed. A reduction of 90-100% of AFs was achieved in Group A, 65-80% in B, 65-75% in C and 70% in D quality samples. An average of 78% reduction in AFs content was achieved. Hence, the non-destructive physical hand-picked sorting of red chillies can be applied as a rapid, safe and cost effective method for the reduction of AFs content in red chillies with preserved nutritional values. (author)

  20. Installation and testing of indoor radon reduction techniques in 40 eastern Pennsylvania houses. Final report, October 1984-June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.G.; Robertson, A.; Findlay, W.O.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the installation and testing of indoor radon-reduction techniques in 40 houses in eastern Pennsylvania. Early in 1985, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources (PDER) started a large radon survey in communities in the Reading Prong (a granite formation) in eastern Pennsylvania, following the discovery of a house with extremely high radon concentrations, greater than 1.2 MBq/cu m. Candidate houses for the program, with radon concentrations in excess of 750 Bq/cu m, were selected from this survey. A total of 40 houses with representative substructure types were chosen from this group, and mitigation methods were selected and installed from June 1985 to June 1987. Initial soil-ventilation installations achieved large reductions in radon concentrations at low cost, but these reductions were not always sustained in colder weather, and several systems were modified during the project to improve their performance. Major reductions in radon concentration were realized in all the houses worked on, with most houses with active soil ventilation systems achieving less than 150 Bq/cu m (4 pCi/L) on an annual average basis in the living areas

  1. Novel Power Reduction Technique for ReRAM with Automatic Avoidance Circuit for Wasteful Overwrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaya Handa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-power operations can be great advantageous for ReRAM devices. However, wasteful overwriting such as the SET operation to low-resistance state (LRS device and the RESET operation to high-resistance state (HRS device causes not only an increase in power but also the degradation of the write cycles due to repeatedly rewriting. Thus, in this paper, we proposed a novel automatic avoidance circuit for dealing with wasteful overwriting that uses a sense amplifier and estimated the energy consumption reduction rate by conducting a circuit simulation. As a result, this circuit helped to reliably avoid the wasteful overwriting operation to reduce about 99% and 97% of wasteful energy using VSRC and CSRC, respectively.

  2. Survey of Object-Based Data Reduction Techniques in Observational Astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasik Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with astronomical observations represents one of the most challenging areas of big data analytics. Besides huge variety of data types, dynamics related to continuous data flow from multiple sources, handling enormous volumes of data is essential. This paper provides an overview of methods aimed at reducing both the number of features/attributes as well as data instances. It concentrates on data mining approaches not related to instruments and observation tools instead working on processed object-based data. The main goal of this article is to describe existing datasets on which algorithms are frequently tested, to characterize and classify available data reduction algorithms and identify promising solutions capable of addressing present and future challenges in astronomy.

  3. The hematoma block: a simple, effective technique for closed reduction of ankle fracture dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Adrianne; Catanzariti, Alan R; Mendicino, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Management of a dislocated ankle fracture can be challenging because of instability of the ankle mortise, a compromised soft tissue envelope, and the potential neurovascular compromise. Every effort should be made to quickly and efficiently relocate the disrupted ankle joint. Within the emergency department setting, narcotics and benzodiazepines can be used to sedate the patient before attempting closed reduction. The combination of narcotics and benzodiazepines provides relief of pain and muscle guarding; however, it conveys a risk of seizure as well as respiratory arrest. An alternative to conscious sedation is the hematoma block, or an intra-articular local anesthetic injection in the ankle joint and the associated fracture hematoma. The hematoma block offers a comparable amount of analgesia to conscious sedation without the additional cardiovascular risk, hospital cost, and procedure time. Copyright © 2011 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Leakage Reduction in Water Distribution Systems with Efficient Placement and Control of Pressure Reducing Valves Using Soft Computing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gupta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of leakages in a water distribution system (WDS is one of the major concerns of water industries. Leakages depend on pressure, hence installing pressure reducing valves (PRVs in the water network is a successful techniques for reducing leakages. Determining the number of valves, their locations, and optimal control setting are the challenges faced. This paper presents a new algorithm-based rule for determining the location of valves in a WDS having a variable demand pattern, which results in more favorable optimization of PRV localization than that caused by previous techniques. A multiobjective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II was used to determine the optimized control value of PRVs and to minimize the leakage rate in the WDS. Minimum required pressure was maintained at all nodes to avoid pressure deficiency at any node. Proposed methodology is applied in a benchmark WDS and after using PRVs, the average leakage rate was reduced by 6.05 l/s (20.64%, which is more favorable than the rate obtained with the existing techniques used for leakage control in the WDS. Compared with earlier studies, a lower number of PRVs was required for optimization, thus the proposed algorithm tends to provide a more cost-effective solution. In conclusion, the proposed algorithm leads to more favorable optimized localization and control of PRV with improved leakage reduction rate.

  5. Reduction of radiation doses in leg lengthening procedures by means of audit and computed tomography scanogram techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowski, C.A.J.; Sprigg, A.; Underwood, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    Children with congenital bone dysplasias may benefit from leg lengthening procedures. Such procedures, by necessity, require frequent and regular imaging. It is necessary to minimize the total radiation dose to these patients, and particularly the dose to the gonads. In the present study, the films of 13 patients who had completed leg lengthening procedures were reviewed. The number of films was assessed together with the use of appropriate gonad shielding. In a second part of the study, thermoluminescent dosemeter measurements of radiation doses to a phantom were made for both plain radiographs (with and without gonad protection) and computed tomography (CT) scanograms. The results show that audit plays an important role in assessing radiographic practice with respect to accurate placement of gonad protection and confirm that a significant dose reduction can be accomplished by careful use of this lead shielding. Dose reduction can also be achieved by using alternative radiographic techniques such as CT scanograms. (author)

  6. Sliding mode controller gain adaptation and chattering reduction techniques for DSP-based PM DC motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal, Mehmet; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve and maintain the prospective benefits of sliding mode control (SMC) methodology, the phenomenon known as “chattering”, the main obstacle encountered in real-time applications, has to be suppressed. In this study, two promising switching control gain adaptation and chattering...... reduction techniques are investigated, and the effectiveness of chattering suppression for current regulation of PM DC drives is tested. The sampling rate was also examined to determine how it affects the amplitude of chattering. This paper concentrates on various combinations of observer-based methods...... in order to find the best solution for chattering reduction. To find a practical solution a tunable low-pass filter (LPF) was used to average the discontinuous control term. The validity of the existing conditions for the gain adaptation methods are examined and observer gain value was determined through...

  7. Mercury Concentration Reduction In Waste Water By Using Liquid Surfactant Membrane Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Sardjono, Joko

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this research is ti know effectiveness of liquid surfactant membrane in diminishing mercury found in waste water. This process can be regarded as transferring process of solved mercury from the external phase functioning as a moving phase to continue to the membrane internal one. The existence of the convection rotation results in the change of the surface pressure on the whole interface parts, so the solved mercury disperses on every interface part. Because of this rotation, the solved mercury will fulfil every space with particles from dispersion phase in accordance with its volume. Therefore, the change of the surface pressure on the whole interface parts can be kept stable to adsorb mercury. The mercury adsorbed in the internal phase moves to dispersed particles through molecule diffusion process. The liquid surfactant membrane technique in which the membrane phase is realized into emulsion contains os kerosene as solvent, sorbitan monoleat (span-80) 5 % (v/v) as surfactant, threbuthyl phosphate (TBP) 10 % (v/v) as extractant, and solved mercury as the internal phase. All of those things are mixed and stirred with 8000 rpm speed for 20 minutes. After the stability of emulsion is formed, the solved mercury is extracted by applying extraction process. The effective condition required to achieve mercury ion recovery utilizing this technique is obtained through extraction and re-extraction process. This process was conducted in 30 minutes with membrane and mercury in scale 1 : 1 on 100 ppm concentration. The results of the processes was 99,6 % efficiency. This high efficiency shows that the liquid surfactant membrane technique is very effective to reduce waste water contamined by mercury

  8. [TVT and TOT for surgical correction of female stress urinary incontinence. Comparison between techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Zambrano, G; Lujan Galán, M; Martín García, C; García Tello, A; Rodríguez García, N; Berenguer Sánchez, A

    2008-10-01

    Retrospective analysis of a series of patients with stress urinary incontinence that underwent surgery in our department, by means of the TVT and TOT techniques. We evaluate post operative continence, considering "cured" the patient with complete continence and "failure" any type of involuntary stress urine leak, independently of its severity registering the time of its appearance. For this purpose we used the Kaplan-Meier analysis comparing both techniques with the Breslow test. Additionally, postoperative complications were evaluated. 128 patients who underwent surgery by TVT (69 patients, 53.9%) and TOT (59 patients, 46.1%). Mean age was 54.4 years for TVT (95% CI 52.0-56.8) and 59 years for TOT (95% CI 55.9-62.1). Mean follow-up time was 18.7 months for TVT (95% CI 15.6-21.9) and 7.4 months for TOT (95% CI 5.8-8.9). Overall continence rate was 86.7%, 88.4% for TVT and 84.7% for TOT The probability of being continent six months after surgery was 89.1% for TVT and 78.2% for TOT (no significant differences, p = 0.31), with almost all failures within the first six months after surgery. TVT was more frecuently associated with urgency symptoms (33.3%, p = 0.001) and urge incontinence (18.8%,p = 0.16), urinary retention (11.6%, p = 0.38), and prevesical hematoma requiring mesh retrieval. Greater post operative pain was observed with TOT (20.3%, p = 0.005). Our results evidence a similar efficacy with both techniques, with the failures appearing over the first months after surgery. Complications of the voiding urgency type are significantly more frequent with TVT.

  9. Effect of a weight reduction program on baseline and stress-induced heart rate variability in children with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurak, Nazar; Sauer, Helene; Weimer, Katja; Dammann, Dirk; Zipfel, Stephan; Horing, Björn; Muth, Eric R; Teufel, Martin; Enck, Paul; Mack, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    Autonomic dysregulation is a well-established feature in adults with obesity but not in children. Since this dysregulation could contribute to weight dynamics, this study aimed to compare autonomic regulation in children with obesity and normal-weight peers and to track autonomic status during weight reduction. Sixty children with obesity and 27 age- and sex-matched normal-weight healthy participants were included. Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed at baseline and during a mental stress test and a subsequent recovery period. Children with obesity were investigated both upon admission and discharge. Upon admission, no significant differences in HRV parameters were found for normal-weight participants and those with obesity. Inpatient treatment led to significant changes in HRV with increase in general variability (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval (SDNN), P Children with obesity had sympathetic activation similar to normal-weight controls during mental stress with subsequent return to baseline values, and weight loss did not affect this profile. A weight reduction program induced a change in autonomic activity in children with obesity toward parasympathetic dominance but had no influence on autonomic nervous system reactivity during stress conditions. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  10. When play is a family business: adult play, hierarchy, and possible stress reduction in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    Easy to recognize but not easy to define, animal play is a baffling behavior because it has no obvious immediate benefits for the performers. However, the absence of immediate advantages, if true, would leave adult play (costly but maintained by evolution, spanning lemurs to Homo sapiens) unexplained. Although a commonly held view maintains that play is limited by stress, an emergent hypothesis states that play can regulate stress in the short term. Here we explored this hypothesis in a captive family group of New World monkeys, Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset). We observed six subjects and gathered data on aggressive, play, and scratching behavior via focal (6 h/individual) and all occurrences sampling (115 h). We found that play levels were highest during pre-feeding, the period of maximum anxiety due to the forthcoming competition over food. Scratching (the most reliable indicator of stress in primates) and play showed opposite trends along hierarchy, with dominants scratching more and playing less than subordinates. Finally, scratching decreased after play, whereas play appeared to be unrelated to previous scratching events, symptoms of a potential stressful state. In conclusion, both play timing and hierarchical distribution indicate that play limits stress, more than vice versa, at least in the short term.

  11. Trauma-Informed Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Female Survivors of Interpersonal Violence: Results From a Stage I RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Amber; Garland, Eric L

    2016-04-01

    This pilot randomized controlled trial evaluated a novel trauma-informed model of mindfulness-based stress reduction (TI-MBSR) as a phase I trauma intervention for female survivors of interpersonal violence (IPV). A community-based sample of women (mean age = 41.5, standard deviation = 14.6) with a history of IPV was randomly assigned to an 8-week TI-MBSR intervention (n = 23) or a waitlist control group (n = 22). Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression as well as anxious and avoidant attachment were assessed pre- and postintervention. Relative to the control group, participation in TI-MBSR was associated with statistically and clinically significant decreases in PTSD and depressive symptoms and significant reductions in anxious attachment. Retention in the intervention was high, with most participants completing at least 5 of the 8 sessions for the intervention. Minutes of mindfulness practice per week significantly predicted reductions in PTSD symptoms. TI-MBSR appears to be a promising and feasible phase I intervention for female survivors of interpersonal trauma. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Assessment of patient dose reduction when using AEC technique in toshiba 64 MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khojali, Wadah Mohamed Ali.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of research is to evaluate the efficiency of AEC (SUREDOSE) used in Toshiba CT scanner in reducing patient radiation dose. 107 patients were studied from four CT scanners. Scan factors and radiation dose received during abdominal CT scan was registered between the contract phases of abdominal CT scan, where the arterial contrast phases was done with Routine Manual Protocol i.e. fixed mA and kVp regardless patient age, weight and reason of scan, while the vinous phase done using AEC. The mA values were considerably less in vinous phase than in the arterial phase for all hospitals with exceptional to hospital 4 where the mA values had increased. There were no variations between the two phases in the other scan factors (kVp. pitch, slice thickness, scan length), which indicates that the software was mainly changing the mA values. The mA also showed wide variations during venous phase as a result of the varying mA applied by the AEC for the different patient ages and weights. The data collection has showed that, the application of SURDOSE decreases that average mA by 56.6%, 61%6 and 56.6 for hospitals 1, 2, and 3 respectively. The reduction of the average of the CTD1_vol were 54.2%. 64.1% in hospital 1.2. and 3 respectively. The average DLPs were also less by 57.1%. 62.8%. 57.5% in hospital, 2, and 3 respectively between the phases. In hospital 4 one raw of the CT detector was not functioning this has disturbed the SURDOSE software. Leading to increase of the mA values and hence the patient radiation dose mA, CTD1_vol and DLP in this hospital increased by 47.7%, 54.3% and 42.8% respectively. This highlighted the risk of not applying the AEC correctly. The non application of this software was only due to lake of knowledge how to use it and the benefits of dose reduction associated with it. Application of this software is very useful and operator should be trained to use it in all CT exams. (Author)

  13. Development of a New Technique to Assess Susceptibility to Predation Resulting from Sublethal Stresses (Indirect Mortality)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, G.F.

    2003-08-25

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. We evaluated a new technique for assessing indirect mortality, based on a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). We compare this technique to the standard predator preference test. The behavioral response is a rapid movement commonly referred to as a startle response, escape response, or C-shape, based on the characteristic body position assumed by the fish. When viewed from above, a startled fish bends into a C-shape, then springs back and swims away in a direction different from its original orientation. This predator avoidance (escape) behavior can be compromised by sublethal stresses that temporarily stun or disorient the fish. We subjected striped shiners and fathead minnows to varying intensities of either turbulence (10-, 20- or 30-min) or 2-min exposures to a fish anesthetic (100 or 200 mg/L of tricaine methanesulfonate), and evaluated their subsequent behavior. Individual fish were given a startle stimulus and filmed with a high-speed video camera. Each fish was startled and filmed twice before being stressed, and then at 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min post-exposure. The resulting image files were analyzed for a variety of behavioral measures including: presence of a response, time to first reaction, duration of reaction, time to formation of maximum C-shape, time to completion of C-shape, and completeness of C-shape. The most immediate measure of potential changes in fish behavior was whether stressed fish exhibited a startle response. For striped shiners, the number of fish not responding to the stimulus was significantly different

  14. Optimal design of minimum mean-square error noise reduction algorithms using the simulated annealing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mingsian R; Hsieh, Ping-Ju; Hur, Kur-Nan

    2009-02-01

    The performance of the minimum mean-square error noise reduction (MMSE-NR) algorithm in conjunction with time-recursive averaging (TRA) for noise estimation is found to be very sensitive to the choice of two recursion parameters. To address this problem in a more systematic manner, this paper proposes an optimization method to efficiently search the optimal parameters of the MMSE-TRA-NR algorithms. The objective function is based on a regression model, whereas the optimization process is carried out with the simulated annealing algorithm that is well suited for problems with many local optima. Another NR algorithm proposed in the paper employs linear prediction coding as a preprocessor for extracting the correlated portion of human speech. Objective and subjective tests were undertaken to compare the optimized MMSE-TRA-NR algorithm with several conventional NR algorithms. The results of subjective tests were processed by using analysis of variance to justify the statistic significance. A post hoc test, Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference, was conducted to further assess the pairwise difference between the NR algorithms.

  15. Polysulfobetaine films prepared by electrografting technique for reduction of biofouling on electroconductive surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stach, Marek; Kronekova, Zuzana; Kasak, Peter; Kollar, Jozef; Pentrak, Martin; Micusik, Matej; Chorvat, Dusan; Nunney, Tim S.; Lacik, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The sulfobetaine films were prepared on stainless steel and golden surfaces. In the first step, the poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) film was created by employing the electrografting polymerization technique. In the second step, this film was modified to polysulfobetaine, i.e. the polymer film bearing the zwitterionic groups. The presence of the electrografted film and its modification were determined by contact angle measurements, infrared spectroscopy in reflectance mode and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The prepared films were homogeneous with the thickness from about 5 to 26 nm as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The atomic force microscopy measurements showed the increase of surface roughness upon the surface coating. In vitro tests using adherent RAT-2 fibroblast cells and fluorescently labelled bovine serum albumin proteins showed that prepared polysulfobetaine films can be used in applications requiring the resistance against cell attachment and biofouling.

  16. Advancement in solar evaporation techniques for volume reduction of chemical effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parakasamurthy, K S [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad (India); Pande, D P [Process Engineering and Systems Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    A typical example of advancement of a unit operation for the given requirement is described. The solar evaporation ponds (SEP) have technical and economic advantages compared to other evaporation methods for concentrating chemical effluents. The operation of SEP is strongly dependent on the environmental and site conditions. Tropical conditions with high solar incidence, good wind speed along with hot and dry weather provide suitable climate for efficient operation of solar evaporation ponds. The particular site selected for the ponds at Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) has a rocky terrain with murrum over sheet with very low water table and small velocity of groundwater. During the past twenty five years extensive theoretical and experimental investigations have been carried out for advancement of solar evaporation technique. (author). 7 refs.

  17. Reduction of heart sound interference from lung sound signals using empirical mode decomposition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ashok; Bhattacharya, P S; Saha, Goutam

    2011-01-01

    During the recording time of lung sound (LS) signals from the chest wall of a subject, there is always heart sound (HS) signal interfering with it. This obscures the features of lung sound signals and creates confusion on pathological states, if any, of the lungs. A novel method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique is proposed in this paper for reducing the undesired heart sound interference from the desired lung sound signals. In this, the mixed signal is split into several components. Some of these components contain larger proportions of interfering signals like heart sound, environmental noise etc. and are filtered out. Experiments have been conducted on simulated and real-time recorded mixed signals of heart sound and lung sound. The proposed method is found to be superior in terms of time domain, frequency domain, and time-frequency domain representations and also in listening test performed by pulmonologist.

  18. Advancement in solar evaporation techniques for volume reduction of chemical effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parakasamurthy, K.S.; Pande, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    A typical example of advancement of a unit operation for the given requirement is described. The solar evaporation ponds (SEP) have technical and economic advantages compared to other evaporation methods for concentrating chemical effluents. The operation of SEP is strongly dependent on the environmental and site conditions. Tropical conditions with high solar incidence, good wind speed along with hot and dry weather provide suitable climate for efficient operation of solar evaporation ponds. The particular site selected for the ponds at Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) has a rocky terrain with murrum over sheet with very low water table and small velocity of groundwater. During the past twenty five years extensive theoretical and experimental investigations have been carried out for advancement of solar evaporation technique. (author)

  19. The effects of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program on mood and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients: 6-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, L E; Ursuliak, Z; Goodey, E; Angen, M; Speca, M

    2001-03-01

    The goals of this work were to assess the effects of participation in a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program on mood disturbance and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients immediately after and 6 months after program completion. A convenience sample of eligible cancer patients were enrolled after they had given informed consent. All patients completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Symptoms of Stress Inventory (SOSI) both before and after the intervention and 6 months later. The intervention consisted of a mindfulness meditation group lasting 1.5 h each week for 7 weeks, plus daily home meditation practice. A total of 89 patients, average age 51, provided pre-intervention data. Eighty patients provided post-intervention data, and 54 completed the 6-month follow-up The participants were heterogeneous with respect to type and stage of cancer. Patients' scores decreased significantly from before to after the intervention on the POMS and SOSI total scores and most subscales, indicating less mood disturbance and fewer symptoms of stress, and these improvements were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. More advanced stages of cancer were associated with less initial mood disturbance, while more home practice and higher initial POMS scores predicted improvements on the POMS between the pre- and post-intervention scores. Female gender and more education were associated with higher initial SOSI scores, and improvements on the SOSI were predicted by more education and greater initial mood disturbance. This program was effective in decreasing mood disturbance and stress symptoms for up to 6 months in both male and female patients with a wide variety of cancer diagnoses, stages of illness, and educational background, and with disparate ages.

  20. Preliminary Investigation of Workplace-Provided Compressed Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction with Pediatric Medical Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Kelly; Mische Lawson, Lisa; Andrews, Stephanie; Pecora, Jodi; Boyd, Sabra

    2017-11-01

    Mindfulness practices, including mindfulness meditation, show promise for decreasing stress among health care providers. This exploratory study investigates the feasibility of a two-day compressed mindfulness-based stress reduction (cMBSR) course provided in the hospital workplace with pediatric health care social workers. The standard course of Jon Kabat-Zinn's MBSR requires a participant commitment to eight weeks of instruction consisting of one 2.5-hour-per-week class, a single day retreat, and 45 minutes of practice for six of seven days each week. Commitments to family, work, caregiving, education, and so on, as well as limitations such as distance, may prevent health care providers from participating in a standard MBSR course. Using t tests, researchers measured the effect of cMBSR on (a) positive and negative experiences in pediatric social work, (b) perceived stress, (c) mindfulness, and (d) caring self-efficacy (as a component of patient- and family-centered care). Results included significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention outcome variables on the Professional Quality of Life Secondary Traumatic Stress subscale, the Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale, and the Caring Efficacy Scale. Findings found adequate evidence for the feasibility of cMBSR design and for a need of a more rigorous study of the effects of the cMBSR intervention. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  1. Resveratrol Prevents Cardiovascular Complications in the SHR/STZ Rat by Reductions in Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K. Vella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardioprotective effects of resveratrol are well established in animal models of metabolic disease but are yet to be investigated in a combined model of hypertension and diabetes. This study investigated the ability of resveratrol’s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects to prevent cardiovascular complications in the spontaneously hypertensive streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Diabetes was induced in eight-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats via a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin. Following this, resveratrol was administered orally for an eight-week period until the animals were sixteen weeks of age. Upon completion of the treatment regime assessments of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and cardiovascular function were made. Resveratrol administration to hypertensive-diabetic animals did not impact upon blood glucose or haemodynamics but significantly reduced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory cytokines. Reductions in systemic levels of oxidative stress and inflammation conferred improvements in vascular reactivity and left ventricular pump function and electrophysiology. This study demonstrates that resveratrol administration to hypertensive diabetic animals can elicit cardioprotective properties via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The observed preservation of cardiovascular function was independent of changes in blood glucose concentration and haemodynamics, suggesting that oxidative stress and inflammation are key components within the pathological cascade associated with hypertension and diabetes.

  2. Reduction and restoration of culturability of beer-stressed and low-temperature-stressed Lactobacillus acetotolerans strain 2011-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yang; Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Fang, Huijing; Tu, Jingxia; Li, Bing; Liu, Jing; Li, Huiping; Xu, Zhenbo

    2015-08-03

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common beer-spoilage bacteria, regardless of beer type, and therefore pose significant problems for the brewing industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the viable, but putatively non-culturable (VPNC) state of the hard-to-culture beer-spoilage species, Lactobacillus acetotolerans. Upon prolonged contact with degassed beer, L. acetotolerans was found to show decreased culturability. After 17 subcultures in beer, 100-μL aliquots of the culture were no longer culturable on MRS agar until 14 days of incubation despite the presence of 10(5) viable cells, indicating that a large population of cells entered into a VPNC state. Furthermore, a significant reduction or even putative loss of culturability, but maintenance of viability, of L. acetotolerans could also be induced by storing the strain at 0 °C for 105 days. Adding catalase at a concentration of 1000 U/plate enabled the VPNC cells, both induced by beer subculture treatment and cold treatment, to regain culturability with a resuscitation time of 4 days and 3 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that cells decreased in size and gradually changed morphology from short rods to coccoids when they entered the VPNC state. It was concluded that the difficulty in culturing the spoilage bacterium from brewery environments could be partly attributed the hard-to-culture or the viable, but non-culturable characteristic of this organism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pre-treatment cortisol awakening response predicts symptom reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder after treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapcencu, A.E.; Gorter, R.; Kennis, Mitzy; van Rooij, S.J.H.; Geuze, E.

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of the HPA-axis has frequently been found in the aftermath of trauma exposure with or without PTSD. Decreasing HPA-axis reactivity to different stress cues has been reported during PTSD treatment. The cortisol awakening response (CARi) is a well-validated, standardized measure of

  4. Pre-treatment cortisol awakening response predicts symptom reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder after treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapcencu, A E; Gorter, R; Kennis, M; van Rooij, S J H; Geuze, E

    Dysfunction of the HPA-axis has frequently been found in the aftermath of trauma exposure with or without PTSD. Decreasing HPA-axis reactivity to different stress cues has been reported during PTSD treatment. The cortisol awakening response (CARi) is a well-validated, standardized measure of

  5. Cognitive Change Predicts Symptom Reduction with Cognitive Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, Birgit; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W.; Stott, Richard; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.; Ehlers, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There is a growing body of evidence for the effectiveness of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies to date have investigated the mechanisms by which TF-CBT leads to therapeutic change. Models of PTSD suggest that a core treatment mechanism is the change in…

  6. A novel cryogenic treatment for reduction of residual stresses in 2024 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araghchi, M., E-mail: M.Araghchi@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mansouri, H.; Vafaei, R. [Department of Materials Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Guo, Yina [Bernal Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

    2017-03-24

    Residual stresses induced during quenching of aluminum alloys cause distortion and have a negative effect on their properties. The purpose of this study is to reduce the residual stresses and improve mechanical properties by using a novel cryogenic treatment. Water quenched samples were cooled down by immersion in liquid nitrogen at −196 °C, following by rapid heating in hot oil at 180 °C and finally they were artificially aged. Residual stresses was measured by the hole drilling strain gauge method. The mechanical properties and microstructure of a heat treated samples were investigated by means of hardness measurements, tensile tests and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that this treatment can relieve up to 71% of the residual stresses compared to 29% related to the traditional cryogenic treatment that used boiling water as the reheating medium. In addition, there is a considerable increase of about 75 MPa in the ultimate tensile strength in comparison to the T6 heat-treated alloy. TEM observations revealed that the S′ precipitates were fine and uniformly distributed in the microstructure due to deformation during reheating in hot oil.

  7. Augmentation of wall shear stress inhibits neointimal hyperplasia after stent implantation - Inhibition through reduction of inflammation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlier, SG; van Damme, LCA; Blommerde, CP; Wentzel, JJ; van Langehove, G; Verheye, S; Kockx, MM; Knaapen, MWM; Cheng, C; Gijsen, F; Duncker, DJ; Stergiopulos, N; Slager, CJ; Serruys, PW; Krams, R

    2003-01-01

    Background - Low wall shear stress (WSS) increases neointimal hyperplasia (NH) in vein grafts and stents. We studied the causal relationship between WSS and NH formation in stents by locally increasing WSS with a flow divider (Anti-Restenotic Diffuser, Endoart SA) placed in the center of the stent.

  8. Axial contraction in etched optical fiber due to internal stress reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kok-Sing; Yang, Hang-Zhou; Chong, Wu-Yi; Cheong, Yew-Ken; Lim, Chin-Hong; Ali, Norfizah M; Ahmad, Harith

    2013-02-11

    When an optical fiber is dipped in an etching solution, the internal stress profile in the fiber varies with the fiber diameter. We observed a physical contraction as much as 0.2% in the fiber axial dimension when the fiber was reduced from its original diameter to ~6 µm through analysis using high resolution microscope images of the grating period of an etched FBG at different fiber diameters. This axial contraction is related to the varying axial stress profile in the fiber when the fiber diameter is reduced. On top of that, the refractive index of fiber core increases with reducing fiber diameter due to stress-optic effect. The calculated index increment is as much as 1.8 × 10(-3) at the center of fiber core after the diameter is reduced down to ~6 µm. In comparison with the conventional model that assumes constant grating period and neglects the variation in stress-induced index change in fiber core, our proposed model indicates a discrepancy as much as 3nm in Bragg wavelength at a fiber diameter of ~6 µm.

  9. Radiation dose reduction on multidetector abdominal CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qifeng; Peng Yun; Duan Xiaomin; Sun Jihang; Yu Tong; Han Zhonglong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility to reduce radiation doses on pediatric multidetector abdominal CT using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique (ASIR) associated with automated tube current modulation technique (ATCM). Methods: Thirty patients underwent abdominal CT with ATCM and the follow-up scan with ATCM cooperated with 40% ASIR. ATCM was used with age dependent noise index (NI) settings: NI = 9 for 0-5 year old and NI = 11 for > 5 years old for simple ATCM group, NI = 11 for 0-5 year old and NI = 15 for > 5 years old for ATCM cooperated with 40% ASIR group (AISR group). Two radiologists independently evaluated images for diagnostic quality and image noise with subjectively image quality score and image noise score using a 5-point scale. Interobserver agreement was assessed by Kappa test. The volume CT dose indexes (CTDIvol) for the two groups were recorded. Statistical significance for the CTDIvol value was analyzed by pair-sample t test. Results: The average CTDIvol for the ASIR group was (1.38 ± 0.64) mGy, about 60% lower than (3.56 ± 1.23) mGy for the simple ATCM group, and the CTDIvol of two groups had statistically significant differences. (t = 33.483, P < 0.05). The subjective image quality scores for the simple ATCM group were 4.43 ± 0.57 and 4.37 ±0.61, Kappa = 0.878, P < 0.01 (ASIR group: 4.70 ± 0.47 and 4.60 ± 0.50, Kappa = 0.783, P < 0.01), by two observers. The image noise score for the simple ATCM group were 4.03 ±0.56 and 3.83 ±0.53, Kappa = 0.572, P < 0.01 (ASIR group: 4.20 ± 0.48 and 4.10 ± 0.48, Kappa = 0.748, P < 0.01), by two observers. All images had acceptable diagnostic image quality. Conclusion: Lower radiation dose can be achieved by elevating NI with ASIR in pediatric CT abdominal studies, while maintaining diagnostically acceptable images. (authors)

  10. Modified Feddes type stress reduction function for modeling root water uptake: Accounting for limited aeration and low water potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Andre; Durner, Wolfgang; Iden, Sascha C.

    2017-04-01

    Modeling water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum with the Richards equation requires a model for the sink term describing water uptake by plant roots. Despite recent progress in developing process-based models of water uptake by plant roots and water flow in aboveground parts of vegetation, effective models of root water uptake are widely applied and necessary for large-scale applications. Modeling root water uptake consists of three steps, (i) specification of the spatial distribution of potential uptake, (ii) reduction of uptake due to various stress sources, and (iii) enhancement of uptake in part of the simulation domain to describe compensation. We discuss the conceptual shortcomings of the frequently used root water uptake model of Feddes and suggest a simple but effective improvement of the model. The improved model parametrizes water stress in wet soil by a reduction scheme which is formulated as function of air content where water stress due to low soil water potential is described by the original approach of Feddes. The improved model is physically more consistent than Feddes' model because water uptake in wet soil is limited by aeration which is a function of water content. The suggested modification is particularly relevant for simulations in heterogeneous soils, because stress parameters are uniquely defined for the entire simulation domain, irrespective of soil texture. Numerical simulations of water flow and root water uptake in homogeneous and stochastic heterogeneous soils illustrate the effect of the new model on root water uptake and actual transpiration. For homogeneous fine-textured soils, root water uptake never achieves its potential rate. In stochastic heterogeneous soil, water uptake is more pronounced at the interfaces between fine and coarse regions which has potential implications for plant growth, nutrient uptake and depletion.

  11. New-construction techniques and HVAC overpressurization for radon reduction in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, D.; Witter, K.A.; Craig, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    Construction of a school in Fairfax County, Virginia, is being carefully monitored since elevated indoor radon levels have been identified in many existing houses near the site. Soil gas radon concentrations measured prior to pouring of the slabs were also indicative of a potential radon problem should the soil gas enter the school; however, subslab radon measurements collected thus far are lower than anticipated. Radon-resistant features have been incorporated into construction of the school and include the placing of at least 100 mm of clean coarse aggregate under the slab and a plastic film barrier between the aggregate and the slab, the sealing of all expansion joints, the sealing or plugging of all utility penetrations where possible, and the painting of interior block walls. In addition, the school's heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system has been designed to operate continuously in overpressurization to help reduce pressure-driven entry of radon-containing soil gas into the building. Following completion, indoor radon levels in the school will be monitored to determine the effectiveness of these radon-resistant new-construction techniques and HVAC overpressurization in limiting radon entry into the school

  12. Instanton-based techniques for analysis and reduction of error floors of LDPC codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, Michael; Chilappagari, Shashi K.; Stepanov, Mikhail G.; Vasic, Bane

    2008-01-01

    We describe a family of instanton-based optimization methods developed recently for the analysis of the error floors of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Instantons are the most probable configurations of the channel noise which result in decoding failures. We show that the general idea and the respective optimization technique are applicable broadly to a variety of channels, discrete or continuous, and variety of sub-optimal decoders. Specifically, we consider: iterative belief propagation (BP) decoders, Gallager type decoders, and linear programming (LP) decoders performing over the additive white Gaussian noise channel (AWGNC) and the binary symmetric channel (BSC). The instanton analysis suggests that the underlying topological structures of the most probable instanton of the same code but different channels and decoders are related to each other. Armed with this understanding of the graphical structure of the instanton and its relation to the decoding failures, we suggest a method to construct codes whose Tanner graphs are free of these structures, and thus have less significant error floors.

  13. Manufacturing Enhancement through Reduction of Cycle Time using Different Lean Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthini Rekha, R.; Periyasamy, P.; Nallusamy, S.

    2017-08-01

    In recent manufacturing system the most important parameters in production line are work in process, TAKT time and line balancing. In this article lean tools and techniques were implemented to reduce the cycle time. The aim is to enhance the productivity of the water pump pipe by identifying the bottleneck stations and non value added activities. From the initial time study the bottleneck processes were identified and then necessary expanding processes were also identified for the bottleneck process. Subsequently the improvement actions have been established and implemented using different lean tools like value stream mapping, 5S and line balancing. The current state value stream mapping was developed to describe the existing status and to identify various problem areas. 5S was used to implement the steps to reduce the process cycle time and unnecessary movements of man and material. The improvement activities were implemented with required suggested and the future state value stream mapping was developed. From the results it was concluded that the total cycle time was reduced about 290.41 seconds and the customer demand has been increased about 760 units.

  14. Instanton-based techniques for analysis and reduction of error floor of LDPC codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chilappagari, Shashi K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stepanov, Mikhail G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vasic, Bane [SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE

    2008-01-01

    We describe a family of instanton-based optimization methods developed recently for the analysis of the error floors of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Instantons are the most probable configurations of the channel noise which result in decoding failures. We show that the general idea and the respective optimization technique are applicable broadly to a variety of channels, discrete or continuous, and variety of sub-optimal decoders. Specifically, we consider: iterative belief propagation (BP) decoders, Gallager type decoders, and linear programming (LP) decoders performing over the additive white Gaussian noise channel (AWGNC) and the binary symmetric channel (BSC). The instanton analysis suggests that the underlying topological structures of the most probable instanton of the same code but different channels and decoders are related to each other. Armed with this understanding of the graphical structure of the instanton and its relation to the decoding failures, we suggest a method to construct codes whose Tanner graphs are free of these structures, and thus have less significant error floors.

  15. Successful Gastric Volvulus Reduction and Gastropexy Using a Dual Endoscope Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith H. Jamil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is a life threatening condition characterized by an abnormal rotation of the stomach around an axis. Although the first line treatment of this disorder is surgical, we report here a case of gastric volvulus that was endoscopically managed using a novel strategy. An 83-year-old female with a history of pancreatic cancer status postpylorus-preserving Whipple procedure presented with a cecal volvulus requiring right hemicolectomy. Postoperative imaging included a CT scan and upper GI series that showed a gastric volvulus with the antrum located above the diaphragm. An upper endoscopy was advanced through the pylorus into the duodenum and left in this position to keep the stomach under the diaphragm. A second pediatric endoscope was advanced alongside and used to complete percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG placement for anterior gastropexy. The patient’s volvulus resolved and there were no complications. From our review of the literature, the dual endoscopic technique employed here has not been previously described. Patients who are poor surgical candidates or those who do not require emergent surgery can possibly benefit the most from similar minimally invasive endoscopic procedures as described here.

  16. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms: a randomized wait-list controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernicke, Kristin A; Campbell, Tavis S; Blustein, Philip K; Fung, Tak S; Johnson, Jillian A; Bacon, Simon L; Carlson, Linda E

    2013-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract affected by stress, which may benefit from a biopsychosocial treatment approach such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). A treatment as usual (TAU) wait-list controlled trial was conducted in Calgary, Canada to investigate the impact of MBSR on IBS symptoms. It was hypothesized that MBSR patients would experience greater reduction in overall IBS symptom severity and self-reported symptoms of stress relative to control patients. Ninety patients diagnosed with IBS using the Rome III criteria were randomized to either an immediate MBSR program (n = 43) or to wait for the next available program (n = 47). Patients completed IBS symptom severity, stress, mood, quality of life (QOL), and spirituality scales pre- and post-intervention or waiting period and at 6-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat linear mixed model analyses for repeated measures were conducted, followed by completers analyses. While both groups exhibited a decrease in IBS symptom severity scores over time, the improvement in the MBSR group was greater than the controls and was clinically meaningful, with symptom severity decreasing from constantly to occasionally present. Pre- to post-intervention dropout rates of 44 and 23 % for the MBSR and control groups, respectively, were observed. At 6-month follow-up, the MBSR group maintained a clinically meaningful improvement in overall IBS symptoms compared to the wait-list group, who also improved marginally, resulting in no statistically significant differences between groups at follow-up. Improvements in overall mood, QOL, and spirituality were observed for both groups over time. The results of this trial provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility and efficacy of a mindfulness intervention for the reduction of IBS symptom severity and symptoms of stress and the maintenance of these improvements at 6 months post-intervention. Attention and self

  17. Effect Mycorrhizal Fungi on Reduction of Drought Stress Effect in Some Growth Traits of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    esmaeel gholinezhad

    2018-02-01

    and LAR decreased significantly. Severe drought stress reduced RWC, LAI and LAR about 30 and 75 and 50 percent, respectively. The reason of LAI reduction in drought stress conditions was due to decreasing cellular turgecense and falling leaves at the onset of reproductive growth stage. By inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi species Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices in compare to non-inoculation, seed yield improved about 33 and 11 percent, respectively. It may be due to the effects of mycorrhizae on absorption of phosphorus and sulfur, lasting more leaves on the plant, maintaining and increasing the leaf size and improving the photosynthesis by more chlorophylls. Mycorrhizae application caused an increase in seed yield and improvement of physiological traits in compare to no inoculation (control. Among different sesame landraces studied in this research, Moghan and Zanjan Tarom landraces showed a superiority in seed yield, LAI, RWC, LWR and the first lateral stem above ground in compare to other landraces. It was also found that a significant proportion of seed yield reduction caused by drought stress was due to deterioration of physiological traits studied in this study. Conclusion The results showed that increasing LAI caused more absorption of light and ultimately seed yield incensement. Among different sesame landraces studied in this research, Moghan and Zanjan Tarom landrace showed a superiority in yield and physiological indices in compare to other landraces. Also it was found that a significant proportion of yield reduction caused by drought stress was due to deterioration of physiological indices studied in this study. Based on the results of this study, application of Mycorrhizae species, especially G. mosseae, is recommended as an effective approach for increasing seed yield and improvement physiological traits in sesame.

  18. Triangular lipodermal flaps in Wise pattern reduction mammoplasty (superomedial pedicle): A novel technique to reduce T-junction necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Haitham H; Malahias, Marco; Shetty, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Although Wise pattern reduction mammoplasty is one of the most prevalent procedures providing satisfactory cutaneous reduction, it is at the expense of inevitable lengthier scars and wound complications, especially at the inverted T junction. To describe a novel technique providing tension-free closure at the T junction through performing triangular lipodermal flaps. The aim is to alleviate skin tension, thus reducing skin necrosis, dehiscence and excessive scarring at the T junction. One hundred seventy-three consecutive procedures were performed on 137 patients between 2009 and 2013. Data collected included demographics, perioperative morbidity and resected breast tissue weight. The follow-up period ranged from three to 30 months; early and late postoperative complications and patient satisfaction were recorded. Superficial epidermolysis without T-junction dehiscence was experienced in eight (4.6%) procedures while five (2.9%) procedures developed full-thickness wound dehiscence. Ninety-four percent of patients were highly satisfied with the outcome. The technique is safe, versatile and easy to execute, providing a tension-free zone and acting as internal dermal sling, thus providing better wound healing with more favourable aesthetic outcome and maintaining breast projection.

  19. A Robust Computational Technique for Model Order Reduction of Two-Time-Scale Discrete Systems via Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman M. K. Alsmadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust computational technique for model order reduction (MOR of multi-time-scale discrete systems (single input single output (SISO and multi-input multioutput (MIMO is presented in this paper. This work is motivated by the singular perturbation of multi-time-scale systems where some specific dynamics may not have significant influence on the overall system behavior. The new approach is proposed using genetic algorithms (GA with the advantage of obtaining a reduced order model, maintaining the exact dominant dynamics in the reduced order, and minimizing the steady state error. The reduction process is performed by obtaining an upper triangular transformed matrix of the system state matrix defined in state space representation along with the elements of B, C, and D matrices. The GA computational procedure is based on maximizing the fitness function corresponding to the response deviation between the full and reduced order models. The proposed computational intelligence MOR method is compared to recently published work on MOR techniques where simulation results show the potential and advantages of the new approach.

  20. Testing of indoor radon-reduction techniques in basement houses having adjoining wings. Final report, August 1988-September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messing, M.

    1990-11-01

    The report gives results of tests of indoor radon reduction techniques in 12 existing Maryland houses, with the objective of determining when basement houses with adjoining wings require active soil depressurization (ASD) treatment of both wings, and when treatment of the basement alone is sufficient. In five basement houses with adjoining slabs on grade, ASD treatment of both wings provided an incremental additional radon reduction of 0 to 5.2 pCi/L, compared to ASD treatment of either one of the slabs alone. However, basement-only treatment reduced radon to <4 pCi/L in all five houses. In six basement houses having adjoining crawl spaces, ASD treatment of both wings (including sub-liner depressurization of the crawl space) provided little additional reduction compared to basement-only treatment, when sub-slab communication was good. When communication was not good, treatment of both wings was required to achieve <4 pCi/L. Tests of one fully slab-on-grade house showed that, when there is good aggregate under the slab, a one-pipe sub-slab depressurization system can achieve <1-2 pCi/L, even when there are forced-air supply ducts under the slab

  1. Yield strength, shear stress and toughness of YBCO samples textured by Bridgman technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, J J; Capdevila, X G; Martinez, M; Segarra, M; Jimenez-Pique, E

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical properties of the orthorhombic phase of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (Y-123) at room temperature have been investigated at different applied loads using nanoindentation technique. The study was carried out for several monodomains on the (001) planes for textured Bridgman samples with dispersed Y 2 BaCuO 5 (Y-211) particles as pinning centers. The yield strength (σ ys ), shear stress (τ m ) and toughness (K IC ) of Y123/Y211composite was determined at different applied loads. First and second mechanical properties have been calculated though the Hertz equations and the last one with Lawn et al. equations. Finally, the ultra-low imprints obtained by nanoindentation have been correlated with parameters obtained by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM)

  2. A scaled underwater launch system accomplished by stress wave propagation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yanpeng; Wang Yiwei; Huang Chenguang; Fang Xin; Duan Zhuping

    2011-01-01

    A scaled underwater launch system based on the stress wave theory and the slip Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) technique is developed to study the phenomenon of cavitations and other hydrodynamic features of high-speed submerged bodies. The present system can achieve a transient acceleration in the water instead of long-time acceleration outside the water. The projectile can obtain a maximum speed of 30 m/s in about 200 μs by the SHPB launcher. The cavitation characteristics in the stage of acceleration and deceleration are captured by the high-speed camera. The processes of cavitation inception, development and collapse are also simulated with the business software FLUENT, and the results are in good agreement with experiment. There is about 20-30% energy loss during the launching processes, the mechanism of energy loss is also preliminary investigated by measuring the energy of the incident bar and the projectile. (authors)

  3. Simulation of root water uptake. II. Non-uniform transient water stress using different reduction functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homaee, M.; Feddes, R.A.; Dirksen, C.

    2002-01-01

    The macroscopic root water uptake approach was used in the numerical simulation model HYSWASOR to test four different pressure head-dependent reduction functions. The input parameter values were obtained from the literature and derived from extensive measurements under controlled conditions in the

  4. Effect of refining techniques on stress corrosion cracking behaviour of Inconel X-750

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, B.; Moore, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    High-strength age-hardenable nickel-base superalloy Inconel X-750, is susceptible to severe intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) when used in the triple heat-treated condition. In this research, the slow strain-rate technique has been employed to evaluate the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of alloy X-750 under simulated nuclear pressurized water reactor (PWR) conditions, using an automated autoclave system at 8 x 10 6 N m -2 pressure and 289 0 C temperature. The alloys produced via electroslag refining (ESR) or vacuum arc refining (VAR) processing routes containing 0.004% and 0.011% sulphur, respectively, were solution annealed at either 1075 or 1240 0 C for 2 h and water quenched followed by ageing in the 704 to 871 0 C temperature range for up to 200 h, followed by air cooling or furnace cooling. The scanning electron microscopy performed on fractured surfaces revealed that Inconel X-750 processed through the ESR route, solution annealed at 1240 0 C for 2 h and water quenched, aged at 871 0 C for 200 h and furnace cooled provided the best combination of strength, ductility and resistance to SCC. A less sensitized area adjacent to the grain boundary was responsible for the improvement in properties and the alloy X-750 is recommended for PWR applications in the above conditions of processing and heat treatment. (author)

  5. Techniques for Interface Stress Measurements within Prosthetic Sockets of Transtibial Amputees: A Review of the Past 50 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fakih, Ebrahim A; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Mahmad Adikan, Faisal Rafiq

    2016-07-20

    The distribution of interface stresses between the residual limb and prosthetic socket of a transtibial amputee has been considered as a direct indicator of the socket quality fit and comfort. Therefore, researchers have been very interested in quantifying these interface stresses in order to evaluate the extent of any potential damage caused by the socket to the residual limb tissues. During the past 50 years a variety of measurement techniques have been employed in an effort to identify sites of excessive stresses which may lead to skin breakdown, compare stress distributions in various socket designs, and evaluate interface cushioning and suspension systems, among others. The outcomes of such measurement techniques have contributed to improving the design and fitting of transtibial sockets. This article aims to review the operating principles, advantages, and disadvantages of conventional and emerging techniques used for interface stress measurements inside transtibial sockets. It also reviews and discusses the evolution of different socket concepts and interface stress investigations conducted in the past five decades, providing valuable insights into the latest trends in socket designs and the crucial considerations for effective stress measurement tools that lead to a functional prosthetic socket.

  6. Student Well-Being Interventions: The Effects of Stress Management Techniques and Gratitude Journaling in the Management Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinchbaugh, Carol L.; Moore, E. Whitney G.; Chang, Young K.; May, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Student well-being in the management classroom is of concern to both educators and managers. Well-being is conceptualized here as students' reduction in stress, enhanced experienced meaning and engagement in the classroom, and, ultimately, heightened satisfaction with life. The authors investigated whether purposeful semester-long classroom…

  7. REDUCTION OF HERBICIDE AND WATER STRESS IN SPRING BARLEY BY REGULATORS OF POLYAMINE BIOSYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Trebichalský

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out under artificial light of fluorescent lamps starting with 60 % full water capacity which was afterwards decreased on 40 % and finally the plants of barley were not watered. 30 plants of this cereal after plant emergence were thinned on 22 pieces. Experiment was treated by triazine herbicide, as well as its mixtures of regulators of polyamine synthesis: γ-aminobutyric acid, 1.3-propylenediamine dihydrochloride and salicyl acid. Solo application of triazine herbicide during water stress had negative balance on formation of root and above ground biomass. Addition of regulators of polyamine synthesis had positive effects on mentioned parameters, but not in comparison to control variant. These stress factors were eliminated most significantly only the application of GABA (100 g.ha-1 in mixture with herbicide.

  8. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  9. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Reduction in Medical Education: Humor as an Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Narula

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved in medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. Objective of the study was to explore the effectiveness of humor when used as intervention in large group teaching over negative emotions amongst students. Method: The present Interventional, Randomized control trial study was carried out on medical students of 4th Semester of RMCH, Bareilly, which has total 90 students. Using simple random sampling lottery method the whole class was divided in two groups-A and B consisting of 45 students each. Group A as control group and Group B experimental group. In first and last lecture of both groups Dass-21 was used as measuring scale, for depression, anxiety and stress and results were compared to see the effect of humor on these three negative emotions. Result: Comparison of Severe and Extremely severe Stress: In Group A 40.54% in class -1 increased to 47.54% in class- 4, while in group B initial 13.15 % was reduced to 0 % (highly significant. Anxiety: In group A, after Class 1 -57.45% increased to 61.11% after class 4, while in group B, after class 1- 23.68% reduced to 2.27% only (highly significant. Depression: In group A, after Class 1 - 40.53% & 41.66 % after class 4 (not significant, while in group B, after class 1- 18.41% reduced to 0% (highly significant. Conclusion: In present study humor was found to be very effective intervention in relieving students on their negative emotions of depression, anxiety and stress to a larger extent. Further research would justify the use of humor as an effective teaching aid in medical education.

  10. Stress Reduction in Postcardiac Surgery Family Members: Implementation of a Postcardiac Surgery Tool Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breisinger, Lauren; Macci Bires, Angela; Cline, Thomas W

    The intensive care unit (ICU) can be a place of stress, anxiety, and emotional instability for both patients and families. Medical and nursing care during this acute time is patient focused, and family members are often left in the dark. Unintentional exclusion from information results in high levels of stress, anxiety, and uncertainty for families. Due to the acuity of illness, family members of cardiac surgery patients experience the highest levels of stress. Spouses may experience intense psychosomatic symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and fear for several months after the surgery. The purpose of this study was aimed at decreasing those feelings of anxiety in family members with postcardiac surgery through the use of a cardiac surgery tool kit. The study was a quality improvement project utilizing a convenience sample of 83 participants 18 years and older. Participants were asked to use the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Form Y-1 (state anxiety) to rate their anxiety level preintervention and then again postintervention. Data were collected over a 6-month period. Descriptive data including age, education level, ethnicity, relationship, experience in the ICU, and active diagnoses of mental disorders did not affect the changes in the pre- and posttest data. A paired t test was conducted on the sample to assess changes in state anxiety, using the STAI Form Y-1. The results were statistically significant (t = 11.97, df = 81, P family members of postcardiac surgery patients.

  11. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women with PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The results of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of MBSR as an…

  12. Fast patient-specific Monte Carlo brachytherapy dose calculations via the correlated sampling variance reduction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, Andrew; Le Yi; Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    heterogeneous doses. On an AMD 1090T processor, computing times of 38 and 21 sec were required to achieve an average statistical uncertainty of 2% within the prostate (1 x 1 x 1 mm{sup 3}) and breast (0.67 x 0.67 x 0.8 mm{sup 3}) CTVs, respectively. Conclusions: CMC supports an additional average 38-60 fold improvement in average efficiency relative to conventional uncorrelated MC techniques, although some voxels experience no gain or even efficiency losses. However, for the two investigated case studies, the maximum variance within clinically significant structures was always reduced (on average by a factor of 6) in the therapeutic dose range generally. CMC takes only seconds to produce an accurate, high-resolution, low-uncertainly dose distribution for the low-energy PSB implants investigated in this study.

  13. Development of the ultra-microhardness technique for evaluating stress-strain properties of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, K.; Shinohara, K.; Kinoshita, C.; Yamada, M.; Arai, M.

    1994-01-01

    A method is proposed for evaluating the strain-hardening exponent (n) and the 0.2% yield stress (σ 0.2 ) for fcc metals solely through the ultra-microhardness technique. To this end, ultra-microhardness (H um ) and Vickers hardness (H v ) measurements together with tensile tests were carried out for Ni and Al with various n and σ 0.2 . The value of H v is proportional to H um at the load P, and the proportional constant depends on P but scarcely on metals. The ratio of H um (P)/H um 0 (P) is scaled solely by n as a linear function independent of the specific metal, where H um 0 (P) is the value of H um (P) of specimens which show no strain-hardening. Based on the results and Cahoon's relation which relates H v , σ 0.2 and n, the values of n and σ 0.2 are evaluated solely through the ultra-microhardness technique. The proposed equation can be explained in terms of a constitutive equation for polycrystalline metals. ((orig.))

  14. Theoretical Research on Thermal Shock Resistance of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics Focusing on the Adjustment of Stress Reduction Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daining Fang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermal shock resistance of ceramics depends on not only the mechanical and thermal properties of materials, but also the external constraint and thermal condition. So, in order to study the actual situation in its service process, a temperature-dependent thermal shock resistance model for ultra-high temperature ceramics considering the effects of the thermal environment and external constraint was established based on the existing theory. The present work mainly focused on the adjustment of the stress reduction factor according to different thermal shock situations. The influences of external constraint on both critical rupture temperature difference and the second thermal shock resistance parameter in either case of rapid heating or cooling conditions had been studied based on this model. The results show the necessity of adjustment of the stress reduction factor in different thermal shock situations and the limitations of the applicable range of the second thermal shock resistance parameter. Furthermore, the model was validated by the finite element method.

  15. Examining mindfulness-based stress reduction: Perceptions from minority older adults residing in a low-income housing facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connolly Amy B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR programs are becoming increasingly common, but have not been studied in low income minority older populations. We sought to understand which parts of MBSR were most important to practicing MBSR members of this population, and to understand whether they apply their training to daily challenges. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 13 current members of an MBSR program. Participants were African American women over the age of 60 in a low-income housing residence. We tape recorded each session and subsequently used inductive content analysis to identify primary themes. Results and discussion Analysis of the focus group responses revealed three primary themes stress management, applying mindfulness, and the social support of the group meditation. The stressors they cited using MBSR with included growing older with physical pain, medical tests, financial strain, and having grandchildren with significant mental, physical, financial or legal hardships. We found that participants particularly used their MBSR training for coping with medical procedures, and managing both depression and anger. Conclusion A reflective stationary intervention delivered in-residence could be an ideal mechanism to decrease stress in low-income older adult's lives and improve their health.

  16. Finite Element Analysis for Fatigue Damage Reduction in Metallic Riveted Bridges Using Pre-Stressed CFRP Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyas Ghafoori

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many old riveted steel bridges remain operational and require retrofit to accommodate ever increasing demands. Complicating retrofit efforts, riveted steel bridges are often considered historical structures where structural modifications that affect the original construction are to be avoided. The presence of rivets along with preservation requirements often prevent the use of traditional retrofit methods, such as bonding of fiber reinforced composites, or the addition of supplementary steel elements. In this paper, an un-bonded post-tensioning retrofit method is numerically investigated using existing railway riveted bridge geometry in Switzerland. The finite element (FE model consists of a global dynamic model for the whole bridge and a more refined sub-model for a riveted joint. The FE model results include dynamic effects from axle loads and are compared with field measurements. Pre-stressed un-bonded carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP plates will be considered for the strengthening elements. Fatigue critical regions of the bridge are identified, and the effects of the un-bonded post-tensioning method with different pre-stress levels on fatigue susceptibility are explored. With an applied 40% CFRP pre-stress, fatigue damage reductions of more than 87% and 85% are achieved at the longitudinal-to-cross beam connections and cross-beam bottom flanges, respectively.

  17. Reduction of the Oxidative Stress Status Using Steviol Glycosides in a Fish Model (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livier Mireya Sánchez-Aceves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Steviol glycosides are sweetening compounds from the Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant. This product is considered safe for human consumption and was approved as a food additive by the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA. Its effects on the ecosystem have not been studied in depth; therefore, it is necessary to carry out ecotoxicological studies in organisms such as Cyprinus carpio. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity by SGs on diverse tissues in C. carpio using oxidative stress (OS biomarkers. To test the antioxidant activity, carps were exposed to four systems: (1 SGs free control, (2 CCl4 0.5 mL/kg, (3 SGs 1 g/L, and (4 CCl4 0.5 mL/kg + SGs 1 g/L at 96 h. The following biomarkers were analyzed: lipoperoxidation (LPX, hydroperoxide content (HPC, and protein carbonyl content (PCC, as well as antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. It was found that both (3 and 4 systems’ exposure decreases LPX, CHP, PCC, SOD, and CAT with respect to the CCl4 system. The results of this study demonstrate that the concentrations of SGs used are not capable of generating oxidative stress and, on the contrary, would appear to induce an antioxidant effect.

  18. Reduction of the Oxidative Stress Status Using Steviol Glycosides in a Fish Model (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Aceves, Livier Mireya; Dublán-García, Octavio; López-Martínez, Leticia-Xochitl; Novoa-Luna, Karen Adriana; Islas-Flores, Hariz; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Medina, Sandra; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Steviol glycosides are sweetening compounds from the Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant. This product is considered safe for human consumption and was approved as a food additive by the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Its effects on the ecosystem have not been studied in depth; therefore, it is necessary to carry out ecotoxicological studies in organisms such as Cyprinus carpio . The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity by SGs on diverse tissues in C. carpio using oxidative stress (OS) biomarkers. To test the antioxidant activity, carps were exposed to four systems: (1) SGs free control, (2) CCl 4 0.5 mL/kg, (3) SGs 1 g/L, and (4) CCl 4 0.5 mL/kg + SGs 1 g/L at 96 h. The following biomarkers were analyzed: lipoperoxidation (LPX), hydroperoxide content (HPC), and protein carbonyl content (PCC), as well as antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). It was found that both (3 and 4) systems' exposure decreases LPX, CHP, PCC, SOD, and CAT with respect to the CCl 4 system. The results of this study demonstrate that the concentrations of SGs used are not capable of generating oxidative stress and, on the contrary, would appear to induce an antioxidant effect.

  19. A study on the Stress Corrosion Cracking reduction method of Steam Generator secondary side of KSNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, June Hoon; Lee, Goune Jin

    2014-01-01

    In order to avoid sludge accumulation affecting the life of the steam generator, the best way is to prevent the sludge inflow in advance by optimization of water quality management through chemical concentration and pH control etc. However it is very difficult to prevent sludge accumulation under the weak condition of corrosion, such as condensation, boiling and high temperature of feed-water in NPPs. Particularly stress corrosion cracking occurs in a top-of-tube sheet area of steam generator with an increase in number of operation years of Korea Standard Nuclear Plant(KSNP)... The purpose of this study is to improve suppression of stress corrosion cracking and life extension for steam generator and improve plant efficiency by performing full length bulk high chemical cleaning in order to remove iron oxide of steam generator secondary side in KSNP Hanbit Unit 6. This study analyzed the Free EDTA and Fe concentrations and sludge removal after performed full length bulk high temperature chemical cleaning for removing the iron oxide of steam generator secondary side, which of Hanbit unit 6 of KSNP. 1) It showed a typical pattern that Fe concentration increased in accordance with to decrease Free EDTA(Ethylene Diamine Tetea acetic Acid) concentration. 2) Sludge removal based on iron oxide after performing the full length bulk high temperature chemical cleaning was 3001kg and sludge removal by lancing additionally was 200.1kg

  20. In situ time-of-flight neutron imaging of NiO-YSZ anode support reduction under influence of stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makowska, Malgorzata Grazyna; Strobl, Markus; Lauridsen, Erik M.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on in situ macroscopic scale imaging of NiO-YSZ (YSZ is yttria-stabilized zirconia) reduction under applied stress - a phase transition taking place in solid oxide electrochemical cells in a reducing atmosphere of a hydrogen/nitrogen mixture and at operation temperatures of u...... of applying energy-resolved neutron imaging with both approaches to the NiO-YSZ reduction investigation indicate enhancement of the reduction rate due to applied stress, which is consistent with the results of the authors’ previous research....

  1. Inhibition of macrophage oxidative stress prevents the reduction of ABCA-1 transporter induced by advanced glycated albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Pinto, Raphael; Castilho, Gabriela; Paim, Bruno Alves; Machado-Lima, Adriana; Inada, Natalia M; Nakandakare, Edna Regina; Vercesi, Aníbal Eugênio; Passarelli, Marisa

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the role of aminoguanidine and benfotiamine on the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in macrophages induced by advanced glycated albumin (AGE-albumin) and its relationship with cell cholesterol homeostasis, emphasizing the expression of the ATP binding cassette transporter A-1 (ABCA-1). AGE-albumin was made by incubating fatty acid-free albumin with 10 mM glycolaldehyde. ROS production and ABCA-1 protein level were determined by flow cytometry in J774 macrophages treated along time with control (C) or AGE-albumin alone or in the presence of aminoguanidine or benfotiamine. Mitochondrial function was evaluated by oxygraphy. Compared to C-albumin, AGE-albumin increased ROS production in macrophages, which was ascribed to the activities of NADPH oxidase and of the mitochondrial system. Mitochondrial respiratory chain activity was reduced in cells incubated with AGE-albumin. ROS generation along time was associated with the reduction in macrophage ABCA-1 protein level. Aminoguanidine prevented ROS elevation and restored the ABCA-1 content in macrophages; on the other hand, benfotiamine that promoted a lesser reduction in ROS generation was not able to restore ABCA-1 levels. Inhibition of oxidative stress induced by AGE-albumin prevents disturbances in reverse cholesterol transport by curbing the reduction of ABCA-1 elicited by advanced glycation in macrophages and therefore may contribute to the prevention of atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus.

  2. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  3. New techniques for cutting and decontamination for decommissioning of nuclear research reactors with consideration of cost reduction. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, W.; Redeker, C.F.; Versemann, R.

    2003-06-01

    In decommissioning of research reactors, specific boundary conditions, such as special materials, nuclides, geometries, spatial circumstances exist. This project aims on the development and adaptation of progressive procedures for decommissioning tasks with respect to economical aspects (cost reduction). Explored are Laser Cutting techniques, especially the cutting of aluminium in atmosphere and under water, remote- and manually controlled; decontamination and removal of concrete and ceramics by a combined diodelaser / cryogenic carbon dioxide thermal shock treatment (dry ice blasting) as well as cutting with the water-abrasive-suspension-jet and the plasma beam. The project will lead to application in the decommissioning of PTB's FRMB (research reactor of Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany). (orig.) [de

  4. Colloidal silver nanoparticles prepared by UV-light induced citrate reduction technique for the quantitative detection of uric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Anupam; Panda, Sovan Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Reddish-yellow color colloid consisting of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) has been synthesized by reducing aqueous AgNO3 solution by photo-induced citrate reduction technique under UV light. As prepared colloid exhibits single and intense plasmonic absorption peak in the violet region of the visible spectra with the peak centered at 405 nm. The NPs are fine and spherical with diameter ranging from 5 to 10 nm. These colloidal NPs have been used for the quantitative detection of uric acid by UV-VIS spectroscopy. A linear red shifting of the characteristics Plasmonic absorption peak of Ag NPs is observed with uric acid concentration. Uric acid can be detected by UV-VIS spectroscopy down to 5 nM limit using the prepared colloid.

  5. Unraveling the nature of electric field- and stress- induced structural transformations in soft PZT by a new powder poling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, Ajay Kumar; V, Lalitha K; James, Ajit R; Fitch, Andy; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2015-02-25

    A 'powder-poling' technique was developed to study electric field induced structural transformations in ferroelectrics exhibiting a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The technique was employed on soft PZT exhibiting a large longitudinal piezoelectric response (d(33) ∼ 650 pC N(-1)). It was found that electric poling brings about a considerable degree of irreversible tetragonal to monoclinic transformation. The same transformation was achieved after subjecting the specimen to mechanical stress, which suggests an equivalence of stress and electric field with regard to the structural mechanism in MPB compositions. The electric field induced structural transformation was also found to be accompanied by a decrease in the spatial coherence of polarization.

  6. Application of magnetomechanical hysteresis modeling to magnetic techniques for monitoring neutron embrittlement and biaxial stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sablik, M.J.; Kwun, H.; Rollwitz, W.L.; Cadena, D.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to investigate experimentally and theoretically the effects of neutron embrittlement and biaxial stress on magnetic properties in steels, using various magnetic measurement techniques. Interaction between experiment and modeling should suggest efficient magnetic measurement procedures for determining neutron embrittlement biaxial stress. This should ultimately assist in safety monitoring of nuclear power plants and of gas and oil pipelines. In the first six months of this first year study, magnetic measurements were made on steel surveillance specimens from the Indian Point 2 and D.C. Cook 2 reactors. The specimens previously had been characterized by Charpy tests after specified neutron fluences. Measurements now included: (1) hysteresis loop measurement of coercive force, permeability and remanence, (2) Barkhausen noise amplitude; and (3) higher order nonlinear harmonic analysis of a 1 Hz magnetic excitation. Very good correlation of magnetic parameters with fluence and embrittlement was found for specimens from the Indian Point 2 reactor. The D.C. Cook 2 specimens, however showed poor correlation. Possible contributing factors to this are: (1) metallurgical differences between D.C. Cook 2 and Indian Point 2 specimens; (2) statistical variations in embrittlement parameters for individual samples away from the stated men values; and (3) conversion of the D.C. Cook 2 reactor to a low leakage core configuration in the middle of the period of surveillance. Modeling using a magnetomechanical hysteresis model has begun. The modeling will first focus on why Barkhausen noise and nonlinear harmonic amplitudes appear to be better indicators of embrittlement than the hysteresis loop parameters

  7. Balloon osteoplasty--a new technique for reduction and stabilisation of impression fractures in the tibial plateau: a cadaver study and first clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Philipp; Sandmann, Gunther; Bauer, Jan; König, Benjamin; Martetschläger, Frank; Müller, Dirk; Siebenlist, Sebastian; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Neumaier, Markus; Biberthaler, Peter; Stöckle, Ulrich; Freude, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are among the most severe injuries of the knee joint and lead to advanced gonarthrosis if the reduction does not restore perfect joint congruency. Many different reduction techniques focusing on open surgical procedures have been described in the past. In this context we would like to introduce a novel technique which was first tested in a cadaver setup and has undergone its successful first clinical application. Since kyphoplasty demonstrated effective ways of anatomical correction in spine fractures, we adapted the inflatable instruments and used the balloon technique to reduce depressed fragments of the tibial plateau. The technique enabled us to restore a congruent cartilage surface and bone reduction. In this technique we see a useful new method to reduce depressed fractures of the tibial plateau with the advantages of low collateral damage as it is known from minimally invasive procedures.

  8. Development of phased mission analysis program with Monte Carlo method. Improvement of the variance reduction technique with biasing towards top event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinan; Mihara, Takatsugu

    1998-12-01

    This report presents a variance reduction technique to estimate the reliability and availability of highly complex systems during phased mission time using the Monte Carlo simulation. In this study, we introduced the variance reduction technique with a concept of distance between the present system state and the cut set configurations. Using this technique, it becomes possible to bias the transition from the operating states to the failed states of components towards the closest cut set. Therefore a component failure can drive the system towards a cut set configuration more effectively. JNC developed the PHAMMON (Phased Mission Analysis Program with Monte Carlo Method) code which involved the two kinds of variance reduction techniques: (1) forced transition, and (2) failure biasing. However, these techniques did not guarantee an effective reduction in variance. For further improvement, a variance reduction technique incorporating the distance concept was introduced to the PHAMMON code and the numerical calculation was carried out for the different design cases of decay heat removal system in a large fast breeder reactor. Our results indicate that the technique addition of this incorporating distance concept is an effective means of further reducing the variance. (author)

  9. Reduction in Left Ventricular Wall Stress and Improvement in Function in Failing Hearts using Algisyl-LVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lik Chuan; Zhihong, Zhang; Hinson, Andrew; Guccione, Julius M.

    2013-01-01

    Injection of Algisyl-LVR, a treatment under clinical development, is intended to treat patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. This treatment was recently used for the first time in patients who had symptomatic heart failure. In all patients, cardiac function of the left ventricle (LV) improved significantly, as manifested by consistent reduction of the LV volume and wall stress. Here we describe this novel treatment procedure and the methods used to quantify its effects on LV wall stress and function. Algisyl-LVR is a biopolymer gel consisting of Na+-Alginate and Ca2+-Alginate. The treatment procedure was carried out by mixing these two components and then combining them into one syringe for intramyocardial injections. This mixture was injected at 10 to 19 locations mid-way between the base and apex of the LV free wall in patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), together with mathematical modeling, was used to quantify the effects of this treatment in patients before treatment and at various time points during recovery. The epicardial and endocardial surfaces were first digitized from the MR images to reconstruct the LV geometry at end-systole and at end-diastole. Left ventricular cavity volumes were then measured from these reconstructed surfaces. Mathematical models of the LV were created from these MRI-reconstructed surfaces to calculate regional myofiber stress. Each LV model was constructed so that 1) it deforms according to a previously validated stress-strain relationship of the myocardium, and 2) the predicted LV cavity volume from these models matches the corresponding MRI-measured volume at end-diastole and end-systole. Diastolic filling was simulated by loading the LV endocardial surface with a prescribed end-diastolic pressure. Systolic contraction was simulated by concurrently loading the endocardial surface with a prescribed end-systolic pressure and adding active contraction in the myofiber direction. Regional myofiber stress at end-diastole and

  10. Noise Reduction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Tony

    There are two distinct kinds of noise - structural and color. Each requires a specific method of attack to minimize. The great challenge is to reduce the noise without reducing the faint and delicate detail in the image. My most-used and favorite noise suppression is found in Photoshop CS 5 Camera Raw. If I cannot get the desired results with the first choice, I will use Noise Ninja, which has certain advantages in some situations that we will cover.

  11. A Study of Structural Stress Technique for Fracture Prediction of an Auto-Mobile Clutch Snap-Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Hee; Myeong, Man Sik; Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae

    2016-01-01

    The endurance reliability assessment of a highly complex mechanism is generally predicted by the fatigue life based on simple stress analysis. This study discusses various fatigue life assessment techniques for an automobile clutch snap ring. Finite element analyses were conducted to determine the structural stress on the snap ring. Structural stress that is insensitive in regards to the mesh size and type definition is presented in this study. The structural stress definition is consistent with elementary structural mechanics theory and provides an effective measure of a stress state that pertains to fatigue behavior of welded joints in the form of both membrane and bending components. Numerical procedures for both solid models and shell or plate element models are presented to demonstrate the mesh-size insensitivity when extracting the structural stress parameters. Conventional finite element models can be used with the structural stress calculations as a post-processing procedure. The two major implications from this research were: (a) structural stresses pertaining to fatigue behavior can be consistently calculated in a mesh-insensitive manner regardless of the types of finite element models; and (b) by comparing with the clutch snap-ring fatigue test data, we should predict the fatigue fractures of an automobile clutch snap ring using this method

  12. Speckle noise reduction technique for Lidar echo signal based on self-adaptive pulse-matching independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Jiaxing; Zhu, Daiyin; Tu, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Speckle noise has always been a particularly tricky problem in improving the ranging capability and accuracy of Lidar system especially in harsh environment. Currently, effective speckle de-noising techniques are extremely scarce and should be further developed. In this study, a speckle noise reduction technique has been proposed based on independent component analysis (ICA). Since normally few changes happen in the shape of laser pulse itself, the authors employed the laser source as a reference pulse and executed the ICA decomposition to find the optimal matching position. In order to achieve the self-adaptability of algorithm, local Mean Square Error (MSE) has been defined as an appropriate criterion for investigating the iteration results. The obtained experimental results demonstrated that the self-adaptive pulse-matching ICA (PM-ICA) method could effectively decrease the speckle noise and recover the useful Lidar echo signal component with high quality. Especially, the proposed method achieves 4 dB more improvement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than a traditional homomorphic wavelet method.

  13. Reliable practical technique for in-situ rock stress measurements in deep gold mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stacey, TR

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The proposed primary output of this research project is the development of a set of equipment and method of in situ stress measurements in a high stress environment typical of the deep level gold mines....

  14. Adaptive parametric model order reduction technique for optimization of vibro-acoustic models: Application to hearing aid design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creixell-Mediante, Ester; Jensen, Jakob S.; Naets, Frank; Brunskog, Jonas; Larsen, Martin

    2018-06-01

    Finite Element (FE) models of complex structural-acoustic coupled systems can require a large number of degrees of freedom in order to capture their physical behaviour. This is the case in the hearing aid field, where acoustic-mechanical feedback paths are a key factor in the overall system performance and modelling them accurately requires a precise description of the strong interaction between the light-weight parts and the internal and surrounding air over a wide frequency range. Parametric optimization of the FE model can be used to reduce the vibroacoustic feedback in a device during the design phase; however, it requires solving the model iteratively for multiple frequencies at different parameter values, which becomes highly time consuming when the system is large. Parametric Model Order Reduction (pMOR) techniques aim at reducing the computational cost associated with each analysis by projecting the full system into a reduced space. A drawback of most of the existing techniques is that the vector basis of the reduced space is built at an offline phase where the full system must be solved for a large sample of parameter values, which can also become highly time consuming. In this work, we present an adaptive pMOR technique where the construction of the projection basis is embedded in the optimization process and requires fewer full system analyses, while the accuracy of the reduced system is monitored by a cheap error indicator. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated for a 4-parameter optimization of a frequency response for a hearing aid model, evaluated at 300 frequencies, where the objective function evaluations become more than one order of magnitude faster than for the full system.

  15. Impact of biofeedback on self-efficacy and stress reduction in obesity: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Martin; Stephan, Kerstin; Kowalski, Axel; Käsberger, Saskia; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2013-09-01

    Biofeedback application is an evidence-based technique to induce relaxation. A primary mechanism of action is the improvement of self-efficacy, which is needed to facilitate the translation of health behavioral intentions into action. Obesity is often associated with low self-efficacy and dysfunctional eating patterns, including comfort eating as an inexpedient relaxation technique. This is the first study investigating the effects of biofeedback on self-efficacy and relaxation in obesity. In the present experiment, 31 women, mean body mass index 35.5 kg/m², were randomized to a food-specific biofeedback paradigm, a non-specific relaxation biofeedback paradigm, or a waiting list control. Eight sessions of biofeedback of the electrodermal activity were performed while presenting either a challenging food stimulus or a non-specific landscape stimulus. Self-efficacy, stress, ability to relax, eating behavior, and electrodermal activity were assessed before, directly after, and 3 months after the intervention. The food-specific biofeedback predominantly showed effects on food-related self-efficacy and perceived stress. The non-specific relaxation biofeedback showed effects on the ability to relax. Self-reported improvements were confirmed by corresponding decrease in the electrodermal reaction to food stimuli. Biofeedback treatment is effective in improving self-efficacy in individuals with obesity and might therefore be a valuable additional intervention in obesity treatment.

  16. Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction on somatic symptoms, distress, mindfulness and spiritual wellbeing in women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background. Women with breast cancer experience different symptoms related to surgical or adjuvant therapy. Previous findings and theoretical models of mind-body interactions suggest that psychological wellbeing, i.e. levels of distress, influence the subjective evaluation of symptoms, which...... influences or determines functioning. The eight-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program significantly reduced anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients in a randomized controlled trial (NCT00990977). In this study we tested the effect of MBSR on the burden of breast cancer related...... somatic symptoms, distress, mindfulness and spiritual wellbeing and evaluated possible effect modification by adjuvant therapy and baseline levels of, distress, mindfulness and spiritual wellbeing. Material and methods. A population-based sample of 336 women Danish women operated for breast cancer stages...

  17. The sequential pathway between trauma-related symptom severity and cognitive-based smoking processes through perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies among trauma exposed smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garey, Lorra; Cheema, Mina K; Otal, Tanveer K; Schmidt, Norman B; Neighbors, Clayton; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Smoking rates are markedly higher among trauma-exposed individuals relative to non-trauma-exposed individuals. Extant work suggests that both perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies are independent mechanisms that link trauma-related symptoms and smoking. Yet, no work has examined perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies as potential explanatory variables for the relation between trauma-related symptom severity and smoking in a sequential pathway model. Methods The present study utilized a sample of treatment-seeking, trauma-exposed smokers (n = 363; 49.0% female) to examine perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies for smoking as potential sequential explanatory variables linking trauma-related symptom severity and nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of withdrawal-related problems and symptoms during past quit attempts. As hypothesized, perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies had a significant sequential indirect effect on trauma-related symptom severity and criterion variables. Findings further elucidate the complex pathways through which trauma-related symptoms contribute to smoking behavior and cognitions, and highlight the importance of addressing perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies in smoking cessation programs among trauma-exposed individuals. (Am J Addict 2016;25:565-572). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. Application of magnetomechanical hysteresis modeling of magnetic techniques for monitoring neutron embrittlement and biaxial stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sablik, M.J.; Kwun, H.; Burkhardt, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Research was done on the biaxial stress problem accomplished in the first half of the second year. All of the work done was preparatory to magnetic measurements. Issues addressed were: construction of a model for extracting changes in the magnetic properties of a specimen from the readings of an indirect sensor; initial development of a model for how biaxial stress alters the intrinsic magnetic properties of thespecimen; use of finite element stress analysis modeling to determine a detailed shape for the cruciform biaxial stress specimen; and construction of the biaxial stress loading apparatus

  19. Effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction in drug relapse prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hamedi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness in the prevention of relapse in drug abusers. Method: Using a quasi experimental design, 90 male drug abusers who had undergone detoxification were selected from among all detoxified individuals referred to drug rehabilitation centers in the City of Tehran. Patients were placed randomly in three groups: Mindfulness training intervention, behavioral drug reduction counseling and a control group in which no intervention was applied. Diagnosis of drug abuse was made using structured clinical interview for diagnosing axis I disorders on DSMIV (SCID-I as well as tests to measure morphine levels in the blood. Fisher test was used to compare groups. Patients were assessed two weeks and two months after the intervention as follow up measure. Findings: Results show that both intervention groups were effective in preventing relapse as compared to the control group. Furthermore, the effectiveness of mindfulness training and BDRC was about the same. There were no significant differences between patients with and without experience of drug abuse and married and single patients. Conclusion: Both mindfulness training and BDRC may be considered effective practical methods in reducing the risk of relapse in male drug abusers.

  20. Reduction of Driver Stress Using AmI Technology while Driving in Motorway Merging Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Kashif; Riener, Andreas; Ferscha, Alois

    High average intensity of traffic and problems like traffic congestions, road safety, etc. are challenging problems striking highway operators in these days. With the broad application of intelligent transport systems (ITS), particularly for the most dense street sections, some of these problems can be minimized or even solved; supplementary great potential is attributed to applications based on state-of-the art technology like car-to-x communication, for instance by extending an individuals "field of vision" by observations taken from all the vehicles in front. In this work we present a simulation based approach for improving driving experience and increasing road safety in merging sections by redirecting vehicles in advance according to a negotiation of requirements and desires of the flowing traffic on the main road and cars merging from the entrance lane. The simulation experiments performed in a cellular automaton based environment were data driven and on real scale, using traffic flow data on a minute-by-minute basis from a large urban motorway in a main city of the European Union. Our results have shown that the application of AmI technology has potential to influence driver's behavior (seamlessly invoking for a lane change well before an abrupt merging point) resulting in a reduction of panic, particularly for sections with limited range of view.

  1. Cesium and strontium fractionation from HLW for thermal-stress reduction in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.

    1983-02-01

    Results are described for a study to assess the benefits and costs of fractionating the cesium and strontium components in commercial high-level waste (HLW) to a separate waste stream for the purpose of reducing geologic repository thermal stresses. System costs are developed for a broad range of conditions comparing the Cs/Sr fractionation concept with disposal of 10-year old vitrified HLW and vitrified HLW aged to achieve (through decay) the same heat output as the fractionated high-level waste (FHLW). All comparisons are based on a 50,000 metric ton equivalent (MTE) system. The FHLW and the Cs/Sr waste are both disposed of a vitrified waste but emplaced in separate areas of a basalt repository. The FHLW is emplaced in high-integrity packages at relatively high waste loading but low heat loading, while the Cs/Sr waste is emplaced in minimum integrity packages at relatively high heat loading. System cost comparisons are based on minimum cost combinations of canister diameter, waste concentration, and canister spacing in a basalt repository for each waste type. The effects on both long- and near-term safety considerations are also addressed. The major conclusion is that the Cs/Sr fractionation concept offers, potentially, a substantial total system cost advantage for HLW disposal if reduced HLW package temperatures in a basalt repository are desired. However, there is no cost advantage if currently designated maximum design temperatures are acceptable. Aging the HLW for 50 to 100 years can accomplish similar results at equivalent or loser costs

  2. Students and teachers benefit from Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in a school-embedded pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eGouda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is a research gap in studies that evaluate the effectiveness of a school-embedded mindfulness-based intervention for both students and teachers. To address this gap, the present pilot study reviews relevant literature and investigates whether students and teachers who participate in separate Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR courses show improvements across a variety of psychological variables including areas of mental health and creativity. Methods: The study applied a controlled waitlist design with three measurement points. A total of 29 students (n = 15 in the intervention and n = 14 in the waitlist group and 29 teachers (n = 14 in the intervention and n = 15 in the waitlist group completed questionnaires before and after the MBSR course. The intervention group was also assessed after a four-month follow-up period. Results: Relative to the control group, significant improvements in self-reported stress, self-regulation, school-specific self-efficacy and interpersonal problems were found among the students who participated in the MBSR course (p < .05, Cohens` d ranges from 0.62-0.68. Medium effect sizes on mindfulness, anxiety and creativity indicate a realistic potential in those areas. By contrast, teachers in the intervention group showed significantly higher self-reported mindfulness levels and reduced interpersonal problems compared to the control group(p < .05, Cohens` d = 0.66 and 0.42, respectively, with medium effect sizes on anxiety and emotion regulation. Conclusion: The present findings contribute to a growing body of studies investigating mindfulness in schools by discussing the similarities and differences in the effects of MBSR on students and teachers as well as stressing the importance of investigating interpersonal effects.

  3. Constitutive Modeling of the Flow Stress of GCr15 Continuous Casting Bloom in the Heavy Reduction Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cheng; Wang, Zilin; Wu, Chenhui; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2018-04-01

    According to the calculation results of a 3D thermomechanical-coupled finite-element (FE) model of GCr15 bearing steel bloom during a heavy reduction (HR) process, the variation ranges in the strain rate and strain under HR were described. In addition, the hot deformation behavior of the GCr15 bearing steel was studied over the temperature range from 1023 K to 1573 K (750 °C to 1300 °C) with strain rates of 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 s-1 in single-pass thermosimulation compression experiments. To ensure the accuracy of the constitutive model, the temperature range was divided into two temperature intervals according to the fully austenitic temperature of GCr15 steel [1173 K (900 °C)]. Two sets of material parameters for the constitutive model were derived based on the true stress-strain curves of the two temperature intervals. A flow stress constitutive model was established using a revised Arrhenius-type constitutive equation, which considers the relationships among the material parameters and true strain. This equation describes dynamic softening during hot compression processes. Considering the effect of glide and climb on the deformation mechanism, the Arrhenius-type constitutive equation was modified by a physically based approach. This model is the most accurate over the temperatures ranging from 1173 K to 1573 K (900 °C to 1300 °C) under HR deformation conditions (ignoring the range from 1273 K to 1573 K (1000 °C to 1300 °C) with a strain rate of 0.1 s-1). To ensure the convergence of the FE calculation, an approximated method was used to estimate the flow stress at temperatures greater than 1573 K (1300 °C).

  4. Residual stress evaluation in brittle coatings using indentation technique combined with in-situ bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futakawa, Masatoshi; Steinbrech, R.W.; Tanabe, Yuji; Hara, Toshiaki

    2000-01-01

    The indentation crack length approach was adopted and further elaborated to evaluate residual stress and toughness of the brittle coatings: two kinds of glass coatings on steel. The influence of the residual stress on indentation cracking was examined in as-received coating condition and by in-situ superimposing a counteracting tensile stress. For purpose of providing reference toughness values stress-free pieces of separated coating material have also been examined. Thus results of the two complementary sets of experiments were assumed to prove self-consistently toughness and residual stress data of the coating. In particular, the in-situ bending of specimen in combination with the indentation test allowed us to vary deliberately the residual stress situation in glass coating. Thus experiments which utilized the combination of bending test and micro-indentation were introduced as a method to provide unambiguous information about residual compressive stress. Toughness and residual compressive stress of glass coatings used in this study were 0.46-0.50 MPa·m 1/2 and 94-111 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, a thermoelastic calculation of the residual compressive stress was performed and it is found that the value of residual compressive stress at coating surface of specimen was 90-102 MPa. (author)

  5. Early Life Stress-Related Elevations in Reaction Time Variability Are Associated with Brain Volume Reductions in HIV+ Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uraina S. Clark

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is burgeoning evidence that, among HIV+ adults, exposure to high levels of early life stress (ELS is associated with increased cognitive impairment as well as brain volume abnormalities and elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Currently, we have a limited understanding of the degree to which cognitive difficulties observed in HIV+ High-ELS samples reflect underlying neural abnormalities rather than increases in neuropsychiatric symptoms. Here, we utilized a behavioral marker of cognitive function, reaction time intra-individual variability (RT-IIV, which is sensitive to both brain volume reductions and neuropsychiatric symptoms, to elucidate the unique contributions of brain volume abnormalities and neuropsychiatric symptoms to cognitive difficulties in HIV+ High-ELS adults. We assessed the relation of RT-IIV to neuropsychiatric symptom levels and total gray and white matter volumes in 44 HIV+ adults (26 with high ELS. RT-IIV was examined during a working memory task. Self-report measures assessed current neuropsychiatric symptoms (depression, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify total gray and white matter volumes. Compared to Low-ELS participants, High-ELS participants exhibited elevated RT-IIV, elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms, and reduced gray and white matter volumes. Across the entire sample, RT-IIV was significantly associated with gray and white matter volumes, whereas significant associations with neuropsychiatric symptoms were not observed. In the High-ELS group, despite the presence of elevated neuropsychiatric symptom levels, brain volume reductions explained more than 13% of the variance in RT-IIV, whereas neuropsychiatric symptoms explained less than 1%. Collectively, these data provide evidence that, in HIV+ High-ELS adults, ELS-related cognitive difficulties (as indexed by RT-IIV exhibit strong associations with global brain volumes, whereas ELS-related elevations in

  6. An implicit scheme with memory reduction technique for steady state solutions of DVBE in all flow regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L. M.; Shu, C.; Yang, W. M.; Wu, J.

    2018-04-01

    High consumption of memory and computational effort is the major barrier to prevent the widespread use of the discrete velocity method (DVM) in the simulation of flows in all flow regimes. To overcome this drawback, an implicit DVM with a memory reduction technique for solving a steady discrete velocity Boltzmann equation (DVBE) is presented in this work. In the method, the distribution functions in the whole discrete velocity space do not need to be stored, and they are calculated from the macroscopic flow variables. As a result, its memory requirement is in the same order as the conventional Euler/Navier-Stokes solver. In the meantime, it is more efficient than the explicit DVM for the simulation of various flows. To make the method efficient for solving flow problems in all flow regimes, a prediction step is introduced to estimate the local equilibrium state of the DVBE. In the prediction step, the distribution function at the cell interface is calculated by the local solution of DVBE. For the flow simulation, when the cell size is less than the mean free path, the prediction step has almost no effect on the solution. However, when the cell size is much larger than the mean free path, the prediction step dominates the solution so as to provide reasonable results in such a flow regime. In addition, to further improve the computational efficiency of the developed scheme in the continuum flow regime, the implicit technique is also introduced into the prediction step. Numerical results showed that the proposed implicit scheme can provide reasonable results in all flow regimes and increase significantly the computational efficiency in the continuum flow regime as compared with the existing DVM solvers.

  7. Background field removal technique using regularization enabled sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data with varying kernel sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Hirohito; Kasai, Harumasa; Arai, Nobuyuki; Kunitomo, Hiroshi; Hirose, Yasujiro; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2016-09-01

    An effective background field removal technique is desired for more accurate quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) prior to dipole inversion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of regularization enabled sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data with varying spherical kernel sizes (REV-SHARP) method using a three-dimensional head phantom and human brain data. The proposed REV-SHARP method used the spherical mean value operation and Tikhonov regularization in the deconvolution process, with varying 2-14mm kernel sizes. The kernel sizes were gradually reduced, similar to the SHARP with varying spherical kernel (VSHARP) method. We determined the relative errors and relationships between the true local field and estimated local field in REV-SHARP, VSHARP, projection onto dipole fields (PDF), and regularization enabled SHARP (RESHARP). Human experiment was also conducted using REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP. The relative errors in the numerical phantom study were 0.386, 0.448, 0.838, and 0.452 for REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP. REV-SHARP result exhibited the highest correlation between the true local field and estimated local field. The linear regression slopes were 1.005, 1.124, 0.988, and 0.536 for REV-SHARP, VSHARP, PDF, and RESHARP in regions of interest on the three-dimensional head phantom. In human experiments, no obvious errors due to artifacts were present in REV-SHARP. The proposed REV-SHARP is a new method combined with variable spherical kernel size and Tikhonov regularization. This technique might make it possible to be more accurate backgroud field removal and help to achive better accuracy of QSM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of residual stress relaxation by the vibratory stress relief technique on the textures of grains in AA 6061 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jia-Siang; Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Lin, Chi-Ming; Chen, Erh-Chiang; Kuo, Che-Wei; Wu, Weite, E-mail: wwu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2014-05-01

    The textures and crystallographic orientations beneath the treatment area in AA 6061 aluminum alloy after vibratory stress relief (VSR) process were investigated by combining the electron backscatter diffraction analysis of the misoriented low- or high-angle boundaries, the (inverse) pole figures, the line scans and the various grain orientations. The relaxation effect caused by compressive residual stress in the intermediate region is superior to that of tensile residual stress on both sides of the cantilever by means of X-ray diffraction techniques. The residual stress relaxation that occurs due to vibrational stress excitation accompanies the “orientation of banding” disintegration, the decreases in the dislocation density, the strain energy, and the fraction of low-angle boundaries within each type of grain orientation, such as Copper {112} 〈111〉, S {123} 〈634〉, Goss {110} 〈001〉, and Brass {110} 〈112〉, excepting the Cube (or near-Cube) {100} 〈001〉 grain orientation. The maintained invariance in the Cube texture can be attributed to the maximum number of active primary slip systems, resulting in an interaction that results from hindered slip on intersecting families of the planes.

  9. The effect of residual stress relaxation by the vibratory stress relief technique on the textures of grains in AA 6061 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia-Siang; Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Lin, Chi-Ming; Chen, Erh-Chiang; Kuo, Che-Wei; Wu, Weite

    2014-01-01

    The textures and crystallographic orientations beneath the treatment area in AA 6061 aluminum alloy after vibratory stress relief (VSR) process were investigated by combining the electron backscatter diffraction analysis of the misoriented low- or high-angle boundaries, the (inverse) pole figures, the line scans and the various grain orientations. The relaxation effect caused by compressive residual stress in the intermediate region is superior to that of tensile residual stress on both sides of the cantilever by means of X-ray diffraction techniques. The residual stress relaxation that occurs due to vibrational stress excitation accompanies the “orientation of banding” disintegration, the decreases in the dislocation density, the strain energy, and the fraction of low-angle boundaries within each type of grain orientation, such as Copper {112} 〈111〉, S {123} 〈634〉, Goss {110} 〈001〉, and Brass {110} 〈112〉, excepting the Cube (or near-Cube) {100} 〈001〉 grain orientation. The maintained invariance in the Cube texture can be attributed to the maximum number of active primary slip systems, resulting in an interaction that results from hindered slip on intersecting families of the planes

  10. The Evaluation of Techniques for Overcoming with the Stress in a Physician Group

    OpenAIRE

    Humman Sen; Mehmet Toygar; Turker Turker; Nurhan Ince; Harun Tugcu; Halit Keskin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was made in order to determine the methods of overcoming with stress of the specialist physicians. Material-Method: Our study is a descriptive study. In the study, the scale of overcoming with stress was applied to the 100 specialist physicians who working in 5 different health care institutions in and around the Istanbul in 2009. Results: The scores that the participants takes from sub-categories of scales of overcoming with stress types were measured respectively as; 2...

  11. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for parents of young children with developmental delays: implications for parental mental health and child behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, Cameron L

    2014-03-01

    Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems; however, it is rarely addressed in interventions aimed at reducing child behaviour problems. The current study examined the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for parents of children with DD by investigating whether this intervention is effective in reducing parenting stress and whether decreases in parenting stress lead to reductions in behaviour problems among children with DD. Forty six parents of children with DD were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment or wait list-control group. Participants completed questionnaires assessing parental stress and child behaviour problems at intake and at a second assessment, which took place after only the immediate treatment group had received the MBSR. Parents who participated in MBSR reported significantly less stress and depression as well as greater life satisfaction compared with wait list-control parents. Regarding child outcomes, children whose parents participated in MBSR were reported to have fewer behaviour problems following the intervention, specifically in the areas of attention problems and ADHD symptomatology. Results indicated that MBSR may be an effective intervention for ameliorating parental stress and mental health problems among parents of children with DD. Additionally, these benefits may 'spill over' and improve behaviour challenges among these children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Full-field stress determination in photoelasticity with phase shifting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Enhai; Liu, Yonggang; Han, Yongsheng; Arola, Dwayne; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2018-04-01

    Photoelasticity is an effective method for evaluating the stress and its spatial variations within a stressed body. In the present study, a method to determine the stress distribution by means of phase shifting and a modified shear-difference is proposed. First, the orientation of the first principal stress and the retardation between the principal stresses are determined in the full-field through phase shifting. Then, through bicubic interpolation and derivation of a modified shear-difference method, the internal stress is calculated from the point with a free boundary along its normal direction. A method to reduce integration error in the shear difference scheme is proposed and compared to the existing methods; the integration error is reduced when using theoretical photoelastic parameters to calculate the stress component with the same points. Results show that when the value of Δx/Δy approaches one, the error is minimum, and although the interpolation error is inevitable, it has limited influence on the accuracy of the result. Finally, examples are presented for determining the stresses in a circular plate and ring subjected to diametric loading. Results show that the proposed approach provides a complete solution for determining the full-field stresses in photoelastic models.

  13. Urethrotonography - a radiological and manometrical combination technique to diagnose urinary stress incontinance in comparison with urethral pressure profile recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wess, H.

    1982-01-01

    The study described here was carried out in order to gain more insight into the pathogenesis of urinary stress incontinance and the related urethrovesical functions. The pathophysiological changes in the urogenital tract that are associated with urinary stress incontinance are described just as well as the clinical symptoms and signs differentiating the individual forms of incontinance from each other. Account is further taken of the various manometrical and radiological techniques used in the diagnosis of urinary stress incontinance. In this study, which included a total of 100 patients, comparative evaluations were made of the pressure behaviour of the bladder during the filling-up phase and the closing mechanism of the urethra both at rest and under stress using the following procedures: - Method developed by Brown and Wickham for urethral pressure profile recording; visualisation of the bladder and urethra with the aid of X-rays and a balloon catheter especially developed by us. The latter technique may help to solve the problems usually arising when given morphological factors are to be connected with certain medical views or theories concerning the vesical and urethral functions as well as the pathogenesis of urinary stress incontinance. It may thus enable more straightforward diagnosis to be made. (TRV) [de

  14. An accurate method for determining residual stresses with magnetic non-destructive techniques in welded ferromagnetic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vourna, P

    2016-01-01

    The scope of the present research work was to investigate the proper selection criteria for developing a suitable methodology for the accurate determination of residual stresses existing in welded parts. Magnetic non-destructive testing took place by the use of two magnetic non-destructive techniques: by the measurement of the magnetic Barkhausen noise and by the evaluation of the magnetic hysteresis loop parameters. The spatial distribution of residual stresses in welded metal parts by both non-destructive magnetic methods and two diffraction methods was determined. The conduction of magnetic measurements required an initial calibration of ferromagnetic steels. Based on the examined volume of the sample, all methods used were divided into two large categories: the first one was related to the determination of surface residual stress, whereas the second one was related to bulk residual stress determination. The first category included the magnetic Barkhausen noise and the X-ray diffraction measurements, while the second one included the magnetic permeability and the neutron diffraction data. The residual stresses determined by the magnetic techniques were in a good agreement with the diffraction ones. (paper)

  15. Measurement of Hepatic Protein Fractional Synthetic Rate with Stable Isotope Labeling Technique in Thapsigargin Stressed HepG2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juquan; Zhang, Xiao-jun; Boehning, Darren; Brooks, Natasha C.; Herndon, David N.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    Severe burn-induced liver damage and dysfunction is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ER stress has been shown to regulate global protein synthesis. In the current study, we induced ER stress in vitro and estimated the effect of ER stress on hepatic protein synthesis. The aim was two-fold: (1) to establish an in vitro model to isotopically measure hepatic protein synthesis and (2) to evaluate protein fractional synthetic rate (FSR) in response to ER stress. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) were cultured in medium supplemented with stable isotopes 1,2-13C2-glycine and L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine. ER stress was induced by exposing the cells to 100 nM of thapsigargin (TG). Cell content was collected from day 0 to 14. Alterations in cytosolic calcium were measured by calcium imaging and ER stress markers were confirmed by Western blotting. The precursor and product enrichments were detected by GC-MS analysis for FSR calculation. We found that the hepatic protein FSR were 0.97±0.02 and 0.99±0.05%/hr calculated from 1,2-13C2-glycine and L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine, respectively. TG depleted ER calcium stores and induced ER stress by upregulating p-IRE-1 and Bip. FSR dramatically decreased to 0.68±0.03 and 0.60±0.06%/hr in the TG treatment group (pisotope tracer incorporation technique is a useful method for studying the effects of ER stress on hepatic protein synthesis. PMID:22298954

  16. Effect of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR in Increasing Pain Tolerance and Improving the Mental Health of Injured Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warhel Asim Mohammed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Literature indicates that injured athletes face both physical and psychological distress after they have been injured. In this study, a Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR was utilised as an intervention for use during the period of recovery with injured athletes and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using MBSR as an intervention for this purpose.Objective: The aim of this research was to investigate the role of MBSR practise in reducing the perception of pain and decreasing anxiety/stress, as well as increasing pain tolerance and mindfulness. An additional aim was to increase positive mood and decrease negative mood in injured athletes.Methods: The participants comprised of twenty athletes (male = 14; female = 6; age range = 21–36 years who had severe injuries, preventing their participation in sport for more than 3 months. Prior to their injury, the participants had trained regularly with their University teams and participated in official university championships. Both groups followed their normal physiotherapy treatment, but in addition, the intervention group practised mindfulness meditation for 8 weeks (one 90-min session/week. A Cold Pressor Test (CPT was used to assess pain tolerance. In contrast, the perception of pain was measured using a Visual Analogue Scale. Other measurements used were the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS, and Profile of Mood States (POMS.Results: Our results demonstrated an increase in pain tolerance for the intervention group and an increase in mindful awareness for injured athletes. Moreover, our findings observed a promising change in positive mood for both groups. Regarding the Stress/Anxiety scores, our findings showed a notable decrease across sessions; however, no significant changes were observed in other main and interaction effects in both groups.Conclusion: Injured athletes can benefit from using mindfulness as part of the

  17. Investigation on imperfection sensitivity of composite cylindrical shells using the nonlinearity reduction technique and the polynomial chaos method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ke; Sun, Qin; Liu, Xiaoran

    2018-05-01

    The theoretical buckling load of a perfect cylinder must be reduced by a knock-down factor to account for structural imperfections. The EU project DESICOS proposed a new robust design for imperfection-sensitive composite cylindrical shells using the combination of deterministic and stochastic simulations, however the high computational complexity seriously affects its wider application in aerospace structures design. In this paper, the nonlinearity reduction technique and the polynomial chaos method are implemented into the robust design process, to significantly lower computational costs. The modified Newton-type Koiter-Newton approach which largely reduces the number of degrees of freedom in the nonlinear finite element model, serves as the nonlinear buckling solver to trace the equilibrium paths of geometrically nonlinear structures efficiently. The non-intrusive polynomial chaos method provides the buckling load with an approximate chaos response surface with respect to imperfections and uses buckling solver codes as black boxes. A fast large-sample study can be applied using the approximate chaos response surface to achieve probability characteristics of buckling loads. The performance of the method in terms of reliability, accuracy and computational effort is demonstrated with an unstiffened CFRP cylinder.

  18. Indirect reduction technique using a distraction support in minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis of tibial shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen-Wei; Shi, Zeng-Yuan; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Mao, Hai-Jiao

    2016-12-01

    To describe an indirect reduction technique during minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) of tibial shaft fractures with the use of a distraction support. Between March 2011 and October 2014, 52 patients with a mean age of 48 years (16-72 years) sustaining tibial shaft fractures were included. All the patients underwent MIPPO for the fractures using a distraction support prior to insertion of the plate. Fracture angular deformity was assessed by goni- ometer measurement on preoperative and postoperative images. Preoperative radiographs revealed a mean of 7.6°(1.2°-28°) angulation in coronal plane and a mean of 6.8°(0.5°-19°) angulation in sagittal plane. Postoperative anteroposterior and lateral radio- graphs showed a mean of 0.8°(0°-4.0°) and 0.6°(0°-3.6°) of varus/valgus and apex anterior/posterior angulation, respectively. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were noted. This study suggests that the distraction support during MIPPO of tibial shaft fractures is an effective and safe method with no associated complications.

  19. The effect of oblique angle of sound incidence, realistic edge conditions, curvature and in-plane panel stresses on the noise reduction characteristics of general aviation type panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, F.; Lameris, J.; Dunn, D.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments and a theoretical analysis were conducted to predict the noise reduction of inclined and curved panels. These predictions are compared to the experimental results with reasonable agreement between theory and experiment for panels under an oblique angle of sound incidence. Theoretical as well as experimental results indicate a big increase in noise reduction when a flat test panel is curved. Further curving the panel slightly decreases the noise reduction. Riveted flat panels are shown to give a higher noise reduction in the stiffness-controlled frequency region, while bonded panels are superior in this region when the test panel is curved. Experimentally measured noise reduction characteristics of flat aluminum panels with uniaxial in-plane stresses are presented and discussed. These test results indicate an important improvement in the noise reduction of these panels in the frequency range below the fundamental panel/cavity frequency.

  20. Stress Sensitization of Ethanol Withdrawal-Induced Reduction in Social Interaction: Inhibition by CRF-1 and Benzodiazepine Receptor Antagonists and a 5-HT1A-Receptor Agonist

    OpenAIRE

    Breese, George R; Knapp, Darin J; Overstreet, David H

    2004-01-01

    Repeated withdrawals from chronic ethanol sensitize the withdrawal-induced reduction in social interaction behaviors. This study determined whether stress might substitute for repeated withdrawals to facilitate withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior. When two 1-h periods of restraint stress were applied at 1-week intervals to rats fed control diet, social interaction was reduced upon withdrawal from a subsequent 5-day exposure to ethanol diet. Neither this ethanol exposure alone nor exposur...

  1. Fluoroscopically guided closed reduction and internal fixation of fractures of the lateral portion of the humeral condyle: prospective clinical study of the technique and results in ten dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J L; Tomlinson, J L; Reed, A L

    1999-01-01

    To report a technique for fluoroscopically guided closed reduction with internal fixation of fractures of the lateral portion of the humeral condyle (FLHC) and determine the long-term results in 10 clinical cases. Prospective clinical case study. Ten dogs with 11 fractures. Fractures of the lateral portion of the humeral condyle were stabilized with transcondylar screws and Kirschner wires. Closed reduction and implant placement were achieved using intraoperative fluoroscopic guidance. After fracture repair, postoperative radiographs were evaluated for articular alignment and implant placement. Dogs were evaluated after surgery by means of lameness scores, elbow range of motion (ROM), radiographic assessment, and owner evaluation of function. Postoperative reduction was considered anatomic in 6 fractures with all other fractures having ROM values between affected and unaffected elbows. All of the dogs in this study regained 90-100% of full function, based on owner assessment. Fluoroscopic guidance for closed reduction and internal fixation of FLHC in dogs is an effective technique.

  2. Specific features of the determination of residual stresses in materials by diffraction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkunov, E. S.; Zadvorkin, S. M.; Goruleva, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    Residual stresses arising in separate machine parts and structural components during production and use to a large extent govern their lifetime. In this connection, the development and improvement of nondestructive methods for the determination of residual stresses is an important task for nondestructive testing. Standards regulate only the determination of macroscopic stresses, and in practice these stresses are most often determined with the application of the sin2ψ method. This paper, using quenched structural steels as an example, compares the results of residual stress determination by the sin2ψ method with those obtained by the method based on the analysis of the diffraction line profile as dependent on the value of the irradiated volume. It is demonstrated that, as the irradiated volume decreases, the value of residual stresses determined by the sin2ψ method may vary considerably, up to the change of the sign. For a more complete characteristic of residual stresses it is proposed to use, besides the determination of macrostresses by the shift of the diffraction lines, the value of microscopic stresses calculated from the line profile analysis.

  3. Thermoelastic Stress Field Investigation of GaN Material for Laser Lift-off Technique based on Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Wang; Zhan-Zhong, Cui; Li-Xin, Xu

    2009-01-01

    The transient thermoelastic stress fields of GaN films is analyzed by the finite element method for the laser lift-off (LLO) technique. Stress distributions in GaN films irradiated by pulse laser with different energy densities as functions of time and depth are simulated. The results show that the high thermoelastic stress distributions in GaN films localize within about 1 μm below the GaN/Al 2 O 3 interface using proper laser parameters. It is also found that GaN films can avoid the thermal deformation because the maximum thermoelastic stress 4.28 GPa is much smaller than the yield strength of GaN 15GPa. The effects of laser beam dimension and the thickness of GaN films on stress distribution are also analyzed. The variation range of laser beam dimension as a function of the thickness of GaN films is simulated to keep the GaN films free of thermal deformation. LLO experiments are also carried out. GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are separated from sapphire substrates using the parameters obtained from the simulation. Compared with devices before LLO, P–I–V measurements of GaN-based LEDs after LLO show that the electrical and optical characteristics improve greatly, indicating that no stress damage is brought to GaN films using proper parameters obtained by calculation during LLO

  4. Residual stresses measurement by using ring-core method and 3D digital image correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhenxing; Xie, Huimin; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Huaixi; Lu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Ring-core method/three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC) residual stresses measurement is proposed. Ring-core cutting is a mechanical stress relief method, and combining with 3D DIC system the deformation of the specimen surface can be measured. An optimization iteration method is proposed to obtain the residual stress and rigid-body motion. The method has the ability to cut an annular trench at a different location out of the field of view. A compression test is carried out to demonstrate how residual stress is determined by using 3D DIC system and outfield measurement. The results determined by the approach are in good agreement with the theoretical value. Ring-core/3D DIC has shown its robustness to determine residual stress and can be extended to application in the engineering field. (paper)

  5. Determining the Threshold Value of Basil Yield Reduction and Evaluation of Water Uptake Models under Salinity Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarai Tabrizi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several mathematical models are being used for assessing the plant response to the salinity of the root zone. The salinity of the soil and water resources is a major challenge for agricultural sector in Iran. Several mathematical models have been developed for plant responses to the salinity stress. However, these models are often applicable in particular conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the threshold value of Basil yield reduction, modeling Basil response to salinity and to evaluate the effectiveness of available mathematical models for the yield estimation of the Basil . Materials and Methods: The extensive experiments were conducted with 13 natural saline water treatments including 1.2, 1.8, 2, 2.2, 2.5, 2.8, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 dSm-1. Water salinity treatments were prepared by mixing Shoor River water with fresh water. In order to quantify the salinity effect on Basil yield, seven mathematical models including Maas and Hoffman (1977, van Genuchten and Hoffman (1984, Dirksen and Augustijn (1988, and Homaee et al., (2002 were used. One of the relatively recent methods for soil water content measurements is theta probes instrument. Theta probes instrument consists of four probes with 60 mm long and 3 mm diameter, a water proof container (probe structure, and a cable that links input and output signals to the data logger display. The advantages that have been attributed to this method are high precision and direct and rapid measurements in the field and greenhouse. The range of measurements is not limited like tensiometer and is from saturation to wilting point. In this study, Theta probes instrument was calibrated by weighing method for exact irrigation scheduling. Relative transpiration was calculated using daily soil water content changes. A coarse sand layer with 2 centimeters thick was used to decrease evaporation from the surface soil of the pots. Quantity comparison of the used models was done

  6. Improvement of a separation method for the reduction of secondary waste from the water-jet abrasive suspension cutting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandauer, M.; Gentes, S.; Heneka, A.; Krauss, C.O.; Geckeis, H.; Plaschke, M.; Schild, D.; Tobie, W.

    2017-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Disassembling the reactor pressure vessel and its built-in components is a huge challenge in the deconstruction of a nuclear power plant. After being exposed to neutron irradiation for years, the activated components need to be disassembled and packed by remote controlled techniques. Underwater disassembling systems have the advantage of the shielding effect of water against radiation. To avoid the generation of aerosols, cold cutting processes are preferred. A cutting method that meets these requirements is the water-jet abrasive suspension cutting technique (WASS). This method provides high flexibility and is immune towards mechanical stress in the components. During the cutting process, a mixture of abrasive particles and radioactive steel particles from the cut components is generated. Depending on the operational conditions, the amount of this secondary waste increases substantially. Therefore, despite of its intrinsic technical benefits, WASS has a serious disadvantage towards other cutting techniques due to the huge disposal costs of secondary waste. During our previous joint research project between KIT and AREVA GmbH called NENAWAS ('New Disposal Methods for the Secondary Waste Treatment of the Water-jet Abrasive Suspension Cutting Technique', funded by the German ministry for education and research, BMBF), a prototype separation device for WASS secondary waste was developed and tested. Using a magnetic filter, steel particles could be successfully separated from the rest of the secondary waste. The separation process is examined using elemental analysis (ICP-OES) for quantification of the separation grade. Additionally, morphologies of particles and particle aggregates before and after the separation process were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the abrasive particle fraction after separation of the steel particles a remaining contamination by tiny steel particles could be detected by elemental and

  7. N-acetylcysteine possesses antidepressant-like activity through reduction of oxidative stress: behavioral and biochemical analyses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaga, Irena; Pomierny, Bartosz; Krzyżanowska, Weronika; Pomierny-Chamioło, Lucyna; Miszkiel, Joanna; Niedzielska, Ewa; Ogórka, Agata; Filip, Małgorzata

    2012-12-03

    The growing body of evidence implicates the significance of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of depression. The aim of this paper was to examine N-acetylcysteine (NAC) - a putative precursor of the most important tissue antioxidant glutathione - in an animal model of depression and in ex vivo assays to detect oxidative stress parameters. Imipramine (IMI), a classical and clinically-approved antidepressant drug was also under investigation. Male Wistar rats which underwent either bulbectomy (BULB; removal of the olfactory bulbs) or sham surgery (SHAM; olfactory bulbs were left undestroyed) were treated acutely or repeatedly with NAC (50-100mg/kg, ip) or IMI (10mg/kg, ip). Following 10-daily injections with NAC or IMI or their solvents, or 9-daily injections with a corresponding solvent plus acute NAC or acute IMI forced swimming test on day 10, and locomotor activity were performed; immediately after behavioral tests animals were decapitated. Biochemical tests (the total antioxidant capacity - TAC and the superoxide dismutase activity - SOD) were performed on homogenates in several brain structures. In behavioral studies, chronic (but not acute) administration of NAC resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the immobility time seen only in BULB rats while chronic IMI produced a significant decrease in this parameter in both SHAM and BULB animals. On the other hand, chronic administration of NAC and IMI resulted in a significant increase in cellular antioxidant mechanisms (SOD activity) that reversed the effects of BULB in the frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Our study further supports the antidepressant-like activity of NAC and links its effect as well as IMI actions with the enhancement of brain SOD activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ion irradiation-induced stress relaxation in thin films and multilayers deposited using energetic PVD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadias, Gregory; Michel, Anny; Debelle, Aurelien; Jaouen, Christiane; Djemia Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to understand the stress build-up during energetic PVD film growth and the stress relaxation during subsequent ion irradiation at low dose (typically in the range 0.1-1.0 displacement per atom). Monolithic Mo thin films and Mo/Ni multilayers were grown using Dual Ion Beam Sputtering and Magnetron Sputtering at room temperature. Due to the high energy of incoming species (sputtered atoms, backscattered Ar), growth defects of interstitial-type are created during growth. The defect density can reach up to 1.4 % (far from equilibrium) in these Mo refractory layers. These defects act as misfitting particles, inducing a hydrostatic stress component and an associated in-plane compressive stress component. However, after Ar ion irradiation at low dose (∼0.2 dpa), most of the stress is relieved, showing that the growth induced defects are highly unstable. For Ni layers, the compressive stress is much lower due to the higher bulk atom mobility in this metal, making annihilation of defects more effective. An intermixing occurring mainly at the Mo/Ni interfaces is revealed from a complete strain-stress analysis using X-ray Diffraction. The magnitude of this interfacial alloying is found to increase with the energetics of the PVD process and is at the origin of the huge softening of the C 4 4 elastic constant, as measured using Brillouin light scattering. (authors)

  9. Gene Expression Responses to FUS, EWS, and TAF15 Reduction and Stress Granule Sequestration Analyses Identifies FET-Protein Non-Redundant Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blechingberg, Jenny; Luo, Yonglun; Bolund, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The FET family of proteins is composed of FUS/TLS, EWS/EWSR1, and TAF15 and possesses RNA- and DNA-binding capacities. The FET-proteins are involved in transcriptional regulation and RNA processing, and FET-gene deregulation is associated with development of cancer and protein granule formations...... in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases. We here describe a comparative characterization of FET-protein localization and gene regulatory functions. We show that FUS and TAF15 locate to cellular stress granules to a larger extend than EWS....... FET-proteins have no major importance for stress granule formation and cellular stress responses, indicating that FET-protein stress granule association most likely is a downstream response to cellular stress. Gene expression analyses showed that the cellular response towards FUS and TAF15 reduction...

  10. Arthroscopically Assisted Coracoclavicular Fixation Using a Single Flip Button Device Technique: What Are the Main Factors Affecting the Maintenance of Reduction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Beom Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Among coracoclavicular (CC fixation techniques, the use of flip button device was demonstrated to have successful outcomes with the advantage of being able to accommodate an arthroscopic procedure. Purpose. This study was conducted to investigate the factors associated with loss of fixation after arthroscopically assisted CC fixation using a single flip button device for acromioclavicular (AC joint dislocations. Materials and Methods. We enrolled a total of 47 patients (35 men and 12 women. Plain radiography was performed at a mean of 24 months postoperatively to evaluate the final radiological outcome. The primary outcome measure was a long-term reduction of the AC joint for at least 24 months. Results. We found that 29 patients had a high quality reduction (61.7% and 18 patients had a low quality reduction (38.3% in initial postoperative CT findings. Our study showed that the duration (5 days from injury to treatment and the quality of initial postoperative reduction were significantly associated with the maintenance of reduction at final follow-up. Conclusion. Our study showed that maintaining stable reduction after arthroscopically assisted CC fixation using a single flip button device technique is difficult especially in patients who received delayed treatment or whose initial reduction quality was poor.

  11. Comparative analysis of perinatal outcome of spontaneous pregnancy reduction and multifetal pregnancy reduction in triplet pregnancies conceived after assisted reproductive technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Bhandari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: With the advent of assisted reproductive treatment options, the incidence of multiple pregnancies has increased. Although the need for elective single embryo transfer is emphasized time and again, its uniform applicability in practice is yet a distant goal. In view of the fact that triplet and higher order pregnancies are associated with significant fetomaternal complications, the fetal reduction is a commonly used option in such cases. This retrospective study aims to compare the perinatal outcome in patients with triplet gestation who have undergone spontaneous fetal reduction (SFR as against those in whom multifetal pregnancy reduction (MFPR was done. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, eighty patients with triplet gestation at 6 weeks were considered. The patients underwent SFR or MFPR at or before 12-13 weeks and were divided into two groups (34 and 46, respectively. RESULTS: Our study found no statistical difference in perinatal outcome between the SFR and MFPR groups in terms of average gestational age at delivery, abortion rate, preterm delivery rate, and birth weight. The study shows that the risk of aborting all fetuses after SFR is three times (odds ratio [OR] = 3.600, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2794-46.388 that of MFPR in subsequent 2 weeks. There were more chances of loss of extra fetus in SFR (23.5% group than MFPR group (8.7% (OR = 3.889, 95% CI = 1.030-14.680. As neither group offers any significant benefit from preterm delivery, multiple pregnancies continue to be responsible for preterm delivery despite fetal reduction. CONCLUSION: There appears to be some advantages of MFPR in perinatal outcome when compared to SFR, especially if the latter happens at advanced gestation. Therefore, although it is advisable to wait for SFR to occur, in patients with triplet gestation at 11-12 weeks, MFPR is a viable option to be considered.

  12. [THE POSSIBILITY OF APPLICATION OF COLORIMETRY TECHNIQUE OF DETECTION OF LEVELS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF SERUM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapojnikova, M A; Strakhova, L A; Blinova, T V; Makarov, I A; Rakhmanov, R S; Umniagina, I A

    2015-11-01

    The analysis was implemented concerning indicators of oxidative status and antioxidant capacity of serum. The indicators were received by colorimetry technique based on detection of peroxides in blood serum in examined patients of different categories: healthy persons aged from 17 to 20 years and from 30 to 60 years and patients with bronchopulmonary pathology. The low level of oxidative stress and high antioxidant capacity of serum were established in individuals ofyounger age. With increasing of age, degree of expression of oxidative stress augmented and level of antioxidant defense lowered. Almost all patients with bronchopulmonary pathology had high level of oxidative stress and low level of antioxidant defense. The analysis of quantitative data of examined indicators their conformity with health condition was established

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder managed successfully with hypnosis and the rewind technique: two cases in obstetric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, P M

    2015-08-01

    Two obstetric patients presenting with post-traumatic stress disorder in the antenatal period are discussed. The first patient had previously had an unexpected stillborn delivered by emergency caesarean section under general anaesthesia. She developed post-traumatic stress disorder and presented for repeat caesarean section in her subsequent pregnancy, suffering flashbacks and severe anxiety. Following antenatal preparation with hypnosis and a psychological method called the rewind technique, she had a repeat caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia, successfully managing her anxiety. The second patient suffered post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms after developing puerperal psychosis during the birth of her first child. Before the birth of her second child, she was taught self-hypnosis, which she used during labour in which she had an uneventful water birth. These cases illustrate the potential value of hypnosis and alternative psychological approaches in managing women with severe antenatal anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Awareness of Stress-Reduction Interventions on Work Attitudes: The Impact of Tenure and Staff Group in Australian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H; Provis, Chris; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2016-01-01

    stress and wellbeing interventions and suggest that management may need to implement new strategies and/or promote existing stress-management and reduction strategies to academics, and employees whom are either new to the university or those who have been working for the organization for longer periods of time to ensure that they are aware of organizational strategies to promote employee wellbeing and morale within their work environments.

  15. Awareness of stress-reduction interventions on work attitudes: the impact of tenure and staff group in Australian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pignata

    2016-08-01

    issues in organizational stress and wellbeing interventions and suggest that management may need to implement new strategies and/or promote existing stress-management and reduction strategies to academics, and employees whom are either new to the university or those who have been working for the organization for longer periods of time to ensure that they are aware of organizational strategies to promote employee wellbeing and morale within their work environments.

  16. Physical exercise alleviates ER stress in obese humans through reduction in the expression and release of GRP78 chaperone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadir, Abdelkrim; Kavalakatt, Sina; Abubaker, Jehad; Cherian, Preethi; Madhu, Dhanya; Al-Khairi, Irina; Abu-Farha, Mohamed; Warsame, Samia; Elkum, Naser; Dehbi, Mohammed; Tiss, Ali

    2016-09-01

    with a concomitant reduction in the phosphorylation of IRE1α and eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α). Our results suggest that physical exercise alleviates ER stress in human obese through attenuation of GRP78 signaling network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Stress wave techniques for determining quality of dimensional lumber from switch ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. C. Schad; D. E. Kretschmann; K. A. McDonald; R. J. Ross; D. W. Green

    1995-01-01

    Researchers at the Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, have been studying nondestructive techniques for evaluating the strength of wood. This report describes the results of a pilot study on using these techniques to determine the quality of large dimensional lumber cut from switch ties. First, pulse echo and dynamic (transverse vibration) techniques were...

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of X-ray imaging and spectroscopy experiments using quadric geometry and variance reduction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golosio, Bruno; Schoonjans, Tom; Brunetti, Antonio; Oliva, Piernicola; Masala, Giovanni Luca

    2014-03-01

    The simulation of X-ray imaging experiments is often performed using deterministic codes, which can be relatively fast and easy to use. However, such codes are generally not suitable for the simulation of even slightly more complex experimental conditions, involving, for instance, first-order or higher-order scattering, X-ray fluorescence emissions, or more complex geometries, particularly for experiments that combine spatial resolution with spectral information. In such cases, simulations are often performed using codes based on the Monte Carlo method. In a simple Monte Carlo approach, the interaction position of an X-ray photon and the state of the photon after an interaction are obtained simply according to the theoretical probability distributions. This approach may be quite inefficient because the final channels of interest may include only a limited region of space or photons produced by a rare interaction, e.g., fluorescent emission from elements with very low concentrations. In the field of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, this problem has been solved by combining the Monte Carlo method with variance reduction techniques, which can reduce the computation time by several orders of magnitude. In this work, we present a C++ code for the general simulation of X-ray imaging and spectroscopy experiments, based on the application of the Monte Carlo method in combination with variance reduction techniques, with a description of sample geometry based on quadric surfaces. We describe the benefits of the object-oriented approach in terms of code maintenance, the flexibility of the program for the simulation of different experimental conditions and the possibility of easily adding new modules. Sample applications in the fields of X-ray imaging and X-ray spectroscopy are discussed. Catalogue identifier: AERO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland

  19. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for breast cancer patients: a mixed method study on what patients experience as a suitable stage to participate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, Else M.; Schellekens, Melanie P. J.; Jansen, Ellen T. M.; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; Prins, Judith B.; Speckens, Anne E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is associated with high levels of psychological distress. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has proven to be effective in reducing distress in cancer patients. In several studies, patients who are currently undergoing somatic anticancer treatment are excluded from participating

  20. Mindfulness-based stress reduction added to care as usual for lung cancer patients and/or their partners: A multicentre randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, M.P.J.; Hurk, D.G.M. van den; Prins, J.B.; Donders, A.R.T.; Molema, J.; Dekhuijzen, R.; Drift, M.A. van der; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer patients report among the highest distress rates of all cancer patients. Partners report similar distress rates. The present study examined the effectiveness of additional mindfulness-based stress reduction (care as usual [CAU] + MBSR) versus solely CAU to reduce psychological